Ie L* THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
Timothy F. Schmand
Number XLVIII 1988
Editor's Notes and Communications 4
Arva Moore Parks
The Early Years Upriver 6
by Donald C. Gaby
The Bilging of the Winchester 25
by William M. Straight, M.D.
Santerfa: From Africa to Miami Via
Cuba; Five Hundred Years of Worship 36
by Diana Gonzalez and Sara Marfa Sanchez
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
The Origins and Evolution of
A Public Housing Project 53
by Paul S. George and Thomas K. Petersen
Among the Farmers 69
Introduction by Howard Kleinberg
List of Members 84
COPYRIGHT 1988 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Sm e t:at is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida.
I ICommunications should be addressed to the Managing Editor of
Tequesta, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami, Florida 33130. The Association does not assume
responsibility for statements of facts or opinions made by contributors.
This Page Blank in Original
Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.
FOUNDED 1940 INCORPORATED 1941
Raul L. Rodriquez
First Vice President
Sandra Graham Younts
Second Vice President
Howard Zwibel, MD
Carlton W. Cole
D. Alan Nichols
Arva Moore Parks
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Randy F. Nimnicht
Miguel A. Bretos, Ph.D.
Dennis M. Campbell
Gregory M. Cesarano
Hunting F. Deutsch
Marvin Dunn, Ph.D.
Jay I. Kislak
C. Frasuer Knight
Alan G. Kyle
A. M. Lombardo
Stephen A. Lynch III
Mary Stuart Mank
Jeffrey J. Murphy
George Simpson, M.D.
Editor's Notes and Communications
We are honored that Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau, noted Florida histo-
rian and editor of Tequesta for forty years has shared his editorial
philosophy with us. As the new editor of Tequesta, and student of Dr.
Tebeau, I am dedicating to continuing his philosophy in the years to
Arva Moore Parks
In my forty years (1946 1986) as editor of Tequesta I developed
some rather definite notions as to what it could and should be with no
intent to dictate what my successors should do, I suggest them for
Above all perhaps, I thought of Tequesta as a publication in which
all members of the Association might find at least one article they might
An equally important concern was to provide basic source material
for anyone who might be studying the history of the area. Many of the
items we published were by the participants in the the events they
Another feature with the same intent was the reprinting of source
materials, many first hand accounts; others public documents, which
are no longer easily available elsewhere.
We always sought research based articles of graduate students,
faculty members of educational institutions, and any interested persons.
They need not be history students or teachers simply interested in some
aspect of local history.
We used Tequesta to encourage persons who had never before
written anything for publication to tell their stories. Sometimes we
invited those known to have a story to tell.
The editor stood ready to make suggestions but never to rewrite the
article. He told each person to write the story in his or her own words
exactly as he or she would tell it. Then the editor could suggest
unanswered questions and possibilities forexpanding the article. People
do enjoy seeing themselves in print, and having the feeling they actually
wrote it. Laurence Will was hardly a typical case, but he accepted the
Editor's Notes and Communications
invitation to write an article for Tequesta. He later came back to it and
made a book of the first article.
Pioneers who would write accounts of their early days in Miami have
largely gone to their reward, but the number of professional people here
has grown vastly. To the University of Miami has been added two state
universities, two private colleges, and the community college system.
And there is no disposition to exclude persons without academic
connection. Nor do we exclude persons from other academic institu-
The first function of the editor is to beat the bushes for articles, to be
on the lookout for anyone who is interested in the history of the area.
The editor should be highly visible as the editor of Tequesta and known
to be seeking articles. A part of the editor's function is to work with
people to develop articles and be known to be helpful to those who feel
they have a story to tell.
I'm as proud of those forty years as anything I did. It grew entirely
from my personal interest in the history of the region and as people who
shared that interest. Don't go back to the "Good Old Days" but
remember you wouldn't be here except for them.
Charlton W. Tebeau
The Early Years Upriver
By Donald C. Gaby
Visitors in the 19th century described the Miami River as the
principal stream along the lower east coast of Florida and as a stream of
rare beauty. It served the native Tequesta Indians for centuries before
and after the arrival of the Spanish, and it served the Seminoles and
others after Florida became a United States Territory in 1821. The river
forked about three miles above its mouth at Biscayne Bay and the north
fork of the river terminated in a famous rapids or falls at its source only
one mile farther on. The south fork also had a rapids, but with much less
of a fall, and persons entering the Everglades customarily used it.
Persons coming from the Everglades to Miami normally used the north
fork, either shooting the rapids or going around them to join the main
stream of the river. Early visitors and residents often referred to that
piece of land bounded by the north and south forks of the river, and by
the Everglades on the west, as an "island." Indeed it must have
appeared so before the Everglades were drained, especially during the
rainy season when the Everglades stretched like an inland sea behind the
high coastal ridge.
There were no man-made changes to the river and few residents
until the coming of the railroad and the founding of Miami in 1896.
C. L. Norton wrote in A Handbook of Florida, published in 1892, that
the Miami River:
For about four miles from the bay the stream is 150 to 200
feet wide, and may be ascended by sailboats. It divides into
the north and south forks about three miles from its mouth,
both of them swift, clear streams. The north fork has impass-
able rapids, but the south fork can be ascended in small boats
to its outlet from the Everglades... The grasses and other
aquatic plants that cover the bottom of the stream are won-
derfully beautiful in their varied color and graceful move-
ments as they are swayed to and fro by the clear rushing wa-
Don Gaby is a retired satellite meteorologist turned historian. He lives
with his wife on the Miami Canal near where it joins the Miami River
and is making a study of the history of the river and its tributaries.
The Early Years Upriver 7
James Ingraham crossed the Everglades in 1892 and arrived at the
rapids of the Miami in early April, in the dry season. He described the
rock appearing prominently at the rapids and walked around the rapids
through the pine timber, while others in his party shot the rapids in a
canoe and canvas boat.2 Hugh Willoughby crossed the Everglades in
1897 and wrote that:
We soon saw ahead the well known gap in the cypress trees
on the edge of the Glades at which the Miami River takes its
Miami River rapids falling over limestone ridge.
Whether the woods near the rapids were mostly pine or cypress is a
question. Probably both species were abundant. Several cypress trees
grow on the south fork of the river below its former rapids, and one old
cypress grows near N.W. 21st Terrace and 29th Avenue, near the site
of the old pumping station and Everglades farm.
Figure 1 is adapted from a sketch by A. L. Knowlton, C. E., in January
1897, with features added that pertain to the period before may 1909.4
It provides a reference for the discussion that follows. Knowlton exag-
gerated the width of the river.
D Ci y -o4 miles to Miami
(N.W. 20th St.)
E G (251h}
A The Rapids of the north fork of the river.
B Ferguson's mill, built 1845.
C Richardson's Grove, established 1896, a/k/a Musa Isle Fruit Farm
D City of Miami water pumping station, built 1896-97.
E Indian Trading Post, ca. 1901.
F Phipp's farm and packing house by landing, old pumping station, railway, etc., ca.
G Watson's grove and farm, ca. 1906.
H Sallie Observatory (Tower), built 1907.
I Original bridge across north fork of the river, built 1908.
Ll- Landing for Richardson's Grove.
L2- Landing for pumping station, later for Phipp's farm.
L3- Landing for Sallie Observatory (Tower).
The Early Years Upriver 9
The rapids were an important feature of the river. On the North Fork
of the Miami River they were located approximately between today's
N.W. 29th and 31st Avenues. There was a fall of about six feet in the
course of about 450 feet, the current flowing as swiftly as 15 mph during
the rainy season. Below the rapids was a deep and narrow channel
between rock banks. The Everglades opened out above the rapids.5The
water flowing over the rapids was clear but with a slight color from the
vegetation in the Everglades. However, above, around, and below the
river were numerous subterranean springs whose water was perfectly
clear and mixed with the water from the Everglades. There was a
considerable variation in the amount of the flow according to the
season. (The rapids are indicated by the letter A of Figure 1.)
After 1821, settlers began to come to the Miami River area in
increasing numbers. However, none were known to settle near the
rapids, and those who settled downstream fled with the outbreak of
hostilities in the Second Seminole War. The massacre of Major Dade's
expedition in central Florida in December 1835 soon was followed by
the massacre of settlers on the New River in Fort Lauderdale and the
burning of the Cape Florida Lighthouse on Key Biscayne.
With the end of hostilities in 1842, settlers returned to the Miami
River. In 1845 the brothers Thomas J. and George W. Ferguson settled
near the rapids. They built homes for their families, and a water-
powered starch factory and saw mill (B of Figure 1) over a branch of the
river just east of the rapids, drawing water from above the rapids which
was held by a dam. At one time they came to employ 25 people and did
a $24,000 per year business in the production of coontie (arrowroot)
starch from the native Zamia plant that grew profusely in the pine
woods. An Indian scare in 1849 caused them to abandon their mill.6 The
army briefly reoccupied Fort Dallas at the mouth of the Miami River in
1849 and stationed a detachment of six men, under the command of
Auson J. Cooke, at the Ferguson mill. Cooke wrote from what he
dubbed "Fort Desolation," at the edge of the Everglades, where he was
ordered to guard from the Indians one man making coontie starch. He
commented that the mill had been built for a sawmill, and complained
about the host of mosquitoes and shaking and noise caused by the
The Fergusons returned to find their place taken by someone else,
probably because it had not been properly recorded. Thomas had struck
gold in California and moved to Baltimore. George began a new
operation downriver on 40 acres, building a home and store, an
ingenious horse-powered mill, beautiful grounds, wharf, etc." As late as
1855 the old mill was still referred to by his name.9 During the Third
Seminole War, in 1855, a Lt. Robertson came up the river by boat to
"the dam at Ferguson's mill."'0 In 1858, George Ferguson became post-
master of the Miami post office which opened in December 1856. Since
the mail boat came only once a month, that position no doubt left time
for other activities. The Third Seminole War, much less bloody than the
Second, lasted from 1855 to 1858.
In 1876 an Indian War veteran, "Long John" Holman, lived at the
site of Musa Isle (C of Figure 1) on the south bank of the river well east
of the rapids." Holman walked from Fort Capron to Biscayne Bay in
the 1850s during the Third Seminole War. He was an early "barefoot"
mailman, carrying the mail down the coast to Fort Dallas (today's
A flurry of activity came to both ends of the Miami River in 1896.
Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway reached the north bank of
the river in April and the young city of Miami began to grow around its
mouth. A good supply of pure water would be needed, and the Flagler
interests decided to take the water from a spring located just above the
rapids where the water was nearly soft, gushed three feet above the
surface, and was perceptibly colder than nearby springs.13 They built a
pumping station (D of Figure 1) east of the spring and partly over the
branch of the river on which the Fergusons had their mill. A gasoline
engine powered the pump, and to haul the fuel they constructed a narrow
gauge railway running from the north bank of the river. Gasoline was
brought up the river on lighters to the landing (L2 of Figure 1) at the foot
of the railway, loaded on the railway car, then pushed to the pumping
station. They drew water from the spring in the pool shown in Figure 1.
The pump pushed it four miles from the pumping station to the city in
a large pipe laid underground. This arrangement lasted only about one
year, after which they moved the pump downtown to draw the water
rather than push it to the city.14
One of the factors in Flagler's decision to bring his railroad to Miami
in 1896 was the great freeze of the winter of 1894-95 which destroyed
the citrus industry in the northern parts of Florida but did not hurt the
area around and south of the Miami River. When news of his decision
to bring the railroad to Miami and build a grand hotel spread across
Florida, many people headed south to seek their fortune in a warmer
climate. Among those was Otis Richardson who lost his citrus grove
near Bronson in the great freeze. In 1896, at the age of 77, he moved to
The Early Years Upriver 11
the Miami River, establishing Richardson's Grove on the south bank of
the north fork near today's 25th Avenue (C of Figurel) at a place that
would become known as Musa Isle. The following year his son, Charles
Otis Richardson, settled in Miami after a career on the stage as an actor
and manager of traveling troupes appearing in the U.S. and Canada. At
the age of 40, he joined his father upriver. Father and son developed
Richardson's Grove, famous in the early years for the quality and
variety of the fruit grown there.15 Otis Richardson died in September
1901.16 C.O. Richardson built a tropical preserve and guava products
plant, shipping his goods to England and France as well as all over the
United States. He changed the name to Musa Isle Fruit Farm, Musa
being the botanical name for the bananas that grew at the entrance to the
farm.17 It was the favorite stop up the river for visitors and residents
alike. Among his many celebrated guests was Henry Hagler, who
visited Musa Isle in 1903 and was quite favorably impressed.18
Many other farmers and growers were with the Richardsons on the
Miami River. In 1898 The Miami Metropolis listed R.C. May who
arrived before the railroad, built a home on the south side of the river
west of today's 27th Avenue, and grew mostly grapefruit and lemons.
J. A. McCrory lived south of the river just east of today's 27th Avenue,
adjacent to Richardson's Grove, and like Otis Richardson grew toma-
toes and eggplants.19 Of these men, only the Richardsons are well
Right on the north bank of the river, east of and adjacent to today's
27th Avenue, stood a mystery building ( E of Figure 1). A photograph
in the Florida State Archives shows this building labeled "Indian
Trading Post 1901." It was a beautiful square building, board and
batten, with a hipped shingle roof, surmounted by a square cupola-like
structure at its peak. It is seen in a number of photographs taken before
the 27th Avenue bridge was built in 1908, and as late as 1913. Probably
it dates form the late 19th century and it may well have been a trading
post, more convenient to Seminole customers than others downriver. It
may have catered to Indians who did not care to venture into the city.
As early as 1902 the Rev. Wm. H. Phipps had a farm known as
"Everglade Edge" extending from the north bank of the river to the
former pumping station and beyond (F of Figurel). He extended the
narrow gauge railway of the pumping station to encircle his farm,
evidently returning to his landing (L2 of Figurel ) by way of a westerly
route near the branch of the river where the Fergusons once had a mill.
Three cars, each with comfortable seats capable of carrying a dozen
passengers, were pulled by a powerful black man, George, who was
"the whole thing," conductor, power and all. For 10 cents visitors could
ride to a two story house by the pumping station where Phipps built a
second floorobservation room forviewing the Everglades. A return trip
to the landing by the same route was free, but for an extra 15 cents one
could take the extended route back which gave a more extensive view
of the river and the rapids. Guests also could take a small boat into the
Glades for the bass fishing or to shoot the rapids into the river.
Tomatoes, potatoes, beans, lettuce, onions, radishes and other vege-
tables grew in the rich soil, as well as roses. He built a packing house
by the landing.20 Prior to those improvements, visitors to the "Ever-
glades Railway" were taken to the old pumping station on a single car
pulled by a mule, as illustrated in a famous old photograph.21
Captain Wm. L. Burch, retired from the Benner Line, built the launch
Sallie, and in 1903 began regular excursions up the river to the rapids.
Although not as large, the Sallie bore a striking resemblance to today's
Island Queen which also plies the river. The Sallie left the old Avenue
D (today's Miami Avenue) dock at 9:15 a.m. and 2:15 p.m. each day.
The principal stop was at Richardson's Grove Landing (L1 of Figure 1)
so visitors could tour the grove and buy fruit and guava jelly which was
Tour boat Sallie pictured on early poast card.
a specialty of the place. The boat also stopped at Rev. Phipp's Ever-
glades Landing (L2 of Figure 1) for a ride on the Everglades Railway
which was near the rapids.22
Sometime after 1905, John W. Watson, Sr. came from Kissimmee,
built a home downtown, and established a 20-acre grapefruit grove and
The Early Years Upriver 13
farm near today's N.W. 20th Street and 27th Avenue (G of Figure 1) on
the river's north fork. (He was three times mayor of Miami, a state
senator, and 40 years a legislator). He raised sugar cane at the south end
of the property and sold syrup for $1.50 per gallon. He said that after the
Miami Canal and Everglades drainage, "you couldn't raise an um-
The severe hurricane that caused so much damage and loss of life on
the Oversea Extension of Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway in
October 1906 passed directly over Miami. It did extensive damage to
Richardson's Grove, uprooting many trees. Although he replaced or
repaired the uprooted and damaged trees, and built a two story preserv-
ing and marmalade plant the following year, this event appeared to mark
a turning point in the fortune of the grove-" It remained a favored tourist
stop for only a few more years.
In 1907 an unprecedented drought occurred in the Glades and Miami.
By mid April dead fish by the thousands caused a sickening stench that
brought a warning from the Board of Health. Old settlers said they never
saw the water so low in the Glades. The Indians were unable to use their
canoes. The rapids were so dry that not a drop of water flowed over
them.25 (Note that this severe drought occurred two years before the
start of the Miami Canal when digging on the New River in Fort
Lauderdale had only just begun. Also, reports by military parties during
the Seminole Wars document similar, if less severe, periods of low
water in the Everglades. Therefore, although drainage of the Ever-
glades has without doubt changed our climate to some degree, it has not
been the cause of all subsequent droughts in South Florida.)
In 1907, Capt. Burch did Rev. Phipps one better. At the head of the
river, above the rapids, some 300 yards from the boat landing (L, of
Figure 1) and connected with a rustic plank walk, he erected a sixty foot
observatory (H of Figure 1) for the free use of his guests. After climbing
the winding stairway the visitor could see a perfect view of the
Everglades, and back down the river.26 From the top of this tower,
known as the Sallie Tower, someone took a series of panoramic
photographs preserved in postcard form. One of these shows the view
back down the north fork of the river with the plank walk along the south
shore. In the distance, around a bend in the river and standing above the
other trees, are two royal palms, clearly near the location of Richardson's
Grove at Musa Isle.2
In January 1908, C. 0. Richardson sold his Musa Isle Fruit Farm to
J. C. Baile in a transaction that caused some bad press. Richardson
wrote an open letter to The Metropolis explaining that his grove was in
poor condition and there was a boundary line dispute that was not told
to Baile by the realtor. A Mr. (John) Roop was commissioned by Baile
to look after the factory stock in reference to purchase.28 (In later years
Roop would own the farm himself.)29 In his open letter, Richardson
The Musa Isle Fruit Farm was sold at half its former price
because a large percentage of the older grapefruit trees had
become diseased, because most of the avocado pears were
dead, because after ten years of dearly bought experience I
became convinced that the location (subject to overflow
from the Everglades) was unfit.... 3
Certainly early descriptions of the grove praised both its beauty and
its bounty. Perhaps the combination of the hurricane in 1906 followed
by drought in 1907 had been too much. Richardson then returned to the
theater business. He acquired the Alcazar movie theater and attempted
Miami's first air-conditioning by boring holes in the raised floor of the
theater under each seat, filling the raised space with blocks of ice, and
using an electric fan to force the cooled air through the holes.
Gov. Napoleon B. Broward ran for office on a promise to drain the
Everglades for settlement and agriculture. He sent a telegram in July
1906 announcing, "First dredge is digging mud." A second dredge
joined it on the New River in Fort Lauderdale in April 1907.31 During
1907, while digging was underway on the South New River Canal, the
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund (IIF) decided against pro-
viding a dredge for a Miami River canal. By mid December 500 citizens
petitioned Gov. Broward and the Trustees to provide a dredge.32 In
January 1908 the Governor and Trustees agreed to the dredge for the
Miami Canal.33 Much speculation as to the route the canal would take
and when digging would begin filled the remainder of the year. The
governor and many distinguished visitors came to have a look. Mean-
while, the Sallie continued to ply the river with regular stops at the Musa
Isle Fruit Farm and the "Everglades," now surely meaning Capt.
Burch's landing for the Sallie Observatory Tower.34 In February, a
competitor on the river, the Leo, began operating from the 12th Street
bridge (today's Flagler Street) with departures at 9:15 a.m. and 2:15
p.m.. With their departure times the same, but leaving from much
farther upriver, the Leo had a distinct advantage. Also, it was described
as a real river boat with two decks, nicely cushioned seats, and room to
The Early Years Upriver 15
walk around. It stopped at the Everglades Railway landing and left
passengers only five feet from the cars.35
In September 1908, J. C. Baile announced that a road would be built
to "Circle The Glades Near To This City," with funds solicited from
merchants and individuals. Bridges were to be constructed across the
south fork of the river at today's 22nd Avenue and across the north fork
at today's 27th Avenue.36 This original rock road allowed motorists a
nice drive through farms and groves on both sides of the river without
having to retrace one's path. In December 1908, the bridge across the
north fork (I of Figure 1) opened, being the only bridge on the main
stream upriver from today's Flagler Street.37 It was a fixed wooden
bridge that appears in many early photographs of the "headwaters" of
the river. It probably kept the Leo from completing its former run,
although the Sallie could continue to pass through.
Figure 2 is adapted from a sketch by A. L. Knowlton in January
1897, with features added that pertain to the period after May 1909.4
Figure 2 11
U Junction of Miami Canal with Miami River, begun 1909.
V Junction of Ferguson's mill branch with Miami Canal.
W First drawbridge across the Miami Canal, built 1910.
X Bridgetender's house.
Y Cardale Resort skating rink, opened 1912.
Z Cardale Resort observatory tower, 1912.
(2A 9th )
Much of the speculation about the proposed canal during 1908 and
early 1909 was unfounded. Some wrote that the canal would be dredged
from the head of the river with easy digging and little rock, others that
it might be dredged from the south fork. More sober consideration
brought the realization that a dredge could not make its way to the
headwaters without digging out the river itself. Construction and
delivery of the dredge would be plagued with delays. Finally, in
November 1908, the dredge Miami was launched in Tampa, the third
dredge built for the Everglades drainage work. It had a steel hull eighty
feet long, forty feet beam, and drew seven feet of water at the bow, five
and a half feet at the stem. Its dipper mechanism had a two and a half
cubic yards capacity. Accomodations included: sleeping apartments,
a dining room, kitchen, and baths.8 Actual commissioning was delayed
because some of the machinery had not been built according to contract.
In January 1909, more than a year after the IIF decision not to provide
a dredge for the Miami Canal, it appeared that this again was the plan.
As a result, a committee of prominent citizens left Miami for Tallahas-
see to meet with the IIF trustees. By early February the IIF agreed to
provide the dredge on condition that the citizens first obtain a release
from all damages that might result from any change in the volume of
water as a result of the work, next that a right-of-way 150 feet wide be
granted along with dumping privileges.39 The dredge finally left Tampa
undertow in late March and arrived in Miami in early April.40 However,
another month would pass before actual digging began in early
The Miami Canal excavation began at the north bank of the Miami
River near today's 24th Avenue (U of Figure 2), just below Musa Isle.
Specifications were for a canal 60 feet wide and 10 feet deep.42 The
dredge headed west-northwest on a bearing of about 3050 to a point just
past the extension of today's 29th Avenue, then on a bearing of about
311 well into the Everglades before turning sharply toward Lake
Okeechobee. That initial bend of only about 6 may seem slight, but it
later appeared dramatically obvious when photographed from the top of
the tall tower at Musa Isle which by chance or design was almost exactly
in line with the canal.
By late May the dredge was within sight of the "county road", today's
27th Avenue. The captain thought there would be sufficient water to
float the dredge without constructing dams.43 Evidently that was the
common belief of many experienced persons because by September,
W. I. Huffstetler, one of Miami's prominent boat builders, built a 55 foot
The Early Years Upriver 17
canopied launch expressly for the tourist passenger business between
the city of Miami and the state dredge working on the Miami Canal.44
Peters mentions a trip up the Miami River and Canal right to where the
dredge was working in October 1909, and regular runs by the Sallie and
Lady Lou.45 Clearly the center of interest among visitors and residents
alike was shifting from the vicinity of the rapids to the excitement
attending the dredge's progress into the Everglades, although the Sallie
also continued her regular run to the rapids into the 1910 season.
Miami River and Canal at site of today's 27th Avenue Bridge.
During March 1910 the Dade County Commission opened bids for
the construction of a drawbridge (W of Figure 2) across the state
drainage canal on the county road, today's 27th Avenue. The Champion
Bridge Co. of Georgia won the contract.46 It was a steel bridge with a
draw to permit the passage of boats in and out of the canal. It opened
to the public in September 1910.47 Abridgetender's house (X of Figure
2) built at the southeast comer is seen in early photographs.
In time a dam to contain sufficient water to float the dredge became
necessary. Exactly when it was built is not known. By July 1910, the
state had dug only four and a quarter miles of the Miami Canal before
turning the work over to the Furst-Clark Construction Co. of Balti-
more.48 By that date the dredging had progressed about three miles
beyond the point where the dam eventually was built, near today's 35th
Avenue or about one and a half miles upstream from where the canal
joins the river near 24th Avenue. That location was almost a mile
northwest of the rapids. The course taken cut through the branch stream
(V of Figure 2) upon which the Fergusons built their mill, and passed
north of the spring fed pool from which the City originally obtained its
water. (Today that branch stream runs west of a mobile home park and
joins the canal through a culvert beneath N. W. South River Drive.)
Probably the dam was built in the spring of 1910 when the low water
normal during the dry season proved insufficient to float the dredge.
The first known mention of the dam was in September 1910 when a
party from Kansas had a look at the country and the dredge at work.
They went by boat to the dam, and then walked a considerable distance
to the dredge.49 By then the dredge was working night and day.50 By
November the dam was holding up the water to the extent that thousands
of acres of farm land were flooded.51 Newspaper accounts noted that
Comfort & Huyler's private dam on the south fork and the new dam on
the canal caused the flooding with backed-up water seven feet above
the level below the dam.52 As early as December 1910 a lock was
planned to replace the dam. "The lock," noted The Miami Metropolis,
"will make an interesting place to visit when completed"."5 It was not
finished until 1912. As late as November 1911, Comfort was complain-
ing that he could not proceed with sugarcane planting due to poor
drainage of his land.54
Not all of the interest was on the new drainage canal! In early January
1912, the new Cardale Resort with a skating rink and tower (Y and Z of
Figure 2) opened at Musa Isle, the former site of Richardson's Grove,
on the south bank near today's 25th Avenue. On opening night the boat
Cardale left the Avenue D (today's Miami Avenue) bridge at 8:30 p.m.
Round-trip fare was 25 cents and included admission to the skating rink.
"The trip up the river to the pretty pleasure resort is always a delightful
one," The Metropolis reported, "and with the promise of a merry eve-
ning, excellent orchestra music, instructors in the skating art for those
who do not know and the chance of seeing the finest rink in Florida.... "5
Soon the Cardale was making three trips daily. The day trip was 50
cents round-trip except on Friday which was children's day. For only
25 cents, more boys and girls could go to the rink. The night trip was
25 cents. The buildings were surrounded by acres of grapefruit and
orange trees and beautiful palms.56
During April an article stated that at Cardale the next evening the
The Early Years Upriver 19
cup would be awarded to the winner of the two and a half mile race for
the "Championship of Florida." In June, the "Society" page of The Me-
tropolis mentioned "the large crowd at the Cardale dance." Every
Wednesday night lovers of the dance assembled at the rink for several
hours, some of Miami's social set motoring out as well as going up by
boat. The Kaufman orchestra provided excellent music, etc.57 The
remoteness of the Cardale Resort, fourmiles up the river or by rock road
from the city, must have made an outing there an adventure as well as
Although a tower was noted as being only a short distance from the
Cardale landing, no description of it was given.5 It must have
dominated the scene and provided spectacular viewing. Photographs
show it adjacent to the skating rink and almost at the south bank of the
river. It was about 90 feet tall with two observing decks at the top. A
photograph in the Florida State Archives (Library of Congress, Detroit
D4-072404) from January 1912 shows a wonderful view from the top
of the Cardale Tower looking up the north fork of the river to the
Everglades and including the old Sallie Tower, the original 27th
Avenue bridge, Indian trading post, Phipp's packing house, the new
Miami Canal, etc. What became of the tower is yet a mystery. In
December of the year the Cardale Resort opened, it was sold to a
company composed of E. S. Frederick and Mrs. M. M. Eastman for
$16,000. Included in the purchase were 10 acres of land, a six room
house, "an observation tower two hundred and fifty feet high said to be
the highest land tower in the state," and the Cardale Grove. (The height
claimed for the tower must have been an exaggeration.) Hiring of a new
general manager, a skating instructor, and dancing school were an-
nounced, with a (new) grand opening scheduled for early December.59
That opening was attended by several hundred persons. 6 By mid month
the planned purchase of a 150' high Ferris wheel for $4,000 was
announced.61 The "Society in Miami" page of The Metropolis reported
continuing success with 47 couples on the dance floor at once, sight-
seeing cars packed with passengers, and the river landing crowded with
launches.62 But the newspapers during January and February 1913
made no further mention of Cardale. A photograph taken from the
Cardale Tower in March 1913 (13-558-27) and others indicate that the
tower was still there.63 Yet an article in The Metropolis of late March
1913, describing "the rubberneck" tour bus route, devoted several
paragraphs to Musa Isle without mentioning the tall tower." A postcard
in the author's collection shows the Cardale Tower at the "Dr. Th-
ompson Place." What happened? Perhaps it was lost to fire. When the
Musa Isle Indian Village opened in 1919 there was no mention of the
tower. Hempstead, who frequently towed down the Miami Canal, made
no mention of it in his RECORD begun in January 1924.65
As early as June 1911 it seemed as if a lock to replace the dam on the
Miami Canal would soon be built, since supplies and timber were
reported at the site. The lock would be constructed of reinforced
concrete with wooden doors, being of the double-lock type. It was
designed to pass vessels as large as 122 feet long with 22 feet beam,
drawing as much as three and a half feet of water.66 However, bits and
pieces put together appear to indicate that the job was delayed almost
a year because of a decision to bring the dredge Miami out to sea via the
Miami Canal instead of by some other route such as by the North New
River Canal which connected with it. The lock contract was awarded to
the George H. Crafts & Co. of Georgia, to be completed within 180
days. The lock was built near today's 33rd Avenue, about three-
quarters of a mile northwest of the rapids.67 Not until March 1912 was
the dam removed as the dredge Miami cut its way out of the canal it had
dug. Upon reaching the 27th Avenue bridge it was necessary to remove
eight to ten feet of the bank opposite where the draw was left standing
open. On an evening in mid March 1912 the dredge Miami passed
through the two downtown bridges and out.68 In late April a grand
celebration of the opening of the Miami Canal was planned with the
governor and other distinguished visitors coming from all parts of the
Removal of the dam in the Miami Canal allowed water to flow
unrestricted out of the Everglades, permanently lowering the water
level by several feet as planned. One result was that water ceased to flow
over the rapids. Another was that natural springs all over the area, down
the river, and along the coast began slowly to dry up. Presumably the
lock was completed within the contracted time, that is, by August 1912.
With completion of the lock, the water level in the Glades could be
controlled better, to the great satisfaction of the area's farmers and
residents. However, not until April 1913 would the Miami Canal be
completed all the way to Lake Okeechobee."0 Incidentally, the author
recently was shown where water still trickles naturally from the ground
just above the former rapids. Whatever else one might say, draining the
Everglades was second only to the railroad in changing the face of South
The Early Years Upriver 21
The author wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the constant help
and encouragement of Ms. Arva M. Parks, who loaned some material
from her personal collection, read the original manuscript, and made
many suggestions that improved the final text. The figures were
prepared for printing by Mr. Kenneth Streeb, Engineering Research
Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
1.C. L, Norton, A Handbook of Florida, 3rd edition, (New York:
Longmans, Green, & Co., 1892).
2. "The Ingraham Everglades Exploring Expedition, 1892," Te-
questa, No. 7, 1947.
3. Hugh L. Willoughby, Across the Everglades, (Philadelphia: J.
B. Lippincourt Co., 1910).
4 ."Sketch showing location of the Pumping Station," A. L.
Knowlton, C. E., 22 January 1897.
5. The Miami Metropolis, 11 December 1896.
6. Mrs. A. C. Richards, "Reminiscences of the Early Days
of Miami," The Miami News, 1903-1905.
7. Letter, Auson J. Cooke to his wife, written at "Fort Desolation" or
Ferguson's Mill, 1 November 1849, mailed at Fort Dallas, 8 Novem-
ber 1849, Private Letter.
8. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences."
9. Letter, Lt. Jas. Totten to A. D. Bache, Supt. of U. S. Coast Survey,
11 July 1855, mentioned in a note by J. C. Frazier attached to part of the
Geo. MacKay 1845 survey of Florida.
10. Letter, Lt. Robertson, 1 st Artillery, to Headquarters, re trip up the
Miami River, 1855, National Archives. RG 393.
11. Henry J. Wagner, "Early Pioneers of South Florida," Tequesta,
No. 9 (1949).
12. Richards, "Reminiscences."
13. John Sewell, Memoirs and History of Miami, Florida, (Miami:
The Franklin Press, 1933.) and The Miami Metropolis, 10 July 1896.
14. Sewell, Memoirs.
15. "Obituary", The Miami Herald, 18 April 1935.
16. Records of the Miami City Cemetery, Miami, Florida.
17. "Obituary", The Miami Herald, 18 April 1935.
18. Letter, Henry M. Flagler to Charles 0. Richardson, 31 January
1903, Historical Association of Southern Florida.
19. The Miami Metropolis, 11 November 1898.
20. Ibid., 28 February 1902.
21. John Sewell, A New Pictorial Edition, Miami Memoirs
(Miami: Arva Parks & Co., 1987).
Some old-timers are prone to remember how "inexpensive"
things were without recalling how little they earned at the time. D.L.
Chandler, in his biography Henry Flagler (New York: Macmillan
Publishing Co., 1986) mentions that the 1906 dollar ($1) was worth $13
in 1986 currency, and that the national average pay for non-skilled labor
in 1909 was just $1.10 per 10 hour day.
22. Miami Evening Record, 7 January 1905.
23. The Miami Herald, 30 October 1975.
24. The Miami Metropolis, 15 January 1907.
25. Ibid., 15 April 1907.
26. Ibid., 15 January 1907.
27. Robert Carr, Personal postcard collection, Miami, Florida;
The author believes that those two royal palms are the same as the
two taller royals standing today by the river at the Musa Isle Senior
Center. Although the height of the Sallie Tower was reported as 60 feet,
the author believes that it was probably no higher than 40 feet.
28. The Miami Metropolis, 24 January 1908.
29. Interview with Virginia Roop Redman, daughter of John Roop,
Miami, Florida, 1978.
30. The Miami Metropolis, 24 September 1908.
31. Ibid., 29 September 1909.
32. Ibid., 16 December 1907.
33. Ibid., 29 January 1908.
34. Miami Morning News-Record, 23 January and 29 January
35. The Miami Metropolis, 10 February and 15 February 1908.
36. Ibid., 12 September and 17 September 1908.
37. Miami Morning News-Record, 20 December 1908.
38. Ibid., 10 November 1908.
39. The Miami Metropolis, 29 January and 2 February 1909;
The Early Years Upriver 23
Miami Morning News-Record, 7 February 1909.
40. The Miami Metropolis, 27 March and 5 April 1909.
41. Ibid., 5 May 1909.
42. The Miami Herald, 19 December 1912.
43. The Miami Metropolis, 29 May 1909.
44. Miami Morning News-Record, 9 September 1909.
45. Thelma Peters, MIAMI 1909 (Miami: Banyan books, Inc.,
46. The Miami Metropolis, 7 March 1910.
47. Miami Morning News-Record, 25 September 1910.
48. Minutes of the trustees of the Florida Internal Improvement
Fund (trustees), 1909-1913, State Archives, Tallahassee.
49. The Miami Metropolis, 15 September 1910.
50. Miami Morning News-Record, 13 September 1910.
51. Ibid., 8 November 1910.
52. The Miami Metropolis, 15 November and 19 December 1910.
53. Ibid.,21 December 1910.
54. Ibid., 21 November 1911.
55. Ibid., 4 January 1912.
56. Ibid., 20 January 1912.
An unpublished study by the author of relative dollar values
indicates that an appropriate multiplier for the decade of the 1900s
would be at least 12 conservatively. Thus, a 25 cent boat ride in that
decade would cost between $3.50 and $5.00 in today's money.
57. Ibid., 4 April and 20 June 1912.
58. Ibid., 4 January 1912.
59. The Miami Metropolis, 3 December and 6 December 1912;
Miami Herald, 4 December 1912.
60. The Miami Metropolis, 7 December 1912.
61. Ibid., 16 December 1912.
62. Ibid., 27 December 1912.
63. Historical Association of Southern Florida photographic collec-
tion, Miami, Florida.
64. The Miami Metropolis, 29 March 1913.
65. Weston Franklin Hempstead, Sr., Record, being a personal daily
record maintained from January 1924 through 1935, loaned to the
author by Wes. Hempstead, Jr., 1986.
66. The Miami Metropolis, 7 June and 23 June 1911.
67. Ibid., 8 February 1912.
68. Ibid., 12 March and 15 March 1912.
69. Ibid., 26 April 1912.
70. Minutes of the trustees of the Florida Internal Improvement Fund
(trustees), 1909-1913, Florida State Archives, Tallahassee,
The Bilging of the Winchester
The Bilging of the
William M. Straight, M.D.2
Even for Thomas Butler, a seasoned captain of the Royal Navy, this
voyage was a disaster almost from the moment they weighed anchor at
Port Royal, Jamaica, September 3, 1695. Disease ravaged the crew. On
September 13th he comments in his log, "our men dye very fast." To
add to the misery the weather turned from moderate winds to fresh
gales. With the crew reduced by death and sickness it became difficult
to manage the ship. The captain notes in his log on September 14, 1695:
This 24 hours fair weather blowing fresh yesterday about
3 in ye afternoon we made ye Signall by hawling up Sailes
and firing of Gunns for ye Squadron to stay for us they
running away and Left us Disabled we had not above 7 men
Well our Shipp increasing upon us by the water She made in
the hold & we Left Distitute of all ability to pump it out our
people being all dead and Sick and my Self wth my Distem-
per and ye Griefe I entertained at those Dismall Calameties
was in ye opinion of all a Dying Daily In ye Night we made
Several false fires but had no Return to it this morning we
Spreed our Ensigne at the foretopmast Shrouds & fired
Several gunns but no Notice yett taken of us we then having
4 1/2 foot Water in hold our Gunner dyed this morning
about 10 a Clock we buryed 17 men.2
Day by day Captain Butler records the number of deaths, a total of
125 from September 3rd through September 19th. On thel9th, the
Commander of the Squadron having died, Butler became Commander
and "was Carried onboard ye Dunkirk." Captain Soule of the Firebrand
was transferred to take command of the Winchester, "he having ye Next
prevention." Captain Soule's log has not survived but the sailing
master's log of the Winchester notes 15 more deaths September 20th
through September 24th.
In the early morning hours of September 24th, a dark, rainy night
with a fresh wind "blowing directly upon y/e shore," the final disaster
William M. Straight M.D., is a practicing physician who has written
numerous articles on Florida medical history and serves as Historian for
the Florida Medical Association.
befell the Winchester! The sailing master notes, ". . before we could
half wear her shee struck and sitt fast all the men w/h we had could not
furell the maintopsail."3
Captain Butler in the log of the Dunkirk records:
At 12 last night wee Tack'd and stood to y/e Lleward ye
Weather fair but y/e wind fresh wee mettyle WINCHESTER
standing to y/e Florida shore Nioward & sometime after
heard Gunns fir'd without Intermission by w/ch wee appre-
hend farther addition to our increasing sorrows for wee did
beleive y/e WINCHESTER was Run'd aground but could
give them noe releife y/n y/e night being very dark & ye wind
blowing directly upon y/e Shore ab/t break of day wee
Tack'd & bore down & found yle Winchester biueldg on a
reife abit 3 Leagues from y/e Main wee having with us a
Brigantine bound to New Yorke I man'd him & sent him to
y/e WINCHESTER by w/ch means sav'd abit 100 sick & 10
well men which were left of near 300 y/t came from Jamaica
we could save nothing of Stores it being to dangerous lying
imbayed on a Lee Shore. (The wind was ENE, and the
In another account of the bilging the author states:
Some of her crew were brought off. Others were left to
perish in the surf because they had broken into the spirit-
room, and were hopelessly drunk!3
My interest in this ancient tragedy on the reef off Key Largo, Sep-
tember 24,1695, began during conversations with Charles M. Brookfield,
who with others raised some 34 cannon barrels and other artifacts from
this wreck site in the winter of 1938-1939 and in June 1940.6 Some
years after writing the account of this salvage operation, Brookfield was
able to get photocopies of the Captain's log and the sailingmaster's log
of the Winchester and the Captain's log of the rescue ship, the Dunkirk.
These provided new information and together with another salvage
effort at the wreck site resulted in a second article about the wreck.7 In
this article Brookfield points out the role sickness played in the catas-
trophe and states the sickness was scurvy. After having read the logs
Brookfield kindly made available to me, this diagnosis did not seem a
likely one. Brookfield challenged me to present a more acceptable
hypothesis. Although, Charlie Brookfield did not live to see this article,
as long as he was with us, he took great interest in my efforts and
supplied materials and helpful advice.
The Bilging of the Winchester
First, some background information. Louis XIV of France annexed
certain lands along the Rhine River in the late seventeenth century. This
lead to the uniting of several countries including England (The League
of Augsburg, 1686) who carried out an unsuccessful war against France
(1688-1697). Although the major naval operations were in the Mediter-
ranean and along the western coast of Europe, England sent small naval
squadrons to harass the French in the West Indies in the years: 1690,
1691, 1693, and 1695. The Winchester was one of the West India
Squadron in 1695. She was a Fourth Rate Ship of the Line, launched in
April 1693 at a cost of 9,140 pounds sterling. She carried 60 guns,
weighed 934 tons and carried a complement of 285 men-8
r r! .- : -,- ,
Replica of British Navy Fourth Rate Ship of the Line from about
1707. (Courtesy U.S. Navy Photo Lab, U.S. Naval Academy.)
Now for a look at the "sailormen" of the day and life aboard ship
in the late seventeenth century. At that time the British Navy was a part
time job for most of the officers and sailors. Each fall the ships returned
to harbor in England where the officers were put on half pay status and
the men were dismissed without pay until the following spring. Skele-
ton crews were left aboard the anchored ships and a few officers
remained as caretakers at the harbors. When winter had passed and the
weather was again suitable for sailing and fighting, it was necessary to
recruit each ship's company. Of course there were those who loved the
sea and for whom it was their main livelihood, but they alone were not
sufficient to man all the ships of the navy. This led to impressment laws
and the business of press gangs. Not only was impressment allowed on
land, but, also, the British naval captains were allowed to impress
sailors off merchant ships of any nation, including their own, and off
British navy ships of lesser rank. Prisoners were taken from jails and
press gangs snatched men from pubs, brothels, city streets and even
farms in the country. No effort was made to determine their state of
health, cleanliness, or ability to work aboard ship. They were brought
aboard ship, at times drunk and unconscious, in the only clothes they
owned and often infested with lice and other vermin. No uniforms were
furnished and no soap or fresh water provided for bathing. Frequently
they brought with them tuberculosis, venereal disease, typhus, dysen-
teries, smallpox and other contagious diseases. If they died before the
ship left harbor, the body might be sent ashore for burial. If they died
underweigh the body was sewen up in the sailor's hammock and thrown
overboard (buryed) with or without the reading of a burial service. If
the deceased was an officer or a civilian of prominence in the French or
Spanish navy, they were often "buried in the bilge," ie. in the sand or
gravel that made up ballast, and the body thus returned to the homeland.
This custom lead to foul odors which may be why it was never
commonly practiced on British ships.
Ventilation aboard navy ships of that time was poor; indeed, it was
almost nonexistent below the gun decks. Windscoops or wind sails
were in use but were often of little help. Underweigh cannon ports must
often be closed to keep out the sea. In ports where disease was a threat,
it was a custom to close them on the side of the ship next to land to keep
out contagion thought to emanate from swampy areas near the shore.
Possibly the inability to ventilate the ship permitted the breeding of
disease carrying mosquitoes which came aboard in disease ridden ports.
Air vents from the bilge to the weather deck were not in use until about
Fresh water for drinking and cooking was a great problem. In the
late seventeenth century the water allotment on navy ships was two
quarts per day per man. This was carried in wooden casks. After a few
weeks at sea, algae grew in the casks, giving the water a cloudy
appearance and an unpleasant taste. However, when the algae later died
The Bilging of the Winchester
and sank to the bottom of the cask, the water again became clear and
more palatable. Distillation of seawater was practiced in the early
seventeenth century by Sir Richard Hawkins (1562-1622) during his
circumnavigation of the globe, but was not commonly practiced until
modem times. Beer, wine, spirits and rum were preferred by most of the
sailors. Tea replaced beer in the British fleet in 1831 but rum and spirits
continued to be issued regularly until the early 1960's. In the eighteenth
century the ration was an eighth of a pint of rum at noon and at night;
issued straight until 1740 after which it was diluted.
Rum came to be the only liquor issued and in 1825 was reduced to an
eighth of a pint dispensed only in the evening.9
Food was a major cause of complaints, sickness and death. William
Cockbum, discussing the Distempers That are incident to Seafaring
People, tells us the diet of His Majesty's Navy in 1696.
And first, the victual, allowed them for their daily suste-
nance, are Pork and Pease on Sundays and Thursdays; on
Monday Oatmel (Burgoo) Butter and Cheese; on Tuesdays
and Saturdays Beef and Pudding, or all Beef which they
please; on Wednesdays and Fridays Butter and Cheese, or
Oatmeal and Pease, and with all these abundance of Bread. o
The bread mentioned was in the form of sea biscuits or hardtack and
often infested with weevils. Indeed, some men were suspicious of
hardtack that had no weevils; they considered it too poor even for the
In the Captain's log of the Winchester Thomas Butler records
taking aboard the above items listed by Cockbum before setting sail
from England. Although these items were supposedly available in
quantity, they supplied almost no Vitamin C, and, thus, the frequency
of scurvy on long sea voyages. In port fresh vegetables and fruits were
often available, but some sailors were hesitant to eat them believing
they were the cause of dysentery.
At this time in British naval history ships did not have cooks and a
central galley. The food was issued to small groups of men who cooked
it themselves on a wood fire in a sandbox under the overhang of the
forecastle. Whether it was palatably prepared depended upon the skill
of the cook and the weather; in bad weather fires could not be kindled
lest the ship be set afire. Little improvement in the food service of
sailors occurred until the development of canning and refrigeration in
the nineteenth century.
We have previously discussed diseases that sailors brought aboard
ship, now let's look at the diseases commonly seen aboard ships on long
voyages. Venereal disease immediately comes to mind, the traditional
disease of the sailor who has "a girl in every port." These were rampant
in the days of theWinchester and some say one of them, syphilis, was
taken to the old world by Columbus' sailors. Smallpox was a problem
until some years after vaccination was introduced in 1798. Typhus was
a major problem and was then known as "ship fever" or "jail fever." As
we have mentioned above the sailors in the Winchester's day frequently
came aboard with body lice infected with the typhus organism. Crawl-
ing from man to man these lice might easily infect the entire crew. Only
after the navy instituted disinfection of ships, admission quarantine of
new recruits, the issue of uniforms and the burning of the recruit's old
clothing and the issue of soap, was this disease conquered.
The dysenteries were the bane of the sailor. At times these
decimated crews, and, on at least one occasion, totally incapacitated the
French fleet and spared England an invasion. Undoubtedly the precari-
ous food and water supply of ships in the Winchester's day made them
vulnerable to the dysenteries.
In the West Indies malaria was a problem. This was commonly
acquired by men sent ashore to fill the ships casks. While it resulted in
illness and disability, it was rarely a rapidly fatal illness. Nothing was
known of the plasmodium that transmitted the disease or the role of the
mosquito in transmission until nearly two hundred years later.
Scurvy is the disease most associated with ships and long sea
voyages. Scurvy had been recognized as a disease entity as early as
1535. Sir John Hawkins, the great Elizabethan sea captain, said that
during his twenty years in the British Navy 20,000 men had died of
scurvy. Even as late as 1740-1744 during Lord Anson's circumnaviga-
tion of the world, scurvy killed almost half the complement of his
fleet." Although even in the Winchester's day, when possible, those
sick with scurvy were put ashore and fed greens and fruits, the
relationship to vitamin C was not to be known for another two hundred
The most terrifying pestilence, one for which the West Indies was
particularly noted, was "yellow jack" or, as we call it today, yellow
fever. This was first described among Columbus' crew after the battle
of Vega Real or Santo Cerro in Hispaniola, 1495. Today we know that
yellow fever is caused by a virus which is transmitted by mosquitoes.
In the late seventeenth century it was ascribed to vitiated air, miasmas
The Bilging of the Winchester
from swampy land or stagnant lagoons and to the pelagic zones of the
ocean. The felling of trees and turning of soil of virgin forests was
thought to cause yellow fever outbreaks. The author of a history of
Jamaica published in 1774 specifically mentions "the lower part of
Kingston, next the harbour" as a situation that "may generate bad
fevers, or exasperate the symptoms of those disorders."12
With this background in mind let us now trace the voyage of the
Winchester to see if we can determine the origin of the disaster.
The West India Squadron sailed from England on January 23, 1695,
as escort for fourteen transport ships, one store ship, one hospital ship
and three private merchant ships. It was made up of Their Majestys'
Ships: Dunkirk, Winchester, Ruby, Swan, Terrible, and Firebrand. In
charge of army troops aboard these vessels was Colonel Luke Lilling-
ston. The fleet stopped first at Madeira Island off the west coast of
Africa, a possession of Portugal. After putting on wine the convoy
sailed for the Lesser Antilles, arriving at Nevis and St. Christopher
March 22, 1695. By this time sickness had already visited the fleet.
Commissary Murrey noted in his journal the fleet had 700 well men, 400
sick men and that thus far 130 had died. Unfortunately he doesn't tell
us the nature of the sickness.13
On April 5th, the Squadron, now free of the ships they were es-
corting, set sail for Santo Domingo intent upon their assignment to
harass the French in Haiti. By this time the sickness was much abated
according to Murrey. The fleet assembled near the Santo Domingo-
Haitian border and 150 soldiers under Major Lillingston (the Colonel's
brother) went ashore to march overland with a contingent of Spanish
soldiers. Their assignment was to pillage, plunder and create havoc
along the way and ultimately join the main forces in an assault on the
French fort at Port-de-Paix. The fleet sailed westward finally anchoring
five leagues east of Port-de-Paix. On June 7th, Commodore Wilmot
landed with 700 sailors and joined the remnants of Major Lillingston's
force (now only forty men) and the Spanish force. Together they
marched to Port-de-Paix. From June 7th to July 17th, they attacked and
defeated the French, and pillaged the surrounding countryside. On July
17th, the British troops and sailors embarked for Port Royal, Jamaica
via the Windward Passage.
The squadron dropped anchor at Port Royal on July 23rd, 1695.
They were to remain in port until September 3rd. Up to this point there
are very few deaths recorded in the logs of the Winchester although
there is mention of sickness among the sailors that went ashore with
Commodore Wilmot in Haiti.
Charlie Brookfield in front of the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club with
material salvaged from the Winchester.
During the six weeks in harbor at Port Royal the Winchester was
careened, scraped, caulked and tallowed and other repairs were made,
Firewood, casks of water and barrels of foodstuffs were put aboard. The
sick were early sent ashore to regain their health; on August 21st the
Captain's log notes: ". ..this day most of our Sick men Came on Board."
Presumably while ashore these men were fed the lush tropical fruits and
vegetables for which Jamaica was known. Despite these efforts the log
records at least one death daily while at Port Royal and a peak of five
on August 10th.
The squadron weighed anchor on September 3rd, and began its
slow voyage west and northwest to Cape Antonio. They rounded the
western tip of Cuba and sailed northeast into the Straits of Florida
The Bilging of the Winchester
seeking the help of the Gulf Stream to carry them back to England. The
daily number of deaths began to mount reaching a peak of twenty-five
on September 16th. Captain Butler notes on this date the death of
Commodore Wilmot who was on the Dunkirk indicating that other ships
in the squadron were beset with sickness also.
In all according to the logs of the Winchester 35 died during the six
weeks in harbor at Port Royal and 140 more died in the three weeks
voyage from Port Royal to Key Largo.
What could the disease have been that caused such terrible carnage?
Scurvy seems unlikely because it doesn't kill with such rapidity and
after six weeks in harbor at Jamaica it is likely the sailors' vitamin C
stores were replete. What about malaria? Malaria was common in the
West Indies. Again malaria doesn't usually kill with such rapidity.
Typhus must be considered but it seems likely this would have come
aboard the Winchester in England and would have become evident
much earlier in the cruise. It could have been dysentery brought aboard
in the puncheons of water at Port Royal. Dysentery was common in the
West Indies and was a greatly feared disease. The merchant sailor,
Edward Barlow (1672), speaks of "the bloody flukes (flux, a term for
dysentery used at that time) being the rifest, which is seldom helped and
killeth a lusty strong man in ten days.""4 This disease cannot be
conclusively ruled out.
However, in the author's opinion the most likely disease that led to
the bilging of the Winchester was yellow fever. This disease was widely
spoken of as the scourge of the West Indies. It was known to carry a high
mortality, at times killing a man in less than twelve hours! The
aggressiveness of this disease is vividly portrayed in an early account.
The author states it:
. first assaults the Pacient very vehemently, with pain
in the head and back: and the bodie seeming yellow, is some
signe thereof, and within 24 howres it is so torturous, that he
that is possest therof, cannot sleep or rest, turning himself
on either side, back and bellie; burning in his back most ex-
treamely. And when it growes to perfection, there will
appeared red and blew spots upon the Pacients brest and
wrists. And such persons as have not presently applyed unto
them, means requisite to prevent it, will be by the incompa-
rable torment thereof, deprived of their wits. And multitudes
have desparingly slaine and drowned themselves, that by
losse of their lives, they might finish their terrestrial paine.15
In support of yellow fever as the cause of the carnage are three bits
of information. Commodore Wilmot who died on this voyage is said to
have died of "the fever."16 A second bit of evidence is the statement by
a Royal Navy historian that when the squadron left Jamaica, "the fever
went with them.""7 The final piece of evidence is the record that yellow
fever was brought to Philadelphia from Jamaica in the fall of 1695.18
It has often been said that in war disease kills more than cannons.
This was strikingly true in the West Indies Squadron in 1695. In this
case disease also resulted in the loss of theWinchester. The disease in
question was likely yellow fever. The rust-pocked cannon barrels from
the Winchester, one of which is to be found at the Historical Museum
of Southern Florida and two of which are mounted on the lawn of the
Biscayne Bay Yacht Club, bear mute testimony to this pestilence which
continued to devastate the West Indies and Florida until the early years
of this century. 19
1. Much of the material upon which this article is based and the
encouragement to write the article was provided by the late Mr. Charles
M. Brookfield (1903 1988).
2. Journall in Their Majesties Ship Winchester, Saturday, 14
3. Sailingmaster's log of the Winchester, Tuesday, 24 September
4. Captain's Log of the Dunkirk, Tuesday, 24 September 1695.
5. David Hannay, A Short History of the Royal Navy 1217-1815
(London: Methuen & Co., 1909).
6. Charles M. Brookfield, "Cannon on Florida Reefs Solve Mystery
of Sunken Ship," The National Geographic Magazine 80 (December,
1941), pp. 807-824.
7. Charles M. Brookfield, "America's First Undersea Park," Na-
tional Geographic 121 (January, 1962), pp. 58-69.
8. Barlow's Journal of His Life at Sea in King's Ships, East & West
Indiamen & Other Merchantmen From 1659 to 1703, Transcribed
From the Original Manuscript by Basil Lubbock (London: Hurst &
Blackett, Ltd., 1934). II: 563.
9. Louis H. Roddis, A Short History of Nautical Medicine (New
York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1941) pp. 131-132.
The Bilging of the Winchester
10. An Account of the Nature, Causes, Symptoms and Cure of the
Distempers That are incident to Seafaring People with Observations on
the Diet of the Sea-men in His Majesty's Navy, By W.C. of the Colledge
of Physicians (London: Printed for Hugh Newman, 1696), p.5.
11. Sir James Watt, "Some Consequences of Nutritional Disorders
in Eighteenth-Century British Navigations," In: Starving Sailors The
influence of nutrition upon naval and maritime history, edited by J.
Watt, E. J. Freeman, and W. F. Bynum (Greenwich, England: National
Maritime Museum, 1981), pp. 51-71.
12. The History of Jamaica or General Survey of the Antient and
Modern State of That Island: with Reflections on its Situation, Settle-
ments, Inhabitants, Climate, Products Commerce, Laws, and Govern-
ment (London: Printed for T. Lowndes, 1774), II: 514.
13. Commissary Murrey's Journal of the Expedition to Hispaniola,
British Colonial Office Records 137, p. 552.
14. Barlow's Journal of His Life at Sea in King's Ships, East and
WestIndiamen & Other Merchantmen From 1659 to 1703, Transcribed
From the Original Manuscript by Basil Lubbock (London: Hurst &
Blackett, Ltd., 1934) II: 209.
15. The Cures of the Diseased, in remote Regions. Preventing
Mortalitie, incident inForraine Attempts, oftheEnglishNation (London:
Printed by F. K. for H. L., 1598), pp. 10-11.
16. Medicine and the Navy 1200-1900 (Edinburgh and London: E.
& S. Livingstone Ltd., 1958), II: 84.
17. Charles M. Brookfield, "Cannon on Florida Reefs Solve
Mystery of Sunken Ship," The National Geographic Magazine 80
(December 1941), pp. 807-824.
18. George Augustin, History of Yellow Fever (New Orleans: Searcy
& Paff Ltd., 1909), p. 769.
19. William M. Straight, "The Yellow Jack," The Journal of the
Florida Medical Association 57 (August 1971), pp.31-47.
Charles M. Brookfield, Jim Clark of the Calder Medical Library, The
Public Record Office, London, Dan Markus and Dawn Hugh of the
Historical Museum of Southern Florida, Robert F. Sumrall, Curator of
Ship Models, U. S. Naval Academy, Elizabeth Williams, Archivist,
The Jamaica Archives.
From Africa to Miami Via Cuba;
Five Hundred Years of Worship
Diana GonzAlez Kirby, Assistant Professor
Sara Maria SAnchez, Associate Professor
Santeria is an ancient religion with African roots. The slaves
brought it to Cuba and the Cubans brought it to the United States where
membership is estimated at 60,000 mostly Catholic Cuban immigrants.
The religion is prevalent among Cubans living in Miami, where 7.1
percent of the Cuban population utilizes the services of a santero.1 This
may be a conservative estimate given the present cloak of secrecy that
surrounds the religion, and the unwillingness of many to admit adher-
ence to the cult.
Santerfa is controversial, particularly in South Florida, where the
ordinances denouncing the practice. City of Hialeah (Florida) residents
and the City Council have opposed the Church of Lukumf Babali Ay6
for its animal sacrifice rituals, spirit possession and perceived links with
voodoo and black magic. The civil unrest may be sparking an unprece-
Diana GonzAlez Kirby is an Assistant Professor in the Otto Richter
Library at the University of Miami in Coral Gables. She is the
Bibliographer for the Department of Anthropology and has a second
Masters degree in Anthropology from the University of Florida in
Sara Maria SAnchez is an Associate Professor in the Otto Richter
Library at the University of Miami in Coral Gables. She is Subject
Specialist for Latin American Studies and the Bibliographer for the
Graduate School of International Studies, whose Institute of Inter-
american Studies features a Cuban Studies Program. She has a second
Masters degree from the Interamerican Studies Institute at the Univer-
sity of Miami.
Santeria: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba
dented church/state suit in the courts, since U. S. Federal Courts have
never decided on the constitutionality of religious animal sacrifice.2
The only laws regulating Afro-Caribbean religious practices exist in the
Cayman Islands. The ritual sacrifice of animals mostly chickens
and goats is at the core of the civil lawsuit which cites, among other
things, that animal sacrifice constitutes cruelty to animals and a public
health hazard. However, "the annual feeding" of the gods through
animal sacrifice must be considered one of the foundations of Santerfa
from which important rituals and ceremonies emerge.4 In the State of
Florida such ritual sacrifice is especially exempted from the statutes so
long as the death of the animal is virtually instantaneous.s Only time and
the courts will decide the outcome of the dilemma between the church's
First Amendment rights of free expression and the state's right to
impose restrictions on religious conduct.
In the meantime, much can be done to inform the public and to les-
sen fear, ignorance and misinformation. The time is ripe to consider
Santeria, a Cuban religious cult of Nigerian and Catholic origins which
has stood the test of time and banishment into foreign lands, and to
follow its evolution from the backcountry in Cuba to its contemporary
status among white, middle class suburbanites in Miami.
In the aftermath of the inauguration of the first Santeria church in
the City of Hialeah, Florida, and in view of rising public interest in
religious and cultural phenomena, we hope to contribute to the body of
knowledge on Santeria. We will focus on factors which played key
roles in the survival of African cultural patterns in Cuba as well as in
Miami; including a brief examination of slavery, the Catholic Church,
and the mass exodus of one million Cubans following the 1959 Cuban
Revolution. Although we do not intend to delve into the innermost
workings of Santeria, this essay may stimulate the interested reader to
consult the bibliography at the end as a guide to further reading.
When the Africans were forcefully shipped across the Atlantic in the
sixteenth century, they left behind a great deal of material culture:
artifacts, cooking utensils, artwork and weapons. But they brought
their gods. Oral tradition tells us that the gods arrived in Cuba in 1512
when the first slave ships sailed into port.
Shang6, the Yoruba god of thunder and other deities followed their
children across the ocean to watch over them. We are told that Shang6
in all his vanity, wanted his earthly children to continue honoring him
with his favorite foods, dances and ritual offerings, as did the sea
goddess Yemayd, along with the love goddess Oshin, Eleggua the
trickster, ObatalA the patriarch and Oggdn the warrior.
Five hundred years later, the diaspora continues and thrives today in
Miami. In 1980, faced with internal economic pressure, Fidel Castro
expelled 125,000 Cubans from his island-nation through the Mariel
Boatlift. This last immigration attracted media attention following
rumors of newly arrived prisoners and mental patients. But later we
learned the "Marielitos" were no different from earlier Cuban immi-
grants. Their aspirations, hopes and goals were the same as those of
their predecessors, namely, to find work and to live in a democratic and
free society. The main difference between Mariel refugees and the first
Cuban immigrants was demographic; the 1980 Mariel refugees repre-
sented segments of the Cuban population which had been underrepre-
sented in the past: the young working classes and the blacks.6
Cultural and Historical Beginnings.
Santeria is well known in Miami and in other Cuban-American com-
munities, but it is less understood elsewhere in the United States. Even
less is known about the religion prior to the abolition of slavery in
colonial Cuba. The gap in the colonial literature has been attributed to
class and race-conscious Cuban colonials who considered Santerta a
social and moral evil, a pagan cult unworthy of serious study or
scholarship.7 However, a surge in scholarship surfaced following the
abolition of slavery when blacks were assimilated into society. The
impetus for research on Afro-American cultures thus began with the
works of Nina Rodrigues," Arthur Ramos9 and Roger Bastide in
Brazil,10 Melville J. Herskovits in Haiti and Dahomey,"'2 Fernando
Ortiz1' and Lydia Cabrera in Cuba.14
The Afro-Cuban studies by Ortiz15 and Cabrera,16 considered clas-
sics among today's scholars, provide the foundation for our paper.
Their writings span over a century of recorded observations of rituals,
traditions and folktales among African peoples and their descendants in
Cuba and Miami. In addition, current interest in Afro-Cuban-American
studies is reflected in the works of at least three Cuban-bom anthropolo-
gists living in Miami: Rafael Martfnez,17 Lydia Cabrera18 and Mercedes
Sandoval'9, who continue to monitor the evolution of the cult in ecile,
where it has gained importance as a support system and mediating
institutions for Miami Cubans and other Latin refugees. The greatest of
all Afro-Cuban folklorists, Lydia Cabrera, was "led to her work by
Santerfa: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba 3
European and Cuban intellectuals ...". and it was these Black and white
artists, scholars, and writers in the Afrocubanism movement who
transformed much of Cuba's attitude of suspision toward Afro-Cuban
culture into enthusiastic pridesuspon owd Afro-ban
mfm "^ l .
Rarely seen ritual dress from
within the Santera religion.
the Abakua Society, a subgroup
Renewed interest in Santeria took hold among worshippers and
scholars alike shortly after 125,000 Cuban refugees arrived in Miami
during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift. The majority of Mariel refugees
eventually remained in Miami where they joined relatives and got on
with the task of earning a living. The influx of new talent seemed to give
impetus to the interest in the arts, literature, and drama. Thus, the Mariel
refugees of the 1980s reawakened in the Cuban-American community a
craving for the literature, art, music, and religion of their native land.T
Slavery in the Americas.
Slavery in the Americas played a significant part in the development
of Santerta: Slavery was the process by which individuals were sepa-
rated from their own culture and it provided the mechanism for culture
contact between two fundamentally distinct societies.
Cuba holds a special place in Caribbean history, since slavery ex-
isted there almost until 1900.21 In view of this, the first important fact
to be borne in mind is the volume and continuity of the slave trade.22
The first African slaves reached the New World as early as 1502,23
and large-scale introduction of African slaves to Cuba dates back to
1524, when the Spanish Crown allowed Cuban colonials to import 300
Africans to work in gold mines.24 Unable to endure substandard work
conditions, Cuba's Taino and Ciboney Indians (numbering 50,000)
were quickly decimated by disease and ill-treatment; thus Cuba's need
for slaves rose precipitously in the last quarter of the eighteenth century,
when a free market economy and increased demand from Spain stimu-
lated sugarcane and coffee production.25
Conservative estimates place the total number of slaves transported
to the Americas at 9 million,26 of these, 1.3 million reached Cuba
roughly between 1512 and 1864.27 Toward the end of the slave trade in
1871 one third of the Cuban population was black, including 528,798
"free colored" persons.28 In addition, the slave trade continued long
after slavery was abolished in 1888, when a new class of mercenary
slavers formed to supply new shipments of Africans to receptive
Caribbean plantation societies.
Tracing the ethnic origins of Afro-American slaves to their exact
provenience in Africa has been a difficult task given the inaccuracy of
archival records. For example, blacks taken from various regions in
Africa were embarked in coastal ports and thereafter identified as
originating from these ports and not from their true tribal or state
Santerla: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba
homesteads. Unfortunately, this misinformation seems to have been
carried over into plantation records, which generally are considered
incomplete sources of information on the slave trade 29 Finally, while
transport records and bills of sale are valid measures of the total number
of Africans to reach Cuba during the slave trade before slavery was
abolished in 1888, the validity of such documents after that date must
be questioned because slavers often altered and destroyed any evidence
of illegal transactions.
Centuries of political unrest among the major European powers, to-
gether with shifting sources of slave labor and the incomplete archival
record all but impeded the study of African origins in the New World
to the extent that one scholar believed that African retentions could be
traceable only to the very end of the slave trade.30
A breakthrough in the study of African retentions in the New World
occurred when researchers worked back in time and place to establish
similarities between contemporary American and African ethnic groups.
This criterion was first utilized in Brazil by Nina Rodrigues31 and
Arthur Ramos32 by Fernando Ortiz in Cuba,3 by Melville J. Herskovits
in Haiti and Surinam34 and by Bryan Edwards in Jamaica.3
Melville Herskovits utilized this method to identify three dominant
African cultures in the New World:36
1. The Gold Coast Fanti-Ashanti, found in the British
Antilles in Jamaica, Bahamas, Guiana and in the eastern United States.
2. Dahomey, found in the French Antilles in Haiti, Dutch Guiana,
and in the state of Louisiana.
3. The Yoruba, as well as Bantu-speaking peoples found in Cuba
Fernando Ortiz first detected parallels between Cuban and African
religious manifestations when he noticed strikingly similar masks and
body ornaments worn by Cuban blacks and their distant brethren in
...the masks were faithfully copied from those in use
among African societies; the musical instruments are the
same as those employed in Africa; and the names given to
characters in the dance were those of (African) gods or
While studying the Lukumf of Matanzas, Cuba, and the Yoruba of
Ife, Nigeria, William Bascom traced the ethnic origins of the former to
the latter by documenting the simultaneous use of identical divination
techniques and other rituals in both cultures' generations past the end
of the slave trade.3" Bascom's case proves that complex segments of
Nigerian customs were carried substantially intact from Africa to
The language and behaviors people shared in common in Africa and
the New World left no doubt that southwestern Nigeria had been the
birthplace of the great majority of Cuban slaves. Comparative studies
of African and Afro-American societies therefore helped to fill in the
gaps in the archival record and became the standard for establishing the
ethnic origins of slaves in America40 By documenting religious rites in
Nigeria and in Cuba decades beyond the end of the slave trade,
researchers established beyond the shadow of a doubt the common
bonds between Cuban blacks and the Yoruba in southwestern Nigeria.41
The Catholic Church
We've examined the impact of slavery on African religious and
cultural retentions in the New World. The Church also played an
important part in the evolution of Santeria and other African culture
traits among the Afro-Cubans, who, as slaves, encountered two types of
religious environments in the colonies: Catholic and Protestant Amer-
In Protestant America, the African slave was accepted as a member
of the church following religious indoctrination. Missionary work
eradicated Africanisms, or at best led to a "reinterpretation" of ideology
In Catholic Latin America, on the other hand, the slave needed only
to learn a few prayers and ritual gestures to be granted baptism. Prose-
lytization was, broadly speaking, less intense, and African features sur-
vived more easily in Catholic America where slaves worshipped their
gods surreptitiously during Catholic prayer group assemblies, or cofra-
As a result of the Catholic Church's approach to religious conver-
sion, many African religions therefore coexisted with Catholicism in
Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition, this mutual coexistence
was made possible by the striking similarity in function and form
between Catholicism and African beliefs, specifically the Yoruba
religion, in that both ideologies acknowledge the existence of one
unique God and creator who remains remote from mankind. It is
mankind's remoteness from God which prompts the faithful to seek the
aid of intermediaries like the saints, angels, and the African orisha, who
Santeria: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba
are empowered by the Almighty to grant favors and to restore health on
Another important similarity between the Yoruba and Catholic re-
ligions is in the parallel function of gods and saints who mediate
between men and God by overcoming the forces of evil, directing nature
and restoring health. Hence the name Santeria, cult of the saints, also
known as the Lukumi religion which according to Bascom probably
derives from the Yoruba greeting: "oluku Mi," meaning "my friend." 45
Martfnez and Wetli describe this process as the blending of creeds.46
Santeria has been noted for its flexibility and lack of dogmatism,47 and
although parallels between gods and saints vary among region, cult and
time period, the match between saints and gods almost always corre-
sponds to similarities in outward appearance, personality, life-style
factors (such as healing) and in personal tastes in clothing, music,
dancing and dining. For example, according to Catholic hagiography,
the Virgin of Regla shares many traits in common with the Yoruba
goddess of the sea YemayA and both are clothed in blue and white,
which symbolizes further their identification with water. In other cases,
the therapeutic or social functions of the divinities provide the corre-
spondence, thus African Shang6 and Catholic Saint Barbara fuse into
a dual spirit because they share a mutual symbolic identity with the
natural forces of thunder and lightning.
Finally, the close alignment between Catholic and African beliefs
has been attributed to the similar hierarchical structure of the religions;
i. e., the trilogy comprising the chain of worship, with men and women
at the bottom of the pyramid, guided by the priesthood who in turn look
to a family of deities who answer to one Almighty God. Not only has
the cult evolved from the blending of African and Catholic ritual
elements; Santeria today also contains native American Indian ele-
ments, as well as secular European influences dating to 19th century
The Evolution of Santeriia the rural/urban dichotomy.
Like a royal palm swaying in the tropical wind, Santeria has endured
despite centuries of Catholicism, the slave trade and strong infusions of
foreign beliefs, ever flexible and adaptable to changing social condi-
tions. At the root of the survival of Afro-Catholic religious cults in the
Caribbean and in Latin America were the powerful bonds formed by
slaves who shared common language and ethnic traits and who estab-
lished networks of religious associations which served to foster trans-
mission of languages and traditions.49 These religious centers -
temples, schools and mutual aid societies, or "nations" enhanced
solidarity among slaves and reinforced the survival of African cultural
patterns among them and their descendants.
The demographic distribution of slaves in urban and rural Cuba also
influenced the nature and degree of African retentions. Santerfa flour-
ished in the Cuban capital of Havana and in other towns in Western
Cuba. To assess the impact of urbanization on acculturation, Her-
skovits compared the retention of Africanisms to settlement patterns in
the New World from rural areas to urban townships.s0 Syncretism, or
the blending of cultural traits, took hold in the urban areas where life
conditions were conducive to carrying on customs and beliefs.
The Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, the first public worship
center associated with Santeria in South Florida, formerly located
Bastide also looked at settlement patterns in 1971, and wrote:
..,[The Lukumi] were restricted to the towns; in the country,
they could only exist if they spread over an entire district, which seems
to have been rare.51
In the rural areas then, plantation slaves lived in relative isolation
from other plantations, and this lack of inter-plantation interaction
evidently precluded the maintenance of common religious and ethnic
associations. Religious nations flourished in the towns:
Santeria: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba
...[where] wealthy families maintained an army of ser-
vants. This disproportion was advantageous to the black
servants, who were able to retain their customs regarding
food habits, associations, festivities, religious rites,
Thus, urban slaves had better access to ritual gatherings in the cities
where houses were closely-packed, than out in the country where the
rural slave population was distributed among relatively isolated plan-
tations. Religious syncretism became more pronounced in the towns
where slaves, freed blacks and their descendants formed associations,
and where the anonymity of city life fostered participation in ceremo-
nies in the guise of the Catholic mass. Rural blacks, on the other hand,
had to hold secret meetings at night and away from the plantations and
overseers, and as a result, Santeria tended not to flourish out in the
countryside where there were many barriers to its free expression.53
Other important economic factors came into play in the city, such as
access to steady sources of income for priests' fees. Bums noted the
African influence permeating towns throughout the Caribbean where
blacks worked as domestic servants, peddlers, mechanics, and artisans
whose urban living offered ample opportunities for practicing San-
In brief, the development of Afro-American religions differed
greatly among rural and urban Blacks, Aand among Protestant and
Catholic America; and although Africanisms prevailed in cities and the
countryside all over the New World, they have and they continue to
prosper in the city.52
And the Gods Move On...
The immigration of santeros and the faithful during the past three
decades since the Cuban Revolution has established Santeria wherever
large Cuban communities exist, and a rise in religious activity has been
documented in the Greater Miami Metropolitan area, where 600,000
Cubans now reside.56 Martifnez and Wetli anticipated that an increase
in cases of Santeria ritual involving animal sacrifice and grave robber-
ies would take place shortly after the Mariel Boatlift in 1980, and data
from the records of the Miami-Dade County Examiner's Office indeed
show a rise in the number of reported cases of grave robberies and
animal sacrifice between 1980 and 1982.17
One of the questions we raised concerns the evolution of the cult
from its Yoruba beginnings to its present status as a religion of the white
middle class. In Cuba, Santeria was prevalent in the lower economic
stratum, although Sandoval documents the participation of members of
the middle class.59 And in exile, Santeria's growing popularity among
Latins in Miami can be linked directly to the changing needs of the
immigrant population, among whom many find in Santeria a:
link to the past and a positive means of coping with many
of the adjustment pressures imposed by the new social, eco-
nomic and political order.59
Although early Cuban Santeria worshippers consisted of slaves and
their descendants, its popularity eventually crossed socioeconomic
lines. Santeria lore gradually reached all levels of Cuban society
following generations of intimate contact between black domestic
servants and white middle upper class families. However, the process
also was hastened by the Cuban colonials' reliance upon the santero for
spiritual and medical advice in cases where neither Catholic priests nor
medical practitioners obtained results.
When Fidel Castro rose to power and reconstructed Cuban society
by establishing a socialist government, close to one million persons,
representing one tenth of the population fled the country. Unable or
unwilling to return to a communist Cuba, many Cubans have endured
psychological, social and economic strains. The pressures of living in
exile, including the language barrier, downward social and economic
mobility, separation from family and homeland and anxiety about what
the future may bring have instilled in many estranged Cubans the need
to strengthen socio-cultural practices and beliefs.
Consequently, Santeria ritual has become increasingly popular among
exiles living in Florida and elsewhere. Sandoval attributes the popular-
ity of the religion to its functional role.6 Santeria seems to be taking the
place of the vanishing Cuban extended family by bringing together
individuals who relate to each other as kin during the course of planning
and participating in festivities and other social gatherings.
Another reason for the growing popularity of Santeria among Cuban
immigrants in South Florida can be attributed to the activities of the
Vatican in the 1960s. When the Vatican revised the Catholic hagiog-
raphy and repudiated several saints who were previously revered in
Cuba, including St. Lazarus (Babald-Ay6) and St. Barbara (Shang6).
many Catholics simply joined the ranks of Santeria to continue to
worship their favorite saints.61
The anonymity of exile makes it easy for many to practice Santeria
in relative safety; Latins are not eager to admit involvement in the cult
because doing so tends to reinforce the stereotype many non-Latins
Santerfa: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba
have about people who believe in Santerla; but Latins are more tolerant
of such behaviors and are very likely to seek the aid of all healers,
including priests, physicians and santeros.62
Over the centuries, social, cultural, and political factors have altered
the form and function of the cult. We've examined the roles played by
slavery, the Catholic Church and the Cuban exile experience in shaping
the current status of Santeria. Of equal importance has been the impact
of Santeria and other Hispanic traits on the development of Miami.
The Latinization of the Greater Miami area began during the 1960s
migration of Cuban exiles, although constant waves of other Latins
seeking refuge from political turmoil in their countries continue to
reinforce the view of Miami as a gateway to the Americas.
Miami has evolved into a unique city with a distinct Latin flavor as
a result of its geography and demography. Latin-owned businesses,
health clinics, Spanish-language media and banking are but a few of the
many services and products now being marketed by Miami Latins to
other Latins and non-Latins throughout the Americas.
The commercialization of Latin businesses and services is a rela-
tively recent development in a population that is accustomed to ap-
proaching professional interactions in a more personal and informal
manner. The shift in interpersonal relations among clients seeking
services, for example, is evident in the case of Santeria, where cash has
replaced gifts of food, clothing or housewares for payment of services
The proliferation of botdnicas, those Cuban flower and religious
stores found along 8th Street and Flagler Street in Miami, have no
precedent in Cuban history.63 Botdnicas are retail outlets specializing
in herbs, roots and religious items for use by santeros and their clients
in healing rituals and special ceremonies. We have mentioned the rise
in Santeria ritual following the 1980 Mariel Boatlift which introduced
new santeros and helped to renew interest in the cult among Cubans
living in Miami. Even a cursory review of the listings in the Miami
telephone directory under "Religious Goods" shows significant statis-
tical increases in the number of botdnicas since the Mariel Boatlift. In
1980, only twelve such outlets were listed in the Miami directory,
whereas close to forty now appear in the 1987-88 directory, represent-
ing a 233 percent increase in seven years.
Although botdnicas are seen as Cuban specialty stores, this was not
the case in pre-Castro's Cuba, where botdnicas did not thrive to the same
extent as in Miami." According to eyewitness accounts, curative. 11.
As they look towards Cuba for signs of a return to democracy, many
exiles rely upon Santeria to make the passage of time tolerable. Thus,
the syncretic process continues, but initiation fees are high, and up-
wardly mobile Cubans perceive Santeria as a glamorous luxury.
Unfortunately, exploitation of worshippers has become a reality as
unscrupulous self-proclaimed priests target the needs of desperate
souls. Nonetheless, as long as suffering prevails, people will continue
to seek relief, whether in the form of magic or religion.66 In view of this,
Santeria shall prevail as long as it continues to fulfill the needs of
Cubans and other Latin immigrants, refugees and exiles.
Loss of land and country, severed family ties and economic as well
as social hardship are contributing factors to the popularity of Santeria
in Miami. Although there have been studies on Santeria in places like
New York,67 research is needed to determine if Sandoval's findings are
valid in other American cities with large Cuban communities. It will be
interesting to trace the flexibility of the religion with time and to test its
ability to heal the alienated and the emotionally distressed.
There is little doubt that the future course of Santeria will influence
the way Floridians feel about the basic laws of religious freedom and the
rights of states to impose restrictions on religious conduct. Although
the legal fate of Pichardo's "dream of a public Santerfa Church remains
unresolved, one thing remains certain. Whatever happens to Pichardo's
church, Santeria fs a centuries-old religion that will endure,"68 espe-
cially in a city like Miami, which provides fertile ground for the
continued growth and blending of multiple cultures.6'
1. Thomas D. Boswell and James R. Curtis, The Cuban-American
Experience (Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld, 1983), p. 133.
2. Frank Burgos and Carlos Harrison, "Hialeah May Ban Animal
Sacrifices," Miami Herald, 8 September 1987, sec. B, p. 1.
3. Charles V. Wetli and Rafael Martfnez, "Forensic Sciences
Aspects of Santerfa, a Religious Cult of African Origin," Journal of
Forensic Science (July): 514.
4. James R. Curtis, "Santerfa: Persistence and Change in an Afro-
cuban Cult Religion," in Objects of Special Devotion: Fetishism in
Popular Culture, ed. Ray B. Browne (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling
Green University Press, 1982), p. 347.
5. Florida Statutes (Tallahassee, Fla.: Division of Statutory Revi-
Santeria: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba
sion, Joint Legislative Management Committee, State of Florida, 1987),
sect. 828.22, and sect. 828.23 (7) (b).
6. Clyde B. McCoy and Diana H. Gonzdlez, Cuban Immigra-
tion and Immigrants in Florida and the United States; Implications for
Immigration Policy, Bureau of Economics and Business Research
Monographs, no. 3 (Gainesville, Ha.: Bureau of Economics and
Business Research, University of Florida, 1985), pp. 20, 23.
7. Fernando Ortiz, Introduction to hisHampa Afro-Cubana Los Ne-
gros Brujos; Apuntes Para un Estudio de Etnologia Criminal, (Madrid:
Libreria F. Fe, 1906; reprint ed., Miami: Ediciones Universal, 1973),
8. Raymundo Nina Rodrigues, Os Africanos no Brasil, Bibliotheca
Pedagogica Brasileira, Ser. 5, Brasiliana, vol. 9 (Sao Paulo: Companhia
Editora Nacional, 1932).
9. Arthur Ramos, The Negro in Brazil (Washington, D. C.: Asso-
ciated Publishers, 1939).
10. Roger Bastide, African Civilisations in the New World (New
York: Harper & Row, 1971).
11. Melville J. Herskovits, African Gods and Catholic Saints," in
The New World Negro, ed.: Frances Herskovits (Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1937), pp. 321-328.
12. Idem, Life in a Haitian Valley (New York: Knopf, 1937).
13. Ortiz, Hampa Afro Cubana, 1973.
14. Lydia Cabrera, El Monte: Igbo Finda, Ewe Orisha, Vittinfinda;
Notas Sobre Las Religiones, La Magia, Las Supersticiones y el Folklore
de los Negros Criollos y del Pueblo de Cuba (Habana: Ediciones C.R.
15. Ortiz, Hampra Afro-Cubana, 1973.
16. Cabrera, El Monte, 1954.
17. Rafael Martinez and Charles V. Wetli, "Santerfa: a Magico-
Religious System of Afro-Cuban Origin, American Journal of Social
Psychiatry 2 (1982) : 32-38.
18. Cabrera, El Monte, 1954.
19. Mercedes Sandoval, "Thunder Over Miami; Change in a Tech-
nological Society," in Thunder Over Miami; Ritual Objects ofNigerian
and Afro-Cuban Religion, organized by the Center for African Studies,
University of Florida (MIami: Miami-Dade Community College,
1982), pp. 2-3.
20. Joseph M. Murphy, Santeria: An African Religion in America
(Boston Beacon Press, 1988), p. 35.
21. Angelina Pollak-Eltz, Cultos Afro-Americanos (Caracas:
Universidad Cat61lica, Andr6s Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones His-
toricas, 1972), p. 179.
22. Bastide, African Civilisations, p. 5.
23. E. Bradford Bums, Latin America: a Concise Interpretive
History (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1972), p. 20
24. Arthur F. Corwin, Spain and the Aboliton of Slavery in Cuba,
1817-1886, Latin American Monographs, no. 9 (Austin: Institute of
Latin American Studies, University of Texas Press, 1967), p. 9.
25. Margaret E. Crahan and Franklin W. Knight, Africa and the
Caribbean: the Legacies of a Link (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity Press, 1979), p.7.
26. Philip D. Curtin and Jan Vansina, "Sources of the Nineteenth
Century Atlantic Slave Trade," Journal of African History 5 (1964): pp.
27. Franklin Knight, Slave Society in Cuba During the Nineteenth
Century (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970), p. 10.
29. Rosa Valdes Cruz, Los Ancestral Africano en la Narrativa de
Lydia Cabrera (Mexico: Editorial Vasgos, 1974), p. 10.
30. Bastide, African Civilizations, p. 8.
31. Nina Rodrigues, Africanos, 1932.
32. Ramos, Brazil, 1939.
33. Ortiz, Hampa Afro-Cubana, 1973.
34. Herskovits, Life in the Haitian Valley, 1937.
35. Bryan Edwards, An Historical Survey of the Island of Saint
Domingo, Together With an Account of the Maroon Negroes in the
Island of Jamaica; and a History of the War in the West Indies, in 1793
and 1794 (London: J. Stockdale, 1801).
36. Melville Herskovits, quoted in Arthur Ramos, Las Culturas
Negras en el Nuevo Mundo (Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Economica,
37. Ortiz, quoted in Bastide, African Civilisations, p. 94.
38. William Bascom, Two Forms of Afro-Cuban Divination (Chi-
cago: University of Chicago Press, 1952).
39. Sidney W. Mintz, Forward to Afro-American Anthropology:
Contemporary Perspectiuves, edited by Norman E. Whitten and John
F. Szwed (New York: Free Press, 1970), pp. 1-16 passim.
40. Ramos, Las Culturas Negras, 1943, pp. 70-71
41. Mintz, Anthropological Approach, 1976, pp. 1-16 passim.
42. Herskovits, African Gods, 1937; Ramos, Las Cultures Negras,
1943; B astide, African Civilisations, 1971; Eugene D. Genovese, Roll,
Santeria: From Africa to Miami Via Cuba
Jordan, Roll (New York: Random House, 1972); David Lowenthal,
West Indian Societies (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972).
43. Bastide, African Civilisations, p. 153.
44. Herskovits, African Gods, 1937; Ortiz, Hampa Afro-Cubana,
1973; Ramos, Las Culturas Negras, 1943; Cabrera, El Monte, 1954;
William R. Bascom, "The Focus of Cuban Santerfa, Southwestern
Journal of Anthropology 6 (1950): 64-68; Julio C. Garcfa, El Santo
(Mexico: Editora Latino Americana, 1971).
45. William Bascom, quoted in Murphy, Santeria, p. 27.
46. Martfnez and Wetli, "Santerfa," p. 32.
47. Robin Poyner, "Thunder Over Miami," in Thunder Over Miami,
1982, pp. 4-5.
48. Curtis, "Santerfa," p. 340.
49. Cabrera, El Monte, p. 24.
50. Melville J. Herskovits, The Myth of the Negro Past (Boston:
Beacon Press, 1941), p. 111.
51. Bastide, African Civilisations, 1972.
52. Valdes Cruz, Ancestral Africano p. 16.
53. Bastide, African Civilisations, 1972.
54. Bums, Latin America, 1972.
55. Herskovitz, The Myth, p. 125.
56. Martinez and Wetli, "Santerfa," 1982; Wetli and Martinez, Fo-
rensic, 1981; Sandoval, "Thunder," 1982.
57. Martfnez and Wetli, "Santeria," p. 32.
58. Sandoval, "Thunder," pp. 2-3.
59. Curtis, "Santeria," p. 337.
60. Sandoval, "Thunder," pp. 2-3.
62. Martinez and Wetli, "Santeria," 1982; Sandoval, "Thunder,"
63. Juan M. Sosa, "Santerfa," in Cuba Diaspora: Anuario de la
Iglesia Catolica (Miami, Fla.: Revista Ideal, 1974), P. 73.
65. Juan M. Clark, Religious Repression in Cuba (Coral Gables,
Fla.: North-South Center for the Cuban Studies Project of the Institute
of Interamerican Studies, University of Miami, 1986), p. 39
66. Diana H. Gonzalez, "Cuban Immigration in the United States:
Women, Sex Role Conflicts and Psychoactive Drug Use" (M. A. thesis,
Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida, 1979), p. 49.
67. Murphy, Santeria, 1988.Enrique Femrndez.
68. "Exploring the Dark Continent of Santeria; the Ancient Gods of
Africa are Alive and Well in Miami," Tropic, the Miami Herald Sunday
Magazine, 13 March 1988, pp. 10-12, 19-21.
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
LIBERTY SQUARE: 1933-1987
THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF
A PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECT
By Paul S. George and Thomas K. Petersen
I. REACHING FOR UTOPIA: 1933-1936
This project will be one of the greatest blessings that
Miami ever had. It will not only eliminate the possibility of
fatal epidemics here, but also fix it so we can get a servant
freed from disease.
October 17, 1934
The First Administration of Franklin Roosevelt was barely nine
months old when in December 1933, Miami attorney John Gramling,
along with six other lawyers and businessmen, formed the Southern
Housing Corporation forthe purpose of developing a"negro colony" on
one hundred and twenty acres of land on Miami's northern outskirts.
Their inspiration was the recently-created United States Reconstruction
Finance Corporation, which provided low-interest loans for slum
Paul S. George holds a Ph.D degree in History from Florida State
University. He serves as Director of the Historic Broward County
Preservation Board and as an adjunct instructor in History at the
University of Miami and Florida Atlantic University. Mr. George is
president of the Florida Historical Society.
Thomas K. Peterson is Coordinator, Dade Schools and Neighbor-
hoods Intervention Consortium. A former State Attorney and Public
Defender, Mr. Peterson also serves as an adjunct instructor in Sociology
at the University of Miami. The authors have also compiled a video
history of Liberty Square funded in part by the Florida Endowment for
clearance and the construction of low-income housing for the poor.
The application of the newly formed corporation stated the problem:
The only site on which a negro might live in the City ofMiami
is in what now is known as negrotown in the heart of Miami.
That area consists of343 acres of land and according to the
United States census of 1930, there are 25,116 colored
persons living in that area. This population is living in one-
story negro shacks and there are from three to fifteen shacks
on a city lot of 50' x 150'. The sanitary conditions are a
menace to the whole city. The living conditions are incon-
ceivable and are a shame and a disgrace to the responsible
citizens of Miami. This area is principally owned by white
people who have erected these small shacks and get exhor-
bitant rent from them so that they pay for themselves every
two to three years... Many houses have no toilets connected
with the house, no bathrooms, nor bathing facilities...
Gramling, a former municipal Judge and prominent attorney who
arrived in Miami in 1906 from Alabama and the beneficiary of early and
lucrative investments in Miami public utilities, seemed an unlikely
champion of the impoverished and overcrowded residents of Colored
Town, the city's first Black community. Yet irrespective of the purity
of his motivations, his message was powerful. The principal concern,
stated emphatically and repeatedly in correspondence from Miami to
the Housing Section of the Public Works Administration (PWA) in
Washington as well as in the press, was the threat of the transmission of
disease by servants to the white homes in which they were employed.
In one of his innumberable letters to the PWA, Gramling wrote of the
high incidence of tuberculosis in the negro quarters: From this cesspool
of disease the white people of Greater Miami draw their servants. The
weekly (Miami) Friday Night, on January 12, 1934, sounded the same
theme in no uncertain terms:
The people who hire negroes in their homes should come
forth with their protest. A protest against allowing the maid
that cares for their children, the cook that prepares their
food, and the wash woman that does their clothes, from
bringing into their homes the disease germs that flourish in
the present negro district. 2
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
Two days later, apparently in step with the submission of the appli-
cation of the Southern Housing Corporation to Washington, a Miami
Herald editorial echoed the same theme:
Lovers of Miami have long decried the condition in which
the colored people here are compelled to live. Attention has
been led,frequently, to conditions that are not only a source
of embarrassment but are actually a health menace to the
entire population.. .With the help of the P.W.A. it might be
possible that conditions in colored town could be materially
Newly completed Liberty Square.
Two years later, in the summer of 1936 when the construction of the
project was well underway, the concern relative to the transmission of
disease recurs in the context of kitchen facilities. "The tenants of the
project," wrote Clarence Coe, the district manager for the Public
Housing Administration who worked closely with the Advisory
Committee established to oversee construction and tenant selection, "if
within the proper income group, will in many cases desire to do washing
for people outside of the project. It is the belief of the Committee that
the stationary tubs in the kitchen of each apartment would not be
sufficient or satisfactory to carry out such work in any volume." 4
Later in 1936, now in the context of tenant selection, Coe wrote that
"Many of the employers of domestic help have personally made request
that quarters in the project be reserved for their help. Health certifi-
cates," Coe announced, "would be required as part of the tenant appli-
Another requirement in the admission process, related to the perva-
sive concern over infection, may well have proven more of a burden to
the incoming residents than obtaining health certificates. "Fumigation
and extermination for household goods of incoming tenants," wrote H.
A. Gray, the PWA Director of Housing, in a letter to Miami chemical
companies requesting bids, "would be a requirement."6 Two respond-
ing companies suggested cyanide as the fumigation agent. A third,
alluding to dangers of the use of cyanide, suggested a more expensive
yet less toxic alternative. Gray chose cyanide on the basis of cost.7
Concerns related to infectious disease may also have doomed the
swimming pool which had been included in the original blueprint for
Liberty Square. Dr. Marvin Smith, a physician serving on the all white
Advisory Committee, suggested in early 1936 that a swimming pool
represented a risk of transmission of syphilis and thus should not be
included in the project.8 Although the PWA Housing Director disputed
Dr. Smith's assertion and countered with the opinion of his own expert
("Dr. Von Derlehr was very much surprised at Dr. Smith's statement...
He further said that he had never heard of syphillitic infection from a
swimming pool."), the local view prevailed and Liberty Square, the
public housing project, opened without a swimming pool.9
During much of 1935, however, considerations relating to tenant
selection and the project blueprints lay well in the future and, for a time,
it appeared that John Gramling's plan for a "negro colony" was
doomed. At the same time, Liberty City, located just west of the
proposed site of the housing project, was a small, isolated black enclave
north of Sixty-Second Street and west of Seventeenth Avenue. The area
to the east of Seventeenth Avenue was sparsely settled by whites,
although density increased substantially between Northwest Second
Avenue, where the all-white Miami Edison High School stood, and
In the spring of 1935, after several months of silence during which
time the government moved toward acquisition of the property, white
opposition to negroes residng east of Seventeenth Avenue flared in the
form of the Nor'West League. Headed by Rodger Herndon and a vocal
constituency, the League wrote President Franklin D. Roosevelt on
behalf of "hundreds of families to whom hurricanes, banks and the
Depression have left nothing but their booms, modest homes. "Won't
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
you," it implored the President, "help us the not so-rich folks of the
rural northwest area of Miami?" The League warned that extending the
negro area to the east "would cause infinite strife and bloodshed.""11
In July 1935, the Nor'West League generated a petition bearing the
signatures of 2,600 white property owners which was widely circulated.
Florida Senators Park Trammell and Duncan Fletcher, as well as Con-
gressmen W. J. Sears and A. B. Wilcox, upon receiving the petitions,
expressed their reservations regarding the project in separate commu-
nications to the Department of Interior.12 On July 12, the Dade County
Commissioners adopted a resolution opposing the project, as did the
city of Miami Commission the following month, notwithstanding a
prior resolution, passed in the less turbulent atmosphere of 1934, in
support of it.'3
This opposition took the PWA's Public Housing Administration by
surprise and work on the project came to a halt during the spring and
summer of 1935. A memorandum signed and approved by the Director
of Housing, Colonel Horatio B. Hackett, tersely announced: "This
project has been temporarily suspended. It has been decided to cease
work on it until further notice.""4
Soon after this announcement, Angelo Clas, a midwest architect,
replaced Hackett as Housing Director. Clas' public career would last
only two years. Fortunately for John Grambling's project, those two
years included the summer of 1935.
Shortly after assuming this post, Clas delivered an ultimatum to the
Nor'West League :
I am sofirmly convinced of the justice of our carefully and
deeply considered decision that I can see only two alterna-
tives in this matter. One, that the project proceed on its
present site; or two, that the project be abandoned and that
Miami lose the benefit of the substantial sum which will be
expended, and the great benefit to local labor and the
building industry in general.15
Clas sent copies of the letter to Senators Fletcher and Trammell and
to Representatives Sears and Wilcox. The politicians fell silent and the
Nor' West League folded its tent in the autumn of 1935.
In 1936, the all-white Miami Advisory Committee on Housing be
gan to meet regularly. At its first meeting, the Committee discussed the
role of the yet to be identified project manager, as reflected in the
The duties of a manager of the project were discussed in
that he should possess mechanical knowledge as to the in-
stallations of equipment, be his own auditor, select the
tenants and see that they are comfortably situated and
provided with various facilities, satisfactorily handle nu-
merous operating agreements with municipal authorities.
Colonel Coe assured the committee that the manager would
be a white man. "
One week later, emphasizing the latter point, Coe wrote to Angelo
Clas: "You will note also again the Advisory Board have placed
themselves as definitely on record as being opposed to a colored
manager of the sixty second street project.""7
Coe's evident sensitivity on this point may have been inspired by the
presence in his office of James E. Scott, a World War I veteran referred
to tangentially in correspondence as "the colored student attending
management school."'8 It apparently did not escape notice that Scott
would be a logical person to play a role in the new housing project.
Nor did the relative absence of black participation in the planning
process totally escape attention. Discussion of the appointment of a
black advisory group began during the Spring of 1936, as construction
of the 247 unit project neared completion. Colonel Coe's attention
would appear to have been drawn more to form than to substance in
creating this body. He wrote:
There are good psychological reasons why the name 'col-
ored' or 'negro' should be left off in designating the mem-
bership of this Board, and by bringing the Housing Manager
in between would prevent any contact between the two
Boards except such as the Housing Director may deem
The black advisory group was appointed and would consist of John
Culmer, chairman, Kelsey Pharr, Dr. W. B. Sawyer, Charles Thompson
and, after some hesitation, attorney T. R. Toomey. The task assigned to
it was to bestow a name upon the project'20
Despite the reservations over his appointment to the Board, Toomey
maintained his enthusiasm for the project. He promptly wrote to the
Director of Housing in Washington that his group had decided upon the
name "Utopia" as first choice with "Toomeyville" as second choice. 21
The Housing Director informed Toomey that "Utopia" was too general
and that, while he, Toomey, was to be applauded for the high esteem in
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
which he was evidently held by his peers, the name selected should not
be that of a living person-'
The final name selection was ultimately made by the all-white Ad-
visory Committee, apparently with little regard for the input of the
Culmer-Toomey group. Dr. Marvin Smith, who had earlier success-
fully blocked construction of the swimming pool, offered the name
eventually adopted, that being "Liberty Square."23
John Gramling died in Miami in 1967 at the age of seventy eight. His
wife Irene still lives in the same home, near Twelfth Avenue and Coral
Way, where the Gramlings resided fifty years ago. Their nearest
surviving child, Claire Alice, lives in Savannah. Neither Irene nor
Claire Alice, recall details relative to the origins of Liberty Square and
none of John Gramling's files or correspondence have survived him.
One hundred yard dash held during the Miami Air Technical
Service Command's family day picnic at Liberty Square, on De-
cember 20, 1944.
Both women, however, clearly recall their father's motivation for
serving as the guiding force behind the project's genesis. His principal
client, Floyd Davis, was a wealthy property owner who owned much of
what is today Liberty City as well as other properties stretching from
--* '- * j ^ lr"' >
Broward County to the Keys. It was John Gramling's function to
facilitate the sale of much of this land and it was this relationship which
was to inspire the creation of the Southern Housing Corporation's
venture. The Corporation's application to the federal government failed
to mention Floyd Davis and "midwestern land company". The relation-
ship that in fact existed between Gramling and Davis is nowhere even
hinted at in the surviving filesat the National Archives.
IL. PARADISE GAINED: 1937 EARLY 1960s
Here the United States government has extended its hand
to lift 243 negro families out of squalor and filth and disease
and place them in clean, comfortable yet unelaborate quar-
ters at reasonable rents. There are no frills at Liberty
Square, but there is sanitation and light and air and har-
mony of simple architecture. There is room to expand, room
for children to play, provision for elemental community life.
Editorial, Miami Herald
October 16, 1936.
During the winter and spring of 1936-1937 the first tenants trickled
into the housing project. A choir from Saint John's Baptist Church sang
Christmas carols outside the newly completed community center build-
ing during that holiday season. In March 1937, the first baby born in
Liberty Square, and in public housing in America, LeClair Lambert,
entered the world at 6228 N. W. 14 Court.24
Fifty years later, at the ceremony in the community center com-
memorating the dedication of the project in late 1936, Mr. Lambert,
now an historian in Saint Paul, Minnesota, reflected upon the early days
at Liberty Square:
I'm proud to be here because history is a continuum...What
an honor to be here today to once again, some forty plus
years later, walk through this area that brings back so many
fond memories...What an honor to be able to recapture the
memories of growing up as a Cub Scout, and then a Boy
Scout, in this very same hall. And what a pleasure to
remember the fun I had with the annual roller skating
venture on Sixty-Third Street every Christmas Day! How
well I remember those bruised knees and elbows in trying to
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
imitate the skating movements the big boys used to do so
And if these walls could talk, they would tell you that all of
us who lived here were guided and positively educated in the
strong need to care for each other ..To share ideas.. And
dreams ... And fantasies that someday would be reality...
These walls would tell you that for so many, a job was well
done in giving us a sense of purpose and a sense of direction
in life. And for that, I am proud25
Henry Clarke, Jr., who has worked as a maintenance supervisor at
Liberty Square since 1949, recalled the early years:
Residents cooperated then, really cared about the project
Liberty Square was much prettier then, and it was crime free.
By the late 1950s and 1960s tougher people moved in and it
began to go down... In the early days politicians used to
come out to the project and campaign. They used the
community center. The center was also used for marriages,
movies for youngsters, dinners, parties and religious
services...At one time Liberty Square had its own park direc-
tor, black patrolmen walked a regular beat in and around
the project. There was a project drugstore here, and a gro-
cery store and a library. The place was really alive then.26
Rosalie Harris, who has lived in the project since 1940, recalled:
Liberty Square in its early days was beautiful then, with
plenty of coconut palms and no litter. We didn't know what
crime was in those days and we slept with our doors open.
Things began to get bad in the 1960's when those people
started to come from Overtown. I look at this place now and
sometimes it puts tears in may eyes.27
Liberty Square's principal selling point, as correctly identified by
John Grambling, had been the assurance of servants free of disease.
Each morning in those early years jitneys transported new residents to
domestic and service jobs on Miami Beach, in downtown Miami and
points east and south. As promised, they were servants ostensibly free
The early residents were hard working, upwardly mobile domestics
and laborers. Forty-five randomly selected files of residents who moved
into Liberty Square between 1936 and 1949 revealed no unemploy-
ment: of thirty-five couples, whose average ages were 32 for husbands
and 25 for wives, all of the men were employed as were fifteen of their
spouses. Their occupations included the following:
Married Males Married Females
Laborer or janitor 17 Maid 11
Porter or waiter 9 Laundry or dry cleaning 1
Chauffeur or truck driver 6 Cook 2
City of Miami sewer or Dressmaker 1
In six of fifteen files of the early couples, the reasons for eventually
leaving Liberty Square was the purchase of a home or an income level
which exceeded the allowable maximum (today, residents are not
required to leave public housing irrespective of their income levels, al-
though they must pay one third of their annual income in rent). At that
time, rent at Liberty Square was set at approximately one-fourth of
monthly income; the average rent was $12 to $15 monthly, although in
some cases as high as $35 per month. (Were that same policy in
existence today, a welfare recipient's monthly rent would be approxi-
mately $150 in public housing, instead of the current average of about
$20.) Indeed, one couple left after finding "a residence with cheaper
While two-parent families were dominant in Liberty Square in the
early years, single parent female households were present as well. They
too were upwardly mobile, hardworking, and engaged in the service
trades. Ten of the forty-five resident files, or twenty-four percent,
reveal the head of household to be a single woman, whose average age
was 37 with 2.5 children.
All of the ten were employed; their occupations included the follow-
WPA Worker 1
Of nine files of single parent women which indicated their reasons
for leaving Liberty Square, after an average stay of twelve years, five
of them left to buy a home or because their income exceeded the
allowable maximum, which represents a higher percentage than in the
sample of married couples.
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
The files reveal hard-working, admirable servants ostensibly "free
of disease" and to that extent the Liberty Square experiment had
achieved its articulated objective. Yet the files also reveal a harsher
side, including examples of undiagnosed mental illness and acute
alcoholism in men and women who worked sixty to seventy hours
weekly as laborers and domestics for menial wages. Two of the files
revealed children who were withdrawn from elementary school in the
1940s due to "bad eyes", a term apparently synonymous with a need for
eyeglasses. In 1960, the son of Henry and Edna Stephenson, Joe Louis
Stephenson, who was eight years old when his parents moved into
Liberty Square in 1948, was killed in the perpetration of a gas station
robbery. These, however, were diseases of a different sort.29
III. PARADISE LOST: EARLY 1960S PRESENT
Among the true necessities that all people require to main-
tain a life of dignity and respect is safe and decent shelter.
Recent stories by Herald writers... painted a devastating
picture of the Dade housing authority's failure to maintain
in livable condition units in which poor and elderly people
must live. Such unacceptable conditions must be righted not
only in the county's oldest public-housing project, Liberty
Square, but wherever they exist.
Editorial, Miami Herald,
May 18, 1986.
Looking back from the littered, barren landscape of Liberty Square
in the winter of 1986-1987, with crack cocaine rampant and a gas heater
explosion which killed a young woman in one of project's original 243
units the prime topic of conversation, it is difficult to visualize the early
To the pioneer residents, now in their seventies and eighties, the early
to mid-sixties appear to have been a watershed. Rosalee Harris
pinpointed the "transfer" of Overtown residents to Liberty Square as the
result of the razing of the area now occupied by Interstate 1-95. She and
others referred to them as "those people."31 Mary Salmon recalled that
"the project was all fixed up around 1965, but it has been going downhill
since then."32 Henry Clarke, Jr., associated that year with an increase
in young single parent families."
The view that those forced from Overtown by the construction of
Interstate 95, with little notice and no compensation, changed the
complexion of Liberty Square is not supported in the files of tenants
admitted to the project from 1965 into the early 1970s. Those who came
to Liberty Square as the result of the expressway construction were
generally elderly couples or single persons receiving Social Security,
disability or a pension. This was not the group that changed the
character of Liberty Square.
The first signs of the group responsible for the change appear in the
files of late 1965: an influx of young single women raising children
without employment and subsisting on the small monthly AFDC (Aid
to Families With Dependent Children) checks paid to non-working
mothers living alone with children below the age of eighteen. While
some came directly to Liberty Square from overcrowded apartments in
Overtown, an equal number or more moved from tenements throughout
Liberty City, which had probably served as stopping points in journeys
once begun in Overtown. These files invariably contain notices of
eviction as opposed to announcements of condemnation or demolition.
There in those files commencing in late 1965 lie the roots of the urban
phenomenon now termed the "feminization of poverty."
A review of seventy-one randomly-selected files of Liberty Square
tenants who moved into the project between the years 1965 and 1979
revealed the following characteristics:
Family composition Number
Single Males 10
Single Women no children 5
Single Women with children 46
Of the forty-six women with children, only seven were employed at
the time of tenant selection with the remaining thirty-nine, of two-thirds
of all admissions, being unemployed welfare recipients. The fact that
all of the ten couples admitted were over the age of 40, with seven
beyond age 65, further illustrates the virtual disappearance of two-
parent families from the project during this period.34
As the years passed, the average age of the single parent welfare
recipients decreased from 29 in the period 1965-1969, to 23 in the years
from 1975-1979. Meanwhile, the lengths of residence decreased during
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
these years with stays of a year or less no longer unusual. The reasons
for leaving were almost invariably presented as "left without notice,"
often followed by a note indicating the absence from the unit of the
refrigerator and oven, as well as the tenant.
While the new wave of tenants was generally unemployed, the em-
ployment that existed was of a decidedly different nature than the
domestic and service jobs of the early years. The seven single female
parents who were employed (the ten single males are in all cases elderly
or handicapped and unemployed) at the time of admission held the fol-
Sales clerk 2
Fast food waitress 1
Caseworker aide 1
Home health care aide 1
Manpower trainee 1
Food stamp worker 1
The files of the 39 women who were unemployed at time of tenant
selection reflect in many instances brief periods of employment inter-
rupted by periods during which welfare was the lone income source.
The jobs were almost invariably of the same nature as the seven given.35
It would appear that the nature of Miami's job market changed dra-
matically and that the disappearance of the domestic worker positions
has never been adequately compensated for by either the emergence of
other employment opportunities appropriate to the new residents or by
the development of an effective means for training and equipping these
young women for the contemporary job market. During the late 1960s
and early 1970s, the abundance of federally funded training programs
is evident in the files: seven women were at one time enrolled in such
programs, yet in each case the young woman eventually left or com-
pleted the program and returned to welfare. Only one of the seven
appears to have acquired a position for which she received training. She
too eventually returned to welfare.36
The files also reflect policy changes since the earlier years which
appear to abandon forever the notion of public housing as a temporary
respite for those in need. There is no longer an income ceiling which
caused the departure of so many upwardly mobile Liberty Square
tenants in the early years. Moreover, a family separation policy permits
growing families to occupy additional space in which to plant roots in
public housing. There are no policies or procedures evident in the files
which prepare or encourage tenants to aspire to a future outside of the
The questions raised by the reviews of the files are many, and sug-
gestive of the need for additional research which will combine the skills
of the historian, the economist and the sociologist in attempts to answer
perplexing issues of the recent past. The ineffectiveness of federal
manpower programs emanating from the era of the Great Society
suggested in this small sample of files, for example, raises the important
question of whether or not in fact the nation did lose ground in its
attempt to create a more equitable society.
The disappearance of the domestic positions coupled with the emer-
gence of the phenomenon of the "feminization of poverty" and welfare
dependency suggests the need for the study of the impact of Cuban
immigration on the service trades as well as the apparently devastating
impact of welfare policies upon the very people these policies were
designed to protect.
Perhaps the musty files at Liberty Square contain the clues to these,
as well as to other unresolved issues in our recent history.
1, "Application of the Southern Housing Corporation, Miami,
Florida, to the Administration of Public Works, Division of Housing,
Washington, D. C., for Financing Low Cost Housing Project at Miami,
Florida," 19 December 1933, Records of the Public Housing Admini-
stration, Record Group 196, National Archives, Washington, D. C.
(hereafter cited as PHA, RG 196, NA), Box 299.
2. John Gramling to Eugene H. Klaber, 30 March 1934, RG 196, NA,
Box 297; (Miami) Friday Night, 12 January 1934, clipping RG 196,
NA, Box 299.
3. "Clearing Away the Slums," p.6, Miami Herald, 14 January 1934.
4. Minutes of Advisory Committee Meeting, 31 August
1936, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299.
5. Ibid, 30 November 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299.
6. H. A. Gray to R. L. Beal, November, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299.
7. R. L. Beal to H. A. Gray, 23 October 1936, 7 November 1936,
PHA, RG 196, NA Box 301.
8. Minutes of Advisory Committee Meeting, 20 January 1936,
2 April 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299.
Liberty Square: 1933 1987
9. Clarence Coe to Angelo Clas, 17 February 1936; Angelo Clas to
Clarence Coe, 24 February 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299.
10. Angelo Clas to H. S. Brannen, 11 September 1935; Telegram
from H. S. Brannen to Angelo Clas, 9 September 1935, PHA, RG 196,
NA, Box 297.
11. Isabella Sanderson to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 18 May 1935;
Rodger Hemdon to Colonel Horatio B. Hackett, 11 May 1935, PHA,
RG 196, NA, Box 297.
12. Petition of Nor'west League, 12 July 1935; Senator Park Tram-
mell to Angelo Clas, 17 July 1935; Angelo Clas to Senator Duncan U.
Fletcher, 25 July 1935, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299.
13. Cecil A. Turner to "Chief of Federal Public Works Administra-
tion," 11 July 1935, with attached Resolution of Board County Com-
missioners, 8 July 1935; Angelo Clas to A. D. H. Fossey, 22 July 1935;
Angelo Clas to Cecil A. Turner, 19 July 1935, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box
14. Memorandum to Messrs Cramer, Neale, et al from B. M. Pettit,
20 April 1935 (Approved by Colonel Horatio B. Hackett); Colonel
Horatio B. Hackett to Dr. Marvin Smith, 7 May 1935, PHA, RG 196,
NA, Box 298, 299.
15. Angelo Clas to M. J. Orr, 15 July 1935, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box
16. Minutes of Advisory Committee Meeting, 2 April 1936, PHA,
RG 196, NA, Box 299.
17. Clarence Coe to Angelo Clas, 9 April 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA,
18. Minutes of the Miami Advisory Committee Meeting,
16 January 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299.
19. Clarence Coe to H. A. Gray, 3 August 1936; Clarence Coe to
Angelo Clas, 30 March 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box 299, 297.
20. Clarence Coeto Angelo Clas, 15 July 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA,
21. R. E. S. Toomey to Angelo Clas, 1 November 1935, PHA, RG
196, NA Box 299.
22. Angelo Clas to R. E. S. Toomey, 14 November 1935, PHA, RG
196, NA, Box 299.
23. Clarence Coe to Angelo Clas, 11 June 1936; Minutes of
Advisory Committee Meeting, 4 June 1936, PHA, RG 196, NA, Box
24. Clarence Coe to H. 0. S. Reeves, 18 February 1937, with
accompanying information on the birth of LeClair Lambert, PHA, RG
196, NA, Box 301. The Lamberts chose LeClair as their baby's first
name because it was the middle name of Secretary of Interior Harold
Ickes, whose department played a major role in the creation of Liberty
25. "Liberty Square Tenenats Enjoy Golden Moments," Miami Her-
ald, p. 1D 16 October 1986; "Liberty Square," Miami Herald, p. 1 C,
9 November 1986.
26. Interview with Henry Clarke, Jr., by Paul S. George,
12 October 1986, Miami, Florida.
27. Interview with Rosalie Harris by Paul S. George, 19 October
1986, Miami, Florida.
28. Tenant Files, Cabinets One through Six, Business
Office, Liberty Square Housing Project.
30. "Leaking Gas Explodes, Burning Three at Housing Project"
Miami Herald, p. 1B, 26 February 1987; The explosion occurred two
doors away from the unit where LeClair Lambert was born fifty years
31. Interview with Rosalee Harris, 19 October 1986; Inter-
view with Mary Salmon by Paul S. George, 3 November 1986, Miami,
32. Interview with Henry Clarke, Jr., 12 October 1986.
33. Tenant Files, Cabinets One through Six.
Among the Farmers 69
AMONG THE FARMERS
Introduction by Howard Kleinberg
Charles G. Featherly arrived in Miami from Michigan during the
third week of October in 1898 aboard the ship Algonquin to work with
his brother Wesley in publishing The Miami Metropolis. Wesley, who
was the newspaper's first local editor beginning in 1896, assumed
editorship as well as ownership of the paper on August 26, 1898.
It is doubtful that Charles wasted much time around the newspaper
office in those first days here. The mammoth job he took shortly after
his arrival would not have allowed much time for sitting in the office
with his feet up on a desk.
Charles Featherly embarked on what turned out to be a remarkable
census of Dade County's farmers.
He traveled from Fort Lauderdale's New River to south of Cutler,
recording a treasury of information about how South Floridians lived,
where they lived and what they planted publishing the information in
In those days, Dade County ranged farther north than it does today;
there was no Broward County. Fort Lauderdale was in Dade County.
His journey took him to now lost names. His Modelo is today's Dania
- renamed by Danes who settled there while Halland Prairie, named
after the Swedish settler Luther Halland, now is Hallandale. Featherly
visited more exotically named places such as Tiger Tail Hammock and
Four Mile Hammock.
His reports were massive, containing information on more than 400
vegetable and fruit farms. How Featherly managed to cover so much
ground in such a short period his journey began immediately after his
arrival in late October and his first report appeared in early November-
is not explained in any of his stories. There was no mention of how
much of his journey was done on horseback, foot or bicycle. Several
times, Featherly referred to guides, so he had some help. But consid-
ering the physical state of South Florida in 1898 few paved roads,
heavily overgrown areas, few forms of communication (no telephones)
Howard Kleinberg, a Miami based syndicated columnist, is the former
editor of The Miami News.
and a concentration of wildlife Featherly's enterprise was astounding.
Unfortunately, what was likely his first report November 4, 1898
- is lost forever. The microfilm files of The Miami News successor to
the Metropolis do not include an issue of that date. All the files of the
Metropolis were destroyed in a fire in January 1900. Only through the
generosity of S. Bobo Dean who years later was to own the Metropolis
- were most of the missing files replaced; Dean had saved them at the
newspaper plant he owned in West Palm Beach and he turned them over
to the Featherlys after their disastrous fire. Obviously, he did not have
a copy of every issue of the then weekly newspaper; among the missing
was November 4, 1898.
Featherly's report in the November 11 issue begins with a preface
that he is continuing his report. The fact that there are no listings in any
of the available reports on people living in the Miami River area east of
Twelfth Avenue or immediately south of the river near the bay, or in the
downtown area for that matter, lends further credence that a first report
appeared on November 4.
There are four surviving reports.
The purpose of Featherly's trek throughout South Florida was two-
fold. In addition to the reporting he was doing, he was selling
subscriptions to the newspaper. At one point, he boasted that he had
received a flattering reception from those he met "in the nature of many
new subscribers in each section visited."
The report reprinted on the following pages use the place spellings
of 1898; thus Cocoanut Grove instead of Coconut Grove, Alapattah
instead ofAllapattah. (All-a-pa-taw is the Seminole word for alligator.)
Featherly, probably as the result of a combination of newness to the
community and a rush to print, also erred in the spelling of several early
Miami family names. His report, however, is printed here unaltered.
Following the articles, Featherly crowned his study with a painstak-
ingly meticulous series of tabulations of the leading vegetables being
grown in the county that winter, listing specific acres planted by specific
farmers. The vegetables included tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and
Charles Featherly spent a little more than a year in Dade County.
Shortly after his series of articles appeared, The Metropolis building
burned to the ground. In temporary quarters, Charles' brother Wesley
sold the paper on December 20, 1899, to B. B. Tatum.
The Featherly's, citing difficulties in being Republican publishers in
Among the Farmers 71
a Democratic town, moved from Miami and assumed the operation of
a newspaper in Harriman, Tenessee. With that the last word was heard
from Charles Featherly. But the depth of his work, four of five parts
is preserved on microfilm, and remains behind as a valuable document
on the life and times of 1898 pioneer Dade County.
Space considerations preclude the use of the entire Among the Farmers
manuscript. Future Tequestas will contain excerpts as space allows.
From The Miami Metropolis, November 11, 1898
The Metropolis Scribe Interviews Many of Them in the Cocoanut
Grove, Miami River and Lemon City Sections and Tells What He
We continue this week our interviews with the farmers of this
section of Dade county, entirely completing the section south of the
Miami River and commencing the work upon the north side. Next week
we expect to complete this section as far north as Arch Creek, but may
not have space for it all. We have covered a good deal more territory in
our interviews than we have found room for all this week. We find our
work appreciated by the farmers and are encouraged to continue. We
will say here that if by chance any should be missed, it will not be
intentional, as it is our purpose to have the work thoroughly done.
Where any may be missed by chance we ask that they call our attention
to the oversight and acquaint us with their affairs.
And sons are living on the old Peacock homestead at Cocoanut
Grove. This is one of the familiar old landmarks to the most of our
readers. Trees of all kinds are here found in abundance and the Peacocks
know how to grow them. Mr. Peacock, with the assistance of his boys,
will cultivate 10 acres of eggplants and 10 acres of tomatoes.
M. M. MORRISON
Will make a crop of one-half acre of tomatoes and one-half acre of
eggplants on hammock land south of the Grove. He also has seed beds
from which he expects to sell a considerable quantity of plants.
W. E. ALLBROOK
Who has a place just west of Cocoanut Grove, is preparing land for
cultivation of one and one-half acres of tomatoes, one acre of eggplants
and one-half acre of beans.
Has a neat place at the Grove running down to the prairie land, that
part of which he intends setting out to bananas as fast as possible. This
year Mr. Rhodes will cultivate about three acres of tomatoes and three
acres of eggplants and peppers.
"-zA R -
W. D. Albury home on the site of what is now the Mutiny Hotel in
Coconut Grove. R. A. S. Peacock purchased the home from Albury.
Who is fast clearing up his place just west of the Grove, intends to
cultivate about four acres of mixed vegetables.
Will cultivate three acres of tomatoes and peppers on Elliot's Key,
where he also has nine acres of pineapples. Mr. Albury will cultivate one
and one-half acres of tomatoes and one-half acre of beans at Cocoanut
Among the Farmers 73
E. and C. DEAN
Have 9 acres one and one-half miles south of Cocoanut Grove on
which they have growing all kinds of tropical fruits. They will cultivate
tomatoes and eggplants in considerable quantity, but the exact amount
we didn't learn.
Has a tract of 58 acres two miles south of Cocoanut Grove with about
eight acres cleared, and a tract of 97 acres two and three-quarter miles
south with five acres cleared. He has considerable number of mango and
alligator pear trees growing and intends setting out more of this variety
of trees. Mr. Richard's crop will consist of tomatoes, beans, and
peppers, but we didn't learn this amount.
Has 120 acres two miles south of Cocoanut Grove, with a clearing
of five acres, on which may be found growing a considerable number
of healthy trees. Mr. Trapp intends making a winter crop vegetables.
Has 80 acres two miles southwest of the Grove, with a clearing of
two acres, which are set out to alligator pears, guavas, orange, limes,
lemons, etc.. He will put in no winter crop.
Has 120 acres in the southwest quarter of section 20, town 54-41. He
also has a fine piece of Bay front property at the Grove. He has four acres
cleared at his homestead which is set out to pineapples and tropical and
citrus fruits. We did not find Mr. Rice at home, but understand that he
will put in about two acres of tomatoes.
The following nine places were missed by our guides during the
course of our trip through this section, which was not known to us until
our attention was called to the omission by Chas. E. Davis, to whom we
are indebted for the information covering the improvements and facts
in connection with the homes of J. McAllister, John Ellis, Fletcher
Albury, Alfred Kemp, R.F. Hoffman, John Douglass, G.F. Wheeler,
C.H. Perry, Frances Obenchain.
Homestead is admirably situated, being part glade land. He has five
acres of pine under improvements which are set out to citrus and tropical
fruits, which are in fine condition. His 15 acres of glade land is land of
the best in this section. There will be cultivated about 13 acres of the
glades, eight of which Mr. McAllister has leased. Ten acres will be in
tomatoes with one in peppers and eggplants.
Homestead was missed with the others passed by in this section. Mr.
Ellis, with his well-known skill in the handling of trees and flowers has
made his place a comer of the earth fit for a queen. He has eight acres
planted to citrus trees, most of which are bearing. He will plant two acres
of tomatoes on his homestead. He has pretty buildings and surround-
ings. We met Mr. Ellis upon the road last week when he gave us some
detail as to his river property, but modestly withheld the information
concerning his homestead.
Is one of the old settlers, and as his name would signify, is of
Bahamas stock. He has 80 acres on the south one-half of the southwest
quarter of section 9. He has two acres cleared and will plant one each
to tomatoes and eggplants. What he has cleared he has planted to citrus
and tropical fruits not yet bearing.
Has 40 acres in the ne one-quarter of sw one-quarter of sec. 9. He has
three acres cleared, all set out to citrus and tropical fruits. He cultivated
three acres of glade land of which he will plant two acres to tomatoes
and one acre to eggplant. He has a pretty home.
Lives in Arkansas City, Kansas. He has 200 acres of glade land, eight
of which are under cultivation three pine and five glade. The pine land
is set to citrus fruits. He has grapefruit trees just commencing to bear
finely. They are by all odds the finest lot of grapefruit trees in the town.
He has a comfortable home surrounded by tropical plants and flowers.
Among the Farmers 75
Place of 200 acres in e one-quarter sec. 7 se one-quarter sec. 5 has
upon it a large commodious two-story house with deep and shady
double gallery. He has five acres of pine land set to citrus and tropical
fruits which are just coming into bearing. He cultivates five acres of
glade land. This year he will plant two acres of tomatoes, one and one-
half acres eggplants and one and one-half acres peppers.
John Douglas family picnicking along the Miami River on the
Ferguson Property, located at today's N.W. 12th Avenue.
Has 120 acres in the N. one-half of SE. one-quarter and W. one-half
of SE. one-quarter of Section 7 we believe. The neighbors say he has
three hound dogs, one shotgun and his weather eye out for a "fiddle."
He has 10 acres of pine land set to citrus and tropical fruits, a greater
portion of which are just coming into bearing. Mr. Wheeler has 10 acres
of valuable glade lands in the sw one-quarter of Sec. 7. He will cultivate
five acres of tomatoes, one acre of eggplant, one acre of peppers and
three acres of beans. He will also experiment with one-fourth acre of
celery. It doesn't look as though he allowed his dog, his gun or his
"fiddle" to interfere with business.
Has a homestead of 160 acres in n one-quarter of Sec. 5. He has four
acres cleared, has a good two-story frame house surrounded with
handsome tropical flowers, plants and shrubbery. He has a nice lot of
citrus fruits, with tropical fruits bearing. Mr. Perry lives in the Grove
and rents his pine and glade land. There will be cultvated on his place
this year three acres of tomatoes, and an acres each of eggplant and
In the nw one-quarter of Section 19, has eight acres cleared one and
one-half miles west of the Grove. The family has a most handsomely
surrounded home embowered with handsome tropical plants, flowers
and shrubbery. It shows the result of the care of a tasteful wife and three
daughters. He has five acres planted to citrus trees, besides a few
tropical fruit trees. He will cultivate two acres of tomatoes and one acre
of eggplant. Mr. Obenchain has three accomplished daughters teaching
school, Miss Jeannette being engaged in the Miami schools.
ARTHUR F. LANG
We passed the handsome home of Arthur F. Lang last week. There
was no one at home at the time and by oversight we neglected to
interview Mr. Lang in time. A Mr. Duval of Sanford, an experienced
gardener, will cultivate Mr. Lang's place this year. There will be
cultivated four acres of glade and four acres of pine land. Six acres will
be planted to tomatoes and eggplant. They will also experiment with
three acres of Kaffir corn and millet for forage purposes. Mr. Lang's
orange trees are looking exceedingly fine, while his Tahiti limes
promise fine fruit trees. Mr. Lang has been on his place two and one-half
years. Every tree shows a remarkable growth and is a demonstration of
what care and proper cultivation of wild land in this section for two and
one-half years will do.
The following truckers and fruit growers along the Miami River have
this week been visited by the Metropolis.
On the south branch of the river the first place of any importance is that
GEN. S.C. LAWRENCE
of Boston, who has 185 acres which he is fast improving. A consid-
erable portion of this is prairie and hammock. The place is under the
supervision of H. Price Williams. There is now employed upon the im-
provements, or was at pay time last Saturday, 24 men. The payroll
Among the Farmers 77
amounts to about $1,700 a month. The improvements consist of a large
tract of land which has been cleared and drained where necessary. The
dairy which is to be operated in connection with Gen. Lawrence's farm
is one of the most complete affairs in the South of its kind. We doubt if
there is a finer dairy in any Southern States. The main part is 34X54 feet,
two stories high. It is built of rock and has cement floors. There are now
in the dairy 24 Jersey cows, 14 of which are giving milk. The stable
space is arranged so that all secretions are carried off from the stable and
conducted to a fertilizer vat 18X24 feet, built of cement, into which all
the droppings of the stock with soiled bedding is thrown, where it is
allowed to decompose. The liquid is drawned off as liquid fertilizer. The
stock is kept perfectly clean and the stable and calf shed 26X52 feet near
at hand built of rock. There has also been constructed a steam dairy
16X26 feet also of rock with cement floor. All the latest improved
machinery for separating cream from milk, churning butter, grinding
and preparing food for stock, etc. is employed. A large number of
pineapples and citrus fruits have been set out. This week a force of men
are employed in commencing the construction of a road from the farm
to Miami, about two miles. D.L. Hughes, a practical dairy man, has
charge of the stock. Frank Cobb is the foreman of operations. It is only
about a year since Gen. Lawrence purchased the place in a wild
condition practically. A $10,000 to $15,000 winter home can be looked
for overlooking the river in short time. We wish we had many more
General Lawrence's in this section.
H. PRICE WILLIAMS
Has the next place up the river from Gen. Lawrence's and adjoining
it on the west. Mr. Williams home although not elaborate, has a tasty
appearance. He has about six acres under cultivation. He will plant two
and one-half acres of tomatoes, one acre of peppers and one and one-
half acres of eggplant. The location, as are all the places in this section,
Has 10 acres next west of Mr. Williams's nearly all cleared. He will
plant this year two and one-half acres of tomatoes and two and one-half
acres of eggplants. He has 200 orange trees growing thrifty and has a
most promising field of Porto Rico pines. Mr. Kilpatrick also has a
homestead of 100 acres on the pine land. He has not yet built a home on
his river tract. His hammock land appears to better advantage than some
of the rest, as it is quite free of rock and has a black rich soil to set it off.
In this connection we must mention John Ellis again. He has here one
of the prettiest places in this section of the country. His home, which is
entirely new and handsome in construction, commands a fine view. It
is a little higher than the surrounding property and is at the commence-
ment of the North and South forks. The lawn is broad, gradually slopes
to the river and is covered with grass. A note of his crop was made last
Has also 10 acres just west of Mr. Ellis's, which is just being cleared
up. He will cultivate three acres of tomatoes on the glade in the rear.
Is located just west of Mr. Bruce. His place practically faces the
South Fork. He has 10 acres. In the early times of which we have no
history a portion of Mr. Bridge's place has been cleared and set to
oranges and limes. The tract went back to a state of nature. Yet we find
in the hammock which he is now clearing away a large number of very
large limetrees, as well as sweet oranges. Mr. Bridge's place is the
western most of all those yet placed in cultivation in this spot. He will
build a home next year. He has 60 grapefruit and 40 tardiff orange trees
set out. Mr. Bridge is trucking this year with his brother-in-law, John
Ellis, mention of which co-partnership was made last week.
Passing up the river two miles we come to the rich hammock land at
which is known as the "Rapids of the Miami," about four miles from the
CAPT. R.C. MAY
Has the largest place here and the largest improvement. He has 75
acres of this rich land, 35 of which are under cultivation. He is just con-
structing a new home which will add much to his place. Capt. May has
gone largely into citrus fruits and has in bearing a number of grapefruit
and lemon trees. He was unfortunate in the shipment of his young trees
down by schoooner from Jacksonville before the railway came through.
They were soaked with salt water which ruined many of them. A
considerable number are doing fine. He will cultivate 114 acres of
Among the Farmers 79
tomatoes, 4 acres of eggplant, 2 acres of peppers and sundry other
Has 10 acres below that Capt. May. He has no buildings yet. Nearly
the entire tenacres are cleared. Mr. McCrory will cultivate three acres
of tomatoes and one of eggplant.
Fine home of 19 acres has been mentioned in these columns a number
of times, therefore we can tell nothing new. Mr. Richardson wil
cultivate five acres of tomatoes and one and one-half acres of eggplant.
Place of 10 acres just south of his father's was also mentioned at
length a few weeks since. Mrs. Richardson arrived a few days since
from Chicago to make her home. Mr. Richardson will cultivate four
acres of tomatoes and one and one-half acres of eggplant.
BURCHARD and WARD
Have 19 acres just below that of 0. Richardson, a good portion of
which is cleared. There is a nice residence on this place with many
different kinds of fruits. They will cultivate three acres of tomatoes and
one acre of peppers this year.
Across the river and just below the forks we find
With six and one-half acres of new land which will be cultivated for
the first time this year. He will have four and one-half acres of tomatoes,
and one acre each of eggplant and peppers.
Has ten acres in this tract which he has cultivated for three years. This
year he will cultivate six acres of tomatoes. On his home lot in Miami
he will plant two acres of eggplant.
Has five acres more of this tract. He will cultivate three acres of
L. N. SNELL
Has also five acres of which he will plant two to tomatoes.
There are also on this tract of rich land at the rapids
MESSRS. L.E. HILL AND WEBBER
Who will cultivate four acres and two acres respectfully of tomatoes.
When attention is called to the fact that up to three years ago next
spring this entire Miami river section was an unbroken wilderness it will
be seen what has been done.
There are several hundred acres more of this rich hammock which
will be under cultivation before three years more rolls around.
North of The River
Starting north along the line of the new rock road and the old County
road leading to Buena Vista and Lemon City our representative inter-
viewed the following named truckers and fruit-growers this week in
search of information.
Well-known place just north of Miami on the Bay hardly needs a
description by us. In attempting to describe the beauty of Mr. Filer's
home we would fall far short of conveying to our readers any accurate
idea of the tropical grandeur which here surrounds one on all sides. Or-
anges, lemons, grapefruit, alligator pears, mangoes, guavas, and in fact,
all kinds of tropical and sub-tropical fruits are growing in full vigor and
beauty. Mr. Filer will make a crop of about five acres of tomatoes and
Who is living on the place of F.A. Blackman, just north of Miami,
will make a crop of about one acre of eggplants and one acre of
Is at present living on the place of Geo. Olson, about one mile north
of Miami, which is a pretty place with a good clearing and plenty of
Among the Farmers 81
tropical fruits of all kinds. Mr. Lowe has eight and one-half acres just
west of the Olson place on which he is making improvements, but will
not be able to make a crop.
Has a clearing of three acres on a five acre lot two miles northwest
of Miami on which he intends to cultivate two acres of tomatoes and one
acre of eggplants.
Has a clearing of 10 acres on his homestead two and one-half miles
northwest of Miami on which he will cultivate one acre of tomatoes.
At Buena Vista, has a pretty little home surrounded by guavas and
other fruits. He is cultivating a crop of three acres of tomatoes, one acre
of eggplants, and one acre of peppers.
Who lives in Buena Vista, owns 40 acres of Alapattah prairie land
and in company with his brother, W.A. Hooks, will cultivate 15 acres
of tomatoes, two acres of eggplants, and one acre of beans.
Will cultivate Alapattah prairie land to the extent of seven acres of
Is making a nice home of his place at Buena Vista, on which we found
mangoes, alligator pears, guavas and some nice young orange trees
growing. He is putting in one acre of eggplants and peppers at his home
and three acres of tomatoes at Alapattah prairie.
Home on the Bay front just north of Buena Vista is another Florida
home in attempting a description of which one hardly knows where to
begin and when to stop. Skirting the Bay is a fine old grove of cocoanut
trees, behind which is located a slight elevation overlooking the Bay, a
neat and comfortable home, forming a sight enchanting in tropical
beauty. Mr. Hoffman has a number of large orange trees in bearing, and
is preparing the whole of his place of 15 acres for oranges as fast as
possible. He has erected an aermotor which he utilizes as power for an
extensive irrigating plant and also for furnishing water for his dwelling,
which has a complete system of waterworks. Mr. Hoffman will culti-
vate three acres of tomatoes.
At Buena Vista, has one acre of land which demonstrates that out of
the primeval forest a blooming Florida home can be made in a few
months. Mr. Courly has only been on his place for eighteen months, and
is surrounded by a beautiful display of tropical plants and flowers
besides some fine young trees growing. He will cultivate for one-half
acre of eggplants and one-half acre of peppers. Those of our readers who
know not of French hospitality should call Mr. Courly's.
Who has sixty acres just north of Buena Vista, is putting up a steam
irrigating plant and intends to set out his whole clearing of five acres to
fruit trees of different kinds. He will prepare for the winter market two
and one-half acres of tomatoes and one acre of eggplants.
Has 40 acres three-fourths of a mile north of Buena Vista, on which
he has a clearing of six acres, with two acres of pineapples. Mr. Johnson
has in the way of fruit trees, guavas, alligator pears, mangoes, grape-
fruit, etc., all looking nice and showing careful attention. He will
cultivate no winter crop.
THOSE. G. RUSSELL
Came to Dade County from Key Largo, where he farmed for twenty
years. He has 40 acres one-half mile south of Lemon City, with a
clearing of about 12 acres, on which we found four acres of pineapples
and an abundance of tropical fruit trees. He will not prepare any crop for
the market this season.
Has six acres of new land at Lemon City which he is clearing and
transforming into a home. He will put in one-half acre of tomatoes, one-
half acre of eggplants and one-half acre of peppers.
List of Members 83
Who lives at Lemon City, will put in a crop of about three acres of celery
and cauliflower about one mile up Little River.
Who is the village blacksmith at Lemon City, will cultivate three acres
of tomatoes at his home and eight acres of tomatoes on Little River land.
Mr Mattair has a pretty home on the Bay front just north of the village.
Also lives a Lemon City where he has a pretty home and also runs a
sawmill. He has 40 acres of Little River land, where he will make a crop
of 10 acres of tomatoes, where his son Paul will also put in a crop of six
acres of tomatoes.
JAS. W. ROBERTS
Lives in Lemon City, but owns 13 acres of land two miles west on which
he has a clearing of two and one-half acres. He will cultivate for the
market one acre of tomatoes, one acre of eggplants and one-half acre of
LIST OF MEMBERS
Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy a
wide variety of benefits which include free admission to the Museum,
subscriptions to the three Museum publications, Tequesta, Update, and
Currents, invitations to special events, use of the Research Center,
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tional and recreational programs.
Each membership category offers the benefits as outlined above,
plus additional gifts and privileges for the higher levels of support.
During the past year 169 members upgraded their level of support.
Membership revenues primarily cover the costs of the benefits pro-
vided, educational programs, special exhibitions and daily operations
of the Museum. The membership listing is made up of those persons and
institutions that have paid dues since August 1987; those who joined af-
ter November 1, 1988, will have their names in the 1989 Tequesta.
CATEGORIES OF MEMBERSHIP
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Any changes in the level or listing of membership should be reported
to the membership office at 375-1492.
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ognize special service to the association. The symbol ** indicates
Founding Members; the symbol indicates Charter Member.
List of Members 85
Alpert, Mr. Maurict D.
Franklin, Mr. Mitchell
MR. Harrison Cosrunrtion
Ryder, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph B., Jr.
Bayside Market Place
Fasccll and Hocbl
David Wright Videos
De Bartolo Corporation
ArvaParks & Company
Chase Federal Savings
City National Bank
Coconut Grove Bank
American Asocoiatio for
State andLocal History
Adkins, Wayman L.
Anderson, Ms. Marie W.
Anderson, Dr. andMr. Wil-
Batten, Mr. and Mrs. James
Baule, Mr. and Mrs. Ber-
Berkowitz, Mr. Jeffry L.
Bcrmont, Mr. aod Mrs. pein
Callahan, Mrs. Joan S.
Campbell, Mr. and Mrs.
Csarano, Mrs. P. J.
Cesarano, Mr. and Mrs. Gre-
Chapman, Mr. and Mrs.
Alvah H., Jr.
Cole, Mr. and Mrs. Carlton
Collier, Ms. Beth
Cdosm, Mr. and Ms. Bill
Corlet.Mr. andMrs. Edward
Creson, Mr. and Mrs. Allen
Curry, Miss LAmar Louise
Darnm Dr. and Mrs. 0.
Waters, Mr. Fred M.. Jr.
Withers, Mr. James G.
Withers, Mr. Wayne E.
Downtown Miami Post, Buckley,
Business Associatiom Schuh and Jemnigan, Inc.
Eagle Brands Professional Savings Bank
Mershon, Sawyer, Johnston, Southeast Banking
Dunwody and Cole Corporation
Paul, Landy, Beiley, Southern Bell
Harper, P. A. SunBank/Miami.N.A.
The Miami Herald
The Miami News
Touche & Ross Co.
Discovery Cruises Corparation
Drexel, Bumam, Greater Miami
Lambert, Inc. Convention Bureau
Bisnrr and Lubin Holland and Knight
Farey's Wholesale IBM
Hardware Co., Inc. Keen, Battle and Mead
General Development Kimbrell and Hamann, P.A.
Florlda Arts Council National Endowment for the
Florida Endowment Arts. Folk Arts Division
for the Humanities Metro-Dade Cultural
The Knight Foundation Affairs Council
Norwegian Caribbean Lines
Ryder Systems. Inc.
The Allen Morris
Winn Dixie Stores
Ruth and August Geiger
Davis, Mr. and Mrs. JamcsL
Davis, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Dennis, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Earle, Mr. and Mn. William
Ericksn Mr. Douglas
Ezcll, Mr. and Mrs, Boycs
Ferguson. Mr. Walter R.
Fitzgerald, Dr. and Mrs. Jo-
George, Dr. and Mrs. Phillip
Goodlove. Ms. Avis K.
Graham. Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. Johm
Haverfield, Mrs. Shirley
HIctor, Mr. and Mra. Robert
Hicks, Mr. and Mrs. W iliaml
Hills,Mr. and Mrs. Loe
Johmon,.Mr. and Mrs.Le er
Kanner. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis
Katz, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Kenny, Mr. and Mrs. James
Killia, Mr.andMrs A.Dan,
Kistak Mr. and Mrs. Jay I.
Knight. Mr. and Mrs C.
Kyle,Mr. Alan G.
LaFotiee, Mr. and Mn.
Louis L., Jr.
Laurence, Mr. Kenneth R.
Lawienos, Mr. md Mrs.
Lowell, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Lynch, MrandMrs. Stephen.
Mank, Mr and Mrs. I Lay-
Malheson. Mr. and Mrs.
Mattesn, Mr. Araold C.
Mayer, Mr. Robert M.
McCormick, Ms Anne M.
McCrimmon, Mrs. C.T.
McLanmme, Mr. and Mrs.
McLean, Mr. Arnold, C.
Mead. Mr. and Mrs. D.Rich-
Merrill, Mr. and Mrs. James
Mesnekoff, Mr. and Mrs.
Morris, Dr. andMrs. ounn
Mss, Mr. Edward A.
Murphy, Mr. and Mrs. Jef-
Nordt, Dr. John C., m
Noriega, Ms, Lamrar J,.
Norman, Dr. and Mrs. Ha-
Orn, Dr. and Mrs. Mark E.
Pappas, Mr. Theodore I.
Parks, Ms. Arva Moore
Parks, Mr. and M-. Bob L.
Parnes, Dr. andMrs.Edmund
Payne, Mr. and Mrs. R.W..
PFro, Mr. and Mr. Joseph
Prunty, Mr. and Mrs. John
Rasel, Ma. Greta L.
Read, Mr.s Albert Cushing
Reid, Mr. and Mrs. Benjam-
Robinsoi, Mr. Edward J.
Rodriguez, Mr. andMrs.Raul
Roller, Mrs. Phillip G.
Apthorp, Mr. ard
Mrs. Jam W.
Born, Dr. and
Mrs. Michael P.
Cox, Mrs. Edras
Rss. Mr. Cliffrd
Simoim, .Mr. Richard H.
Slack, Mr. and Ms. Ted C.
Smiley, Dr. and Ms. Karl
Soman, Mr. and Mrs. WiI-
Stewart, Dr. and Mrs. Franz
Stewart, Dr. and Mrs. Franm
*Tebheau, Dr. Charltoa W.
Tons, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Traurig, Mr. andMrs. Robert
Trochet. Dr. and Mrs. Jean
Voelter, Mrs, Karl E.
Warren, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis
Friedman. Mr. Arnold S. Levin, Mr. and
Heller. Mr. and Mrs, G. Mrs. Robert H.
Highleyman, Mr. Daly Martimez, Dr. and
Inglmo, Mrs. Estbur F. Mrs. Milton B.
Klen, Mr. and Merrin, Mr. and Mr. W.C.
Mrs. Narmin S. Peacock, Mr. Henry B., Jr.
Pennakamp, Mr. and
Weitz, Dr. and Mrs. Michael
Wishelrt, Mr. and Mrsn.
Wdfc. Mr. Jodly
Wolfsn, Mr. Mitcell Jr.
Woodruff, Mr. and Mrs.
Younts, Mr. and Mrs. David
Zwibel, Dr. and Mrs. How-
Shapiro, M. Phyllis A.
Soamen, Mr. and
Mrs. Neal R.
Swetland, Mr. David W.
Thatchr. Mr. John W.
Zeppa. Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Abitbl, Mr. Andres
Adams, Mr. Larry H.
Adkirn, Mr. and Mrs. Jmn S.
Adler, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Alexander, Mr. and Mrs.
Alexander, Mr. and Mr.
Allen, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
August, Mr. dMrs. Arthur
August, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie
Averill. Mr. Joseph
Balf, Ms. Roberta
Berktll.Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Barons, Mr. andMrs.Bvane .
Barrow, Dr. and Mr. James
Bean, Mr. Prank L.
Black, Mr. and Mrs. Hugo
Blank,. Dr. and Mrs. Harcy
Bowker, Mr. ad Mrs. Gor-
Broad, Mary E.
Butt, Dr. Prudlena H
Carrera-Justiz, Mr. and Ms.
Cole, Mr. Richard P.
Collins, Mr. ard Mrs. Wil-
Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Mike
Dane, Mr. and Mrs. Gearpe
Danielson, Mr. I. Deering
Davis, Mr.andMrs. Frank C
De Carion, Mr. Gorgc H.
DcFor. Mr. and Mrs, J. Al-
Dellapa, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Dowlen, Dr. and Mra. L.W.,
Dunwody, Mr. Atwood
Eaton, Judge and Mrs. Joe
ll-n.burg, Mr. and Mrs.
Evoy, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Freld, Mrs. Dorothy J.
Fogel. Mr. and Mn. Joel D.
Fogg. Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Fojo, Dr. and Mrs. Roberto
Gaffin, Mr. and Mr. Harold
GaUllagbr, Mr. and Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs.
Gerber, Dr. andMr. Pa.i U.,
Gcrhart, Mr. Franklin
Gibson, Mr. David C.
Glazr, Mr. andMrs. DuAld
Glinn, Mr. and Mrs, Frank-
Goldstein, Mr. andMrs. B.B,
Goodmn, Mr. and Mrs. Jer-
Goodman, Mr. dal Mrs.
Gosctc, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Grier, Ms. Helen R.
Hais, Mr. and Mrs. Geaor
Hacklcy. Mr. and Mrs.
Hansen, Mr. William M.
Harrison Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Helms, Mr. and Mrs. Brent
Hemming., Mr. and Mrs.
*Herin, Judge andMrs. Wil-
Hollinger, Mrs. Barbara
Hornstein, Mrs. Norcs S.
Hunter, Dr. and Mr). BrIkm
Hunter, Dr. Caroline B.
Huston, Mrs. Ton
Jaffe, Dr. Jsmarhan R.
Jamicson, Mr. Lewis C.
Jeffersm.Dr. and Mrs Tho-
Jinks, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Joffie, Dr. and Mrs. John
Keen, Mrs. George S.
Keen, Ms. Patricia F.
Keller. Mr. Bruce A.
Kellon, Mr. StevtnMK
Kinzc, Mr. Carl R.
Kleinberg. Mr. and Mrs.
Kniskcrn, Mr. and Mrs.
Koss, Mr. and Mrs. Abe
Landau, Mr. andMrs. Calvin
Lann, Mr. andMrs.MartinJ.
Laer, Mr. and Mrs. John F.
Lawrence, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
Leakc, Mr. and Mr. Martin
Levi, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Lewis,Mr.andMrs. John M.
Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Liebler,Dr. andMr. JohmB.
Lond, Mr. and Mr. I.
Longahore, Mr. Frank
Longstreth. Mr. Bob F.
Marmeh, Dr. and Mrs. Mi-
Maividal. Mr. and Mrs. Ra d
Matheson, Mr. and Mrs.
Maxred, Mr. and Mrs. FJ.,
May, Mr. and Mrs. Damon
McArdc., Mr. and Mrs.
McGonigal, Mr. and Mrs.
Merrill, Mr. Arthur E.
Meyer, Mr. and Mrs, Sylvan
Miot, Mr. and Mrs. Sanford
Miuleh, Mr. Roger G.
Mizell, Mr. and Mrs. Earl S.
Molina, Mr. and Mrs. Ltis
Munre, Mrs. Wirth M.
Newcomb, Mr. and Mrs.
Nonton, Dr. Edward W.
Norwood, Mr. and Mrs.
Oliver, Dr. and Mrs. Robert
Parci, Dr. Eduardo 1.
PAncoaMt, Ms. Katherine F.
Peck, Mr. George W., Jr
Pickard, Ms. Carolyn
Pithr, Mr, "id Mrs. Alle L.
Prevat Mr. and Mrs. Prest
Radlman, Mr. andMrs.Fred
Rawls, Mr. andiMrs. Edward
List of Members 87
Reboro, Mr. C. 0,
Rowell, Mr. adMdrs. Donald
Ruggles, Mr. and Mr. Read
Rutter, Mr. and Mrs. Natha-
nkl! P., III
Santiago, Mr. and Mis. Eu-
Sarafoglu, Dr. and Mrs.
Says, Mr. Roland A., Jr.
Shapiro, Ms. Myron
Shay, Mr. and Mrs. Rodger
Shbenkma, Mr. and Mrs.
Sherry Mr. Lawrence R.
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel
Spak, Mr. and Mrs. Theo-
Steamrns, Mr. Gema, Esq.
Steinbrg, Mr. Alan W.
Stirrup, Ms. Edane W.
Straight, Dr. and Mrs.
Sures. Mr. and Mrs. J.
Swcmon, Mr. and Mrs.
Edward F., Jr.
Thrmnpsom,Mr.Lyle B., P.A.
Thoaudike, Mr. and Mrs.
Thornton, Mr. and Mr.
Tremnaine, Mrs. James G.
Tribble, Mr. and Mrs. James
Tunstall, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Vasquez, Mrs. Olga
Winick, Ms. Pauline
Wood, Mrs. Warren C., Sr.
*Wooe, Mrs. Margaret B.
Wragg, Mr. and Mrs. Otis
Wyllie, Mr. and Mrs. Start
Wynne., Mr. James R.
Yates, Mrs. Eunice P.
Zolt n, Dr. Robert A.
Abernathy, Mrs. Ann F.
Abramharn, Ms. Norma
Adams, Mr, and Mrs. Jamses
Albin, Dr. and Mrs. EricL.
Albrecht, Mr. and Mrs. Sey-
Alspach, Dr. aadMn. Brucm
Ammarcll, M M.aMrs. John
Anderson, Mr. and Mrs.
Anlo, Mr. Bill
Arstark, Me. Francinm
Athan, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Atkins, Judge and Mrs C.
Azmy, Ms. Ana M.
Bak r,JMr. andMirs. aInard
Ball, Mr. Mand Mrs, Ivan B.
Bander. Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Barkett, Mrs. Sybil
Baumberger, Mr. and Mrs.
Beimat, Mr. and Mrs. Jtorl
Belair, Ms. Rnece J.
Bell. Mr. Paul
Bendy, Mr. C.P.
Berman, Mr. Neil t.
Brndt, Mr. Ned
Binenfeild, Mr. and Mrs.
Black, Mr. Leon D., Jr.
ilumbere, Mr. and Mrs.
Bomar, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Brasnon, Mr. and Mrs. Slth
Brand, Mr. and Mrs. Ray-
Bretos, Dr. and Mrs. Miguel
Brwer, Mr. David B.,
Brinker, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Buchsbaum, Mr. and Mrs.
Buemaan, Mrs. Linda
Busby, Mr. George
Butler, Mr. andMrs. JohnT.
Caldwell, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Carmichael, Dr. and Mrs.
Chapman, Ms. Virginia
Clhiro, Ms. Maria, J.
Caugtlam, Mr.a mdMrs.EN.
Cohn, Dr. and Mrs. Martin
Cole, Mr. Robert B.
Ccer. Mrs, Dec M.
Coanr, Mrs. Daphn W.
Conover, Mrs. Trudy W.
Coraun, Mi. Ruth D.
Crawley, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
Crow. Mr. and Ms Lon W.,
Custis, Mr. and Mrs. Donald
Danforth. Mr. and Mrs. Dan
Davidsn,Mr. andMrs. Barry
Davis. Mr. Roger B.
do Castro, Mr. Raymond
Dc Gucvara, Mr. and Mrs.
Diamond. Mr. and Mrs. J.
Dibeler, Mr. John B.
Dizneratein, Ms, Jearmc
Doherty, Mr. Robert G.
Dombrowsky, Mr. and Mrs.
Dougherty, Mr. and Mrsn.
Dowdell, Mr. and Mrs. SLH.
Dunan, Mr. and Mrs. Geo.
Dunn, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Eaton. Mr. and Mrs. Joel D.
Edison Mr. and Mrs. Mike
Ehrahard, Mrs. Harriett
Ewald, Ms. Joan B,
Pabelo, Mr. and Mrs. Hum-
Fancher, Mr. andMrs. Char-
les E., Jr.
Farrell, Ms. Marge
FPeltman,Dr, and Mrs, Robert
Finklstin, Mr. and Mrs.
Fishm an, Dr. and Mrs. Law-
Fitgerald. Mrs. W.L.
Fitzgerald. Mr. and Mrs.
Fleiscdanam, Ms. Pam
Fojco, Dr. Rita M.
Fontaine, Ms. Berdha
FPrtairn, Ms. Cecilia
Priedman, Dr. andMrs.Evnu
Gabler, Mr. George E.
Gaby, Mr. and Mr. Donald
Gallwey, Mr. William J., HIII
Gardner, Mrs. Dick B.
Garis, Mrs. Millice.t
Garner. Dr. and Mrs. Stanley
Gasrard, Ms. Jannc
Garrison, Dr.nd M-s. Bruce
Garrison, Ms. Pamela
Glcasm, Mr. W. Lansing
Gold, Mr. and Mrs. David H.
Goldwyn, Dr. and Mrs.
Gonzalez, Mr. Alvaro, Jr.
Goodson, Mr. md Mrs. Wil-
Goosean, Mr. and Mrs Fre-
Gordnm, Ms. Gail
Gaen, Dr. and Mrs. Edward
Gren, Ms. Marcia R.
Grnear, Mr. and Mrs. Stan-
Grentser, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Gmranm, Mr. and Mrs. Phil
Guttenmacher, Mr. Edward
Hammond, Mr. and Mrs.
Hanley, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Hardin. Dr. Henry C.. Jr.
Harrington, Ms. Nancy K.
Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. John
Harter, Ms. Nancy
Hauser, Mr. and Mrs. How-
Hawa,Mr. andMrs. Maurice
Hawkins, Mrs. Roy H.
Heath, Mr. and Mrs. Bayard
Hcllmann, Mr. and Mrs.
Helsaback, Ms. RosernaryE.
Heomdon, Mr. Kerry
Hicks, Mr. Stephen M.
Hilder, Dr. and Mrs. Prank
Hipjps, Mrs. T.P.
Hinsch, Mr. and Mrs, Sol
Hodges, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Hoehl, Mr. and Mrs, John R.
Holbrook, Mr. and Mrs.
Holliday, Ms. Mary Annr
Horacek, Mr. and Mrs.
Ho nd,Mr. andMms.JamMes
Howe, Mrs. Helen D.
Hunt, Mr. Charles L.
Hunt, Mrs. R.
Irvin, Dr. sad Mrs. George
Jenkins, Mrs. Mary D.
Jimenez. Mr. Juan
Jdllivette, Mr. Cyrus M.
Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Ray-
Jones, Dr. and Mrs. Walter
Jcrgensan, Mr. and Mrs.
Juncasa, Mr,. Ralph A.
Junkin, Mr. and Mrs. John
Kahn, Mr. Dinald
Kaplan, Mrs. Betsy Mitchcll. Mr. and Mr. Wil-
Kasdin,Mr. andMr. Nesin liam
Kthe, Mr. and Mrs. Guy Mohr, Mr. Alfred B.
Kenin, Mr. and Mrs. David Molt, Mr. and Mr. Pawdrey
Keys, Mr. Neil S. Morilla, Ms. Laura C.
Kistler, Mr. Rolert S. Morris,. Mr. and Mrs. David
Klingeanith, Mr. Areas M.
Kovatch, Mr. John Morris, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin
Krause, Mr. and Mrs. Tho- S.
mas E. Moses,Mr.andMr. Michad
Krauter, Dr. Susan Muhtar, Mr. and Mr..
Lanphear, Mr. and Mrs. RxequiWl
Michael Murray, Mr. Mary R.
Land, Mr. David B. Myers, Ms. Ruth D.
Lara, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry R. Natiello, Dr. Thonas A.
Layton. Dr. and Mr. Robert Neoell,Dr. andMrs. Mervin
Lehman, Mr. Richard L. Nemoti, Mr. Joseph C.
Levine, Mr. and Mrs. Martin Nitzsche, Mrs. Emrnest R
J. Ols., Mr. and Mrs. Dnnis J.
Levy, Ms. Eleanor P. Owen, Mr. and Mrs, David
Levy. Mr. and Mrs. Harry Palrreri, Mr. andMrs. Pablo
Levy, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Paroell, Mr. and Mr. Paul
Little. Mr. and Mr. William W.
A. Parrish, Mr. Richard K.. II
Long.Mr.andMrs. JanmesD. Parons, H.S.
Losak. Mr. and Mrs. John Pearlman, Dr. and Mrs.
Lotlapaich, Mrs, Jay W. Donald
Ludwig, Mr. and Mrs, Sid- Pepper, Hoeorable Claude
tmy Pepper.Mr.andMr. Sidaey
Lynch, Mr. and Mr. George Percz. M. and Mr. John
F. Perko, Mr. and Mrs. Dana J.
MacDonald, Mr. and Mrs. Peskic, Mr. and Mrs. Theo-
Robert doe A.
Ma.k,Mr.judMrs.JmesL. Pierce, Mr. Julius E.
MacLareMr.andMra.Jack Porter, Mr. Wayn E.
Magaz, Mrs. Theresa Price, Ms. Judith
Malorn. Mrs. Katherina Quinton, Mr. and Mrs A.B.,
Manns, Dr.andMrs.Armold Jr.
Mark, Mr. Wayne Ray, Mr. Peter C.
MarcAkus, Capt. and Mrs. Reckfurd,Mr.andMrs.Phil-
Roy, MCU lip J.
Marshall, Mr.Trammell, Jr. Reese, Mr. John
Martincz-Cd, Ms. Recy Reid. Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Ma, M. Marilyn A. L., HI
Muaterso, Mr. and Mrs. Rcid,Dr.andMrs.WtlerB.
Parks Reilly. Mr. Phil
Mathcom Mr. Hardy Reilly, Mr. and Mrs Robert
Mathews, Mr. and Ms. J.P., Reynaldos, Mr. Miguel
HI Ridgely, Mr. Norman C.
*Matisaon. Ms. Eleanor E. Righctti, Dr. and Mrs. Tho-
McAliley, Ms. latt R. Inus
McCasloey, Mr. and Mrs. Roach. Mr. and M Patrick
Robert M.,Jr. Rblertsom,Dr.andMrs.E.G.
McCormick, Mr. and Mr. Rtarthal. Mr. and Mis.
Robert F. Shddma
McCrMary, Ma. JanE Rosaman,Mr.and Mrs. Stve
McKey, Dr. and Mrs. Robert F.
M., Jr. Rothblatt, Ma. Era A.
McMinn, Mr. John M. Rubin, Mr. and Mr. Hernan
Malin, Mr. and Mrs. David P.
Mrsh, Mr. and Mrs. Howard Rubin, Mr. Jack
A. Rummy. Mr. and Mrs. John
Meyer. Mr. and Mrs. Jack L. Saffir, Mr. aid Mrs. Hebert
Meyers, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Salmorr. Ms. Patricia
MichelsronMr.andMrs.Don Sandier. Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Miller, Mr. and Man.H. Dale liam W.,Jr.
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan
Schaefer, M. Norah K.
Scrhafr, Mr. Thomas E.
S chnkman. Mr. and Mrs. R.
Schoen, Mr. and Mrs. Marc
Schuh, Mr. and Mrs Robert
Schultz, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Schumacher, Mr. and Mrs.
Scwartz, Mr. and Mrs.
Scat, Ms. Friedar
Scott, Ms. Martha M.
Segat, Mr. and Mrs. David
Seipp, Mr., and Mrs, John C.,
Selig, Mr. and Mrs. J. R.
Scwdll, Mr. John W.
Shbayn, Ms. GCMic
Sheehan, Ms. line
Shelley, Mr. andMrs.Robert
Sherman, Mr. John S., Sr.
Shouse, Ms. Abbie H,
SigSl,Mr. andMrs.Mark A.
Silvermman, Mr. and Mrs.
Silvers, Mr. and Mrs. Brce
Silvester, Mr.andMr s. Larry
Simon, Mr. anid Mrs. Edwin
Smith. Mr. Dani E.
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Samutel
Smith, Mr. and Mrs, William
Soper, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Spalding, Mr. Gerald C
Sperling, Mr. Stephen M.
Stone, Ms. Jacquelyn C.
Stone, Ms. Lynda
Sullivan, M. Patricia A.
Sumrnrs, Ms. LynnM.
Sunssan, Mr. and Mrs. Le-
Sutton, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Swanson,Mr. andMrs. Mark
Swcccy,. Mrs. Edward C.
Taffr, Mr. Jack
Tanmer, Dr. and Mrs. Ben
Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Thrnompson, Mr. and Mrs.
Thorpe. Ms. Jean M.
Tiermy, Mrs. Joy
T'Slmuan, Mr. hands Mrs.
James B., Jr.
Trammnell, Mr. Marshall, Jr.
Troia. Mr. and
Mrs. Anthony P.
Tryson, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Turner, Mrs. Roberta H.
Tyson, Ms. Christiarc M.
Underwood, Dr. and Mrs.
Underwood, Mr. and Mrs.
Urtiaga, Ms. CarolineL.
Van Denend, Mr. and Mrs.
Van Orsdel, Mr. and Mrs.
Vaughan, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Venablc. Dr. Henry
Vcemay. Mr. Daniel
Villa, Dr. and Mr. Luis, Jr.
Weldberg, Mrs. Jean
Walfish, Mr. and Mr. Rich-
Ward. Mr. and Mn. Carl D.
Warner, Mr. and Mrs. Jon-
Warren. Dr. and Mrs. Rich-
Warshaw, Mr. and Mrs. Nat
Webb, Mr. andMrs. William
Weirnberger, Mr. and Mn,
Barren N., Esq.
Wciburg, Mr. and Mrs.
Wcienfeld, Mr. and Mrs.
Wemer, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Weatbrocik, Mrs. AJ.
Wettli, Mr. Charles V.
Wetmore. Mr. Andrew
White, Mr. andMrs. William
Wlliar, Mr. and Mrs, Wil-
Wilson. Mr. Daniel F.
*Wilsa Mrs. Pyton L.
Wimbish, Mr. andMrs. Pal
Wirkus, Mr. and Mrs. Le-
Witz, Mr. Joseph
Wolfson, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry
Wolfson, Ms. L
Wolfson, Ms. Lian
Worley, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Wright, Mr. and Mr. Jame
Zagray, Mr. and Mra. Law.
Zdon, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
List of Members 89
Abbott, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Aberman Mr. and Mrs.
AbeM, Mr. AllUa T. Jr.
Abrams, Mr. and Mn. Ken-
Adams, Mr. Andrew D., Jr.
Adler, Mr. and Mrs. Sarnuad
Admire. Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Aguilar, Ms. Sylvia
Aixala, Mr. and Mrs. Anpel
Ajamn, Mr. Lula
AHen, Ms. Paricia
Allen. Mr. and Mr. Ray
Allenson, Mr. and Mn. Her-
Alvaez, Mr. and Mrs. Le-
Alvo. Mr. andMrs. Ik
Aly, Mr andMr. Douglas B.
Anderson, Mr. and Mn.
Anderson, Mr. and Mn.
Andemn,Mr. nd Mrs.John
Anglin, Mr. Bmce
Anguish, Mr. and Mn. Don
Apgar, Mr. andMrs. Roar E.
Arboleya, Mr. Carlos J.
Arch, Mr. and Mrs. Ted
Archer, Mr. Edward M.
Anmsircng, Mr. John D.
Arndt, M. Jo-Ann
Aronmon, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Aringtoa, Ms. Viviana
Atlas, Mr. and Mrs. Alvin
Augereau. Mr. Paul J.
AuslandBr, Mr. and Mrs.
Avant, Mr. andMrs. John L.
Avertrook, Mr. and Mrs.
Aye, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Ayer, Mr. and Mrs. HJ., Jr.
Bacter, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Baer, Mr. and Mrs, Ken
BSisrnan, Mr. Oscar
Baler, Ms. Darlien H.
BaIt, Mrs. B. Hutchins
Ball, Mr. and Mrs. Chmrles
Baill, Mr. and Mr. Rod C.
Ballard, Mr.andMr. Robert
Banks, Cd. and Mrs. Rich-
Barber, Mr. and Mrs. Earl
Bare, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Barkin, Dr. and Mrs. Jamie Blan, Mr. and Mrs. Jos H.
Barko, Mr. and Mrs. PaulJ. Blanco, Mr. and Mrs. JoB Byrd.Mr.andMJlar-nesW.
BamhllMr.andMrs.Lesar M., Jr. Cahill, Mr. and Mrs, Lu-
R. Blaney.Mr.andMrs.PaulH. menceW.
Barr, Ms,. Carolyn Blema, mDr. ndMrs.WJ. Callarnder, Mr. and Mrs.
Barrand, Mr. and Mrs. Ha- Blus, Mr. and MrL. Ted R., Raplh M.
told Jr. Calvrt, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Barrn,, Mr. and Mrs. Grady Blumberg,Mr. andMrsPhil- liam P.
R. lipF. CambestMr.LynmM.
Barry, Mr. and Mr. David Bobes, Mr. and Mrs. Steven Camp,Dr.sndMre.Robcrt J.
Barry. Mrs. Marina E. Boagen, Mr. and Mrs. R.W. Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. C.
Basch, Mr. Gustavus ABton, Dr. and Mrs, John Robert
Bass, Dr.and Mrs. RobertT. Brad, Mr. and M Vernon Campbell, Mr. and Mrs.
Batman, Ms. Grace D. Edward J.
Baumel, Mr. and Mr. Ray BoundyMrs. H-clnM. Campbell,Mr. andMrs.John
Baurmgrtnmr, Mr. and Mrs. Bournt, Ms. Benits W.
Gary L. Bowen, Mrs. R. Camps, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
Bavly, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Boymr., Mr. Leonard R.
D. Brady, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel CannonDr.tndMrs.Stanicy
Baxter, Ms. Jo T. C.
Baya, Mr. George L, Esq. Brake, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Cantinc, Mr. Keith
Beck. Mr. andMra. Allei M M. Capu, Mr. andMrs.Richard
Becker, Mr. and Mrs. Char- Brent. Mr. William Carbone, Mrs. Grae C.
les B. Brartdey. Mr. mnd Mrs. Bill Carboncl. Mr. JR.
BecJar, Dr. and Mrs. Barl Barcher, Mr. John Carl, Mr. and Mrs. James
Beciham, Mr. Waller H., Jr. BreitMr. Charles, E. Carey. Ms. Ute
BHcls, Mr. Rubert Breamsr. Mr. Frederick Carlebach, Ms. Diane G.
Beer, Mr. and Mrs. Albert J. Bresalin, Mr. and Mrs. Join Carils, Mr. and Mrs. Art
Boglarian, Dr.andMrs.Grant Bridges, Mr.andMrs.Roger Carmichald, Dr. Cindy and
Bolley. Mr. Stanley A. A. Dr. Jed Sekoff
Baiaer,Dr. adMn.Seymmar Brodeur, Mr. and Mrs. G. Catrman, Mrs. Judy
7. Brian Carpet, Mr. and Mrs. A.K.
Bell, Mr. and Mn. Ros T. Brody. Mr. andMrs. Alan C. Crr, Mr. andMrs. AMarvin
Beandlr, Mr. and Mrs. Fred Brady, Mr. and Mrs. Jon Carnker. Mr. M r Jm
A. Broker, Mr. Douglas C. Carroll. Dr. and Mrs. Lau-
Bemnnet Mr. and Mrs. Art- Bronson. Mr. Daniel B. renm T.
drew L., Jr. Brooke, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Carter. Mr. andMrs. Bverly
BarettMr.andlMn.Robert M. R., III
W. Brookner, Mr. and Mrs. Caruso, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Benowitz, Mr. H. Allen Les6r L lesA.
Bemnsa,Mr.andMr.EHdwin Brooks, Mr. and Mn. Ed- CaryMr.andMrs.RobertC.
I.M. ward M. Casini, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Berard,Mr.aldMrs. JulioF. Brooks. Ms. Jill les
Berg, Mr. and Mrs. Randall Brooks, Mr. and Mrs. JR. Cast, Mr. andMrs.RnobertR.
C.,jr. Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Ca mro,Mr.andMr.Manuel
Barger, Mr. and Mrs.'A. BradfmrdB. Catasus, Mrs. Graucila C.
Bems, Mr. Neil D. BrowMrdM Hvy C de, Mr. and Mrs. Mark
Berouriaky,Mr.andMrs.Ted Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Jarxns ChnitMr. ndMrs. IrvingH.
Berrmin, Mr. and Mr. Ray K. Chamberlain, Mr. and Mrs.
BDcnrr, Mr. and Mrs. Jer- Browsn Mr. and Mrs. Roger T.
0m1 Brown, Mr, and Mr. Ronald Chamuss, Ms. Patricia
Beveridge,Mr. andMrs.J.A. B. Chandler, Dr. and Mrs. J.R
Boyer, Dr. and Mrs. Robert Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Wil- Chang. Mr. and Mrs. Franci
H. liam Chaplin, Mr. Lee
Biplow, Mr. and Mrs. John Browmll, Mr. aid Mrs. E.R. Chapoan, Mr. and Mrs.
HI. Brumrnugh, Mr. and Mr. Arthur B.
Bimnkrd, Mr. Edward John M. Chase,. Mr. Ronald
Birk, Mr. mad Mrs. Richard Buchbinder, Mr. and Mrs. Chastain, Mr. and Mrs. R-B.
T. Mark Chavin, Mr. Robert H.
Birmingham, Mr. nd Mrs. Buhlr,Mr. andMrs. Jean. Chester,Mr.andMrs.Robern
Eugene BuHrmaseu, Mr. and Mrs, A.
Biver, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin NaRman lownringMr. andMrs.John
LI= Burgin, Mr. and Mr&. James S.
Bjodman, Mr.Willanm A. Christlrnn. Mr. and Mrs.
BlKackrdMr.andMrs.David Burke, Mr. ad Mrs. Gordon Howard
M. Burke, Ms. Mary E. ChristoperMr.andMrs.JJ.
Blackburn. Mr. and Mn. Button. Mr. and Mrs. Le- Churvh,Mr. andMnr. David
ElmarB. Land, Jr. Ciere sku, Mr. and Mrs. L.
Blaik, Mr. and Mrs. Tim *Burton, Col. and Mrs. Stanley
Blarek, Mr. and Mrs, BOr- Robert A., Jr. Cleslinski, Mr. and Mrs.
nard G. Buder, Mr. rnd Mrs. Drn d Henry E.
Mark, Mr. and Mo. D. M.,
Clark. Ms. Lydia S.
Clark. Mr. and Mrs. Sidney
Clarke, Mr. nd Mrs. Ronald
Clayton, Mr. and Mrs. C. G.
Cleary, Mr. and Mrs. Timno-
Clermnts. Mr. Joey
Cleveland, Mr. and Mn.
Cinm, Mr. Stephen
Codina, Mr. Annando
Coffey. Mr. and Mrs D.W.
Cogswel. Mr.ind Mrs. T.J.
Cohen, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley
Cohen, Mr. and Mrn. Victor
Cole, Mr. and Mrs. Philip
Colsky, Dr. hIm
Congdon, MN. Diane M.
Conley, Dr. and Mrs. Janes
Connor, Mr. and Mrs.
Canor, Dr. and Mrs. Mor-
Calte, Mr. sndMrs. Alexan-
Cook, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Cool, Mr. md Mnr. Stephen
Cooney, Mr. and Mrs. Tlso-
Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Marc
Cooper, Ms. Wendy K.
Coords. Mr. Robert IH.L
Carbitt, Mr. and Mrs. Ver-
Cosgrove, Rep. John
Coverman, Mr. and Mrn.
Cowan, Ms. Lois
Cowling, Mr. and Mrs. John
Ca, Mr. WilliamsL.
Cuolism, Mr. and Mn. An-
Cuoins, Ma. Susan and Mr.
Curan, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Curtis. Mr. and Mrs. DeVerc
Daibny, Mr. and M Char-
Daniel, Mr. and Mnr. B.
Daniels, Mr. and Mrs. Albert
Daughtry, Mr. and Mn.
Davenport, Mr. and Mrs. E.
Davis. Mg. Bobbie A.
Davis, Ms. Maria L,
Davis, Mr. Sam A.. U
Day, Mr. and Mrs. Carl B.
Day. M. and Mr. Joel B.
de Garmn, Mr. and Mn.
de OrootMa. Amika
De Tchon, Mr. and Mn.
DeAgnero, Mr. and Mrs.
Dccker, Mr. andMn. Robert
DeKornchin, Mr. and Mn.
Dendy, Dr. Jack and Mrsn.
Je11a P. Good
Dentin, Mr. and Mn. R. P.
Desea, Mr. andMn. Dora
Deutsch, Mr. Hunting
Diaz. Mr. mnd Mr. Eduardo
Diaz, Mr. and Mr. Odilioi
Dickey, Dr. Robert P.
Didomenico, Mr. and Mrsn.
Dichl, Mr. and Mn. Rontld
Ditrichwis Mr. and Mn.
Dillcs, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Disan, Ma. Charlotte
Dlugasch, Mr. Philip
Dombro, Mr. and Mrs. Roy
Dominguez, Mr. and Mrs
Donnelly, Mr. and Mrs. J. F.
Dor, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Dorsey, Mr. Michal
Doa, Mr. and Mrs. Williamn
Douchs, Mr. andrsMn.Roger
Doiughety, Mr. and Mrs.
Dougherty, Mr. and Mrsn.
Doyle, Mr. and Mr. Janus
Drake, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Dresner, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Dubbin, Mr. and Mrs. Mur-
Dubitsky. Mr. and Mnrs. Ira
Degas, Mrs. Faye
DOma, Mr. Ernest
Duanm, Mr. and Mnr OtiSB.
Dunbar, Mr. Ron
Duncan, Mr. Edward
Dunlap, Mr. andMn. Robert
Dram. Mr. ad Mrs. D.
Dunn, Mr. and Mrs. R. T.
Dyer, Mr. and Mrs. D idF.
Egacn, Mr. and Mrsn, Lrmae
Eakim, Mr. William J.
Eason, Mr. and Mrs. Veron
Eastwood. Ms. Valerie
Eck, Mr. xnd Mn. Gunonr
Edelson, Mr. and Mrs Ed
Edwards. Mr. and Mrs.
Egart, Mr. and Mr. Chris-
Eggleston. Ms. Jeanmtte M.
Eideniie, Mr. and Mrs. Todd
Bilertsmn, Mr. Kjell
Einspruch, Mr. and Mrs.
Elsasser, Ms. Ruth B.
Emrnrsa, Dr. and Mrs. Rich-
England, Mr. aid Mrs.
Eunternn, Mr. and Mn.
Erikson, Mr. and Mrs Henry
Eatevea, Mr. and Mrs. Rbert
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Evas, Ms. GrCeta
Evans, Mr. andMrs. Herbert,
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. Janes
Ewanus, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Eymta, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
PaFile, Mr. and Mn. Gordon
Fatell, Mr. ad Mrs. John S.
Farrny, Mr. P. X., Sr.
Fascell, Rep. and Mrs. Dante
Feing ld, Dr. and Mrn. Jet-
Pels. Mr. and Mrs. Leonard
Falscr, Ms. Fran
Fennel, Mr. and Mr. Tho-
marn A., Jr.
Fergsnn, Mr. and Mrs.John
Perandez, Mr. andMrs. Ben
Fernandez, Mr. and Mrs.
Ferrer, Mr. and Mrs. Jorge
Fncr, Mr. amd Mrs. Jose .
Pine, Dr. Ellen
Fnee, Mr. and Mr. Martin
Finkelsaiin, Mr. and Mrs.
Pinlay, Mr. and Mr. Jarmes
Fiehbrnm, Ms. Gege
Fischer, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Fisher, Mr. Al
Fisher, Mr. ail Mrs. Dennis
Fitzgerld, Mr. and Mrs. W.
Flattery, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Fleming, Mr. and Mn, Harry
FIleining Mr. and Mnr. Jo-
Flick, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Flinm, Mr. and Mrs. Tom
Flipe, Mr. and Mrs. Doan
Flore, Mr. Leopold
Faog, Mr. Michael C.
Foote, Mis Elizabeth
Ford, Ms. Shirley
Forecki, Mr. arnd Mrs. Ken-
Forthman, Mr. and Mrs.
Poster, Mr. and Mrs. David
Fo, Mr. and Mr. Spencer
Foyc, M. Nancy R.
Frags. Mr. Raman J.
Frankel, Mo. Blossom K.
FPrrikl, Ms. Linda
Frankel, Mr. andMrs.Melvin
Panynd, Mr. Paul
Fra er, Mr. and Mrs. Fred J.
Free, Ms. Mary
Freedline, Dr. and Mrs.
Freedman, Mr. and Mrs.
Frecman, Mr. and Mrs.
Fceman. Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Freidin, Mr. ad Mrs. Philip
FPeistat, Mr. and Mrs. Scott
PFeund, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Priberg, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Friedr n, Mr. and Mrs.
Froat,Mr. and Mrs.Raymnd
Fram, Mr. amd Mrs. David
Funk.Mr.andMrs. Arrhur L.
Gach, Ms. Laurie
Gaiter, Mrs. Dorothy
Gale, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Gallagher, Mrs. Alice C.
Gallagher, Mr. A.
altoa, Mr. andMrs. Jarge
Galtogly. Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Gannon, Mr. and Mrs.
Garcia, Mrs Joyce V.
Garcia, Ms. Maria EB.
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs.
OGardnr, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-
GardnEr,Mr. adMn. Robert
List of Members 91
Gardner, Mr. and Mrs. Scy-
Garvett, Mr. and Mrs. Peter
Gaub, Dr. Margart L.
Gault, Mr. and Mnrs. A. K.
Gautier, Mr. and Ms. Larry
Gelber, Ms. Laura
Geller, Dr. andMnrs.Edmund
Gent, Mr. ad Mn. Patrick
Gentile, Mr. and Msn. Joe
Orntry, Mr. Hugh E.
Geyer. Mr. md Mrs. Runell
Giegel.,Mr. and Mrs. Joaseph
Gill. Ms. Jeanne B.
Giller. Mr. and Mn. Norman
Gilmore, Mr. and Mrs. John
Ginsburg, Mr. and Mrs.
Gjebre, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Gladstone. Mr. Johnm
Gladstone, Honorable and
Mrs. William E.
Gladwin, Mr. Hugh
Glass. Mr. James T.
Glasser, Mr. and Mrs.
Glatstcin, Dr. and Mrs. Phil
Glucksmnan, Dr. and Mr.
Glukatad, Mr. and Mrs, Sig
Goeser, Mr. and MnrRobert
Goldberg. Mr. and Mrs.
Goldman, Mr. arid Mrsn.
Goldman, Ms. Sue S.
Goldson, Mr. and Mrs.
GOldatein, Mr. Albert M.
Goldstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldstein, Mr. and Mrs.
Goldwcbwr, Mr. and Mrs.
Gonzalez Mr. and Mrs,
GonzalczMr. andMrs. JotI
Goa-zlez, Mr. and Mrsn.
Gonzalez, Mr. and Mrs.
Gooden, Mr. and Mrs. B. P.,
Goodwin, Mr. and Mrs. C.
Goracako, Mr. and Mrs.
Gordon, Dr. and Mn. Mark
Gordon, Mr. and Mrs. Rnd
Govrsn, Dr. and Mrs. David
Gort, Mr. and Mrs. Willy
Grabicl. Mr. sar Mrs. Julia
Grable, Mr. and Mrs. Hogan
Grad, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Graham, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Grant, Mr, andMrs.LslieL.
Graul, Mr. and Mrs, David
Gray, Mr. and Mrs. Jamrn
Gray, Mr. James
Gray, Mr. and Ms. Maurice
GreenbCrg, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenfield., Mr. and Mnr.
Grucrfield, Mr. and Mrsn.
Grcrdfidd, Mr. and Mrs.
Greenfield, Dr. David
Greenhouse, Mr. and Mn.
Greenwood, Mr. and Mn.
Greer, Dr. and Mrs. PEdr J.,
Gregaisch, Mr. Normando
Gregory,Mr ,adMrs .J ame
Griffin, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald
Griffith, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Gril, Ma Joanne
Grimm, Rev. mdMrs.Robb
Grodson, Mr. and Mrs. An-
Grmc. ,Mr. andMrs. LslicJ.
Grorsahard, Msi. Judy
Grosmsan, Mr. Robert
Grunwell, Mr. and Mrs.
Guilfoyle, Mr. Thomas D.
Gwyton, Dr. and Mrs. Tho-
Guzman, Mr. Carlos F.
Half, Mr. and Mrs. TbLo-
Hades, Mr. Martin S.
Hagermann,. Mr. Gary
Hahn, Mr. and Mrs. JackDO.
Hall, Mr. andMr. M. Lewis,
Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Manroe
Hambright, Mr. Thofna L.
Hammoind, Dr. Jeffrey
Ha, Dr. ad Mrsa. Gregory
HaInafourde, Ms. Lucy H.
Hadlor, Mr. and Mrs. Leon
Hamn, Mr. and Mrn. Robert
Hano, Mr. andMrs.CarlT.
Hamn, Mr. and Mrs. Chris-
Hardy. Mr. H. Lawrnce, P.
Hadlee, Mr. Join W., Jr.
Harper, Mr. George R.
Harrirt, Mr. and Mrs. Albert Howard. Dr. and Mrs. Paul
L. Howell, Mr. and Mn. Ro-
Harris. Mr. Robert land M.
Harrison, Mr. ad Mrs. A.D. Howl, Mrs. Martha L.
Harrison, Mr. and Mrn. M. Huber, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph
R., Jr. P.
Hart, Mr. and Mrs. Ray L Hudnall, Mrs. Helen B.
Hart-an,Mr.andMrs.Robin Hudsos, Ms. Shrrrill W.
W. Huff, Mr. Robert
Hartwell.Mr.andMrs.aimes Humkey.Mr. andMr.JooE.
H. Hundevadt, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Hartz, Mr. md Mr. C. M. C.
Hastings, Mr. Barry G. Hunke, Mr. and Mrs. Dane
Hatfield, Mr. and Mrs. Ml- Hunter, Mr. Robert
ton H. Hurnt, Ms. Peggy
Hathbon, Mr. Donald B. Hurwitz, Ms. Marilyn
Havernick, Mr. and Mrs. Frd Hush, Dr. and Ms. Jubran A.
Heckorling. Mr. ed Mrs. Hutchinson, Mr. and Mrs,.
Dale A. Robert J.
Hcsb, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Humanon Dr. and Mrs. James
Hiller. Mr. and Mrs. David Hynes, Ms. Orristine
A. Hynes, Mr. and Mrs. Ken-
Hdlms Mr. and Mn. David north
Helwaick, Mr. tand Mrs. Infante, Mr. and Mrs. Jons
Charles R. hn, Mr. and Mrs. Leo
Henderson, Mr. and Mr. Islcoff, Mr. and Mrs. Steven
Thromia T. JackscMr.ndMr.Preder-
Herdinski, Mr. ad Mrs. ickC.
Edward J. Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. Kril
Henry, Mr. Buddy M.
Henry Mr. andMrs.Edmund Jackis, Mr.aadMrs.Robert
T.. HI M.
Henry, Mr. ad Mrs. Wil- Jacobs. Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Hernandicz Mr. and Mrs. JacobscMr.andMrs.T.M.
Miguel Jacobson, Dr. and Mn.
Hrsh,. Mr. Barry Jacobson, Dr. and Mrs. Jed
H-eser, Mr. md Mrs. W. JacobsoaMr.andMnr.Larry
Warfired Jacoby, Mr. Charles
Hinrcey,Mr.andMrx.Jas;s Jacowita, Mr, and Mrs.
Hinckley. Mr. and Mrs. Jaffe, Ms. Lah S.
Grgg R, Jtffor, Mr. and Mr. Harold
Hinds, Mr. mad Mrs. James Jans. Dr. and Mnr. Edward
Hinds,Mr.andMrs.L.F.,Jr. Jamis, Mr. and Mrs. James
Hirschl. Dr. and Mrs Andy R.
Hobbs, Mr. and Mn. Jatms Jines, Mr. md Mrs. Ralph
C., II M. I
Hoder-Salmon,Ms.Marilyn. Jffint, Mr. and Mrs. Jaes
Hods, Mr. and Mrs. Jack Jenkins, Mr. and Mr. Den-
Hoeffel, Mrs. Krnmcth M. nir
HoMle, Mr. Thormlon Jenkins, Mr. Frsnk
Hoepier, Mr. Throdore J. Jrnsen, Mr. and Mrs. John
Holcamb. Mr. and Mrs. Lyle Janein. Mr. and Mr. Robert
D., Jr. J.
Holland, Mr. mad Mrs. Jhn Johns. Mr. nri Mrs. Lyle
Holloway, Mr. David Johnson, Mr. and Mn. Wal-
Holsenbeck. Mrs. J. M. Icn A.
Holzmran, Mr. and M. F. Johmston, Ms. Suzarai B.
D. JCes, Mr, and Mrs. Bardy
Hooper, Mr. and Mrs, Lma- Joneu, Mr. and Mr. Daniel
Hopkins, Mr. Carter W. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Darrell
Horwich Harry B.
Horzitz, Mr. David Jones, Mrs. Dimar C.
Hosteler, Mr. and Mrs. Jant. Mr. and Mrs. D, Dar-
Thomanas K. l
Hoghtl, Mr. Peter Jarcs,Mr. and Mrs.ErnstP.
Horihman, Mr. md Mrs. Jo- Joanc.Mr.andMrs.FrankE.
eph B. Jordn, Mr. and Mrs. Jan
laoph, Mr. and Mrs. TH-
Jstmiamni, Dr. and Mrs. NFed
Kain, Mr. Francs T.
Kalback, Mr. and Mrs. Irv-
Kambour, Dr. and Mrs. Mi-
Kane, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Kanold, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Kantr. Mr. and Mrs. Stma
Kaplan. Mr. and Mrs. Law-
Karl, Dr. and Mrs. Robert IH.
Kai.s,Mr. and Mrs. Johnm..,
Kabtir, Mr. and Mrs. Shiano
Katz, Mr. and Mr.. Hy
Katzker, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Kaufman, Mr. and Mrs.
Keefe, Dr. and Mrs. Paul H.
Keeley, Mr. Brian
Keep, Mr. mand Mrs. Oscar J.
Keller, Mr. Walter
Kendall. Mr. Harold E.
Kemnebeck, Mr. and Mrs.
Kennedy, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Kennon, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
les L, Jr.
Kenny, Mr. Matthew A.
Kenyon, Mr. and Mrs. Nor-
Kern, Ms. Carolyn M.
Kerr, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver
Kasslcr, Mr. and Mrs. Ha-
Kousch. Dr. and Mrs. Ken-
Keye, Mr. and Mnr. Charles
Kcycs. Mr. andMrs. Gary
Kian, Mr. and Mrs. Stanley
Kilpatrick, Mr. Charge W.
Kincer, Mayor and Mrs. M.
Kipnis.Mr. andMrs. Jorenm
Kirkland. Mr. Gcrgc D.
Kirschrer, Mr. and Mrs.
Klausncr, Mr. and Mrs.
Klein, Mr. and Mrs. Gene
Klein. Mr. and Mrs. Haris
KIuthb. ,M.and Mrs. Harold
Knight, Ms. Karen
Knotts, Mr. and Mn. Tom
Kolber, Mr. and Mrs. Clif-
Kolski, Mrs. Patricia M
Konopk, Mr. and Mrs. Joe
Koper, Mr. and Mr. Theo-
Korach, Mr. and Mrs. Irvin
Kotler, Mr. and Mr. Meyer
Kovach. Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Koryak, Mr. and Mr. John
Knlow, Mr. David
Knus. Mrs. Sally P.
Kieis, Mr. and Mrs. Fritz H.
Kieutozr, Mr. amdMr. Frmn
Krg Mr. and Mrs. WMrren
Kukic, Mr. and Mrs. Toma
Kaper, Mr. and Mrs. Jack
Kursead, Mr. and Mrs. Ted
Laffocn, Mr. and Mrs. Polk
Lair, Mr. and Mrs. David E.
Laird, Mr. and Mrs. Plter
Lake, Mr. Jolhn
Lamb. Mr. and Mrs. Ed
Lanca r, Ms. Drnam A.
Lantaff, Mr. Court
Largay, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Larkin, Mr. Paul
LaRusse, Mr. andMrs.Law-
La., Mr. and Mrs. Luis R.
Latour, Mr. and Mrs. Trny
Lawrence, Mr. ard Mrs.
Lazaridis, Mr. and Mrs.
Lazatms,Mr.and M. PFrank
Lazarms, Ms. IPrlJ
LIo, Mr. ndMr. RowellEB.
LIftwich, Mr. and Mrs.
Lehman, Mr.Doights K.
L.hnbmn, Ms. Jia
Leibe, Mrs. Berm
Larnemc, Mrs. Marnia
Leonard, Mr. and Mm. Mi-
Leposky. Mr. and Mn.
Ister, Mr. and Ms. Paul
Levin, Dr. and Mrs Herbert
Levim, Dr. Harold
Lewis, Mr. mnd Mrs. Marvin
Lewis, Dr. and Mrs. Sylvan
Lex, Mrs. Debra
Limi, Mrs. Margaret
Lichtenfeld, Mr. and Mn.
Liebmun, Dr. and Mrs. Nor-
Liedeker, Mrs. Jtaret
Lindsey,Mr. ardMrs. Guion
Lipoff, Mr. id Mrs. Nor-
Lipp, Mr. and Mrs. Allan
Little, Mr. DWayne
Little. Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Livonay, Mr. and Mrs. Leigh
Livingston, Mr. Grant
Livings one, Mr. Don R.
Lean, Mr. d Mrs. Thomanas
Lodge, Ms. Patricia
Logue, Mr. and Mrs. Tom
Lombana, Mr. and Mrs.
Lombardo, Mr. Tony
Lo nansoff, Mr. and Mrs.
London, Ms. Marilyn
Longbein, Mr. nd MrsBvan
Lopez, Mr. and Mrs. Carloa
Lopez, Mr. and Mr. Joae
Lorr Dr. aid Mrs. Ray
Lorazo, Mr. and Mrs.Man-
Laos, Dr. and Mrs. Edward
Loth Mr. and Mrs. Stan
Lowe, Mr. Rogpr
Lowell., Mr. andMrs.Robert
Lubin, Dr. Jack
Ladwig, Dr. and Mrs. Wa-
Luker, Mr. and Mrs. Robin
Loa n, Mrs. Stephen C.
Lyoa, Mr. indMrs. Richrd
MacDowell. Mr. David M.
Mack, Mr. ardMr. Stephen
MacNarghton, Mr. Kevin A.
Madden, Mr. James
Magidson, Mr. and Mr.
Megocnick, Ms. Rena
Mainzgot, Dr. and Mr. An-
Maiscl. Mr. Allan
Malinin Mr. MndMr. Theo-
Mialoy, Mr. and Mrs. Rich-
Mandulcy, Mr. Rafael
Manfiedi,Mr. and Mr.Mare
Mank, Mr. dMrs.PhilipJ..
Mann, Dr. and Mrs. Eugene
Mnnion, Mr. JanT.
Manahip, Mr. and Mrs. E. K.
Mantos, Mr. andMr. Dirmi-
Marchman, Mr. RayB.
Marcos, Mr. and Mrs. Anto-
Marcus, Mr. and Mr. Jerry
Mrls, Dr. andMrs. Clifford
Marks, Mr. and Mrs. Jo-l
Marks, Ms. Sharon
Marmnsh, Dr. ad Mrs, Mi-
Maroti, Mr. and Mrs. Jainu
Marshall, Ms. Dawn
Martell.Mr. and Mrs. James
Martin. Mr. and Mrs. Frank
MrtiWnez,Mr. ad Mrs. Fran-
Martnez-Ramce, Mr. and
Mastemron, Mrs. Nancy S.
Mathcson. Mr. and Mrs.
Mathias. Mr. G. Dodson
MattUck. Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Maxwell. Mr. and Mrs.
Maxwell, Mr. and Mr. Mi-
Maxwell, Mr. ThomM C.
Mayo, Mr. and Mrs. John A.
McAuliffe, Mr. and Mrs.
Thomnas F., III
McCornickMr. and Mrs. C.
McCorqruodalc.Mr. and Mrs.
McCready. Dr. Jamrns W.
McDariml,Mr. andMrs. Scott
McDowell, Mr. C. R.
McEnany, Mr. and Mrs.
McGilvray, Mr. and Mrs.
McGovern, Mr. and Mrs.
McGuinness, Mr. and Mrs.
McGuinress, Mr. and Mrs.
McHlugh. Ms. cGraldim
Mclver, Mr. and Mr. Stuart
McKcnzic. Dr. andMrs.Jack
McKinley. Mr. and Mn.
McKirahan, Mr. Jauns
McNaughton, Dr. and Mrs.
McQual. Mr. and Mrs. Jack
McSwiggan, Mr. Gerald W.
McTague, Mr. and Mrs. R.
Means, Dr. and Mrs. Wil-
Megoc, Mr. and Mrs. B. L.
Meginley, Mr. and Mrs.Don
Menachem, Mr. Neal J.
Mendlctohn, Mr. Mc
Mendoza, Mrs. Enid D.
Messing. Mr. Fred
Metcalf, Dr. George
Metcalf, Dr. Elizabeth
Metka, Mr. Joseph A., Jr.
Mijarce, Mr. and Mrs. An-
List of Members 93
Millard, Dr. and Mrs. Max
Mills, Mr. and Mrs. Aris-
Miller, Mr. anmd Mrs. Alfred
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Edward
Miller, Mr,and Mrs. Graham
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. H. B.
Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Millott, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel
Mitzol, Ms. Sandra
Mason, Mr. Larry
Miarech, Mr. Larry
Mocller, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd
Mceller, Mr. William
Monkm, Dr. EllenF.
Monroe, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
liam F.. Jr.
Monsato, Judge and Mrs.
Montano, Mr. and Mrs.
Monteagudo. Mr. and Mrs.
Moody. Mr. Allcta M.
Moore, Mr. andMrs. Donald
Morales,. Mr. and Mrs. San-
Moemnan, Ms. Lacinda A.
Morgan, Ms. Nancy
Morint, Mr. and Mrs. Emrnest
Morris, Mr. AllenL.
Morris, Mr. Allen W.
Morris, Mr. and Mrs. Melvin
Morrison, Ms. Beth
Morrison, Mr. and Mrs.
Moss, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Moas. Mr. Alfred I.
Moss, Mr. and Mrs, Ambler
Mor, Mr. and Mrs. Lyman
Moss, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Muir. Mr. and Mrs. William
Mulcahy, Mrs. Iren D.
Muller, Mr. and Mrs. Ken-
Muncey. Mr. and Mrs. John
Munroe, Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Murai, Mr. and Mrs. Rcem
Murphy, Mr. Edward W.
Murphy, Mr. andMrs. Roger
Murphy, Mr. and Mrs. Tho-
Murray,Mr. and Mrs. O.C.
Murrell, Mr. and Mrs. John
Mustrd, Misses Margaret
Myers,Mr. and Mrs. Stanley
Myers, Mr. Van
Myscich, Mr. Edward
Nagel, Mr. andMrs. raigJ.
Nagy, Mrs. Shirley L
Narnunur, Mr. and Mrs.
Nance, Mr. and Mrs. G.
Napoli, Mr. and Mn. Donm-
Naro, Mr. and Mrs. James
Nathealao, Mr. and Mrs.
Navarro, Mr. and Mrs. Edn-
Nerney, Mr. and Mrs. Denis
Newman, Mr. PiFred C,
Nichas. Mr. D. Alan A.
Nichols, Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Niejadlik, Dr. ard Mrs. Ken-
Nidlan, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph
Nisbet. Mr. Michael M.
Nobles, Mr. and Mra. Jaues
Nordt, Mr. md Mrs. John C.
Norman, Mr. C.C., Jr.
Norman, Mr. and Mrs. Col-
Norton, Mr. and Mrs. Henry
Nostro, Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Novack. Mr. and Mrs. Ben
Nuckols, Mr. and Mrs. BNP.,
Nuehring. Mr. and Mrs.
O'Brien, Mrs. Nornn P.
O'Donnell, Mr. and Mrs.
O'Malley, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
O0Neil, Mr. Sandy
Ohashi, Mr. and Mrs.
Sister, Mr. a l Mrs. W.P.,
Okcll. Mr. and Mrs. Jobym
Olson, Mr. Fred R.
Oncpricrko, Mr. and M ,r
Oppenhnimer, Mr. and Mrs.
Omreland, Mr. and Mrs.
Oroahnik, Mr. and Mrs.
Ortiz, Mr. Ramiro
Otto, Mr. and Mr. Thomas,
Ovfbectk, Mr. and Mrs.
Owen, Mr. and Mrs. James
Owens, Mr. and Mrs. inab
Packler, M., Batty 0.
Page, Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Pakula, Mr. and Mrs. Amold
Palmer, Mr. and Mrs. Carl
Paitpc, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
Papper, Mr. and Mr. Em-
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Austin
Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Garth
Parker, Mr. and Mrs Joseph
Parsons, Mr. and Mrs. Van
Paul, Mr. Robert
Paulk, Mr. Jule
Pavlow, Ms. Shara T.
Pawley, Ms. Anita
Paxton, Dr. and Mrs. G.B.,
Payne, Mr. and Mrs, WE,.
Peacock, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Pearc, Dr. F.H.
Plddle, Mr. anid Mrs. Gram
Pedrajo, Mr. andMrs. Dario
Pelta, Mr. R.
Peanekamp, Mr. John D.
Pergakis, Mr. and Mrs. Paul
Perry, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Parnc, Mr. and Mrs. E.A.
Parse, Mr. and Mrs. Michael
Perwin, Mrs. Jean
Peters, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry L.
Peters. Mrs.Rita W.
Pctcrson, Mr. and Mrs.
Pantry, Mr. and Mrs Roder-
Patricone, Mr. and Mrs.
Pettigrew, Mr. and Mrs.
Phillips, Mr. and Mrs. Hleary
Phillips, Mrs. Kathleen
Philotas, Mr. and Mrs.
Piccini, Mr. and Mrs. Silvo
Pietsch,Mr. and Mrs. Geoff
Pinmm, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon
Pirnas, Ms. Susan
Pistormno, Mr. and Mrs. John
Pins, Mr. and Mrs. Victor H.
Plechaty, Mr. William
Plotkin, Mr. and Mr. Robert
Pollack. Mr. and Mrs. David
Pollard, Mr. and Mrs. Mur-
Pooley, Mr. and Mrs. Ed C.
PoL dri, Mr. and Mrs. Austin
Porta, Mr. John E.
Poses, Mr. atd Mrs. Mark
Pot, Mr. and Mrs. Budd
Power, Ms. Shirley
Prentiss, Mr. and Mrs. Wen-
Price, Mrs. Drrahy M.
Price, Mr. Lee
Price, Mr. and Mrs. Miles
Primak, Mr. andMrs. Arthur
Prio-Odio, Mrs. Maria A.
Prohias,, Mr. Tony
Prospero, Dr. and Mrs. Jo-
Provenzo, Dr. and Mrs. Eu-
Pruitt, Mr. Peter T.
Pup., Mr. and Mrs. J. David
Pullen, Ms. Judith
Quackenbush, Mr. and Mrs.
Quartin, Mr. and Mrs. Her-
Qucnrel, Mr. Albert D.
Quc snberry, Mr. and Mrs.
William F., Jr.
Quillian, Dr. Warren, II
Rabi, M., Shria
Rabii, Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
Rad. Mr. and Mrs. Jesus S.
Railuy, Mr. and Mrs. Con-
Raim, Mr. and Mrs. Jerrome
Rain y, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Ramirez, Dr. and Mrs. Sal-
Ramsey, Mrs. Manuela M.
Randolph, Mr. and Mrs.
Rapaport. Mr. Leonard
Rapee. Mr. and Mrs. Sntatr
Rapperport, Dr. and Mrs.
Rapport, Mr. Stephen R.
Rauzin, Mr. and Mrs. Alan
Reddick, Mr. David
Reed, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas
Reid, Mrs. Janet E.
Reimuan, Mrs. Gtil
Reubert. Mr. and Mrs. Jay F.
Reyn. Dr. L.T.
Rhodes, Dr. andMrs. Milton
Rise, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph E.
Ricrhier, Mr. atid Mrs. Char-
Ridolph, Mr. and Mrs. Ed-
Rider.Mrs. William D.
Ricmri, Dr. and Mrs. WE.
Riers-Gomez, Mr. R.R.
Ries, Mrs. Marie S.
Riands, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos
Riat, Mr. and Mrs. Katraw
Robbins Mr. and Mrs. Wil-
liam R., Jr.
Roberton, Mr. ad Mrs.Neil
Robin, Dr. and Mrs. Rich-
Robinson, Mr. Stephen D.
Roca, Mr. and Mrs. Pedro L
Rodgrigaua, Mr. and Mrs
Rodrignez, Mr. Angel
Rodriguez, M. Caocepcimon
Rodriguez. M. Lydia
Rodriguez-Maro, Mr. md
Rogge, Mr. and Mrs. Jim
Rojas, Mr. and Mr. BE bma
Root, Mr. and Mrs. Keith
Rosen, Mr. and Mrs. Britt J.
Rosan, Mr. and Mo. Nor-
Ro n, Mr. Paul
Romsebcrg, Dr. and Mrs*
Rosenberg, Mr. and Mrs.
Rosenblatt, Mrs. Benaad
Rosenbluth, Ma. Josmnm
Rosendorf, Mr. and Mrs.
Reinek, Mr. and Mrs. Jc-
Rss. Ms. Rene M.
Rosamosc, Mr. Allan R.
Roth. Mr. Buarntt
Rothman, Mr. andMr. Maux
Rubie, Dr. and Mrs. Richrd
Rubin, Mr. and Mrs 5id
Rubinson, Dr. and Mrs.
Ruffmrc, Mr. CIarles L.
Ruiz, Mr. Rem
Rumble, Mr. and Mrs. John
Ryskamp, Judge ad Mrs.
Sacher. Mr. and Mrs. Char-
Sadowki,Mr.and Mr. Bill
Sagtr, Mr. and Mrs. Benr
Sager, Mr. and Mrs. Losan
Stin. Mrs. Doha
SakhDmsky. Mr. nad Mrs.
Sales. Mr. Jerry
Sally. Mr. and M. George
Same, Mr. and Mrs. David
Sampicri, Ms. Deborah
Sabris, Mrs. Idclla
Satnberg, Mr. and Mrs. Bur-
Santarila, Mr. and Mrs lo-
Sapp. Mr. and Mrs. Stephen
Satbey, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Sauloff, Mr. andMrs. lash
Sauri. M. Sofic
Savard, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur
Schadrli, Mr. Howard R.
Schaub, Ms. Louisc
Schechtman, Ms. Ricky W.
Schemel, Mrs. Karben
Schenker, Capt. and Mrs.
Schifl, Dr. and Mrs. Willim
Schnmnd, Mr. and Mrs.
Schmidt, Mr. and Mrs Eric
Scoen, Mr. andMrs.RoyE.
School, Mr. and Mrs. Bill
Scrhonmalcr, Mr. and Mrs.
Schdmibr, Mr. and Mrs. Sol
Schroeder, Mr. EdnaM.
Schmlt. Mr. Thomms J.
Schultz, Mr. and Mrs. Ed-
Schwartz, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Schwartz, Mrs. Jay R.
Schwartz. Mr. ad Mrs. Sol
Schwedel. Mr. and Mrs.
Scoggs, Mr. and Mr. Barry
Seal. Mr. andMrs. Scott
Segor, M. Phbylli L
Seibert. Mr. and Mrs. Roy J.
Scidrmmn, Mr. and Mrs.
Senias, Ms. MUargarIta H.
Seltzer, Mr. md Mrs. AJF.
Sctvaggi, Mr. and Mrs. Al-
Shack,Mr. ndMrs. Richard
Shafer, Mr. and Mrs. Ron C.
Shapiro, Dr. scd Mrs. Alvin
Shapiro, Mr. and Mrs. J.H.
Slhw, Mr. and M. Robert
Shlaley, Mr. and Mrs. Wal-
Shtlc, Mr. adMrs. Phillip
Shepard, Mr. ad Mrsn.
Slhni ML. Joanm B.
Shares, Mr. and Mrs. Ed-
Shay. Mr. and Mrs. Leo
Shile, Dr. andMr Thamras
Shipley. Mr. and Mrs. Veril
Shoal Mr. ad Mrs. David
Shoemaker, Mr. and Mrs.
Shoff.ar, Mr. ad Mrs. A.
Shohat, Mr. Edward R.
Shor, Mr. Keith
Short, Rev. and Mr. Riley
Shrewsbury, Mr. and Mrs.
Horm r A.
Siron, Mr. and Mr. Tbad-
Sigler, Mu, Vicoria
Sinr nr r Mr.andMrsGlen
Simon, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Simon, Mr. and Mr. Larry
Simon, Mrs. Lara B.
Simomte Mr. and Mrs. lose
Sims, Dr. and Mrs. Murray
Singer, Dr. and Mrn. oseph
Singer, Mr. adMrs. Robert
Sis.lslar, Mr. and Mrs.
Skigcn, Dr. and Mrs Jack
Skor, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Sleaick, Mr. and Mrs.
Sloaser, Mr. and Mrs. Gaim
Slomick, Mr. aad Mrs. Mi-
Smiley, Mr. Nixm
Smiley, Mr. ad Mrs. R.
Smith, Mr. mad Mrs. Richard
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Smith, Mr. Chestrfeld
SmithMr. aiMrs. Douglas
Smith, Mr. d Mrs. Edward
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Emn-
Smith, Mr. andMrs.Mc.GC-
Smith, Mr. mand Mrs. R.C.
Smith, Mr. Ralph K.
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Richard
Smith, Mrs. Robe-t H.
Smith, Mr. andMrs.L Thman
Snow, Dr. andMrs. Selig D.
Snyder, Mr. and Mrs. Larry
Socol,Mr. mnd Mrs.Howard
Soldinger. Mr. and Mrs.
Sdis-Silva,Mr. andMr .Joec
Selloway, Dr. and Mrs Mi-
Solomon, Mr. and Mr. Jo-
Somcrville, Mr. and Mrs.
Sato, Mr. md Mrs. Edward
Sortil, Mr. md Mrs. Jame
Spart, Mn. Elizabeth W.
Sparks, Mr. Bradley
Spector, Mr. Brent
Spector. Mr. and Mrs. Louis
Spencer, Mr. and Mrs. I.
Speterx, Mr. and Mrs. John
Spillis, Mr. and Mrs. James
Stachurn, Mr. andMrs. Mm
StadiCr, Mr. and Mrs. John
Stafford. Mr. andMrs.Jame
Stanfill, Dr. and Mrs. L.M.
Stin. Dr. and Mrs. Elliot
Stein, Mr. nad Mr. Gerald
Stein, Ms. Linda S.
Stminberg, Mr. ad Mrs.
Steinberg-Roqow, Mrs Jac-
Stier, Mrs. Barbara
Stcinhard, Mr. and Mrs.
Steinhauer, Mr. and Mrs.
Steinmet, Mr. Keith
Stengel, Mr. Normtan
Stephens, Mr. Leonard
Stern, Mr. and Mrs. Hary
Stowns, Mr. Mark
Stewart, Mrs. Cynthi
Stewat, Mr. and Mrs. Ray
Stieglira, Mr. and Mrs. AS,
Stillman, Mr. ard Mrs.
Stocks, Dr. andM G. IJ., Jr.
Stokesberry, Mr. and Mrs.
Stone, Mr. Art
Stoe, MrM. Muriel ,B
Straight, Dr. and Mrs. Jacob
Strauss, Mr. Robert C.
Streblow, Mr. and Mrs.
Suacz, Mrs. Amanda
Sa=u Dr. and Mrs. James
Sutton, Mr. Barry
Swear, Mr. and Mrs. Charles
Sweet, Mr. and Mm. Georg
Swink, Mr. and Mrs Wil-
Tanksley, Judge and Mrs.
Tansey, Mr. Barbara W.
Tazrcido, Mr. and Mrs.
Tarr, Mr. and Mr. Dennis L.
Tartak, Mr. andMrs.Nt Ntu
Tathm,. Mr. and Mrs Tho-
TaylorDr. andMn. Andrew
Taylor, Mr. Marshall
List of Members
Teems. Mr. and Mrs. David
Tegnalia, Mr. Anthony G.
Teodrich, Mr. and Mrs.
Tepper, Dr. and Ms. Warren
Ternun, Mr. and Mrs. Her-
Tleobald, Mr. and Mo.
Thomas. Mr. and Mrs.
Thoanpson. Mr. and Mrs.
Thompsn, Mr. and Mrs.
Talso, Mr, Dom
Tomko, Mr. and Mrs. Mi-
Toupin, Mr. and Mls. Ed-
Traum, Mr. andMrs. Sidney
Treitman, Mr. and Mrs.
Terhny, Mr. ndMrs.Wil-
liam E., Jr.
Tacktr-Griffith, Dr. Gail
Tuggle, Mr. a d Mrs Auby
Turnoff, Judge and Mrs.
Ulth, Mr. sad Mi. William
Unrr, Dr. andMrs. Stphen
VanBr.eMr. andMr. Tho-
Vmntrwyden, Mr. William
Veanara, Mr. andMrs. Tom
Adair. Mr. John H.. II
Adam, Ms. Betty R.
Adram, Mrs. B.C.
*Adams, Mrs. Faith Y.
Adam, Mr. Ous C.
Adam, Mr. Joseph D.
Adan, Mr. Richard B.
Adam. Mr. Thomna L-
Ake lnd, Ms. Sue
Albi., Mr. Card
Alln Mrs. Begenia
Altemman, Mr. Richard
Altman, Ms. Ruth B.
Atamare, Ms. JJE.
Amdu, Dr. Phylli
Ammidown, Ms. Margot
Viadem, Mr. Jaquin P. Wet, Mr. JhnM
Vitagliao. Mr. ard Mr. Westfall.MI.B te
Francis Watter. Ms. Barbara
Volkr, Mr. Mary F. Whsmilr. Mr. Willar L.
Voss, Dr. and Mrs. Gilbert White, Mr. Hugh B., Sr.
Vrman, Mr. a dMs. Rich. White. Mr. Robert
ard White, Mr. Robert A.
Wagner, Mh. Owen White, Mr. and Mrs. Robert
J. White, Mr. and Mrs. Theo-
Waldin, Mr. and Mrs. Ead doe E.
D., Jr. Whiteside,Mr.andMrs. Eric
Walkr.Mr.andMrsn.Gear Whitman, Mr. and Mrs.
S. Stanley F.
Walkr, Mr. J. Frost IlI Wiggins.MrandMn .Robe r
Walker, Mr. and Mrs. Tbo- H.
masB., Jr. Wilcooky, Mr. and Mrs.
Wallace, Mr. and Mrs. Wil- Robert W.
lism L. Wmllensky, Ms. Marge
Ward, Mr. Charli Williams, L Col. and Mrs.
Ward, Mr. and Mrs. Joeph Pceman J.
Wasserman, Mr. and Mrs. Williams, Dr. and Mrs
MartinW. Ocorg. Jr.
Watkins, Mr. and Mrs. Ger- Williams. Mr. Paul T.
addM. WilliwuMr. ndMrs.Rich-
WasonMr. Cay ardH.
Wax, Dr. and MrsMn. Herbert Willis, HMs.elen
Weaver, Mr. David Willis, Mr.andMra.Normanu
Wenms, Mr. andMrs. Artr Wills, Mr. Jones
Weinberg, Mr. and Mr. Wills, Mr. and Mr. Thomnas
David L. Wilson, Ms. Bababt W.
Weinr.Mr.andMrs.Robert Wilson. Mr. Chuck
Weinkle. Mr. Julian I. Wilson Mr. and Mrs. David
Weinstein, Mr.and Mrs. L.
Andew H. Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Gary
Weln, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel M.
A, Wintmrs, Mr. and Mrs
Weisebomn, Mr. and Mrs. Howard L
Lee Windhrst, Mr. Kent A.
Weisser. M. and Mrs. Mi- Wihirem. Mr. and Mrs. Bill
chadel Wrinso. Dr. and M Phil-
Wells, Mr. idMmr.PearD. lip M.
Wack, Mr.andMNs. Ja Werst, Mr.and Mrs. Mi-
Werner, Mr. and Mr. Stuat Wider. Mr. Calvin
A. Winter. Ms. Pam
We, Mr. and Mrs. Everett Wisham, Mr. lnd Mrs. D.
G. Wilenrate, Mr. and Mrs.
Amserdm,Mr. CarlD. Babe, Mrs. Dothy S.
Ancam Mrs, am B Mr. Jane
Andrson, Mrs. Betty M. Bgg.MMrs. Jhn L, Jr.
Andon Dr. Raymoid T. Baker. Mr. Chad. H.. Jr.
Ancroan., Ms. Robs L Baira, Mr. Gore G.
Andmrs si Mr. John. Jr. Baker, Mr. Mark A.
Anditm, Mrs. L.mor R. Baker. Ms. Susan
Andrews, Mr. Hir D. Baldwin, Jackson C
Anhor Ms. Betty P. BllestrBs. Ms. Coal P.
Aria, M. An Maria M. Balli, Mr. Charles H.. Jr.
Anntristr, Ma. EHar. M. Blloa, Ms. Grace L.
Annrmbrnstr, Ms. Am Barkdll, Mr. ThomasH.Jr.
Arredondo, Dr. Carlos R. B s Ms. Av R.
Artigs, Mr. Willy Bmet, Ms. Byet
Ashley, Ms. Pt Barrtt, Mr. I.T.
Atwood, Mr. Anthony D. Barrmi, Ms. Nellie M.
Avery. Ms. Am Batty, Ma. Franis V.
Ayer, Mr. John H. BaUtMn, Mrs. Ruth Kneat
Babcock, Ms. Mary A. BResa Mr. W.L,
WalC Dr. -dMr.Benjuain
Wo ffMr. ndMrfs.Williarn
Wolfaon, Mr. andMrs.Rich-
Wolpe, Mr. ar Mrs. Joel
Wood, Mr. andM William
Woodlney, Mr. Thomas
Woods, Mr. and Mr. Tho-
Woont. MrandMn. James
Worley, Mr. and Mrs. Eug-
Worth, Mr. and Mrs. James
Wrmnki, Mr. andMirs. Char-
Wruble, Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd
Yaeger, Ms. Marilyn M.
Yarborough, Mr. Frnch
Yssin, Mr. and Mrs. Sali
Yehle, Mr. mrd Mr. Lany J.
Yoder,Mr.andMrs. Da glas
Yost Mr. Rogar L
Young. M. Barbara
Zanm, Dr. and Mrs. Sheldon
Zapeis. Mr. and Mrs. Jesca
Zopf, Mr. John S.
Zcder, Mr. and Mrs. Jn W.
Zalonkar. Mr. and Mrs.
Ziff. Mr. and Mrs. Sanford
ZigrM rnt, Mr.andMs.Law-
Zolm, Mr. Prank
Zuckermm, Mr. Berramt
Zuckrman, Mr. and Mrs.
Zwick, Mr. Charles J.
B gle, Mr.James
Bemiah, Ms. Jaosphira p.
Beardroo, Mr. John C.
Beany. Ma. Jacqueline
Bcae4, MS. Mary O.
Beton, Ms. Ires
Beam Ms. Nathan
Beet, Ms. Barbara K.
Benntt, Ms. Hadl M.
BOnast. Ms. Sash L.
Bcaovlt Dr. Larry P.
BerMovich. Ms. Gaetrudo
Berin, Mr. John G.
Bemirg, Ms. Cyw H.
Biodrta, Mrs. Stanley
Bielaws, Mr. R.A.
Biarc. Ms. Jacquelyn
Bilbso, Ms. Carmen T.
Bills, Mrs. John T.
Bini, Ms. Elizabth
Biondi, Mo, Jcrris
Birchmir, Mrs. 11nm H.
Bishop, Ms. Ethcline D.H.
Bishop, Mr. James E.
Bitnr, Mrs. Barbara
Black, Ms. Sandra
Blackwell, Mr. Stephcm G.
Blake, Ms. Lucille R.
Blake, Ms. Susan J.
Blakeslee, MS. Ztla Mac
Blocker, Mr. Glenn
Blyth, Ms. Mary S.
Boas, Mr. Alf6 d
Bofill, Ms. Carmen LB
Boldrick. Mr. Smuel J.
Bordeaux, Ms. Celia S.
Boelmnan, Mr. Fred P.
BosweUl, Mr. James A.
Borno, Mr. WillhamH.
Bowmeefter, Ms. Latretta
Boyd, Ms. Debrah L.
Bradfic.k Ms. Jean
Bradley. Mr. William R.
Brady. Ms. Margaret R.
Braumre, Mrj. H. Stilsam
Brant, Mrs. Amne L
Braurntein, Dr. Jonathan J.
Breeze. Mrs. KW.
Brewer, Ms. Clarlotr
Bridges, Ms. Kathy
*Birokfid. Mr. CharicaM.
Brown, Mr. AL., Jr.
Brown, Mn. Andrew
Brown, Mrs. Cares
Brown, Mr. Rank
Brown, Mnr. Irma M.
Brown, Mr. James P.
Browo, Ms. Lynn W.
Brown, Mrs. Paulint
Brush. Mr. Robert W.
Brynt, Mr. Thomas M.
Buckley. Ms. Irne
Buher, Mr. 5Emil. II
Bumarntt, M. Sandy
Bunham, ML Saidra
Bmrrows, Mr. David W.
Burrus, Mr. B. Carter, Jr.
Bush. Mr. Gregory W.
Bussel, M. Amr
Byrne, M. Bob
Calhoun, Ms. Ann
Caple, Ms. Robin
Cam, Ma,. BarbtarJ.
Carroll, Mrs. dith A.
Carrutharf, Mr. Jodhn, II
Carter, Ms. Carla A.
Camson, Mr. Robert M.
Cased. Mr.John, M.D.
Cater. Mrs. George B.
Caser, Dr. P.
CastO Mr. Andy
Calow, Mr Pttty M.
CauB. Ma. Elem M.
Chaillc, Mr. Joseph H.
Chung, MLs. Iris
Chapell, Ms. Cosmic
Chauncey, Mr. Danald H.
Chaetham, Mr. Edwin H.. Jr.
Clhthanm, Mr. Jdmo H.
Chesen, M. Jim C.
Chemy, Ms. Aim
Chievar.s MI. Catherinm L.
Chlds, Mrs. Marina
Chin, Mrs. Sandy C.
Christ, Mn. Anita
Christnacu, Mn. Charlocte
Chrisute n, Mr. Stow
Cibula, Ms. Calhy
Cimron, Ms. Elizabeth
Clark, Mrs. Mae K.
Clark, Mr. Paul D.
Clark, Mr. Robert V.
Clarke Ms. Patricia M.
Clay, Ms. Dman L
Clay. Ms. Midelion M.
Cloptanj Ms. Ptggy
Cobb. Ms. Jeffie A.
Cobum, Mr. Louis
Coan,. Ms. Lori
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert
Cohen, Mrs. Nancy
Cohn, Dr. LF.
Coleman, Ms. Hammh P.
Collins, Ms. Mary B.
Coade. Ms. Mabel
Conduite, Ma. Catherine J.
CCae, Mr. Larry B.
Cones, Ms. Lillian
Conlon, Mr. Lyndao C.
C umllan, Ms. Barbara E.
Cmnte, Ms. Martha
Cook. Ms. Darlene
Cook. Mr. R. Marvin
Cook. Ms. Ruth
Cooke, Mrs. Prancis N.
Cooper, Mr. Paul B.
Carbtcll, Mr. Armando H.
Caono. Mr. Hal D.
Coaio, Mr. Alberta
CoatEllo, Mr. James
Cox, Mrs. Pety
Caig. Ms. Doroty A.-
Craig, Ma. NrmazrJ.
Cmramer, Mr. Lowell
Crampton, Dr. Dodmd R.
Creel, Mr. Eirl M.
Crel, Mr. Joe
Crocs, Mr. David S.
Cross, M J. Aln
Crouchlr, Mr. William I.
Crow r, Ms. Sylvia C.
Crump, Mon. Dorothy
Culmer, Mn. Leane
Cummings, Mr. George, EI
Cuninghai,. Mr. varies
Curl, Mr. Domld W.
Curry, Ms. B"tty F.
Daniels, Mr. FredP.
Danko, Ma. Gasie L
Darwick, Mr. Norman
Daum, Mr. Phillip
Davidscn, M. Ursula M.
Davia, Ms. Teesa
Davis, Mr. Alt A.
Davis, Mr. Jim F.
Davis, Mrs, Karent
Davis, Ms. Marion P.
Daviarn, Mrs. Wal=r R.
Dawm, ML Phyllis M.G.
D Ios Santas, Ms. Adele
DeIans Mr. Douglas W.
DeNin,Mr. Ocaries F.
Dedrth, Ms. Linda A.
Dervirhi, Mr. Brian S.
Deville, Ms. Josephinre
DeWald. Mr. Bill
Din, Ms. Alicia L.
Din, Mr. Bruno M.
Diz, Ms. Louise V.
Diterich. Ms. Emily P.
Dmda, Mr. Johnl
Diprima, Ms. Adrienne A.
Ditbrich, Mrs. Mildred
Dobrow, Mr. Stiphen
Docnter, Mrs. Rosemary
Dorsey, Mrs. Mary
**Dougla, Ms. Marjory
Dowlen, Fitzgerald, and
Dru] ard, Mrs. Marnie L.
DuBois, Mis. John R.
DuBois, Miss Winified I
Dom, Mr. Hampton
Dval. Mn. JolmB.
Erston, Mr. Edward W.
Edele Mn Ellen
iEdelmn, M. Micrhicl
Edeinr, Ms. Norma
Edward, Mr. Jim
Edwards, Mr. Kevin B.
Ellin, Dr. Waldo M.
Engel, Dr. Gertrude
Emt, Ms. Patricia G.
Erridckon, Mr. David
Esco, Ms. Jacquelyn
Elling, Mr. Walter
Evans, Mr. Don
Ewell, Mr. A. Travers
EyTer, Mr. Irving R.
Faibrother, Ms. Bent D.
Parkar. Ms. Klam
Farrell. Mr. Joh R., P.A.
Febinbrg. Ms. Elaine
Feingold, Mn. Natalie
Fernandez, Ms. Keiko
Finxandez, Mr. Wilfredo M.
Feimdo, ML Mary L.
PFrenc Mrs. John
Finley. Mr. George T.
Flscher, Ms. Elaine R.
Fisher, Mr. Ray
Fishman, Mrs. Bibi
Fishwick, Mr. Joseph
Pitzpsrtld-Bush, Mr. Frank
Fitzgerald, Mr. James
Flcisclnmam, Mr. ThImas F.
Flipe, Ma. FredC
Floyd, M. Robed L,
Foote, Mr. Edward T.
Foahc. ML. AmnG.
pFceman, Mb. Susan
Freler, Ms. Arlene
Fritch. Ms. Rene Z.
Frobhck, Mr. Joh M.
Puchs. Mr. Richard W.
Poster, M,. R.
Galaus,. ML Marjorie L.
Gamblc. Ms. Stacey L,
Gardiner, Ms. Jane P.
Gargano, Ms. Caron
Garrtt, Mr. Frank L.
Gaun.r, Ms. Mar
Gautcey, Mrs. Tony
George, Dr. Pail S.
Grace, Mrs. Teroce
Gcrardo, M. Pamela
Gerhart, Mr. Gcrge W.
Gibbs, Mr. W. Tucker
Gisler, Ms. Bette T.
Gillies, Ms, Patricia L.
Ginsburg, Mr. R.N.
GlAssman, Mr. Stephen
Glattauer, Mn. Alfred
Glickrrman, Ms. Esther
Golds ein, Jdge Harvey L
Gonzalez, Mr. George E.
Gormaler, Mr. William
Goodin, Mr. Jack, Jr.
Goprman, Ms. Beth
Gordon, Mr. Harold H.
Gordon, Ms. Polit
Gootfried, Mrs. Theodore
Gould, Ms. Bomice
Gowi. Dr. Thoris S.
Goza, Mr. William
Grafton, Mn. Edward G.
Grant, Mr. Stuart M.
Groves, Mr. K -niCh
Grecn, Ms. Ann
Green, Ms. Ll ma G.
Greenberg, Mrs. Daniel
Gregory, Mr. Lodford G.
Grentner, Ms. Lynn
Gross. Dr. Zade C.
Groo, Dr. Zadc J.
Grout. Ms. Nancy
Grover, Ms. Marlden
Grtzbxch, Mn. MargretR.
Guorat, Me. Mirdth
Gularte, Ms. Alexis
HAbertmn, Mr. Richard
Haddock. Ms. Nancy F.
Hale. Ms. Kay K.
Halprin. Mrs. Maxine R.
Halyburto, Ms. Marian
Hmurick, Mr. David H.
Hanifourd.o Mn. John K.
Hananis, Ms. Juliet
Hancock, Mrs,. Jrms T.
Hinft Ms. Marjory S.
Hanley, Ms. Barbara
Herring, Ms. Margic
Harris, Ms E anoxr
Harris, Mrs. Henrietta
Harris, Mr. Robed
Harrison, Mr. Robert J.
Harwell, Ms. Winda
Harwood, Mn. MmatoE.
Hauser, Mr. Loo A.
H-aws, Mr. Ldand M, Jr.
Hawkes, Ma. Evangelin
Heard, Dr. Joseph G.
Hecht, Mrs. Isadore
Hckerling, Mrs. Philip
Hldt, Ms. Agneta C.
Helfand, Ms. Rosalee
Helliwell, ML Anme E.
Helms, Mr. Roy V.
Hendry, Judge Norman
Hepler, Mr. Charilene
HIrin, Mr. Thtomo D.
Herring. Mrs. V..
Hen ai Mr. eanms, Jr.
Hertz. Ms. Linda C.
Hrtzernberg, Mr. David J.
List of Members
Hatt, Ms. Marilyn P.
Hickey. Ms. Amy K.
Hicks, Mor. Margaret D.
Hill, Mr. Gregory
Hiller, Mr. Herbrt L.
Hiltn. Ms. Joan M.
Hines, Ms. Phyllis
Hipranm. Mr. Mitchell
Hofftmann Ms. L.A.
Hoitetter. Mrs. Ronald
Hogg. Mr. John F.
Hollad.Mr. aChrcs W., Jr.
HoIzrman, Ms. Tressa A.
Hoppchruwer. Mr. Walter
Horta, Ms. Teressa
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie
House, Mr. Hugh A.
Houser, Mr. Roosevelt C.
Hubsch, Mr. Robert H., Sr.
Hunter, Ms. Frances G.
Hunter. Mr. William A.
Hurst, Ms. Jennmfer
Hyde-Antwi. Mr. Frank
leon, Ms. Sandra
Ingraham, Mr. William A.,
Irwin, Ms. Barbara
Jacaway, Mt. Taffy
Jacobi, Ms, Beth
Jacobs, Mrs. Ruth
James, Ma. Mary C.
Jarmll, Mr. Howard R.
Jerome, Dr. William T., Ill
Johnson, Mrs. Eric W.
Johnsot, Mr. FPederick L.
J hnsoan, Ms. Jean
Jalley, Mr. Rabert F.
Jones, Ms. Anne F.
Jner, Ms. Dmna Jan
Jones, Mrs. Henrietta
Jane, Ms. Jacqueline
Jonen, Mr. ThoImpon V.
Jordnm. Mrs. June T.
Jorda, Ma. Kathlrine R.
Jurist, Mrs. L.E.
Jarikt, Mr. Lauti
Kamen, Mr. Dennis G., Esq.
Kaiser, Ms. Roberta
Kaplan, Mr. Elliott
Katlin, Ms. Sydell
Kashmer, Ms. Ann R.
Kassewitz, Mrs. Ruth B.
Kavanaug, Mr,Daniel A.
Keaton. Ms. Martha
Kely, Mrs. Lucile d F.
Keith, Mr. Scott G.
Keller, Ms. Barbara P.
Kelley, Dr. Robert L.
Kelly. Dr. Teranei J.
Kennedy, Ms. Patricia
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A.
Kiltbrg, Mr. AJ.
King, Mr. Arthur, Sr.
King, Mr. Dennis G.
Kirsch, Mr. Louis
Klin, Ms. Debbie
Klein, Mr. Mason S.
Kline, Mr. Gene
Knapp. Mr. and Ma. Marris,
Knight. Mr. Jeffrey D.
Knott, Judge James R.
Koesline. Ms. Prances 0.
Kolaenzie, Mr. Henry
Kroxrowski,Ms. Camila B.
Koanonoff, Ms. Hl"e N.
Kop, Ms. Karin
Koski, Ms. Antoinette M.
Kramer, Ms. Judi
Kramer, Ms. Sandra 0.
Kricbs. Mr. Robert V.
Kneger. Mr. Stanley L.
Kinzman, Mr. Alan
Krital, Mr. Marvin J.
Kiug. Ms. Kathleen
KHpper, Mr. Ken
La Belle, Mr. Dexter
LI Plante, Ms. Lish
Labsi, Ms. Caudin
Lacey, Mr. Robert
LaFomSaini, Ms. Patricia
Lanine, Mr. Robert E.
Lamaot, Ms. Caroline
Lacaster, Mr. RD.
Landau, Dr. Sol
Langero, Ms. Lucienne
Lane, Ms. Elizabeth A.
LaRouc, Mr. Samuel D., Jr.
LaRussa, Ms. Lyrnne M.
Lavin, Ms. Mayola L.
Lawson, Dr. H.
Lamnx, Mr. Dan D., Sr.
Laxtsm, Mr. Danny D., Jr,
LaZr;,. Mrs. Theodora
**Leary. Mr. Lewis
Leavirt, Mr. Steve
Lcdac, Ms. Charlotte J.
Lae, Mo. Beryl
Lee, Ms. Catherine D.
Lae, Mr. Roswell E.
Leesba, M. Saraet
Lehman, Mrs. David M.
Lciber, Mr. Robert B.
Leisnor. Mo. Ruth
Lena, Ms. Terrea
Leon, Mr. Salvador, Jr.
Leonard, Mr. Joseph S.
Lesli, Ms. Nancy L
Lelie, Ms. Sylvia A.
Levin. Mr. Marc
Levine, Dr. Robert M.
Leviz,. Ms. Esther M.
Laweiwmab Mr. San
I-wis. Ma. Gerald J.
Lewis, Mr. Harry D.
Lewis, Mr. John M.
Liddell. Ms. Lynn
Lieberman, Ms. Eleanor
Liebman, Mr. Malvina
Liles, Mrs. B. Clark B.
Lindsley. Mrs. A.R.
Lineback. Ms. Jant A.
Lielhan, Mrs. John
Link, Mr. B.A.
Lippert. Mr. Kemp
Lipacanib, Mrs. Elizabeth
Livingston, Mr. Robert
Loerky, Ms. Donnai
Loembrdo, Ms. Barbara A.
Londao, Ms. Joyne B.
Loay,. Me. Evelyn 0.
Loancz, ML Valarie
Love, Ms. Mildred A.
Lowery, Mrs. Nereida
Lowry, Mr. James R., Jr.
Label, Mr. Howard
Li.e, Ms. Marjorie
Lukens, Mrs. Jaywood
Lummus, Ms. Martha P.
Luimm, Mrs. James
Lunsford, Mrs. E.C.
Lyda, Ms. Elois B.
Lynch, Mr. James
Lynch. Mrs. Janmtte W.
Lynfield, Mr. H. Geoffrey
Lynis, Mrs. Rita
Maciic, Ms. Milbrey W.
MtacLte, Ms. Valarie
Mahldm, Rev. Richard D.
Mehoney. Mr. Michael B.
Malafrontm, Mr. Anthony P.
Malne. Mrs. Randolph A.
Malvido, Ms. Rmna
Mangels. Dr. Cerli C.
Manley, Ms. Joanm
Mailio, Dr. F.L.
Manly. Ms. Grant
Marchman, Mr. Dennis Li
Marcuo, Mrs. Beaico
Marku. M. Danic
Marks, Mr. Victor G.
Marotti, Dr. Frank, Jr.
Martin, Mr. Alfcd B.
Martin, Mrs. Edn P.
Martin, Mr. Emmett E., Jr.
Martin, Dr. John B.. Jr.
Mason, Mrs. Joe J.
Mass Mrs. JeanmArie M.
Materson, Ms. Lee A.
Mathesmn, Mr. James P.
Maurs, Ms. June
Mawll, M. Marjorie P.
Mazott, Mr. Prank J.
McAllister, Mr. Jim
McCulloch, Mr. JinB E
McIntosh, Ms. Jeasnetr C.
McKenma, Mrs. Alice M.
McKinmy, Mr. Bob
McLean, Ms. Leonare
McLeod, Mrs. William J.
McNally. Ms. June S.
McNally, Rev. Michael J.,
McNaughtcs, Ms. Virginia
McWillimen. Ms. Phyllis
Medina, Mr. Robert K.
Mjics, Ms. Asma r D.
MeatZT. Ms. Toni
Mende, Mr. Jeus
Menendez, Mr. Peter
Merlo, Mrs. Kathy
Merritt, Mrs. Isabel
Mesic, Ms. Sandra
M Mr. J. Waltr, Jr,
Meyer, Mr. Richard G.
Mayers. Mrs. Burt
Middlcthon, Mr. WilliamR.,
Midka. Mr. Timothy R.
Miller, Mrs. Gvin S.
Miller, Mr. Deas R.
Miller, Ms. Eleanor
Miller, Me. Gertrud
Miller, Ms. Huntley
Miller, Ms. Margaret L,
Mitchell, Mr. Thomas A.
Mohl, Mr. Raymond A., Jr.
Monahan, Dr. Kathleen
Monk, Mr. Floyd J.
Montague. Mrs. Oarles H.
Mooir, Mra. Jack
Moore, Mr. Patrick P.
Moore. Mr. William
Moren, Ms. Lucita L,
Mordaunt, Mr. Hal
Morgan, Mr. Gregary A.
Morris, Ms. Thomasine
Mon. Mo. Pamela
Moss. Mr. Steve
Mouc. Mrs. Edwin P.
Moylan, Mrs. EB.B. Jr.
Moynahan, Mr. John H.
Mrozuk, Mr. Ranald W.
Muir, Mr. William W.
Mulcronc, Ms. Judy
Mullenhoff. Me. Jcanne M.
Muller, Ma. Barb-ra F,
Muniz, Mr. Manuel I.
Myers, Ms. Lillian G.
Naranjo, Mr, Xavier
Narup. Mr. Mavis A.
Nasca, Ms. Suzanne
Neil, Ms. Nancy K.
Nelson, Mr. Jonathan
Nelson, Mr. Theodore R.
Nelson, Ms. Winifrcd H.
Ncmeti, Ms. GayM.
Neway, Ms. Roberta
Newman, Mr. Peter
Newton, Ms. Brandy
Newton, Capt. WL.. III
NBes, Mr. James P.
Nimnicht, Mrs. Hcien
Ninmicht, Mrs. Mary Jo
Noble, Dr. Nancy L.
Nodarse, Ms. Anita
Norass., Mr. Brian
Norman, Mr. Walter H.
O'Connell, Mr. Petr J.
O'Neal, Mr. Alan
Older, Mr. Brian S.
Oscr, Ms. Karen
Orgell. Mr. Wallace H.
Orlen, Ms. Roberts C.
Odin, Ms. KaEsn
Oscar, Ms. Marie
Osman, Mr. Peler
Osnowitz, Ms. Myra
Ostemko, Mr. Witold, Sr.
Ostrout, Mr. Howard F.. Jr.
Oswald, Mr. Jackson J.
Otteron, Ms. Dana
Oversa et. Ms. Esalwl C.
Overstreet. Mr. James D. Jr.
Owen. Ms. Elizabeth J.
Padgett, Mr. ITman
Palen, Mr. Frank S.
Palozi, Mr. Michael J.
Paparlla, Mr. Danise
Park, Mr. Dabney G., Jr.
Paker, Mr. Crawford H.
Parks. Ms. Jeoan; M.
Parks, Mrs. Merle F.
Parsons, Mr. Edward G.
Pasgh. Mr. Gerald L.
Paul, Miss Judith
Paul. Mrs. Kenneth
Peabody. Mr. Edward L.
Pearce, Mrs. Edgar B.
Pearson, Ms. Madeline S.
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth
Poplre. Mr. Veronr
1ll., Ms. Gloria
Plion., Dr. Margaret M.
Peoples,Ms. Anita J.
Permer, Mrs. Henry L
Peters., Mr. John S.
*lters, Dr. Thelma
Pfeffer, Ms. Karen
Pfenniger, Mr. Richard C.
Pierce, Mr*. Magic K.
Pierce, Ms. Rence
Pietro, Mrs Virginia R.
Pirmman, Mr. Robert W.
Paon, Mr. James
Porte, Mr. Daniel
Posner, Mr. Joseph
Postlethwaile, Ma. Niss
Prado, Ms. Miriam
Pravda., Mr. Don
Prim, Mr. Bedford W.
Proenoz, Ms. Christina D.
Provost, Mr. Orvile I.
Purdy, Ms. Betty A.
Purvis, Mra. Hugh F.
Quincoy. Ms. Suanne F.
Radelrnma Mr. Fred
Ragan. Ms. Patti
Raim, Mrs. Virginia S.
Raiden, Mr. Michael E.
Ramon, Ms. Pauline E.
Ranki, n Sally
Rappaport, Dr. Edward
Rsamussen, Mrs. Ray S.
Reagan, Mr. A. James, Jr.
Reck. Ms. Margot
Reed, Ms. Donna V.
Reed, Mrs. Elizabeth A.
Reed, Mr. Richard B.
Reeder, Mr. Lawrence
Reder, Mr. Wiiam F.
Rehwoldt, Mr. Ralph T.
Rein, Mr. Martin
Uernpe., Ms. Loi D.
Renick, Mr. Ralph
Renninger, Ms.Julie B.
Reno, Ms. Janet, Eq.
Reai k, Mr. LT.arry
Rice, Sister Eileen F.
Rice, Mr. RJ., Jr.
Richard. Mr. Ralph
Richards, Ms. Rose C.
Richheimer, Ms. R.
Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R.
Rider, Dr. Dorothy A.
Riley, Mr. O.V.
Riley, Ms. Sandra
Rinchrrt, Ms. OwetM.
Risley, Mr. Douglas L.
Ritter, Mo. ETmna B.
Robbins, Mrs. Alice
Roberts, Ms. Ruth
Robertsm Mr. Mark
Robertson. Mrs. Paul H.
Robertson. Mrs. PicdadF.
Robinson, Mrs. Webster
Rodriguez, Ms. Ofelia M.
Rogers, Mr. John H.
Rogers. Mrs. Shirley H.,
Rollins, Ms. Annie L.
Rood, Mr. Nathan B.
Roper, Ms. Margaret M.
Ro-ss-Guyon, Mr. Luis L.
Rosen. Mr. Robert R.
Roser., Ms. Aliz A.
Rosow, Mrs. Ruth
Ross, Mrs. Jack H.
Rubelmnan, M. Myrmah
Ruden, Mn. Eliza P.
Rulim. Ms. Jean M.
Russ, Mr. Denis A.
Russell, Ms. Darlene
Ryan, Mr. AJ., Jr
Ryan Mr. Patrick W.
Sackman, Ms. Arlene
Safer-Saffer, Mrs. Miriam
Sala, Ms. Carln
Salerno, Ms. Evelyn
Saliba, Ms. Barbara
Sailley, Mr Sadie S.
Salomon, Mr. Carlos M.
Salzmen, Ms. Phyllis S.
Sampicro, Ms. Karla
Sarmon, Dr. Stephen
Sand, Ms. Joi
Sanders Mrs. Zannie W.
Santa-Maria, Ma. Yvomnn
Santo Pietro. Mr. James J.
Santos, Mr. Arnold
Samtos, Ms. Elizabeth
Sax. Ms. Connie A.
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffer
Scbae fer, Mn. Odon A.
Scharlin, Mr. David
Schechber, Mr. Roy
Schrr, Mrs. Ruth E.
Schneider, Mr. A.
Schoenfeld, Mr. David
Scholtz, Ms. Mary
Schuh, Mr. Niles
Schulte, Mrs. William
Schultz,. Mrs. Ton G.
Schuman, Ms. Barbara
Schwartz, Mn. Geraldine
Schwanz, Mr. Thomas
Scott, Ma. Kathy A.
Scott, Mr. Patrick S.
Scgal. Mr. Martin l.
Segal. Mrs. Natalie J.
Scliruky, Dr. Herman
Sell, Ma. Hel IE.
Selati, Mr. Kemeth
Sclva, Ms. Mary Loe
Saoms, Rev. Robert L
Sang, Mr. William R.
Sepler, Mr. Richard M.
Scrkin, Mr. Manuel
Sessions, Ms. Ellen m .
Shaer, Ms. Kathryn E.
Sharer, Mr. Cyrus J.
Shalow, Mrs. Evelyn W.
Sharp. Ms. Sandy
Shaw, Mrs. Henry 0.
*Shaw. Dr. Martha L.
Shaw, Mrs. W. F.
Shcarer, Ms. Juanita D.
Sheeman, Ms. Kathy
Sheffield, Mrs. Charlotte
Shelton, Ms. Betty
Shepar, Mrs. Sara F.
Shone, Ms. Palma
Shula, Mnr. Don
Siao, Ms. Slu Kim
Sigale, Mr. Merwin
Silver, Mrs. Doris S.
Silver, Ms. June D.
Silver, Mrs. Sam I.
Silverman, Ms. Judy
Simpson, Mr. ML.
Sins, Mn. Vi
Singleton, Ms. Audry E.
Siz~eoss, Ms. Christina
Skipp, Ms. Marjorie L.
Skolnick, Mr. Nathan
Sloan, Mr. Jim
Sluscr, Mr. Bruce
Smith, Mrs. Avery C, Jr.
Smith, Mr. Charles
Smith, Mr. Harrison H.
Smith, Mrs. J.C.
Smith, Ms. Lynette M.
Smith, Ms. Moyer B.
Smith, Ms. Rebecca A.
Smith, Mrs. Richard H.
Sniffen, Mr. Lon
Snyder, Mor. Wahl
Scnnumnr, Mr. L.B.
Sondereggr, Ms. Martha
Sovando. Mr. Asrid
Sowell, Mr. J.A.
Spore, Ms- Mary J.
Sratt, Mr. WilliaamJ., Jt.
Stoey, Mr. George L.
Stanford, Mr. Bobby
Staunton, M. Hy
Stark, Miss Judi
Starrt, Ms. Michelle
Starns, Ms. Laura P.
Steams, Mr. Robert J.
Saedoan, Mr. CartlngH.
Steel, Mn. William C.
Stein, Ms. Lois L.
Sicinberg, Mr. James
Steinman, Mr. f.
Stells, Ms. Beatrice
Steves, Ms. Anne L.
S vens. Dr. Elizabeth
Stevens, Ms. Nancy
Stewart, Mn. Chester
Stewart, Ms.Ruth A.
Stickler, Mr. Robert
Stile, Ms. Doris B.
**Stiles, Mr. Wade
Stock, MMa Ruth V.
StLckbein, Ms. Jeanne S.
Stofik, Ms. Marty
Stone, Mrs. AJ.
Stone, Dr. Aline M.
Stone. Mr. Robert L, Jr.
Storm, Ms. Laue
Stovall, Ms. Lucy P.
Stribling, Ms. Carolyn
Srob, Ms. Annemr
Sturrock, Ms. Elsie
Suiter, Ms. Patricia A.
Sullivan, Mr. Patrick R.
Sundquist, Mr. Percy U.H.
Swis, Ma. Beatrice G.
Swarmz, M. Donna C.
Swarta, Mr. Kenneth
Swartz, Mr. Thamas A.
Swischlr, Ms. Pam
Swisihr. Mr. John E.
Szita, Ms. Blanche
Tatham, Mr. Thomas L.
Tatol, Ms. Julie cT.
Taylor, Mr. James I.
Taylor, Mi. Jane ].
Taylor. Mrs. Jean C.
Taylor, Ms. Karen E.
Taylor, Mr. L.C., III
Taylor. Ms. R.
Taylor, Mrs. Robert
Teed, Ms. Mary M.
Telli, Ms. Maria A.
Test, Ms, Pggy L.
*Tharp, Mrs. Charges D.
Thayer, Ms. Laura
Thayer, Ms. Margaret I
Tbeaknton, Mr. Pierr
Thilmont, Ms. Diane
Thomas, Mr. Phillip A.
Thcmpsorn Ms, Charlotte
Thompson, Mr. Loun L.
Thompson. Ms. Margaret
Thompson. Ms. Roberts
Thorn, Mr. Dale A.
Thornton, Mr. Dade W., Esq.
Thorpe, Ms. Fra IH
Tight, Ms. Russica P.
Timnms, Mrs. MarthaD.
Tingler. Mrs. CF.
Todd, Mr. Thrald
Tompsett, Ms. Clara E.
Torello, Ms. Mirtt
Torante. Ms. Beatrice
Torseri, Ms. Joan
Tottunhoff, Mr. JJR.
Towle, Mrs. Helen C.
Tranchida, Mr. Michael A.
Trejo, Ma. Maria A.
Trssell, Mrs. Ralph
Tucker. Mr. Bruce B.
Tuckerman, Mr. Herbert G.
Tarner, Mr. Greg
Trttncr, Ms. Molly
Udell, Ms. Marilyn
Uffendkdl, Mrs. William G.
Ufland, Mr. Lou
Underwood, Mrs. Jcan B.
Urovsky. Ms. Lorn
Urquiola, Mr. Narciso
Valancia, Mr. Joseph E.
Valladae, Mr. Pablo
Vallee, Rev. Robert
Vallcga, Mr. Jack
Van Eaton, Ms. Eleanor
Van Meek. Ms. Lae
Vaoderlean, Mr. Mark C.
VanLandingham, Mr. Kyle
Varner, Ma. Edwina
Vciga, Ms. Addys
Velar, Mr. Pedro L
Venditti, Mr. Robert E.
Vcroxki, Ms. DJ.
Vickers, Ms. Audrey
Vicie, Mr. John W.
Vieth, Mr.H. Mark
Villamil, Mr. Juan M.
Vogel, Mr. Thomas
Vogt, Mrs. Richard
VonGorntn, Mr. Kurt
Wacker, Ms. Mary A.
Wade, Mr. Katherme R.
Waldrn, Mrs. Neal E,
Waligora, Mr. Jack
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