Front Cover
 Historical Association of Southern...
 History of the Miami news...
 Watch Miami: The Miami metropolis...
 Arch Creek: Prehistory to public...
 List of members
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00047
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1987
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00047
Source Institution: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Holding Location: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Historical Association of Southern Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
    History of the Miami news 1896-1987
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Watch Miami: The Miami metropolis and the Spanish-American War
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Arch Creek: Prehistory to public park
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    List of members
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
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        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Back Cover
        Page 91
        Page 92
Full Text


U Editors Emeriti
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
Managing Editor
Timothy F. Schmand




History of The Miami News
1896 1987
by Howard Kleinberg

Watch Miami: The Miami Metropolis
and the Spanish-American War
by Thomas F. Fleischmann

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park
by Emily Perry Dieterich

List of Members


is published annually by the Historical Association of South-
ar44fetAt^ ern Florida. Communications should be addressed to the
I managing editor of Tequesta, 101 W. Flagler Street, Miami,
Florida 33130. The Association does not assume responsibility for statements
of facts or opinions made by contributors.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.


D. Alan Nichols Arva Moore Parks
President Editor Tequesta
Jack Lowell Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
First Vice President Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Raul L. Rodriguez Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Second Vice President Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Howard Zwibel, M.D. Marie Anderson
Secretary Editor Update
Sandy Graham Younts Stuart Mclver
Treasurer Editor Update
Marcia J. Kanner Randy F. Nimnicht
Past President Executive Director


Luis Ajamil
Ronni Bermont
Dennis M. Campbell
Gregory M. Cesarano
Carlton W. Cole
Hunting F. Deutsch
Dale B. Dowlen
Mrs. William G. Earle
Douglas Erickson
Katherine Ezell

Dorothy J. Fields
John H. Gay
Jay I. Kislak
C. Frasuer Knight
A. M. Lombardo
Stephen A. Lynch III
R. Layton Mank
Faith Mesnekoff
Clarence E. Smith, M.D.
Joel J. Weiss

Flagler Street, circa 1912.
Collection of Ed Ridolph

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

History of The Miami News

By Howard Kleinberg


First Edition of The Miami Metropolis
HASF Collection
Walter Sumner Graham had not yet established himself in
Miami. Writing from his Titusville law office on March 20,

1896, Graham advised one of his Miami partners that the name
suggested by Henry Flagler for the newspaper at Miami was a
good one.

Howard Kleinberg is editor of The MiamiNews and author of the book
Miami: The Way We Were.

C. C. Chillingworth
Vice President
East Coast Publishing Company

Dear C:
Mr. Flagler suggests "Miami Metropolis." None of us
had ever thought of that, but it sounds first rate. How do
you like it? I have dropped him a line saying we shall adopt
this suggestion.
Walter S. Graham

Graham soon would be at the Miami settlement where a wood-
en building was to be constructed near where today's South Miami
Avenue meets the Miami River. The one-story frame building not
only would be home to his law and real-estate business Rob-
bins, Graham & Chillingworth but it also would be home to
Miami's first newspaper.
In a Deep South version of a rough little pioneer shantytown
by a clean green bay, The Miami News was born as The Miami Me-
tropolis on May 15, 1896.
(The plan was to inaugurate the newspaper about April 15, to
coordinate with the arrival of the first train into Miami, but the
wreck of the schooner Seminole with a loss of two lives and the
greater portion of the material for The Metropolis' building -
caused a 30-day delay on the project.)2
The 10-page weekly newspaper, in its initial issues, commented:
It is the first paper ever published on Beautiful Bis-
cayne Bay.
Further, said this first issue, it was,
The most southern newspaper on the mainland of
the United States, published at the most southern
railroad point in Uncle Sam's domain, and at the
most southern telegraph terminal and express of-
fice on the mainland at Marvelous Miami, the town
with over a thousand souls and the survey of the
place not yet completed.
The Metropolis was published on cream-colored newsprint.
In its first edition, it was reported that The Metropolis did not
want to imitate a paper on the Indian River, which was published
on pink newspaper, so it selected cream. It also asked its readers
what they thought of the name of the newspaper, saying it was

History of The Miami News 7
suggested "by one who could be trusted in the manner of naming
a paper."3
An inventory of Miami's businesses was listed in that first is-
sue. No other, except The Miami News, remains active today.
There was not yet a city, that being more than two months
away. Miami, on May 15, 1896, was a settlement to which Henry
Flagler had brought his railroad, where he was building a grand
hotel much on the scale of the ones he had built in Palm Beach
and St. Augustine. It was where the visionary widow Julia Tuttle
owned much of the land north of the river and where William
Brickell ran his trading post on the south bank.
It was where a young Jewish-Russian immigrant named Isi-
dor Cohen arrived in February seeking a location for a dry-goods
business, only to be told by the widow Tuttle that he would have to
wait. He made this observation in his diary of February 6, 1896:

Had an interview with Mrs. Tuttle, who is said to be the
owner of the north-side territory, in regard to renting a piece
of ground for the erection of a store building. Result very
disappointing. Must wait until land is cleared and streets laid
out, when lots will be put on sale. On declaring that I could
not wait, owing to my destitute condition, I was told to take
a job clearing land, whereupon I tried to impress this naive
lady that the last labor of this character my race had performed
was in the land of Egypt, and that it would be a violation of
my religious convictions to resume that condition of servitude.4

The Metropolis reported that it had a bid of $1 for the first
copy of the first issue of the paper. Instead, The Metropolis kept
the first copy for itself, gave the second to Tuttle, the third to Mary
Brickell. The fourth was mailed to Flagler. The fifth went to Coco-
nut Grove author Kirk Munroe, and the sixth copy was given E. L.
White, who had made the original bid of $1 for the first copy.5
(The Robbins, Graham & Chillingworth firm did not spend
much time in The Metropolis' building, which was just south of
the railroad spur that ran to the under-construction Royal Palm
Hotel. On July 17, an advertisement appeared in the paper seek-
ing to rent the office in the building formerly occupied by the law
and real-estate firm. The ad said the 12 x 24 room would be suit-
able for a barber shop, tailor shop or confectionary store.)
Walter Graham was one of Flagler's local attorneys. A native
of New Jersey, Graham also was a doctor, merchant and politician,
a Democrat as well as a newspaper editor. He and his family



Located near where today's South Miami Avenue meets the Miami
River, The Miami Metropolis shared quarters with a law office
for a short time. HASF Collection

came to Miami at Flagler's urging from Titusville, where the
firm of Robbins, Graham & Chillingworth was established.
For several months prior to publishing his first edition, Graham
talked about a newspaper, but did not do much about it. Then he
met Wesley M. Featherly, a recent arrival from Michigan and
a Republican.
Graham made Featherly his local editor; their names appear
on The Metropolis'first masthead. Featherly's disappeared a year
later, on May 21, 1897, Graham, it was reported, "was a man of
forceful opinions and the ability to express them." He was a strong
advocate of U.S. paper money being redeemable in silver as well
as gold which it was not in 1896. There was a classic split be-
tween Republicans and Democrats on that issue, and this can be
seen as a major reason for the breakup between the Democrat
Graham and Republican Featherly.
From its first issue, The Metropolis began calling on the citi-
zens of the new town to incorporate, citing that there would be
1,500 persons living here by July. Meetings were being held toward

History of The Miami News 9
that end, and legal notices were placed in The Metropolis regard-
ing the issue.
Flagler wanted Miami incorporated, and what Flagler wanted,
he usually got. The newspaper was run by Flagler's people; most
of the people in town worked for Flagler- either on the railroad or
on the hotel he was building near where the river met the bay.
On July 28, 1896, the city was incorporated. It was reported this
way in The Metropolis of July 31:
Jos. A. McDonald, Chairman of the Citizens Committee
on Incorporation, called the meeting to order in the hall over
the Lobby at 2 p.m. lastTuesday. The same being the place, day
and hour advertised in the notice of intention to incorporate.
It was announced by the chair that the law required that
two-thirds of all registered voters residing within the limits
which it was proposed to incorporate must be present before
any business could be done, and in order to ascertain if the
required number were present he directed the secretary to call
the role of the registered voters. After some delay in wait-
ing until the hall could be filled, it was ascertained that 312
voters were present, 275 being two-thirds of all registered
voters residing within the proposed limits. There were thirty-
seven more voters than the required number present. It was
then moved by W. S. Graham that the vote on the territory to
be 'incorporated, the name of the city and device for a cor-
porate seal be by acclamation. This was carried and the metes
and bounds as advertised, were adopted as the limits or
boundaries of the City of Miami and a round seal two inches
in diameter with the words City of Miami arranged in a semi-
circular form, constituting the border around the top, and
words Dade Co. Florida, around the base, the design of the
royal palm tree in an upright position in the centre of the
seal and the inscription "Incorporated 1896" inserted just
below the centre of the seal.

Thus, The Metropolis covered the birth of the city a distinc-
tion few newspapers elsewhere ever have achieved. Not only that,
but its editor Graham played a major role in the incorporation
and, that same day, was among those elected to be the first seven
aldermen of the new city.
The Metropolis appeared each Friday. Subscription rates for
the newspaper were $2 on an annual basis or five cents per issue.
The charge for a half-page advertisement for a full year was $400,
while classified ads were five cents a line.
Featherly returned to The Metropolis on April 1, 1898, when
he purchased the paper from Graham. Featherly, in turn, leased the


paper to E. T. Byington, a newspaperman from Georgia. In an an-
nouncement, Featherly said he had purchased the plant, business
and good will of the paper but did it only as business speculation
- as he did not have time to pursue the editing of a newspaper. Be-
sides, he maintained, "Politically the views of this paper do not meet
my own and there being no field here for a newspaper of my par-
ticular stripe, I cannot enter the field at present."
Graham, who said he was selling the paper because he could
not devote the proper care to it, returned full time to his law
practice along with partner George M. Robbins.
Despite his disdain for a Republican running a newsletter
in a Democratic town, Featherly repossessed the paper from
Byington on August 26, 1898. Byington reportedly wanted out
to pursue an agricultural endeavor. (Byington didn't spend
long in the field; he soon came back and established a news-
paper called The Miami News no relation to today's Miami
In returning to the editorship of the then small-town paper,
Featherly wrote that the publication would pursue a conserva-
tive cause but that it would not be the property of any political
party or faction. "When a party paper," he wrote, "a country
journal loses much of its scope of usefulness. People look to
the metropolitan papers largely for their political ideas."6
Wesley Featherly, along with his brother Charles, contin-
ued to publish The Metropolis from the wooden building near
the Miami River. On November 12, 1899, a second destructive fire
hit young Miami the first being on the city's first Christmas
night of 1896. The 1899 fire destroyed The Metropolis build-
ing, as well as Julia Tuttle's Miami Hotel.
Despite the severity of the loss, The Metropolis kept the
story of the fire on an inside page in its November 17 issue.
The second destructive fire in the history of Miami oc-
curred Sunday last. The first alarm was given at 1:30 and
within 30 minutes, the Hotel Miami, The Metropolis' office,
Greer's grocery, Mrs. Knapp's boarding house, machine
shop of the Flagler interests, and Hainlin's steam laundry
with their contents were in a mass of ruins.
The fire started in one of the rooms in the Hotel Miami,
where Mrs. John Smith was preparing food for Mrs. Pell who
was ill of yellow fever. A blue flame oil stove was the cause
of the fire, which when discovered was beyond control ...
The building of The Metropolis was the oldest build-

History of The Miami News 11

ing in the city at the time of its destruction, having been
built in April, 1896, as soon as possible after the railroad
reached Miami. The Hotel Miami was commenced before
The Metropolis building was started but was not completed
for many months. There were some earlier buildings then
either built upon a cheap plan shacks in other words -
which have long since disappeared. The Metropolis claimed
the honor of occupying the oldest building in the city at the
time of the fire.

(A clue as to who rented the space vacated by the Robbins,
Graham & Chillingworth firm in The Metropolis building in July
1896 can be found later in that story of the fire, where it was
reported that The Metropolis building was "occupied by The
Metropolis and Undertaker H.M. King.")
The books and subscription list of the paper were rescued as
was much of the printer's type. The files of the paper, including the
first-off-the-press inaugural issue, were lost to the flames. One
small press and a perforator were all of the machinery that could
be saved. The press was not adequate to publish a newspaper, and
within 24 hours of the loss, a message was received from the owner
of The News at West Palm Beach offering The Metropolis the use
of its plant as a temporary solution. The editor of the West Palm
Beach paper, Simpson Bobo Dean, was later to play a major role
in The Metropolis, but for the present he was a generous colleague
whose offer could not be accepted by Featherly as there was a
quarantine placed on Miami by a yellow fever epidemic.
Instead, The Metropolis'friendly rival, E. T. Byington's Miami
News, offered the use of its facilities, which the stricken paper
was glad to accept.7
Dean did perform a good deed. His office in Palm Beach had
a complete file of The Metropolis from its first issue in 1896, and
Dean gave his files of Metropolises to Featherly for posterity.
Meanwhile, The Metropolis needed a home. The undertaker
King had found new facilities in the Belcher block (today's South-
east First Street and South Miami Avenue). Facilities for The
Metropolis were located in the Chase Building (today's South-
east Second Street and South Miami Avenue)8 and a press be-
longing to C. M. Gardner, publisher of Our Sunny Land, was
used to print the newspaper.9
Within two months, on December 29, 1899, Wesley Featherly -
returning to citing the difficulty in being a Republican trying to
publish in a Democratic town sold The Metropolis to B. B.


Tatum, editor and manager of the Bartow Courier-Informant.
Tatum was one of three Tatum brothers who were to become
instrumental in the development, of Miami and, later, Miami
Beach. Wesley and Charles Featherly purchased a paper in Harri-
man, Tennessee,10 but Charles remained behind in Miami for
several months, handling business affairs for B. B. Tatum, whose
entry into Miami had been delayed by the yellow fever quarantine
that cut Miami from the rest of the world in October 1899. More
than 160 cases of yellow fever had been reported in the city, with
at least eight deaths.
When the quarantine was lifted on January 15, 1900, The
Metropolis was ecstatic, as evidenced by the tone of its January
19 story:

It is needless for us to state that it was with great rejoicing
our people received the announcement Monday morning
that all quarantine restrictions were removed from Miami,
that we were once more free to come and go at will. We have
waited long, weary months for this announcement hoping
against fate that each week would see our beautiful city free
of the epidemic which had so long held her in bondage. Our
people have taken the matter more philosophically than was
at first supposed could possibly be the case. When the first
scare was reported a general stampede occurred, but when
the real epidemic had fastened itself upon us, our people
deported themselves wisely and thoughtfully, as always char-
acterizes Miami citizens. Those who desired to leave the city
did so quietly and deliberately, while those who remained
accepted the position with the best grace possible. During
the epidemic many self-sacrificing acts of Christian charity
were reported, which will ever remain in the minds of our
citizens as a bright spot in the dark part of Miami's history.

B. B. Tatum lost little time in getting The Metropolis back on
track after its disastrous fire and change of ownership. With him-
self as editor and manager, he hired E. Nellie Beck away from the
Tampa Times to become his assistant editor. She was Miami's
first woman newspaper executive."
On May 15, 1900 the fourth anniversary of the founding
of Miami's first newspaper Tatum, Beck and N. L. Stafford
were granted letters incorporating the Miami Printing Company,
with a capital stock of $10,000, and purchased a large Cranston
cylinder press and other machinery and material necessary to
equip the plant for all demands.

History of The Miami News 13
In July 1900, M. F. Hetherington, who had for years con-
ducted a prosperous newspaper and printing plant of his own
in Lebanon, Ky., accepted a position as business manager of
The Metropolis, and on January 1, 1903, he purchased a portion of
the stock of the company, was elected secretary and treasurer
and made associate editor. E. Nellie Beck's name had long since
disappeared from the masthead of The Metropolis replaced
with Hetherington's on April 5, 1901.
The Georgia-born Tatum, who later in life was to become
associated with his brothers in Miami real estate activities, re-
flected the white racial attitude of the day. In an editorial after
a black man attacked a white woman in Miami, Tatum wrote:
"The deplorable circumstances of the assault upon a respectable
white woman, reported elsewhere, by a fiendish black brute,
brings home to us the question of what can be done with these
black sons of hell? All kinds of remedies have been resorted to
including hemp, tar and torch and yet it seems that it is all of no
avail . ." Further in the editorial, Tatum said that had a gang
of white men gotten their hands on the assailant, few "familiar
with the circumstances would have felt any regrets."12
Tatum's Metropolis took two important steps in 1903. It
announced, on August 21, that contracts had been let for a new,
two-story brick building to be used as the permanent home of
The Metropolis and of the job printing business of the Miami
Printing Company. It would be directly across Flagler Street
from where the new county courthouse was being built. Also
on Dec. 11, The Metropolis became a daily newspaper pub-
lishing each day but Sunday.
The Daily Metropolis (a weekly edition still was being printed
for distribution on Fridays) became an eight-page paper with
1,500 circulation and joined the Associated Press, the first Florida
newspaper to obtain that wire service.
The new Metropolis building was located at what became
72 West Flagler Street and was occupied by the time the paper
became a daily publication.
Through the years, however, The Metropolis could not shake
its image as a Flagler-run newspaper. In an editorial, Tatum com-
plained of a speech in the city which charged The Metropolis with
being owned or controlled by Henry Flagler. Tatum strenuously
denied this, charging the speaker with having a record of an
anarchist and socialist.13 Tatum editorialized that The Metropolis

was absolutely independent and unhampered. Yet, as late as 1949,
when Sidney Walter Martin published a biography of Flagler, he
referred to The Metropolis of July 1905 as being the "official
mouthpiece for Flagler."14
Enter Simpson Bobo Dean, the man from Palm Beach who in
1899 offered assistance and files to a Miami Metropolis burned
out of its home.
On January 7, 1905, Dean's name first appeared on the mast-
head of The Metropolis as secretary-treasurer of the newspaper.
Heatherington's name was gone. Dean was a native of Alabama
who started his newspaper career as a printer's devil on a weekly
newspaper and later worked on the Knoxville (Tenn.) Journal
& Tribune.15
Dean established the Weekly Lake Worth News in 1894, serving
the sparsely populated Lake Worth/Palm Beach area. On February
12, 1897, he began the Daily Lake Worth News from a printing
plant on Clematis Street in West Palm Beach. The paper described
itself as a seasonal publication "devoted to the society happenings
and events of interest at the Palm Beach hotels and Lake Worth
cottages." Dean published 41 issues that first season.16 He later
changed the name of the newspaper to the Palm Beach Daily News,
and held forth over that newspaper until coming to Miami in 1905.
In Lake Worth, Dean had continuing financial problems. It
was reported that he had borrowed money from Flagler and was
being pressed by the magnate for repayment.17 It was reported else-
where that Flagler was not a lender so much as he was a secret part-
ner with Dean from the beginning of publication and that fact did
not surface until 1948 when it was disclosed in a sale.18
Dean eventually sold the entire paper to the Flagler interests,
went to Miami and declared war on Flagler.19
(Ironically, the Palm Beach Daily News has survived to the pre-
sent and now is a part of Cox Newspapers as is The Miami News,
which started life as The Miami Metropolis.)
Dean crusaded for better roads and water and sewerage sys-
tems, and against illegal gambling and alcohol. A supporter of
Flagler's railroad empire when in Palm Beach, Dean turned against
the railroad in Miami, which had given preferential shipping rates
to Cuban pineapples and vegetables over South Florida products.
It finally put to rest the perception that The Metropolis still was
under the control of Flagler. In his crusade, he took full advantage
of what other newspapers were saying of the situation, as evidenced

History of The Miami News 15
by this March 17, 1910, editorial reprinted here in part:

This paper has been frequently assailed for making attacks
on the Florida East Coast Railway and the political system
that has been built up through this agency. Such assaults are
usually inspired and it is not difficult to place the source. We
have attacked only the evil that has grown out of the system.
But it is strange that the transparency of those who defend the
system cannot be seen, and stranger that the people who con-
tinue to give their votes for the men who represent the system,
when it is recognized that Florida has been hampered for years
by this incubus. The following is from the Atlanta Journal:
"Flagler is not the power in Standard Oil that he was when
he invented the famous come-back rebate system, whereby
the oil trust profited by its rivals' shipments. His name is now
synonymous with Florida, for if there is any one State owned
body and soul by a boss, it is Florida; 25 of her largest hotels,
all famous wintering places; most of her railroads; and many
acres of her land are owned by Flagler."
Dean is given much of the credit by historians for his battle
with the Florida East Coast Railway, but newspaper accounts of
the day gave equal credit to Dean's editor, Joe Hough Reese.20 (By
1909, Dean had assumed command of The Metropolis. Tatum
sold his interest in the paper to A. J. Bendle on April 20, 1909, and
Bendle a Colorado businessman who had interest in Everglades
land companies announced that he would take no part in the
management or conduct of The Metropolis, leaving that, instead,
to Dean who remained secretary-treasurer of the newspaper.)
As Reese obviously supported by Dean continued to at-
tack the railway in 1910 for what the newspaper considered to be
second-class treatment of South Florida by absentee capitalists
of the railway, a plot was hatched to hurt the newspaper.
Many of the town's leading citizens and businessmen were urged
presumably by railway people to petition The Metropolis
to cease its opposition to the railway for the good of the commun-
ity. The petition was presented to the newspaper. With 49 of the
town's leading citizens and merchants signing the March 28, 1910,
document, it was taken as a threat to the future of the newspaper.
The editors, on April 1, ran on the front page the petition and the
names of everyone who signed it under the heading: 'Business
Men Attempt to Put Quietus on Metropolis by Significant
The story and names set off a storm. For the next few weeks,

the front page of The Metropolis was jammed with stories and let-
ters of support and an occasional word of protest such as the
one from merchant William Burdine, who asked: "We wonder who
will be next to lick The Metropolis' soiled boots."21
As the petition signers found their names in public print, and
saw the backlash especially from the agricultural industry in
Dade County they backtracked. Dean won the day, and adver-
tisers and subscribers who had dropped their support of the paper
through FEC pressure came back. The railroad finally readjusted
its rates.
Never again was The Metropolis to be considered the mouth-
piece for the railroad.
Without fanfare in fact, even without an announcement -
Dean became sole owner of The Metropolis on October 17, 1914.
On that day, Bendle's name disappeared from the masthead and
only Dean's remained as Editor-Manager.
He fought against America's participation in World War I,
ably helped by his crusading writer Hattie Carpenter, who had been
principal at Miami High School but quit in a dispute with the school
board. Sales dropped as a result of Dean's opposition, but when
the U.S. declared war on Germany, Dean pledged his full support
- and members of his staff who went off to fight were retained
on the payroll, though Dean never mentioned that fact in print.
Dean fought many wars of his own in Miami. He was a spirited
editor who didn't mind printing his editorial positions on the front
page of the newspaper.
In November 1913, Dean won still another of his crusades when
Dade County voted itself into prohibition years before the rest
of the nation.
For 10 more years, Dean continued his brand of crusading
journalism for Miami's readers. But, in 1923, another newspaper
publisher James M. Cox was to arrive in Miami at the urging
of Miami Beach pioneer Carl Fisher. Cox made note of his arrival
and subsequent business deal in this passage from his 1946 auto-
biography, Journey Through My Years.

Fisher had importuned me to come to Miami. I finally did,
in 1923, and fell completely in love with the place, confident
that it would grow into a great city. Living in a hotel was al-
ways an intolerable experience for me. When I made up my
mind to spend a part of each year in Miami, I realized that to
find happiness there, I must get something to occupy my time.

History of The Miami News 17

Carl Fisher suggested that I purchase the only afternoon paper,
The Miami Metropolis, the oldest paper in the region. It was
owned by Bobo Dean. Fisher arranged a meeting for me with
Mr. Dean. We came to terms quickly and the deal was made
for cash. Before going back North in the spring I purchased
land on the Beach and had a residence erected during the sum-
mer of 1923. At that time the Nautilus Hotel and our house
were the only structures north of the Biscayne Canal.

Cox, ex-governor of Ohio and unsuccessful candidate for presi-
dent in 1920 with Franklin Roosevelt as his running mate, already
owned newspapers in Dayton and Springfield, Ohio. Both news-
papers were named The News. When he purchased The Metropolis
on April 18, 1923, the sale was reputed to be for a million dollars.

44th Sthnal Balot Son Francisco, July 6, 1920


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Three years before purchasing the Miami News-Metropolis, James
M. Cox was nominated for President by the Democratic Party.
Franklin D. Roosevelt was his running mate. HASFCollection


Best known nationally as a politician, Cox was first a journal-
ist. He began his career at the age of 20 in 1890 at the Middletown
(Ohio) Signal, published by his brother-in-law. Starting as a print-
er's devil (an apprentice in the print shop), Cox quickly moved up
to reporter, then city editor, makeup man and circulation mana-
ger of the weekly.
Cox reported a Middletown train wreck so well that he caught
the eye of the Cincinnati Enquirer, which hired him as a reporter.
He later became the political reporter, and that had much to do
with shaping young Cox's future. He quit the paper to become sec-
retary to an Ohio congressman and, with money borrowed from
that congressman, bought the Dayton Daily News in 1898.
Cox, just as was to occur with Dean a decade later in Miami,
took on the railroad and was almost wiped out as a result.22
But he had tasted politics and liked it. Cox, in 1908, succeeded
the Ohio congressman who loaned him the money for the news-
paper. He was re-elected in 1910 and was elected governor of Ohio
in 1912. He lost his seat in 1914 but regained it in 1916 and was re-
elected in 1918.
In 1920, Cox received the nomination of the Democratic Party
to be that party's candidate for president. Franklin D. Roosevelt
was chosen as his running mate. Another Ohio newspaper pub-
lisher, Warren G. Harding, won the nomination of the Republican
Party and defeated Cox.
The victorious Harding came to Miami Beach in 1920 to cele-
brate before taking office. Here, he was the guest of Carl Fisher.
Cox remained at home, tending to his newspapers until Fisher
convinced him to come to Miami in 1923, when he bought The
In a two-column box on the front page announcing the purchase
of The Metropolis, Cox outlined his publishing philosophy:
The Metropolis will uphold the principles of Jeffersonian
Democracy and devote itself to the public interest. Any city,
growing as Miami is, needs a vigilant press. The public interest
must always be paramount. The function of a newspaper car-
ries a grave responsibility. It is the agency of information and
truth. Its news columns should give all sides of an issue of gen-
eral concern, regardless of the convictions which the paper
has. A journal without convictions is of little use to a com-
munity. Influence of public opinion should be sought in the
fairest manner. Either misrepresentation or suppression of
essential facts profanes the traditions of a great profession.

History of The Miami News 19
One of Cox's first moves was to change the name of the news-
paper to The Miami Daily News-Metropolis, with Metropolis in
much smaller type. (Metropolis was later dropped, as was the word
Daily.) Cox decided early that the two-story newspaper building
on West Flagler Street was not adequate to his plans and decided to
erect the structure that became Miami's most significant landmark.
Work on The Miami News Tower began on June 11, 1924, and
was reported by the paper:
Work on the 15-story office building for The Miami Daily
News began at 10 o'clock Wednesday morning, a large crew
of men being engaged in removing the pine trees on the building
site at the corner of N. Bay Shore dr. and Sixth st. As soon as
these trees are removed, a steam shovel will be put to work
at the excavation, and then actual construction work will be-
gin. Adolph Freedlund has the sub-contract for the excava-
tion. The Fuller Co. of New York, which built the First Na-
tional bank and the Nautilus hotel, has the contract for the
The Daily News building will be 15 stories high and will cost
approximately one million dollars. It will cover the entire
ground space of 125 feet frontage on the drive and 220 feet
frontage on N.E. Sixth st. The first three floors, which will be
occupied by the publishing plant, will be ready for occupancy
by December. The tower, which will be 40 feet square, will not
be finished until later in the winter. Offices in the tower will
be for rent. Surmounting the tower will be a dome which will
be flood lighted at night, and this can be seen far out to sea.
The tower will be half as high as the Washington monument.
The Daily News building will be the tallest structure in Miami.

Cox had purchased, from an undertaker, a large lot on the cor-
ner of Northeast Sixth Street and what then was called Bay Shore
Drive, soon to be broadened and renamed Biscayne Boulevard. He
engaged the New York architectural firm of Schultze & Weaver to
handle the project.
It was decided to design a building in the Spanish style described
as Plateresque. Leonard Schultze and S. Fullerton Weaver, who
had designed the Waldorf-Astoria in New York and the Nautilus
Hotel in Miami Beach, arrived at a 15-story structure topped by a
cupola that could be seen far out at sea. "The News Tower," ac-
cording to a newspaper article of the time, "derives much of its de-
sign from Giralda Tower in Seville, although the treatment of the
tall cupola on the former is more vigorous and dominating."23




Begun in 1924, the Miami Daily News Tower was modeled after
the Giralda Tower in Seville, Spain. HASF Collection

Schultze & Weaver soon were to further influence Miami archi-
tecture by designing the Biltmore Hotel & Country Club in Coral
Gables and Roney Plaza Hotel in Miami Beach all strikingly
similar to The News Tower.

History of The Miami News 21
For his new building, Cox ordered a mural"symbolic of Florida
as known by the ancient and embryonic maps of the 16th cen-
tury."24 He then commissioned a poem to be written by renowned
poet Edwin Markham to be a part of the mural on the mezzanine
of the new building.25
Here once by April breezes blown
You came, 0 gallant de Leon,
Sailed up this friendly ocean stream
To find the wells of ancient dream -
The fountain by the poets sung
Where life and love are ever young.
You found it not, 0 price, and yet
The wells that made the heart forget
Are waiting here yea ever here
With touch of some immortal sphere,
For here below these skies of gold
We have forgotten to grow old -
Here in this land where all the hours
Dance by us treading upon the flowers -
(There is nothing to indicate that Gov. Cox ever saw the Gir-
.alda Tower. In his autobiography, Cox refers to only one trip to
Europe prior to the building of The News Tower. He wrote that,
in 1922, he visited Germany, England, France, Italy and Switzer-
land but he did not mention Spain.)
Cox added a Sunday edition to the newspaper on Jan. 4, 1925;
then to celebrate the opening of his stylistic newspaper plant, he
published on July 25 what then was the largest single edition of any
newspaper: 504 pages in 22 sections. Not coincidentally, the news-
paper that held the previous record was Cox's Dayton Daily News
at 256 pages.
There had been hurricanes in Miami in earlier years but not for
some time. According to weather bureau records, the last hurricane
to hit Miami was in 1906. Almost all the people living in 1926 Mi-
ami had never experienced a powerful hurricane when, on Sep-
tember 18, they were tested. The damage was huge, as first reports
in the September 18, 1926, Miami News indicated:
Tidal Wave Sweeps Bayshore Drive, Wrecking Boats
Fear Felt for Miami Beach; Pounded by Heavy Sea
Miami was laid waste Saturday by a raging hurricane,
attended by a gale of more than 130 miles an hour velocity,


and followed by one of the most disastrous tidal waves ever
experienced on the Atlantic Coast.
Miami Beach was isolated from the mainland and no word
has been received as to the effect of the storm there. It is feared
that a monster tidal wave has swept across the entire island city.
Newspapermen crawled from Miami Beach at 3 a.m. with a
story of pounding surf, broken communication and distressed
boats. It was the last information to reach Miami.
Scores of houses in Hialeah were reported leveled by the
hurricane and under water from the overflow of the canal.
Coral Gables was cut off from all outside communication at
4:40 a.m. Saturday. Continued efforts to reach the city by wire
were impossible ...
At least 114 died and thousands were left homeless. The city,
especially along the waterfront, was flattened by the winds and tidal
surge. The Miami Daily News & Metropolis published a one-page
edition with a hand-run press on September 18 and again on Sep-
tember 19, all the way publishing hand-cranked mimeographed
bulletins through the days and nights as a public service. The Sep-
tember 20 edition of the paper was printed, as a courtesy, by The
Miami Herald, which had power restored before the News &
Gov. Cox, who was in Dayton at the time, recalled in his auto-
biography that first word about the Miami disaster came from a
steamship in harbor at Mobile, Ala. "A dispatch stated that the
News Tower was leaning thirty-three and third degrees," Cox wrote.
"We fell to wondering whether, in the construction, rubber had
been used rather than steel."26
Miami, indeed, had been struck a major blow but there was a
spirit about the place that fortified the resolve of its citizens and
leaders. Out of the rubble of the hurricane, grew a greater Greater
Joining Cox in Miami at the time of the purchase of The Metro-
polis in 1923 was his son-in-law, a man who in later years was to
become one of Miami's most influential citizens. Daniel J. Ma-
honey helped negotiate the deal with Dean. He had married Cox's
daughter, Helen Harding Cox, in 1918. She died in 1921.
Mahoney was a burly Irish-American who thrived on adven-
ture. This temperament did much to influence his reign of influence
in Miami.
He was a school dropout who worked as an engineer on a
Southern Pacific route survey team along the Mexican border and

History of The Miami News 23
later signed up as a scout for Gen. John Pershing against Pancho
Villa. During World War I, Mahoney was a lieutenant with the 89th
Division in France, then served in the occupation force as a
Marrying Cox's daughter after the war, he returned to Dayton
and worked in the paper's advertising department. He was named
national advertising manager and, in 1925, became general mana-
ger of The News League, which is the name Cox gave his group of
newspapers which now included a newspaper in Canton, Ohio.27
Mahoney built a home in Miami Beach in 1926 but spent most
of his time in Dayton until 1930 when he moved here full-time. In
1929, he was named general manager of The Miami Daily News.
Mahoney, said Cox, was one of the best public relations men and
sales executives in the country. While promoting advertising and
circulation sales with his paper, he also promoted the community
and played a key role in many local institutions such as the Uni-
versity of Miami, the Greater Miami Crime Commission and many
charitable organizations.
Cox and Mahoney soon had a tiger by the tail. Mobster Al Ca-
pone bought a house on Palm Island. The paper began a campaign
to run Capone out of town.
That crusade included a wave of front page editorials aimed at
the gangster, such as this one of April 21, 1930, which began:
Al Capone, with all his aliases, has arrived at Miami Beach.
Except for a temporary restraining order which came from the
United States court, he would have been met at the state line,
under orders from the governor of the state and transported
north. For the time at least, Governor Carlton is halted in his
efforts to remove a person designated by him as an "undesir-
There is no surprise in Capone's defying the spiritual sense
of the people of Florida. He laughs at law, he gives it no respect;
through the organized forms of criminal operation he has with
one exception escaped, up until this day, anything beyond ar-
rest or detention upon suspicion ..
Cox and Mahoney had prevailed upon the governor to stop Ca-
pone at the state line but found they had no legal reason to keep
him from entering Florida.
Mahoney went to work on Capone through daily front page
editorials. Mahoney reported that he began receiving telephone
calls asking if he would like to be measured for a coffin.
"I would like to meet at any hour at any place the man who

thinks he's big enough to put me in it," Mahoney would respond.28
One night, Mahoney discovered he was at the same party as Ca-
pone. "Get that bum out of here or I'm leaving," he announced.
Capone was asked to leave.
Cox wrote that he was offered $5 million for the paper and that
there was no doubt in his mind that Capone interests were involved.
He refused the offer.29 The governor is supposed to have told the
Capone mouthpiece, "If you want to buy The News, you can get
it for five cents on any street corner."
Cox's newspaper continued to pursue Capone but the mobster
lived the rest of his days here.
The year 1939 brought the newspaper its first Pulitzer Prize, the
Gold Medal for public service.30 A campaign, begun in 1937 against
three city commissioners who had taken over city hall and were
promoting their own pet projects and making jobs for their camp
followers, finally bore fruit in 1938 with the recall of the trio.
The war years just ahead, however, were to forever alter Miami.
Before war's end, Greater Miami literally was a beehive of mili-
tary activity, stretching from training schools on Miami Beach to
operations at the downtown seaport, in Opa-locka, at Dinner Key,
at Chapman Field on Old Cutler Road, at a massive blimp base in
Richmond and at the University of Miami.
The war pinch was being felt at The Miami Daily News. Not
only were the men and women of the newspaper off to war, but ma-
terials were hard to come by. In December 1943, The Miami Daily
News introduced a nine-column wide news page, designed to cut
down on the number of pages needed to produce the paper.31
The immediate post-war years also brought a time for another
Miami News crusade. Miami, now with a population of 400,000,
was faced with the legacy of Capone and his cronies: the S&G Syn-
dicate. The syndicate was into casinos, bookmaking and police
Dan Mahoney and The News started roaring like a bull and were
instrumental in setting up the Greater Miami Crime Commission
under ex-FBI agent Dan Sullivan. "When The News kept doing
stories about the mob," recalled Sullivan, "officials on the Beach
started worrying it was keeping the tourists away, so city commis-
sioners went to The News building and complained. Mahoney was
a pretty forthright guy. He told them to go to hell."32
U.S. Sen. Estes Kefauver soon entered the scene with investi-
gation into organized crime in the country, His first stop was Mi-

History of The Miami News 25

ami and it spelled the end of the S&G Syndicate in 1950.
There were many in those days who thought Mahoney was a
heavy-handed autocrat. It was he, not the paper, who picked the
political candidates. "I don't think he was an autocrat," said James
Cox, "When he wanted something he'd get it, though. He didn't
brook opposition. He was a slugger. The Tyrant of the Tower they
used to call him,
"But, God knows, the town in those days really needed some-
one to run it."33
Cox died on July 15, 1957. His newspaper lamented the loss on
its front page the next day.

James M. Cox, owner of The Miami News and an elder
statesman of the nation died last night at his home in Dayton,
Ohio. He was 87.
For more than half a century, Cox had been a prominent
man in American life. He was a member of Congress, was three
times the governor of Ohio and in 1920, he was the Democratic
candidate for President.
It was in the 1920 campaign that Cox, agreeing with Presi-
dent Woodrow Wilson that the League of Nations was neces-
sary to preserve world peace, became the premier advocate of
the principles which a generation later led to the creation of the
United Nations.
Beginning as a young man in 1898, he created a group of
newspapers which eventually included The Miami Daily News,
the Dayton Daily News, the Dayton Journal Herald, the At-
lanta Journal, the Atlanta Constitution, the Springfield (Ohio)
Sun and the Springfield (Ohio) News.
He was active in the publishing of his newspapers until he
suffered a stroke five days ago. He maintained a home at 4358
North Bay Road, Miami Beach.

Prior to his passing, Cox already had set in motion the building
of a new home for the paper on Northwest Seventh Street, the old
Tower no longer being able to handle the growth of the paper.34
On October 20, 1957, The News staff moved in to its new
building. By this time, the paper had a new editor, a Georgia boy
with a crew cut and a permanently wry smile, named William
Calhoun Baggs. It was he who changed the name of the paper from
Miami Daily News to its present name, The Miami News.
Baggs plunged into the civil rights crusade, along with Rev.
Theodore Gibson and Elizabeth Virrick. It is reported, but never
admitted, that Baggs pressured major businesses in the community

to commit to hiring exact numbers of blacks for better than menial
chores and that Baggs kept those pledges under lock and key in his
desk drawer, calling upon the businesses every once in a while to
honor their obligations.
The Pulitzer Committee was to honor The Miami News again
in 1959 when it chose reporter Howard Van Smith's series on the
plight of South Florida's migrant workers for the national report-
ing award.35
The years of Fidel Castro also were at hand and, with it, came
the Cuban Missile Crisis. It led to the paper's third Pulitzer Prize,
for international reporting in 1962.36 News of the Russian missile
buildup was first broadcast to the world by The Miami News, de-
spite guarded denials from Washington. Eventually, the adminis-
tration made it public.
As the world sat breathless, wondering if the Russians would
back down, Baggs received a telephone call he was never to reveal
from whom and loped into the city room to get into print the fact
that the Russians had, indeed, backed down. It scooped the State
Department by an hour. When Time Magazine pressed Baggs to
reveal his source, he grinned that lopsided grin and said: "A rose-
ate spoonbill told me."37
As The Daily News staff worked from its new building on the
banks of the Miami River, the News Tower was deserted; it was
dubbed "the dowager of the boulevard," by one journalistic ob-
server. Soon, however, there was to be a change in Miami a
change so severe that it not only changed the image of the tower
but of the entire city as well.
In 1960, Cuban refugees fleeing Fidel Castro began pouring in-
to Miami. The temporary processing center at Miami International
Airport could not handle the volume and a new center was sought.
That center turned out to be "the dowager of the boulevard."
On June 20, 1962, life returned to Gov. Cox's tower. Reported
The Miami News that day:
The old Miami News Tower woke up today.
After almost five years of silence where presses once roared
and typewriters rattled, the Tower was full of human voices
and human activity.
With a new name Freedom Tower the historic build-
ing will begin a new and even better life Monday.
It will become headquarters for the Cuban Refugee Center.
Nearly 3,000 penniless refugees from Fidel Castro's Cuba will
come there daily in search of help, and will find it.

History of The Miami News 27
The building that Cox built after a tower in Spain was now a
bastion of liberty for those who spoke Spanish.
The first four floors of the building were leased by the U. S.
Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Each month, hun-
dreds of new refugees arrived at the Tower for processing. They
got there either through the Freedom Airlift, or on leaky boats -
much as did Haitians who began following the Cubans to our shores
a decade later.
It is estimated that between 1962 and 1974, a total of 463,854
refugees passed through the Freedom Tower.
(The building originally had been sold by The Miami News in
1957 to a New York real estate investor for $1.25 million. The in-
vestor, Irving Maidman, at the time also owned three hotels in New
York.38 He planned to turn the News Tower into an office building,
but did not. Through the years, ownership of the Freedom Tower
has passed through many hands.)
Meanwhile, in 1963, Dan Mahoney passed away while under-
going surgery in New York. He was succeeded by James M. Cox,
Jr., son of the founder of the newspaper league.39
Three years later, the paper signed an agreement with the Miami
Herald Publishing Company whereby the publishing company
would print, distribute, sell advertising and promote The Miami
News. The paper moved out of its home on the Miami River and
into the Miami Herald building on July 29, 1966.
It followed, by a few months, The Miami News' fourth Pulitzer
Prize, awarded to Don Wright for editorial cartooning.40 Wright,
who started at the paper as a copy aide and subsequently was a
photographer, photo editor and cartoonist, became a nationally-
acclaimed cartoonist and is widely syndicated.
Fate dealt the paper and the community a cruel blow, when on
January 7, 1969, Baggs died at the age of 48. Exhausted by years of
battling for civil rights and against the American presence in the
Vietnam War he twice visited Hanoi as an unofficial representa-
tive of the U.S. government4' Baggs succumbed to pneumonia.
In 1974, James M. Cox, Jr., passed away and was succeeded
as publisher by Daniel Mahoney, Jr., son of the former publisher.42
Young Mahoney had been publisher of The Dayton Daily News
and came to Florida to oversee both The Miami News and Cox's
newspapers in West Palm Beach.
Recognizing the need for a full-time publisher at The Miami

News, however, Charles Glover, then president of Cox News-
papers, selected David Kraslow, chief of the Cox Washington
Bureau, to be publisher of the paper in 1977.43 For Kraslow, it was
a return home.
A graduate of the University of Miami, he began his newspaper
career at The Miami News in 1948 as a sports writer, later moving
on to The Miami Herald, Los Angeles Times and Washington Star
before accepting the Cox Washington job in 1974.
In the period from 1976, The Miami News was redesigned into
one of the nation's most exciting formats, truly modular. Mean-
while, awards continued to pour in for the newspaper. In 1980, Don
Wright received his second Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning.44
In May 1986, The Miami News celebrated its 90th anniversary.
With the exception of the Florida East Coast Railway, which
opened the town in April 1896, the newspaper is the longest con-
tinuing business in Miami.

History of The Miami News 29

1. Miami Daily News, May 12, 1946.
2. Miami Metropolis, May 15, 1896.
3. Ibid.
4. Isidor Cohen, Historical Sketches and Sidelights of Miami, Florida.
(Privately printed, 1925) pp. 14-15.
5. Miami Metropolis, May 15, 1896.
6. Miami Metropolis, Sept. 2, 1898.
7. Miami Metropolis, Nov. 17, 1899.
8. Miami Metropolis, Dec. 8, 1899.
9. Miami Metropolis, Nov. 17, 1899.
10. Miami Metropolis, Feb. 9, 1900.
11. Miami Metropolis, Feb. 16, 1900.
12. Miami Metropolis, Jan. 23, 1903.
13. Miami Metropolis, Oct. 30, 1903.
14. Sidney Walter Martin, Florida's Flagler. (Athens: University of Georgia
Press, 1949.) p. 207.
15. Miami Daily News, March 24, 1945.
16. Palm Beach Daily News, Sept. 4, 1983.
17. Ibid.
18. David Leon Chandler, Henry Flagler. (New York: Macmillan Publish-
ing Company.) pp. 141-142.
19. Palm Beach Daily News. Sept. 4, 1983.
20. Miami Metropolis, March 16, 1910.
21. Miami News-Record and Miami Metropolis, April 8, 1910.
22. James M. Cox, Journey Through My Years. (New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1946.) p. 18.
23. Miami Daily News and Metropolis, July 24, 1925.
24. James M. Cox, Journey Through My Years. (New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1946.) p. 314.
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.
27. The Miami News, April 2, 1963.
28. Ibid.
29. James M. Cox, Journey Through My Years. (New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1946.) pp. 315-316.
30. Miami Daily News, May 2, 1939.
31. Miami Daily News, Dec. 20, 1943.
32. The Miami News, April 2, 1963.
33. Ibid.
34. Miami Daily News, Feb. 2, 1955.
35. The Miami News, May 4, 1959.
36. The Miami News, May 6, 1963.
37. Time Magazine, Nov. 16, 1962.
38. The Miami News, Aug. 15, 1957.
39. The Miami News, April 2, 1963.
40. The Miami News, May 2, 1966.
41. William Baggs and Harry Ashmore, Mission To Hanoi. (New York:
G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1968.) pp. 5-6.
42. The Miami News, Oct. 27, 1974.
43. The Miami News, May 19, 1977.
44. The Miami News, April 15, 1980.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

"Watch Miami:"

The Miami Metropolis and the
Spanish-American War

By Thomas F. Fleischmann

Fought in 1898, the Spanish-American War marked the ar-
rival of the United States as a world power. Few institutions
celebrated this event more than the print media, especially the
New York World and the New York Journal. During the three
years preceding the outbreak of hostilities, these tabloids led the
way in arousing a national mood of militarism through the tech-
niques of sensationalism and yellow journalism.'
However, not all newspapers followed the lead of the nation-
al press. Founded on May 15, 1896, more than two months be-
fore the city incorporated, The Miami Metropolis was one such
journal. It was an eight page weekly published Fridays at five
cents a copy. Walter S. Graham and Wesley M. Featherly were
the paper's first editors and publishers whose policy was to boast
of Miami's weather and location as a means to boost the city
and its commercial expansion.2 Preoccupied with his insurance
business, Featherly quickly leased the paper to Edward Bying-
ton, who became its manager and editor. Byington also saw the
newspaper as an important factor in Miami's future, centering
primarily on commercial and social growth. This practice was
not uncommon for nineteenth century frontier tabloids and their

Thomas F. Fleischmann is currently on active duty with the United
States Navy stationed in Miami. He recently received a second Masters
Degree in History from the University of Miami.

This study will analyze The Miami Metropolis' coverage of
one event, the Spanish-American War, as a case study of the
nature of the newspaper and how it reflected the aspirations of
the recently established city.4 The Spanish-American War offers
not only an excellent opportunity to study the tone of the news-
paper and the new city but also to observe how a major nation-
al event affected Miami. The war caused Byington, The Metro-
polis, and the city to seize their first real chance to boost Miami
nationally. It provoked patriotic excitement along with fear of
invasion, and an opportunity to enhance the city's growth and
development. The Metropolis recognized Miami's location and
port as important factors in playing a dominant role in the
Caribbean during and after the struggle.
From 1896 to 1898, The Metropolis paid little heed to the
Cuban rebellion or the possibility of war with Spain. This lack
of attention was typical. Historian William J. Schelling discov-
ered that Florida's major newspapers underestimated the extent
of the problem in Cuba while believing that war was unthink-
able. Fearful Floridians believed that war would jeopardized
the prosperity they had experienced throughout the 1890s. They
also believed that the United States would annex Cuba, thereby
creating economic rivalry in agriculture and tourism. He con-
cluded that Florida's newspapers did not support the conflict
until war was inevitable and until the Teller Amendment, dis-
claiming any intention on the part of the United States to an-
nex Cuba, passed.5
As recently as five weeks before the outbreak of hostilities,
in April 1898, The Metropolis predicted there would be no war
with Spain. It based its belief on the fact that Spain appeared
to have little money or credit, few men, and had been humiliated
by the United States too often not to meet its demands, which
included freedom for Cuba, an indemnity for the loss of the bat-
tleship Maine, and a pension for the survivors of those killed. The
paper felt that a show of force and the appearance of a few
warships in Havana harbor would get the compliance the U.S.
desired. Locally, there was fear that if war came, Miamians
would be attacked, not by invaders but by Spanish gunboats
which would use Miami as their target.6
Several weeks later war seemed inevitable. The Metropolis
realized that Miami's geographical liability could also be an

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 33
asset. "In the event of war between this country and Spain," the
journal noted, "there can be no doubt Miami will play an im-
portant part."7 Consequently, the eight-page tabloid began
boasting the significance of Miami as a supply station for both
the Army and Navy and an embarkation point and coaling
station for the latter. Repeatedly, The Metropolis listed Miami's
advantages: the most southern point by rail, closer than Tampa
or Jacksonville to the seat of war, a harbor safely landlocked
and sufficiently deep, with direct and quick railroad connection to
the coal mines of Alabama. It reasoned, therefore, that "Very
early in the fray the Navy Department will recognize its superior
advantages as a base of supplies,"8 and recommended, "that
a regular army post should be established and suitable fortifica-
tions erected here without delay."9
Not surprisingly, The Metropolis'perspective echoed that of the
city's and newspaper's chief benefactor, Henry M. Flagler. A
founding partner of Standard Oil, Flagler devoted the last thirty
years of his life to developing Florida's East Coast. His chief in-
struments were his railroad, the Florida East Coast Railway, and
a chain of luxury hotels. For Miami, the coming of Flagler's rail-
road and construction of the Royal Palm Hotel signaled the
beginning of the city's growth and expansion. When war was
declared, Flagler, like other railroad men in Florida, saw an
opportunity to increase the value of his developments at gov-
ernment expense.10 And The Metropolis expressed in public what
Flagler uttered in private." In a letter written by the industrial
magnate to Senator Platt, Flagler described the benefits which
Miami could provide the government if troops were stationed
in the city.
In my judgment, Miami would be a preferable point for a
large number of troops . At Miami, we have an
inexhaustible supply of purest water . I have built an
iron water tower at Miami, 120 ft. in height. On the south
side of the Miami River, across from the town, there is an
unbroken stretch of five miles of bay front most admirably
adapted for camping purposes. A water pipe could very
easily be extended to the camp, and thus an abundance of
pure water be supplied. The drainage is excellent, and for
the comfort of officers and men, they can depend upon the
constant sea breeze. I don't believe there is a pleasanter
location on the Atlantic Coast, south of Bar Harbor, to
spend the summer in than Miami.12


The possibility of being left out of the preparation for war
caused anxiety among many Florida communities. Signal sta-
tions for lookout and early warning programs were being erected
along the east coast of Florida, but only as far south as Cape
Canaveral. The paper objected, believing that signal stations
should be constructed as far south as Miami because of its
proximity to Havana and the potential need for protection. The
Metropolis' attitude toward security was "better safe than
sorry." "We do not anticipate an excursion from the Spanish,"
the journal noted, "but at the same time the unexpected often
happens and it is well to be prepared for it."13 Further, in its ef-
forts to obtain its objectives, The Metropolis resorted to reprint-
ing articles and excerpts supporting this viewpoint in the Jack-
sonville Times-Union and Citizen, a newspaper in which Flagler
also had an interest. In the matter of Miami's potential role
as a supply and embarkation center the Times-Union and Citi-
zen stated, "Miami unquestionably should be this point, on ac-
count of proximity."14 It added, "The rail routes via Jacksonville
to Port Tampa and Miami are open, and there is plenty of good
coal up in Alabama."15
Simultaneously, The Metropolis discovered that the war
scare, Miami's location, and its real or imagined apprehen-
sions about the Spanish could mean geographic, demographic,
and financial growth. As fleeing refugees from Key West landed
in Miami, the newspaper expressed concern for their safety and
continued to hope that war could be avoided.'6
On April 15, 1898, The Metropolis reported that construction
of fortifications had commenced on Brickell Point overlooking
Biscayne Bay. A battery of four large guns consisting of two
ten-inch and two eight-inch mounts were to be installed in order
to protect and guard Miami's harbor entrance. The Metropolis
suggested that a gunboat or two and one or more torpedo boats
might also be stationed in the bay as additional protection.17
The War Department, however, felt that the gun emplacement
was adequate security.1' Sarcastically, Byington, the editor,
observed that, "The War Department is evidently in need of a
revised map of Florida."19
By this time though, the press approached hysteria over
Spanish preparations to ravage Miami and the countryside in
search of provisions, and The Metropolis issued a call to arms.20

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 35
Spain had to obtain supplies from somewhere, and consequent-
ly, The Metropolis noted, "her war ships can come near enough
to send a few hundred men in small boats on some dark night to
pillage stores, carrying off provisions, and do other damage."21
A well-equipped home guard, the paper theorized, would be of
valuable service during such a time and therefore should be or-
ganized immediately. The community, in turn, responded by
forming two local militia groups, the "Miami Minute Men" and
the "Miami Rifles," containing 100 and 63 men, respectively.22
Apparently, the paper reasoned that if the War Department
was not going to protect them, they would protect themselves.
When war came on April 25, 1898, the War Department an-
nounced that it had selected Tampa as its primary logistical
site in the Caribbean because of its harbor and railroad facili-
ties, a decision The Metropolis was quick to call short-sighted.
Annoyed by the choice, the paper wondered how Tampa could
be chosen over Miami, when Miami offered itself willingly to
the government during this critical time. Discarding the notion
that Miami was jealous of its sister city, The Metropolis instead
insisted that the city took pride in Tampa's achievement. The
Metropolis, however, did lament, "the focus which has been
drawn upon Tampa, and the utter disregard which has been
shown for Miami is difficult to understand."23
As if to point to the faultiness of the government's choice and
the advantages overlooked, The Metropolis reiterated Miami's
salient features. Again and again, it noted that in terms of
transportation and location the city contained an ample rail-
way which placed the city one hundred miles closer to Key West
than Tampa and a deep harbor which was viable and feasible
as demonstrated by the established steamship line connection
with the island city. Miami's climate was an ideal spot for a
camp because it was the healthiest summer point in the South
with an unlimited supply of pure water. These valuable aspects
alone, the paper felt, made it imperative that the authorities
reconsider the southeast coast of Florida for a military camp.24
The pride of Miamians and The Metropolis was not the only
thing smarting from the War Department's snub; so were their
pocketbooks. Byington editorialized that there were good times,
"By reason of the massing of troops at Tampa the merchants of
the city are reaping a rich harvest."25 Troop expenditures, gov-


ernment purchases, and an influx of visitors which necessitated
the opening of its winter hotels, allowed thousands in profits to
be made by Tampa's businessmen.26 This effrontery weighed
heavily upon The Metropolis and the city, particularly since they
believed that Miami possessed advantages equal, if not superior,
to Tampa's from the standpoint of location, hotels, water, and
climate. However, Miami, "had seen nothing of war prepara-
tion beyond the location of small guns at Brickell's point.""7 In-
dignantly, the editor declared, "We are patriotic all right, but
when this near to the seat of war it would be more satisfying to
have some of the recognition which is naturally to fall to us."28
In the meantime, the biggest thrill that Miami received was the
arrival of Spanish prisoners-of-war as they came from the front
and were transferred northward for confinement. One of the
more memorable of these occasions occurred when Colonel Cor-
tijo, reputed son-in-law of Captain-General Valeriano Weyler,
commander of the Spanish troops in Cuba, arrived during the
week of May 9 as part of an exchange for two New York World
correspondents held captive by the Spanish in Cuba. The Metro-
polis lost no time in public relations when the Colonel was forced
to remain overnight because of a missed steamship connection
to Key West. The colonel and his entire entourage were comfort-
ably provided for and given a tour of the city with the result that
they, "expressed themselves as being much pleased with Mi-
ami."29 At approximately the same time the army sent Briga-
dier General James Wade to study Miami as a possible camp
site, but quickly rejected the city for reasons unexplained by The
Metropolis, even though the paper enthusiastically predicted
that, "Nothing has yet been given out as to what will be done in
this matter, but the indications are that several large commands
will be ordered here within a week."3' This setback did not dis-
courage the paper from launching another offensive to obtain
more war preparation or troops.
The paper reiterated what the government could find in
Excellent camping grounds. Pure Water. The softest air
on earth. A healthful climate. Good bathing facilities. Ex-
cellent sanitary arrangements. No malaria. No fevers.
No mosquitoes. Plenty of fire wood. A deep water channel.
Good railroad facilities. The biggest and best dock in

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 37
Everything was here and available except Spaniards. Anxious to
curry favor with the government, The Metropolis averred: "If Uncle
Sam doesn't see what he wants let him ask for it."32
Additionally a new endeavor was found for Miami. In June dis-
cussion began over the possibility of transferring the prize depot
for captured ships from Key West to either Savannah or Charles-
ton. This became necessary because of harassment of prisoners on
board detained ships by the Cuban populace. One way to end this
abuse and prevent further trouble would be to move the prize de-
pot. Not missing an opportunity or taking the chance of being ig-
nored, The Metropolis interjected, "We beg to interrupt the pro-
gress of the row with the suggestion that as a prize depot, Miami
would be better than either Savannah or Charleston, and that if
Key West is to be abandoned Miami should be chosen in its stead."33
Secondly, the paper introduced efficiency as an argument for
Miami, Taking note of the postal problems at Tampa, the paper
commented that the same would occur here unless the government
took action by forwarding additional postal clerks if and when
soldiers would be stationed in Miami.3 However, if the govern-
ment had the foresight to do so then The Metropolis felt that their
postmaster would have little difficulty in handling the task.35
Meanwhile, a second inspection of Miami was underway by
General Lawton as a possible site for troops.36 After spending a
day in "Marvelous Miami," General Lawton drafted a more favor-
able report than that of General Wade. This second tour was
prompted because, as the paper saw it, the government recognized
the value of Miami's geographical location and decided that it
would be prudent to go over the ground a little more thoroughly.37
The Metropolis now revealed what it felt were the reasons why Mi-
ami was rejected in the first place: Secretary of War Russell Alger
had heard rumors of mosquitoes, bad water, and fever.38 But the
presence of such maladies were dismissed by the paper stating that
a physician was sent who, "found absolutely no fever here of any
kind and he pronounced the water good," and, "The mosquito
problem was looked into and it was found that there were no mos-
quitoes here."39 The paper hoped that because of the differences
between the first and second report troops would be located in
Miami shortly.40
The Metropolis had figured right. Troops of the Seventh Army
Corps began arriving the following Friday, June 24, 1898. They



There were 2,000 people living in Miami on June 24, 1898, when
the troops of the Seventh Army Corp began arriving. Within seven
days their number reached 7,500. HASF Collection

consisted of two brigades of volunteers comprising six regiments.
The First brigade was composed of the First Texas, First Alabama,
and First Louisiana while the Second brigade was composed of
the Second Texas, Second Alabama, and Second Louisiana. These
infantry regiments were transported by rail, arriving at the rate of
one thousand a day until they numbered 7,500, quite a number
considering Miami's population stood at 2,000.41 Assured a week
earlier that the soldiers would arrive, the paper now came out slug-
ging at what it considered a severe oversight from the beginning:
"The truth is that Miami should have been selected in the first place,
instead of Tampa, over which we have every advantage in the mat-
ters of location, healthfulness, good water, and freedom from the
pests which afflict most other places."42
Once the troops settled, they discovered that Miami was far
from idyllic. Studies have shown that the soldiers experienced an
uncomfortable, difficult and even violence-plagued tour. Various

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 39
reasons accounted for their unpleasant stay. Some were due to the
army's logistical problems and others to Miami itself. Supply short-
ages were a constant problem. Shortages of cooking items, camp
equipment, improper uniforms, missed pay days, and irregular
rations made the soldiers angry and unhappy.43
Soldier displeasure was compounded by the partially completed
camp site and their enlistment in clearing the land in addition to
their military training duties. Nearly sixty years after the encamp-
ment, Sgt. Charley H. Carr of Company F, First Texas, recalled
that he, "cleared a lot of land for Henry Flagler when Miami was
only a depot, a hotel and a jungle."44 As if this situation was not bad
enough, the soldiers experienced unhealthy water, miserable
weather, and a growing sick list. Ill soldiers received poor treatment
due to inadequate medical supplies. Mrs. Harlan Trapp, a Coco-
nut Grove pioneer, reminisced: "I was glad to mend garments and
gave them all we had for an improvised hospital across the road."45
Not surprisingly, rowdyism became a problem, and the scarcity
of recreational facilities and activities needed to occupy soldiers
in their off-duty hours did little to alleviate trouble. As Donna
Thomas in "Camp Hell," inferred, Miami's chief contribution to
this predicament and an added source of disillusionment for the
troops was the city's complete lack of facilities needed to sustain a
military camp.46 The reality contrasted sharply with The Metro-
polis' comment during the first week that, "They're all pleased with
Reading The Miami Metropolis, one would not realize the sense
of dissatisfaction felt by many camped here. Only through a care-
ful perusal can one distinguish the change in tone from enthusiasm
to defensiveness. During the first several weeks of Camp Miami,
the local press appeared only interested in what the troops meant
to the city, the business community and the diversions provided
to the troops during their off-duty hours. The paper literally bub-
bled with exuberance as it claimed that a "Report says that the de-
posits in the Bank of Bay Biscayne have increased over $55,000
since the coming of the troops. Business of all kinds has more than
doubled. The merchants can hardly get goods fast enough."48
Distractions from the loneliness and rigors of camp life were
supplied by local groups and institutions, and the Army. The swim-
ming pool of the Royal Palm Hotel, Miami's major hostelry, was
opened to the soldiers. The Young Men's Christian Association

put up tents where soldiers could read and write letters or play
checkers or backgammon. The First Texas and First Louisiana
erected booths for the purpose of reading and writing. The Second
Texas even organized a band to entertain the troops and Miami-
ans. Military canteens were opened to provide soft drinks and per-
sonal necessities such as soap, razors, and tobacco. Also, local
pastors and churches attempted to assist regimental chaplains in
their moral advising and counselling duties. However, these at-
tempts proved insufficient because of the difficult tour that the sol-
diers were experiencing.
Soldiers found other means to distract themselves in their off-
duty hours. Sgt. Carr remembered mischievously that on July 4,
1898, "He and a few buddies took their rifles, 'borrowed' a boat,
and went up the Miami River to shoot alligators."49 Others swan
naked in the bay, spent time on the beach or practiced their marks-
manship by shooting coconuts out of trees.50 While these pranks
were harmless, other attempts to alleviate boredom proved to be
dangerous to Miami's black residents.
J. K. Dorn, a Miami pioneer, wrote of harassment of black Mi-
amians by Company L of Texas over the course of several days.
It started one afternoon when two white women came across a
black man coming down a sidewalk. Instead of stepping off the
walk and allowing the women to pass, the black continued on
course forcing them to move aside. This scene was witnessed by
a couple of Company L soldiers who reacted with rage. They
grabbed the man, beat him, and attempted to lynch him on a near-
by tree. Some officers, however, were able to prevent the murder.51
That evening, soldiers from Company L marched into the black
section of Miami and began shooting out every kerosene lamp
found burning. This action caused blacks to evacuate to Coconut
Grove, a community five miles to the south. Without black labor,
Dorn recalled, white Miamians found it difficult to operate their
restaurants, hotels, and stores, "so we sent a squad to Coconut
Grove and promised them they would be protected, so they returned
and by eleven o'clock were working again."52 The next night soldiers
from Company L went north a mile outside the city limits to Billy
Woods Saloon where liquor was sold and blacks were permitted
to drink separately. The soldiers went into the saloon and raised
a ruckus before returning to camp.53
The most outrageous act occurred on July 23, 1898. That eve-

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 41
ning Virgil H. Duncan, a private in Company M, First Texas Regi-
ment, shot and killed Sam Drummer, a black cook, in the middle
of a public street. The incident began in a crowded store when
Drummer brushed against a white woman while attempting to
pass here in a narrow aisle. According to The Metropolis, "Duncan
seems to have had cause to regard this occurrence as intentional
rather than accidental."54 He became enraged and threatened
Drummer but did nothing until the black completed his business,
walked out of the store and into the street. Duncan followed Drum-
mer and several seconds later fired four shots into him killing him
instantly. At this point, "Lieutenant T. S. Smythe rode up on horse-
back, and having seen what had occurred, disarmed Duncan and
sent him under guard to camp."55 A coroner jury exonerated Dun-
can, ruling that, "Drummer came to his death by an unknown."s5
Next, the army had its turn. A General Court Martial was held
charging Duncan with first degree murder. Specifically,

In that he did, in time of war, with premeditation and design
to effect the death of one Levi Drummer, a citizen of the United
States of America, unlawfully and with malice aforethought,
kill the said Drummer, by shooting him to death with a pistol
or revolver. This at Miami, Florida on the 23rd day of July,
Without explanation, the court found Duncan not guilty, released
him from confinement, and returned him to duty.
Nevertheless, financial and commercial growth remained a pri-
mary focus of The Metropolis. The first pay day for the troops on
'July 21, 1898 attracted considerable attention. Nearly $80,000 was
paid to the soldiers. One regiment received $40,000 because it had
not been paid since May 1st.58 The Metropolis eagerly watched
and followed the money as it went to businesses, "Any one passing
through the streets last night could not have any doubt about yes-
terday being pay day. The cold drink stand reaped a rich harvest,
and those that had eatables for sale filled their coffers with the filthy
luchur,"59 Accordingly, Miami's banks and post office had banner
days, as over $3,700 passed into the money order department,
while the understaffed express office simply could not keep up
with the business.60 Evidently, many soldiers saved or sent money
home to their families. In typical Horatio Alger fashion the paper
moralized that the boy who saved his money or sent it home to as-
sist his family was a prince.61 Noting one boy in particular, who

sent all but three dollars of his pay to his mother in Louisiana, The
Metropolis predicted that, "That boy will, bye and bye, make his
mark in the world."62
On the other hand the hardships of the men were minimized
by the paper: "Despite hard drilling and the general disagreeable-
ness of soldier life, the boys are enjoying their stay in Miami. Some
of them spend almost the whole of their spare time on the bay."63
But by the third week and throughout the remainder of the en-
campment, The Metropolis hinted at an undercurrent of problems
endured by them. July heat prompted a change in drill hours and
the necessity of restricting soldiers to camp between the hours of
11:00 A.M. to 3:00 P.M. as a means of keeping them out of the
sun during mid-day.64 Nevertheless, The Metropolis felt that, "A
three hour's steady drill in the hot sun is a good test of the ability
of the troops to stand hard service in a tropical climate. This is what
one company did yesterday and we are told not a man fell out."65
Sanitation was a problem from nearly the beginning. Of par-
ticular nuisance was the disposal of human waste, which was the
major source of disease and death within the camp.66 Soldiers were
advised that Miami was healthful and every precaution should be
taken to keep it so, warning that, "It is hot weather and garbage de-
cays rapidly filling the air with disease germs."67 Obviously, this
admonishment was not enough since two weeks later The Metro-
polis announced that the Sanitary Committee had appointed a
new sanitary inspector citing that, "There has been a great deal of
just complaint in regard to the general sanitary condition of the
town, also of the dumping of garbage in the north portion of the
city.""' The inspector was authorized to stop illegal dumping of
garbage in the northern end of the city and placed in charge of see-
ing to it that the area was cleaned and stayed that way. Along with
these responsibilities, he was empowered to condemn spoiled fruits
and vegetables being sold by grocers and vendors.
Though the retailing of liquor was not practiced in Miami, al-
cohol abuse and alcohol related problems plagued the city and
the soldiers. The organization of a local chapter of the Women's
Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and its call in The Metropolis
for help from local churches supports this conclusion. Further,
the Union requested a meeting with women and ministers in order
to enlarge its working force by forming an auxiliary. The
W.C.T.U.'s expressed aim was to work for the comfort and best
interest of the soldiers camped in Miami.69

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 43

Nightly church gatherings and revivals were a clue that morale
was a problem. Miamians were scolded for their lack of concern
for the moral and spiritual welfare of the soldiers. Some system
had to be devised to ensure that at least one chaplain or pastor
would be present each evening to preach or talk to the men. These
meetings were felt to be a source of encouragement for the soldiers
to do right and to help them through a hard day.70
This attitude of concern shifted to one of defensiveness when
on July 29, 1898, The Metropolis revealed that Secretary of War,
Russell Alger, had dispatched General Fitzhugh Lee, command-
ing the Seventh Corps, to investigate incidents of sickness in Camp
Miami. A week earlier, the paper reported that besides measles and
mumps there were no serious illnesses.71 However, on the 29th, it
reversed itself while defending Miami:
There are quite a number of cases of sickness among the sol-
diers. The great majority of these are cases of measles, for
which Miami is in no wise responsible. The other cases are ty-
phoid fever and a variety of minor ailments for none of which
this climate is responsible. Our own citizens are enjoying the
very best of health.72

According to the newspaper this investigation was prompted by
an inquiry by the governor of Texas to the Secretary of War Alger
concerning the condition of the Texas troops at Camp Miami. The
Secretary responded by ordering General Lee to Miami to exam-
ine the situation first hand, instructing him to move the troops
north if illness prevailed to an unusual degree.73 Apparently, the
general did not like what he saw, for on August 1, 1898, General
Order No. 37 was issued detailing the troops to Jacksonville. The
soldiers began breaking camp on the following day.74
The Metropolis should not have been completely surprised by
the situation. It had a point of contact within the local chain of
command and had become aware of the possible departure. The
paper admitted as much in its July 22nd issue, noting: "We met a
soldier with whom we have become quite well acquainted and he
said, 'I am awful sorry but we have received marching orders. The
7th corps is to be consolidated at Jacksonville.'"75 Obviously,
what became the immediate concern of the paper was not the
pullout of the troops and loss of business but the reasons why. The
army ostensibly removed the soldiers because of widespread sick-
ness and the general unhealthfulness of the region. Circulation of

such accusations was bad publicity which could hold far reaching
ramifications for a city that prided itself on its location and climate
as its major appeal to attract further settlement and development.
With this prospect evidently in mind the paper printed a
separate defense of Miami and its climate, absolving it of any re-
sponsibility for the illness of the soldiers. Calling the stories circu-
lating exaggerated and false, The Metropolis shifted the blame to
the victims, to another area of the country, and, indirectly, to the
war and the Army. Causes for the illness, it wrote, were the result
of the soldiers undergoing the transition from civilian to military
life and their arrival from a malarial infested region off the gulf
coast of Alabama. Miami, on the other hand, should be judged by
the health of its citizens, which was never better; not by conditions
which existed in the encampment among men who brought illness
with them or as a consequence of military life.76 Among the 7,500
troops the paper counted only 13 deaths in five weeks, listing the
cause of these fatalities: suicide (I), gunshot (1), typhoid fever (6),
and from measles complicated by other ailments (5). These figures
were compared and contrasted to Miami's own population of
2,000 citizens of which no adult citizen had died since February,
1898.77 With defiant air The Metropolis concluded that Miami was
a healthful city as evidenced in its citizenry.
The Army's reasons for removing the troops, and the paper's
defense, served only to cover the larger explanation for the depar-
ture. In a somber letter from Brigadier General William W. Gor-
don, Commanding Officer of the Second Brigade, to Joseph A.
MacDonald, civilian director of Camp Miami, a more plausible
explanation, beyond health reasons, was offered. While not blam-
ing MacDonald for any of the shortcomings experienced by his
troops, General Gordon wrote, "The fact is that the number of
troops were too great for the resources of a place where almost
everything they needed had to be created."78 Miami simply did not
have the resources and facilities to accommodate 7,500 troops,
2,000 citizens, plus a number of assorted camp followers who were
attempting to reside within its limits, let alone serve the needs of
the 36,000 soldiers, 10,000 visitors, and 25,000 citizens who located
at Tampa.79
Nevertheless, the newspaper celebrated the immediate accom-
plishments of the encampment and a dynamic profitable future
awaiting the city at the close of the war. In the short run, the stay

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 45
of the troops meant one hundred acres of scrub land cleared, one
mile of railroad sidetrack, construction of two warehouses, addi-
tional streets paved, an artesan well begun, employment for every-
body for six weeks, profits running into the thousands of dollars
for some businesses, and the advertisement of Miami from Maine
to California.80 The Metropolis believed that this progress was
only a foretaste of events to come because,
When the war closes, with steamships plying between Ha-
vana, Nassau, Key West, and the islands of the sea, the ships
loaded with the products of these islands which are being ex-
changed for American products, all passing through this
port, will begin to reveal to the world something of the im-
portant position Miami occupies in the commercial world.
Watch Miami.81
With its geographical position and proximity to Cuba, Puerto
Rico, and the Caribbean, the recently incorporated city of Miami
welcomed the Spanish-American War as an opportunity to further
its growth and development. The Miami Metropolis, the city's
lone newspaper at this time, reflected this booster attitude. Since
the paper's inception on May 15, 1896, it had been the policy of
its editors to boost the new settlement, focusing on location and
climate as its major assets. The Spanish-American War offered
still another element for boosterism. There is a sense of irony to
the city's boosterism. Like other Florida papers before the war,
The Metropolis perceived peacetime as the proper environment
for prosperity. Once the war began, however, and the paper dis-
covered that the city would remain untouched by the war's destruc-
tiveness, it targeted its attention toward gaining benefits from the
army and government in furthering Miami's self interest.


1. Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism A History: 1690-1960.
3rd edition (New York: Macmillan Company, 1962). pp. 519-45 and Edwin
Emery, The Press and America: An Interpretative History of the Mass Media.
3rd edition (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972). pp. 348-79.
2. "Salutatory," Miami Metropolis, May 15, 1896.
3. Miami Metropolis, April 1, 1898. Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans:
The National Experience (New York: Vintage Paperback, Random House, Inc.,
1965) pp. 113-68.
4. Charlton W. Tebeau, A History of Florida (Coral Gables, FL: University
of Miami Press, 1971) pp. 309-26.
5. William J. Schelling, "The Role of Florida in the Spanish-American
War, 1898," (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, 1958). pp. 23-48.
6. "Talk About War," Miami Metropolis, March 18, 1898.
7. Miami Metropolis, April 8, 1898.
8. Ibid.
9. "Miami as a Supply Station," Ibid.
10. Sidney Walter Martin, Florida's Flagler (Athens: University of Georgia
Press, 1949). P. 164; David Leon Chandler, Henry Flagler: The Astonishing
Life and Times of the Visionary Robber Baron Who Founded Florida (New York:
MacMillan Publishing Co., 1986). pp. 141, 181; and Edward Nelson Akin,
"Southern Reflection of the Gilded Age: Henry M. Flagler's System, 1885-1913"
(Ph.D. dissertation University of Florida, Gainesville, 1975). p. 100.
11. Martin, Florida's Flagler P. 164; Chandler, Henry Flagler pp. 141, 181;
and Akin, "Southern Reflection of the Gilded Age" p. 100.
12. Letter, Henry M. Flagler to Senator T. C. Platt, April 30, 1898.
13. "A Signal Station for Miami," Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. "Leaving Key West," Ibid.
17. "Protection for Miami," Miami Metropolis, April 15, 1898. Arva Moore
Parks, "History of the Briggs-Morley Property and Residence (1824-1968) 1581
Brickell Avenue, Miami, FL" Coral Gables, 1975. pp. 1-10.
18. Miami Metropolis, April 22, 1898
19. Ibid.
20. "Cavalry Company Formed," Miami Metropolis, Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. "Miami Minute Men," and "Miami Rifles," Miami Metropolis, April
29, 1898.
23. "Short Sighted Policy," Miami Metropolis, May 13, 1898.
24. "Good Times at Tampa," Ibid.
25. Ibid.
26. Ibid.
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid.
29. "Cortijo Here," Ibid.
30. "Soldiers for Miami," Miami Metropolis, May 27, 1898.
31. Miami Metropolis, June 10, 1898.
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. "As It Is At Tampa," Ibid.
35. Ibid.

The Miami Metropolis and the Spanish-American War 47

36. "Miami and the Soldiers," Miami Metropolis, June 1898.
37. Ibid.
38. Ibid.
39, Ibid.
40. Ibid.
41. "Soldiers are Coming," Miami Metropolis, June 24, 1898.
42. "Miami and the Soldiers," Miami Metropolis, June 17, 1898.
43. Donna Thomas, "'Camp Hell:' Miami During the Spanish-American
War," Florida Historical Quarterly 57 (October 1978): 141-56; William J.
Schellings, "Soldiers in Miami, 1898," Tequesta (1957): 69-76 and "The Role
of Florida in the Spanish-American War," specifically chapters eight and nine;
William M. Straight, "Camp Miami, 1898," Journal of the Florida Medical
Association 74 (July 1987): 504-13.
44. "He fought in 'Battle of Miami'", Miami News August 28, 1957.
45. Trapp, Harlan, "My Pioneer Reminiscences," (Miami, FL: Privately
Printed, 1940). p. 9.
46. Thomas, "'Camp Hell'," p. 155.
47. Miami Metropolis, July 1, 1898.
48. Ibid.
49. "He Fought in 'Battle of Miami'," Miami News August 28, 1957.
50. Helen L. Muir, Miami, U.S.A. (New York, 1953). pp. 77-80.
51. J. K. Dorn, "Recollections of Early Miami," Tequesta 9 (1949), p. 55.
52. Ibid.
53. Ibid.
54. "Shooting Affair Saturday," Miami Metropolis, July 29, 1898.
55. Ibid.
56. "Verdict of the Coroner's Jury," Miami Metropolis, July 29, 1898.
57. "General Court Martial Orders," Miami Metropolis, August 12, 1898.
58. "Pay Day," and "One Regiment Get $40,000," Miami Metropolis,
July 22, 1898.
59. Miami Metropolis, July 22, 1898.
60. "At the Post Office," Miami Metropolis, July 22, 1898.
61. "Sending Their Money Home," Ibid.
62. "The Post Office," Ibid.
63. Miami Metropolis, July 22, 1898.
64. "New Orders," and "Change of Drill Hours," Miami Metropolis, July
29, 1898.
65. Miami Metropolis, July 15, 1898.
66. Straight, "Camp Miami, 1898," pp. 508-11.
67. "Sanitary," Miami Metropolis, July 8, 1898.
68. "Our New Inspector," Miami Metropolis, July 22, 1898.
69. "W.C.T.U.," Miami Metropolis, July 15, 1898.
70. "The Big Tent Meeting," Miami Metropolis, July 15, 1898.
71. "Another Visit to the Hospital," Miami Metropolis, July 22, 1898.
72. "Troops May Move," Miami Metropolis, July 29, 1898.
73. Ibid.
74. "Troops Are Being Removed," Miami Metropolis, August 5, 1898.
75. Miami Metropolis, July 22, 1898.
76. "Healthfulness of Miami," Miami Metropolis, August 5, 1898.
77. Ibid.
78. "Well-Merited Praise," Miami Metropolis, August 5, 1898.


79. "As It Is At Tampa," Miami Metropolis, June 10, 1898. William J.
Schelling, "Tampa, Florida: Its Role in the Spanish-American War, 1898"
(M.A. Thesis, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 1954). pp. 23-68.
80. "What the Encampment Did for Us," Miami Metropolis, August 12,
81. "Miami the Center of Business," Miami Metropolis, July 29, 1898.

Arch Creek:

Prehistory to Public Park

By Emily Perry Dieterich

An Arch Creek outing, circa 1897. HASF Collection

Meet me at the bridge. The natural limestone bridge. Meet
me at the bridge at old Arch Creek ... the little natural bridge.
The natural bridge where all good friends meet.
from the song "Meet Me At The Bridge'
by Jessie Freeling

Emily Perry Dieterich is the Research Historian for the Metro-Dade
County Historic Preservation Division and was the First Director of
Arch Creek Park when it opened in 1982.

Arch Creek perhaps no other South Florida landmark
evokes more colorful mental images. By definition, Arch Creek is
a body of water which historically flowed from the Everglades
eastward into Biscayne Bay. Frances Densmore described it as
"an avenue to the depths of the Everglades . where rare beauty
of vegetation may be seen . ."1 For Tequesta Indians, Arch Creek
was the shady oak tree hammock which provided food and shelter.
For early pioneers, Arch Creek was a favorite picnic spot. For
passengers on the stage coach route, Arch Creek was the long
awaited rest stop. It was also the last stop for boats on sightseeing
tours from Miami. Throughout the years, enterprising individuals
tried to develop the area, prosper from its uniqueness, incorpo-
rate it, re-route it and even destroy it. Artists have painted pictures
of it and written songs about it. The concentration and range of
activities associated with the Arch Creek area is truly amazing.
Even more amazing is the fact that portions of this beautiful place
have survived relatively intact.
No description of the Arch Creek area would be complete with-
out reference to the natural limestone bridge which spanned the
creek and gave it its name. In a discussion of south Florida geology,
archaeologist Irving Eyster noted,

Of all the openings in the limestone ridge, Arch Creek was
the most unique. Here the water cuts under the oolite lime-
stone, rather than through it. This left an arch forming a
natural bridge . 2

A variety of interesting theories have been proposed regarding
the formation of this geological curiosity. In historian Thelma
Peters' Biscayne Country, she writes the following account:

When the arch was created is not known. One theory of how
it was created is this: Arch Creek was an underground stream
. until one day it lost its cover through erosion or by an
earthquake . except for forty feet where the solid rock re-
fused to fall. (Lest the earthquake theory be lightly dismissed,
there has long been a myth that New River of Fort Lauder-
dale was the result of an earthquake).3

Bert Mowers, an avocational archaeologist, described the
natural bridge as "originating from a partially collapsed cavern
roof."4 Archaeologist Dan Laxson suggests still another theory:
... Arch Creek runs through the only natural bridge forma-

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 51
tion in south Florida. Originally, the creek was a horizontal
solution hole. Swampy, acid-charged ground water gradually
weakened the roof of this tunnel until large pieces caved in,
eventually forming an open limestone gorge.5

Regardless of its origin, the natural bridge was undoubtedly
one factor which made the area so attractive to prehistoric Indians,
and, later, to the pioneers of the Arch Creek area in the 19th cen-
tury. Approximately 40 feet long and 20 feet wide, the bridge was
the focal point of much human activity throughout history.
Botanist John K. Small described the archaeological site at
Arch Creek as having ". . evidence of much activity, in the way of
kitchen middens, village sites, and burial mounds."6 The site was
recorded in the Florida Master Site File by archaeologist John
Goggin in 1952.
Laxson was the first to excavate the site in 1956. He described
the soil as sand over a basal formation of pot-holed limestone
which frequently appeared at the surface. An area of black dirt in-
dicated the site's boundaries, within which a total of eight pits were
excavated. Laxson recovered over 300 pottery fragments, a dozen
Strombus shell tools, bone points and a stone pendant. Accord-
ing to the Everglades Culture Sequence, the stratigraphy and the
ceramic time markers indicated the most intense occupation of the
site was during the Glades II period (A.D. 750-1250).7
A joint excavation of the site was undertaken by the Broward
County Archaeological Society and the Miami-West India Arch-
aeological Society in 1972. The team excavated eight pits, recov-
ering over 6,000 pottery fragments which represented the Glades
II period. Only a few Glades I period (500 B.C. A.D. 750) pottery
fragments were recovered, and even fewer Glades III period (A.D.
1250-1700) time markers.8
The most extensive work at the Arch Creek site was conducted
by archaeologist Robert Carr in 1975 for the Florida Division of
Archives, History and Records Management. Considerable care
was exercised in this project, which succeeded in locating a rela-
tively undisturbed portion of the site. A total of eight pits were ex-
cavated yielding over 2,000 pottery fragments, numerous artifacts
and faunal remains. The ceramic assemblage and radiocarbon
dates obtained from Carr's study indicate a long occupancy of
the site, covering almost the entire Everglades Culture Sequence.9
The dates of occupation suggested by Carr are 500 B.C. through
A.D. 1300, with the most intense occupation between 300 B.C.

and A.D. 100. Carr reports the area was "no longer the site of a large
village after circa A.D. 1200." As an explanation, he suggests,
.. the demise of the Arch Creek village reflects a population
shift by its occupants to other village sites . reflecting a
trend towards greater nucleation of coastal groups in or near
emerging town settlements in South Florida, such as the town
of Tekesta at the mouth of the Miami River.10
Archaeological excavations, research, and references in the lit-
erature, help to recreate the following chronology for the Arch
Creek area, beginning in prehistoric times and continuing through
the 20th century.
The area around Arch Creek was one of many prehistoric In-
dian habitation sites along Dade County's estuaries. Other large
villages were established around the same time at Oleta River,
Surfside, Little River, Miami River and Snapper Creek. Arch
Creek was the site of a substantial village which was able to sup-
port a sizable population due to the abundant natural resources
in the area.
The oak tree hammock, adjacent to the creek, provided much
needed shade and shelter for the Indians, as well as nutritious
plants, nuts, and berries. Biscayne Bay, less than half a mile away,
offered a variety of food sources: fish, shellfish, shark, manatee,
and turtle. To the north of the hammock were pine flatlands, home
of the important coontie plant, (Zamia integrifolia), whose roots
the Indians ground to make an edible starch-like paste. According
to botanist Dan Austin, "the plant was a staple starch source for
the Glades Indians . and also later for the Seminoles and Euro-
pean settlers."1' Arch Creek provided access into Biscayne Bay
and the interior Everglades and, of course, the natural bridge al-
lowed the Indians to cross the creek without getting their feet wet.
The historic Tequesta and Seminole Indians may have occupied
the area around Arch Creek on a seasonal or temporary basis from
circa A.D. 1300 through the 1800s. Evidence confirming this
theory was long ago destroyed by surface disturbance to the site.
During the Third Seminole War (1855-1858), U.S. troops
built a military trail between Fort Lauderdale and Fort Dallas
in Miami. It used the natural bridge at Arch Creek.
It follows through its whole extend a dry belt of country
grown up with pine, palmetto, koontie, and crosses three
streams; the Boca Ratones, Arch Creek which is spanned
by a natural bridge and Little River.12

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 53
The trail was actually a portion of a rock road, built by order
of Captain Erastus Capron, linking Fort Dallas with Fort Cap-
ron five miles north of Fort Pierce."
Unconfirmed reports indicate an arms dealer who sold guns
to the Indians during the Seminole Wars lived near the bridge.14
Known as Luis the Breed because he was part Indian and part
Cuban, Luis was supposedly killed during one of the many bitter
battles at the natural bridge.
Having served its purpose, the trail was abandoned and in
many places obliterated. Soon after this, a coontie mill and water
sluice were constructed at Arch Creek.
As indicated earlier, the coontie plant was an important food
source for Indian tribes in south Florida. The plant, which once
grew abundantly in the pinelands around Arch Creek, has been
the subject of much ethnobotanical research."5 A brief review of
these studies is important to an understanding of the significance
of the mill site at Arch Creek.
The plant and its edible by-product have been referred to by a
variety of names in the literature: koonti, koontie, coontie, coom-
tie, cunti, comptie, compete, arrowroot, arrowroot starch, comfort
root, flour root, and Indian bread root.16 The coontie plant belongs
to the genus Zamia, a member of the ancient cycad family, and is
widely distributed from Florida to Brazil. The common species in
southeastern Florida is Zamia integrifolia. According to Emile
Moya, "the plant seems to prefer limestone soils, doing well on
the eroded late Pleistocene rocks of southern Florida, Yucatan,
and the West Indies...".17 Superficially, the plant may appear to
be a small palm, or heavy fern, with its neat rows of stiff, pinnate
leaves. Coontie reaches a maximum height of only two and a
half feet and most of the plant's structure is found underground in
the heavy stem or tuber which may weigh several pounds. The
stem, which is commonly referred to as a root, resembles a sweet
potato and is composed of a tough fibrous material with a high
proportion of starch grains. Additionally, the root contains a solu-
ble poisonous compound, probably a glycoside.18
The first step in processing coontie involves cutting the roots
into small pieces. The pieces are then grated or ground into a moist
pulp. The pulp is washed and strained, separating the starch from
the fiber and removing the toxin. The starch which remains is al-
lowed to settle, the water is drained off, and the process is repeated.
The author's experience indicates the water will exhibit a reddish

cast until the poison is entirely removed. The starch is then dried
in the sun for several hours. The result is a powder-fine, high qual-
ity starch with a sweet, vanilla-like flavor.19
According to Sleight, "the earliest reference to the use of the
roots for making of 'bread' by the Indians of Florida is to be found
in the Memoir of Hernando d' Escalante Fontaneda, dating from
about 1575."20 John Fix reports the Tequestas and Calusas pre-
pared a "pudding" from coontie roots which was a basic ingredi-
ent in almost every meal.21 A study by Austin revealed the Semi-
noles called it "coontie-hateka" or "white bread", from which the
word coontie is derived.22
During the 1800s white settlers in south Florida learned the
art of preparing coontie starch.23 Not only did the pioneers enjoy
the culinary rewards of the coontie plant, but they turned the pro-
cess into a profit-making business which endured almost a century.
The backyard manufacture of coontie starch was a dependable
source of cash for early pioneers until about 1900 when commer-
cial mills began operating.24 According to Ernest Gearhart:

. manufacturing starch from the coontie root is probably
the earliest known industry in Dade County . it has been
established that white settlers engaged in the industry some
time prior to 1840.25

Probably the best known of the commercial mills was owned by
Albert Hurst located at Northeast 2nd Avenue and 103rd Street.
The mill turned out two tons of high quality, fiber-free starch a
day, most of which was sold to national baking companies for bis-
cuits, crackers, cookies and spaghetti. As early as 1845, George W.
Ferguson also owned a large mill which sometimes employed as
many as 25 workers. Ferguson's mill was located about three miles
up the Miami River at present day Northwest South River Drive
and Northwest 28th Avenue. The Florida Tropical Cookbook
contains many recipes for using coontie in sauces, gravies, pud-
dings and pies. Reportedly, coontie starch was also good for
burns.26 A by-product of the industry was the decayed pulp which
made an excellent fertilizer for fruit trees.27
Most of the earlier mills were makeshift and operated by hand.
The Hurst mill utilized steam for power to turn the grinding wheel.
But one of the most unusual mills was operated at Arch Creek and
was powered by running water. The only known reference to the
Arch Creek coontie mill comes from Rose Wagner Richards'

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 55
Reminiscences of the Days of Miami, published by the Miami
News, in 1903. Mrs. Richards gave the following account:

It was in the fall of the year, 1858, that Mr. George Lewis re-
turned to Miami . desirous of finding a good location on
which to build a factory and engage in the manufacture of
starch. Such a place he and Mr. Robert Fletcher, who was to
share in the enterprise with him, found on Arch Creek ... The
factory was built immediately on top of the arch. On the south
side where a ditch was cut through the rock, can yet be seen,
and where the water was made to flow through after the main
passage beneath the arch had been closed up sufficient to cause
the water to rise and flow through the ditch with such force as
to turn the water wheel attached to the machinery used in the
factory. A year or more of time was consumed by them at this
place and not succeeding as well as they could have wished, the
place was abandoned by them altogether.28

The seemingly inexhaustable supply of coontie gradually dis-
appeared in the early 1900s. The Hurst mill was destroyed by a hur-
ricane in 1926 after it moved to Southwest 104th Street and U.S. 1
and was never re-built. The slow growth habit of the coontie plant
was not conducive to cultivation, and their natural pineland habi-
tat was the first to feel the crunch of the bulldozers during the land
boom of the 1920s. The mill at Arch Creek, although unsuccess-
ful in the starch business, was certainly unique in operation. It is
one of the only known coontie mills to have used a sluice and the
only excavated mill site in south Florida.
Township 52 South, Range 42 East was officially surveyed in
1870 and the natural bridge and surrounding tree hammock were
duly noted on the map.29 Settlers in the 1870s included Mike Fal-
lon, William S. Milliken, Mr. and Mrs. J.R. Rhodes and their two
children, the brother of Mrs. Rhodes, Benjamin Coachman, and
Mr. and Mrs. William Fogg. Milliken died February 5, 1876 and
was buried close to the natural bridge.30 A large granite tombstone
marked his grave which remained until at least 1934. An article in
the Daily News indicated that the grave had been disturbed through
the years reportedly because the word "treasure" was used in the
The J.R. Rhodes family came from the Carolinas and settled
near the arch on the south side. Mr. Rhodes was known as "Arch
Creek Rhodes" to distinguish him from Samuel Rhodes of Coco-
nut Grove.32

Mrs. Rhodes, in crossing the arch one day, met and killed
the largest rattle-snake with a small garden hoe, that I have
ever heard of being killed in the country, the snake measuring
6 feet 9 inches. The skin was preserved as a trophy. She was a
plucky little woman, and thought nothing of what she had

The Rhodes moved away in 1877. According to Peters, Charles
J. Ihle deserves the title of First Settler in the vicinity of Arch
Creek. In 1891 Ihle bought 80 acres, for a dollar an acre, and planted
fruit trees, coconut palms and landscaped his property with tropical
plants. In 1922 the Deloss LeBaron Perrine family purchased the
Ihle property. Mr. Perrine published Tropic Magazine, which fea-
tured articles on outdoor life and sightseeing in Florida. He used
a photo of the estate on the cover of the magazine in April, 1925.34
Rattlesnakes were not the only over-sized creatures that lived
at Arch Creek. In 1874 William T. Hornaday, a taxidermist in
Miami waged a vicious battle with a 14'2" crocodile in Arch Creek.
Hornaday claims it was the first true crocodile ever captured on
American soil.35 "Old Crock" was stuffed and put on display in the
United States National museum.
Commodore Ralph Munroe and Charles Peacock, early Co-
conut Grove pioneers, engaged in a ferocious fight with a 14'8"
crocodile in Arch Creek. They succeeded in capturing and killing
the 1,200 pound saurian which was exhibited at the American
Museum of Natural History in 1887.36
Perhaps the most colorful account comes from Dr. John G.
Dupuis of Lemon City, who wrote the story of "Gladiator, The
Crocodile of Arch Creek."'37 According to Dupuis' Seminole In-
dian friends, Gladiator's parents were huge crocodiles that resided
in Indian Creek. Gladiator was "blown by a very severe hurricane
when he was a baby into Arch Creek River and was immediately
adopted by a mother Manatee (Sea Cow) who protected him.. .'31
Gladiator became a "vicious and terrific fighter and if a shark or
saw fish or animals invaded his home he executed them without
fear or favor . but in all the time he resided at Arch Creek he
never fought or annoyed any of the Manatee family in his chosen
homestead."9 Dupuis terminated Gladiator's fighting career and
hung the croc's skin in the reception room of his White Belt Dairy
The first county road built at taxpayers' expense was com-
pleted in 1892. According to Peters, the road "ran from Lantana

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 57
at the lower end of Lake Worth to Lemon City on Biscayne Bay,
sixty miles, 'built' at a cost of twenty-five dollars a mile . ."40 In
1890 E.L. White was commissioned to build three ferries, in con-
junction with the county road, to cross Little River, Snake Creek
and New River. There was no need for a ferry at Arch Creek as it
had a natural bridge.41 A hack line (stage coach), "consisting of a
springless wagon drawn by mules, with boards to sit on and a canvas
for shade, began operating in 1893."42 Peters reports "the stage
coach . made the last rest stop southbound at the arch there
were no facilities but plenty of bushes and good water if one had
a long reach."43 A portion of the trip was described by Guy Met-
calf, editor of the Tropical Sun newspaper:
At noon (of the second day) we reached Arch Creek where is
to be found a natural rock bridge under which runs the clear,
deep waters of the creek, full of the finest fish, which can be
seen gliding hither and tither.44
"The military trail of the Seminole Wars, the first county road,
and later the Dixie Highway, all followed almost identical routes
crossing the natural bridge at Arch Creek."45 Peters calls it the
"Check Point Charley of the Bay country, the welcome mat for
early tourists, and a natural phenomenon that all South Floridians
came to regard with pride, even awe."46
Other south Florida pioneers besides Lewis, who built the
coontie mill, took advantage of the natural bridge and sought to
prosper from it. Unlike Lewis, however, Clarence Billings capital-
ized on the beauty of the Arch Creek area and operated a sightsee-
ing tour between Miami and the natural bridge. The Metropolis
reported that Billings had cleaned out the obstructions in Arch
Creek so he could operate his launch, the Laura, which drew only
twenty inches of water. "It was a good trip, the paper said, because
of 'the deep gorge near the Natural Bridge, the bridge itself, the
tropical foliage covering the banks of the winding streams, the
trees covered with immense orchids, the alligators sunning along
the banks . .47
Pioneer Caroline Washburn-Rockwood took a sightseeing trip
from the Peacock Inn at Coconut Grove to the natural bridge, and
wrote the following account in her book, In Biscayne Bay:
About two hundred yards ahead the coral had formed a solid
mass across the river . leaving a natural bridge, on which
vegetation had taken a luxuriant hold, while a transparent veil
of vines half revealed the upper waters of the creek beyond

... The tide was low enough to allow the boats to go under the
arch, and they followed the creek a mile farther toward the
Everglades, where quantities of white lilies were growing
among the waving grasses.48

The residents of the community and nearby towns appreciated
the beauty of the Arch Creek area too and utilized it for rest and
relaxation. Pupils of Miami's first downtown school celebrated
the end of the school year with a picnic at the natural bridge in
May, 1887. According to Peters, "barbecues, fish fries, political
rallies, Easter egg hunts, community Thanksgiving dinners, and
even on one occasion a baptism, were held there."49
Not only did Ralph Munroe capture crocodiles at Arch Creek,
but he also captured the beauty of the area on film. According to
Munroe's uncle, Alfred, "the narrow river, which most of the way
is bordered by mangrove trees, whose roots shoot out from the
body of the trees twenty feet above ... together with the long hang-
ing moss make pictures that are worth coming down to see."50
Another enterprising pioneer, Captain John Welsh, was at-
tracted by the beauty of the Arch Creek area. Welsh's pet project
was the town of Natural Bridge. He bought 160 acres of land im-
mediately surrounding the arch and planned his town.51 Among
other ideas, his design included building a hotel in the oak tree
hammock. To promote the town, Welsh offered prospective buyers
a boat ride from Miami to the natural bridge. The end of the trip,
Arch Creek, was the most popular part:
... the launch passed through thick mangroves arching over-
head, across the salt marsh, and into the shade of the dense
hammock. Alligators sunning on the banks plopped into the
water . and startled birds awkwardly took wing. When the
tide was low enough Welsh provided a rowboat so his guests
could have the thrill of passing under the arch.52
George Hinckley, a wealthy restaurant owner and nature lover,
moved to the Arch Creek area about 1910. He built a house near
the oak hammock where he made a hobby of enhancing the natural
beauty of the area and sharing it with others. Hinckley trimmed
sections of the hammock, planted tropical trees, laid out trails, and
provided picnic tables. According to Peters, "he even had two
peacocks to entertain his visitors."53 The Metropolis reported that
Hinckley "was getting his place to look like a park."5 Hinckley
also built a refreshment stand where he sold cold drinks and

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 59


A rare picture of the Shell House at Arch Creek.
Courtesy of Emily Perry Dieterich

The refreshment stand was later enlarged and became known
as "the shell house," because the outer walls were covered with
conch shells. Peters reports,

. during Prohibition when tea rooms were in vogue, this
building was known as the Arch Creek Tearoom. (Metro-
polis, October 27, 1921). The tearoom almost overhung the
stream near the arch and was itself the subject for many
souvenir postcards,s55

The town of Natural Bridge, or Arch Creek as it later became
known, grew and prospered in the early 1900s. A group of people
from Elmira, New York, established a winter colony where they
grew grapefruit and tomatoes. The Elmirans are credited with the
first organized settlement in the area.56 The Florida East Coast

L ..,

Railway came through and established the Arch Creek depot in
1903, about a half mile south of the natural bridge. A post office
opened the same year and classes began at the Arch Creek School
in 1905. By 1920 Arch Creek boasted a population of 307 resi-
dents.57 The real estate boom in the mid 1920s transformed the
small community into a fast-paced city. Arch Creek incorporated as
the Town of Miami Shores in 1926.
Portions of the oak hammock were cleared for a trailer park
in the 1950s. Known as the Seabreeze Trailer Park, the owners
destroyed much of the native vegetation surrounding the trailers.
The trailer park operated for approximately five years before the
property was sold.
In 1957 the first of many threats against the natural bridge and
the Arch Creek tree hammock materialized. A flood prevention
program designed to drain low-lying areas placed the arch in dan-
ger. The Army Corps of Engineers proposed blowing up the bridge
or rerouting the creek. The Miami Herald announced, "one of
Southeast Florida's historic landmarks may be doomed ... Dade
County engineers say that the bridge must be sacrificed for better
drainage of the area."58 Fortunately, protests from the Audubon
Society, the Historical Association of Southern Florida, and local
residents prevented either of the alternatives from becoming a
reality. Coincidentally, this was the same year that Laxson pub-
lished his report indicating the presence of an important prehistoric
Indian midden in the hammock. The Miami News featured the
natural bridge in a "Believe-it-or-Not" column in 1958.59
It was not until the 1970s that the Arch Creek area again re-
ceived such widespread public attention. The Chrysler Corpora-
tion, owner of the property in 1972, proposed to build a used car
lot where the oak hammock stood. Citizens' groups such as Tropi-
cal Audubon Society, Miami-West India Archaeological Society
and the Arch Creek Trust were outraged at the idea of destroying
the beautiful tree hammock and paving the ground with concrete.
The groups initiated an extensive campaign aimed at saving the
land from destruction. Meanwhile, the Chrysler Corporation gave
the Broward County Archaeological Society 60 days to conduct
salvage excavations in order to determine the property's archaeo-
logical significance.
Finally, after almost a year of intense lobbying, the Florida
Cabinet voted unanimously to preserve the property. The Miami
News reported that $822,000 was allocated from the state's land

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 61
acquisition trust fund to buy 7.9 acres east of the creek which
would be developed into a state park.60
Within hours of signing the official documents one month later,
the natural bridge collapsed into the creek. Fortunately no one
was hurt, but unfortunately, the newly acquired property was with-
out its most prized natural feature. Initially there were claims of
sabotage but explosives were finally ruled out as the cause. There
are almost as many theories regarding the mysterious collapse of
the natural bridge as there are about its original formation. Erosion
and old age were finally determined to be its downfall, combined
with auto traffic and vibrations from nearby railroad tracks.
In 1975 state officials held a ground-breaking ceremony for a
museum at the park. It was at this time that archaeologist Bob
Carr excavated the Indian midden in order to gather interpretive
data and materials for displays in the proposed museum. Between
1975 and 1978, state funds for the building were directed elsewhere
and nothing more than breaking the ground was ever accomplished.
In 1978 Dade County leased the property from the state and
began planning a park. The early 1980s brought clean-up crews
to the property and construction began on a museum.
An unfortunate incident occurred in November, 1980. A North
Miami police officer, Carl Mertes, died in the line of duty on the
property. Today the park bears his name in its title.
During the summer of 1981 the Youth Conservation Corps
planted over 500 trees and established a nature trail through the
hammock. Also in 1981, the Dade County Historic Survey and
archaeologist Irving Eyster discovered and excavated the historic
coontie mill sluice. Among the artifacts recovered by Eyster were
a clay pipe bowl and stem, a fragmented Spanish olive jar, ginger
beer bottles, ironware, faunal bone and several pieces of Indian
pottery. Eyster succeeded in locating the area that contained the
water wheel and the location of the gate which controlled the flow
of water. Many charred timbers and charcoal were found, indicat-
ing that perhaps the mill was burned.61
Arch Creek Memorial Park for Carl Mertes was officially dedi-
cated on April 25, 1982. Much publicity preceded the ceremony
announcing the long-awaited event and detailing the controversial
history surrounding the new park. According to The Miami Her-
aid, over 700 people gathered for the celebration, and nearby
streets were closed to traffic.62 Community citizens and officials
participated in an emotional program full of reminiscences,

speeches and proclamations. The Historical Association of South-
ern Florida presented the park with a handsome historic marker
which was unveiled at the ceremony.
Arch Creek Park is a passive park, designed for nature-lovers,
birdwatchers and students of history and archaeology. The park
environment promotes quiet contemplation and leisurely hikes.
The facility at Arch Creek Park is an architectural conversa-
tion piece, designed as a replica of a late 1800s Florida "cracker"
style house. The exterior walls are western red cedar, stained gray
for a weathered appearance, and a tin roof covers the building. A
wide porch wraps around the outside. Inside is a beautiful yellow
cedar, oak and teakwood floor and solid douglas fir beams stretch
across the high ceiling.
The building functions as a museum and nature center. The
exhibit area features interpretive displays illustrating the natural
and archaeological history of the Arch Creek area. As one of only
two publicly accessible archaeological sites in Dade County, the
park offers educational experiences that cannot be found anywhere
else in the area. Students may participate in special programs
where they assume the role of archaeologist, botanist or bird-
Today, a primary concern at Arch Creek Park is the preserva-
tion and protection of the native tree hammock and the archaeo-
logical sites. A comprehensive botanical plan, developed by natur-
alists and the park staff, is currently in use. The plan contains an
inventory of existing plant species, and guidelines for preserva-
tion, re-vegetation, and maintenance of the tree hammock.63 As
of 1983, over 150 native Florida species and 65 exotic plant species
were growing in the park. Included in the list are several "threat-
ened" or "endangered" plants such as coontie, coral bean and
Hercules' club.
Arch Creek Park was designated as a local historic site in
1985 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places a
year later. The archaeological sites are protected in two ways: by
the Dade County Historic Preservation Ordinance and by stan-
dards set forth by the National Park Service. Also in 1986 a life-
long dream of many local residents came true. After years of fund-
raising, a replica of the natural bridge was finally constructed.
The history of the Arch Creek area "has always been a history
of tears and triumphs, of trees and treasures and torment... It is in
our battle to preserve this place that we have realized the very es-

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 63

sence of its history."64 The challenge at hand is to protect this pre-
cious piece of Miami's history so that future generations will be
able to appreciate its beauty and cross the creek without getting
their feet wet.

1. Frances Densmore, "Seminole Music, Smithsonian Institution Bulletin
#161," (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956) p. 7.
2. Irving Eyster, "Excavations of the Arch Creek Mill Site,"(Report on file
at the Dade County Historic Preservation Division, Miami, Florida, 1981) p. 8.
3. Thelma Peters, Biscayne Country, (Miami: Banyan Books, Inc., 1981)
pp. 167-168.
4. Bert Mowers, Prehistoric Indian Pottery in South Florida, (Hollywood,
Fl: By the Author, 1975) p. 2.
5. Dan Laxson, "The Arch Creek Site," Florida Anthropologist 10 (1957): 2.
6. John K. Small, From Eden to Sahara: Florida's Tragedy, (Lancaster,
Pa: The Science Press Printing Company, 1930) p. 44.


7. Laxson, "The Arch Creek Site," p. I. See Robert S. Carr and John G.
Beriault, "Prehistoric Man in South Florida," in Patrick J. Gleason, ed.,
Environments of South Florida: Present and Past II, (Miami: Miami Geological
Society, 1984) pp. 1-14 for dates and a description of the Everglades Culture
8. Broward County Archaeological Society and Miami-West India
Archaeological Society, "The Arch Creek Site, Dade County," Florida An-
thropologist 28 (1975): 4.
9. Robert S. Carr, "Excavations at the Arch Creek Site (8Da23)," (Re-
port on file at the Florida Division of Archives, History and Records Manage-
ment, Tallahassee, Florida, 1975) p. 47.
10. Ibid., p. 37.
11. Daniel F. Austin, "Historically Important Plants of Southeastern
Florida," Florida Anthropologist 33 (1980): 18.
12. Lieutenant J.C. Ives, Memoirs to Accompany a Military Map of the
Peninsula of Florida, (New York: M.B. Wynkoop, 1856) pp. 18-19.
13. M. Brannan, Department of Florida Letters Received 1857, A-F, Re-
cord Group 393, Letters Received from M. Brannan, 1857. (On file at the Na-
tional Archives, Washington, D.C.).
14. Peters, Biscayne Country, P.168 and Federal Writers Project, Florida:
A Guide to the Southernmost State, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1939)
p. 319.
15. See Adin Baber, "Food Plants of the DeSoto Expedition," Tequesta 1
(1942): 34-40; John C. Gifford, "Five Plants Essential to the Indians and Early
Settlers of Florida," Tequesta 4 (1944): 36-44; Frederick W. Sleight, "Kunti, A
Food Staple of Florida Indians," Florida Anthropologist 6 (1953): 46-52;
Thelma Peters, Lemon City, (Miami: Banyan Books, Inc., 1981) pp. 230-231 and
Austin, "Historically Important Plants of Southeastern Florida," pp. 17-31.
16. Sleight, "Kunti, A Food Staple of Florida's Indians," p. 46.
17. Emile De Boyrie Moya, Marguerita K. Krestensen and John M. Gog-
gin, "Zamia Starch in Santa Domingo," Florida Anthropologist 10 (1957): 18.
18. Ibid., p. 18.
19. The author wishes to thank Dr. Thelma Peters for sharing the secrets of
processing coontie and the delicious cupcakes which were prepared with coontie
20. Sleight, "Kunti, A Food Staple of Florida's Indians," p. 49.
21. John Fix, "Anyone for Sofkee?" The Miami Herald, February 22, 1963.
22. Austin, "Historically Important Plants of Southeastern Florida," p. 18.
23. See Mrs. Henry J. Burkhardt, "Starch Making: A Pioneer Florida In-
dustry," Tequesta XII (1952): 47-53; Ernest G. Gearhart, Jr., "South Florida's
First Industry," Tequesta XII (1952): 55-57; Moya, "Zamia Starch in Santa
Domingo," p. 17-40; Bob Kearny, ed., Mostly Sunny Days, (Miami: Miami Her-
ald Publishing Company, 1986) pp. 116-117; Peters, Lemon City, and Peters,
Biscayne Country.
24. Peters, Lemon City, p. 38.
25. Gearhart, "South Florida's First Industry," p. 55.
26. Society of the First Presbyterian Church, The Florida Tropical Cook-
book, (Miami: By the Author, 1912) p. 219.
27. Peters, Biscayne Country. p. 97.
28. Rose Wagner Richards, "Reminiscences of the Days of Miami," Miami
News Series, Agnew Walsh Notebook XXXVI, Miami Public Library, Miami,

Arch Creek: Prehistory to Public Park 65

29. M.S. Stearns, Surveyor General, Map of Township 52 South, Range
42 East, 1870, quoted in Arva Moore Parks, unpublished manuscript, 1972,
P.5. The map appears in Peters' Biscayne Country, p. 171.
30. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 170.
31. "Word 'Treasure' on Tombstone Blamed for Grave Robbings," The
Daily News, 1934, NP.
32. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 170.
33. Rose Wagner Richards, "Reminiscences of the Days of Miami," NP.
34. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 178.
35. William T. Hornaday, A Wild Animal Round-Up, (New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1925) p. 148.
36. Ralph Middleton Munroe and Vincent Gilpin, The Commodore's
Story, (Copyright, 1930, by Vincent Gilpin; reprint ed., Miami: The Historical
Association of Southern Florida, 1985) p. 136.
37. John G. Dupuis, "Gladiator, The Crocodile of Arch Creek," History
of Early Medicine, History of Early Public Schools, History of Early Agricultural
Relations in Dade County. Florida, (Miami: privately published, 1954) pp. 8-10.
38. Ibid., p. 9.
39. Ibid., p. 9.
40. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 56.
41. Eyster, "Excavations at the Arch Creek Mill Site," p. 9.
42. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 56.
43. Ibid., p. 182.
44. Tropical Sun, February 2, 1893, quoted in Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 57.
45. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 167.
46. Ibid., p. 167.
47. The Miami Metropolis, February 12, 1897, quoted in Peters, Lemon
City, p. 193.
48. Caroline Washburn-Rockwood, In Biscayne Bay, (New York: New
Amsterdam Book Co., 1856) p. 41.
49. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 183.
50. Arva Moore Parks, The Forgotten Frontier, (Miami: Banyan Books,
Inc., 1977) pp. 53-55.
51. The Miami Metropolis, January 20, 1899.
52. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 180.
53. Ibid., p. 183.
54. The Miami Metropolis, June 1, 1916.
55. Peters, Biscayne Country, p. 183.
56. Ibid., p. 184.
57. Ibid., p. 219.
58. "Old Natural Bridge Landmark May Have to be Sacrificed," The
Miami Herald, November 11, 1957.
59. "Believe-it-or-Not," The Miami News, February 3, 1958, P.8B.
60. The Miami News, January 3, 1973.
61. Eyster, "Excavations at the Arch Creek Mill Site," p. 26.
62. "Arch Creek Park Dedicated," The Miami Herald, April 26, 1982.
63. The plan is based on a series of botanical surveys conducted from
1972-1983, which are reviewed in Emily Perry, "Arch Creek Park and Conserva-
tion Archaeology: A Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places,"
(Senior thesis, New College of the University of South Florida, 1984) p. 103.
64. Reverend Charles Eastman quoted in Mamo Powers and Robert Rose,
"Contemplations of Arch Creek: A Labor of Love," Harbinger (Miami: Dade
County Public Schools, 1982) Volume III, p. 9.

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document


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Alpert, Mr. Maurice D.
Franklin, Mr. Mitchell

M.R. Harrison Construction
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph B., Jr.

*Waters, Mr. Fred M., Jr.

Dade County Cultural
Affairs Council
Florida Arts Council
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the Humanities

Arthur J. Gallagher &
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Benjamin B., Jr.
Berkowitz, Mr. Jeffrey L.
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Withers, Mr. James G.

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Arts, Folk Arts Division

(June 1986 thru Oct. 1987)

Farrey's Wholesale
Hardware Co., Inc.
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Railway Company
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Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Dennis M.
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Gregory M.
Chapman, Mr. & Mrs.
Alvah H., Jr.
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Collier, Ms. Beth
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Corlett, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward S., III
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Withers, Mr. Wayne E.

Ruth & August Geiger
Southeast Banking
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Plantation Sysco
Post, Buckley, Schuh &
Jernigan, Inc.
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Sears & Roebuck and Co.
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Foundation, Inc.
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Curry, Miss Lamar Louise
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DuPuch, Sir Etienne, OBE
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List of Members 69

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Garrison, Dr. & Mrs. M. Bruce
George, Mr. W. F.
Georgeff, Mr. & Mrs. James M.
Gill, Mr. & Mrs. Horace
Godwin, Mr. & Mrs. Elby A.
Goldman, Dr. & Mrs. Lloyd S.
Goldwyn, Dr. Robert H.
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs. Martin B.
Goodson, Mr. & Mrs. William
M., Jr.
Goosen, Mr. & Mrs. Frederick D,
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Harold H.
Gossett, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Graham, Mr.& Mrs. William E.
Green, Dr. & Mrs. Edward N.
Green, Ms. Marcia R.
Greene, Mr. & Mrs. Stanton
Grentner, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
E., Sr.
Grier, Ms. Helen R.

Halprin, Mrs. Maxine Rickard
Hammond, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Hanley, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Hardin, Dr. Henry C., Jr.
Harvelle, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Hawa, Mr. & Mrs. Maurice B.
Hawkins, Mrs. Roy H.
Heath, Mr. & Mrs. Bayard E.
Helms, Ms. Patricia
Helsabeck, Ms, Rosemary E.
Henderson, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Henry, Mr. & Mrs. William
Hertz, Mr. Art
Hildner, Dr. & Mrs. Frank J.
Hipps, Mrs. T. F.
Hirsch, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Hoehl, Mr. & Mrs. John R.
Horacek, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick W.
Horland, Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Howe, Mrs. Helen DeLano
Irvin, Dr. & Mrs. George L., 111
Irvin, Mr. & Mrs. E. Milner, II
Jacobson, Dr. & Mrs. Jed
Jimenez, Mr. Juan
Jollivette, Mr. Cyrus M.
Jones, Dr. & Mrs Walter, C., III
Jorgenson, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
Jude, Dr. James & Mrs. Sallye
Junkin, Mr.& Mrs. John E., III
Kahn, Mr. Donald
Keen, Ms. Patricia F.
Kellner, Mr. Stewart C.
Kistler, Mr. Robert S.
Kolber, Mr.& Mrs. Clifford M.
Kraslow, Mr. David
Krauter, Dr. S. & Dr. H. Venable
Lancaster, Ms. Donna A.
Lann, Mr. & Mrs. Martin J.
Lauer, Mr. & Mrs. John F.
Lee, Ms. Bertha Claire
Lehman, Mr. Richard L.
Leonard, Mr. & Mrs. Michael J.
Levine, Mr. Martin J.
Levitz, Ms. Esther M.
Levy, Ms. Eleanor F.
Levy, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Litt, Dr. & Mrs. Richard E.
London, Mr. & Mrs. 1. Edward
Long, Mr. & Mrs. James D.
Losak, Mr. & Mrs. John
Lowenstein, Mr. & Mrs. Elliot
Lubitz, Mrs. Linda S.
Ludwig, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Mack, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Malone, Mrs. Katherine
Mannis, Mr. & Mrs. Arnold
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs. Michael

List of Members 71

Martinez-cid, Ms. Recy
Masvidal, Mr. & Mrs. Raul P.
Matheson, Mr. R. Hardy
Mathews, Mr. & Mrs. J. F., III
McClaskey, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
M., Jr.
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert F.
McCreary, Ms. Jane
McEnany, Mr. & Mrs, Richard
McKenzie, Mr. & Mrs. Olin, IIl
McKey, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
M., Jr.
McMinn, Mr. John H.
Mesh, Mr. & Mrs. Howard A.
Meyers, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
Michelson, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. H. Dale
Mohr, Mr. Alfred B.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. David M.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin S.
Murray, Mr. John M.
Murray, Mrs. Mary Ruth
Myers, Ms. Ruth Dowell
Natiello, Dr. Thomas A.
Needell, Dr. & Mrs. Mervin H.
Nelson, Mr. John E.
Newcomb, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles W.
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Frank D.
Newport, Ms. Carol
Nitzsche, Mrs. Ernest R.
Osborn, Mrs. Nancy
Owen, Mr. & Mrs. David
Parcel, Mr. & Mrs. Paul W.
Peck, Mr. George W., Jr.
Pepper, Hon. Claude
Perez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Perko, Mr. & Mrs. Dana J.
Peskie, Mr.& Mrs.TheodoreA.
Pfenninger, Mr. Richard C.
Pierce, Mr. Julius E.
Pither, Mr. & Mrs. Allan L.
Post, Mrs. Amelia M.
Quinton, Mr. & Mrs. A. E., Jr.
Ray, Mr. Peter C.
Reese, Mr. John
Rice, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E.
Richard, Ms. Judith
Ridgely, Mr. Norman C.
Righetti, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Roach, Patrick and Carol
Ross, Ms. Aileen R.
Rowell, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs. Herman P.
Rubini, Dr. Joseph R.
Ruggles, Mr. & Mrs. Read S., Jr.
Rumsey, Mr. & Mrs. John
Sadymont, Mr. & Mrs. Walter A.


Saffir, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Salome, Ms. Patricia
Sa.mberg, Mike & Ruth
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan
Schenkman, Mr. & Mrs. R.
Schiffer, Mr. & Mrs. Charles W.
Schoen, Mr. & Mrs. Marc A.
Schuh, Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Scott, Ms. Martha M.
Seipp, Mr. & Mrs. John C., Jr.
Shapiro, Ms. Myron
*Shaw, Dr. Martha L.
Shelley, Mr. & Mrs. Robert J., III
Shenkman, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Shinn, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
Shouse, Ms. Abbie H.
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin 0.
Simpson, Mr. & Mrs. M. L.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Chesterfield, Jr.
Smith, Mrs. Robert H.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Timothy A.
Smith, Mr.& Mrs.William H., Jr.

Soper, Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Spector, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Spillis, Mr. & Mrs. James P.
Stein, Mr. Arthur
Stinnett, Mr. William C.
Stirrup, Ms. Edeane W.
Strozier, Dr. Thomas B.
Sullivan, Ms. Patricia A.
Sussman, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Sutton, Mr. & Mrs. William
Taffer, Mr. Jack
Thomas, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall M.
Thomson, Mr. & Mrs. Parker D.
Thornton, Mr. & Mrs. Richard J.
Thorpe, Ms. Jean M.
Tierney, Mrs. Joy
Tremaine, Mrs. James G.
Troner, Dr. & Mrs. Michael B.
Tyson, Ms. Christiane M.
Vaughan, Mr. & Mrs. William J.
Waldberg, Mrs. Jean
Walfish, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Wall, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
Warner, Mr. & Mrs. Jonathan

Warren, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
Warshaw, Mr. & Mrs. Nat A.
Weaver, Mr. & Mrs. David R.
Webb, Mr. & Mrs. William A.
Weisberg, Mr. & Mrs. MaxwellL.
Weisenfeld, Mr. & Mrs. JosephJ.
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. Michael N.
Whalin, Mr. Michael J.
Whipple, Mr. & Mrs. Richard 0.
White, Mr. & Mrs. William 0.
Williams, Mr & Mrs. William M.
Wills, Mr. James
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis A.
Wimbish, Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.
Winston, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Wirkus, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard V.
Witz, Mr. Joseph
Wolfson, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
Wood, Mrs. Warren C., Sr.
Woods, Mr & Mrs. John P.
Wright, Mr. & Mrs. James A., III
Zdon, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Paul,Jr.


Abbott, Mr. & Mrs. Henry F.
Abess, Mr. Allan T., Jr.
Abrams, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey
Abrams, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Acle, Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo P.
Adams, Mr. Andrew D., Jr.
Adams, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
Adams, Mr. & Mrs. John L.
Adler, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel 1.
Admire, Mr. & Mrs. Jack G.
Aguilar, Ms. Sylvia
Ahmad, Drs. Carol F. & Shair
Aixala, Mr. & Mrs. Angel M.
Aizenshtat, Mr. & Mrs. Melvin
Akerman, Mr. & Mrs. John
Aljure, Mr. & Mrs. Rene
Allenson, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert E.
Allington, Mr. Gary F.
Allsworth, Mr. & Mrs. E. H.
Alspach, Dr. & Mrs. Bruce W.
Alvo, Mr. & Mrs. Ike
Aly, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas B.
Anderson, Mr. Chris
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs.
Cromwell A.
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. Duane
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. John
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Andrews, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Anglin, Mr. Bruce
Anguish, Mr. & Mrs. Don

Angulo, Mr. & Mrs. Victor
Apgar, Mr. & Mrs. Ross E.
Arango, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Arboleda, Ms. Cynthia
Arboleya, Mr. Carlos J.
Arch, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Archer, Mr. Edward M.
Armbrister, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas S.
Armstrong, Mr. John D.
Arnold, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard Alan
Aronson, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Aronson, Mr. & Mrs. Albert M.
Arrington, Ms. Viviana
Arsenault, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Arthur, Ms. Julieta
Atack, Mr. & Mrs. Geoffrey
Athan, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Atkins, Judge & Mrs. C. Clyde
Atwill, Mr. Rick, Sr.
Avant, Mr. & Mrs. John L.
Averbook, Mr. & Mrs.
Daniel Z.
Aye, Mr. & Mrs. Charles D.
Ayer, Mr. & Mrs. H.E., Jr.
Bach, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
Bacher, Mr. & Mrs. Louis S.
Baer, Mr. & Mrs. Bernard A.
Baer, Mr. & Mrs. Ken
Baez, Mr. & Mrs. Nelson

Bage, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Baggesen, Mr. & Mrs.
Walter W., Jr.
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Baker, Dr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Baker, Ted and Liz
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. Terry
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Charles M.
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Ivan E.
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Rod C.
Ballard, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Bander, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Banks, Col. & Mrs. Richard
Baraz, Michael & Nancye
St. Peter
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert
Barkdull, Mr. Thomas H., Jr.
Barkett, Mrs. Sybil
Barkin, Dr. & Mrs. Jamie
Barko, Mr. & Mrs. Paul J.
Barnhill, Mr. & Mrs. Lester R.
Barrow, Dr. & Mrs. James W.
Barrs, Mr. & Mrs. R. Grady
Barry, Mr. & Mrs. David
Barry, Mrs. Matrina E.
Barton, Mr. George
Basch, Mr. Gustavus
Bass, Dr. Robert T.
Baumann, Ms. Grace E.

Baumberger, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles H.
Baumel, Mr. & Mrs. Rey
Baumgartner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gary L.
Bavly, Mr. & Mrs. Harry D.
Baxter, Ms. Jo
Baya, Mr. George J., Esq.
Bayag, Mr. & Mrs. Fabian J.
Beales, Mr. & Mrs. John H., Jr.
Beck, Mr. & Mrs. Allen M.
Beckwith, Mr. & Mrs. Clive M.
Beels, Mr. Robert
Beer, Mr. & Mrs. Albert J.
Beiser, Dr. & Mrs. Seymour Z.
Benbow, Mr. & Mrs. John R.
Bender, Mr. & Mrs. Robert I1
Bendler, Mr. & Mrs. Fred A.
Benitez, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Bennett, Mr. & Mrs.
Andrew L., Jr.
Bennett, Mr. & Mrs. Robert W.
Bennett, Dr. & Mrs. William F.
Benowitz, Mr. H. Allen
Benson, Mr. & Mrs. Richard C.
Berg, Mr. & Mrs.
Randall C., Jr.
Berger, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Berkowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Berman, Mr. & Mrs. Mark S.
Berns, Mr. Neil D.
Berryman, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Bettner, Dr. & Mrs, Jerome
Beveridge, Mr. & Mrs. J. A.
Beyer, Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Bienenfeld, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Bigelow, Mr. & Mrs. John H.
Binkerd, Mr. Edward
Birk, Mr. & Mrs, Richard T.
Birmingham, Mr. & Mrs.
Bjorkman, William &
Pam Winter
Blackard, Mr. & Mrs. David M.
Blackburn, Mr. & Mrs.
Elmer E.
Blackburn, Mr. & Mrs.
James R.
Blair, Mr. & Mrs. Foister E.
Blair, J.
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin M.
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Tim
Blanco, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Blaney, Mr. & Mrs, Paul H.
Blechman, Dr. & Mrs. W. J.
Blount, Mr. & Mrs.
David N., Jr.
Bludworth, Mr. & Mrs.
David H.

Blue, Mr. & Mrs. Ted R., Jr.
Blumberg, Mr. Philip F.
Bolton, Dr. & Mrs. John
Bond, Mr. & Mrs.
Vernon D., Jr.
Boozer, Mr. James M.
Borja, Mr. & Mrs. Francisco
Bowen, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Bowen, Mrs. R.
Boymer, Mr. Leonard
Brady, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T.
Brake, Mr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Brand, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond S.
Brantley, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Braswell, Mr. Julian H.
Brea, Mr. & Mrs. Senulus S.
Breder, Jackie C. & Robert
Breit, Mr. Charles E.
Breitner, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Brenner, Mr. Frederick
Brewer, Ms. Charlotte
Bridges, Mr. & Mrs. Roger A.
Brigance, Mr. & Mrs.
Frank G., Jr.
Brodeur, Mr. & Mrs. G. Brian
Brody, Mr. Alan C.
Bronson, Mr. Daniel B.
Brooke, Mr. & Mrs. Peter M.
Brookner, Mr. & Mrs. Lester I.
Brosnan, Mr. & Mrs. Jan L.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Bert S.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Bradford E.
Brown, Mr. Roger
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald B.
Browne, Mr. Robert B.
Brownell, Mr. E. R.
Brumbaugh, Mr. & Mrs.
John M.
Bryant, Marjorie & Franklin
Bucchino, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Buchbinder, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Buchsbaum, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Buell, Mr. Rodd R.
Buhler, Mr. & Mrs. Jean Emil
Buhrmaster, Mr. & Mrs.
Burke, Mr. Gordon
Burleson, Mr. & Mrs. Harry C.
Burns, Mr. M. Anthony
Burton, Mr. LeLand, Jr.
*Burton, Col. & Mrs.
Robert A., Jr.
Bush, Gregory &
Carolina Amran
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Donald H.
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph R.
Butler, Mr. & Mrs, Kenneth A.
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Richard A.
Byrd, Mr. & Mrs. James W., Jr.

List of Members 73

Cahill, Mr. & Mrs. Laurence W.
Caldwell, Mr.& Mrs. Russell L.
Callander, Mr. & Mrs.
Ralph M.
Calvert, Mr. & Mrs. William P.
Cambest, Mr. Lynn M.
Camp, Mr. & Mrs. S. L.
Campbell, Mr.& Mrs. Dean S.
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward J.
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Campbell, Mr. C. Robert
Camps, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos R.
Capen, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Caprio, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Carasa, Mr.& Mrs. Antonio M.
Card, Mr. & Mrs. James
Cardenas, Mr. & Mrs. Al
Carey, Ms, Ute
Carlebach, Ms. Diane G.
Carlson, Mr. & Mrs. Art
Carlton, Mr. Michael E.
Carman, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Carmichael, Dr. Cindy &
Dr. Jed Sekoff
Carmona, Mrs. Judy
Carpet, Mr. & Mrs. A. K.
Carr, Mr. & Mrs. Robert S.
Carr, Mr. & Mrs. A. Marvin
Carreker, Mr. James
Carroll, Dr. & Mrs. LaurenceT.
Carroll, Mr. & Mrs. Mark M.
Carroll, Ms. Michelle
Carter, Mr. & Mrs.
Beverly R., III
Carter, Mrs. Celia M.
Caruso, Mr. & Mrs. Charles A.
Cary, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Cast, Mr. & Mrs. Robert B.
Castro, Ms. Berta Tomas
Castro, Mr. & Mrs. Manuel
Cataruzolo, Mr. Tom
Catasus, Mrs. Graciela C.
Caulder, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Chait, Mr. & Mrs, Irving H.
Chamberlain, Mr. & Mrs. T.
Chamness, Ms. Patricia
Chandler, Dr. & Mrs. J. R.
Chaplin, Mr. Lee
Chapman, Mr. & Mrs.
Arthur E.
Chastain, Mr. & Mrs. R. B.
Chester, Mr. & Mrs. Robert A.
Chowning, Mr. & Mrs. John S.
Church, Mr. & Mrs. David
Cibula, Ms. Kathy
Ciereszko, Mr. & Mrs.
L. Stanley
Cieslinski, Mr. & Mrs. Henry E.


Clark, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Clark, Ms. Lydia S.
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
Claughton, Mr. E. N.
Clay, Mr. & Mrs. Jose E.
Clayman, Mr. & Mrs. Landon
Clayton, Mr. & Mrs. C. G.
Cleary, Mr. & Mrs. Timothy
Clements, Mr. Joey
Cleveland, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles D.
Cline, Mr. Stephen
Cobb, Mr. Charles E., Jr.
Codina, Mr. Armando
Cody, Dr. Wanda R.
Coffey, Mr. & Mrs. D. W.
Coffman, Mr. & Mrs, Wallace
Cohen, Mr. & Mrs. George
Cohen, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley L.
Cohen, Mr. & Mrs. Victor R.
Cold, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald F.
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. Philip
Coleman, Mr. & Mrs.
C. Randolph
Collier, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Colodny, Mrs. Lou Anne
Cofyer, Mr. Leroy N.
Conley, Dr. & Mrs. James
Connally, Ms. Ileana L.
Connolly, Mr. & Mrs. Hugh J.
Connor, Mr. & Mrs.
Edmund A.
Connor, Dr. & Mrs. Morton
Conte, Mr. & Mrs. Alexander
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. John
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. Robert F.
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. William F.
Cool, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E,
Cooney, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas G.
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. W. Worth
Coords, Mr. Robert H.
Cornelison, Mr. & Mrs. Dale
Costo, Mrs. Louise A.
Coverman, Mr. & Mrs. Hyman
Cowling, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Cox, Mr. & Mrs. William
Cox, Mr. William L.
Crabill, Mr. & Mrs. John M.
Cram, Mrs. Dawn
Cross, Mr. & Mrs. J. Alan
Cullison, Mr. & Mrs.
Andrew T.
Cullom, Mr. & Mrs. WilliamO.
Cumins, Susan & Glenn Long
Curtis, Mr. & Mrs. DeVere H.
Cutler, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard B.

Dabney, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Danforth, Mr. & Mrs. Dan
Dangler, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Daniel, Mr. & Mrs. E.
Daniels, Mr. & Mrs.
Albert C., Jr.
Daughtry, Mr. & Mrs.
Dewitt C.
Davenport, Mr. & Mrs.
E. J., Jr.
Davidson, Mr. & Mrs. Barry R.
Davies, Ms. Christine S.
Davies, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Davis, Ms. Bobbie Ann
Davis, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Davis, Ms. Maria L,
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Richard K.
Davis, Mr. Sam A., II
Davison, Mr. & Mrs. Walter R.
Day, Mr. & Mrs. Joel B.
Day, Mr. H. Willis, Jr.
de Garmo, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
de la Torriente, Mr. & Mrs.
de Montmollin, Mr. & Mrs. Phil
DeAguero, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard A.
DeArriba, Mr. & Mrs.
Reynold L.
Dee, Ms. Leslie
DeKonschin, Mr. & Mrs.
Victor E.
Del Pino, Diego and Carmen
Denton, Mr. & Mrs. R. P.
Derr, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Detrick, John & Rona Sawyer
Deutsch, Mr. Hunt
Deutsch, Mrs. M. D.
DeVarona, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos
Dial, Ms. Donna
Diaz, Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo 1.
Diaz, Mr. & Mrs. Eladio S.
Diaz, Mr. & Mrs. Odilio
Dickerson, Ms. Jane E.
Dickey, Dr. Robert F.
Didomenico, Mr. Louis W.
Diehl, Mr. Joseph R., Jr.
Diehl, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald F.
Dietrichson, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard L.
Dison, Ms. Charlotte
Dixon, Mr. & Mrs. Guy E., III
Dixon, Mr. & Mrs. Kristopher
Dlugasch, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Doebler, Mr. & Mrs. Dirk R.
Dombro, Mr. & Mrs. Roy S.
Dombrowsky, Mr. & Mrs.
Alan H.

Donelson, Ms. Rachel P.
Donnelly, Mr. & Mrs. J. F.
Dorsey, Mr. Michael
Doss, Mr. & Mrs. William
Doucha, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs.
James C.
Dowling, Mr. & Mrs. R. B.
Downs, Mr. & Mrs. R. M.
Doyle, Mr. & Mrs. James
Drake, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
Dresner, Mr. & Mrs. Jack M.
Dubitsky, Mr. & Mrs. Ira
Dugas, Mrs. Faye
Dumas, Mr. Ernest M.
Dunan, Mr. & Mrs. Otis E.
Dunbar, Mr. Ron
Dunn, Mrs. Beverly
Dunn, Dr. & Mrs. Charles A.
Dunn, Ms. Jan Novack
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. D.
Durant-Schoendorf, Ms. Debra
Dutcher, Mr. & Mrs. David J.
Duvall, Mr. & Mrs. Walker
Dyer, Mr. & Mrs. David F.
Eachus, Mrs. Dolores K,
Eckhart, Mr. & Mrs. James M.
Edwards, Mr. & Mrs.
Newton L.
Edwards, Mr. & Mrs.
Ronald G.
Edwards, Dr. & Mrs. G. C.
Eggleston, Ms. Jeanette M.
Ehlert, Dr. & Mrs. E. L.
Eidenire, Mr. & Mrs. Todd
Einspruch, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Ellison, Mr. & Mrs. S. James
Elsasser, Ms. Ruth B.
Elterman, Mrs. Flora Green
Emerson, Dr. & Mrs.
Richard P.
Engel, Ms. Beatrice B.
Englander, Mr. & Mrs, Ben J.
Entenmann, Mr. & Mrs.
Erikson, Mr. & Mrs. Henry B.
Esserman, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Evans, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Evans, Ms. Greta
Evans, Mr. & Mrs. James D.
Evans, Mr. & Mrs. John F.
Ezell, Mr. & Mrs.
William A., III
Fagg, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Fales, Gordon and Donna
Farina, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P.

Farkas, Mr. & Mrs.
Marshall I.
Farrell, John S. & Susana
Fascell, Rep. & Mrs. Dante B.
Feingold, Dr. & Mrs. Alfred
Fels, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard R.
Felser, Ms. Fran
Fennell, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas A., Jr.
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Fernandez, Mr. Jose
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard M.
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. Rick
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs.
Victor M.
Ferrando, Dr. Rick
Ferrer, Mr. & Mrs. Jose E.
Fields, Ms. Ann H.
Fila, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Fine, Dr. Ellen
Fine, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Finegold, Mr. & Mrs, Ira
Finenco, Mr. & Mrs. John, Jr.
Finkelstein, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred
Finlay, Mr. & Mrs. James N.
Fischer, Mr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Fischer-Doepker, Mrs.
Mary Lou
Fisher, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis F.
Fishman, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Fishman, Dr. & Mrs.
Lawrence M.
Fishwick, Mr. Joseph
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs. W.J.
Fitzgibbon, Dr. & Mrs. J.M.
Flattery, Mr. & Mrs. Michael, Jr.
Fleisher, Dr. & Mrs. Andrew
Fleming, Mr. & Mrs. Harry D.
Fleming, Mr. Joseph Z., Esq.
Flick, Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Flick, Mr. & Mrs.Willis H.
Flinn, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Flipse, Donn & Diana
Floch, Mr. & Mrs. Morton H.
Florez, Mr. Leopoldo
Fojaco, Dr. Rita H.
Fontaine, Misses Bertha A.
and Cecilia M.
Ford, Richards & Mimi
Forthman, Mr. & Mrs. Hugh J.
Foster, Mr. & Mrs. David
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin A.
Fraga, Mr. Ramon J.
Frankel, Ms. Linda
Fraynd, Paul & Linda Sue Stein
Frazer, Mr. & Mrs. Fred J.

Frazier, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight
Freed, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Freeman, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Freeman, Mr. & Mrs. William
Friberg, Mr. & Mrs. Richard E.
Friedman, Mr. & Mrs.
Marvin Ross
Friedman, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Friedrichsen, Mr. & Mrs. Jens
Frost, Mr.& Mrs. Raymond M.
Frum, Mr. & Mrs. David
Fullerton, Mr. & Mrs. John P.
Funk, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur L.
Gaffney, Mr. & Mrs. Walter D.
Gaiter, Dorothy &
John Brecher
Gale, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Gallagher, Mrs, Alice Carey
Gallagher, Mr. & Mrs. Paul D.
Gallo, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge
Gallogly, Mr. & Mrs.
William W.
Gannon, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley J.
Gantt, Mrs. Ruth W.
Garcia, Mr. & Mrs. Mario G.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Donald, Jr.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph T.
Gardner, Penny and Seymour
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert J.
Gardner, Mr.& Mrs. RobertW.
Gardner, Steve and Colleen
Garris, Mrs. Millicent
Garland, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Garvett, Mr. & Mrs. Peter B.
Gautier, Mr. & Mrs.
Larry P., Jr.
Gelabert, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Gelber, Mr. & Mrs. Seymour
Gelfand, Mr. & Mrs. Lionel
Geller, Dr. & Mrs. Edmund A.
Gelman, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
Gent, Mr. & Mrs. Patrick
Gentry, Mr. Hugh E.
George, Mrs. Cherie M.
Giegel, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Gill, Mr. & Mrs. Richard F.
Giller, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Giller, Mr. & Mrs. Norman M.
Gilmore, Mr. & Mrs. John
Ginsburg, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert A.
Gjebre, Mr. William
Gladstone, Mr. John
Gladstone, Hon. & Mrs.
William E.
Glass, Mr. & Mrs. Reeder
Glasser, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall

List of Members 75

Glatstein, Dr. & Mrs. Phil
Glucksman, Dr. & Mrs.
Donald L.
Glukstad, Mr. & Mrs. Sig M.
Godfrey, Mary Lou and Guy
Goeser, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Gold, Mr. & Mrs. David H.
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Golden, Mr. & Mrs. William T.
Goldman, Ms.-Sue S.
Goldstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Leroy M.
Goldstein, Mr. Richard M., Esq.
Goldstein, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Goldweber, Mr. & Mrs.
Golob, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Gomez, Mr. & Mrs. OrlandoJ.
Gonzalez, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Gonzalez, Mr. & Mrs. Mario
Gonzalez, Mr. Ralph
Good, Joella C. &
Dr. Jack Dendy
Goodman, Col. & Mrs. MaxW.
Goodrich, Mr. & Mrs. Gary L.
Goraczko, Mr.& Mrs. Anthony
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey P.
Gordon, Dr. & Mrs. Mark W.
Gordon, Mr, & Mrs. Reed
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Gorson, Dr. & Mrs. David
Gort, Mr. & Mrs. Willy
Goss, Mr. & Mrs. Roland C.
Gould, Mr. & Mrs. Robert F.
Grabiel, Mr. & Mrs. Julio
Grad, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Grafton, Mr.& Mrs. Edward G.
Grand, Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Grant, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie L.
Gray, Mr. & Mrs. James S.
Grayson, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce E.
Green, Mr. & Mrs. Donald M.
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Greenberg, Mr.& Mrs. Barry N.
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Murray A.
Greenblatt, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest
Greene, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs.
Arnold M.
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs.
Burton D.
Greenfield, Dr. David
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Greenhouse, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan
Greer, Dr. & Mrs. Pedro J., Jr.
Gregorisch, Mr. Normando


Gregory, Mr. & Mrs. James C.
Greiner, Geri & Lee Price
Griffis, Mr. & Mrs. David N.
Griffith, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas F.
Grimm, Rev. & Mrs. Robb
Grodson, Mr. & Mrs.
Anthony G.
Gross, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie J.
Gross, Dr. & Mrs. Stuart
Grossbard, Mrs. Judy
Grothe, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Grunwell, Mr. & Mrs. George
Guerra, Mr. & Mrs. Phil
Guilfoyle, Mr. Thomas D.
Guyton, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas B.
Guzman, Mr. Carlos Fernandez
Haas, Mrs. George K.
Hackett, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Haefele, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph S.
Haft, Mr. & Mrs. Richard J.
Hagerman, Mr. Gary
Hahn, Mr. & Mrs. Jack D.
Hall, Mr. & Mrs. Monroe S.
Hall, Mr. & Mrs. M. Lewis, Jr.
Halpert, Dr. E. Stephen
Hambright, Mr. Thomas L.
Hammond, Dr. Jeffrey
Hanafourde, Ms. Lucy H.
Hancock, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene A.
Handler, Mr. & Mrs. Leon
Hann, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
Hansen, Mr. & Mrs. Christian
Hantman, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Hardie, Mr. & Mrs.
George B., Jr.
Harllee, Mr. John W., Jr.
Harrington, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick H.
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Elliott
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Joe
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
William H.
Harrison, Mr. A. D.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. M. R., Jr.
Hart, Mr. & Mrs. Ray L.
Hartman, Mrs. Robin W.
Hartwell, Mr. & Mrs. James H.
Harwitz, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Hastings, Mrs. Abby
Hastings, Mr. Barry G.
Hatfield, Mr. & Mrs. Milton H.
Hathorn, Mr. Donald B.
Hauser, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Havenick, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Hayes, Mr. & Mrs.
W. Hamilton
Haynes, Mr. & Mrs. G. W.
Heckerling, Mr. & Mrs. Dale A.

Heller, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel N.
Heller, Mr. & Mrs. David A.
Hellmann, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Henkin, Dr. Jeffrey
Hennessy, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Henry, Mr. Buddy
Henry, Mr. & Mrs.
Edmund T., Ill
Hemdon, Kerry & Nancy Harter
Heroux, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas M.
Herrera, Mr. & Mrs. Ignacio
Hersh, Mr. Barry
Hertz, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin
Hesser, Charles &
Lesa Szymanski
Hester, Mr.& Mrs. W. Warfield
Hicks, Mr. & Mrs. R. A.
High, Mr. Joshua
Hinchey, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Hinckley, Mr. & Mrs. Gregg R.
Hinds, Mr. & Mrs. L. F., Jr.
Hinkes, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Hirschl, Dr. & Mrs. Andy
Hobbs, Mr. & Mrs. James C., II
Hodges. Mr. & Mrs. Richard E.
Hodus, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth M.
Hoelle, Mr. Thornton
Hoepner, Mr. Theodore J.
Hoffman, Mr. & Mrs. Hugh
Hoffman, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart K.
Hoffmann, Mr. & Mrs.
H. Wayne
Hofstetter, Mrs. Ronald
Holcomb, Mr. & Mrs.
Lyle D., Jr.
Holland, Mr. & Mrs. John
Holly, Dr. & Mrs. John, H., Jr.
Holmes, Mr. & Mrs. Steven M.
Holsenbeck, Mrs. J. M.
Holtzman, Mr. & Mrs. F. D.
Hopkins, Mrs. Carter W.
Horwich, Harry & Shirley Ford
Hostetler, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas K.
Houghton, Mr. Peter
Hourihan, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph B.
Howard, Dr. & Mrs. Paul
Howell, Mr. & Mrs. Roland M.
Howl, Mrs. Martha L.
Huber, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P.
Hudnall, Mrs. Helen B.
Hudson, Ms. Sherrill W.
Humkey, Mr. & Mrs.
Joe Erskine
Hummel, Mr. & Mrs. Carl
Hundevadt, Mr. & Mrs. R. C.

Hunt, Mr. & Mrs. Charles L.
Huntley, Mr. Lee
Hurst, Ms. Peggy
Hurwitz, Ms. Marilyn
Hutchinson, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert J.
Hutson, Dr. & Mrs. James J.
Hutson, Dr. Peggy B.
Hynes, Ms. Christine
Hynes, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Ingraham, Mr. & Mrs.
William A., Jr.
Isen, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Isicoff, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
Isnor, Mr. & Mrs. Russell S.
Issenberg, Mr. & Mrs. David
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick C.
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Kril M.
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Jacobs, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Jacobsen, Mr. & Mrs. T. M.
Jacobson, Dr. & Mrs. George
Jacoby, Mr. Charles
Jacowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Jaffer, Harold and Adah
James, Dr. & Mrs. Edward M.
James, Mr. & Mrs. Harry A.
James, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
James, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Jamison, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Jeffers, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Jellison, Mr. & Mrs. David
Jenkins, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis
Jenkins, Mr. Frank
Jenkins, Mrs. Mary D.
Jensen, Mr. & Mrs. John
Jensen, Mr. & Mrs. Robert J.
Johns, Mrs. Denise A.
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Kari
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Lyle
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Wallen A.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Bardy
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. E. Darrell
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest P.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Frank E.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond A.
Jones, Terry & Anne
Jordan, Mr. & Mrs. Jan
Joseph, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas D.
Juncosa, Mr. Ralph A.
Justiniani, Dr. & Mrs.
Kain, Mr. & Mrs. Francis T.
Kalback, Mr. & Mrs. Irving F.
Kambour, Dr. & Mrs.
Michael, Jr.

Kane, Mr. & Mrs.
Arthur W., Jr.
Kann, Dr. & Mrs. Solomon
Kanold, Mr. & Mrs. William C.
Kantor, Mr. & Mrs. Stan
Kaplan, Mrs. Betsy
Kaplan, Mr. Elliott
Kaplan, Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Karcher, Mr. & Mrs. David P.
Karl, Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Kartman, Mr. & Mrs. Jules D.
Katcher, Mr. Gerald
Katsir, Mr. & Mrs. Shlomo
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Hy
Katzker, Mr. & Mrs. William
Kaufman, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Kaufman, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Kay, Mr. Mark W.
Kearney, Mr. & Mrs. Robert T.
Keefe, Dr. & Mrs. Paul H.
Keeley, Mr. Brian
Keep, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar J.
Kelley, Mr. & Mrs. John B.
Kendall, Mr. Harold E.
Kennebeck, Mr. & Mrs.
Marvin E.
Kennedy, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Kennedy, Ms. Patricia
Kennedy, Mr. & Mrs. Terry
Kennon, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles L., Jr.
Kenny, Mr. Matthew A.
Kenyon, Ms. Sue C.
Kern, Ms. Carolyn M.
Kerness, Dr. & Mrs. Wayne J.
Kerr, Mr. & Mrs. Oliver
Kessler, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Keusch, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Keye, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Keys, Mr. Neal S.
Kiem, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kilpatrick, Mr. Charles W.
Kinzer, Mayor & Mrs. M.
Kipnis, Jerome & Patricia
Kirschner, Mr. & Mrs. Morris
Klausner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert D.
Klein, Mr. & Mrs. Gene
Klein, Mr. & Mrs. Harris
Kluthe, Mr. & Mrs. Harold S.
Kmalsa, Mr. & Mrs. Kartar
Knapp, Mr. & Mrs. Morris
Knight, Ms. Karen
Knotts, Tom and Wynelle
Kobetz, Dr. & Mrs. Steven A.
Kogan, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Kolski, Mrs. Patricia M.
Kolterman, Ms. Susan Forrest
Konopko, Mr. & Mrs. Joe
Koonce, Dr. & Mrs. George, Jr.

Koper, Mr. & Mrs.
Theodore E., Jr.
Korach, Mr. & Mrs. Irvin
Koreman, Drs. Neil & Dorothy
Koss, Phyllis & Abe
Kozyak, Mr. & Mrs. John
Kraft, Dr. & Mrs. Daniel P.
Kraus, Mrs. Sally P.
Kreutzer, Mr. & Mrs.
Franklin D.
Krinzman, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Krohn, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Kronowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Krug, Mr. & Mrs. Warren
Kuhn, Mr. & Mrs. John F., Sr.
La Centra, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Lackowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Lafferty, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert S., Jr.
Lair, Mr. & Mrs. David E.
Laird, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Lake, Mr. John
Lamb, Mr. & Mrs. Ed
Lamphear, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Lance, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
Langley, Wright & Joan
Langston, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Lankton, Ms. Terre
Lantaff, Mr. Court
Lapidus, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Lapping, Mr. Hal P.
LaRusse, Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Lasa, Mr. & Mrs.Luis Rogelio
Latour, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Lawrence, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Layton, Dr. & Mrs. Robert G.
Lazarus, Mr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Lazarus, Ms. Pearl J.
Lee, Mr. & Mrs. Gary R.
Lee, Mr. & Mrs. Roswell
E., Jr.
Leeds, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert A.
Lefler, Mr. & Mrs. Clarence
Leftwich, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Lehman, Mr. Douglas K.
Lehman, Ms. Joan
Lenoir, Ms. Grace
Leon, Mrs. Carmen L.
Leone, Dr. & Mrs.
William A., Sr.
Leposky, Mr. & Mrs. George C.
Lesser, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Lester, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Letso, Mr. & Mrs. Paul E.
Levin, Adrienne and Dan
Levin, Mr. & Mrs. S. Michael
Levine, Mr. & Mrs. Gregory A.
Levine, Dr. Harold
Lewis, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin

List of Members 77

Lewis, Mr. & Mrs.
Wallace L., Jr.
Lianzi, Mrs. Margaret
Lichtenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Liddle, Mr. & Mrs. William, Jr.
Liebler, Dr. & Mrs. John B.
Liebman, Dr. & Mrs.
Norman C.
Liebowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Liedeker, Mrs. Janet
Liles, Mr. & Mrs. E. Clark
Lin, Mr. David A.
Lindsay, Mr. & Mrs. Guion M.
Line, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Lipman, Mr. & Mrs, Arthur
Lipof, Mr. & Mrs. Elliot
Lipoff, Mr. & Mrs. Norman H.
Lipp, Mr. & Mrs. Allan
Lippert, Mr. & Mrs. Kemp
Little, Mr. DeWayne
Little, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Livesay, Mr. & Mrs. Leigh
Livingston, Mr. Grant
Llanos, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Lloyd, Mrs. Kathleen A.
Loane, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas S.
Logue, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Lohmeier, Mr. & Mrs. Simon
Lombana, Mr. & Mrs.
Hector J.
Lombardo, Mr. Tony
Lomonosoff, Mr. & Mrs.
Boris M.
London, Mr. & Mrs. Seymour
Long, Mr. & Mrs. Duke E.
Lopez, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos J.
Lopez, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Lopez, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar
Lord, Mr. William P.
Lores, Dr. & Mrs. Edward
Lotspeich, Mrs. Jay W.
Lowe, Mr. Roger
Lowell, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Ludovici, Mr. & Mrs. Philip F.
Ludwig, Dr. & Mrs. William
Luginbill, Mr. & Mrs. Mark D.
Lummus, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn
Lurie, Ms. Roberta
Lutton, Mrs. Stephen C.
Lynch, Mr. L. Michael
Lynn, Ms. Kathryn R.
Lyons, Mr. & Mrs. Richard W.
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
John E.
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs. M. B.
Mac Intyre, Mr. & Mrs.
Alexander C.
Mackle, Mr. & Mrs. Robert


MacNaughton, Mr. Kevin A.
Madan, Mr. & Mrs. Norman L.
Madden, Mr. James
Magagni, Mrs. Betty
Magocnick, Ms. Rena
Mahoney, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph A.
Mahoney, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Malinin, Mr. & Mrs. Theodore
Man, Dr. & Mrs. Eugene H.
Mank, Mr. & Mrs. Philip J., Jr.
Mannion, Mr. Jan T.
Manship, Mr. & Mrs. E. K.
Maratos, Mr. & Mrs. Dimitrios
Marcus, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
Margolis, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Marks, Dr. & Mrs. Clifford
Marks, Mr. Frank M., Esq.
Marks, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Marks, Mr. Larry S.
Marks, Stewart & Julienne
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs.
Michael E.
Marotti, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Martell, Mr. & Mrs. James
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. John B.
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Martinez, Mr. & Mrs.
Francisco J.
Martinez-Ramos, Mr. Alberto
Martins, Mrs. Charlotte M.
Mass, Mr. & Mrs. Paul M.
Massave, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Masterson, Mrs. Nancy S.
Matchette, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
Matheson, Ann & Michael
Mathews, Mr. & Mrs,
Edward N., Jr.
Matlack, Mr. & Mrs.
William C.
Mattucci, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Mauley, Mr. & Mrs.
George P., Jr.
Maxwell, Edward & Karen
Maxwell, Mr. Thomas C.
Maxwell, Mr. R. D., Jr.
May, Dr. & Mrs. John A.
Mayo, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
McAliley, Ms. Janet R.
McAuliffe, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas F., III
McCabe, Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs.
C. Deering
McCorquodale, Mr. & Mrs.
Donald, Jr.
McCready, Dr. James W.
McDaniel, Mr. & Mrs. Scott

McDonald, Ms. Gail
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
John K.
McDowell, Mr. Chick
McGarry, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard M.
McGehee, Ms. Vivian
McGilvray, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
McGovern, Mr. & Mrs.
Harry E.
McGuinness, Mr. & Mrs. Brian
McGuinness, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
McIntosh, Mr. & Mrs.
Donald W.
Mclver, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart B.
McKay, Ms. Diane J.
McKay, Mr. & Mrs. Ellis
McKenzie, Dr. & Mrs. Jack A.
McKinley, William and Odalys
McKirahan, Mr. James
McLeish, Mr. & Mrs. William
McMurtrie, Mr. & Mrs, D. E.
McNaughton, Dr. & Mrs.
Robert A.
McQuale, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
McShane, Kiki
McSwiggan, Mr. Gerald W.
McTague, Mr. & Mrs, R. H.
Means, Dr. & Mrs, William R.
Medina, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
MeGee, Mr. & Mrs. B. L.
Mekras, Dr. & Mrs. George D.
Menachem, Mr. Neal J.
Mendoza, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles G.
Meriwether, Mr. & Mrs. Heath
Merrill, Mr. & Mrs. Randy E.
Merritt, Mr. & Mrs. Bob
Merten, Mr. & Mrs. Ulrich
Messing, Mr. Fred
Metcalf, Drs. George and
Meyer, Mr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Meyers, Mr. & Mrs. Brad
Miedema, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth S.
Migala, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Mikus, Mr. & Mrs. Pat
Millas, Mr. & Mrs. Aristides J.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Miller, Ms. Eleanor
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Frank E.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Graham C.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. William Jay
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. H. E.
Millott, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Mitchell, Mr. & Mrs. William
Mixson, Mr. Larry

Miyares, Mrs. Victoria M.
Mize, Mr. Lloyd
Mizrach, Mr. Larry
Moeller, Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd L.
Mohammed, Mr. & Mrs. M. A.
Molt, Mr. & Mrs.
Fawdrey A. S.
Monroe, Mr. & Mrs.
William F., Jr.
Monsanto, Judge & Mrs.
Montano, Mr. & Mrs. Fausto
Monteagudo, Mr. & Mrs.
Mario E.
Monzon-Aguirre, Mr. & Mrs.
Victor J.
Moody, Mrs. Alleta M.
Mooney, Mr. & Mrs. Patrick F.
Moore, Mr. & Mrs. Donald R,
Moore, Ms, Thurla
Morales, Mr. & Mrs.
Santiago D.
Morales, Mr. & Mrs. R.
Moreman, Ms. Lucinda A.
Morgan, Ms. Nancy
Morgan, Mr. & Mrs. Robert G.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. A. Melvin
Morris, Mr. L. Allen
Morris, Mr. W. Allen
Morrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Morrow, Drs. Bertan and Betty
Moses, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur L.
Moses, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Moss, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred 1.
Moss, Mr. & Mrs.
Ambler H., Jr.
Moss, Mr. & Mrs. Lyman
Mrozek, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald W.
Mubtar, Mr. & Mrs. Ezequiel
Muir, Mr. & Mrs. William T.
Mulcahy, Mrs. Irene D.
Mulcrone, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Muller, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Muncey, Mr. & Mrs. John D.
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Murai, Mr. & Mrs. Rene
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward W.
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs. Roger J.
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas W.
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. 0. C.
Mustard, Misses Margaret
and Alice
Myers, Mr. & Mrs, Stanley C.
Myers, Mr. Van
Myscich, Mr. Edward
Nadji, Mr. & Mrs. Mehrdad

Nagy, Mrs. Shirley L.
Nance, Mr. & Mrs. G. Tracy, Jr.
Napoli, Mr. & Mrs.
Dominick J.
Naranjo, Mr. & Mrs. Orlando
Narot, Mrs. Helene
Navarro, Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo
Nehrbass, Mr. Arthur F.
Nerney, Mr. & Mrs. Denis
Netherland-Brown, Capt. &
Mrs. Carl
Newhouse, Mr. & Mrs.
Wesley H.
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Fred C.
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan
Newton, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Newton, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Nichols, Mr. & Mrs. Frank 0.
Nichols, Mr. D. Alan
Nick, Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.
Nielsen, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph C.
Nisbet, Mr. Michael M.
Nobles, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Nordt, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Norman, Mr. & Mrs.
Colgan, Jr.
Norman, Mr. C. C.
Northrop, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles M.
Norvich, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Nostro, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Nott, Mr. Ernest C., Jr.
Novack, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Nuckols, Mr. & Mrs. B. P., Jr.
Nuehring, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Nylen, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Oister, Mr. & Mrs. W. P., Jr.
Okell, Mr. & Mrs. Jobyna L.
Oletzky, Mr. & Mrs. Sheldon
Olsson, Mr. Fred R.
O'Niel, Capt. & Mrs. Vernon
Onoprienko, Mr. & Mrs.
Onufrieff, Ms. Paula Baker
Oppenheim, Mr. & Mrs.
Steve P.
Oppenheimer, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert L.
Ordonez, Mr. & Mrs. Alfredo
Oremland, Mr. & Mrs.
Orlin, Ms. Karen
Oroshnik, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
Orshan, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Ostrenko, Mr. & Mrs.
Witold, Sr.
Overbeck, Mr. & Mrs. William
Owens, Mr. & Mrs. John W.

Page, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Page, Mr. & Mrs. John Bryan
Pagliarulo, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Pakula, Mr. & Mrs. Arnold
Palmer, Mr. Alfred R., RPA
Palmer, Mr. & Mrs. R. Carl
Pampe, Mr. & Mrs. Robert A.
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs. Lester C.
Pane, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Pane, Mr. Robert T., DVM
Pane, Ms. Terry
Papiernik, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard L.
Pappas, Dr. & Mrs. Arthur G.
Papper, Mr. & Mrs.
Emmanuel M.
Paradis, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Austin S.
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Garth R.
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Parker, Mrs. Patricia
Parsons, Ms. Brena
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs.
Huber R., Jr.
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs. Van
Patchett, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard W.
Patterson, Mr. & Mrs.
George E.
Paulk, Mr. Jule
Paulos, Ms. Teresa C.
Pawley, Ms. Anita
Paxton, Dr. & Mrs. G. B., Jr.
Payne, Mr. & Mrs. W. E.
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Pearlman, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Peddle, Mr. & Mrs. Grant L.
Pehr, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin S.
Pellerano, Dr. & Mrs. Cesar
Pelton, Dr. Margaret M.
Peltz, Mr. R.
Pennekamp, Mr. John D.
Pergakis, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Perimutter, Mr. & Mrs.
Bernard P.
Perry, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Perse, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Perse, Mr. & Mrs. E. A.
Perwin, Mrs. Jean
Peters, Mrs. Rita W.
Peterson, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward E.
Peterson, Mr. & Mrs. James
Petrey, Mr. & Mrs.
Roderick N.
Petricone, Mr. & Mrs.
Pettigrew, Mr. & Mrs. David E.
Phillips, Mr. & Mrs. Henry C.

List of Members 79

Philotas, Mr. & Mrs. George
Piccini, Mr. & Mrs. Silvio
Pietsch, Mr. & Mrs. Geoff
Pijuan, Mr. & Mrs. Edward M.
Pimm, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Pinnas, Ms. Susan
Pino, Mr. & Mrs. Juan M.
Pistorino, Mr. & Mrs.
John Charles
Pitts, Mr. & Mrs. Victor H.
Plotkin, Mr. & Mrs. Robert D.
Polizzi, Mrs. MaryAnn
Pollack, Mr. & Mrs. David C.
Pollock, Mr. & Mrs. Craig
Pooley, Mr. & Mrs. Ed C.
Porfiri, Mr. & Mrs. E. Austin
Porta, Mr. John E.
Portela, Mr. Mario P.
Porter, Mr. & Mrs, Lester W.
Post, Mr. & Mrs. Budd
Potter, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Potts, Mr. & Mrs. Roy V.
Poulos, Mr. & Mrs. Evangelos
Power, Ms. Shirley
Prentiss, Mr. & Mrs.
Preston, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Prevatt, Mr. & Mrs. Preston
Price, Mrs. Dorothy M.
Price, Ms. Judith
Price, Mr. & Mrs. Scott L.
Price, Col. Thomas A.
Primak, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Prio-Odio, Mrs. Maria
Prohias, Tony & Laurie Gach
Prospero, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph M.
Prost, Ms. Christine
Provenzo, Dr. & Mrs. Eugene F.
Pruitt, Mr. Peter T.
Pullen, Ms. Judith
Quackenbush, Mr. & Mrs.
L. Scott
Quartin, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert S.
Quesenberry, Mr. & Mrs.
William F., Jr.
Quick, Mr. & Mrs. David
Quillian, Dr. Warren, II
Raattama, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Rabun, Mr. & Mrs. William J.
Rachlin, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Radelman, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Rafart, Ms. Alicia S.
Raffo, Mr. & Mrs. Jaime E.
Railey, Mr. & Mrs. Constantine
Raim, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Rainey, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Raitt, Ms. Rebecca


Ramirez, Dr. & Mrs.
Salvador M.
Ramsey, Mrs. Manuela M.
Randolph, Mr. & Mrs.
William W.
Rapee, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart M.
Rapperport, Dr. & Mrs. AlanS.
Rashkind, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Reckford, Mr. & Mrs. Philip J.
Reddick, Mr. David
Reed, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
C., Sr.
Reid, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Reilly, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Reisman, Mrs. Gail
Reisman, Mr. & Mrs. Terry
Remsen, Mr. & Mrs. Steve
Renuart, Mr. & Mrs. Albert P.
Ress, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Reubert, Mr. & Mrs. Jay
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Reyna, Dr. L.J.
Rhodes, Dr. & Mrs. Milton
Rich, Dr. & Mrs. Maurice
Rich, Mr. R.L.
Richard, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Richards, Rev. & Mrs. David
Richards, Mr. & Mrs. William J.
Richter, Mr. & Mrs. Charles E.
Ridolph, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Rieder, Mrs. William Dustin
Riemer, Dr. & Mrs. W.E.
Riera-Gomez, Mr. E.R.
Riess, Mrs. Marie S.
Rifkin, Mr. M.S.
Rist, Mr. & Mrs. Karsten A.
Rizza, Mr. & Mrs. Juan Dalla
Rizzo, Ms. Theresa
Roache, Mr. & Mrs. Robert E.
Robbins, Alice and Eugene
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs.
William R., Jr.
Robertson, Mr. Mark
Robertson, Mr. & Mrs. Neil P.
Robertson, William &
Gail Meadows
Robertson, Dr. & Mrs. E.G.
Robins, Dr. & Mrs. C. Richard
Robinson, Mr. & Mrs. Neill D.
Robinson, Mr. Steven D.
Roca, Mr. & Mrs. Pedro L.
Rodriguez, Mr. & Mrs.
Abelardo E.
Rodriguez, Ms. Concepcion M.
Rodriguez, Mr. Ivan
Rodriguez, Dr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Rodriguez, Ms. Ronnie Lewin

Rodriguez, Mr. & Mrs. Sergio
Rodriguez-Muro, Mr. & Mrs.
Rogge, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Rohm, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Rojas, Mr. & Mrs. Esteban R.
Rondinaro, Ms. Tamera
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Clifford
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Keith
Rosen, Mr. & Mrs. Norman S.
Rosen, Mr. Paul
Rosenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Theo D.
Rosenblatt, Mr. & Mrs. Ira
Rosendorf, Mr. & Mrs.
Howard S.
Rosenthal, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred
Rosenthal, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Rosinek, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Ross, Mrs. Darryle
Rossmore, Mr. & Mrs. Allan R.
Rosso, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge L.
Rostov, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene A.
Roth, Ms. Estelle
Rothblatt, Ms. Emma A.
Rothenberg, Judge & Mrs.
Rothman, Mr. & Mrs. Max B.
Rubenstein, Mr. & Mrs. William
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs. Mark R.
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs. Sid
Ruffner, Mr. Charles L.
Russell, Mr. Terry
Russo, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Ryan, Mr. & Mrs. Richard P.
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. William
Rymer, Mr. & Mrs. John
Ryskamp, Judge & Mrs.
Kenneth L.
Sacher, Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Sacks, Mr. & Mrs. Neil H.
Sager, Mr. & Mrs. Bert
Sager, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Sain, Mrs. Dosha
Sakhnovsky, Mr. A.A.
Salley, Mr. & Mrs. George H.
Samee, Mr. & Mrs. David
Sams, Mr. Murray
Sanders, Mrs. Virginia
Sands, Mr. & Mrs. Charles T.
Santa-Maria, Ms.Yvonne
Santarella, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph M.
Sanz, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Sapp, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Sargent, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Satuloff, Mr. & Mrs. Barth
Saulson, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley H.
Sauri, Ms. Sofie
Sawyer, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.

Schafer, Mr. & Mrs. George
Scharlin, Mr. Howard R.
Schechtman, Ricky W. &
Murry Sill
Schemel, Mrs. Katherine
Schenker, Capt. & Mrs. Marvin
Scherker, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Schiller, Mr. & Mrs. Melvin D.
Schindler, Mr. & Mrs. Irvin
Schmand, Mr. & Mrs.
Timothy F.
Schneider, Mr. & Mrs. William
Schoen, Mr. & Mrs. Roy E.
Scholl, Dr. & Mrs. Barry
Schoonmaker, Mr. & Mrs.
Schreiber, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Schroeder, Mrs. Edna Mae
Schultz, Mr. & Mrs. Edward A.
Schumacher, Mr. & Mrs.
Schuster, Mr. & Mrs. Steven E.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Allan
Schwartz, Mrs. Geraldine
Schwartz, Mrs. Jay R.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Schwedel, Ms. Renee
Scroggs, Mr. & Mrs. Barry L.
Sechrist, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Segal, Mr. & Mrs. Scott
Segor, Ms. Phyllis Lee
Segre Mrs. Petunia
Seibert, Mr. & Mrs. Roy J.
Selig, Mr. & Mrs. J.R.
Selvaggi, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Sexton, Mr. & Mrs. Francis
X., Jr.
Shack, Ruth & Richard
Shafer, Mr. & Mrs. Ron C.
Shapiro, Dr. & Mrs. Alvin J.
Shapiro, Mr. & Mrs. J.H.
Shayne, Mr. & Mrs. William
Shealy, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
Sheehan, Ms. Elaine
Sheehe, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip J.
Sheffman, Ms. Tamara
Sherman, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin S.
Sherota, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward, Jr.
Shey, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Shields, Mrs. Eileen S.
Shilen, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas S.
Shin, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis Nyunt
Shipley, Mr. & Mrs. Virgil A.
Shippee, Dr. & Mrs. Robert J.
Shoemaker, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Shoffner, Mr. & Mrs. A. George
Shohat, Mr. Edward R.
Short, Rev. & Mrs. Riley

Shrewsbury, Mr. & Mrs.
Homer A.
Siegel, Mr. & Mrs. Mark A.
Siegel, Mr. Roy
Siemon, Mr. & Mrs. John
Sigler, Ms. Victoria
Silberman, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Silver, Mr. & Mrs. Bernard F.
Silver, Mrs. Doris S.
Silver, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Silverman, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Silverman, Mr. & Mrs. Saul H.
Silvester, Mr. & Mrs. Larry E.
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Glen
Simoes, Mr. & Mrs. Roberto M.
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Frank J.
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Simonet, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Simons, Mr. & Mrs. J. Paul
Simonton, Ms. Andrea
Sims, Dr. & Mrs. Murry
Sindelar, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Singer, Mr. & Mrs. Brian
Singer, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A.
Singer, Mr. & Mrs. Robert J.
Sisselman, Mr. & Mrs. Murray
Skaggs, Dr. & Mrs. Glen 0.
Skigen, Dr. & Mrs. Jack
Skor, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Slesnick, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Slosser, Dr. & Mrs. Gaius J., II
Slotnick, Mr. & Mrs. Michael C.
Smiley, Ms. Jane
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur V.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas H.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Edward F.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Emanuel J.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. McGregor,
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Oakley G.
Smith, Mr. Ralph K.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs, Richard H.
Smith, Mrs. Sadie M.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas W.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs, R.C.
Snedigar, Mr. & Mrs. James M.
Sneed, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
Snetman, Ms. Bettie
Snow, Dr. & Mrs. Selig D.
Snyder, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Sobodowski, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph J.
Socol, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Soldinger, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
Solis-Silva, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Solloway, Mr. & Mrs.
Michael L.

Solomon, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph M.
Sommerville, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert C.
Soto, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Sottile, Mr. & Mrs. James
Sparks, Mr. Bradley E.
Sparks, Mr. Herschel E., Jr.
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. J. Bruce
Splane, Mr. & Mrs. George
R., Jr.
Stachura, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Stadler, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Stadnik, John and Zanny
Stahl, Mrs. Catherine C.
Stahl, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey N.
Stalvey, Dr. & Mrs. J. Ben
Stanfill, Dr. & Mrs. L.M.
Stanton, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Stearns, Mr. & Mrs. Reid F.
Stein, Dr. & Mrs. Elliott
Stein, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald H.
Stein, Ms. Teresa E.
Steinberg, Mr. & Mrs. James
Steinberg, Mr. & Mrs. Marty L.
Steinberg, Mrs. Sandy
Steinberg-Roqow, Mrs.
Steinber, Mrs. Barbara
Steinhauer, Mr. Adolph
Stern, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Stewart, Mrs. Cynthia
Stewart, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Stewart, Mr. & Mrs. Robert E.
Stieglitz, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Stocks, Dr. & Mrs. G.J., Jr.
Stokesberry, Mr. & Mrs.
John L.
Stone, Mr. Art
Stone, Mr. Robert L., Jr.
Strachman, Mr. & Mrs. Saul
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob
Strehlow, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Struhl, Dr. & Mrs. Theodore
Stubins, Mr. & Mrs. Morton
Stuzin, Mr. & Mrs. Charles B.
Sures, Mr. & Mrs. J.
Sussex, Dr. & Mrs. James N.
Suttile, Mr. & Mrs. Anthony
Sutton, Mr. Barry
Sweet, Mr. & Mrs. George H.
Swink, Mr. & Mrs. William J.
Tamargo, Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo
Tansey, Mrs. Barbara W.
Taracido, Mr. & Mrs. Manuel E.
Tarr, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis L.
Tartak, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan N.

List of Members 81

Tatham, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas L.
Taylor, Dr. & Mrs. Andrew L.
Taylor, Ms. Jane I.
Taylor, Mr. Marshall
Taylor, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Tegnelia, Mr. Anthony G.
Tegzes, Ms. Francine
Temkin, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald E.
Temple, Mr. & Mrs. Jack D.
Tendrich, Mr. & Mrs.
Howard J.
Tepper, Dr. & Mrs. Warren
Terman, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Thaw, Mr. & Mrs. Mark R.
Theobald, Mr. & Mrs.
William F.
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs,
Charles R.
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs.
Claude David
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs.
Cyrus W.
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs. Gary W.
Thompson, Ms. Margaret
Thurer, Dr. & Mrs. Richard J.
Tilghman, Mr. & Mrs. James
B., Jr.
Tilson, Mr. Donn J.
Tobin, Rev. & Mrs. Roger M.
Tomko, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Toupin, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Tranchida, Mr. & Mrs.
Michael A.
Traum, Mr. & Mrs. Sydney S.
Trejo, Ms. Maria A.
Trivett, Mr. & Mrs. Alan B.
Troia, Mr. & Mrs. Anthony F.
Tryson, Mr. & Mrs. Michael J.
Tschumy, Mr. & Mrs. William
E., Jr.
Tucker, Dr. Gail S.
Tuggle, Mr. & Mrs. Auby L.
Turner, Mr. & Mrs. Clark P,
Turnoff, Judge & Mrs.
William C.
Ulsh, Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Underwood, Dr. & Mrs.
Alfred H.
Unger, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Unger, Dr. & Mrs. Stephen
Usallan, Ms. Susan
Valdez-Fauli, Mr. & Mrs. Raul
Van Denend, Mrs. Herbert
Van Horn, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Van Orsdel, Mr. & Mrs.
Clifford D.
VanBergen, Mr. & Mrs.
Vanderwyden, Mr. William P.


Vasquez, Mr. & Mrs. Richard T.
Vazquez, Mr. & Mrs. J. Michael
Veenstra, Mr. & Mrs. Tom H.
Velasco, Mr. & Mrs. Omar A.
Velez, Mr. & Mrs. Arnardo
Venero, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert S.
Viera, Mr. Jorge L.
Villa, Dr. & Mrs. Luis, Jr.
Vincent, Ms. Gale A.
Vitagliano, Mr. & Mrs. Francis
Voight, Mr. & Mrs. Michael A.
Volkert, Mr. & Mrs. Victor P.
Voss, Dr. & Mrs. Gilbert L.
Waas, Mr. & Mrs. Maxwell
Wagner, Ms. Gwen
Waldin, Mr. & Mrs. Earl D.,Jr.
Walker, Dr. & Mrs. Roger
Walker, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
B., Jr.
Walker, Mr. J. Frost, III
Wall, Mrs. Madeline B.
Wallace, Mr. & Mrs. Richard B.
Wallace, Mr. & Mrs. William L,
Ward, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Warren, Jane and Rhea
Wasserman, Mr. & Mrs.
Martin W.
Watkins, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald M.
Watson, Mr. & Mrs. Anthony V.
Watts, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Weems, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Weinberg, Mr. & Mrs. David L.
Weinberger, Mr. & Mrs.
Barrett N.
Weiner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Weinkle, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Weinstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Andrew H.
Weinthal, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
Weisberg, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Weisenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph J.
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel A.
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. Murray
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart P.
Weissenborn, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Weisser, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Weldon, Mr. Norman R., Ph.D.

Abbott, Ms. Julie
Abercrombie, Ms.
Barbara Nell
Adams, Mrs. Betty R.
*Adams, Mrs. Faith Y.
Adams, Mr. Gus C.
Adams, Ms. Helen F.
Adams, Mr. Joseph D.

Welles, Mr. & Mrs. Peter D.
Wellman, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Wenck, Mr. & Mrs. James H.
Wenzel, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Werner, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart A.
West, Mr. & Mrs. Everett G.
White, Mr. Robert A.
White, Mr. & Mrs. Robert A.
White, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
White, Mr. & Mrs. Theodore E.
Whitebook, Mr. & Mrs.
Maurice R.
Whiteside, Mr. & Mrs. Eric
Whitman, Mr. & Mrs.
Stanley F.
Whittum, Mr. & Mrs.
Ronald M.
Wiedman, Ms. H.E.
Wiggins, Mr. & Mrs. Mack
T., Ill
Wiggins, Mr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Wilcosky, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert W.
Willensky, Margie & Harvey
Williams, Lt. Col. & Mrs.
Williams, Dr. & Mrs.
George, Jr.
Willis, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Wilson, Carolyn & Gary
Wilson, Mr. Chuck
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. David L.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. George M.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Wimmers, Howard L. &
Windrem, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Winick, Ms. Pauline
Winslow, Dr. & Mrs. Philip M.
Winter, Mr. Calvin
Wiseheart, Mr. & Mrs.
Wisham, Mr. & Mrs. D.
Witkoff, Dr. & Mrs. Fred
Wittenstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolf, Dr. & Mrs. Benjamin

Adams, Mrs. Richard B.
Adams, Mrs. E. C.
Aibel, Mrs. Harold
Aiello, Ms. Josephine
Albietz, Ms. Carol
Alchek, Mrs. Edith
Alderman, Mrs. Jewell
Allen, Mrs. Eugenia

Wolff, Mr. & Mrs. William
F., Jr.
Wolfson, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard F.
Wolpe, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Wolpert, Mr. & Mrs. George
Wood, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas D.
Wood, Mr. & Mrs. William L.
Woodard, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Woodmansee, Mr. Ralph W.
Woods, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Woods, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C.
Wooten, Mr. & Mrs. James S.
Worley, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene C.
Worth, Mr. & Mrs. James G.
Wright, Mr. R.K.
Wronsky, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Wruble, Dr. & Mrs. Lloyd
Yaeger, Ms. Marilyn M.
Yaffa, Dr. & Mrs. Jack B.
Yehle, Mr. & Mrs. J. Larry
Yelen, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Yoder, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
York, Mr. Robert
Yost, Mr. Roger L.
Young, Barbara& Robert Huff
Young, Ms. Linda M.
Young, E.W.
Youngblood, Mr. & Mrs."Hal
Youse, Mr. & Mrs.
Christopher R.
Yusko, Mrs. Laura
Zaldivar, Mr. & Mrs. Raul
Zane, Dr. & Mrs. Sheldon
Zapetis,, Mr. & Mrs. James
Zapf, Mr. John S.
Zavertnik, Mr. & Mrs. John L.
Zeder, Mr. & Mrs. Jon W.
Zelonker, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Zigmont, Mr. & Mrs.
Lawrence J.
Zohn, Mr. Frank M.
Zorn, Mr. & Mrs. Peter A., Jr.
Zuckerman, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin
Zwerling, Dr. & Mrs. Leonard J.
Zwick, Mr. Charles J.

Allen, Mr. Robert N.
Alter, Ms. Ferne J.
Alterman, Mr. Richard
Altman, Ms. Ruth B.
Altomare, Ms. J.E.
Amdur, Mrs. Phyllis
Ammidown, Ms. Margot
Amsterdam, Mr. Carl D.

Anagnost, Mr. Timothy
Ancona, Mrs. John
Anderson, Dr. Raymond T.
Andreu, Mrs. Leonor R.
Andrews, Mr. Harold D.
Arias, Ms. Ana Maria
Arredondo, Dr. Carlos R.
Artigas, Mr. Willy
Ashley, Ms. Pat
Atkins, Ms. Lorna
Atwood, Mr. Anthony D.
Aunapu, Mr. Gregory L.
Avery, Ms. Anne
Ayer, Mr. John H.
Babcock, Ms. Mary Areca
Babson, Mrs. Dorothy S.
Bacon, Mrs. Jones
Bagg, Mrs. John L., Jr.
Bagwell, Ms. Beth
Baker, Mr. Charles H., Jr.
Baker, Mr. George G.
Baker, Mrs. Rita L.
Baldinger, Ms. Alison
Baldwin, Mr. C. Jackson
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins
Ballard, Mrs. Betty
Barg, Ms. Bess
Barnes, Ms. Ava R.
Barnette, Ms. Betty
Barrett, Mr. J.T.
Batty, Ms. Frances V.
Baucom, Mrs. Ruth Kaune
Baumez, Mr. W. L.
Beamish, Ms, Josephine P.
Beazel, Ms. Mary G.
Beckham, Mr. Walter H., Jr.
Becton, Ms. Irene
Belair, Ms. Renee J.
Benn, Mr. Nathan
Bennett, Ms. Barbara K.
Bennett, Ms. Debbie Z.
Bennett, Ms. Hazel M.
Bennett, Ms. Laura Dean
Bennett, Ms. Sarah L.
Benovitz, Dr. Larry P.
Benson, Mrs. Minette
Bercovich, Ms. Gertrude
Beriault, Mr. John G.
Berning, Ms. Cyane H.
Bethell, Mrs. E. K.
Biedron, Mrs. Stanley
Bielawa, R. A.
Biggane, Ms. Jacquelyn
Bijou, Ms. Rachelle
Bills, Mrs. John T.
Biondi, Mrs. Jerris
Birchmire, Mrs. Thomas H.
Bishop, Mrs. Edwin H.
Bishop, Ms. Etheline D. H.

Bishop, Mr. James E.
Bitter, Mrs. Barbara
Black, Ms. Sandra
Blackwell, Mrs. W. L.
Blake, Ms. Lucille B.
Blakeslee, Miss Zola Mac
Blazevic, Mr. Raymond L.
Bleeker, Mr. Glenn
Block, Dr. James H.'
Bloom, Mr. Simon H., Jr.
Blumenthal, Mr. Ed
Blyth, Ms. Mary S. D.
Boas, Mrs. Alfred
Bodrato, Mr. Gregg P.
Boegen, Ms. Anne S.
Boldrick, Mr. Samuel J.
Booth, Ms. Jean
Bordeaux, Ms. Celia S.
Bosselman, Mr. Fred P.
Boswell, Mr. James A.
Bourne, Mr. William H.
Bouwmeester, Ms. Lauretta R.
Bower, Mr. Roy P.
Boyd, Ms. Debrah Lee
Braden, Ms, Susan
Bradfisch, Ms. Jean
Bradley, Mrs. William B.
Brady, Ms. Margaret R.
Brady, Mr. Raymond G.
Bramson, Mr. Seth H.
Brannen, Mrs. H. Stilson
Brant, Mrs Anne L.
Braunstein, Dr. Jonathan J.
Breck, E. Carrington
Bretos, Dr. Miguel A,
Brice, Mrs. Nancy
Bridges, Ms. Kathy
Bridges, Ms. Terry
*Brookfield, Mr. Charles M.
Brooks, Mr. Edward M.
Brooks, Mr. J. R.
Brooks, Mr. N. P.
Brosnan, Mr. Christopher
Brown, Mrs. Andrew G.
Brown, Mrs. Carese
Brown, Mrs. Irma M.
Brown, Ms. Joyce
Brown, Mrs. Mildred P.
Brown, Mr. Steven M.
Brown, Mr. A. L., Jr.
Brunstetter, Mrs. Roscoe
Brush, Mr. Robert W.
Bryan, Mr. John C.
Bryan-Lewis, Ms. Arlene
Bryant, Mr. Thomas M.
Buckley, Ms. Irene
Buhler, Mr. Emil, II
Buhler, Mrs. Paul H.
Burnett, Ms. Sandy

List of Members 83

Burnham, Ms. Sandra
Burrows, Mr. David W.
Burrus, Mr. E. Carter, Jr.
Buschgen, Mr. William D.
Calderwood, Ms. Elsa
Calhoun, Ms. Ann
Camp, Robert J., M.D.
Camps, Mr. Roland
Caple, Ms. Robin
Carbone, Mrs. Grace C.
Carroll, Mrs. Edith A.
Carruthers, Mr. John, II
Cason, Mr. Robert M.
Cassel, Mr. John, M.D.
Casselberry, Mr. Hibbard, Jr.
Caster, Mrs. George B.
Caster, Dr. P., FACS
Catlow, Mrs. Patty M.
Cauce, Ms. Elena M.
Cerlingione, Mr. Alfred C.
Cesarano, Ms. Marilyn
Chaille, Mr. Joseph H.
Chang, Ms. Iris
Chapell, Ms. Connie
Chase, Mr. Charles E.
Chauncey, Mr. Donald E.
Cheatham, Mr. Edwin H., Jr.
Cheesborough, Mr. Thomas P.
Cheezem, Ms. Jan Carson
Chesney, Ms. Ann
Chiaro, Ms. Maria J.
Chicvara, Ms. Catherine L.
Childs, Mrs. Marina
Chin, Mrs. Sandy C.
Christ, Mrs. Anita
Christensen, Mrs.
Charlotte Curry
Christie, Mrs. Robert E.
Christy, Ms. Margaret A.
Cintron, Ms. Elizabeth
Clark, Ms. Betty C,
Clark, Mrs. Mae K.
Clark, Mr. Robert V.
Clark, Mr. William, Jr.
Clarke, Ms. Patricia M.
Clay, Ms. Dana L.
Clay, Ms. Madeline M.
Clopton, Ms. Peggy
Cobb, Ms. Jeffie Alice
Coburn, Mr. Louis
Cohan, Ms. Lori
Cohen, Mr. Andrew
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert
Cohen, Mrs. Nancy
Cohn, Dr. L. F.
Cole, Ms. Laverne
Coleman, Ms. Hannah P.
Collins, Ms. Mary E.
Colongo, Ms. Marie


Colucci, Ms. Linda
Conde, Ms. Mabel
Conduitte, Ms. Catherine J.
Cone, Mrs. Dee M.
Cone, Mr. Lawrence B.
Conesa, Ms. Lillian
Conlon, Mr. Lyndon C:
Connellan, Ms. Barbara E.
Conte, Ms. Martha
Cook, Ms. Donna C.
Cook, Ms. Ruth
Cook, M. Lorraine
Cook, Mr. R. Marvin, Jr.
Cooke, Mrs. Francis N.
Coonin, Ms. Johanna
Corbelle, Mr. Armando H.
Corson, Mr. Hal
Costello, Mr. James
Cotton, Ms. Carole
Coulombe, Ms. Deborah A.
Craig, Ms. Dorothy A.
Craig, Ms. Norma J.
Cramer, Mr. Lowell
Crampton, Mr. Donald
R., M.D.
Creager, Mr. Don
Creel, Mr. Earl M.
Creel, Mr. Joe
Croucher, Mr. William J.
Crowell, Ms. Sylvia C.
Crump, Mrs. Dorothy
Culmer, Mrs. Leone
Culpepper, K. M.
Cummings, Mr. George, III
Cummings, Mr. Timothy R.
Curl, Mr. Donald W.
Curran, Mr. Michael W.
Curry, Ms. Bettye Faye
Czerwinski, Ms. Lindsay
Dabney, Mr. Charles
D'ambrosio, Mr. S.
Daniels, Mr. Fred P.
Darwick, Mr. Norman
Daugherty, Ms. Georgette H.
Davenport, Ms. Marjorie C.
Davidson, Ms. Ursula M.
Davis, Mr. Alton A.
Davis, Mr. Jim Frank
Davis, Mrs. Karen
Davis, Ms. Maggie
Davis, Ms. Marion Peters
Dawson, Ms. Phyllis M. G.
De Jesus, Ms. Vivian
De Los Santos, Ms. Adele
Deans, Mr. Douglas W.
DeFoor, J. Allison, II
Delehanty, Ms. Sandra M.
Dellow, Ms. Susan 1.
DeNies, Mr. Charles F.

Dennison, Mr. Nan
Derleth, Ms. Linda Ann
Deville, E. Josephine
DeWald, Mr. Bill
Diaz, Ms. Alicia L.
Diaz, Mr. Bruno M.
Diaz, Ms. Louise V.
Dieterich, Ms. Emily Perry
Diprima, Ms. Adrienne A.
Dittrich, Mrs, Mildred
Dobrow, Mr. Stephen
Doerner, Mrs. Rosemary
Dorsey, Mrs. Mary C.
**Douglas, Ms. Marjorie
Downey, Ms. Martha R.
Drew, Mrs. H. E.
Driscoll, Ms. Karen
Drulard, Mrs. Marnie L.
DuBois, Mrs. John R.
DuBois, Miss Winifred H.
Dunn, Mr. Hampton
Duntov, Ms. Lili
Duvall, Mrs. John E.
Easton, Mr. Edward W.
Eaton, Ms. Sarah
Ebsary, Mr. Richard W.
Edelen, Ms. Ellen
Ederer, Ms. Norma
Edison, Mr. Mike
Edward, Mr. Jim
Edwards, Mrs. Dorothy
Efron, Ms. Muriel C.
Eldredge, Mr. Al, III
Ellis, Mrs. Elgar P.
Ellison, Dr. Waldo M.
Ender, Mrs. Geraldine M.
Engel, Dr. Gertrude
Ericson, Mr. Arthur E.
Ernst, Ms. Patricia G.
Esco, Ms. Jacquelyn
Esplin, Ms. Beatrice
Etling, Mr. Walter
Eugene, Brother
Evans, Ms. Kathleen
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers
Ewing, Miss Geneva
Eyster, Mr. Irving R.
Faircloth, Mrs. Hilda
Farkas, Ms. Klara
Farrell, Mr. John R., P.A.
Feinberg, Ms. Elaine
Feingold, Mrs. Natalie
Feltzin, Ms. Pearl
Fernandez, Mr. Wilfredo M.
Feurtado, Ms. Mary Lou
Finley, Mr. George T.
Fischer, Ms. Anne M.
Fischer, Ms. Elaine R.

Fisher, Mr. Ray
Fishman, Mrs. Bibi
Fitzerald-Bush, Mr. Frank S.
Fitzgerald, Mr. James
Fitzgerald, Drs. Dowlen &
Flasscheon, Ms. Janice
Fleischmann, Mr. Thomas F.
Floyd, Mr. Robert L.
Foote, Mrs. Edward T.
Foote, Miss Elizabeth
Forney, Mr. Jan B.
Fortner, Mr. Edward
Foshee, Ms. Anne G.
Foss, Mr. George B., Esq.
Foye, Ms. Nancy R.
Francis, Mr. Daniel
Franklin, Mr. John D.
Freedman, Mrs. Penny M.
Freeman, Ms. Susan
Freier, Miss Arlene
Fritsch, Miss Renee Z.
Frohock, Mr. John M.
Fuchs, Mr. Richard W.
Funk, Jo Von
Fuster, Ms, R.
Gabay, Ms. Elizabeth F.
Gabriel, Ms. Joanna
Galatis, Ms. Marjorie L.
Galgano, Ms. Kathleen
Garcia, Ms. Juanita
Gardiner, Ms. Janet P.
Gargano, Ms. Caron
Garman, Ms. Sharon
Garnik, Ms. Roberta
Garrett, Mr. Frank L.
Garrison, Mrs. Florence
Garrison, Mrs. W. E.
Gauger, Ms. Marcia
Gautney, Mrs. Tony
Gelberg, Mr. Bob
George, Dr. Paul S.
Gerace, Mrs. Terence
Gerardo, Ms. Pamela
Gerhart, Mr. George W.
Gibbs, Mr. W. Tucker
Gillies, Ms. Patricia L.
Ginsburg, R. N.
Glattauer, Mrs. Alfred
Glickman, Ms. Esther
Goldberg, Ms. BettiJean
Goldenberg, Mrs. Anna C.
Golding, Mr. Kent
Goldstein, Mr. Albert M.
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L.
Gonzalez, Mr. Jorge E.
Gonzalez, Mr. William
Goodin, Mr. Jack A., Jr.
Goodman, Mr. Edwin

Goodridge, Ms. Jeanie S.
Goodridge, N. Varney
Gooravin, Ms. Helen M.
Gordon, Hon. Jack D.
Gottfried, Mrs. Theodore
Gould, Ms. Bernice
Gowin, Dr. Thomas S.
Goza, Mr. William M.
Grant, Ms. Hazel R.
Grant, Mr. Stuart Mathew
Grassell, Ms. Diane B.
Green, Ms. Ann
Green, Ms. Fran
Green, Ms. Lloma G.
Greenwald, Ms. Monique
Gregory, Mr. Ledford G.
Grentner, Ms. Lynn
Grethen, Ms. Olive
Groh, Ms. Loraine L.
Gross, Dr. Zade B.
Grout, Ms. Nancy E.
Grover, Ms. Marlene
Grutzbach, Mrs. Margaret R.
Guarino, Mr. Charles S.
Guben, Ms. Regina K.
Guilarte, Ms. Alexis
Haddock, Ms. Nancy F.
Hagner, Mr. Casper C.
Halburton, Ms. Marian
Hale, Ms. Kathleen C.
Hale, Ms. Kay K.
Halgowich, Ms. Jerri
Hall, Ms. Shirley
Hambacher, Ms. Elyse
Hampton, Mr. Thomas D.
Hamrick, Mr. David H.
Hanafourde, Mr. John K.
Hananian, Ms. Juliet
Hancock, Mrs. James Thomas
Hand, Mr. Robert E.
Harless, Ms. Gwen L.
Harring, Ms. Margie
Harrington, Ms. Nancy K.
Harris, Ms. Eleanor
Harris, Mrs. Henriette
Harris, Mr. Robert
Harrison, Mr. Robert J.
Harwell, Miss Wanda
Harwood, Mrs. Manton E.
Haun, Ms. Victoria
Hauser, Mr. Leo A.
Hawes, Mr. Leland M., Jr.
Heald, Mr. Thomas E.
Heard, Dr. Joseph G.
Hecht, Mrs. Isadore
Heckerling, Mrs. Philip
Heithaus, P.
Heldt, Ms. Agneta C.
Helene, Ms. Carol J.

Helfand, Ms. Roselee
Helfond, Mrs. Peggy
HeUiwell, Ms. Anne E,
Helms, Mr. Roy Vann
Hendrick, Ms. Ann
Hendry, Judge Norman
Henning, Mr. George J.
Helpler, Mrs. Charlene S.
Herin, Mr. Thomas D.
Herndon, Mr. Joseph L.
Herring, Mrs. V.R,
Herst, Mr. Herman, Jr.
Hertz, Ms. Linda Collins
Hertzberg, Mr. David J.
Hett, Ms. Marilyn P.
Hibbard, R.W.
Hickey, Ms. Amy K.
Hill, Mr. Gregory
Hill, Mr. Lawrence L.
Hill, Ms. Reanie
Hiller, Mr. Herbert L.
Hines, Ms. Bea L.
Hines, Ms. Phyllis
Hipsman, Mr. Mitchell
Ms. Marilyn, Ph.D.
Hodge, Mr. Greg
Hofmann, Ms. Lucinda
Hogan, Mr. G.B., Jr.
Hogg, Mr. John F.
Hokanson, Ms. Ginni
Holland, Mr. Charles W., Jr.
Holzman, Ms. Tressa A.
Hooper, Ms. Irene Upshaw
Hoppenbrouwer, Mr.
Walter D.
Horelle, Ms. Ingrid
Horta, Ms. Teresa
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie
Houghtaling, Mr. Francis S.
Houser, Mr. Roosevelt C.
Hritz, Mr. William R.
Hunter, Ms. Frances G.
Hussey, Ms. Gloria
Huston, Ms. Catherine B.
Jacaway, Taffy
Jacobs, Mrs. Ruth
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen L.
Jaffe, Ms. Leah S.
James, Ms. Mary Crofts
Jenkins, Ms. Elsie A.
Jerome, Dr. William T., III
Johnson, Mr. Chris
Johnson, Ms. Dorothy L.
Johnson, Mr. Frederick L.
Johnson, Mr. Hal R., Jr.
Johnson, Ms. Jean
Johnson, Ms. Pamela L.
Jolley, Ms. Bethany E.

List of Members 85

Jones, Ms. Anne F.
Jones, Ms. Donna Jean
Jones, Mrs. Frances
Jones, Mrs. Henrietta
Jones, Ms. Jacqueline
Jones, Ms. Marie M.
Jones, Mr. Thompson V.
Jordan, Mrs. June T.
Jordan, Mrs. June T.
Jordan, Ms. Katharine R.
Jureit, Mrs. L.E.
Just, Ms. Leslie A.
Kainen, Mr. Dennis G., Esq.
Kaiser, Ms. Roberta
Kanner, Mrs. Aaron M.
Karlin, Ms. Sydelle
Kashmer, Ms. Ann R.
Kassewitz, Mr. Ruth B.
Kaufelt, Mr. David A.
Kavanaugh, Mr. Daniel A.
Keaton, Ms. Debra
Keaton, Ms. Martha
Keely, Mrs. Lucile F.
Keller, Ms. Barbara P.
Kelley, Dr. Robert L.
Kelly, Dr. J. Terence
Kent, Ms, Deborah L.
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A.
Kent, Mr. W.R.
Kilberg, Mrs. A.J.
Kimball, Mr. Albert D.
King, Mr. Arthur, Sr.
King, Mr. Dennis G.
Kirsch, Mr. Louis
Kjelson, Mrs. Betty L.
Klein, Mr. Mason Stuart
Klein, Ms. Roberta
Klein, Ms. Ruth C.
Kneeley, Mr. Robert
Knight, Mr. Jeffrey D.
Knott, Judge James R.
Koestline, Ms. Frances G.
Kofink, Rev. Wayne A.
Kokenzie, Mr. Henry
Komorowski, Ms. Camilla B.
Kononoff, Ms. Hazel N.
Kopelman, Mrs. Frances
Kops, Ms. Karin
Koski, Ms. Antoinette M.
Kramer, Ms. Judi
Kramer, Ms. Sandra G.
Kriebs, Mr. Robert V.
Krinzman, Mr. Alan
Kristal, Mr. Marvin J.
Kronstadt, Mr. Harold
Kudzma, Dr. David J.
Kumble, Ms. Madelyn
Kupper, Mr. Ken
LaBelle, Mr. Dexter


LaCroix, Mrs. Aerial Crofts
LaFontaine, Ms. Patricia
Lamb, Ms. Gloria
Lamme, Mr. Robert E.
Lancaster, Mr. R.D.
Landau, Dr. S.
Lane, Ms. Elizabeth A.
Lanford, Mr. James W.
Langley, Miss Clara C.
Langner, Ms. Mildred C.
Lanman, Ms. Rosalie
LaRoue, Mr. Samuel D., Jr.
LaRussa, Ms. Lynne M.
Lavin, Ms. Mayola L.
Lawrence, Mr. Mathew
Lawson, Dr. H.L.
Laxson, Mr. Dan D., Sr.
Laxson, Mr. Danny D., Jr.
Lazarus, Mrs. Theodora
**Leary, Mr. Lewis
Leavitt, Mr. Steve
Lederman, Ms. Barbra
LeDuc, Ms. Charlotte J.
Lee, Ms. Catherine D.
Lee, Mr. Roswell E.
Leesha, Miss Sara
Lehman, Mrs. David M.
Leiber, Mr. Robert B.
Leisner, Ms. Ruth
Leiva, Ms. M.
Lemos, Mrs. Mamie
Lenox, Ms. Teresa
Leon, Mr. Salvador, Jr.
Leonard, Mr. Joseph S.
Leslie, Ms. Sylvia Ann
Leslie, Ms. N.L.
Levin, Mr. Marc
Levine, Dr. Robert M.
Lewensohn, Mr. San
Lewis, Mr. Harry D.
Lewis, Ms. Patty
Lewis, Mrs. J. Gerald
Liberty, Ms. Eunice
Liddell, Ms. Lynn
Lieberman, Ms. Eleanor
Liebman, Mrs. Seymour B.
Limerick, Mr. Lester
Lindgren, Mrs. M.E.
Lindsley, Mrs. A.R.
Lineback, Ms. Janet A.
Linehan, Mrs. John
Link, Mrs. E.A.
Lipscomb, Mrs. Elizabeth
Livingstone, Mr. Don R.
Locke, Mr. Mark W.
Loerky, Ms. Donna
Lom, Ms. Norma
Lombard, Ms. Joanna
Lombardi, Mrs. Elaine L.

Lombardi, Ms. Maria
Lombardo, Ms. Barbara A.
Longshore, Mr. Frank
Longstreth, Mr. Bob Franklin
Looney, Ms. Evelyn 0.
Lorencz, Mrs. Valerie
Lotz, Ms. Aileen R.
Love, Ms. Mildred A.
Lowery, Mrs. Nereida
Lowry, Mr. James R., Jr.
Lubel, Mr. Howard
Luce, Ms. Marjorie
Luing, Mr. Gary
Lukens, Mr. Jaywood
Lummus, Ms. Martha F.
Lunnon, Mrs. James
Lunsford, Mrs. E.C.
Lyda, Ms. Eloise B.
Lynch, Mrs. Alethea G.
Lynch, Mrs. Jeannette W.
Lynfield, Mr. H. Geoffrey
Lynk, Ms. Nancy C.
Mack, Mr. Stephen B.
Mackle, Ms. Milbrey W.
MacLaren, Ms. Valerie
MacVicar, Mrs. I.D.
Madeira, Ms. E.D.
Madsen, Ms. Gwen
Maholm, Reverend
Richard D.
Malafronte, Mr. Anthony F.
Malcomb, Mrs. John L.
Malone, Mrs. Randolph A.
Malter, Ms. Susan
Malvido, Ms. Emma
Mangels, Dr, Celia C.
Mangone, Mr. James L.
Manley, Ms. Joan
Manlio, Dr. F.L.
Manly, Ms. Grace
Mann, Ms. Karen
Manning, Ms. Barbara R.
Marchman, Mr. Dennis L.
Marcus, Mrs. Bessie
Marino, Ms. Maria A.
Markus, Mr. Daniel
Marshall, Mrs. Judy 0.
Marshall, Ms. Treva I.
Martin, Mr. Emmett E., Jr.
Martin, Dr. John B., Jr.
Martin, Mr. Victor
Martin, Mrs. Wayne
Martinez, Mr. Gabriel
Mason, Mrs. Joe J.
Mason, Mr. William C., Ill
Massa, Mrs. Jeanmarie M.
Masterson, Ms. Lee Ann
Matheson, Mr. James F.
Matteson, Miss Eleanor E.

Maura, Ms. Jane
Maxwell, Ms. Marjorie P.
Maxwell, Mr. Michael
Mazzotti, Mr. Frank J.
McAllister, Mr. Jim
McCall, Mr. C. Lawton
McClure, Mrs. Florence
McCulloch, Mr. John E.
McGarity, Ms. Mary D.
Mcintosh, Ms. Jeannette C.
McKellar, Mrs. James D.
McKenna, Mrs. Alice M.
McKenna, Mr. Daniel C.
McKinney, Mr. Bob
McLean, Ms. Leonore
McLeod, Mrs. William J.
McNally, Rev. Michael
J., Ph.D.
McNaughton, Ms. Virginia D.
McVay, Ms. Ginger
McWilliams, Ms. Phyllis
Medina, Mr. Robert K.
Mejias, Ms. Asmara
Mell, Mr. W.B., Jr.
Mellow, Mrs. James
Mendez, Mr. Jesus
Mendoza, Mrs. Enid D.
Merriss, Ms. Joan
Mesics, Ms. Sandra
Metz, Mr. J. Walter, Jr.
Meyer, Mr. Richard G.
Meyers, Mrs. Bert
Middelthon, Mr. William
Royal, Jr.
Mielke, Mr. Timothy R.
Mijares, Ms. Josie
Millar, Mrs. Gavin S.
Milledge, Ms. Evalyn M.
Miller, Mr. Dean R.
Miller, Mrs. Elizabeth C.
Miller, Ms. Gertrude
Miller, Ms. Huntley
Miller, Ms. Margaret L.
Miller, Mr. Philip Orme
Mills, Ms. Rosemary
Minear, Ms. Anna P.L.
Miranda, Ms. Olga E.
Mohl, Mr. Raymond A., Jr.
Molinari, Mr. R.E., DDS
Monk, Mr. J. Floyd
Montague, Mrs. Charles H.
Moon, Ms. Donna L.
Moore, Mrs. Jack
Moore, Mr. Kevin
Moore, Mr. Patrick F.
Morales, Ms. Eliza S.
Mordaunt, Mr. Hal
Morgan, Mr. Gregory A.
Morris, Ms. Thomasine

Morton, Ms. Jan
Moss, Ms. Pamela
Moss, Mr. Steve
Moss, Mr. Steven
Moure, Mrs. Edwin P.
Moylan, Mrs. E.B., Jr.
Moynahan, Mr. John H.
Muir, Mrs. William Whalley
Muller, Ms. Barbara Fairchild
Muller, Mr. David F.
Muniz, Mr. Manuel I.
Murphy, Ms. Joan
Myers, Ms. Austin
Myers, Ms. Lillian G.
Naccarato, Ms. Mary T.
Naccarato, Ms. Rosa
Napier, Mrs. Harvey
Napolitano, Ms. Marianne
Narup, Mrs. Mavis A.
Nasca, Ms. Suzanne
Neinken, Mrs. Ruth
Nelson, Mr. Jonathan
Nelson, Mr. Theodore R.
Nelson, Ms. Winifred H.
Nemeti, Ms. Gay M.
Neway, Ms. Roberta
Newcomm, Mrs. Sally E.
Newman, Mr. Louis
Newton, Ms. Brandi
Newton, Capt. W.L., III
Nichols, Ms. Patricia
Niles, Mr. James P.
Nimnicht, Mrs. Helen
Nimnicht, Mrs. Mary Jo
Noble, Dr. Nancy Lee
Nodarse, Ms. Anita
Nordarse, Mr. Raul
Norcross, Mr. Brian
Norman, Mr. Walter H.
O'Brien, Ms. Dorothy
O'Brien, Mr. William
O'Connell, Mr. Peter J.
Older, Mr. Brian Scott
Olson, Mr. Brian
Orlen, Ms. Roberta C.
Orovitz, Mr. Warren James
Orr, Judge George
Oscar, Ms. Marie
Osman, Mr. Peter
Osnowitz, Ms. Myrna
Ostrout, Mr. Howard F., Jr.
Oswald, Mr. M. Jackson
Otterson, Ms. Dana
Overstreet, Ms. Estelle C.
Overstreet, Mr. James D., Jr.
Owen, Ms. Patti
Padgett, Mr. Inman
Palen, Mr. Frank S.
Palmer, Mr. Miguel

Palozzi, Mr. Michael J.
Parente, Mr. Robert
Park, Mr. Dabney G., Jr.
Parker, Mr. Crawford H.
Parker, Mr. David
Parks, Ms. Jeanne M.
Parks, Mrs. Merle F.
Parsons, Mrs. Edward G.
Paugh, Mr. Gerald L.
Paul, Mrs. Kenneth
Paxton, Ms. Barbara W.
Peabody, Mr. Edward L.
Pearce, Mrs. Edgar B.
Pearson, Ms. Madeline S.
Peckham, Mrs. Angelyn R.
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth
Peeples, Mr. Vernon
Peoples, Mrs. W.H.
Pell, Ms. Gloria
Peoples, Ms. Anita J.
Perdue, Ms. Jean Duckett
Perez-Stable, Ms. Alina
Perner, Mrs. Henry J.
Peskoe, Ms. Anne
Peters, Mr. Jerry L.
Peters, Mr. John S.
*Peters, Dr. Thelma
Phillips, Ms. Judy L.
Pichel, Mrs. Clem A.
Pickard, Ms. Carolyn
Pierce, Mrs. Margie K.
Pierce, Ms. Renee
Pietro, Mrs. Virginia R.
Pinto, Mr. Jorge E.
Plummer, Mr. Lawrence H.
Ponce, Mr. James
Poole, Mr. John Lindsley
Popp, Mrs. Lucene L.
Porter, Mr. Daniel
Portnoy, Ms. Rita
Posner, Mr. Joseph
Postlethwaite, Ms. Nina
Prado, Ms. Miriam
Price, Mr. W. Bedford
Primus, Mr. Richard Lee
Pritchard, Ms. Barbara
Proenza, Ms. Christina D.
Provost, Mr. Orville I.
Puchhas, Ms. Kathleen A.
Purdy, Ms. Betty A.
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F.
Quincy, Ms. Suzanne F.
Ragan, Ms. Patti
Rahm, Mrs. Virginia S.
Raiden, Mr. Michael E.
Ramos, Ms. Pauline E.
Rankin, Ms. Sally
Rappaport, Dr. Edward
Raskin, Ms. Dorothy

List of Members 87

Rasmussen, Mrs. Ray S.
Reagan, Mr. A. James, Jr.
Reale, Ms. Janice Beth
Reed, Mr. Barrie T.
Reed, Ms. Elizabeth Ann
Reed, Mr. Richard E.
Reeder, Mr. William F.
Rehwoldt, Mr. Ralph T.
Reich, Mr. Joshua
Reilly, Mr. Phil
Reilly, Mrs. R. Thomas
Rein, Mr. Martin
Reiss, Ms. B.K.
Rempe, Ms. Lois D.
Rendic, Ms. Marcia H.
Renick, Mr. Ralph
Renninger, Ms. Julie B.
Reno, Ms. Janet, Esq.
Resnick, Mr. Larry
Reynaldos, Mr. Miguel A.
Rice, Sister Eileen O.P.
Rice, Mr. R.H., Jr.
Richards, Ms. Rose Connett
Richheimer, Ms. R.
Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R.
Ries, Dr. Daryl T.
Riggins, Mrs. Marilyn L.
Riley, Ms. Sandra
Riley, Mrs. O.V.
Risley, Mr. Douglas L.
Ritter, Mrs. Emma B.
Ritts, Mr. Mark
Rivas, Ms. Julia
Roberts, Mr. Richard E.
Roberts, Ms. Ruth
Robertson, Mrs. Paul H.
Robertson, Mrs. Piedad F.
Robinson, Mrs. Webster
Rochkind, Ms. Sarah D.
Rodriguez, Mrs. Alba
Rodriguez, Ms. Leyda
Rodriguez, Ms. Ofelia M.
Rogers, Mrs. Walter S.
Rollins, Ms. Annie Leigh
Rood, Mr. Nathan B.
Roper, Mrs. George P.
Roper, Ms. Margaret M.
Rosas-Guyon, Mr. Luis I.
Rosen, Mr. Robert R.
Rosenberg, Mrs.
Edythe L.
Rosenblatt, Mrs. Benard
Rosenthal, Mr. Sheldon
Roser, Ms. Aliz A.
Ross, Mrs. H. Jack
Rossi-Espaguet, Mr. G.
Roston, Mr. Gilbert C.
Roth, Mrs. Ellen
Rouse, Ms. Debby L.


Rowen, Mrs. Richard C.
Rubin, Mr. Jack
Ruden, Mrs. Eliza P.
Ruiz, Ms. Margarita F.
Rullman, Ms. Jean M.
Russ, Mr. Denis A.
Ryan, Mr. Patrick W.
Sachlis, Ms. Sharon A.
Sackman, Ms. Arlene
Sager-Saffer, Mrs. Miriam
Sala, Ms. Carin
Salerno, Ms. Evelyn
Saliba, Ms. Barbara
Salles, Mr. Jerry
Salley, Mrs. Sadie S.
Salomon, Mr. Carlos M.
Salzman, Ms. Phyllis S.
Sam Piero, Ms. Karla
Samson, Dr. Stephen
Samuels, Mr. Harris J.
Dr. Josefina
Sanders, Mrs. Zannie W.
Santalla, Ms. Gilda M.
Santo Pietro, Mr. James
Santos, Mr. Arnold
Sargent, Ms. Priscilla M.
Saul, Mr. Martin 0.
Sax, Ms. Connie A.
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffee
Schaefer, Ms. Norah K.
Schaeffer, Mrs. Oden A.
Scherr, Mrs. Ruth E.
Schiff, Mr. Benjamin
Schneider, Mrs. Alice M.
Schneider, Mr. A.
Scholtz, Ms. Mary L.
Schuh, Mr. Niles
Schultz, Mrs. Tom G.
Scott, Ms. Kathy A.
Scott, Mr. Patrick S.
Segal, Mr. Martin E.
Segal, Mrs. Natalie J.
Selinsky, Dr. Herman
Sell, Ms. Helen E.
Sellati, Mr. Kenneth
Semes, Rev. Robert L.
Seng, Mr. William R.
Serkin, Mr. Manuel
Sessions, Ms. Ellen G.
Shafer, Ms. Kathryn E.
Sharer, Mr. Cyrus J.
Sharlow, Mrs. Evelyn W.
Sharp, Ms. Sandy
Shaw, Mrs. H.O.
Shaw, Mrs. W.F.
Shearer, Ms. Juanita D.
Sheeran, Ms. Kathy

Sheffield, Mrs. Charlotte
Shelton, Ms. Betty
Shepard, Mrs. Sara F.
Sheppard, Ms. Lori L.
Shorstein, Ms. Lillian J.
Shula, Mrs. Don
Siao, Mr. Siu Kim
Sibert, Mr. J.D.
Siegel, Ms. Leslie
Sigale, Mr. Merwin
Silver, Ms. June D.
Silver, Mrs. Sam 1.
Silverman, Ms. Judy
Sims, Mrs. Vi
Singleton, Ms. Audrey E.
Singleton, Ms. Martha
Sizemore, Ms. Christina
Skipp, Ms. Marjorie L.
Skolnick, Mr. Nathan
Sloop, Mr. R. Wayne
Slusser, Mr. Bruce
Smiley, Mr. Nixon
Smith, Mrs. Avery C., Jr.
Smith, Mr. Chesterfield, Sr.
Smith, Ms. Elizabeth W.
Smith, Mr. Harrison H.
Smith, Ms. Jitske B.
Smith, Ms. Lynette M.
Smith, Ms. Moyse B.
Smith, Ms. Rebecca A.
Smith, Mrs. J.C.
Sniffen, Mr. Lon M.
Snoweiss, Mr. Howard
Soler, Ms. Joyce
Sommers, Mr. L.B.
Sonderegger, Ms. Martha
Sorondo, Ms. Astrid
Sorrentino, Ms. Charlene H.
Sowell, Mr. J.A.
Sperling, Mr. Stephen M.
Spindel, Ms. Florence
Ms. Catherine M.
Spivey, Ms. Jane D.
Spohn, Mr. Edward A.
Spore, Ms. Mary Jane
Spratt, Mr. Willian J., Jr.
Stacey, Mr. George L.
Stanton, Ms. Hy
Stark, Miss Judi
Starrett, Ms. Michelle
Steams, Ms. Laura P.
Steams, Mr. Robert Joel
Steel, Mrs. William C.
Stein, Ms. Lois L.
Steinman, Mr. E.
Stevens, Dr. Elizabeth
Stewart, Mrs. Chester B.
Stewart, Mr. Rod

Stewart, Ms. Ruth A.
Stickler, Mr. Robert
Stiles, Ms. Doris B.
**Stiles, Mr. Wade
Stock, Ms. Ruth V.
Stofik, Ms. Marty
Stone, Dr. Arline M.
Stone, Ms. Jacquelyn C.
Stone, Mr. Terry L.
Stone, Mrs. A.J.
Storck, Mrs. Christa
Storm, Ms. Larue
Stovall, Ms. Lucy P.
Stripling, Mr. John R.
Strobl, Miss Annette
Stuart, Ms. Victoria
Stump, Ms. Lorelei A.
Sturrock, Ms. Elsie
Suiter, Ms. Patricia A.
Sullivan, Mr. Patrick R.
Summers, Ms. Lynn M.
Sundquist, Mr. Percy U.H.
Suomi, Ms. Evamanda F.
Swartz, Ms. Donna C.
Swartz, Mr. Kenneth
Swartz, Mr. Thomas A.
Swisher, Mr. John E.
Szita, Ms. Blanche
Tatham, Mr. Thomas L.
Tatol, Ms. Julie T.
Taylor, Mr. James I.
Taylor, Ms. Kareen E.
Taylor, Mrs. F.A.S.
Taylor, Mr. L.C., III
Teasley, Mr. T.H.
Teed, Ms. Mary M.
Teichner, Mr. Mark A.
Tejeda, Ms. Alina M.
Test, Ms. Peggy L.
*Tharp, Mrs. Charles Doren
Thayer, Ms. Laura
Thayer, Ms. Margaret J.
Theakston, Mrs. Pierce
Thilmont, Ms. Diane
Thomas, Mr. Phillip A.
Thompson, Ms. Charlotte
Thompson, Mr. Loren L.
Thompson, Ms. Mona Denise
Thompson, Ms. Roberta C.
Thompsonk, Mr. T.J., II
Thorn, Mr. Dale A.
Thornton, Mr. Dade W., Esq.
Thurlow, Mr. Tom, Jr.
Tighe, Ms. Russica P.
Timanus, Mrs. Martha D.
Tingler, Mrs. C.F.
Todd, Mr. Therald
Toledo, Mr. Claudio
Tomlinson, Mr. Edwin L.

Tompsett, Ms. Clara E.
Torello, Ms. Mirta
Tomes, Ms. Maria J.
Torrente, Ms. Beatriz
Torrieri, Ms. Joan
Tottenhoff, Mrs. J.R.
Towle, Mrs. Helen C.
Trager, Ms. Marcia L.
Trescott, Ms. Jean L.
Trussell, Mrs. Ralph
Tucker, Mr. Bruce E.
Tuckerman, Mr. Herbert G.
Turner, Ms. Molly
Turner, Mrs. Roberta H.
Tyler, Ms. Marin
Udell, Ms. Marilyn
Uffendell, Mrs. William
Underwood, Mrs. Jean B.
Upchurch, Miss Elise H.
Valladares, Mr. Pablo
Vallega, Mr. Jack
Van Eaton, Ms. Eleanor
Vanderlaan, Mr. C. Mark
VanLandingham, Mr. Kyle S.
Varner, Miss Edwina
Vega, Mr. Joe
Veiga, Ms. Addys
Velar, Mr. Pedro L.
Venditti, Mr. Robert E.
Veronski, Ms. D.J.
Villamil, Mr. Juan M.
Vinals, Ms. Ana Maria
Vogt, Mrs. Richard
Vohs, Mr. Lester J.
Volker, Mrs. Mary Frances
Vonarx, Ms. Carol
Wade, Mrs. Katherine R.
Waldron, Mrs. Neal E.
Walker, Ms. Sara 0.
Waller, Mr. David F.

Walters, Miss Ruthe
Washburn, Mrs. James V.
Wassell, Mrs. Elizabeth F.
Waters, Miss Elva Jane
Watson, Ms. Hattie E.
Webster, Ms. N.K.
Weinberger, Mrs. Irene H.
Weinhardt, Ms. Annetta H.
Weinsoff, Ms. Laura
Weiss, Mrs. Meryle
Weiss, Mrs. Milton
Weiss, Ms. Susan
Weit, Mr. Richard
Wellington, Ms. Flora H.
Wells, Mrs. Barbara E.
Wells, Ms. Betty Lou
Wells, Ms. Joanna
Wemple, Mr. David B.
Wepman, Mr. Warren S.
Werblow, Mrs. Marcella U.
West, Ms. Beverley L.
Westmoreland, Ms. Colleen F.
Wetterer, Ms. Mary Thiel
Wheeler, Ms, Helen
Wheeling, Mr. Craig
White, Mr. Richard M.
White, Mr. H.E.
Whitenack, Ms. Abby
Whitlock, Ms. Mary
Whitney, Ms. Brenda L.
Whittelsey, K.
Whitten, Mr. George E.
Whitworth, Judge Lewis B.
Widen, Ms. Judith
Wien, Ms. Carol
Wilken, Mrs. Jane Steel
Wilkins, Mr. Joe
Williams, Ms. Celia
Williams, Mr. Daniel F.
Williams, Mr. David J.

List of Members 89

Williams, Ms. Dorothy E.
Williams, Mr. Elmo H.
Williams, Mr. Herbert L.
Williams, Ms. Linda K.
Williams, Ms. Martha J.
Williams, Ms. Meredith
Williams, Ms. Nancy
Williams, Mr. D. Webster
Williams, Mr. G.L.
Willing, Mr. David L.
Willis, Ms. Helen
Willis, Mrs. Hillard Wood
Wilson, Ms. Cordelia C.
Wilson, Mr. Gary E.
Wilson, Mrs. Joy Sargent
Wilson, Ms. Mary Ann
*Wilson, Mrs. Peyton L.
Wilson, Ms. Sandra J.
Wilson, Miss Virginia E.
Wimmer, Ms. Pauline
Wood, Mr. Edward A.
Wood, Mr. Hayes G.
Wood, Mr. Peter
Woodall, Ms. Anna L.
Wooten, Ms. Janis B.
Ms. Rose Anne
Wright, Dr. lone S.
Wujciak, Ms. Alice
Yarborough, Ms. Joan
Yates, Ms. Elizabeth J.
Yehle, Ms. Jean T.
Young, Mr. Montgomery L.
Zabsky, Mr. Harold J.
Zawisza, Ms. Christina
Zell, Dr. Dolores P.
Zimmerman, Mrs. Louis
Zwerner, Mrs. Carl


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