Last Command: The Dade Massacre
by W. S. Steele
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom of the 1920s
by Donald W. Curl
The State of Florida and the Florida Indians
by James Covington
The Development of the Overseas Highway
by Alice Hopkins
The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge
by Dr. Thelma Peters
List of Members
COPYRIGHT 1986 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
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made by contributors.
THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
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Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.
FOUNDED 1940 INCORPORATED 1941
D. Alan Nichols
First Vice President
Sandra Graham Younts
Second Vice President
Howard Zwibel, MD
C. Frasuer Knight
Marcia J. Kanner
Arva Moore Parks
Charlton W.Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Emeritus Tequesta
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Editor Emeritus Tequesta
Randy F. Nimnicht
Gregory M. Cesarano
Carlton W. Cole
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H. Willis Day, Jr.
Hunting F. Deutsch
Dorothy J. Fields
Jay 1. Kislak
Stephen A. Lynch, III
R. Layton Mank
Clarence Smith, MD
ON THE COVER
The Dade Massacre, 1835
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The Dade Massacre
By W. S. Steele
One hundred and fifty years ago Dade County was established
amidst the smoke and flames of burning plantations. This violent
period of our history is known as the Second Seminole War. Precipi-
tated by the massacre of U.S. troops under the command of Brevet
Major Francis Langhorne Dade, near Bushnell, Florida, this war
has been referred to as the fiercest of all the American Indian wars.
The Dade Massacre is also the second greatest defeat the U.S. Army
ever suffered at the hands of the Indians (Custer's defeat at the Little
Big Horn decades later, being somewhat worse).
The creation of Dade County came shortly after the attack on
Dade's troops. On receipt of the news of the disaster, the proposed
new county's name was changed from Pinkney, after a Revolutionary
War hero, to Dade.
At the time, the Dade Massacre created a national sensation
much like the fall of the Alamo or Custer's Last Stand. But as the
years passed, the event faded from the public memory. After 150
years the story bears retelling.
As Major Francis Langhorne Dade swung into his saddle on the
morning of December 23, 1835, he faced a familiar challenge. He was
to lead two companies of approximately 110 men across more than 100
miles of wilderness which lay between Fort Brooke, at Tampa, and
W. S. Steele, an employee of the Historical Association, also serves as Military
Historian for the Archaeological and Historical Conservancy. His other research
projects have included locating the site of Fort Henry in Dade County, and of the
Okeechobee Battlefield, a national landmark whose boundaries have been the center
of controversy for the last 60 years.
Fort King, near modern day Ocala. This march was to be made in
spite of the fact that the small garrison at Fort King had not been heard
from for some time, an ominous indication of Indian activities between
the two posts.
Major Dade faced this dangerous expedition with more than a
decade of military experience on the Florida frontier. As an officer
of the 4th Infantry, he had led his men against staggering odds in the
Florida wilderness and had a good record of success. Incredibly, he
had accomplished the same march twice before (a march of which
the post commander, Captain Francis Belton, had said he would
rather resign than lead).' Dade had made the first of these journeys
to Fort King in 1825 during an Indian disturbance which threatened
to grow into open warfare. A counterpart expedition from St.
Augustine, also destined for Fort King advanced only 12 miles be-
fore poor quality territorial roads, and weather completely stalled
the expedition forcing them to return to St. Augustine.2
In 1826 Dade was again ordered to lead two companies from
Fort Brooke to Fort King to provide military security for an Indian
election being organized by the U.S. authorities. The result of the
election was unpopular with the Seminoles because the minority
Miccosukees and Tallahassees had united in electing a minority tribe
(Miccosukee) member as head of the new nation.
This 1826 expedition was not without incident; 15 miles south
of Fort King, Dade had to pass Micanopy's town (Micanopy was one
of the most important Seminole leaders). Lieutenant George A. Mc-
Call, who commanded one of the companies, later wrote "on arriv-
ing at Micanopy's town . we found it abandoned. A negroe who
came out to meet us informed the commanding officer that the in-
habitants on hearing our approach had taken to the swamp and would
fight if followed."-3 Dade did not follow and the potential battle was
The situation in Florida worsened ominously between 1826
and 1835. The settlers' ill feelings toward the Indians was fueled by
distrust, fear, greed, and bigotry. The Indians' ill feelings could be
traced to more specific causes. The lands assigned to them by the
Moultrie Creek Treaty of 1823 were too poor to cultivate or raise
cattle. "19/20 of their whole country," wrote Governor Duval of
Florida, "is by far the poorest and most miserable region I have ever
beheld."4 There was little healthy drinking water. Those Indians who
did move onto the reservations were not properly maintained and
funds were not fairly distributed. To make matters worse, an 1826
Last Command: The Dade Massacre 7
flood created famine among the Indians.
In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected president. This was to
have a profound effect on American-Indian relations. He was the first
of four presidents between 1828 and 1844, two of whom won fame
as Indian fighters and the other two were their Vice-Presidents. Acts
of Congress during this time were to reflect this. The Indian Removal
Act of 1830 proposed removal of all 72,000 Indians who lived east of
the Mississippi River. The Moultrie Creek Treaty of 1823 had given
the Florida Indians 20 years (1843) to emigrate, but a new treaty at
Payne's Landing in 1832, changed it to 1835. This further solidified
Indian anti-removal factions, and added to their ranks.
On March 27, 1835, an address by President Jackson was read
before the assembled Florida Indian chiefs. Although it began "My
children" and ended "your friend A. Jackson," in between it revealed
the un-veneered harshness of Jackson's intentions. "The game has
disappeared from your country," he wrote, "your people are poor and
hungry ... The tract you ceded will soon be surveyed and sold and
immediately occupied by a white population . You have no right
to stay ... I have directed the commanding officer to remove you by
When principle leaders such as Micanopy, Alligator, Jumper,
and Sam Jones expressed their disapproval, Indian agent Wiley
Thompson illegally struck their names from the list of chiefs. The
chiefs who agreed to leave asked for and were granted time to harvest
their crops. They were given nine months before they were scheduled
to assemble in Tampa for emigration. By mid-January they were
to board transport ships bound for the west.
After this meeting Thompson cut off the sale of ammunition to
the Indians. He also made the reservation off limits to traders and
Negro hunters.6 The Negro hunters were a constant source of irrita-
tion to the Seminoles because an estimated 25% of their population
were Negroes. As a Spanish territory, Florida had been a haven for
blacks, but when Florida became an American territory, many slavers
came into Florida to reclaim or abduct them.
An example of the slavers harassment occurred in June, 1835,
when Osceola visited Fort King with his wife, whose mother was an
escaped slave. When a slaver claimed Osceola's wife as a slave, Osceola
reacted with such language that Thompson ordered him into irons.7
After being jailed for six days, Osceola became "penitent" and was
released. Later, when asked what should be done about Thompson,
Osceola remarked that the agent was his "friend", and he would take
care of him personally.
Other incidents added to the tension. One skirmish between seven
settlers and seven Indians left three settlers and one Indian wounded
and one Indian dead. Early in August, Private Kinsly Dalton (after
whom Dalton, Georgia was named) was killed while carrying the
mail between Fort Brooke and Fort King.8 On the 19th of August
Indians and the authorities held the last council with ten chiefs and
seventeen sub-chiefs present. Osceola sat quietly as only Holata-
Emathla, a pro-removal chief, spoke for the Indians. The anti-removal
chiefs said nothing. Soon after, the Indians held their own council
in the Big Swamp. It was decided that any Indian who prepared for
removal would be put to death. When Holata-Emathla brought 400 of
his people into Fort Brooke on November 9, they were closely fol-
lowed by a war party.9 On the 26th of the same month Osceola killed
Charley Emathla because he sold his cattle, a preliminary step toward
removal. Osceola took the money Charley Emathla had received
for his cattle and threw it to the ground, forbidding anyone from pick-
ing it up, because the white man's money came from Indian blood.
Four days later agent Thompson postponed cattle sales and warned
the public to guard against Indian depredations.
What might be considered the first battle of the war occurred
at Payne's Prairie on December 18th when 50 or 60 Indians attacked
a military wagon train. Of the 30 militia-men, eight were killed and
six wounded. As a result, 500 men joined the mounted Florida militia
and landowners began fortifying their plantations. Some built fairly
elaborate forts like the stockade at the Bulow Plantation. It consisted
of an "alley-way, made of substantial squared cedar posts 10 feet
high, that led into a palmetto fort having four angles or bastions.
The palmetto logs were laid horizontally and morticed in one another
to a height above that of a man. Loop-holes were cut between them.
On one side of the fort there was a terrace, or log platform for a sen-
tinel to walk on, and a fine wall in its center. On the outside some lit-
tle way off, there was a high tree with steps like a ladder reaching to
its top which commanded an extensive view of the country around
for a mile or more, and had been used as a lookout."M Because most
settlers could not afford such elaborate defences, many abandoned
their homes and gathered at fortified points.
At this time, there were only 500 Federal troops in Florida.
Commander Duncan L. Clinch, of the 4th Infantry had asked for re-
inforcements. This small number of troops encouraged the Indians
to resist removal because 500 men could not enforce the removal of
Lasi Command: The Dade Massacre 9
over 4,800 Indians. One reason given later for the government's in-
action was that "the Indians were not to be removed before January,
hostilities were not to be expected until the time of actual embark-
ment."'' President Jackson's views of the Florida situation are easily
seen in a statement he made to Representative White of Florida. Jack-
son claimed "that he could take 50 women and whip every Indian that
had ever crossed the Suwannee . ." He maintained that there never
were 600 Indians. White further quoted the old Indian fighter as say-
ing that the men in Florida "had better run off or let the Indians shoot
them, that the women might get husbands of courage and breed up
men who would defend the country."12 This gross understatement of
the situation in Florida led to Dade's orders that day 150 years ago.
Dade was representative of the regular army in which President
Jackson had so much confidence. He was a "tall man but so well
built he did not appear so."'3 He served as an officer under Jackson
and was commanding officer in Key West. His extensive service in
Florida led to his assignment as commander of the territory lying be-
tween Charlotte Harbor and Cape Florida. His orders specifically
required him to occasionally accompany expeditions into the interior
of the territory to keep familiar with Indian affairs there.
The men of Dade's command reflected a recent change in re-
cruiting policy. Prior to 1835, immigrants had not been accepted into
the military service. Now, less than a year after this change, nearly
one-half (47) of Dade's men were immigrants from Ireland, Germany,
Scotland, England, Prussia, Canada, and Saxony.14
Private John Thomas was one of these immigrants. He and his
younger brother had come to America together. The younger brother
impetuously joined the army, and John had joined to see after him.
Another private among the ranks was a 19 year old American
named Ransom Clarke. He was described as a vulgar, unappreciative
youth who had already accomplished all but the crowning achieve-
ment of an astonishing career in the Army. In 1835 he had been the
only survivor of the crew of a small ship that sank in Mobile Bay. On
reaching Florida he was assigned the mail route between Fort King
and Fort Brooke after the previous courier, Private Dalton, was mur-
dered by the Indians. Clarke survived this hazardous duty although it
was reported that the Indians captured him twice.'5
The road on which Dade's men marched had been established by
the military to connect Ft. Brooke with the Indian agency at Ft. King.
The road crossed four rivers and several hammocks before reaching
Fort King. Each of these crossings and hammocks was an ideal loca-
tion for Indian ambushes. The first crossing was at the Little Hills-
borough River, seven miles from Fort Brooke. The men felled trees
and raised a breastwork where Dade camped the first night. Trans-
porting the cannon hampered the day's march. Dragging this gun
through the sand was too much for its team of oxen so it was finally
abandoned four miles from Ft. Brooke. Lieutenant Benjamin Alvord
was sent back to Ft. Brooke to get a team of horses to pull it. 6
On the first day's march, the command had been joined by Cap-
tain George Gardiner and a Negro guide-interpreter. Captain Gardi-
ner, who was described as being "almost as thick as he was long,"17
contrasted to the taller Dade. He was originally ordered to command
this mission but because his wife was gravely ill, Dade offered to take
his place. After accepting this kind offer, Captain Gardiner discovered
that the schooner Motto (the same ship which later saved the keeper
from the top of the Cape Florida Lighthouse) was preparing to leave
for Key West. Because his wife's father and their children were at
Key West, he sent her there on board the Motto and caught up
with Dade.18 Had he known about the Motto sooner, present day
Dade County might have been named Gardiner County.
With Gardiner arrived a slave, Louis Pacheco. Fluent in four
languages, Pacheco went ahead of Dade's small army to scout for
potential Indian ambushes. There is still controversy as to which side
Pacheco was on in the approaching battle. Osceola had told Pacheco
that no man could save him from the wrath of the Indians. '9 General
Jessup said Pacheco was a dangerous man and that he should be
When the march continued the next day, Dade sent Pacheco
ahead to scout the next crossing at the Hillsborough River. Pacheco
discovered that the bridge was a smoldering ruin. When Dade and
his men arrived, Dade decided to camp for the night and cross the river
the next day. He put his men to work cutting timber for the breast-
work and camp fires. Timber was also needed for a raft to float the
cannon across the river. Dade sent Private Aaron Jewell back to Fort
Brooke to inform Captain Belton of the burnt bridge and urge him
to send supplies and reinforcements.
In the morning the men were able to ford the river but had prob-
lems with the cannon that fell into the river. It was extricated only
after much difficulty during which Private John Thomas painfully
injured his back. Unable to continue, Thomas was forced to make
his own way back the 15 miles to Fort Brooke. When the command
left him, nearly helpless and alone in the wilderness, Thomas could
Last Command. The Dade Massacre 11
not have known his life had just been saved.
Crossing the Hillsborough River took time and Dade's command
only made six miles before setting up the next fortified camp. Some-
time after dark Private Aaron Jewell rejoined them. He had left Fort
Brooke that afternoon and brought. news that Major Mountfort's
command was to join Dade in the morning. What Jewell did not know
was that the ship with Mountfort's equipment was lost and Mount-
fort would not be coming.
On the 26th, as the command proceeded, Pacheco was again sent
forward to reconnoiter the next river crossing, this time the Ouithla-
coochee. As before, the bridge was burned but this time only partially.
After replacing the damaged planks, the army crossed and went into
camp two miles above the river. To Dade, these burnt bridges must
have seemed more malicious than strategic. What he did not know
was that the Indians were delaying him to allow more time for the
arrival of additional Indian forces under Osceola and M icanopy.2'
The Little Ouithlacoochee was reached the next day. The 20 foot
bridge here was also burnt, but the small river posed no serious ob-
stacle. The men felled a tree and used it as a foot bridge for the soldiers,
as the horses dragged a small cannon through the stream. The next
camp was made four miles above the Little Ouithlacoochee.
Surviving accounts show a sharp contrast between the camps
of the soldiers and Indians. The soldiers awoke before dawn, relieved
as they cooked their breakfast under overcast skies. Most believed
that the danger was behind them because they were heading into
open country where ambush would be difficult. As the soldiers moved
out of camp in a drizzling rain, they marched with their hands up their
sleeves, muskets carelessly held across their arms. Even Dade was
serene, as he failed to post men on his flanks to guard against sur-
Not far away the scene at the Indian camp was one of intense ex-
citement. The warriors danced to keep warm. The moment had come
which could wait no longer.
"We had been preparing for this for more than a year," Alligator
later reported, "Though promises had been made to assemble on the
1st of January, they did not plan to leave the country, but to fight for
it. In council, it was determined to strike a decided blow about this
time."2- Micanopy wanted to delay the attack until Osceola arrived.
He was opposed by Jumper who reproached Micanopy for his timid-
ness. Jumper addressed the Indians and then requested that those faint
hearts should stay behind. As Jumper prepared to leave, Micanopy
said he was ready.24 The following three accounts embody nearly all
we know of what happened that day. Almost poetically, in justice to
the three factions involved, one is from a soldier, Ransom Clarke,
another is from chief Alligator, and third is from the enigmatic Negro
STATEMENT OF RANSOM CLARKE
It was 8 o'clock. Suddenly 1 heard a rifle shot in the direction of the
advance guard, and this was immediately followed by a musket shot
from that quarter. Captain Fraser had rode by me a moment before
in that direction, I never saw him afterwards. [ had not time to think
of the meaning of these shots, before a volley, as if from a thousand
rifles, was poured in upon us from the front, and all along our left
flank, I looked around me, and it seemed as if I was the only one left
standing in the right wing. Neither could I, until several other vollies
had been fired at us, see an enemy and when I did, I could only see
their heads and arms peering out from the long grass, far and near.
and from behind pine trees. The ground seemed to me an open pine
barren, no hammock near that I could see. On our right, and a little
to our rear, was a large pond of water some distance off. All around
us were heavy pine trees, very open, particularly towards the left and
abounding with long high grass. The first fire of the Indians was the
most destructive, seemingly killing or disabling one half our men.
We promptly three ourselves behind trees, and opened a sharp
fire of musketry. I for one. never fired without seeing my man, that
is, his head and shoulders the Indians chiefly fired lying or squat-
ting in the grass. Lieutenant Bassinger fired five or six rounds of
cannisterfrom the cannon. This appeared to freighten the Indians, and
they retreated over a little hill to our left, one half or three quarters
of a mile off, after firing not more than 12 or 15 rounds. We immedi-
ately then began to fell trees, and erect a little triangular breastwork.
Some of us went forward to gather cartridge boxes from the dead,
and to assist the wounded. I had seen Major Dade fall to the ground
by the first volley, and his horse dashed into the midst of the enemy.
Whilst gathering the cartridges I saw Lieutenant Mudge sitting with
his back reclining against a tree his head fallen, and evidently dy-
ing. I spoke to him, but he did not answer. The interpreter, L.ouis, it
is said, fell by the first fire. (We have since learned that this fellow
shammed death that his life was afterwards spared through the
intercession of the chief .lumper, and that being an educated negro,
he read all the dispatches and letters that were found about the dead
to the victors.)
We had barely raised our breastwork knee high, when we again
saw the Indians advancing in great numbers over the hill to our left.
They came on boldly till within a long musket shot, when they spread
themselves from tree to tree lo surround us. We immediately extended
as Light Infantry, covering ourselves by the trees, and opening a brisk
fire from cannon and musketry. The former I don't think could have
done much mischief, the Indians were so scattered.
Captain Gardner, Lieutenant Bassingerand Dr. Gatlin, werethe
only officers left unhurt by the volley which killed Major Dade.
Last Command: The Dade Massacre 13
Lieutenant Henderson had his left arm broken, but he continued to
load his musket and fire it, resting on the stump, until he was finally
shot down towards the close of the second attack, and during the day
he kept up his spirits and cheered the man, Lieutenant Keyes had both
his arms broken in the first attack; they were bound up and slung in
a handkerchief, and he sat for the remainder of the day until he was
killed, reclining against the breastwork his head often reposing
upon it regardless of everything that was passing around him.
Our men were by degrees all cut down. We had maintained a
steady fight from 8 until 2 p.m. or thereabouts, and allowing three
quarters of an hour interval between the first and second attack, had
been pretty busily engaged for more than 5 hours. Lieutenant B. was
the only officer left alive and severely wounded. He told me as the
Indians approached to lay down and feign myself dead. I looked
through the logs, and saw savages approaching in great numbers. A
heavy made Indian of middle stature, painted down to the waist.
(corresponding in description to Micanopy) seemed to be chief. He
made then a speech frequently pointing to the breastwork. At length,
they charged into the work; there was none to offer resistance, and
they did not seem to suspect the wounded being alive offering no
indignity, but stepping about carefully, quietly stripping off our ac-
coutrements and carrying away our arms. They then retired in a body
in the direction from whence they came.
Immediately upon their retreat, forty or fifty negros on horse-
back galloped up and alighted, tied their beasts, and commenced with
horrid shouts and yells the butchery of the wounded, together with an
indiscriminate plunder, stripping the bodies of the dead of clothing,
watches, and money, and splitting open the heads of all who showed
the least sign of life, with their axes and knives, and accompanying
their bloody work with obscene and taunting decisions, and with
frequent cries of "what have you got to sell?"
Lieutenant B. hearing the negros butchering the wounded, at
length sprang up and dsked them to spare his life. They met him with
the blows of their axes, and their fiendish laughter. Having been
wounded in five different places myself, I was pretty well covered with
blood, and two scratches that I had received on my head gave to me
the appearance of having been shot through the brain, for the negros,
after catching me up by my heels, threw me down, saying "d. n him,
he's dead enough!" They then stripped me of my clothes, shoes and
hat, and left me. After stripping all the dead in this manner, they
trundled off the cannon in the direction the Indians had gone, and
went away. I saw them first shoot down the oxen in their gear, and
burn the wagon.
One of the soldiers who escaped, says they threw the cannon into
the pond. and burned its carriage also. Shortly after the negroes went
away, one Wilson, of Captain G's company, crept from under some
of the dead bodies, and hardly seemed to be hurt at all. He asked me
to go back to the Fort, and I was going to follow him, when, as he
jumped over the breastwork, an Indian sprang from behind a tree and
shot him down. I then lay quiet until 9 o'clock that night, when
Decourcy the only living soul beside myself, and I started upon our
journey. We knew it was nearest to go to Fort King, but we did not
know the way. and we had seen enemies retreat in that direction. As I
came out I saw Dr. G. lying stripped amongst the dead. The last [ saw
of him whilst living, was kneeling behind the breastwork, with two
double barrel guns by him, and he said, "Well, I have got four barrels
for them!" Captain G. after being severely wounded, cried out, "I can
give you no more orders, my lads, do your best!" I last saw a negro
spurn his body, saying with an oath, "that's one of their officers."(G.
was dressed in soldier clothes.)
My comrade and myself got along quite well until the next day,
when we met an Indian on horseback, and with rifle coming up the
road. Our only chance was to separate we did so. I took the right,
and he the left of the road. The Indian pursued him. Shortly
afterwards I heard a rifle shot, and a little after, another. I concealed
myself among some scrub and saw palmetto, and after awhile saw the
Indian pass, looking for me. Suddenly, however, he put spurs to his
horse and went off at a gallop towards the road.
I made something of a circuit before I struck the beaten track
again. That night I was a good deal annoyed by the wolves, who had
scented my blood, and came very close to me: the next day, the 30th, I
reached the Fort.2s
STATEMENT OF ALLIGATOR
Just as day was breaking we moved out of the swamp into the pine-
barren. I counted, by direction of Jumper, one hundred and eighty war-
riors. Upon approaching the road, each man chose his position on the
west side; opposite, on the east side, there was a pond. Every warrior
was protected by a tree, or secreted in the high palmettoes. About nine
o'clock in the morning the command approached. In advance, some dis-
tance, was an officer on a horse, who, Micanopy said, was the captain,
he knew him personally; had been his friend at Tampa. So soon all the
soldiers were opposite between us and the pond, perhaps twenty yards
off, Jumper gave the whoop, Micanopy fired the first rifle, the signal
agreed upon, when every Indian arose and fired, which laid upon the
ground, dead, more than half the white men. The cannon was discharged
several times, but the men who loaded it were shot down as soon as the
smoke cleared away; the balls passed over our heads. The soldiers
shouted and whooped, and the officers shook their swords and swore.
There was a little man, a great brave, who shook his sword at the sol-
diers and said, 'God-dam!' no rifle ball could hit him. As we were return-
ing to the swamp supposing all were dead, an Indian came up and said the
white men were building a fort of logs. Jumper and myself, with ten
warriors returned. As we approached we saw six men behind two logs
placed one above another, with the cannonashort distance off. This they
discharged at us several times, but we avoided it by dodging behind trees
just as they applied the fire. We soon came near, as the balls went over us.
They had guns but no powder: we looked in the boxes afterwards and
found they were empty. When I got inside the log pen, there was three
white men alive, whom the negros put to death, after a conversation in
English. There was a brave man in the pen; he would not give up; he
seized an Indian; Jumper's cousin, took away his rifle, and with one blow
with it beat his brains, then ran some distance up the road; but two In-
dians on horseback overtook him, who, afraid to approach, stood at a
distance and shot him down. The firing had ceased, and all was quiet
Last Command: The Dade Massacre
when we returned to the swamp about noon. We left many negros upon
the ground looking at the dead men. Three warriors were killed and five
STATEMENT OF PACHECO
About 10 o'clock, while 1 was with the advance guard, Captain Frazer
and I turned aside to examine an old gray horse we found by the road,
and finding it worthless, had returned to the road, and had nearly over-
taken the advance guard, when I heard a single rifle shot, and I looked
back to see if someone was shooting game, but just in time to see Major
Dade fall just in front of me, shot in the breast. Although this was perfect-
ly open country, and I had just looked carefully for Indians ahead, the
country was now filled with large numbers of them on our left, coming
for us with the war-whoop; I immediately threw down my gun and laid
down behind a tree, very much frightened. As 1 could speak the Seminole
language, I begged each one for my life, as they leveled their guns at me,
and they were not a few, telling them I was a slave and was doing what 1
was bidden, etc. Finally Jumper, the chief in command, interfered and
ordered as well as he then could, that I should not be shot, but even after
this, one Indian was determined to kill me, but fortunately another In-
dian got his rifle ball stuck in his gun and ran, when the other Indians
seeing this one run, became frightened, and all ran, when Jumper again
took me and put me under guard. The same Indian, though, still assured
me that when he came back he would kill me yel, but, luckly for me, he
was shot by the whites. The battle lasted from about 10 o'clock in the
morning until nearly sunset.27
After the battle the Indians, joined by Osceola, retired to an island
in the Wahoo Swamp. That same day Osceola had exacted his
vengeance on Wiley Thompson. As he ventured outside Fort King for
an evening stroll with Lieutenant Constantine Smith, Osceola and his
followers volleyed round after round into Thompson and Smith.
(Thompson was shot 14 times.) Nearby, Mr. Euastus Rogers, Fort
King's sutler, and two clerks Suggs and Hizler, were killed at their
dinner table. The post was so weak that a force large enough to
retaliate could not be mustered. The soldiers did not even dare venture
out of the safety of the fort to recover the bodies of Thompson and
Smith which lay nearby. That night, some of the Indians gathered in
Wahoo Swamp, addressed humorous speeches to the scalp of Gen-
eral Thompson. imitating his gestures and manner of speaking.
Private John Thomas returned to Fort Brooke on December 29th.
On his way from the Big Hillsborough to Fort Brooke he had met an
Indian. In his disabled condition he had to buy his life from the Indian
who threatened to kill him by giving the Indian all of his money.29
Thomas had not been in the battle and no news of it reached Fort
Brooke until December 31st when Ransom Clarke arrived. Although
he had been shot five times, he managed to walk and crawl the 65 miles
back to the post. Fort King had been 35 miles closer, but the Indians
had gone that way and the only certain safety seemed to be in the
direction of Fort Brooke. When within 3 of a mile of Fort Brooke he
had collapsed, a friendly Indian woman found him and helped him
to the post.30 He gave a full account of the battle to Captain Belton,
who began fortifying the post, expecting an attack at any moment. The
last survivor, Joseph Sprague, reached Ft. Brooke on January 1st. He
had found a letter left on the trail by Captain Frazer for Major Mount-
fort and had brought it to the post. The letter described being "beset by
the enemy every night and we're pushing on."31
Instead of attacking Fort Brooke or Fort King, Osceola turned his
attention to a force under Colonel Duncan L. Clinch. Osceola fought
Clinch at the Ouithlacoochee on December 31. This was an evening
battle fought to a draw, but coupled with the destruction of Dade's
command, demonstrated the inability of the army to remove the
Indians. After this engagement Osceola told Clinch he could hold out
against the army for five years.32
Quickly, destruction spread across the state. In January 1836, 16
large plantations in east Florida were destroyed by Indians. Each
plantation had from 100 to 150 working slaves. Most of the slaves
evacuated to safe areas such as Anastasia Island. On January 6, the
Cooley family in Fort Lauderdale was massacred while William
Cooley, husband and father, was away. By the end of 1836, all but one
house of all the settlements in what is now Dade and Broward Counties
had been burnt by the Indians.33 The settlers had gone first to Key
Biscayne for safety, then to places such as Indian Key or Key West.
News of the Dade disaster stimulated belated military action.
Colonel Clinch was authorized to call state troops from Georgia,
Alabama, and South Carolina. President Jackson ordered General
Winfield Scott to Florida to assume command. Gaines arrived at
Tampa with 1100 men on the 10th of February. He immediately went
with these troops into the interior and on February 20th was the first to
arrive at the scene of Dade's battlefield.34
Unburied for nearly two months, identification of the dead had to
be made in the following manner: Major Dade by his vest and infantry
buttons; Captain Frazer by his shirt and a miniature pin; Lieutenant
Mudge leading the head of the main column by a charred ring on his
finger, his officers pants and his fine teeth; Lieutenant Bassinger by
his undershirt, stock, large whiskers and position, and the broken
Last Command: The Dade Massacre 17
sponge near him; Lieutenant Keais by his pants, shoes, shirt and pock-
et pistol which dropped on the ground moving the body; Dr. Gatlin
by his size, stock and hair, and gold filled tooth; Captain Gardiner by
size, shirt, and hair; and Lieutenant Henderson partly by clothing
and his broken arm.35
The bodies of the officers were buried in a common grave with the
barrel of the six pounder planted vertically at the head of the grave
as a marker. The other 98 soldiers were buried in two common graves.
Gaines had a brief ceremony and the command moved on.
Although only two soldiers of Dade's command actually survived
the battle, there were two in the command who missed the battle. The
man sent back the first day to have the cannon brought up, is believed
to have been Lieutenant Benjamin Alvord.36 Private John Thomas who
injured his back pulling the cannon from the Big Hillsborough, con-
tinued to serve in the army until his discharge on June 28th, 1837.37
The battle survivors included Private Ransom Clarke who conva-
lesced until April, 1836, and was discharged from the Army May 2,
1836.31 He received a full disability pension of $8 a month. He went on
a speaking tour, charging 12.5c a person to speak about his experi-
ences, and wrote several articles about the Dade Massacre. He embel-
lished his accounts greatly as time went by. His first account stated that
after the battle the negroes picked him up by his heels and said "he's
dead enough."'9 A later account quotes the negroes as saying"our God
is dead."41" Clarke married in 1838 and fathered a daughter. He died on
November 18, 1840, less than five years after battle. He was 24 years
Private Joseph Sprague, like Clarke, actually survived the battle,
but was illiterate and left no accounts of the battle. Curiously, Sprague
served in the army until his discharge on March 6, 1843, and yet no one
recorded his account of the battle, as was done with survivors Clarke
and Thomas. He drew a pension of $8 a month until September 1847.
He is believed to have died some time in the next six months.41
In 1837, Pacheco, long thought dead, made his appearance at
Fort Brooke. He had come in to emigrate as the slave of Coacoochee
and was shipped west where he lived for many years.42 In 1892, a man
claiming to be Louis Pacheco came to Jacksonville and presented
himself to the daughter of Pacheco's old master. Here he lived until his
death in 1895.41 He was the last survivor of Dade's Massacre.
1, Nathan W. White, Private Joseph Sprague of Vermont, the last soldier
survivor of Dacde's Massacre in Fla., 28, Dec. 1835, p. 45.
2. John T. Sprague, The Origin, Progress, anil Conclusion of the Fla. War,
(New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1948) pp. 28-29.
3. George A. McCall, Letters from the Frontiers, a facsimile repro. of 1868 ed.
intro by John K. Mahon (Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida Press 1974) pp.
4. U.S. Cong., 14th-19th, 1815-1827, American State Papers; selected and
edited by Walter Lowerie and Walter S. Franklin (class II: Indian Affairs, Vol. [1)
(Washington: Gales, and Seaton, 1834) pp. 663-664.
5. White, Private Joseph Sprague, p. 43.
6. Joshua R. Giddings, The Lviles of'Flortida. (Columbus Ohio; Follett, Foster,
and Company, 1958) p. 98.
7. Charles H. Coe, Red Patriots, The Story of the Seminoles. (Cincinnati:
Ohio, The Editor Publishing Company, 1898) p. 52.
8. M. M. Cohen. Notices f F/la. amn the CaOpaigns, (Charleston: S.C., Burges
and Honour, 1836) p. 66.
9. White., Private .loseph Spragiue, p. 44.
10. W. W. Smith. Sketch of the Seminole War, (Charleston, S.C.: Dan J.
Dowling, 1836) pp. 171-172.
11. Ihid. p. 33.
12. The Territorial Papers of the United States, compiled and edited bs
Clarence Edwin Carter, Vol. 25, (N.A.R.S., 1960) pp. 378-379.
13. White, Private Joseph Spragiue, p. 45.
14. Senate Document #33, 67th Congress Ist session, Apr. 13, 1921. Doc. #4
from Dade Monument.
15. Ransom Clarke, The Garland Librarr of Narratives of North American
Indian Captivities, Vol. 54 selected by Wilcomb E. Washburn, (Smithsonian Institu-
tion) pp. 8-13.
16. Frank I-aumer, Massacre. (Gainesville, Fla: University of Fla. Press, 1968)
17. John Bemrose, Remini.cences of the 2lnd Seminole War, edited by John K.
Mahon (Gainesville, Fla.: University of Fla. Pless 1966) p. 64.
18. Ibid. p. 63.
19. White. Private Joseph Spragtue, p. 68.
20, Giddings, Eviles of Fla., pp. 106-107.
21. Sprague, The Floricda War. p. 90.
22. J.O. Parrish, Battling the Seminoles, (Lakeland, Fla.: Southern Printing
Co., 1930) pp. 44-45.
23. Sprague. The Florida War. p. 90.
25. Cohen, Notices of Fla.. pp. 70-74.
26. Sprague. The Fla. War, pp. 90-91.
27. White, Private Joseph Spragiue. p. 68.
28. Giddings, E:K\iles of Florilda, pp. 100-101.
29. Florida Reported, compiled by Georgine and Thomas Mickler (Chulota,
Fla.: Fla. Breezes, 1964) p. 5.
30. Clarke, Narratives, p. 16.
31. Smith. Sketch of the Seminole War, p. 38.
32. Coe, Red Patriots, p. 65-66.
Last Command: The Dade Massacre 19
33. Cohen, Notices of Florida, p. 80.
34, Sprague, The Florida War, p. 107.
35. James Duncan, Diary, Feb. 20, 1836 entry.
36. Laumer, Massacre, pp. 40-41.
37. White, Private Joseph Sprague, p. 67.
38. Ibid. p. 55.
39. Cohen, Notices of Florida, p. 73.
40. Clarke, Narratives. p. 15.
41. White, Private Joseph Sprague, p. 66.
42. Giddings. LExiles of Florida, p. 291.
43. White. Private Joseph Sprague, p. 68.
and the Florida Land Boom
of the 1920s
by Donald W. Curl
The Florida land boom of 1924-25 is commonly mentioned by
historians of the twenties and of the South. Most of them see the boom
as a phenomenon of the Miami area, though they usually mention in
passing that no part of the state remained immune to the speculation
fever. Certainly Miami's developments received major attention from
the national press and compiled amazing financial statistics for sales
and inflated prices. Still, similar activity took place throughout the
state. Moreover, the real estate boom in Palm Beach County began as
early as that in Miami, contained schemes that equaled that city's in
their imagination and fantasy, and also captured national attention.
Finally, one of these schemes, that of Addison Mizner's Boca Raton,
probably served as the catalyst for exploiting the boom bubble.
The Florida land boom resulted from a number of complex fac-
tors. Obviously, the mild winter climate had drawn visitors to the state
since the Civil War. Summer was said "to spend the winter in West
Palm Beach." Now with the completion of the network of roads
known as the Dixie Highway and the increasing use of the automobile,
Florida became easily accessible to the cities of the northeast and
midwest. For some, revolting against the growing urbanization of the
north, Florida became "the last frontier." Others found romance in the
state's long and colorful history and "fascination in her tropical vege-
tation and scenery." Many were confident in the lasting nature of the
Coolidge prosperity, and, hearing the success stories of the earliest
Donald W. Curl is a professor of History at Florida Atlantic University. His
book, Mizner's Florida: American Resort Architecture, received the Rembert W.
Patrick Memorial Book Award in Florida history for 1984.
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom 21
arrivals in the state, came to find their fortunes. Finally, Florida en-
couraged economic development by promising never to enact a state
income or inheritance tax.'
All of these factors account for America's growing interest in
Florida. The decision of various state business and real estate boosters
to promote this interest becomes a more immediate reason for the
boom. As Elmer H. Youngman said, "The people of Florida them-
selves have not been in the least backward in making the resources of
their country known to the world." Palm Beach County business
leaders had seen the virtues of their section for many years. As early
as 1920 a Palm Beach visitor noted that "boomers" had platted a ser-
ies of communities stretching for eighteen miles to the south of the
town. Continual claims were heard of the seventy-mile-long city that
would include the entire southeast coast in its borders. The people of
Palm Beach County wholeheartedly joined local business concerns
in their attempts to advertise the section. They believed in the future
of their county.2
The promoters realized the need to convince the rest of the na-
tion. This called for publicity. In general, they accomplished their
goals in two ways. First, campaigns attempted to take the Palm Beach
message to as many northerners as possible. These campaigns, spon-
sored by the Chambers of Commerce of various cities and towns and
the West Palm Beach and county real estate organizations, had as their
goal the bringing of visitors to the county. One project called for local
residents to mail 100,000 post cards before the start of the 1924-25
winter season bearing "pictures and messages calculated to draw
friends and relatives to the Palm Beaches." Another effort had West
Palm Beach competitors in a marksman event in the north wearing
"gold and green maps of Florida" and distributing hundreds of
booklets telling of their city's virtues. Finally, the West Palm Beach
Chamber of Commerce published 50,000 publicity booklets featuring
the "best-appearing young men and women" in the area to show the
allurementss of this section."3
The second part of the Palm Beach campaign was more subtle. Its
goal was to give investors confidence in the soundness of real estate
values in the area. To accomplish this, a continuing flow of stories in
the local newspapers told of the opening of new projects, develop-
ments, and subdivisions; of profits being made from land and real
estate sales: of constantly rising values in building activities and bank
clearings; of famous individuals who had purchased land in the area;
and of the projections for community improvements. All of these stor-
ies were designed to show Palm Beach County as a dynamic and fast-
growing area in which people already had confidence: an area where
real estate investments could only increase in value. The Palm Beach
Post and the Palm Beach Times both actively participated with the
Since a land boom, like a stock market boom, is based on confi-
dence that what is purchased today will be worth more tomorrow, and
even more the next day, the newspapers particularly emphasized the
profits made by investors. A common story told of property reselling
several times in just a few weeks and its price doubling at each resale.
The tales seemed endless. A West Palm Beach lot increased in value
$750 an hour when a buyer paid $11,000 for a 100-foot lot on Dixie
Highway at three in the afternoon and resold it at five o'clock for
$12,500. In Palm Beach a 32 acre tract purchased in 1916 for $75,000
from a homesteader sold in 1925 for a million. Nine months later the
same tract, subdivided into building lots, sold at auction for
Although the newspapers realized that the stories of quick profits
interested their readers and helped fuel the continuing boom, they also
understood the need for building and developing to prolong the boom
and make it meaningful to the community. Thus new developments,
buildings, and improvements always received prominent treatment in
both the Post and Times.5
The great boom period in Palm Beach County, like all of South
Florida, came in the winter season of 1924-25 and lasted into the fol-
lowing autumn months. Hardly a day passed in this period without
the announcement of the creation of a new development or the found-
ing of a new city someplace in the county. Some of the promotions
called for small ten-lot subdivisions, others embraced thousands of
acres. Of all of these, Boca Raton, near the south county line, captured
the most national attention and became in many ways the arch-typical
boomtime development. As the creation of Palm Beach architect
Addison Mizner, Boca Raton's tremendous size, presumed social
cachet, and financial backing placed it immediately into the forefront
of Florida land schemes.
Mizner announced on April 15, 1925, that he planned to
build a great $6,000,000 hotel on the beach at Boca Raton. The
"Castillo del Rey," the world's "most complete and artistic hostelry"
spearheaded what was to be Palm Beach County's greatest develop-
ment. Mizner and his associates had acquired two miles of beach
front at the Boca Raton inlet and an overall total of sixteen
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom 23
thousand acres of "ideally situated high land directly back of this
ocean frontage probably the finest piece of property anywhere
in the south of Florida." The syndicate which formed the Mizner
Development Corporation included "such noted personages" as
Lytle Hull, Harold Vanderbilt, J. Leonard Replogle, the Duchess
of Sutherland, Paris Singer, Jesse L. Livermore, Irving Berlin,
W. K. Vanderbilt, 11, Madame Frances Alda, Wilson Mizner,
W. C. Robinson, H. H. Rogers, D. H. Conkling, A. T. Herd,
Porte Quinn, Elizabeth Arden, Clarence H. Geist, T. Coleman
duPont, and Rodman Wanamaker.6
Mizner planned the hotel as a modern fireproof building (this
was important because only a month before both the second Breakers
and the Palm Beach Hotel had been destroyed by fire) containing
a thousand rooms constructed in the Spanish style. Building was to
start at once on the hotel, on two 18 hole golf courses, on a polo field,
on a casino, and on "other attractions."7
Although Mizner had no formal university training in archi-
tecture, his entire life had been spent in studying design. This self-
training began in Guatemala where his father served as the American
Minister and continued in Spain where he studied at the University
of Salamanca. In 1894-96 he worked in the San Francisco office of
Willis Polk, a principle proponent of the Spanish "mission" style.
Here he received his practical training in the profession, eventually
becoming Polk's partner.
By 1925 Mimer ranked as one of the country's most prominent
architects. Dixon Wecter placed him with Richard Morris Hunt and
Stanford White as America's "great society architects." Although
Mizner's reputation as a society architect came from his flamboyant
Spanish and Italian revival style Palm Beach villas of the 1920s, he
laid the framework for his Florida success in the period between
1904 and 1917 when he completed numerous northern projects. In
these years he even designed several Spanish houses.
When American entry into World War I brought a halt to residen-
tial construction, Mizner accepted the invitation of Paris Singer, the
sewing machine heir, to visit Palm Beach. Shortly after his arrival
in January 1918, Singer commissioned him to design a convalescent
hospital for shellshocked officers that could later serve as a private
social club. For his first Florida project the architect said the location
on the shores of Lake Worth suggested a Spanish building with
Venetian and Spanish colonial elements. The war ended before com-
pletion of construction, so it opened in January 1919 as the Everglades
Club, which immediately became the exclusive new center of Palm
Beach resort life.
As an attractive and romantic alternative to the existing frame
and shingle northeastern seashore style buildings of the resort, the
club's architectural success soon equalled its social triumph. Before
the end of the season confirmation of the fashionableness of the style
came when Mizner received the commission for a great oceanfront
villa from Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury, wife of the Philadelphia banker
and undisputed leader of Palm Beach society.
Mizner's architectural style swept the resort with almost all
construction for the next six years, no matter who the architect, in
the form of Mediterranean revival style. It was also Mizner's most
productive period. In 1923 alone he designed "Playa Riente," his most
magnificent Palm Beach mansion, for Joshua Cosden, an Oklahoma
oil millionaire; 11 other large villas for society clients like Anthony J.
Drexel Biddle, Angier B. Duke, and Rodman Wanamaker, 11; a club
house for the Gulf Stream Golf Club; a studio and office building
for himself which became the first section in the "Via Mizner"complex
of stores, apartments, offices, and restaurants; and remodeled the
houses of Henry C. Phipps and J. Leonard Replogle. To supply
"authentic" materials he also established Mizner Industries, which
produced handmade barrel tiles and pottery, cast stone door and
window surrounds, decorative wrought-iron work and lighting
fixtures, and even the furniture used to decorate his houses.
The advertisements for Boca Raton began to appear in both
local and northern newspapers within a week of the announcement
of the development. From the beginning they seemed to combine a
curious mixture of snob appeal and greed appeal: "The owners and
controllers of the Mizner Development Corporation are a group
of very rich men men of unlimited means, who propose to build
from the creative genius of Addison Mizner, what will be probably
the most wonderful resort city in the world." After the announcement
of the plans for Boca Raton, which included the estimate that Mizner
planned to spend $100,000,000 in developing the city during the first
years, the remaining tracts of land in the city doubled and tripled in
value with real estate men bidding higher and higher for any available
acreage or lot.9
On May 4 Mizner announced that he had negotiated a deal be-
tween his company and the Ritz-Carlton Investment Corporation
to build a Ritz-Carlton hotel in place of his "Castillo Del Rey." The
Post believed that the Ritz-Carlton participation in Boca Raton
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom 25
added greatly to the interest the Mizner plans had aroused around
By the time the company accepted its first "reservation" for
the purchase of land on May 14 its publicity proclaimed that the
stockholders represented "considerably over 1/3 of the entire wealth
of the United States." The first offering of lots was sold in both Miami
and West Palm Beach. In the latter city automobiles jammed the
streets for blocks around and "pandemonium reigned in the office."
$2,100,000 worth of lots sold, a record for opening day purchases.
George Freyhofer, the general sales manager, claimed Boca Raton
shattered sales records because "of the largeness of the proposition,
its financial backing and the prominence of the men who are connected
with it," Two days later Mizner advertisements promised that every
purchaser of the first day's offering should make quick and large
Throughout the summer and into the fall the Mizner organi-
zation's publicity, under the direction of Harry Reichenbach, seemed
calculated to maintain the concept of constant growth and activity
in Boca Raton. When he had no news of lot sales or company plans,
his advertisements told of the thousands throughout the world in-
terested in Boca Raton. "English, French, Spanish, American, and
Italian people like the zest and snap of American life." With T.
Coleman du Pont, W.K. Vanderbilt, J.C. Replogle, and others sup-
plying the money to build the hotels and theatres they could be
brought to Boca Raton.12
On May 23 and 27 the Mizner Company announced new plans
for their development, which included the small Boca Raton Inn to
be built on the west shore of Lake Boca Raton. The one hundred
room Inn, designed entirely by Mizner in the Spanish style, was to
be rushed to completion so that it might open in January 1926. Ty-
ing all of the planned development together, the one hundred sixty
foot wide Royal Highway ran from the Ritz-Carlton on the beach
for two and a half miles inland.'
Interest in Boca Raton remained high, and when the second
offering of lots came on the market the company again sold over
$2,000,000 worth in Miami and West Palm Beach. The organiza-
tion claimed sales of over $1,000,000 in the first twenty minutes with
baskets of sales slips remaining uncounted. Moreover, the company
had opened additional offices in New York City, Philadelphia, Pitts-
burgh, Chicago, and Boston.'4
As the Mizner interests continued their sales pitch, other de-
velopers, anxious to be part of the great Palm Beach County venture,
joined them in Boca Raton. In early June, George W. Harvey, a
West Palm Beach and Boston real estate man, announced the devel-
opment of "Villa Rica at Boca Raton." "Villa Rica" was to be a com-
plete 1,400-acre modern city within the Boca Raton city limits. Like
the Mizner development, "Villa Rica" was to be designed in the
Spanish style. Harvey proposed to spend two million dollars immedi-
ately on a Florida East Coast Railway station and on the one hun-
dred room "Villa Rica Inn."
By September the new south county developments included Del-
Raton (to the north of "Villa Rica"), "Boca del Faro" (to the south
on the Broward County line), and "Del Boca" (to the west and north).
As activity picked up in the fall, W.A. Mathes purchased a tract to
the east of Del-Raton Park for $3,000,000 to develop an American
Venice and G. Frank Croissant, a Chicago developer, announced
"Croissantania," a 2,360-acre tract north of the Mizner land and west
of the Dixie Highway at prices "available to working men who could
aid in the upbuilding of the entire community." Boca Raton Heights,
located south of Palmetto Park Road and east of the Dixie Highway;
"Boca Vista," on the highlands of Boca Raton, 30 feet above sea level
and "overlooking the entire city;" and "Boca Centrale," "in the heart
of the city;" were all quickly added to the list.15
In June the Mizner organization announced it had purchased an
additional $4,000,000 worth of land, giving it 2/3 of Boca Raton prop-
erty. By this time the Royal Highway had been renamed "Camino
Real" and the Boca Raton Inn the Cloister Inn. Included among the
newest improvements planned for the city were: an air terminal
equipped for the largest passenger-carrying planes and hydro-planes,
a deepened inlet with an inland sea and yacht basin, a Venetian lake
with gondolas, a Spanish village "large enough to hold much of the
color and old world charm of those Spanish cities with which Mr.
Mizner is familiar," and Irving Berlin's Cabaret, which promised the
best theatrical talent of America and Europe."6
Throughout May and June a force of 350 workmen cleared plats
one and two and the land for the first golf course. As sales hit
$6,000,000 the company employed additional men and signed con-
tracts to build the inn and to pave miles of streets. Committed to mak-
ing Boca Raton one of the world's most beautiful cities, Mizner de-
manded that the workmen clearing the land leave trees of every size
undisturbed. He also took over an existing Boca Raton nursery and
started a new one of 40 acres to grow additional landscaping plants.
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom 27
At the same time the company purchased two Mack "Pullman buses"
to carry prospective purchasers to Boca Raton from Miami and Palm
Beach in their wicker seats. The battleship-gray buses with vivid yel-
low stripes had "Boca Raton" painted in deep red on their sides.'7
When interviewed by the Post, Mizner said that he planned a city
as perfect as "study and ideals can make it." His goals included "homes
that are livable .. streets that are suitable for traffic . shops that
are inviting and parks that are beautiful." All of this in Spanish style
architecture because it "is the most direct and simple . lending itself
perfectly to climate and country . ." He claimed that the $7,000,000
in lots and $4,000,000 in acreage sold by the company in less than
three months proved the acceptance of his vision.8
On August 6, a board of directors meeting elected Anderson T.
Herd vice president and general manager of the company. At this time
the directors included T. Coleman du Pont, newly elected senator
from Delaware as chairman, Addison and Wilson Mizner, Herd,
William A. White, L.A. Bean, vice president of the Dwight P. Robin-
son Company, the New York firm building the Cloister Inn and
twenty-nine houses in Floresta, H.S. Meeds, a Delaware banker,
Jesse L. Livermore, and Wall Street operator, Ward A. Wickwire,
A.A. Thompson, and Congressman George S. Graham. Du Pont
took this opportunity to thank Mizner and the officers for their man-
agement of the company, adding it met "with our unqualified ap-
As fall approached a contract was let to the Robinson Company
for the building of the Ritz-Carlton Hotel and a Venetian styled bridge
over the Florida East Coast Canal. Mizner also released a sketch for
his own new house, a castle on an island in Lake Boca Raton. Among
the many unique features was a working drawbridge and a dining
room with panels from the room in which Ferdinand and Isabella is-
sued final instructions to Columbus before he sailed to the new world.
Shortly thereafter, a Post reporter said that obviously Boca Raton's
designer planned no city of air castles. Claiming that Americans will
one day thank Mizner for his gift, she said that Boca Raton would
stand as a cornerstone to American architectural prestige and "a
monument to American money."20
Unfortunately, about this time the money flow began to slow.
Mizner's plans demanded great sums to be realized, and, although
the lots continued to sell, they did not sell in the necessary volume.
To stimulate sales, the company added a line to their newspaper pub-
licity: "Attach this advertisement to your contract for deed. It becomes
a part thereof." With this pledge the company hoped to counteract
attacks about dishonest Florida real estate claims. Although there
is no evidence that the other Boca Raton developers even started
their promised improvements, Mizner seems to have sincerely wished
to build his dream city.21
Without question the campaign by northern newspapers and
bankers to warn of shady and fraudulent Florida real estate promo-
tions started to worry some investors. Moreover, other problems for
Florida's development had surfaced over the summer. One of the most
serious resulted from the breakdown in transportation services. The
southeast coast was dependent upon supplies from outside the area
to continue the massive building programs. On August 17, 1925,
the Florida East Coast Railway announced that the freight car con-
gestion on the southeast coast made it necessary to embargo all but
perishable goods. The railroad claimed that while it sent one hundred
cars a day into the area, only eighty were being unloaded. This meant
over five hundred cars in the south Florida yards left to be cleaned.
The embargo's meaning for construction could quickly be seen.22
Protests, coupled with the formation of committees and the
publication of lists of uncollected freight did little to solve the prob-
lem. The high wages paid unskilled labor by contractors made it im-
possible to hire anyone to unload the cars. Moreover, the embargo
soon spread to all the railroads. In West Palm Beach a Citizens Com-
mittee on Freight Congestion organized a "volunteer army" which
emptied hour hundred cars in one day. Unfortunately, the work of the
merchants, real estate men, truckers, handlers, contractors. Boy
Scouts, and women's club members did not convince the railroad
to lift the embargo.23
Palm Beach County also felt the housing shortage which hit
South Florida by the summer of 1925. Lack of rooms forced many
visitors to sleep in their automobiles or in hastily pitched tents. When
newly hired teachers could find no rooms one proposal called for
temporarily housing them in the Stotesbury mansion. An ice short-
age in August only added to the discomfort visitors suffered.24
Booms feed on strong assurances that money can be made. Even
small doubts begin to erode confidence. By fall 1925 the freight em-
bargo which caused construction problems, the inconvenience of the
housing shortage, and the growing doubts about the boom produced
by northern newspapers, promoted an uncomfortable atmosphere
In early October, T. Coleman du Pont served as a member of a
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom 29
delegation of Florida businessmen and investors, headed by Gov-
ernor John W. Martin, that visited New York to counteract the un-
favorable Florida publicity found in the northern newspapers. For
this "truth about Florida" seminar, held at du Pont's Waldorf-Astoria
hotel, the sponsors invited representatives from the country's lead-
ing newspapers and magazines. Various speakers stated that the real
estate activity in Florida did not constitute a boom: the great increase
in values only represented real worth. Although several speakers ad-
mitted that some "fraudulent misrepresentations" had taken place,
they said Florida planned to curb this activity. The New York Times
drew the conclusion that the meeting proved Florida businessmen
had become uneasy about the boom. Certainly du Pont now ques-
tioned his association with the Mizner Development Corporation.25
When the company's board met in late October both du Pont
and Jesse Livermore resigned. Both men had grave concerns about the
management of the company's publicity. Although they objected to
all use of their names in advertisements, their particular concern cen-
tered on the publicity which implied that they personally guaranteed
the millions of dollars worth of construction planned for the city.
They also objected to the campaign which allowed promotional ad-
vertisements for the company to be attached to deeds. Some of these
advertisements had been very explicit, promising the construction of:
the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, the Cloister Inn, an additional lake, three
golf courses, polo fields, tennis courts, lakes and canals dredged for
large size yachts, "boulevards wider than America has ever known,"
palm-lined streets paved full width, restricted residences, protected
dwellings, uniform architectural themes, and "every home a gem of
The resignations were not announced until November 24. In a
statement to the New York Times du Pont claimed he resigned be
cause of differences between himself and the officers of the company
as to proper business methods. Nonetheless, he said that under proper
management Boca Raton still offered "wonderful possibilities." The
same article also quoted Mizner. He said that General du Pont
resigned because of differences over the membership in the board
of directors, implying that du Pont tried to have his friends elected
and when he failed, he resigned. Mizner also claimed that he and his
associates now controlled the company and that the building and de-
veloping program would continue without interruption.27
Four days later the Times published a letter by du Pont and the
other resigned board members. In the letter the men claimed that they
had little financial interest in the company and thus objected to the use
of their names in advertisements. They had resigned because when
they attempted to eliminate exaggerated publicity, the company of-
ficers met them with "criticism rather than cooperation." The letter
marked the end for the Mizner Development Corporation and pro-
bably for the South Florida land boom.28
Du Pont, who with his cousins Alfred and Pierre incorporated
the family powder firm into the gigantic E.I. du Pont de Nemours
Company in 1902, had the great financial name behind the Mizner
organization. Du Pont's interest in Boca Raton assured financial sta-
bility. Thus his decision to disassociate himself from the development
warned prospective buyers of possible financial problems. In fact,
one Mizner biographer says that du Pont's attack on the corporation's
officers "put a wet blanket on the entire boom." Sales of Boca Raton
real estate, which totaled over $25,000,000 in its first six months,
practically ended after du Pont's resignation from the board. The
high point for sales and building permits in all of south Florida was
October 1925. Although the end of the boom was not abrupt, activity
began to slacken after that month.29
Of all the great boom developments, Boca Raton seemed one
of the most sound investments. Although the very magnitude of the
concept attracted many, and others saw Addison M izner's leadership
as assurance that fashionable America approved, speculators actually
bought because of the association of prominent financiers like T.
Coleman du Pont whose participation seemed to guarantee profits.
Any serious shock to confidence can collapse a speculative boom.
The many problems plaguing the state paved the way, but the du Pont
letter to the Times produced the shock. To the speculator the message
seemed clear. If you could not place your trust in Boca Raton, could
any Florida venture be safe?3"
To counteract the effect of du Pont's defection, the company
announced that W.E. Shappercotter, "a powerful figure in Northern
financial circles . associated with the rise of the Lehigh Valley Rail-
road," had been elected chairman of the board of directors. Later it
claimed that Otto H. Kahn, "internationally known banker and finan-
cier" had purchased both stock in the company and property in Boca
Raton. Evidence, according to the publicity release, of the continued
prosperity of the company. Even when Charles M. Schwab, an or-
ganizer of both U united States and Bethlehem Steel companies, lunched
with Mizner, the publicity people made it evidence of the capitalist's
endorsement of the project, quoting him as saying that he had never
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom 31
seen "anything so artistically beautiful" as the city. At the same time,
other Boca Raton developers also felt the need of new and bigger
names. George Harvey brought in former Boston mayor James M.
Curley, "at a salary many times that as mayor,"to promote "Villa Rica."31
Mizner publicity also emphasized that "reorganization" of the
company had not changed any of the plans for the development of
Boca Raton. The company rushed to completion all the Boca Raton
improvements that promoted sales. At the end of October work started
on radio station WFLA, a proposed 1000-watt clear channel station
to broadcast the Boca Raton message over all of Florida and most of
the eastern United States. The Palm Beach Post and the New York
Times agreed to share an hour of news every day between five and six
o'clock. When not broadcasting news of the "facts of Florida," the
station planned programs to include modern adaptations of Seminole
The company also hurriedly finished the Administration Build-
ings modeled on El Greco's house in Toledo, Spain. Although the
other sales offices were to remain open, the office in Boca Raton pro-
vided a center for the company's activities and a focal point for sales
efforts in the city. By the end of October the company could report
that the building was ninety percent completed, the second story was
on the Cloister Inn, two thousand workers were leveling the grading
the streets, bids for a waterworks were received, electrical service was
scheduled, and two hundred homes were planned."
The construction of the Cloister Inn proceeded at great haste.
Even before its completion, Mizner entertained some of his former
Palm Beach clients at a Christmas Eve dinner in the Salamanca Room.
At about this time Mizner announced that the Ritz-Carlton organi-
zation had assumed management of the new Inn which would have
$10,000-a-room furnishings made by the M izner Furniture Company.
The formal opening came with another society dinner on February
6 hosted by the architect. The guest list "rivaled the social registers of
two continents" according to the development company's publicity
men. Red-coated and gold-braided footmen served a "Lucullan re-
past" to 500 guests which included Stotesburys, Warburtons, Astors,
Wanamakers, Charles Norris the novelist, and Mrs. Stanford White,
the widow of the renowned architect. A development company ad-
vertisement later quoted Mrs. White's reaction to the Cloister Inn:
"Addison Mizner is the foremost genius of the age. Since Stanford
White, there has been no one with such exquisite sense of artistry.
This building is superb."34
Until April of 1926 news releases and advertisements stressed
the continuing nature of the project. In early November the company
told of building permits for September and October totaling $918,066.
This led to the claim, "They are buying to live in Boca Raton." On the
day that du Pont's resignation became public, the company claimed
twenty-two percent of all Palm Beach County's October land trans-
fers for its property. December saw the opening of the Administration
Building, the near completion of the first Mizner supervised houses
in the city, and the sale of property reaching $31,000.000.
In January sales started in the "socially restricted" "Distrito de
Boca Raton," an oceanfront area of the city. April brought claims for
extensive summer projects. Maurice Druker planned to build ten
Mizner designed homes, the development company intended to con-
struct a one-hundred-thousand dollar building modeled on the "Via
Mizner" in Palm Beach, and Mrs. Joshua B.Cosden, who had sold
"Playa Riente" to Mrs. Horace S. Dodge, Sr. for $2,800,000, asked
Mizner to plan her new home in the "Distrito" section to "rival in
splendor her old house."36
By spring, even Mizner recognized he could never realize his
dreams for Boca Raton. New sales of land had all but ended. This in
turn stopped the flow of money needed to continue the various pro-
jects. Moreover, the purchasers of the first lots sold in the early spring
of 1925 now found their second installments due. Many had bought
for speculation alone, planning to sell at a profit long before the date
of the second payment. After December these speculators discovered
they could not make a profit on their lots; in fact, they found no buy-
ers at all. Some of these had no money for the second payment. Many
others, seeing the declining prices of Boca Raton real estate, just de-
cided to cut their losses by not making the second installment payment.
Almost every developer in Florida faced the same situation. Some, like
Mizner, had committed themselves to huge expenditures for im-
provements, confident of a continuous flow of money from new sales
and yearly payments on previous sales. When the money stopped they
could not meet their commitments. Most projects ended in bank-
Although the Mizner Development Corporation continued to
survive, serious problems began in April when the Company could
not meet payments on the promissory notes signed to purchase its
Boca Raton land. In May, various contractors found they could not
collect on their contracts. When they began to file liens against the
corporation, Mizner's backers forced a reorganization. In July Miz-
Boca Raton and the Florida Land Boom 33
ner yielded his management to the Chicago based Central Equities
Corporation controlled by United States Vice President Charles
Dawes. Dawes allowed Mizner to retain control of architectural de-
velopment, but there was no additional building. Ultimately, Clarence
Giest, one of Mizner's original backers, purchased the remaining
assets of the company and reopened the Cloister Inn as the private
Boca Raton Club.3-
In the next few years city after city defaulted on their bonds, de-
velopment after development fell into the hands of creditors and li-
quidators, and bank after bank closed their doors forever. Of course,
some things in Florida never change. In the Spring of 1927 the town
of Palm Beach reported the best ever winter season with some of its
citizens excited over a possible south Florida oil boom.9
1. Elmer H. Youngman, "Florida: The Last Pioneer State of the Union." The
Bankers Magazine (1926), pp. 7-23; Kenneth Ballinger, Miami Millions (Miami,
1926), p. 159; Frederick Lewis Allen, Only Yesterday(New York, 1931), pp. 272-273;
Charlton Tebeau, A History of Florida (Coral Gables, 1971), p. 383; George B.
Tindall, "The Bubble in the Sun," American Heritage, August 1965, p. 79.
2. Youngman, "Florida," p. 7; E.W. Howe, "The Real Palm Beach," The Sat-
urdar Evening Post (April 17, 1920), p. 49.
3. The Palm Beach Post, June 16, 1925, September6, 11,1924, March27, 1925.
4. John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash: 1929 (Boston, 1961), p. 23; Pah/i
Beach Post, March 20, 1924, June 24. March 3, 1925.
5. Pahn Beach Post, March 30, April 10, 1924.
6. Pabni Beach Post, April 15, 1925.
7. lhid., March 19. April 15, 16, 17, 1925.
8. Donald W. Curl, Mizner's Florida: American Resort Architecture (New
York. 1984); Christina Orr, Addison Mizner, Architecture of Dreams and Realities
(West Palm Beach, 1977), pp. 52-58.
9. Donald W. Curl, "The Architecture of Addison M izner," The Spanish River
Papers (October 1978). pp. 4-6: Palm Beach Post. April 28, 1925. This is the first ad-
vertisement in which the Mizner Development Corporation drops the "c" in "Boca
Ratone." In news stories the Post and the Panlm Beach Times retain the"e"foranother
month, finally dropping it at the end of May; Palm Beach Times, April 15, 1925.
Times stories about the boom tended to parallel those found in the Post. I only cite
the Times when it contained information not found in the Post.
10. Pahi Beach Post, May 5, 1925.
I Ibid.. May 15, 16, 1925.
12. Ibid., May 18, 1925,
13. Ibid., May 23, 27, 1925.
14. Ibid., May 28, 1925.
15. Ibid., June 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 1925, September 24, November 1, 3, 8, 1925.
16. Ibid., June 18, 19, 1925.
17. Ibid,. July 1, 2, 18, 1925.
18. Ibid., August 4, 1925.
19. Ibid., August 7, 1925.
20. New York Times, September 3, 1925; Alva Johnston, The Legendary Mi:-
ners (New York, 1953), p. 227. Johnston claims that the panels came from a room at
the University of Salamanca. After Mizner purchased the panels he had plaster casts
made and reproduced many sets, "giving rise to a confused idea that Ferdinand and
Isabella issued their historic decrees from twelve sections of Palm Beach;" Palm Beach
Post, August 23, September I, 5, 1925.
21. Palm Beach Post, October 14, 1925.
22. Pabjn Beach Post., AugList 27, 1925.
23. Ibid., August 22, September 18, October 10, 1925.
24. Ibid., August 17. September 16, 1925.
25. New York Times, October 10, 14, 1925; Frank B. Sessa, "Real Estate Ex-
pansion and Boom in Miami and its Environs During the 1920's." Ph.D. Disserta-
tion, University of Pittsburgh, 1950, pp. 288-89.
26. Palm Beach Post, October 10, 25, 1925; Du Pont's fears were realized in
April 1929 when three investors in Mizner Development Corporation filed suit in
New York Supreme Court to recover $1,450,000 from du Pont, Jesse L, Livermore
and ten other officers of the company. The suit claimed that the Boca Raton develop-
ment "was merely a scheme to sell lots at prices in excess of their value." ihid, April
27, New York Times. November 29, 1925.
28. Ibid., November 29, 1925.
29. Johnston, Legendary Mizners, p. 287; Sessa, "Real Estate," p. 147; William
H.A. Carr, The du Ponts of Delaware (New York, 1964).
30. Johnston, p. 287); Homer B. Vanderblue, "The Florida Land Boom," The
Journal of Land and Public Utility Economics (May 1927), p. 129; Galbraith, p. 95;
Edward Dean Sullivan, The Fabulous Wilson Mizner (New York, 1935), p. 309.
31. Palm Beach Post, November 25, December 6. 7, 13, 1925, February 24,
March 10, 14, 25, 1926; Pahn Beach Post, November 25, December 6, 7, 13, 1925,
February 24, March 10, 14, 25, 1926: For an interesting discussion of the rather
desperate advertising of the final months of the boom see Elliot Mackle, "Two-Way
Stretch: Some Dichotomies in the Advertising of Florida as the Boom Collapsed."
Tequesta XXXIII (1973), pp, 17-29.
32. Pabh Beach Post, October 25, November 13. 1925.
33. Ibid., October 29, November 25, 1925.
34. bid., November 10, December 6, 7, 1925, January I, February 8, 14, 1926:
New York Times, February 7, 1926,
35. Paln Beach Post, November 8, 1925.
36. Ibid., January 3, 10, 17, 24, February 8, 14, 21, 26, April II, 16, 1926.
37. New York Times, September 29, 1926.
38. Donald W. Curl, ed., "Boca Raton's 'Old' Floresta," The Spanish River
Papers (February 1977), pp. 3-4; New York Times. June 22, 1926, March 10, 1927;
Theodore Pratt, The Story of Boca Raton (St. Petersburg, 1969), pp. 24-25.
39. New York Times, April 6, 1927; James H.R. Cromwell, "Palm Beach Past
and Present," Country Li/P (January 1935), p. 60,
The State of Florida
The Florida Indians: 1954-1961
By James W. Covington
The decade between 1950 and 1960 was a most memorable one for
the Seminole Indians of Florida. These ten years saw the filing of the
$40,000,000 lawsuit before the Indian Claims Commission, organi-
zation of the tribe living on the reservations into a self-governing unit
under the terms of the Wheeler-Howard Act, the organization of the
Miccosukee group and subsequent demand to be recognized as a
separate entity and finally, some belated State of Florida assistance to
the Indians.' It is the object of this paper to examine the efforts of the
State of Florida and its governor Leroy Collins to assist the Indians
during this time.
Although there had been several futile nineteenth century at-
tempts to fund state reservations or schools, it was not until 1917 that the
legislature created a 99,200 acre reservation in Monroe County. Due to
its elevation of thirteen inches above sea level, the land had limited
value for raising cattle or agriculture, but had possibilities as a game
preserve. The state provided no funds for the upkeep of the reservation
and state officials hoped that the federal government would acquire
the land.2 In 1947 when the Everglades National Park was created, the
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund were authorized to
exchange land in the Indian reservation for other sites. Consequently,
104,000 acres were acquired in Palm Beach and Broward counties for
the reservation. One unforeseen feature of the second tract was that in
1955 Humble Oil Company leased much of it to explore for oil, paying in
return fees which amounted to $32,414.86 by 1956.
James Covington, Dana Professor of History at the University of Tampa, has
the distinction of having more articles published in Tequesta than any other person.
He is currently writing a book exploring the complete history of the Florida Seminole
In 1946 congress created the Indian Claims Commission by which
tribes could establish claims against the United States government
and receive restitution for illegal or unfair actions by the government
against the several tribes including the Seminoles. In August, 1950, a
committee of twelve reservation Indians engaged the services of John C.
Jackson and Roger Waybright, attorneys from Jacksonville, to
represent them in a suit for $50,000,000 in claims against the United
States government. This lawsuit would be a most complicated one and
so far unrewarding for various teams of lawyers would enter and leave
the picture. The Oklahoma Seminoles would dispute the claim, perhaps
1/3 of the Florida Seminoles or 400 persons wanted land and not
money, but by 1984 not a single Indian had received either land or
Most of the portion that did not want money but land organized
themselves into a group that became known as the M iccosukee Indians.
These Indians, governed by a general council which was first headed by
medicine man Ingraham Billie and later by Buffalo Tiger, hired an
attorney and began making moves that would demonstrate to the
federal and state governments and the white community that the non-
reservation Indians wanted other areas of participation that were
entirely different than those desired by the reservation Indians in
The next crisis that loomed on the scene of federal-Florida-
Seminole relations was the attempt to terminate all federal responsibil-
ity for Indian welfare. Spurred by the Hoover Commission Report of
1947 which advocated the cessation of federal aid to the Indians and
recommended that the federal services be turned over to the states,
congress adopted in 1953 House Concurrent Resolution 108, which
stated that tribes in several states, including Florida, should be severed
from their federal relationship.3 The Seminole Indian Association,
Friends of the Seminoles and other groups including the Indians fought
the measure until the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and a congress-
ional committee decided not to end federal assistance to the Semi-
In Washington on March 1, 1954, an event took placewhich would
cause lasting headaches among federal and state officials for the next
several years. In a petition written on buckskin and decorated with egret
feathers, and delivered to a representative of President Dwight Eisen-
hower, the General Council of the Miccosukee Indians protested that
the claim filed by the reservation Indians with the Indian Claims Com-
mission had been filed without the consent of the Miccosukees and that
The Florida Indians 37
the President should send a representative to talk to the Indians. This
petition was signed by ten Indians and translated by Buffalo Tiger. A
copy was sent to acting Governor Charley E. Johns of Florida but both
Johns and Eisenhower did not respond.5 By September 17, 1954, the
Miccosukee attorney Morton Silver filed a motion with the Indian
Claims Commission to squash the claim of the reservation Indians.
Johns and Eisenhower did not answer the petition that was sent
to them, for federal and State of Florida officials could not understand
that perhaps one-third of the Seminoles did not want money awarded as
a result of past wrongs committed by the federal government but an
award of land. In addition, it was not understood that a considerable
portion of the tribe followed procedures established in a traditional
manner for the past one hundred or more years by the Council and to
the officials the Miccosukees were a small band of renegades.
In 1954 Leroy Collins was elected to fill the vacancy left in the
governor's chair by the death of Dan McCarthy in 1953. During this
term and following a full term to which he was elected in 1956, Collins
created an image of progressive leadership and concern for minorities.
In 1957 Collins requested the legislature to appoint a committee on race
relations to help preserve harmony and improve black living conditions,
but the lawmakers did not follow his advice. Thus judging from his
record as a moderate administrator who tried to improve the condition
of minority groups, Collins was expected to render full support to the
Seminole Indian cause.
On December 20, 1955, a delegation of reservation Indians accom-
panied by their agent Kenneth Marmon appeared before the Board of
Commissioners of State Institutions (Florida Cabinet), which was
custodian of the state Indian reservation oil revenue, requesting the oil
funds be released to the Indians. They needed the money for indigent
Indians, clothing for sick children and the end of unsanitary conditions.6
Former Governor Millard Caldwell and, at that time an attorney for
the M iccosukees, noted that he did not object to the proposal but did not
want the Indians to state what they were going to do with the money.
Governor Collins believed that the Indians should use the money to their
best advantage. Finally, Fred C. Elliott, Engineer and Secretary of the
Internal Improvement Fund Trustees, and one person from the At-
torney-General's office were appointed to contact the Miccosukee
group and get their opinion on the matter.7 It would soon become ap-
parent to the white officials that the Miccosukees wanted land and not
In March, 1956, a delegation from Washington headed by Com-
missioner of Indian Affairs Glenn Emmons appeared in Tallahassee
before the Board of State Institutions and Internal Improvement Fund
Trustees to discuss Indian affairs in Florida. They noted a-need to enroll
Indian children in the public schools and believed that the Miccosukees
would cooperate if they were given a perpetual hunting and fishing re-
serve. At the conclusion of Emmons' presentation, the two state boards
directed Elliott to confer with federal and state officials and submit a
plan in response.8
By March 29, 1957, Elliott submitted his report and recom-
mendations. He believed that the acquisition on an exclusive land use
basis of Area Number Three of the Water Conservation Area of the
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District, comprising from
150,000 to 200,000 acres, would be most useful for the Indians. In-
cluded in the proposal was the acquisition of four or five camp sites near
the Big Cypress Swamp. In addition, Elliott proposed the provision
for federal Indian schools that would stress Indian culture but lead to
the admission of students in the state system.9 Elliott also recommended
the establishment of local rule for the Indians in which minor offenses
could be settled by an Indian tribunal. Finally he recommended that a
branch office of the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions be
established to handle the oil funds, the state reservation affairs and other
It took some time to ascertain the feelings of the various groups of
Indians and to formulate an Indian policy for the State of Florida.
Finally in a meeting of the Board of Commissioners of State Institu-
tions on October 16, 1956, business committees from the three federal
reservations proposed that the $32,414 in the oil and gas fund be spent to
purchase 1420 acres of land. 1 n response, Fred Elliott proposed that a
branch office be established and an advisory committee be formed to
guide office affairs. Several weeks after, on October 30, 1956, a special
committee composed of Ray Green Comptroller Chairman, Richard
Erwin Attorney General and J. Edwin Larsen Treasurer, hired Col-
onel Max Denton as Florida Commissioner of Indian Affairs at salary
of $400 a month. Denton would assume his position on November
1, 1956 (operating from Elliott's office or another site), and make a
study of all laws pertaining to the Florida Indians." The State of
Florida was in the Indian business.
The appointment of Denton alarmed both the federal Indian of-
ficials and several organizations supporting Indians. On the surface,
the move seemed rather rash because funds supporting the office were
taken from the oil and gas fund. Kenneth Marmon, Superintendent
The Florida Indians 39
of the Seminole Agency at Dania wrote to Collins inquiring into the
status of the office and the source of funding. In reply, Collins noted
that the $5,196 operating funds for the Indian office were borrowed
from the oil and gas lease fund and would be repaid from general rev-
enue effective June 30, 1957.12 Budget director Harry Smith clarified
the duties of the office to Denton: starting January 15, 1957, he would
make monthly reports to the cabinet, but he need not appear in per-
son unless requested. 13
By April 8, 1957, Denton, having learned a few facts concerning the
Florida Indians, was ready for a conference with federal officials in
Washington. Represented on the federal side were Glenn L. Emmons,
Commissioner, Indian Affairs, W. Barton Greenwood, Deputy Com-
missioner, and eight other high officials. General topics discussed and
agreed upon included the following:
1. It was agreed that the Seminole Indians of Florida should be
organized under a constitution and charter as soon as possible, but there
was no mention of the Miccosukees.
2. The current law and order status for state, civil and criminal
jurisdiction was most satisfactory.
3. Director Denton should bring up the matter of more land for the
Indians before the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions.
4. Tribunal monies held in trust by federal and state governments
could not be given to the Indians until some type of governing body was
organized by the Indians.14
Next, Denton met with representatives of some of the off-
reservation Indians at Everglades and with the Miccosukees atJimmie
Tiger's camp on the Tamiami Trail. In the Everglades meeting attended
by Ingraham Billie, Sam Jones and a few others representing the tra-
ditional group, items of discussion included: land, homesites, grants
of money and school attendance. Another meeting was scheduled six
or eight weeks later. Next came the May I meeting with the Miccosu-
kees at Jimmie Tiger's camp, which was attended by 50 to 75 adults.
They requested that Area No. Three of the Central and Southern
Florida Flood Control District be assigned to the tribe and paid for
from their claim pending against the United States government. In
addition they agreed to prepare a constitution and by-laws to be ap-
proved by their people and, thus, to establish a governing body. Denton
endorsed the proposal. 5
On July 30, 1957, the Everglades Miccosukee General Council pre-
sented their constitution to the Board of Commissioners of State
Institutions for approval. At the meeting Buffalo Tiger pointed out
that of the 355 Indians living away from the reservation, 201 had signed
the constitution. Indian attorneys Millard Caldwell and Dr. John Mil-
ler explained phases of the constitution. The cabinet was assured that it
was an agreement similar to municipal charters. 0. B. White, attorney
for the reservation Indians, pointed out some objectionable features to
the constitution and alleged that it had no legal effect. Finally, Collins
noted that the two groups could not be unified at this time and that
approval of the constitution would not "detract from or deny recogni-
tion of the reservation group and their constitution." The motion to
recognize the Miccosukee Council as the Miccosukee governing body
was unanimously adopted.16
As soon as the Miccosukee constitution had been approved, it
seemed that assignment of Area Three or 202,000 acres of land to the
Indians would come next. Accordingly a meeting was held at Miami
Shores on July 27, 1957, and attended by 86 white sportsmen, and
several Miccosukees and their attorney, Morton Silver. The Indians
were questioned on their possible use of the land and their refusal to
allow others hunting and fishing rights. Silver allegedly remarked,
"Give us the land and after we have it we will sit down and negotiate your
hunting and fishing privileges." The white audience laughed. Silver
pointed out that the Indians wanted exclusive use of 100,000 acres and
would permit the whites to hunt and fish in the remainder. The sports-
men voted to hire an attorney and send a committee to the governor to
protest the allocation of land to the Indians. They pointed out that 5,012
licenses had been sold for hunting and fishing in the Everglades but
only 400 Indians were involved in the issue.
Despite the opposition, Denton pressed ahead to acquire Area
Number Three for the Miccosukees. In a letter to Richard Erwin,
Attorney-General, he desired to know the legalramifications that would
arise in the acquisition of property by eminent domain for the Indians.
In reply, Erwin pointed out that the taking must be for a public purpose
but the use could be public even though it would be enjoyed by a small
number of people.
More facts were disclosed in a letter from B. F. Hyde, Jr., Execu-
tive Director of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Dis-
trict and custodian of AreaThree. Accordingto Hyde, 19,320 acres were
owned by private interests, 1,960 acres owned in fee by his group, 15,360
by State Board of Education and the remaining portion owned by
trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund. Hyde did not object to
Indian hunting and fishing rights, public hunting seasons and exclusive
frog gigging but noted that his organization had authority to flood the
The Florida Indians 41
area. In addition, if grazing, cattle raising and agricultural activities were
fostered in the area, extensive changes would be required, including
construction of canals, dikes and pumping stations.'9 By December 16,
1957, Denton and Van H. Ferguson, Director, Trustees Internal Im-
provement Fund, submitted a proposal to Collins recommending the
assignment of 138,430 acres in Area Three to the Seminole Indians of
Florida for the protection of "their native religion, customs, tradition
and economy in their native habitat."20 At this point it seemed that the
Indians would be given some rights exclusive to the involved land.
The plan submitted by Denton and Ferguson to Collins and the
cabinet was sent to Attorney General Richard Erwin for review. Er-
win found no legal authority by which the trustees oftheStatelmprove-
ment Fund could place state land in trust for the Indians or to designate
land for the exclusive use of a particular class. To remedy the situation,
Erwin suggested that a public hearing be held so that proper authority
might be determined. If some doubt concerning proper approval of the
Denton-Ferguson plan remained, the Florida legislature should grant
such authority.21 Erwin issued a strong statement on May22, 1958. If the
state conceded that the Indians had a right to the land, Erwin reasoned,
"Florida would admit that the monetary debt owed to the Indians was
for much more than the acreage actually being sought."22
One important factor in Erwin's decision was the agreement signed
between Attorney Morton Silver and the Everglades Miccosukees. In
the agreement signed on March 30, 1958, Silver would receive a reason-
able fee from the awards of money or land that the council would
receive from the federal or state governments. As a result Silver would
have a lien on these benefits and such a lien could not be recognized by
the State of Florida.23 Consequently, after receiving the advice of Er-
win, the State of Florida applied brakes to the efforts to give land to the
In 1956 a split had taken place between the various elements that
composed the off-reservation Seminoles. The off-reservation Indians
headed by Ingraham Billy had hired Morton Silver in 1952. In 1955 he
was joined by George Miller and Millard Caldwell. By 1956 Ingraham
Billy and the so-called traditionalists broke away from the lawyers
claiming that all the lawyers wanted was money, leaving Buffalo Tiger
and some others being represented by Silver. According to the Indians,
"the reason is that he [Silver] refused to do what we wanted to do. He
wants to do what he likes instead of what we want. Mr. Silver wants to
get a title of land to which we do not believe in."24 In reply, Fred Elliott
explained that Silver had no official connection with the trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund and that the board's dealings would be
directly with the Indians or with a representative selected by them and
certified by the board.25 It seemed that officials of the State of Florida
were doing their best to avoid contact with Silver. Finally Silver and
George Miller wrote letters to President Dwight Eisenhower and
Governor Collins offering to negotiate the dispute between the Indians
of Florida and the federal and state governments.26 Included with the
offer was a 60 day ultimatum in which the Indians threatened to take the
matter to an appropriate international forum if it was not settled by
November 20,1958. In reply, Commissioner of Indian Affairs Emmons
pointed out that the United States government had responsibility only
towards those Indians who lived on the federal reservations. Just be-
cause the Miccosukees claimed certain rights, such rights were not
recognized by the federal government.27 The State of Florida did not
take action within the requested time frame.28
Despite the tough stand taken by both federal and state officials, a
negotiating session was held in Washington, D.C., on November 10,
1958, at the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Included within the group hold-
ing the discussion were Buffalo Tiger and his two attorneys, State of
Florida Indian Agent Max Denton, the attorney for the reservation
Indians, Commissioner of Indian Affairs Emmons and several re-
porters. The Indians and their attorney claimed that the State of Florida
was equally liable with the United States government for robbing the
Indians of their land and not paying for it. Denton, in response, reviewed
historical evidence specifying that the treaties signed with the Indians
had been negotiated before Florida had become a state.29 Emmons con-
cluded the meeting with an offer that he would use his influence to get
the state to grant the Indians the use of the land.
In their next move, Silver and the general council tried to settle
the matter of the liens and the lawyers'fees. Silver wrote a letter to the
general council, which in turn was forwarded to Governor Collins,
stating that he had no intention of placing a lien on their land for pay-
ment of fees or making the State of Florida responsible for such fees.30
The Indians noted in their supporting letter that Collins had not met
with them, but had made a public announcement concerning the law-
yers' fees interfering with the land transaction,
On November 7, 1958, Governor Leroy Collins appointed a com-
mittee composed of William Baggs, John Pennekamp, Louis Capron,
Harold Vann and Chairman Grady Crawford to study the problems of
the Florida Seminoles. The group held meetings on December4, 12, 13,
1958, and January 23, 1969, with various federal, state and private in-
The Florida Indians 43
dividuals that could furnish information. No Miccosukees were met by
the committee. In a report submitted February 16, 1959, to Governor
Collins, the committee found that the United States government only
defined the Seminoles as Indians residing on federal reservations in
Florida. Since all dealings with the Indian tribes were on the federal
level, no tribe had a legitimate claim against a state. Because the Ever-
glades Miccosukee tribe of Seminole Indians had a pending claim
against the state "it would be impracticable" the committee wrote, "or
impossible for the state to make any grants, gifts or leases of land to the
Indians." Furthermore, they concluded, "the Everglades Miccosukee
Tribe does not intend to live on the land sought from the state but in-
tends to lease or use the land for profitable transactions. However,"
they added, "the State of Florida should acquire all land now occupied
by Indian villages sited along the TamiamiTrail, plus adjacent land used
for agricultural purposes and land used by the Indians to insure privacy
in their Green Corn Dances. Finally," they suggested, "Indian monies
held in trust by the state should be made available for medical care for
the Indians and in making small loans to the Indians at moderate interest
The reaction of the Executive Council of the MiccosukeeSeminole
Nation to the work of the committee was an interesting contrast. In a
letter dated February 10, 1959, the council noted Collins had expressed
a great interest in the Indians and had wanted to protect them from the
lawyers.32 Yet, Caldwell had shifted from the Miccosukee side and was
working for the Seminole tribe. The council, therefore, wanted him re-
moved from the legal team. Commissioner of Indian Affairs Emmons
had announced on television that the land claims were the responsibility
of the State of Florida and by this statement seemed to have washed his
hands of the land matter. In a second letter several weeks later, the
council complained that the committee had been invited to meet with
the council but it had not taken advantage of the opportunity.33 Thus,
members of the council wondered how the so-called fact finding com-
mittee could make a final report without talking to some Indians who
wanted the land.
Acting on the recommendation of the committee, the cabinet
voted not to make the large land transaction, but offered some conces-
sions to the Seminoles. The cabinet rejected the bid of the Indians for
the 200,000 acres, but agreed to acquire from private owners and to place
all of the needed 18-20 camp sites under state control. In addition the
committee voted to release the $75,000 held in trust for all Seminoles for
use by individual Indians. Max Denton was instructed to work out a
plan for the acquisition of the campsites, help disperse the money from
the trust fund and to "encourage the Miccosukees to accept white
schools, medical care and modern life."34
At this point, the Miccosukee general council could do little to
protest the action of the cabinet for the council had expended virtually
every weapon in its arsenal. But white friends of the Indians wereableto
reverse the tide of battle. President Evelyn Harvey and the Miccosukee
Seminole Indian Association circulated a petition supporting the land
claim which would be sent to the Florida legislature, the cabinet, Gov-
ernor Collins and Congress. An open meeting was held in May at the
H ialeah City Hall at which three members of the Governor's committee
were questioned by the Indians, their attorney and white friends.3- A
salient point was the fact that the Indians had not yet seen the full
committee report and had not been consulted in its preparation. As a
result of the mounting pressure, in June the Florida legislature voted
to set aside 143,400 acres of Everglades land for Indian use.
Although there had been little or no official communication be-
tween the reservation or official Seminole tribe and those living away
from the reservations, Commissioner of Indian Affairs Emmons was
able to arrange a meeting in Miami at which most of the Florida Indians
were represented. On November 15, 1959, members of the Board of
Directors of the Seminole Tribe of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribal
Council met at the Everglades Hotel. The only Indians not represented
at the session were those living in the area near Naples known as the
"Traditional Indians." Without much heated discussion and a firm
desire to settle a serious problem displayed by all, it was resolved that the
reservation Indians would assert full control on the Federal reservations
leaving the Miccosukees in control of all activities on the Area Three
143,620 acres.36 Such control of the area bytheMiccosukee council was
in variance with a proposal submitted by Max Denton and Van Fergu-
son, Director, Trustees Internal Improvement Fund, who wanted the
Tribal Council of the SeminoleTribes to have directjurisdiction over the
Evidence that Governor Collins was not swayed by the action of the
legislature was disclosed at a hearing of the Seminole Indian problems
by the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions held on November
17 in Tallahassee. Present at the meetingwere leaders of the two Indian
groups, Bureau of Indian Affairs officials and white friends of the In-
dians including Robert Mitchell, Bertram Scott and Mrs. Evelyn Har-
vey. First, Emmons pledged that the Office of Indian Affairs would offer
technical assistance but that the United States government did not want
The Florida Indians 45
to create any more federal reservations at this time. Collins replied that
he did not think anything could be settled in the meeting because all
types of legal questions could arise concerning land and the state was
limited in action. Miccosukee Howard Osceola pointed out that the
Indians had no claim against Florida, but both Indian groups had
agreed that the state Indian land would be managed by the Miccosukees.
Collins questioned the Indians as to possible use of the land and brought
out the fact that little research on land had been done by the Indians. "In
the first place," he concluded, "we haven't any legal authority to convey
this land or set it up in any irrevocable trust . we do not have the
authority to control the use of it and we can grant certain license and use
and privileges."37 Collins, refusing to abide by the decision of the
November 15 meeting referred the matter back to the citizen's commit-
tee for further study. By April 5, 1960, the Board of Commissioners of
State Institutions voted to make available 143,620 acres in Flood Con-
trol Area Three to all the Indians for traditional use. Yet, because some
of the necessary paper work was not completed, the Attorney-General
ruled that it was not binding.38 Although the land remains under full
control by the State of Florida today, the Indians have been granted a
few privileges in the area. The release of surplus water from flood stor-
age lands to the north make it difficult for even the deer and other wild
life to survive during the rainy season.
When Leroy Collins left the office of the governor on January
3, 1961, he had achieved some limited success in assisting the Indians.
The problems in dealing with the Miccosukee group and their at-
torneys, who could place liens upon land and initiate lawsuits against
the state, forced the state officials who really wanted to help the
Indians into a situation which prevented any affirmative action that
benefitted the Miccosukee Council. Although denied use of the
143,000 acres, in the 1960's the federal government would recog-
nize the Miccosukees as a separate group. They would also be
given use of some land by the National Park Service and the State
of Florida, and have a separate school system and cultural center.
Finally, in 1970, they began a contract relationship with the Bureau
of Indian Affairs by which the government gave them funds to pay
for the schools and self-government. When their attorney, F. Bobo
Dean, initiated a lawsuit for the involved land, the State of Florida
and the Indians agreed to a settlement of $975,000 for the land
claim, 265,800 acres with hunting, fishing and living privileges,
and 76,800 acres for a federal reservation, when approved by Congress.
1. For a brief view of the Seminole post Indian Wars period see Harry A.
Kersey, Jr. "Those Left Behind: The Seminole Indians of Florida," in Walter L.
Williams ed. Southeastern Indians Since the Removal Era (Athens, 1979)
2. For an excellent description and evaluation of the state reservation see
Roy Nash "A Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida," Senate Document 314,
71 Congress, Session 3, (Washington, 1931), 57-59.
3. Arrell M. Gibson, The American Indian: Prehistory to the Present, Lex-
ington, Mass., 1980), 551.
4. Robert Mitchell, Seminole Indians Association of Florida to Governor
Daniel McCarty, August 31, 1953, Administrative Correspondence, Governor Dan
McCarty and Acting Governor Charley Johns, 1953-54. Box 26, Register 102,
Series 569, Florida State Archives, hereafter cited as M and J, FSA; Mrs. N. R.
Johnson, Friends of the Seminoles to Charley Johns, November 9, 1953, M and J,
FSA; Termination of Federal Supervision Over Certain Tribes of Indians, Joint
Hearing Before the Sub-Committee of the Committee on Interior and Insular
Affairs, 83rd Congress, second session, on S.2747 and H. R. 7321, Part 8, Seminole
Indians, Florida (Washington, 1954), passim.
5. Morton Silver to Charley Johns, June 10, 1954, M and J, FSA.
6. Minutes of Board of Commissioner of State Institutions, December 20,
1955 hereafter cited as Minutes.
8. March 20, 1956, Minutes.
9. Report to the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions and to the
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, May 29, 1956. Governor Leroy Col-
lins, Administrative Correspondence 1955-56, Register 102, Box 19, Series 776-A
Florida State Archives, hereafter cited as Collins Correspondence.
10. October 16,1956, Minutes.
11. October 30, 1956, Report of Director of Committee, Minutes. At the
same time Denton was being appointed, Bertram D. Scott, executive director of
the Seminole Indian Association of Florida nominated Fred Montsdeoca for the
position. Montsdeoca, who had nearly twenty years of experience in dealing with
the Indians, would have probably been a better choice. Bertram D. Scott to Governor
Leroy Collins, October 30, 1956.
12. Collins to Marmon, December21, 1956, Collins Correspondence.
13. Harry Smith to Dentonr, December 18, 1956, Collins Correspondence,
14. Denton to Board of Commissioners of State Institutions, no date, Collins
15. Denton to Board of Commissioners of State Institutions, July 19, 1957,
Collins Correspondence; the reservation Indians had adopted a constitution in
16. Minutes, Board of Commissioners of State Institutions, July 30, 1957,
17. Minutes of Protest Meeting, July 27, 1957, signed by C. E. McLane,
Director, Airboat Association of Florida, Collins Correspondence.
18. Erwin to Denton, November 1, 1957, Collins Correspondence.
19. Hyde to Van Ferguson, Director, Trustees Internal Improvement Fund,
November 14, 1957, Collins Correspondence.
20. Denton and Ferguson to Collins, December 16, 1957, Collins Corre-
21. Don Livingstone to Collins, November 6, 1958, Collins Correspondence.
The Florida Indians 47
22. LaVerne Madigan, "A Most Independent People A Field Report
on Indians in Florida," Indian Affairs (April, 1959), 5.
23, Annex K, Miccosukee Papers, National Anthropological Library,
24. Ingraham Billie et al to Collins, October 25, 1956, Collins Correspondence.
25. Elliott to Ingraham Billie et al, November 7, 1956, Collins Correspondence.
26. Executive Council Miccosukee Indians to Eisenhower, September
20, 1958, Distribution of Semnole Judgement Funds, Hearing before the
United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, S 2000 and S 2188
95th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, 1979), 205-26.
27. Emmons to Howard Osceola, October 17, 1958, 58-14773 Bureau
of Indian Affairs, Box 286. File 163050 Record Group 75, Federal Records
Center, Suitland, Maryland.
28. Livingstone to Collins, November 6, 1958, Collins Correspondence.
29. Denton to Board of Commissioners of State Institutions, November
20, 1958, Collins Correspondence.
30. Silver to Executive Council, November 10, 1958, Collins Correspondence.
31. Chairman Grady L. Crawford to Collins, February 16, 1959, Collins
32. Executive Council to Collins, February 10, 1959, Collins Correspondence.
33. Executive Council to Collins, February 23, 1959, Collins Correspondence.
34. Tampa Tribune. March 5, 1959; Miami Herald, March 5, 1955.
35. Hialeah-Miami Springs Journal, May 21, 1959.
36. Minutes of Special Board of Directors Meeting, Everglades Hotel,
Miami, Florida, November 15, 1959, B/A, SM.
37. Typed version, tape transcription of meeting held November 17, 1959,
38. Tampa Tribune, July 31, 1977.
The Development of
The Overseas Highway
By Alice Hopkins
1 As early as the 1850s, there was talk of
a railroad to Key West. South Florida's first
representative to Congress, Senator Stephen
R. Mallory, tried to gain support for the pro-
ject, stressing the strategic location of Key
West as "America's Gibraltar."2 This was
an idea whose time did not come until Henry
Morrison Flagler, patron millionaire of
Florida arrived on the scene. By 1896, his
Florida East Coast Railway had reached
Miami. Flagler, more than anyone else, was
responsible for the development of the east
coast of Florida as a vacation paradise. He
was not content, however, with quiet con-
templation of his past achievements. In 1902,
at the age of 72, he commissioned preminar,
surveys south of Miami with the ultimate objective of extending
his railroad to the most southern point in the United States Key
West. One route under consideration went from Homestead across
the Everglades to Cape Sable on the southwest tip of the Florida
mainland, then across 33 miles of open water to Big Pine Key and
on to Key West.3 After careful consideration and following the ad-
vice of his engineers, Mr. Flagler decided to build the railroad to
take advantage of the entire stretch of the 30 islands from Key
Alice Hopkins is a graduate student in history at Florida Atlantic University.
The Development of the Overseas Highway 49
Largo to Key West. He reportedly sought reassurance that the job
could be done from his vice president, Joseph Parrott. Upon re-
ceiving an affirmative reply, Flagler gave the famous order, "Very
well, then go ahead. Go to Key West."4
Why would anyone, even one with seemingly unlimited funds,
desire to build a railroad across thirty islands and over seventy-five
miles of open water? What motivated Flagler to sponsor such a gi-
gantic undertaking? There are many reasons offered. Key West was
a thriving metropolis. Until 1890, it was the most populated city in
Florida. It had the deepest harbor south of Norfolk, Virginia.5 The
Spanish American War had intensified interest in Cuba and the
Caribbean with attention focused on Key West and its strategic loca-
tion as "America's Gibraltar." Perhaps the most practical reason from
an economic point of view was the building of the Panama Canal in
1903. American interest in the Caribbean greatly increased and Key
West would be a natural base for protecting the eastern side of the
Canal. Finally, credit must be given to Flagler's flair for "doing great
things." Perhaps he saw the eventual completion of this unique
railroad as a "grand climax to all his other developments."' What-
ever the motivating force was behind Flagler's decision, he never wav-
ered in his dedication to finish the railroad through to Key West.
Construction spanned a period of seven years (1905-1912). Ma-
terial was shipped in from all over: cement from Germany, steel from
Pittsburgh, lumber from northern Florida and Georgia, and gravel
from Cuba." Six thousand men came to work on the railroad from all
parts of the world. According to E. H. Sheeran, general superinten-
dent, a large percentage of them came from New York City's "Skid
Row." The men were paid $1 for a ten hour day.9 Besides handling
thousands of tons of steel and concrete, they also dug 20,000,000 cubic
yards of rock, sand, and marl for embankments.'" All of this gruel-
ling labor was mostly done without benefit of modem machines or
horsepower of any kind.
"Except for the very early days, not a horse or a mule
or a -wagon or a motor car was employed in the
construction between the mainland of Florida and
At least, after suffering through three devastating hurricanes
(1906, 1909, and 1910) and the loss of some 700 lives, the track was
through to Key West. On January 22, 1912, 20 days after his 82nd
birthday, Henry Flagler rode the first train into Key West. The city
went wild in its celebration of at last being connected to the mainland.
Representatives from France, Italy, Brazil and Guatemala attended
the ceremonies. The United States delegation included senators,
congressmen, generals and admirals.'2 A contemporary account of
the festive scene is furnished by the Miami Herald:
"The city is flooded with people; it is bedecked with
bunting and colors. Its splendid harbor is floating war
vessels of many nations, and its people are overjoyed
and enthusiastic over the coming of the railroad, the
realization of their dream of years. Their hearts are
open to the world. They are going to do themselves
The glow was soon replaced by cold, hard facts. After World War
1, Key West began to lose the importance once given it as a strategic
harbor and tourist attraction. Tourists just "passed through" on their
way to Cuba. Hurricanes damaged the sugar industry and labor prob-
lems further contributed to the growing depression. The sponge and
cigar-making industries moved away; the real estate boom of the
twenties showed little interest in the Keys. By 1934, 80% of the resi-
dents of Key West were on reliefl14
In the meantime, Flagler's crowning achievement was turning
into "Flagler's Folly." The Key West Extension of the Florida East
Coast Railway never made a profit. During the 1920s, mortgage
bonds were issued to raise money for expansion. By 1929, however, the
F.E.C. freight income was not enough to meet the payments on these
bonds. By 1931, the revenue from freight hauled was down 400% from
1926!15 In August of 1931, the F.E.C. went into receivership.
Facts and figures could no longer be denied, according to a re-
port on the feasibility of abandoning several branches of the Florida
East Coast Railway to "reduce operating expenses without reducing
revenue."16 All of the reasons for abandoning the Key West extension
were good ones: There was scarcely any local traffic, in either freight
or passengers. There was far less agricultural development than ten
years previously. It was expensive to maintain and was constantly
exposed to storms. Exports from Cuba were far less important than
during World War 1. The new "sea train" from New Orleans to Havana
was hurting business, as was the luxury steamship service from New
York to Havana. In 1930, the operating loss for the Key West Exten-
sion was $344,000.00 and an even larger deficit was predicted for
1931!17 It was sad but unfortunately true: "The Overseas Railroad
The Development of the Overseas Highway 51
had been engaged for sometime with the chore of carrying nothing
to nowhere for nobody."'8
The decision to abandon or not to abandon the Key West Ex-
tension was made not by the Board of Directors but by fate in the form
of the hurricane of 1935. This was a killer storm which plunged baro-
meters to 26.35', the lowest reading ever recorded on land.
The exact toll of human lives would never be known. Almost half
of those known dead were part of the group of disillusioned veterans
of World War I known as the Bonus Army. In 1934, the federal
government decided to send some 700 of these troublesome vet-
erans to Ft. Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas, 63 miles west of Key West.
They were to clean up the old fort which was to be an historic monu-
ment.19 The government soon realized this was too small a job for so
many workers. The vets were re-routed to three camps in the vicinity of
Islamorada to work on the highway being built parallel to the Key
West Extension. These luckless veterans were caught in the center of
the approaching storm. When the decision was finally made to get
them out, it was already past 2:00 p.m. on Labor Day. Holiday traffic
and a series of unfortunate mishaps caused one delay after another as
the rescue train slowly made its way down from Miami. At last,
through pounding wind and rain, the train reached Islamorada at 8:20
p.m.21 The terrified veterans made a mad dash for the cars. Five min-
utes later a 20 foot tidal wave slammed into the train. Only the engine,
weighing 106 tons, remained upright. The devastation was almost total
with heavy loss of life and property. Not a single stick remained of
the railroad station and the buildings around it. Ten miles of Keys lay
in utter destruction.
It was not unitl the next day that the first rescue boats got through
to Matecumbe Key from Key West. Early eye-witness accounts listed
the dead or missing at 119 civilians and 327 veterans.2' The final toll
would never be known.*
The employees of the Florida East Coast Railway who manned
the rescue train knew they were risking their lives in their efforts to
reach the stranded veterans. They were saved, huddled inside the
engine, but their railroad, Flagler's pride and joy, was gone forever.
Over 40 miles of railroad track between Key Largo and Key Vaca were
destroyed. Six miles of track had disappeared completely (two miles
*0ne cf/ the lirI rescue workers to reach the ravaged area was Ernest Heimingway. He
e\'pres.%ed the outriagef many rescuers ./e/ asi he later wrote: , the veterans had been
sent there; they had no opportntnit i leave . and iher never had a chance .or their
of which later washed up at Cape Sable). Nineteen miles of track were
washed completely off the roadbed. Embankments built over stretches
of shallow water were gone, and the natural water openings were back
as a result of the tidal wave.23 The damage estimate was $3,000,000.24
The country was in the middle of the Depression. Application for
a $3,000,000 loan to repair a losing railroad line was not regarded fa-
vorably by bankers or officials of the Reconstruction Finance Corpo-
ration.25 The Key West connection was not really needed as freight
traffic to Havana was being handled through Miami and Port Ever-
glades. There was one glimmer of hope:
"There is vague talk that the state of Florida might
take over the old right of way, use it to build a con-
tinuous automobile road down the Keys. Unless it
does so, Key West, the last jewel inserted in the Flag-
ler crown of empire, is liable to become a ghost city,
reverting to sand and sea."26
This "vague talk" concerning an overseas highway had started
long before 1935. In 1917, a bond issue in Monroe County provided
$100,000 for the construction of "trails" on Key Largo and Big Pine
Key, a bridge between Key West and Stock Island and a short road on
Stock Island.27 This early construction emphasized the need for more
roads. No further action was taken, however, until 1922. Then, a
$400,000 bond issue was voted to build a highway from Key West to
Sugarloaf Key, roughly 17 miles. There was no market for these
bonds as the interests of Key West and Monroe County were at odds.
In the eyes of Monroe County officials, a $400,000 road through the
lower Keys was seen as too expensive for such an undeveloped area.
Instead, the two governing bodies agreed on another bond issue of
$300,000. This would extend the highway south from Key Largo to
Lower Matecumbe and connect Key Largo to the mainland on the
Work began in August, 1923, to connect Key Largo with the
mainland through a series of six small bridges and one long bridge
between Barnes and Card Sound.* Construction continued slowly in
spite of the adverse effects on the bond market of the real estate bust in
the mid twenties. In 1927, the Florida legislature granted approval for
Monroe County to finance the building and operating of three ferry
boats between Lower Matecumbe and No Name Key -a forty mile
*This wooden bridge over Card Sound was c'ondemined in 1944, and construction began
oM a ntew oMR ill 1968.2'
The Development of the Overseas Highway 53
stretch of mostly open water.)0 In January, 1930, a road was finished
on Grassy Key which separated this stretch into two water gaps of
approximately fourteen miles each.31
On January 25, 1928, the road from Key Largo to Key West was
officially opened. Called a "magnificent gesture" and the "dream
of the century,"32 it still took eight hours to complete the trip, of
which four hours were spent on the ferry boat. Monroe County
was in debt for over $4,000,000 and still had no bridges to span
the long gaps of open water!
With the country heading into a deepening depression, there
was no money left to bridge the water gaps between Lower Matecumbe
Key and No Name Key. The state of Florida took over the job of
maintenance of the highway except for the rickety wooden bridges
in the lower keys. For these ramshackled affairs, the state refused
to assume responsibility. In 1933, the state legislature created the
Overseas Road and Toll Bridge District with power to sell bonds
to finish the highway and "to build, operate, and maintain a toll road
between Lower Matecumbe and Big Pine Key."33 Actual progress
was slow, and money remained extremely tight,
In 1935, the histories of the Overseas Highway and the Over-
seas Railway became one. The Labor Day hurricane had hit the
weakest, most vulnerable spot. of the railroad. Estimates to repair
the destroyed embankments ran into millions of dollars.34 Even if
a loan could be secured, it would seem like throwing good money
after bad. Passenger service to Cuba was being handled very
smoothly out of Miami. Plus, Pan American Airlines now had a
special plane service between Miami and Key West. The day of the
Overseas Railway had passed; that of the Overseas Highway had
barely begun. The Toll Bridge Commission saw its chance when the
F.E.C. decided to abandon the shattered Key West Extension. The
opportunity would have been lost if the federal government, speci-
fically the Public Works Administration, had not supplied the
money. The P.W.A. approved a loan of $3,600,000 to finish the
highway. In 1936, the Toll Bridge Commission purchased 122 miles
of right-of-way "from Florida City to Key West for $640,000 and
cancellation of $300,000 in state, city and county taxes."35
The history of the road to Key West had come full circle. Once
again there was a determined effort to link the southernmost city
to the mainland. Once again men labored through the Keys, this
time on an Overseas Highway. But this time it was public money
supporting the project instead of private, and this time the workers
could follow where someone else had led.
Henry M. Flagler had a life-long penchant for doing a job
right. John D. Rockefeller recognized this trait very early in their
"He (Flagler) believed we should do the work as well as
we knew how . that everything should be solid and
substantial . ."36
"Solid and substantial" would certainly describe Flagler's rail-
road bridges over the Keys. No less than six hurricanes between
1905 and 1935 failed to damage any of the concrete viaducts of the
34 bridges.37 All of the steel structures had been carefully main-
tained, cleaned and painted. The concrete piers were driven six to
ten feet into solid rock. The plain concrete arches were in excellent
condition.3 Since railroad builders had used salt water to mix the
plain concrete with such durable results, the chief engineer decided
to follow the same formula in the new construction. The plans for
construction and conversion of the bridges were prepared by B. M.
Duncan, former consulting engineer of the state road department.
In 1936, he became the Toll Bridge Commission's chief engineer.
According to Mr. Duncan, there were several ways of placing a
roadway deck over the existing bridges. "The problem was to obtain
an economical design that would suffer the least possible damage
from a hurricane."3- The plan finally adopted called for a flat slab
supported by either concrete or timber. The 18 foot railroad bed
was widened to 20 feet to allow the passage of two lanes of traffic.
The longest bridge in the chain of highways and bridges was,
and is, the famous Seven Mile Bridge, then known as Knight's Key
Bridge. The Seven Mile Bridge extended over several small islands
including the picturesque Pigeon Key. This awesome span had 546
concrete foundation piers far more than any other bridge in
The biggest engineering problem was not caused by the longest
bridge, but by the Bahia Honda Bridge, a little less than one mile
long. Again, the railroad was only 14 feet across. Spreading the
trusses could be done, but the concrete piers would have to be wid-
ened. The Bahia Honda Channel, literally "Deep Bay", was the
deepest along the entire sweep of the Keys, twenty-four feet at low
tide.4' In building the original railroad bridge, the use of truss spans
permitted the foundation piers to be spaced farther apart than were
the concrete arches used in the other bridges. Duncan and his crew
The Development of the Overseas Highway 55
considered several plans to support a roadway across this bridge.
Finally, it was decided to go with two lanes over the top of the steel
span. The spans had been designed to handle heavy-duty railroad
equipment and were "strong enough to allow for this over the top
adaptation."42 This part of the route provided the most panoramic
view of the whole trip as motorists looked down from a highway
rising more than 65 feet above the water.43
On March 29, 1938, the project was finished. Mr. Duncan took
justified pride in the fact that over 1,000 men were at work on the
highway for nearly 15 months without a single fatality. These men
were paid somewhat better than the dollar-a-day railroad workers.
Wages ranged from $.80 per hour for heavy equipment operators
(for example: crane operators, crusher and drag-line operators)
down to $.30 per hour for jobs such as cement handler, guard-rail
builder, and cook's helper.44 Toll rates on the new highway were set
at $1.00 per car and driver and $.25 per passenger. Trucks were
charged between one and four dollars.45 All tolls were removed in
On March 30, 1938, local headlines once again proclaimed the
opening of a Miami-Key West Overseas Highway sans ferry boat
ride. Crowds filled the old streets of Key West as residents cele-
brated yet another opening of a link to the mainland. But the story
was not over no, not yet, for there was work still to be done.
Up until 1941, Monroe County was still trying to get the
Florida State Road Department to finish the Key West end of the
highway along the old F.E.C. right-of-way. Altogether, there still
were "more than one hundred miles of narrow, poorly aligned,
winding roads on the Keys and many obsolete wooden bridges.. ."46
With the outbreak of World War II, it became a matter of national
security to have a complete highway from the mainland to Key
West. On January 20, 1942, a conference was held in Tallahassee
between representatives of the State Road Department and the
national Public Roads Administration. At this time it was agreed
to jointly finance the final completion of the Overseas Highway.47
So began yet another road-building project through the Keys. This
time 89 miles of completely new highway were built. At Florida City
the new road followed the abandoned path of Flagler's railroad and
cut 17 miles from the alternate route over the Card Sound Bridge.45
The old railroad right-of-way was also followed for new road con-
struction between Big Pine Key and Key West.
The completion of this phase in the saga of the Overseas High-
way was celebrated in a two day ceremony on May 16 and 17, 1944.
Governor Spessard L. Holland presided over the ribbon-cutting
ritual first in Key West and then at Florida City.49 This occasion
also marked the "opening of the last line of U.S. I running from
Kent, Maine to Key West."50
Anyone who has ever been behind the wheel on a trip across
the old Seven Mile Bridge remembers a feeling of sweaty-palm
panic as he carefully maneuvered over that narrow roadway. It was
as if one were walking a tightrope, with on-coming traffic on the left
and the blue water so close on the right! It is no wonder that by
the 1960s, the Seven Mile and the other bridges were considered
very substandard in width.51 In 1977, Congress appropriated
$109,000,000 for the purpose of replacing the reconverted railroad
bridges with brand new, wider bridges. Plans for the new bridges
called for a 36 foot wide roadway including two 12 foot driving
lanes and a six foot recovery area on either side.52 Under the direc-
tion of Mr. Jack Mueller, chief construction engineer for the State
Department of Transportation, construction began on the north
end in 1977. The new project called for the replacement of 37 bridges
through the Keys. Congress would provide 70% of the total cost, the
State of Florida, the remaining 30%53
The new Seven Mile Bridge was built using the European
process of segmentation. In other words, construction was done in
pieces, which were brought to the site and then put together. It is the
longest "segmental" bridge in the world.54 The new Seven Mile
Bridge was formally opened to traffic on May 23, 1982.*
So the work goes on of building and maintaining the Overseas
Highway. It really is a never ending project begun so long ago by
Henry Flagler. Now the old railroad bridge those "marvelous
feats of engineering" have disappeared, except for the three most
impressive spans. In 1980, Long Key, Bahia Honda, and Seven Mile
Bridges were designated by the federal government as historic
monuments.55 Mr. Flagler would be proud.
Today as thousands of motorists per day56 speed down the
Overseas Highway, one can almost visualize those long-ago rail-
road workers at their back-breaking labor and hear the ghost of
Henry Flagler ordering, "Go, go to Key West!"
*The Marathon end of the old Seven Mile Bridge has been lePf open to traffic or access to
the Universit. of Miami's marine hiologr lah on Pigeon Key.
The Development of the Overseas Highway 57
1. Map from timetable, Florida East Coast Railway Company, 1 July 1917,
Historical Association of Southern Florida.
2. Carlton Corliss, "Building the Overseas Railroad to Key West," Te-
quesia, V.13, 1953, p. 4.
3. Ibid., p. 5.
4. Ihid.,. p, 6,
5. Ibid., p. 3.
6. Sidney Walter Martin, Florida\' Flag/er. (Athens: University of Georgia
Press, 1949) p. 206.
7. Ibid., p. 205.
8. Earl Adams, "Long Cherished Dream of Overseas Highway Rapidly
Shaping into Reality," Miami Herald. 16 May 1937, p. I IA.
9. hibid., p. 12A.
10. Charles Laying, "The Railroad Over The Sea," Trains., V.8: No. 1,
November 1948, p. 44.
I 1. Ibid., p. 45.
12. "Henry M. Flagler will see the Culmination of his Crowning Ambition
Today in the Opening of the Overseas Ry. to Key West," The Miami Herald, 22
January 1912, p. 18.
14. Joan and Wright Langley, KeA West Images of the Past, (Key West:
Christopher C. Beiland and Edwin 0. Swift Ill. Publishers, 1982), p. 51.
15. Capt. V. Roger duPont, "The F.E.C.: Rise, Fall and Resumption,"
seminar paper, St. Leo College, Florida, November 1977, p. 19.
16, H.N. Roderbough, "Report to General Superintendent and General
Freight Agent Re: Official Report to Board of Directors Re: Changes in Physical
Plant of the F.E.C.." 21 October 1931, p. I 1.
17. Ibid., p. 12.
18. Christopher Cox. A Key West Companion. (New York: St. Martin's
Press, 1983)., p. 133.
19. Frank W l.overing. hurricane Between. (no publisher noted, 1946), p. 18.
20. Pat Parks, The Railroad that Died at Sea, (Brattleboro, Vt.: Stephen
Greene Press. 1968). p. 27.
21. "Disaster: Heroism and Tragedy in Florida's 'Mild Hurrican'." Newsweek,
14 September 1935. p. 12.
22. Ernest Hemingway, "Who Murdered the Vets?", New Masses. 17 September
1935, p. 18.
23. "The Florida Hurricane." Railwar Age. 7 March 1936. p. 382.
24. Ihid., p. 383.
25. "Abandoned Keys," Time. 24 February 1936, p. 66.
26. Ibid., p. 67.
27. U.S. Congress, House Joint Resolution #256, "Report of a Survey of
Uncompleted Bridges of the Overseas Highway from Key West to the Mainland
State of Florida," by Thomas H. MacDonald, 70th Congress, 1st sess., 16 May 1928.
28. R. Hodges Mardon, "Key West Touches Hands with Mainland in One
Magnificent Gesture The Oversea Highway," The Kev West Citizen, 25 January
1928. p. 7B.
29. "Notes -Overseas Highway, Barnes-Card Sound Route," FloridaCollec-
tion, Monroe County Public Library, Key West, Florida.
30. Mardon, "Key West Touches Hands .. p. 7B.
31. B.M. Duncan, "Overseas Railroad Becomes a Highway; Revamping
Thirteen Miles of Bridges to Handle Auto Traffic," Civil Engineering, V.8: No. 6,
June 1938, p. 393.
32. Mardon, "Key West Touches Hands . ," p. 7B.
33. Duncan, "Overseas Railroad Becomes a Highway . ," p. 395.
34. "The Florida Hurricane," p. 381.
35. Baynard Kendrick, Florida Trails to Turnpikes, (Gainesville: University
of Florida Press, 1964), p. 139.
36. Martin, Florida's Flagler, p. 48.
37. Duncan, "Overseas Railroad Becomes a Highway . .," p. 395.
39. Corliss, "Building the Overseas Railroad . p. 11.
41. Kendrick, Florida Trails to Turnpikes, p. 150.
42. Adams, "Long Cherished Dream of Overseas Highway .. ," p. IA.
43. U.S. Works Progress Administration, "Administrative Order No. 39,"
25 February 1936.
44. Duncan, "Overseas Railroad Becomes a Highway . .," p. 397.
45. Kendrick. Florida Trails to Turnpike, p. 145.
47. Ihid., p. 146.
48. Lovering, Hurricane Between, p. 22.
49. Kendrick, Florida Trails to Turnpike, p. 149.
50. Ibid., p. 150.
51. Interview with Jack Mueller, Florida Department of Transportation,
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 22 July 1985.
55. Interview with Robert Ogletree, Florida Department of Transportation,
Miami, Florida, 24 July 1985.
The Log of the Biscayne
House of Refuge
By Dr. Thelma Peters
In the 1978 Tequesta, Dr. Thelma Peters shared an excerpt from
the Biscayne Bay House of Refuge's log with our readers. Space limita-
tions prevented the entire log from being presented. This continuation of
the log begins on April 10, 1900, and ends on January 15, 1903. As with
the 1978 edition, space limitations prevent reproduction of the entire
log. To quote the 1978 article, "Entries are chronological and have been
selected with an eye for historical significance and/ or possible reader
interest. Misspellings have been left but an occasional capital or comma
has been supplied."
During the summer of 1900 the keeper, William H. Fulford, had
become increasingly ill and on August 18 left the station in the care
of a temporary keeper, Ludwig H. Hovilsrud. Fulford with his wife
had been at the station for ten years. He was from North Carolina
and had been a sea captain before moving from New Smyrna to Sta-
April 10, 1900
Keeper much better. Feaver broken. Mr. Roberts came over to
stay with me. Keeper went to Lemon City to consult Dr.
Apr. 11, 1900
Mr. Roberts left for his home in Lemon City this morning.
Aug. 5, 1900
Ten years ago today I came to the station as keeper.
Dr. Thelma Peters is a charter member of the Historical Association of South-
ern Florida and the author of Lemon City, Biscayne Country and Miami 1909.
Aug. 16, 1900
Mr. Ludwig Hovilshrud came to station and relieved me temp-
orarily. I am unwell and need treatment, previously reported.
Aug. 18, 1900
At 11 A.M. keeper left station being able to do duty longer.
[signed] Ludwig H. Hovilsrud, temporary keeper
Sept. 10, 1900
District Supt. inspected property by inventory and informed
acting keeper as to his duties. Received from Captain C. A. Abbey
inspector one anchor 30 lb in good order and two rolls of screens.
Sept. 11, 1900
District Supt. still at station in order to drill acting keeper more
thoroughly. Keeper Fulford at station from 9:30 AM. to 3 P.M.
and with Supt. corrected receipt books, finishing them to date.
Sept. 13, 1900
Practiced signals from 8 9 A.M. Continue making a new mast
for the supply boat. Taking out the old broken mast and carried it up
to the house.
Sept. 17, 1900
Practiced signals. Placing the flag pole in a vertical position
which was bent over in the last storm. Also putting planks crossways
at the bottom near the surface of the ground, nailed them in place, so
as to make it stay.
Sept. 18, 1900
Painting iron cots and the woodwork on the grindstone.
Sept. 24, 1900
Trying moving boathouse back to the right position, which was
leaning to the south, but could only move it 3". Put braces on to pro-
tect it from further damage.
Sept. 25, 1900
Making a good room for the paint, oil, cans and different things,
by closing in with boards all around the bench in the boathouse.
Oct. 1, 1900
Practiced signals 9 10 A.M. Finished the table for the boathouse
and painted the same. Keeper Captain W. H. Fulford came to station
at 5 P.M.
Oct. 2, 1900
Keeper left station at 8:30. Temporary keeper helping him move
The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge 61
some of his property down to the landing, which was left here. Pre-
paring a room for painting by taking down shelves, taking out nails
and filling holes with putty.
Oct. 3, 1900
Have been down the bay sailing this afternoon for the purpose
of drying the sails quickly after the last rain.
Oct. 12, 1900
Started for the post office this morning at 6 a.m. Returned half
ways on account of appearance of heavy rain from SW which came
very suddenly before I got to the landing. Practiced resuscitation.
Oct. 18, 1900
Being patroling the beach. Made a small flag pole for the signal
Oct. 20, 1900
Being on the look out for wrecks. At 5 P.M. the surf was very
rough and high. The surf making up under the house but no damage
Oct. 23, 1900
Started to make sand bags as ballast for supply boat.
Nov. 1, 1900
Went to post office at 8 A.M. Returned at 1 P.M. Received tele-
gram from H. B. Shaw with order to go at once to Oslo where further
order would await me. At the same time got letter from H. B. Shaw to
see the keeper Capt. W. H. Fulford about getting a good man in my
place at the station. Received letter at the same time from keeper
W. H. Fulford, with order to get Mr. B. E. Curry in my place. I got
Mr. B. E. Curry with me at once.
Nov. 2, 1900
Temporary keeper Mr. L. H. Hovilsrud left the station at 4 A.M.
in charge of Mr. B. E. Curry. B. E. Curry went with L. H. Hovilsrud to
Lemon City and returned at 10 A.M.
[signed] B. E. Curry, temporary keeper
Nov. 3, 1900
Cleaning house and working on road from the house to the
Nov. 21, 1900
Working on boat to see if 1 can stop it from leaking.
Nov. 26, 1900
Left the station at 7 A.M. and went to Lemon City for paint and
oil from the east coast railway and returned 11:30 A.M.
Dec. 1, 1900
Walked the beach 2 miles each way and partly painted one room.
Dec. 21, 1900
Went to the post office at 9 A.M. Received one book list of mer-
chant vessels of the United States 1900 from H. B. Shaw.
Jan. 4, 1901
Went to Lemon City to the depot and received one wheel bar-
row from H. B. Shaw.
Jan. 6, 1901
Wm. H. Fulford keeper came to the station Saturday evening
and staid overnight and left this morning for his home.
Feb. 4, 1901
Very large whale seen off the station. It looked to be 70 ft. long.
Feb. 5, 1901
Very large steamship off the station 3 P.M. Came near getting
ashore. I just had time to make a signal. Captain seeing it kept off
about East, then blew three times and went off. I think it was a foreign
Mar. 1, 1901
Saving some lumber that is drifted on the beach for the use of
May 23, 1901
Repairing the broken chairs.
June 15, 1901
Raining all the week not able to do anything.
Sept. 19, 1901
Working on the station helping to block it up on its foundations.
Sept. 24, 1901
Working on the station helping to block it up and get it on rollers.
Sept. 26, 1901
Working on the station night and day to get it on a foundation
to keep the sea from washing it away. A heavy sea undermined the
chimney and washed it down and broke a hole in the roof.
The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge 63
Oct. 1, 1901
Working on the station getting it ready to move.
Oct. 3, 1901
Lifting the station to get it ready to put on rollers.
Oct. 4, 1901
Working on the station all day and part of the night to get it on
Oct. 6, 1901
Worked on the station and moved it in about fifty feet.2
Oct. 9, 1901
Working on the boathouse getting it ready to put on rollers to
Oct. 12, 1901
Finished moving the boathouse today and blocking it up in its
Oct. 18, 1901
Working on the station. Moved it about 25 feet today.
Oct. 19, 1901
Got through moving the house at 11:30. Now blocking it up,
taking the rollers from underneath it.
Oct. 21, 1901
Working around the station digging trenches for a foundation.
Oct. 22, 1901
Working moving the water tank.
Oct. 24, 1901
Working on the tank house, moving it in its place, blocking it
up. Left the station at 3:30 P.M. to take Capt. Shaw and the mule
across to Lemon City.
Oct. 26, 1901
Carpenters working on the station putting up a foundation.
Oct. 30, 1901
Finished putting the foundation under the dwelling and gone
to work putting the foundation under the boat house.
Nov. 2, 1901
Carpenters working fixing up the kitchen and putting lattice
work around the building.
Nov. 28, 1901
Driving the hoops down on the tank. Took one off and cut it
and put it back on.
Dec. 6, 1901
This A.M. Mr. Curry left the station taking all his property with
him and leaving me in charge. As there had been no provisions by any-
one in authority I proceeded to Miami to our Dist. Supt. Shaw who
instructed me to remain in charge.
[signed] W. C. Kemper, acting keeper
Dec. 24, 1901
A launch brought lumber and carpenters today. They will com-
mence work tomorrow.
Dec. 26, 1901
Carpenters ceiling veranda. Four more carpenters came this
morning making six in all.
Dec. 28, 1901
Carpenters working on tank house, ceiling veranda, and build-
ing a new way to boat house. Put new floor in kitchen.
Dec. 31, 1901
Carpenters working on addition to kitchen, fixing steps and
putting up moulding.
Jan. 4, 1902
Carpenters about finished. Chimney topped out. Took Mr.
Woodworth to Lemon City.
Jan. 23, 1902
Cleaning and burning brush. W. L. Kemper, acting keeper.
Feb. 3, 1902
I was at Miami this morning and Mr. Kemper came from the
station with all his things in the boat and turned boat over to me at
11:30 A.M. and told me I could go and take charge of the station, that
he would not wait any longer.
Name of substitute B. E. Curry
Feb. 9, 1902
Keeper absent on account of sickness.3
Name of substitute B. E. Curry
Feb. 10, 1902
Name of substitute C. J. Yates
Taken charge of House at 6 A.M. Carried Mr. Curry to Lemon
The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge 65
City and went on to Miami. Got my family and returned at 3:30 P.M.
Feb. 11, 1902
Am sunning all the blankets and mattresses and cleaning up the
Feb. 27, 1902
Painting some on house today and planted flower bed in border
around one side of house.
March 22, 1902
Painting lattice work around cistern and scrubbing kitchen and
Mar. 25, 1902
Two boys came over to the beach today from Lemon City and
their boat left them. They came up to the house and stayed overnight.
I took them back across the bay the next morning.
Mar. 28, 1902
A fish boat came in from the bay with sail torn to pieces and re-
mained here overnight. 2 men on board. I gave them beds and 2 meals,
helped them mend their sails and they returned to Miami.
Mar. 29, 1902
Putting new screens in some of the doors and cleaning house
inside. Cleaning up the yard around the house.
Apr. 1, 1902
One large steamer tried to pass inside of buoy today at 10:30 going
south. I put up I.D. flag. She immediately turned her course and went
outside of buoy. The direction she was going would soon have put her
on the banks.
Apr. 4, 1902
A party of 10 people came to the house today to get water and
rest. They were from Miami.
Apr. 5, 1902
A young man named Sturgis came over from Miami to go in
surf bathing and after coming out said he felt very badly and stayed
overnight. During the night I heard him struggling and I went to his
room and found him with an epileptic fit. I applied the usual remedies
and brought him around all right. He went back to Miami today,
Apr. 6, 1902
Gen. Gordon and party came over from Biscayne to station
today. Got water from cistern.
Apr. 17, 1902
Heavy rain and hail storm this afternoon.
Apr. 21, 1902
Went to Miami today and returned at 4 o'clock P.M. Received
word from Capt. H. B. Shaw Dist. Supt. engaging me as keeper in
charge of this station in place of Capt. W. H. Fulford who received
his discharge on account of sickness.
Apr. 24, 1902
Visitors from Miami today
Mr. and Mrs. Bennett Mrs. Adams
Miss Louise Bennett Mrs. Hassell
Mr. and Mrs. Brice Mrs. Rutherford
Mrs. McAlaster and son Mr. Brickle
All went in the surf.
Apr. 26, 1902
Mrs. W. M. Burdine Miami
Mrs. L. E. Hill
Mrs. Fred Kronowitter "
Mrs. V. A. Rutherford "
Miss Helen F. Burr Little River
Miss Clarissa Stone Miami
Miss Sadie Kolb
Mr. and Mrs. Peter F. Boyce Chicago, 111.
D. E. Stocking [?] Miami
Mr. Stockman [?] Miami
Miss Maud Coahman, Miami
Miss Florence Frederick Miami
Miss Lucy Collier [?]
Miss Willie Colier [?]
Miss Grace Rader
Miss Rosalin Quarterman Miami
Miss Belle Blackman
E. V. Blackman
W. S. Miller Columbus Ohio
Miss Mamie Gamble, Jacksonville
Mrs. H. C. Walton Lady Lake, Fla.
C. E. Mc Lean, Leesburg, Fla.
Joe Frier Little River
The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge 67
A. C. Wolf Birmingham, Ala.
Miss Kate Wolf Grandview, Tenn.
Miss Annie Wolf "
J. B. Merritt and wife, Lemon City
M. J. Parsons, Denver, Colo.
Josephine Parsons "
0. D. Markley, Cincinnati, Ohio
Bessie Sligh Miami
Daisy Sligh Jacksonville
Fraser McHook Gainesville
Mr. Gasper Ind.
Mr. J. C. Sawyer Grand Rapids, Mich.
Mr. W. J. Williams McRae, Ga.
Miss Mona Smith Cleveland
May 1, 1902
A party of 30 were prevented from visiting the station today
on account of low water.
May 2, 1902
Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Roome and W. G. Roome on Yacht
Roomy Jersey City, N.J.
May 4, 1902
A small sail boat going to Boynton from Miami came ashore
this morning at 9 o'clock with sick man aboard. He came ashore
and I gave him some medicine which relieved him. Boat went on
and left him here. His name is Hamp Streggle Phelps [?]. He lost
his shoes overboard and I gave him 1 pr. brogue shoes and 1 pr.
wool socks and took him to Lemon City.
May 13, 1902
A picnic party of col. people numbering about 200 came to
station today and got water.
May 17, 1902
Mrs. Walter S. Graham
Miss Gunilla Sjostrum
all of Miami
July 15, 1902
Went to Miami to vote in the primary election.
July 25, 1902
A small schooner came ashore to get the time and some fresh
water this afternoon. Hailed from Palm Beach and bound for
July 29, 1902
Went to Miami today to take my family over to the Jubilee
July 30, 1902
Went over to Miami and about the time was ready to start
back took a chill and high fever. Had to remain overnight but sent
my son over to take care of the station.
Aug. 1, 1902
Returned from Miami early this A.M. after fever went off and
found station all O.K.
Sept. 28, 1902
Mr. Tatum and party came over from Miami today. Also a
party from Little River.
Oct. 20, 1902
One small schooner came ashore today for provisions and
water. Said they left Palm Beach 6 days ago bound for Miami.
Nov. 14, 1902
Six Indians are camping with us tonight.
Nov. 27, 1902
Mr. Norton and party Lemon City
James Pent and party Lemon City
C. Hughes and party Miami
All came over and spent day.
Dec. 25, 1902
Joseph Thrift party
F. Gillett party
Deughase party [DesRochers]
The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge 69
Dec. 27, 1902
A party of fishermen came to the house from the bay side at
midnight and said they were about frozen. I gave them lodging
and they went away Sunday morning. Temperature at sunrise 38.
Jan. 15, 1903
Capt. A. H. Johanson arrived this A.M. to take charge of
(This concludes Part I or the first 20 years of the log.)
To be continued .
1. Curry made a daily entry of a line or two but with little variation: "walk-
ing beach," "painting," "cleaning house."
2. The Miami Metropolis, Oct. 18, 1901, reported that high tides had under-
mined the House of Refuge and made it necessary to be moved "across the ravine
on the west to a high ridge."
3. Captain William Fulford was still official keeper. According to a Miami
Metropolis story about the town of Fulford, April 26, 1901, Fulford was living
in his "pleasant home" and was the "efficient" postmaster of Fulford.
4. This list is apparently in the handwriting of the guests. Many other lists
were in Keeper Yates' hand. On two occasions as many as 96 persons came to the
station in one day. Only a few of the visitors are given here. The station appeared
much less "social" under Yates' successors.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Members of The Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy
a full variety of benefits which include free admission to the Museum,
subscriptions to the three Museum publications, Tequesta, Update,
and Currents, invitations to special events, use of the Research Cen-
ter and the Archives, discounts on purchases at the Museum store,
and discounts on educational and recreational programs. Each
membership category offers the benefits outlined above, plus addi-
tional gifts and privileges for the higher levels of support.
Membership revenues primarily cover the costs of the benefits pro-
vided, educational programs, special exhibitions and daily operations
of the Museum. The membership listing is made up of the names of
those persons and institutions that have paid dues since August 1985;
those who joined after November 1, 1986 will have their names in
the 1987 Tequesta.
CATEGORIES OF MEMBERSHIP
Fellows $500.00 (and up)
Corporations and Foundations $500.00 (and up)
Life (no longer available)
Donor $ 50.00
Family $ 35.00
Individual $ 25.00
Institutional $ 20.00
Any changes in the level or listing of Membership should be reported
to the membership office at 375-1492.
Honorary Life Membership is voted by the Board of Trustees to rec-
ognize special service to the association. The symbol ** indicates
Founding Member; the symbol indicates Charter Member.
List of Members 71
M.R. Harrison Construction
Alpert, Mr. Maurice D.
Franklin, Mr. Mitchell
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph B., Jr.
*Waters, Mr. Fred M. Jr.
Dade County Council of
Arts & Sciences
Withers, Mr. James G.
Ruth & August Geiger
The Graham Foundation
Withers, Mr. Wayne E.
The J.N. McArthur Foundation
Arvida Disney Corporation
The Babcock Company
Barnett Bank of Miami, N.A.
Blackwell, Walker, Fascell &
Burdines Department Stores
Burger King Corporation
CenTrust Savings Bank
Chase Federal Savings
Church & Tower of
Coconut Grove Bank
Deloitte, Haskins and Sells
Eisner and Lubin
Aberman, Mr. & Mrs. James
Ajamil, Mr. & Mrs. Luis
Anderson, Ms. Marie
Anderson, Dr. & Mrs.
Batten, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Battle, Mr. & Mrs,
Benjamin, B. Jr.
Bermont, Mr. & Mrs. Peter L,
Bierman, Mr. & Mrs. Donald I.
Britton, Dr. & Mrs. Leonard
Cesarano, Mr. & Mrs.
Chapman, Mr. & Mrs.
Alvah H. Jr.
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W.
Ernst and Whinney
Florida Power and Light
Arthur Gallagher & Company
The Graham Companies
InterAmerica Investment, Inc.
Knight Ridder Corporation
Mershon, Sawyer, Johnston,
Dunwody and Cole
Merrill Lynch, Pierce,
Fenner and Smith
The Miami Herald
The Miami News
Morgan, Lewis, Bockius
Northern Trust Bank
Norwegian Caribbean Lines
Collier, Ms. Beth
Colson, Mr. & Mrs. William
Corlett, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward S. III
Corson, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Curry, Miss Lamar Louise
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Earle, Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Easton, Mr. Edward W.
Erickson, Mr. Douglas
Ezell, Mr. & Mrs. Boyce F. III
Fitzgerald, Dr. & Mrs.
George, Dr. & Mrs. Phillip T.
Graham, Mr. & Mrs.
Price, Waterhouse &
Ryder System, Inc.
Sears Roebuck and Company
South Miami Hospital
Spillis Candela and
Sun Bank/Miami, N.A.
Trenam, Simmons, Kemker,
Scharf, Barkin, Frye &
United National Bank of
Arthur Young and Company
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall S.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John C. Sr.
Haverfield, Mrs. Shirley
Hector, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Hicks, Mr. William M.
Hills, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Huston, Mrs. Tom
Kanner, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Kenny, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Kislak, Mr. & Mrs. Jay I.
Knight, Mr. & Mrs. C. Frasuer
Korth, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Kyle, Mr. Alan
LaFontisee, Mr. Louis L. Jr.
Laurence, Mr. Kenneth R.
Lawrence, Mr. & Mrs.Norman
Lopez, Dr. & Mrs. Ray
Lowell, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Lynch, Mr. & Mrs.
Stephen A. III
Mank, Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton
Marmer, Mr. Syddney
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs.
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs.
Matteson, Mr. Arnold C.
McCrimmon, Mr. & Mrs. C.T.
McLamore, Mr. & Mrs. James
Mead, Mr. & Mrs. D. Richard
Mensch, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph
Merrill, Mr. & Mrs.
James C, Ill
Mcsnekoff. Mr. & Mrs. David
Molinari, Dr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Morrison, Dr. & Mrs. Glenn
Moss, Mr. Ed
Nordt, Dr. John C. III
Noriega, Ms. Lamar
Norman, Dr. & Mrs. HaroidG.
Ostrenko, Mr. & Mrs.
Pappas, Mr. & Mrs.
Parks, Ms. Arva Moore
Parks, Mr. Robert L.
Payne, Mr. & Mrs. R,W. Jr.
Pero, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H.Jr.
Prunty, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Pryor, Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter
Read, Mrs. Bess B.
Rebozo, Mr. C.G.
Robinson, Mr. Edward J.
Roller, Mrs. G. Philip
Slack, Mr. & Mrs. Ted C,
Smiley, Mrs. Charlotte S.
Smith, Drs. Clarence E.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Soman, Mr. & Mrs. William D.
Stein, Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence E.
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs, Earl
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Franz Jr.
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Franz Sr.
*Tebeau, Dr. Charlton W.
Toms, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Trainer, Mr. Monty P.
Traurig, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Trochet, Dr. & Mrs. Jean A.
Vergara, Dr. & Mrs. George L.
Voelter, Mrs, Karl E.
Warren, Mr. & Mrs.
Lewis G. Jr.
Webb, Mr. & Mrs.
Weitz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Wiseheart, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolfe, Dr. & Mrs. S. Anthony
Wolfson, Mr. Mitchell Jr.
Woodruff, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Younts, Mr. & Mrs. David
Zwibel, Dr. & Mrs. Howard
Peacock. Henry B. Jr.
Pennekamp, Mr. Tom
Shapiro, Ms. Phyllis A.
Sonnett, Mr. & Mrs. Neal R.
Abess, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Abitol, Mr. Andre
Adams, Mr. Larry H.
Adler, Mr. & Mrs.
Ansin, Toby Lerner
Apthorp. Mr. & Mrs.
August, Mr. & Mrs.
Averill, Mr. Joseph
Bardi, Mr. & Mrs. Bruno
Barkell, Mr. & Mrs. William
Beam, Mr. Frank L.
Ben-Moleh, Dr. Josef
Bingham, J. Reid
Black, Mr. & Mrs. Hugo
Broad, Mrs. Mary Ellen
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Jack N.
Clark, Mrs. Kathryn L.
Cleveland, Dr. John Q. Jr.
Crow, Mr. & Mrs. Lon
Daniel. Mr. & Mrs.
William A. Jr.
Danielson, Mr. J. Deering
Davis, Mr. Hal D.
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
DeCarion, Mr. George H.
Dellapa, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Dowlen, Dr. & Mrs. L.W. Jr.
Dresser, Mr. & Mrs.
Duncan, Mr. & Mrs. James
DuPuch, Sir Etienne OBE
Ellenburg, Mr. & Mrs.
Evoy, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Fields, Dorothy J.
Fogg, Mr. Stephen M.
Friedman, Mr. Arnold S.
Gallagher, Mr. & Mrs.
Glinn, Mr. & Mrs.
Goldberg, Mr. Bruce
Goldstein, Mr. & Mrs. B.B.
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Hansen, Mr. William M.
Hemmings, Mr. & Mrs.
*Herin, Judge & Mrs.
Highleyman, Ms. Daly
Hollinger, Mrs. Barbara
Hornstein, Mrs. Norene
Huff, Dr. Prudence
Hunter, Dr. & Mrs. Burke M.
Hunter, Dr. Caroline B.
Jaffe, Dr. Jonathan Ravid
Jinks, Claire & Larry
Jude, Mr. James &
Keen, Mr. & Mrs. George H.
Keller, Mr. Bruce A.
Kienzle, Mr. Carl R.
Klein, Mr. Norman S.
Kleinberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Kniskern, Mr. & Mrs.
Kreisberg, Mr. & Mrs. Irving
Lawrence, Mr. Joseph M.
Leake, Martin & Joan
Leiva, Mrs. Maria Camila
Levine, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur R.
Levy, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Lewis, Mr. & Mrs, Robert L,
Martinez, Dr. & Mrs.
Masvidal, Mr. & Mrs. Raul P.
Maxted, Mr. & Mrs. F.J. Jr.
McCammon, Mr. & Mrs.
McGonigal, Mr. & Mrs.
Merritt, Mr. & Mrs. W,C.
Meyer, Mr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Mizell, Mr. Earl S.
Molina, Mr. & Mrs. Luis
Moritz, Ernest & Claudette
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M.
Oliver, Dr. & Mrs.
Robert M. Jr.
Oren, Dr. & Mrs. Mark E.
Padron, Dr. Eduardo J.
Pawley, Mrs. William D.
Pettigrew, Mr. & Mrs.
Plumer, Richard B.
Poe, Mr. Frank
Postlethwaite, Ms. Nina
Rassel, Mrs. Greta L.
Rawls, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward K. Jr. .
Rosselli, Mr. Francesco
Rutter, Mr. & Mrs.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Shay, Mr. & Mrs. Roger D.
Sherry, Mr. & Mrs.
Shevin, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Shula, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel L.
Stearns, Mr. Gene Esq.
Steinberg, Mr. Alan W.
Stollon, Ms. Heidi
Storer, Mrs. Peter
List of Members 73
Straight, Dr. & Mrs.
Stuart, Ms. Helen
Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C.
Swenson, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward F. Jr.
Taft, Mr. Richard A.
Taylor, Mr. Mitchell A.
Thatcher, Mr. John
Vazquez, Mrs. Olga
Vega, Mr. & Mrs. Joe
Wien, Mr. & Mrs, Leonard
Wood, Mr. & Mrs.
Warren C. Sr.
*Woore, Mrs. A. Meredith
Wragg, Mr. Otis O. Ill
Yates, Mrs, Eunice P,
Yost, Mr. Roger L.
Zeppa, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Zolten. Dr. & Mrs. Robert A.
Abraham, Ms. Norma
Adams, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
Adelman, Ms. Helen W.
Adler, Dr. Robert M.
Albrecht, Mr. & Mrs.
Alterman, Mr. Sidney
Ammarell, Mr. John S.
Anilo, Mr. Bill
Arend, Mr. Geoffrey
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert
Bavly, Mr. & Mrs. Harry D.
Behrmann, Mr. & Mrs.
Billings, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Black. Mr. Leon David Jr.
Blumberg, Mr. & Mrs. David
Bogis, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert S.
Bomar, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Bowker, Mr. & Mrs.
Brown, M r. & M rs. Dennis W.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Camps, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos R.
Canovas, Mrs. Mirtha
Chardon, Roland E.
Cogswell, Mr. & Mrs. T.J.
Collins. Mr. & Mrs.
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Corson, Ms. Ruth D.
Crump, Mr. & Mrs. C.C.
Curtis, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Daum, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Davis. Mr. & Mrs. Darrey
Davis, Mr. Roger Barry
de Castro. Mr. & Mrs,
Dinnerstein, Ms. Jeanne
Dotson, Mr.& Mrs. Harry H.
Dowdell, Mr. & Mrs. S.H.
Downs, Mr. Howard
Dunan, Mr.& Mrs. GeoV.R.
Eaton, Judge & Mrs. Joseph
Edison, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Ehrhard, Mrs. Harriett
Embry, Mr. & Mrs. Tally
Ericson, Mr. Arthur E.
Espindola, Mr. Robert
Fabelo, Mr. & Mrs.
Feltman, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs.
Forman, Mr. & Mrs.
Gaby, Mr. & Mrs. Donald C.
Ganguzza. Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner. Mrs, Dick B.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Garner, Dr. & Mrs.
Georgeff, Mr. & Mrs.
Gerace, Mrs. Terence
Gibson. Mr. David
Godwin, Mr. & Mrs. Elby A.
Goldman. Dr. & Mrs.
Goldwyn, Dr. Robert H.
Gonzalez, Mr. & Mrs. Mario
Goodson, Mr. & Mrs.
William M. Jr.
Goosen, Mr. & Mrs.
Grafton, Mr. & Mrs.
Graham, Mr. & Mrs.
Grant, Hazel R.
Grier, Ms. Helen R.
Gutierrez, Ms. Maria B.
Guyton, Dr. & Mrs.
Hancock, Mrs. Cis
Hanley, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Hardin, Dr. Henry C. Jr.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
John C. Jr.
Harvelle, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Hawa, Mr.& Mrs. Maurice B.
Hawkins, Mrs. Roy H.
Heath, Mr. & Mrs.
Helms, Ms. Patricia
Helsabeck, Ms. Rosemary E.
Hertz, Mr. Art
Hipps, Mrs. T.F.
Hodges, Mr. & Mrs.
Hoffman, Mr.& Mrs.
Hooper, Ms. Irene Upshaw
Horacek, Mr. & Mrs.
Howe, Mrs. Helen DeLano
Irvin, Dr. & Mrs. George
Jefferson, Dr. & Mrs.
Jimenez, Mr. Juan
Joffre, Dr. & Mrs. John
Johnson, Mr. Hal R. Jr.
Jollivette, Mr. & Mrs.
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. James R.
Jordan, Ms. Sandra A.
Jorgenson, Mr. & Mrs.
Junkin, Mr. & Mrs. John
Kehoe, Mr. Joseph M.
Kellner, Mr. Stewart C.
Kistler, Mr. Robert S.
Kraslow, Mr. David
Lauer, Mr. & Mrs. John F.
Lazarus, Mr. & Mrs.
Leesfield & Blackburn, P.A.
Lehman, Mr. Richard L.
Leigh, Mrs. Charles N.
Leonard, Mr.& Mrs.
Litt, Dr. & Mrs. Richard E.
London, Mr. & Mrs.
Long, Mr. & Mrs. James D.
Losak, Mr. & Mrs. John
Ludwig, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
Mack, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Maingot, Dr. & Mrs.
Malone, Mrs. Katherine
Marti, Mr. Tony
Matheson, Mr. R. Hardy
Mathews, Mr.& Mrs.J.F. [Il
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs.
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs.
Abbott, Mr. & Mrs. Henry F.
Abess, Mr. Allan T. Jr.
Abrams, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey
McCreary, Ms. Jane
McGilvray, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
McKey, Dr. & Mrs.
Robert M. Jr.
McMinn, Mr. John H.
Meyerhoff, Mrs. Beatrice
Moore, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Moore, Mr. Richard W.
Morris, Mr.& Mrs. David M.
Moynahan, Mr. John H.
Murray, Mr. John M.
Murray, Mrs. Mary Ruth
Myers, Ms. Ruth Dowell
Natiello, Dr. Thomas A.
Needell, Dr. & Mrs.
Nelson, Mr. John E.
New, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin E,
Newman, Mr. & Mrs.
Newport, Ms. Carol
Norton, Dr. Edward W. D.
Osborn, Mrs. Nancy
Pancoast, Ms. Katherine F.
Parnes, Dr. & Mrs.
Peck, Mr. George W. Jr.
Pepper, Hon. Claude
Peskie, Mr. & Mrs.
Pierce, Mr. J.E.
Pither, Mr. & Mrs. Allan L.
Post, Ms. Amelia M.
Reglinski, Mr. Joseph F.
Reininger, Steve &
Rice, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E.
Righetti, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Risi, Mr. & Mrs. Louis J. Jr.
Roach, Patrick and Carol
Rodriguez, Mr. Raul
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Arnold S.
Roser, Aliz A.
Ross, Ms. Aileen R.
Rossi-Espaguet, Mr. G.
Rowell, Mr. Donald
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs.
Ruiz, Mr. & Mrs. Jose M.
Sadymont, Mr. & Mrs.
Abrams, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Acle, Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo P.
Adams. Mr. Andrew D. Jr.
Saffir, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Samberg, Mike & Ruth
Sarafoglu, Dr. & Mrs.
Schenkman, Mr. & Mrs. R.
Schuh, Mr.& Mrs. Robert P.
Scott, Ms. Martha M.
*Shaw, Dr. Martha L.
Shouse, Ms. Abbie H.
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin 0.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
William H. Jr.
Stirrup, Ms. Edeane W.
Sutton, Mr. & Mrs, William
Thomas, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomson, Mr. & Mrs. Parker
Thorndike, Mr. & Mrs.
Thorpe, Ms. Jean M.
Tierney, Mrs. Joy
Troner, Dr. & Mrs.
Tunstall, Mr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Vaughan, Mr. & Mrs.
Venable, Drs. Henry &
Walfish, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Wall, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
Warner, Mr. & Mrs.
Warren, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
Webb, Mr.& Mrs. William A.
Weisberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. MichaelN.
Whalin, Mr. Michael J.
Williams, Mr. & Mrs.
Wills, Mr. James
Wimbish, Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.
Winston, Mr.& Mrs. Michael
Witz, Mr. Joseph
Wolfe, Mr.& Mrs. Gregory B.
Woods, Mr. & Mrs. John P.
Wright, Mr. & Mrs.
James A. Ill
Wyllie, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart S.
Wynne, Mr. James R.
Zdon, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Adams, Mr. & Mrs. John L.
Adams. Mr. & Mrs. Steven D.
Admire. Mr. & Mrs. Jack G.
Agha, Mr. & Mrs. Abdul
Aibel, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Aixala, Mr.& Mrs. Angel M.
Aizenshtat, Mr. & Mrs.
Akerman, Mr. & Mrs. John
Albl, Mr. & Mrs. David E.
Alexander. Mr. & Mrs.
Aljure, Mr. & Mrs. Rene
Allen, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Allen, Mr. & Mrs. Gary L.
Allenson, Mr. & Mrs.
Allington, Mr. Gary
Allsworth, Mr. & Mrs. E.H.
Alspach, Dr. & Mrs. Bruce W.
Alter. Mrs. Patricia
Aly, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas B.
Amery, Mr. & Mrs, Sean A.
Anderson, Mr. Chris
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs.
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. Duane
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. John
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Anglin, Mr. Bruce
Anguish, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Apgar, Mr. & Mrs. Ross
Arango. Mr. & Mrs, Joseph
Arango, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Arboleda, Ms. Cynthia
Arboleva, Mr. Carlos .1.
Arch, Mr.& Mrs. led
Archer, Mr. Edward M.
Armbrister. Mr. & Mrs.
Armstrong, Mr. John D.
Arnold. Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Arnold, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Aronson, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Aronson, Mr. & Mrs.
Arrington, Ms. Viviana
Arsenault, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Ashmore. Mr. & Mrs.
Athan, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Arkins, Judge & Mrs.
Atkins, Ms. L.orna
Atlass, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin
Atwill, Mr. Rick Sr.
August, Mr. & Mrs.
Avant, Mr. & Mrs. John L,.
Averbook, Mr. & Mrs.
Aye, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Ayer, Mr. & Mrs. H.E. Jr.
Baer. Mr. & Mrs. Ken
Bailey, Mr. & Mrs.
Baker, Ms. Darlene H.
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard A.
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Baker. Ted & Liz
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. Terry
Ball. Mr. & Mrs. Rod C.
Ballard. Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Bander, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Banks, Col. & Mrs. Richard
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Barkdull. Mr. Thomas H.. Jr.
Barker, Douglas & Sandra
Barkett. Mrs. Sybil
Bames, Dr. & Mrs. George W.
Barnes. Mr. & Mrs Leslie 0.
Barnhill. Mr. & Mrs.
Baros. Mr. & Mrs. Evans E.
Barrs, R. Grady
Barry,. Mrs. Marina E.
Barton. Mr. George
Basch, Mr. Gustavus
Bass. Mr. & Mrs. Allan Ira
Bass, Dr. Robert T.
Baumann, Ms. Grace E.
Baumberger, Mr. & Mrs.
Baumel, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Baumgartner, Mr. & Mrs.
Baxter, Ms. Jo
Beach, Mr. & Mrs. Berton E.
Beales,. Mr. & Mrs.
John H. Jr.
Beck, Mr. & Mrs. Allen M.
Beckham, Mr. & Mrs.
Beckwith, Mr. & Mrs.
Beels, Mr. Robert
Beer. Mr. & Mrs. Albert J.
Beiser, Dr. & Mrs.
Sey mour Z.
Bell. Mr. Paul
Benbow. Mr & Mrs. John R.
Bendler, Mr. & Mrs. Fred A.
Benitez. Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Bennett, Mr. & Mrs,
Bennett, Dr. & Mrs.
List of Members 75
Benowitz, Mr. H. Allen
Benson, Mr. & Mrs.
Berch, Mr. & Mrs. George R.
Berg, Mr. & Mrs.
Randall C. Jr.
Berger, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Berke, Mr.& Mrs. Michael A.
Berkowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Berndt, Ned & Lynda Stone
Berns, Mr. Neil D.
Bernstein, Ms. Berta G.
Bernstein, Mr.& Mrs. A. Bruce
Berrin, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Berryman, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Bertrand, Mr. & Mrs.
Beveridge. Mr. & Mrs. J.A.
Beyer. Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Bienenfeld, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Bigelow, Mr. & Mrs. John H.
Biggers, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Billman, Mr. George B.
Binkerd, Mr. Edward
Birk, Mr. & Mrs. Richard T.
Birmingham, Mr. & Mrs.
Bjorkman, William &
Blackard. Mr. & Mrs. David M.
Blackburn, Mr. & Mrs.
Blackburn. Mr. & Mrs.
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin M.
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Tim
Blanck, M r. & Mrs. Bernard G.
Blanco, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Blanev, Mr. & Mrs. Paul H.
Blechman, Dr. & Mrs. W.J.
Blikre, Mr. Wayne C.
Bloom, Mr. & Mrs. Sam
Bloom, Mr. & Mrs. Sv
Blount, Mr. & Mrs.
David N. Jr.
Bludworth, Mr. & Mrs.
Blue, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Bluestein, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Blum, Mr. Henry
Blumenthal, Mr. & Mrs. Ed
Boldrick, Mr. Samuel J.
Bolton, Dr. & Mrs. John
Bonsignore. Ms. Victoria
Boozer, Mr. James M.
Borovay. Mr. & Mrs. Stuart
Borroto, Mr. & Mrs. Wilfredo
Bowen, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Bowen, Mrs. R.
Bradley, Mr. & Mrs.
Brady, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T.
Brake, Mr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Brand, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
Brantley, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Braswell, Mr. Julian H.
Braverman, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Breder, Jackle C. & Robert
Breit, Charles E.
Brewer. Ms. Charlotte
Brewer, Mr. & Mrs. Tom F.
Bright, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Brody, Mr. Alan C.
Bronson, Mr. Daniel B.
Brooke, Mr. & Mrs. Peter M.
Brookner, Mr. & Mrs. Lester 1.
Brosnan, Mr. & Mrs. Jan L..
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Bert S.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Bradford E.
Brown, Mr. J.J.
Brown, Mrs. Lynne A.
Brown Mr. Roger
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald B.
Browne, Mr. Robert B.
Brownell, Mr. E.R.
Brumbaugh. Mr. & Mrs.
Bryant, Marjoric & Franklin
Buchbinder, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Buchsbaum, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Buhler, Mr. & Mrs. Jean Emil
Buhrmaster, Mr. & Mrs.
Burns, Mr. M. Anthony
Burt, Mr. A]
Burton, LeLand Jr.
*Burton, Col. & Mrs.
Robert A. Jr.
Bush, Mr. & Mrs. Bun
Bush. Gregory W. &
Bush, Louis & Frances
Butler, Ms. Diane
Butler, Mr. & Mrs, Donald H.
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. John
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Butler, Mr. & Mrs, Kenneth A.
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Richard A.
Buxton. Mr.& Mrs.WilliamL.
Cades, Ralph & Lilli
Caldwell, Mr. & Mrs. Allen G.
Caldwell, Mr.& Mrs. Russell L.
Callander, Mr. & Mrs.
Cambest, Ms. Lynn M.
Camp, Mr. & Mrs. S.L.
Campbell, Mr. C. Robert
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs. JohnW.
Canner, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Canova, Mr. & Mrs. John
Cantens, Mr.& Mrs. AgustinJ.
Cantor, Dr. & Mrs. Ronald
Capen, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Caplinger, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Cappelli, Mr. Joe
Caprio, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Carasa, Mr. & Mrs. Antonio M.
Card, Mr. & Mrs. James
Cardenas, Mr. & Mrs. Al
Carey, Wesley and Ute
Carlson, Mr. Art
Carlton, Mr. Michael E.
Carman, Mr, & Mrs. Gary
Carmichael, Dr. & Mrs. Lynn
Carnesoltas, Ms. Ann-Maria
Carpenter, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Carpet, Mr. & Mrs. A.K.
Carr, Mr. & Mrs. A. Marvin
Carr, Mr. & Mrs, Robert S.
Carreker, Mr. James
Carrera-Justiz, Mr. & Mrs.
Carroll, Drs. Laurence &
Carroll, Mr. & Mrs. Mark M.
Carter, Mr. & Mrs.
Beverly R. Ill
Carter, Mrs. Celia M.
Cary, Mr. Robert C.
Cast, Mr. & Mrs. Robert B.
Castro, Ms. Rose
Cataruzolo, Mr. Tom
Caulder, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Chamberlain, Mr. & Mrs. T.
Chandler, Dr, & Mrs. J.R.
Chantese, Thoma J.
Chaplin, Mr. Lee
Chapman, Mr. Arthur E.
Charney, Dr. Richard S.
Chastain, Mr. & Mrs. R.B.
Chowning. Mr.& Mrs. John S.
Church, Mr. & Mrs. David
Cibula, Ms. Kathy
Cieslinski, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Clapp, Ms. Alyce
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Clark, Ms. Lydia S.
Claughton, Mr. E.N.
Clay, Mr. & Mrs, Jose E,
Clayman, Mr. & Mrs. Landon
Clayton, Mr. & Mrs. C.G.
Cleary, Mr. & Mrs. Timothy
Cleater, Mr. & Mrs. John
Clements, Mr. Joey
Cleveland, Mr. & Mrs.
Cline, Mr. Stephen
Coates, Misses Nelle& Beatrice
Cobb, Mr. Charles E. Jr.
Codina, Mr. Armando
Cody, Dr. Wanda R.
Coffey, Mr. & Mrs. D.W.
Coffman, Mr. & Mrs. Wallace
Cohen, Mr. & Mrs. George
Cohen, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Cohen, Dr. & Mrs. Stanley
Cohen, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley L.
Cold, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald F.
Coleman, Mr. & Mrs.
Collier, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Collins, Mr. & Mrs. Terence
Colodny, Mrs. Lou Anne
Colsky, Mrs. Irene
Connally,. Ms. leana L.
Connolly, Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Connor, Mr. & Mrs.
Connor, Dr. & Mrs. Morton
Connor, Mr. & Mrs. Terence G.
Conover, Mrs. Trudy W.
Conroy, Mr. & Mrs. John
Conte, Mr. & Mrs. Alexander
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. John
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. Robert F.
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. William F.
Cool, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E.
Cooney, Mr. & Mrs.
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Coords, Mr. Robert H.
Corenblum, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin
Coslett, Mr. & Mrs. Edward B.
Costo, Mrs. Louise A.
Courtncy, Mr. Henry
Coverdale, Carol C.
Coverman, Mr. & Mrs. Hyman
Covin, Michael & Mildred
Cowling, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Cox, Mr. William L.
Cram, Mrs. Dawn
Cross, Mr. & Mrs. J. Alan
Crout. Mr. & Mrs.
Cruz, Mr. & Mrs. Marcial F.
Cullom, Mr. & Mrs. William 0.
Curtis, Mr. & Mrs. DeVere H.
Cutler, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard B.
Dane, Mr. & Mrs. George P.
Dangler, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Daniel, Mr. & Mrs. E.
Daniels, Mr. & Mrs.
Albert C. Jr.
Dann, Dr. & Mrs. 0. Townsend
Daughtry, Mr. & Mrs.
Davenport. Mr. EJ. Jr.
Davidson, Mr. & Mrs. Barry R.
Davies, Ms. Christine S.
Davies, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. E. Duane
Davis, Mrs. Graciela C.
Davis, Mr. Lew
Davis, Mr. Sam A. II
Davison, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
Day, Mr. H. Willis Jr.
Day, Mr. & Mrs. Joel B.
de Armas, Mr. & Mrs. Idalberto
de Cespedes, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos
de Garmo, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
De Leon, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar
de Montmollin., Mr. & Mrs. Phil
DeKonschin, Mr. & Mrs.
Del Pino, Diego anda Carmen
Delgado, Mr. & Mrs. Armando
Dendy, Dr. Jack & Mrs.
Joella C. Good
Detrick. John & Rona Sawyer
Deutsch, Mr. Hunt
Deutsch, Mrs. M.D.
Diaz, Mr. & Mrs. Eladio S,
Diaz, Mr. & Mrs. Odilio
Dickerson, Ms. Jane E.
Dickey, Dr. Robert F.
Didomenico, Mr. Louis W.
Diehl, Mr. Joseph R. Jr.
Diehl, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald F.
Dietrichson, Mr. & Mrs.
Dison, Ms. Charlotte
Dix, Dr. & Mrs. John W.
Dobson, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Dombro, Mr. & Mrs. Roy S.
Dombrowsky, Mr. & Mrs.
Donclson, Ms. Rachel P.
Donnelly, Mr. & Mrs. J.F.
Dorsey, Mr. Michael
Doss, Mr. & Mrs. William
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs.
Dowling, Mr. & Mrs. R.B.
Downs, Mr. & Mrs. R.M.
Doyle, Mr. & Mrs. James
Drake, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
Dubitsky, Mr. & Mrs. Ira
Dugas, Mrs. Faye
Dumas. Mr. Ernest M.
Dunbar, Mr. Ron
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. D.
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. R.T.
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Duntley, Mr. Frank E. Jr.
Dunty, Mr. R.P. Jr.
Dunwody, Mr. Atwood
Duvall, Mr. & Mrs. Walker
Dyer, Mr. & Mrs. David F.
Eachus, Mrs. Dolores K.
Eaton, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Eckhart. Mr. & Mrs. James M.
Edgar, Mrs. Richard L.
Edwards, Dr. & Mrs. G. C.
Edwards, Mr. Mike
Edwards, Newton L.
Edwards, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar
Ehlert. Dr. & Mrs. EiL.
Eidenire, Mr. & Mrs. Todd
Einspruch, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Elliott, Kiki McShane
Ellison, Mr. & Mrs. S. James
Elsasser. Ms. Ruth B.
Elterman, Mrs, Flora Green
Emas, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall
Emerson, Dr. & Mrs.
Engel, Ms. Beatrice B.
Entenmann, Mr. & Mrs.
Erickson, Mr. & Mrs. Melville
Erikson, Mr. & Mrs. Henry B.
Esserman, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Estrella, Mr. & Mrs. Anselmo
Evans, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Evans, Ms. Greta
Evans, Mr. James D.
Evans, Mr. & Mrs. John F.
Ewald, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Eyster, Mr. Irving R.
Fagg, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Fales, Gordon and Donna
Fancher. Mr. & Mrs.
Charles E. Jr.
Farina, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P.
Farkas, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall I.
Farrell. John S. & Susana
Fascell, Rep. & Mrs. Dante B.
Faysash, Mr. & Mrs. Gary J.
Feingold, Dr. & Mrs. Alfred
Feldman, Dr. & Mrs. H.T.
Felser, Ms. Fran
Fennell, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas A. Jr.
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. J.R.
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. Rick
Ferrando,. Dr. Rick
Ferrer, Mr. & Mrs. Jose E.
Field, Capt. & Mrs. Benjamin P.
Fierro, Mrs. Mary Ann
Figuera, Mrs. Mary N.
Fine, Dr. Ellen
List of Members 77
Fine, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Finegold, Mr. & Mrs. Ira
Finenco, Mr. & Mrs. John
Fink, Mr. & Mrs. Richard K.
Finkelstein, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred
Finkelstein, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Finlay, Mr. & Mrs. James N.
Fischer, Mr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Fisher, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis F.
Fishman, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Fishman, Dr. & Mrs.
Fishwick, Mr. Joseph
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs. W.J.
Fitzgibbon, Dr. & Mrs. J.M.
Flattery, Mr. & Mrs.
Fleming, Mr. & Mrs. Harry D.
Fleming, Mr. Joseph Z.
Fletcher, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Flick, Mr. & Mrs Charles P.
Flick, Mr. & Mrs. Willis H.
Flinn, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Flipse, Donn & Diana
Floch, Mr. & Mrs. Morton H.
Florez, Mr. Leopoldo
Ford. Richards & Mimi
Forman, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Foster, Mr. & Mrs. David
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Emilio
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin, A.
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Spencer
Fraga, Mr. Ramon J.
Frankel, Ms. Linda
Frankel, Mr. & Mrs. Melvin F.
Fraynd, Paul& Linda Sue Stein
Frazier, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight
Freeman, Mr. & Mrs.
Freeman, Mr.& Mrs. William
Freidin, Mr. & Mrs. Philip
French, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Friberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Friedman, Mr. & Mrs.
Friedman, Mr. & Mrs.
Frost, Mr. & Mrs.
Fruitman, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Frum, David & Margaret
Funk, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur L.
Gabler, Mrs. George E.
Gaby, Mr. & Mrs, Murray
Gale, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Galigani, Mr. & Mrs.
Gallagher. Mrs. Alice Carey
Gallo, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge
Gallogly, Mr. & Mrs.
Gannett, Mr. & Mrs. J.
Gantt, Mrs. Ruth W.
Garcia, Nereida & Hector
Garcia, Mr. & Mrs. Mario G.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Penny & Seymour
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. William A.
Garis, Mrs. Millicent
Garland, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Garvett, Mr. & Mrs. Peter B.
Gaub, Dr. Margaret L.
Gautier. Mr. & Mrs.
Larry P. Jr.
Gautier, Mr. & Mrs.
Gautney, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Gelabert, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Gelber, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Gelber, Mr. & Mrs. Seymour
Gelfand, Mr. & Mrs. Lionel
Geller, Dr. & Mrs. Edmund A.
Gelman, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
Gent, Mr. & Mrs. Patrick
Gentry, Mr. Hugh E.
George, Mrs. Cheric M.
Gerson, Mr. & Mrs.
Giegel, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Gill, Mr. & Mrs. Horace
Gill, Mr. & Mrs. Richard F.
Gill, Ms. Shirley
Giller, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Giller, Mr. & Mrs.
Gilmore, Mr. & Mrs. John
Gilstrap, Mr. Mack
Ginsburg, Mr. & Mrs.
Gjebre, Mr. William
Gladson, Mr. & Mrs.
Guy A. Jr.
Glass, Mr. & Mrs. Reeder
Glatstein, Dr. & Mrs. Phil
Gaizer, Teri & Donald
Gleason, Mr. & Mrs.
Glucksman. Dr. & Mrs.
Glukstad, Mr. & Mrs. Sig M.
Goddard, Mrs. Hilda
Godfrey, Mary Lou & Guy
Goeser, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Gold, Mr. & Mrs, David H.
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Goldman, Ms. Sue S.
Goldstein, Richard M. Esq.
Goldstein, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Goldstrich, Mr.& Mrs. Jack
Goldwebber, Mr. & Mrs.
Golob, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Gonzalez, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Gonzalez, Mr. Jose B.
Gonzalez, Mr. Ralph
Gonzalez, Mr. Steve
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs.
Goodman, Col. & Mrs.
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs.
Gordon, Dr. & Mrs. Mark W.
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Reed
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Gort, Mr. & Mrs. Willy
Goss, Mr. & Mrs. Roland C.
Gossett. Richard & Astrid
Gould, Mr. & Mrs. Robert F.
Grad, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Grafton, Mr. & Mrs. Thorn
Grand, Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Grant, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie L.
Gray. Mr. & Mrs. Maurice
Grayson, Mr.& Mrs. Bruce E.
Green, Dr. & Mrs. Edward N.
Green, Marcia R.
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenblatt. Mr. & Mrs. Ernest
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenfield, Dr. David
Greenhouse. Mr. & Mrs.
Greenwood, Mr. & Mrs.
Greer, Dr. & Mrs. Pedro J. Jr.r
Gregory, Mr. & Mrs.
Griffis, Mr. & Mrs. David N.
Griffith. Mr. & Mrs.
Grimm, Rev. & Mrs. Robb
Grodson, Mr. & Mrs.
Gross, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie
Gross, Dr. & Mrs. Stuart
Grout, Mrs. Elizabeth
Grover, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight L.
Grunwell, Mr. George
Guerra, Mr. & Mrs. Phil
Guilfoyle, Mr. Thomas D.
Gurevitz, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Gusman. Mr. Carlos
Haas, Mrs. George K.
Hackett, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Hackley, Mr. & Mrs.
Haefele. Mr. & Mrs. Ralph S.
Haft, Mr. & Mrs. Richard J.
Hagerman, Mr. Gary
Hahn, Mr. & Mrs. Jack D.
Hall, Mr.& Mrs. M. Lewis Jr.
Hall, Mr. & Mrs. Monroe S.
Halpert, Dr. E. Stephen
Hammond, Dr. Jeffrey
Han, Mr. & Mrs. Gregory
Hanafourde, Ms. Lucy
Hancock, Mr. & Mrs.
Hancock, Mrs. Frances
Hand, Mr. Jeffrey C.
Hann, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
Hansen, Mr. & Mrs, Christian
Hantman, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Hardie, Mr. & Mrs. George
Harllee, Mr. John W. Jr.
Harrington, Mr. Frederick H.
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Elliott
Harris. Mr. & Mrs. Joe
Harrison, Mr. A.D.
Harrison, Mr.& Mrs. M.R. Jr.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Hartman, Mrs. Robin W.
Hartwell, Mr. & Mrs. James H.
Harwitz, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Hastings, Mr. Barry G.
Hatfield, Mr. & Mrs. Milton H.
Hathorn, Mr. Donald B.
Hauser, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Havenick, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Hayes, W. Hamilton
Haynes, Mr. & Mrs. G.W.
Heckerling, Mr. & Mrs. Dale A.
Heitzer, Mr. & Mrs. Enrique
Heller, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel N.
Heller, Mr. & Mrs. David A.
Heller, Mrs. Elaine G.
Hellman, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Helmers, Mr. & Mrs. Len
Henderson, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Henkin, Dr. Jeffrey
Henry, Mr. Buddy
Henry, Mr. & Mrs.
Edmund T. III
Henry, Mr. & Mrs. William
Herndon, Kerry &
Herrera, Mr. & Mrs. Ignacio
Hersh, Mr. Barry
Hertz, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin
Hesser, Charles &
Hester, Mr. & Mrs.
Hicks, Mr. & Mrs. R.A.
High, Mr. Joshua
Hildner, Mr. & Mrs, Frank J,
Hill, Mrs, Lois L.
Hinchey, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Hinckley, Mr. Gregg
Hinds, Mr. & Mrs. L.F. Jr.
Hinkes, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Hirschl, Dr. Andy
Hirzel, Dr. & Mrs. Leon F. 11l
Hobbs, Mr. & Mrs. James C. 11
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth M.
Hoehl, Mr. John R.
Hoepner, Mr. Theodore J.
Hofstetter, Mrs. Ronald
Holcomb, Mr. & Mrs.
Lyle D. Jr.
Holland, Mr. & Mrs. John
Holly, Dr. & Mrs. John H. Jr.
Holmes, Mr. & Mrs. Steven M.
Holsenbeck, Mrs. J.M.
Horwitz, Mr. & Mrs. Roberto
Houghton, Mr. Peter
Howard, Dr. & Mrs. Paul
Howell, Mrs. Dorothy
Howl, Mrs. Martha L.
Hubbard, Mrs. Edgar W. Jr.
Huber, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P.
Huber. Dr. & Mrs. L.T.
Hucker, Mr. Gary
Hudnall, Mrs. Helen B.
Hudson, J. Stephen
Hudson, Ms. Sherrill W.
Huff, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Hume, Mr. David
Humkey, Mr. & Mrs.
Hundevadt, Mr. & Mrs. R.C.
Hunt, Mr. & Mrs. Charles L,
Huntley, Mr. Lee
Hurst, Ms. Peggy
Hurwitz, Ms. Marilyn
Hutchinson, Mr. & Mrs,
Hutson, Dr. & Mrs. James J.
Huysman, Dr. Arlene
Hynes, Ms. Christine
Hynes, Kenneth & Adele
Iglesias, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Ingrapham, Mr. William A. Jr.
Irvin, Mr. & Mrs. E. Milner III
Isen, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Isnor, Mr. & Mrs. Russell S.
Issenberg, David & Olga
Jablonski, Ms. Elizabeth Joan
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs.
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Kril M.
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Jacobs, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Jacobsen, Mr. & Mrs. T.M.
Jacobson, Dr. & Mrs. George
Jacobson, Dr. & Mrs. Jed
Jacowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Jaffer, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
James, Dr. & Mrs. Edward M.
James, Mr. & Mrs. Harry A.
James, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
James, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph M. I1
Jamison, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Jeffers, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Jenkins, Mr. & Mrs, Dennis
Jenkins, Mrs. Mary D.
Jensen, Mr. Edward C.
Jensen, Mr. & Mrs. John
Johns, Mrs. Denise A.
Johnson, Mrs. Juanita B.
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Kari
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Terry
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Wallen A.
Joines, Mr. & Mrs. Edgar L.
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. Albert C.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Bardy
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. E. Darrell
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Jones, Terry & Anne
Jordan, Mr. & Mrs. Jan
Joseph, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas D.
Joyner, Mr. E.H. Jr.
Juncosa, Mr. Ralph A.
Justiniani, Dr. & Mrs. Federico
Kain, Mr. & Mrs. Francis T.
Kalback, Mr. & Mrs. Irving F.
Kambour, Dr. & Mrs.
Kane, Mr. & Mrs.
Arthur W. Jr.
Kanold, Mr. & Mrs. William C.
Kantor, Mr. & Mrs. Stan
Kaplan, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur E.
Kaplan, Mr. & Mrs. Barry
Kaplan, Mrs. Betsy
List of Members 79
Kaplan, Mr. Elliott
Kaplan, Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Kapusta, Mrs. Eleanor
Karl, Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Kasdin, Mr. & Mrs. Neisen
Katcher, Mr. Gerald
Katsir, Mr. & Mrs. Shlomo
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Hy
Katzker, Mr. & Mrs. William
Kaufman, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Kaufman, Mr. & Mrs, Robert
Kaufmann, Mr. & Mrs. Otto
Kay, Mr. Mark W.
Kayyali, Ms. Susanne S,
Kearney, Mr. & Mrs. Robert T.
Keefe, Dr. & Mrs. Paul H.
Keeley, Mr. Brian
Keep, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar J.
Kelley, Mr. & Mrs. John B.
Kelley, Mrs. Marilyn C.
Kendall, Mr. Harold E.
Kennon, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles L. Jr.
Kenny, Mr. Matthew A.
Kenyon, Ms. Sue C.
Kern, Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Kessler, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Ketay, Ms. Jennifer W.
Keusch, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Keye, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Khoury, Ms. Betty
Kiem, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kilpatrick, Mr. Charles W.
King, Mr. & Mrs. Martin K.
Kingsley, Rabbi &
Mrs. Ralph P.
Kinzer, Mayor & Mrs. M.
Kipnis, Jerome & Patricia
Kirschner, Mr. & Mrs. Morris
Klausner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert D.
Klein. Mr. & Mrs. Gene
Klein, Mr. & Mrs. Harris
Kluthe, Mr. & Mrs. Harold S.
Knapp, Mr. & Mrs. Morris
Knotts, Tom and Wynelle
Kobetz, Dr. & Mrs. Steven A.
Koch, Mr. & Mrs. Carl G.
Kogan, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Kolber, Mr. & Mrs. -hiiford M.
Kolski, Mrs. Patricia M.
Koo, Ms. Jackie M.
Koonce, Dr. & Mrs. George Jr.
Korach, Mr. & Mrs. Irvin
Koreman, Drs. Neil
Koss, Phyllis and Abe
Kotler, Mr. & Mrs. Meyer
Kozyak, Mr. & Mrs. John
Kraft, Dr. & Mrs. Daniel P.
Kraus, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest R.
Kreutzer, Mr. & Mrs.
Krinzman, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Kritzer, Mr. & Mrs. Glenn B.
Kronowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Krug, Mr. & Mrs. Warren
Kudzma, Dr. & Mrs. David J.
Kuhn, Mr. & Mrs. John F. Sr.
Lackowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Lafferty, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert S. Jr.
Laird, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Lake, Mr. John
Lamphear, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Land, Mr. & Mrs. Malcolm
Landau, Cal & Ann
Landsman, Mr. & Mrs. Jules
Langley, Wright & Joan
Lann, Mr. & Mrs. Martin J.
Lapidus, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Lapping, Mr. Hal P.
LaRusse, Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence
LaTour Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Layton, Mr. & Mrs. Robert G.
Lazarus, Mr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Lazarus, Ms. Pearl J.
Leeds, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert A.
Lefaivre, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Lehman, Ms. Joan
Lemos, Mr. & Mrs. Ramon
Lenner, Mr. Sandor
Lenoir, Ms. Grace
Leon, Mrs. Carmen L.
Leone, Dr. & Mrs.
William A. Sr.
Leposky, Mr. & Mrs. George C.
Lester, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Levin, Adrienne & Dan
Levin, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Levin, Mr. & Mrs. S. Michael
Levine, Dr. Harold
Levine, Mr. & Mrs. Gregory A.
Levin, Mr. Martin J.
Lewander, Mr. & Mrs. Lars
Lewis, Mr. & Mrs.
Wallace L. Jr.
Lianzi, Mrs. Margaret
Liddle, Mr. & Mrs, William Jr.
Liebler, Dr. & Mrs, John B.
Liebman, Dr. & Mrs.
Liebman, Mr. & Mrs.
Liebowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Liles, Mr. & Mrs. E. Clark
Lin, Mr. David A.
Lindsay, Mr. & Mrs. Guion M.
Line, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Lipman, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Lipman, Mr. Robert
Lipof, Mr. & Mrs. Elliot
Lipoff, Mr. & Mrs. Norman H.
Lipp, Mr. & Mrs. Allan
Little, Mr. & Mrs. Albert C.
Little, Mr. DeWayne
Little, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Littler, Mrs. June D.
Livesay, Mr. & Mrs. Leigh
Llanos, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Lloyd, Mrs. Kathleen
Loane, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas S.
Loeb, Mr. & Mrs. Henry A.
Logue, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Lohmeier, Mr. & Mrs. Simon
Lomonosoff, Mr. & Mrs.
London, Mr. & Mrs. Seymour
Long, Mr. & Mrs. Duke E.
Long, Glenn & Susan Cumins
Longshore, Mr. Frank
Lopez, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar
Lord, Mr. William P.
Lores, Dr. & Mrs. Edward
Lotspeich, Mrs. Jay W.
Lowe, Mr. Roger
Lowell, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Lowenstein, Mr. & Mrs, Elliot
Ludovici, Mr. & Mrs. Phil
Ludwig, Dr. & Mrs. William
Luginbill, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Lummus, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn
Lurie, Ms. Roberta
Lutton, Mrs. Stephen C.
Lynn, Ms. Kathryn R.
Lyons, Mr. & Mrs. Richard W.
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs. M.B.
MacIntyre, Mr. & Mrs.
MacKenzie, Judge Mary Ann
MacNaughton, Mr. Kevin A.
Madan, Mr. & Mrs, Norman L.
Madden, Mr. James
Malinin, Mr. & Mrs. Theodore
Mallow, Mr. Robert A.
Man, Dr. Eugene H. &
Mank, Mr. & Mrs. Philip J. Jr.
Manlio, Dr. F.L.
Mannion, Mr. Jan T.
Manship, Mr. & Mrs. E.K.
Marcus, Ms. Gladys
Marcus, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
Margolis, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Marks, Mr. Frank M. Esq.
Marks, Mr. Larry S.
Marks, Stanley & Irene
Marks, Stewart & Julienne
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs. Michael
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs.
Martell, Mr. & Mrs. James
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Martinez, Mr. & Mrs.
Martinez-cid, Mr. & Mrs.
Martinez-Ramos, Mr. Alberto
Mass, Mr. & Mrs. Paul M.
Masterson, Ms. Nancy S.
Matchette, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
Matheson, Ana & Michael
Mathews, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward N. Jr.
Matkov, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Matlack, Mr. & Mrs. William C.
Mattucci, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Maxwell, Edward & Karen
Maxwell, Mr. R.D. Jr.
Maxwell, Mr. Thomas C.
May, Dr. & Mrs. John A.
Maynard, Mr. & Mrs. Carl
Mayo, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
Mazal, Dr. & Mrs. Alejandro
McAliley, Janet R.
McAuliffe, Mr. & Mrs.
McCabe, Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Meclaskey, Mr. & Mrs.
McClellan, Mr. & Mrs. David
McCoy, Mr. Jim
McCready, Dr. James W.
McDonald, Ms. Gail
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs. John K.
McDowell, Mr. Chick
McEnany, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
McGarry, Mr. & Mrs.
McGovern, Mr. & Mrs.
McGovern, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
McGuinness, Mr. & Mrs. Brian
McGuinness, Mr.& Mrs. Frank
Mclver, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart B.
McKay, Ms. Diane J.
McKenzie, Dr. & Mrs. Jack A.
McKenzie 111, Mr. & Mrs. Olin
McKinley, Bill & Ody Ledon
McKirahan, Mr. James
McLeish, Mr. & Mrs. William
McNair, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel W.
McNaughton, Dr. & Mrs.
McSwiggan, Mr. Gerald W.
McTague, Mr. & Mrs. R.H.
Means, Dr. & Mrs. William R.
Medina, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
MeGee, Mr. & Mrs. B.L.
Mekras, Dr. & Mrs. George D.
Menachem, Mr. Neal J.
Mendoza, Mr. & Mrs.
Meriwether, Mr. & Mrs. Heath
Merrill, Mr. & Mrs. Randy E.
Merritt, Mr. & Mrs. Bob
Merten, Mr. & Mrs. Ulrich
Mescon, Mr. & Mrs. Timothy S.
Messing, Mr. Fred
Metcalf, Drs. George and
Meyer, Mr. & Mrs. John K.
Meyers, Mr. & Mrs, Frank C.
Michelson, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Miedema, Mr. & Mrs.
Migala, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Migliaccio, Mr. & Mrs. C.P.
Miguelarraina, Mr. & Mrs.
Mikus, Mr. & Mrs. Pat
Millas, Mr. & Mrs. Aristides J.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Frank E.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Graham C.
Miller, Mr. H.E.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Randy
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. William Jay
Mitchell, Mr. & Mrs. William
Mixson, Mr. Larry
Miyares, Mrs. Victoria M.
Mize, Mr. Lloyd
Moeller, Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd L.
Mohammed, Mr. & Mrs. M.A.
Mohr, Mr. Alfred B.
Molt, Fawdrey A.S.
Monroe, Mr. & Mrs.
William F. Jr.
Monsanto, Judge &
Montano, Mr. & Mrs, Fausto
Monteagudo, Mr. & Mrs.
Monzon-Aguirre, Mr. &
Moody, Mrs. Alleta M.
Moore, Mr. & Mrs. Donald R.
Moore, Ms. Thurla
Morales, Mr. & Mrs. R.
Morales, Mr. & Mrs. Santiago
Moreman, Ms. Lucinda A.
Moretti, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Morgan, Ms. Nantcy
Morgan, Mr. & Mrs.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin S,
Morrison, Dave and Lorena
Morrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Morrow, Drs. Bertram W.
& Betty H.
Moses, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur L.
Moses, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Moss, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred I.
Moss, Mr. & Mrs.
Ambler H. Jr.
Moss, Mr. & Mrs. Lyman
Mrozek, Mr. & Mrs.
Muir, Mr. & Mrs. William T.
Mulcahy, Mrs. Irene D.
Mulcrone, Mr. & Mrs.
Muller, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Munoz, Jose and Maria
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs.
Murai, Mr. & Mrs. Rene
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs. Roger J.
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs.
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. O.C.
Musselwhite, Mr. & Mrs.
Musselwhite, Mr. & Mrs.
Mustard, Misses Margaret
Myers, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley C.
Myers, Mr. Van
Myers, Mrs. Walter K.
Nadji, Mr. & Mrs. Mehrdad
Nagy, Mrs. Shirley L.
Nance, Mr. & Mrs. G.
Napoli, Mr. & Mrs.
Nass, Dr. & Mrs. Hal
Navarro, Mr. & Mrs.
Nehrbass, Mr. Arthur F.
Nelson, Mr. Charlie
Nerney, Mr. & Mrs. Denis
Netherland-Brown, Capt. &
List of Members 81
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Fred C.
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan
Newton, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Newton, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Nichols, Mr. D. Alan
Nichols, Mr. & Mrs.
Nick, Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.
Nielsen, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph C.
Nisbet, Mr. Michael M.
Nordt, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Noriega, Mr. & Mrs. Rudy 3.
Norman, Mr. C.C.
Norman, Mr. & Mrs.
Northrop, Mr. & Mrs.
Norvich, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Nott, Mr. Ernest C. Jr.
Novack, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Nuckols, Mr. & Mrs. B.P. Jr.
Nuehring, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
O'Brien, Mr. & Mrs. Emmett
Oletzky, Mr. & Mrs. Sheldon
Olle, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis J.
Olsson, Mr. Fred R.
O'Niel, Capt. & Mrs. Vernon
Onufrieff, Paula Baker
Oppenheim, Mr. & Mrs. Steve
Oppenheimer, Mr. & Mrs.
Ordonez, Mr. & Mrs. Alfredo
Oremland, Benjamin &
Oroshnik, Mr. & Mrs.
Osnowitz, Ms. Myrna
Ostrofsky, Mr. Abe
Ostrofsky, Mr. Emanuel
Ostrofsky, Mr. & Mrs. Gerry
Overbeek, Mr. & Mrs.
Owen, Mr. & Mrs. David
Owens, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Owens, Mr. & Mrs. J. Riis
Owre, Mr. & Mrs. J. Riis
Pagliarulo, Mr. & Mrs.
Pakula, Mr. Arnold
Palmer, Mr. Alfred R.
Palmer, Mr. & Mrs. R. Carl
Palmieri, Mr. & Mrs. Pablo
Pampe, Mr. & Mrs. Robert A.
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs.
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Pane, Ms. Terry
Pappas, Dr. & Mrs. Arthur G.
Papper, Mr. & Mrs.
Parcell, Mr. & Mrs. Paul W.
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Austin
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Garth R.
Parker, Mrs. Patricia
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Robin E.
Parks, Mr. & Mrs. Elliott G.
Parsons, Ms. Brena
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs.
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs.
Huber R. Jr.
Patchen, Mr. & Mrs.
Pawley, Ms. Anita
Paxton, Dr. & Mrs. G.B. Jr.
Payne, Mr. & Mrs. W.E.
Paz, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Pearce, Dr. F.H.
Pearlman, Mr. & Mrs.
Pearson, Mr. & Mrs. Wilbur
Peddle, Mr. & Mrs. Grant L.
Pehr, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin S.
Pennekamp, Mr. John D.
Perez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Pergakis, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Perry, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Perryman, Mr. & Mrs.
Persoff, Mr. & Mrs. Al
Perwin, Mrs. Jean
Peters, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry L.
Peters, Ms. Rita W.
Peters, Mr. & Mrs. Walton
Petry, Mr. & Mrs.
Piccini, Mr. & Mrs. Silvio
Pietsch, Mr. & Mrs. Geoff
Pikuan, Mr. & Mrs.
Pimm, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Pinnas, Ms. Susan
Pino, Mr. & Mrs. Juan M.
Pistorino, Mr. & Mr.
Pitts, Mr. & Mrs. Victor H.
Plotkin, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Plumley, Mr. & Mrs. Zane D.
Plunkett, Lawrence L.
Polizzi, Mrs. MaryAnn
Pollack, Mr. & Mrs. Craig
Pollack, Mr. & Mrs. David C.
Ponn, Nancy and Debrah
Porfiri, Mr. & Mrs. E. Austin
Porta, Mr. John E.
Portela, Mr. Mario P.
Porter, Mr. & Mrs. Lester W.
Potter, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Potts, Mr. & Mrs. Roy V.
Poulos, Mr. & Mrs.
Prentiss, Mr. & Mrs.
Prestredge, Mrs. Sally J.
Prevatt, Mr. & Mrs. Preston
Price, Mrs. Dorothy M.
Price, Ms. Judith
Price, Mr. & Mrs. Scott L.
Primak, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Prince, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Prio-Odio, Mrs. Maria
Provenzo, Dr. & Mrs.
Pruitt, Mr. Peter T.
Purdy, Ms. Betty A.
Quartin, Mr. & Mrs.
Quentel, Mr. & Mrs,
Quesenberry, Mr. William
Quick, Mr. & Mrs. David
Quillian, Dr. Warren It
Quinton, Mr. & Mrs. A.E. Jr.
Quisler, Mrs. Estelle
Raatama, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Rabinowitz, Mr. & Mrs.
Racano, Mr. & Mrs.
Rachlin, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Rad, Mr. & Mrs. Jesus S.
Railey, Mr. & Mrs.
Raim, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Ramirez, Dr. & Mrs.
Ramsey, Mrs. Manuela M.
Randell, David & Sheila
Randolph, Mr. & Mrs.
Rapee, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart M.
Rapperport, Dr. & Mrs.
Ray, Mr. Peter C.
Reddick, Mr. David
Reed, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Reeves, Mr. & Mrs. Garth C.
Reid, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Reid, Dr. & Mrs. Walter B.
Reilly, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Reisman, Mrs. Gail
Renuart, Mr. & Mrs. Albert P.
Resnick, Mr. & Mrs. Hubert
Resnick, Mr. Larry
Ress, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M,
Reubert, Mr. & Mrs. Jay
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Armando
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Reyna, Dr. L.J.
Rhodes, Dr. & Mrs. Milton
Rhodes, Mr. Robert M.
Rich, Dr. & Mrs. Maurice
Richard, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Richards, Rev. & Mrs. David
Richards, Mr. & Mrs.
Richter, Mr. & Mrs. Charles E.
Ridolph, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Riechmann, Mr. & Mrs.
Rieder, Mrs. William Dustin
Riemer, Dr. & Mrs. W.E.
Riess, Mrs. Marie S.
Rigau, Mr. & Mrs. Florencio
Rigl, Stephen & Joanne
Rist, Mr. & Mrs. Karstan
Roache, Mr.& Mrs, Robert E.
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs.
William R. Jr.
Robertson, Mr. Mark
Robertson, Mr. & Mrs. Neil P.
Robertson, Wm. & Gail
Robinowich, Mr. & Mrs.
Robins, Dr. & Mrs. C. Richard
Robinson, Mrs. Ruth
Robinson, Mr. Steven D.
Rodriguez, Mrs. Alba
Rodriguez. Ms. Concepcion M.
Rodriguez, Mr. Ivan
Rodriguez, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge
Rodriguez, Dr. Jose A.
Rodriguez, Mr. & Mrs.
Rodriguez, Ms. Ronnie Lewin
Rodriguez-Chomat, Mr. &
Rodriguez-Muro, Mr. &
Rogge, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Rojas, Mr. & Mrs. Esteban R.
Rondinaro, Ms. Tamera
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Clifford
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Keith
Rose, Mr. & Mrs. James
Roseman, Mr. Mark
Rosen, Mr. & Mrs. Norman S.
Rosen, Mr. Paul
Rosen, Mr. Robert R.
Rosenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Rosendorf, Mr. & Mrs.
Rosinek, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Rossmore, Mr. & Mrs.
Rostov, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
Roth, Mr. & Mrs. E.S.
Roth, Ms. Estelle
Rothblatt, Ms. Emma A.
Rothenberg, Judge & Mrs.
Rowe, Robert & Karen Orlin
Rubenstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs. Mark R.
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs. Sid
Rubini, Dr. Joseph R.
Ruffner, Mr. Charles L.
Russell, Ms. Darlene
Russell, J.C. & Carol
Russell, Mr. & Mrs. Paul W.
Russell, Mr. Terry
Russell, Mr. & Mrs, William A.
Russo, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Ryan, Mr. & Mrs. Richard P.
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. William
Ryskamp, Judge & Mrs.
Sacher, Mr. & Mrs. Charles P,
Sachman, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Sackner, Dr.& Mrs. Marvin A.
Sacks, Mr. & Mrs. Neil H.
Saffer, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Sager, Mr. & Mrs. Bert
Sager, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Sain, Mrs. Dosha
Sakinovsky, Mr. A.A.
Sales, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
Salley, Mr. & Mrs. George H.
Salokar, Mr. & Mrs. Claude F.
Salome, Ms. Patricia
Salup, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos M.
Samuels, Mr. & Mrs. Harris
Sanders, Paul George
Sanders, Mr. & Mrs. William
Sands, Mr. & Mrs. Charles T.
Santa-Maria, Ms. Yvonne
Santarella, Mr. & Mrs.
Sanz, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Sapp, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan
Sarbey, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Satuloff, Mr. & Mrs. Barth
Saul, Richard S. & Barbara
Saulson, Mr. & Mrs,
Sawyer, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L,
Schafer, Mr. & Mrs. George
Scharlin, Mr. Howard R.
Schechter, Mr. & Mrs.
Schechtman, Ms. Ricky W.
Schemel, Mrs. Katherine
Schenker, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Schenker, Capt. & Mrs.
Schiller, Mr. & Mrs, Melvin D.
Schimpeler, Dr. Charles C.
Schindler, Mr. & Mrs. Irvin
Schmand, Mr. & Mrs.
Schneider, Mr. & Mrs. William
Schoen, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Schoen, Mr. & Mrs. Roy E.
Schoene-Streb, Mr. James
Scholl, Dr. & Mrs. Barry
Schoonmaker, Mr. & Mrs.
Schreiber, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Schroeder, Mrs. Edna Mae
Schultz, Mr.& Mrs. Edward A.
Schumacher, Mr. & Mrs.
Schuster, Mr. & Mrs. Steven E.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Allan
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest
Schwartz, Mrs. Jay R.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Schwedel, Ms. Renee
Sciortino, Mr. & Mrs.
Scroggs, Mr. & Mrs. Barry
Segor, Ms. Phyllis Lee
Segre, Mrs. Petunia
Seibert, Mr. & Mrs. Roy J.
Seipp, Mr. & Mrs. John C. Jr.
Sekoff, Drs. Jed & Cindy
Selig, Mr. & Mrs. J.R.
Seligman, Mr. & Mrs.
Selinsky, Dr. Herman
Selva, Ms. Mary Anne
Selvaggi, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Seng, Mr. William R.
Serafini, A.N. & Lani
Shack, Mrs. R.
Shafer, Mr. & Mrs. Ron
Shapiro, Dr. & Mrs. Alvin J.
Shapiro, Mr. & Mrs. J.H.
Shayne, Mr. & Mrs. William
List of Members 83
Sheehan, Ms. Elaine
Sheehe, Mr. & Mrs, Phillip J.
Shenkman, Mr. & Mrs.
Sheppard, Mr. & Mrs. H.E.
Sheridan, Mr. & Mrs. George
Sherman, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin S.
Sherota, Mr. & Mrs.
Shey, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Shields, Mrs. Eileen E.
Shipley, Mr. & Mrs. Vergil A,
Shippee, Mr. Robert W.
Shirley Ford, Harry Horwich&
Schlachtman, Mr. & Mrs.
Schoemaker, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Shoffner, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Shohat, Mr. Edward R.
Short, Mr. & Mrs. Riley
Shrewsbury, Mr. Homer A.
Siegel, Ms. Denise
Siegel, Mrs. Mark A.
Siegel, Mr. Roy
Siemon, Mr. & Mrs. John
Silver, Mr. & Mrs. Bernard F.
Silver, Mrs. Doris S.
Silverman, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Silverman, Mr. & Mrs. Saul
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Glen
Simoes, Mr. & Mrs.
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Simons, Mr. & Mrs. J. Paul
Simonton, Ms. Andrea
Simpson, Mr. & Mrs. ML.
Sims, Dr. & Mrs. Murry
Sindelar, Mr. & Mrs.
Singer, Mr. Brian
Singer, Dr. & Mrs. Eli
Singer, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A.
Sisselman,Mr.& Mrs. Murphy
Skaggs, Dr. & Mrs. Glen 0.
Skigen, Dr. & Mrs. Jack
Skoko, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Skor, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Sleppy, Mr. Nano D.
Slesnick, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Slosser, Dr. & Mrs. Gaius
Smiley, Ms. Jane
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Alan W.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur V.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Edward F.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Emanuel J.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Oakley G.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. R.C.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs, Richard H.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Sadie M.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas W.
Snedigar, Mr. & Mrs.
Sneed, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
Snetman, Mrs. Bette
Snow, Dr. & Mrs. Selig D.
Snow, Mr. & Mrs. Matthew
Snyder, Dr. & Mrs. Gilbert B.
Snyder, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Socol, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Soldinger, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
Solloway, Mr. & Mrs.
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs. Abner
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs.
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Sommerville, Mr. & Mrs.
Soper, Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Soto, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Sottile, Mr. & Mrs. James
Southan, Mr. Arturo
Spak, Mrs. Rosalind Pallot
Sparks, Mr. Bradley E.
Sparks, Mr. Herschel E. Jr.
Sparks, Mr. & Mrs. John T.
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. J.B.
Sperling, Mr. & Mrs.
Speroni, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Spillis, Mr. & Mrs. James P.
Splane, Mr. & Mrs, George
Stachura, Mr. & Mrs.Mike
Stadnik, John and Zanny
Stahl, Mr. Catherine C.
Stahl, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey N.
Stalwey, Dr. & Mrs. J. Ben
Stanfill, Dr. & Mrs. L.M.
Slanimirovic, Mr. & Mrs.
Stanton, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Startup, Mr. & Mrs.
Stearns, Reid F.
Stein, Dr. & Mrs. Elliott
Stein, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald H.
Stein, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Steinberg, Mr. & Mrs. James
Steinberg, Marty L.
Steinberg, Mrs. Sandy
Steiner, Mrs. Barbara
Steinhauer, Mr. & Mrs.
Stewart, Mrs. Cynthia
Stewart, Mr. & Mrs. Robert E.
Stieglitz, Mr. & Mrs, A.
Stocks, Dr. & Mrs. G.J. Jr.
Stokes, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn
Stone, Mr. Art
Stonebraker, Mr. & Mrs.
Strachman, Mr. & Mrs. Saul
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob
Strozier, Dr. Thomas B.
Struhl, Dr. & Mrs. Theodore
Stubins, Mr. & Mrs. Morton
Stuzin, Mr. & Mrs. Charles B.
Suchman, Mr. & Mrs.
Sullivan, Mr. & Mrs.
Sussex, Dr. & Mrs. James
Suttile, Mr. & Mrs. Anthony
Sutton, Mr. Barry
Swann, Judge & Mrs.
Sweet, Mr. & Mrs. George H.
Swink, Mr. & Mrs. William J.
Taffer, Mr. Jack
Tansey, Mrs. Barbara
Taracido, Mr. & Mrs.
Tarr, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis L.
Tartak, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan N.
Tatham, Mr. & Mrs.
Tatham, Mr. Thomas L.
Tatol, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A.
Taylor, Dr. & Mrs. Andrew L.
Taylor, Mr. Marshall
Taylor, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Teagarden, Mr. & Mrs.
Robin B. Jr.
Tegnelia, Mr. Anthony G.
Teman, Mr. & Mrs. Hyman
Temkin, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald E.
Temple, Mr. & Mrs. Jack D.
Tendrich, Mr. & Mrs.
Tepper, Dr. & Mrs. Warren
Terman, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Theakston, Mr. & Mrs. Pierce
Theobald, Mr. & Mrs.
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs.
Thony, Ms. Carol
Thorn, Mr. Dale A.
Thurer, Dr. & Mrs. Richard J.
Tibaldeo, Mr. & Mrs. Victor
Tilghman, Mr. & Mrs.
James B. Jr.
Tinnie, Mr. & Mrs. Gene S.
Tobin, Rev. & Mrs. Roger M.
Torres, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred M.
Torres, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Toupin, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Tranchida, Mr. & Mrs.
Trejo, Ms. Maria A.
Tremaine, Mrs. James G.
Tribble, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Trivett, Mr. & Mrs. Alan B.
Troia, Mr. & Mrs. Anthony F.
Tryson, Mr. & Mrs. Michael J.
Tschumy, Mr. & Mrs.
William E. Jr.
Tuggle, Mr. & Mrs. Auby L.
Turk, Mr. & Mrs. Abner
Turner, Mr. & Mrs. Clark P.
Turner, Mr. & Mrs. Dale D.
Ulsh, Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Underwood, Dr. & Mrs.
Unger, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Unger, Dr. & Mrs. Stephen
Usher, Phyllis & Paul
Valdez-Fauli, Mr. & Mrs. Raul
Valentino, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Van Denend, Mrs. Herbert
Van Orsdel, Mr. & Mrs.
VanBergen, Mr. & Mrs.
Vasquez, Mr. & Mrs.
Vaughn, Mr. & Mrs. Robert J.
Vazquez, Mr. & Mrs. J.
Velasco, Mr. & Mrs. Omar A.
Velez, Mr. & Mrs. Arnardo
Venero, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert S.
Viera, Mr.Jorge L.
Villa, Dr. & Mrs. Luis Jr.
Vincent, Ms. Gale A.
Vitagliano, Mr. & Mrs. Francis
Vogel, Mr. & Mrs. Joel J.
Voight, Mr. & mrs. Michael A.
Voss, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert L.
Waas, Mr. & Mrs. Maxwell
Waddle, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Wakeman, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles H. Jr.
Waldin, Mr. & Mrs. Earl D. Jr.
Walker, Mr. J. Frost III
Walker, Dr. & Mrs. Roger
Walker, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas B. Jr.
Wall, Mrs. Madeline B.
Ward, Mr. & Mrs. Myles Glen
Waters, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley L.
Watkins, Mr. & Mrs.
Watts, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Ways, Mr. & Mrs. John S.
Weaver, Mr. & Mrs. David
Weems, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Wegman, Mr. Charles B.
Weinberger, Mr. & Mrs.
Weiner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Weinkle, Mr. & Mrs. Julian I.
Weinkle, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Weinthal, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
Weintraub, Mr. & Mrs.
Weisberg, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Weisenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. Murray
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart P.
Weissenborn, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Weldon, Mr. Norman
Welles, Mr. & Mrs. Peter D.
Wenck, Mr. & Mrs. James H.
Wenzel, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Werner, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart A.
West, Mr. & Mrs. Everett G.
Whipple, Mr. & Mrs.
Abbott, Ms. Julie
Abercrombie, Ms. Barbara
Adair. Ms. Vera S.
Adams, Mrs. Betty R.
Adams, Mrs. E.C.
*Adams, Mrs. Faith Y.
Adams, Mr. Gus C.
Adams, Mrs. Richard B.
Adams, Ms. Helen F.
Aiello, Ms. Josephine
Albet, Berta Diaz M.D.
Albietz, Ms. Carol
Albury, Dr. Paul
Alchek, Mrs. Edith
Alderman, Mrs. Jewell
White, Alice & Robert A.
White, Mr. Robert A.
White, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
Whitebook, Mr. & Mrs.
Whiteside, Mr. & Mrs. Eric
Whitman, Mr. & Mrs.
Whittim, Mr. & Mrs.
Widergren, Mr. & Mrs, Robert
Wiggins, Mr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Wilcosky, Mr. & Mrs.
Wilcox, Mr. & Mrs. W.P.
Williams, Mr. & Mrs.
Williams. Mr. & Mrs. Elmo H.
Williams, Lt. Col. & Mrs.
Williams, Dr. & Mrs.
Wilson, Carolyn & Gary
Wilson, Mr. Chuck
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. David L.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. George
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. James
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis A.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Wimmers, Howard L. and
Winslow, Dr. & Mrs. Philip M.
Wirkus, Mr. & Mrs.
Wiseheart, Mr. & Mrs.
Allen, Mrs. Eugenia
Allen, Mr. John R.
Alssen, Mr. Charles
Alterman, Mr. Richard
Altman, Ms. Ruth B.
Altomare, Mr. J.E.
Amdur, Mrs. Phyllis
Ammidown, Ms. Margot
Amsterdam, Mr. Carl D.
Ancona, Mrs. John
Anderson, Dr. Raymond T.
Andreu, Mrs. Leonor R.
Apple, Mr. Lawrence B.
Arredondo, Dr. Carlos R.
Artigas. Mr. Willy
August, Mr. M.T.
List of Members 85
Witkoff, Dr. & Mrs. Fred
Wittenstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolf, Dr. & Mrs. Benjamin
Wolff, Mr. & Mrs. William
Wolfson, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolpe, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Wolpert, Mr. & Mrs. George
Wood, Mr. & Mrs. William L.
Woodmansee, Mr. Ralph W.
Woods, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M,
Woods, Mr.& Mrs, Thomas C.
Wooten, Mr. & Mrs. James S.
Worley, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene C.
Worth, Mr. & Mrs. James G.
Wright, Mr. R.K.
Wronski, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Yaeger, Ms. Marilyn
Yaffa, Dr. & Mrs. Jack B.
Yehle, Ms. Jean T.
Yelen, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Yoder, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Youse, Mr. & Mrs.
Zane, Dr. & Mrs. Sheldon
Zavertnik, Mr. & Mrs. John L.
Zeder, Mr. & Mrs. Jon W.
Zelman, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Zigmont, Mr. & Mrs.
Zohn, Mr. Frank M.
Zuckerman, Mr. & Mrs.
Zwick, Mr. Charles J.
Ayer, Mr. John H.
Babin, Mr. Victor
Babson, Mrs. Dorothy S.
Backus, Ms. Hazel R.
Bacon, Mrs. Jones
Badillo, Mr. David
Bagg, Mrs, John L. Jr.
Bagwell, Ms. Beth
Baker, Mr. Charles H. Jr.
Baker, Mr. George C.
Baker, Mrs. Rita
Baldwin, Mr. C. Jackson
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins
Ball, Mr. Ivan E.
Ballard, Mrs. Betty
Banks, Ms. Joyce
Baque, Mrs. Frank
Barg, Ms. Bess
Barko, Ms. Maureen
Barnes, Ms. Ava R.
Barnette, Ms. Betty
Baros, Mr. Eric E.
Barth, Ms. Mary
Bates, Ms. Frances P.
Batty, Ms. Frances V.
Baumann, Mr. John
Baumez, Mr. W.L.
Baya, Mr. George J. Esq.
Beamish, Ms. Josephine P.
Beazel, Ms, Mary G.
Beck, Mr. Clyde
Beckham, Mr. Walter H. Jr.
Beery, Mrs. Anna S.
Belair, Ms. Renee J.
Belcher, Mrs. E.N. III
Benn, Mr. Nathan
Bennett, Ms. Barbara
Bennett, Ms. Debbie Z.
Bennett, Ms. Hazel M.
Benovaich, Mrs. Nancy
Benovitz, Dr. Larry P.
Benson, Mrs. Minette
Benz, Mr. Jack A.
Bercovich, Ms. Gertrude
Beriault, Mr. John G.
Berning, Mrs. Cyane H.
Berry, Mrs. C.D.
Biedron, Mrs. Stanley
Biggane. Ms. Jacquelyn
Bijou, Ms. Rachelle
Bills, Mrs. John T.
Biondi, Mrs. Jerris
Birchmire, Mrs. Thomas H.
Bishop, Mrs. Edwin H.
Bishop, Ms. Elizabeth
Bishop, Mr. James E.
Bitter, Mrs. Barbara
Blackwell, Mrs. WL.
Blake, Ms. Lucille B.
Blakeslee, Miss Zola Mae
Blazevic, Mr. Raymond L.
Block, Dr. James H.
Bloland, Mr. Harland G.
Blumberg, Mr. Philip F.
Blyth, Ms. Mary S.D.
Boas, Mrs. Alfred
Bodrato, Mr. Gregg P.
Bonn, Ms. Laura W.
Bordeaux, Ms. Celia
Bouwmeester, Ms. Lauretta R.
Bowers, Ms. Maria Christina
Boyd, Ms. Debrah Lee
Boymer, Mr. Leonard
Bradfisch, Ms. Jean
Brady, Ms. Margaret R.
Brady, Mr. Raymond G.
Braid, Ms. Linda S.
Bramson, Mr. Seth H.
Brannen, Mrs. H. Stilson
Braunstein, Dr. Jonathan J.
Breck, E. Carrington
Breeze, Mrs. K.W.
Brellis, Mrs. Hazel K.
Bremm, Mr. Robert J.
Bretos, Dr. Miguel A.
Brice, Mrs. Nancy
Bridges, Ms, Terry
Brinegar, Ms. Bobbie A.
*Brookfield, Mr. Charles
Brooks, Mr. Edward M.
Brooks, Mr. J.R.
Browa, Ms. Catheine G.
Brown, Mr. A.L. Jr.
Brown, Mrs. Andrew G.
Brown, Mrs. Irma M.
Brown, Ms. Joyce
Brown, Mrs. Mary
Brown, Mrs. Mildred P.
Brown, Mr. Steven M.
Brown, Mrs. William J.
Brunstetter, Mrs. Roscoe
Brush, Mr. Robert W.
Bryan-Lewis, Ms. Arlene
Bryant, Mr. Thomas M.
Buckley, Ms. Irene
Buhler, Emil II
Buhler, Mrs. Paul H.
Burke, Mr. Gordon
Burnett, Ms. Sandy
Burranga, Ms. Consuelo
Burrows, Mr. David W.
Burrus, Mr. E. Carter Jr.
Bush, Ms. Malvina E.
Caballero, Mrs. Isabel
Cail, Ms. Essie M.
Calderwood, Ms. Elsa
Calhoun, Mr. Donald W.
Calhoun, Ms. Ann
Camp, Robert J. M.D.
Campbell, Beth G.
Candela, Mr. Hilario F.
Carbone, Mrs. Grace
Carden, Ms. Marguerite G.
Carlebach, Ms. Diane G.
Carroll, Mrs. Edith A.
Carroll, Ms. Michelle
Carruthers. Mr. John 11
Cartee, Mrs. Frank Alma
Cason, Mr. Robert W.
Cassel, John M.D.
Cassidy, Opal D.
Caster, Mrs. George B.
Caster, Dr. P.
Callow, Mrs. William R. Jr.
Cauce, Ms Elena M.
Cerlingione, Mr. Alfred C.
Cesarano, Ms. Marilyn
Chaille, Mr. Joseph H.
Chaille, Mrs. Josiah
Chang, Ms. Iris
Chapell, Ms. Connie
Chase, Mr. Charles E.
Chase, Leah LaPlante
Chauncey, Mr. Donald E.
Cheezem, Ms. Jan Carson
Chiaro, Ms Maria J.
Childs, Mrs. Marina
Chin, Mrs. Sandy C,
Chirtea, Ms. Margarita
Christ, Mrs. Anita
Christensen, Mrs. Charlotte
Christie, Mrs. Robert E.
Christy, Ms. Margaret A.
Cintron, Ms. Elizabeth
Clark, Ms. Betty C.
Clark, Mrs. Mae K.
Clarke, Ms. Patricia M.
Clay, Ms, Dana L.
Clay, Ms. Madeline M.
Cobb, Ms. Jeffie Alice
Coburn, Mr. Louis
Cohen, Mr. Andrew
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert
Cohn, Dr. I..F.
Colbert. Ms. Marsha
Cole, Ms. Laverne
Cole, Mr. Richard P.
Coleman, Ms Hannah P.
Colongo, Ms. Marie
Colucci, Ms. Linda
Colyer, Mr. Leroy N.
Commings, Ms. Arlene
Conduitte, Ms. Catherine J.
Cone, Mrs. Dee M.
Cone, Mr. Lawrence B.
Conesa, Ms, Lillian
Conlon, Mr. Lyndon C.
Connellan, Ms. Barbara E.
Conner, Mrs. Daphne W.
Connor. Mrs, Pearl A.
Conte, Ms. Martha
Cook, Ms. Donna C.
Cook, Mr. Gary L.
Cook, M. Lorraine
Cook, R. Marvin Jr.
Cook, Ms. Ruth
Cope, Mr. Gerald B. Jr.
Corbelle, Mr. Armando H.
Corson, Mr. Hal
Costello, Mrs. Gertrude
Costello, Mr. James
Cotton, Ms. Carole
Coulombe, Ms. Deborah A.
Courtelis, Mr. Pan
Covington, Mr. James W.
Craig, Ms. Dorothy A.
Craig, Mr. James C.
Craig, Ms. Norma
Cramer, Mr. Lowell
Creager, Mr. Don
Creel, Mr. Earl M.
Creel, Mr. Joe
Cromwell, Ms. Christine
Croucher, Mr. William J.
Crowell, Ms. Syliva C.
Croyle, Ms. Diana
Crump, Mrs. Dorothy
Culmer, Mrs. Leone
Cummings, Mr. George III
Cummings, Mr. Tim
Curl, Mr. Donald W.
Curry, Ms. Bettye Faye
Czerwinski, Ms. Lindsay
D'ambrosio, Mr. S.
Daugherty, Ms. Georgette H.
Davidson, Mrs. Robert
Davidson, Ms. Ursula M.
Davis, Mr. Alton A.
Davis, Mr. Alvin B.
Davis, Ms. Bobbie Ann
Davis, Mr. Jim Frank
Davis, Ms. Maggie
Davis, Ms. Marion Peters
Dawson, Ms. Phyllis M.G.
De Jesus, Ms. Vivian
De Los Santos, Ms. Adele
Deans, Mr. Douglas W.
DeFoor, J. Allison II
Dellow, Ms. Susan 1.
DeNies, Mr. Charles F.
Dent, Mrs. Elizabeth B.
Derleth, Ms. Linda Ann
Deville, E. Josephine
DeWald, Mr. Bill
Diamond, Ms. Janis
Diaz, Mr. Bruno M.
Diaz, Alicia L.
Dieterich, Ms. Emily Perry
Dill, Mr. Glen
Diprima, Ms. Adrienne
Dobrow, Mr. Stephen
Doerner, Mrs. Rosemary
Donovan, Mr. James M. Jr.
Dorn, Mr. Michael C.
Dorsey, Mrs. Mary C.
Dotres, Mr. Jose L.
**Douglas, Ms. Marjory
Downey, Ms. Martha R.
Drew, Mrs. H.E.
Drulard, Mrs. Marnie L.
DuBois, Miss Winifred H.
Duffy, Ms. Elizabeth M.
Duntov, Ms. Lili
Durant, Ms. Debra
Duvall, Mrs. John E.
Eaton, Ms, Sarah
Eberhart, Ms. Claire A.
Edelen. Ms. Ellen
Ederer, Ms. Norma
Edward, Mr. Jim
Edwards, Mrs. Dorothy
Edwards, Mr. Ronald G.
Efron, Ms. Muriel C.
Eggleston, Ms. Jeanette
Ekblaw, Ms. Joyce Anne
Eldredge, Mr. Al III
Ellis, Mrs. Elgar P.
Ellison, Dr. Waldo M.
Ender, Mrs. Geraldine M.
Engel. Dr. Gertrude
Ernst, Ms. Patricia G.
Errera, Mrs. Dorothy
Eskridge, Mr. Robert
Esplin, Ms. Beatrice
Etling, Mr. Walter
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers
Ewing, Miss Geneva
Faircloth, Mrs. Hilda
Fallon, Mr. Richard
Farrell, John R. P.A.
Feinberg, Ms. Elaine
Feingold, Mrs. Natalie
Fernandez, Mr. Jose
Fernandez, Ms. Vivian M.
Ferrari, Mr. Juan
Feuer, Ms. Kathy
Feurtado, Ms. Mary Lou
Fidelman, Mr. A.I.
Field, Mrs. Lamar
Finley, Mr. George T.
Fischer, Ms. Elaine R.
Fisher, Mr. Ray
Fishman, Mrs. Bibi
Fitzerald-Bush, Mr. Frank S.
Fitzgerald, Mrs. W.L.
Fleischmann, Ms. Pam
Fleischmann, Mr. Thomas F.
Floyd, Mr. Robert L.
Fojaco, Dr. Rita M.
List of Members 87
Foote, Mrs. Edward T.
Foote, Miss Elizabeth
Forney, Ms. Jan B.
Fortner, Mr. Edward
Foshee, Ms. Anne G.
Foss, Mr. George B. Jr.
Foye, Ms. Nancy R.
Francisco, Mr. W. David
Frasca, Mr. Jerry
Fredbauer, Mrs. Roger
Freedman, Mrs, Penny M.
Freier, Ms. Arlene
Fritsch, Miss Renee Z.
Frohock, Mr. John M.
Fuchs, Mr. Richard W.
Funk, Jo Von
Fuster, Ms. R.
Gabay. Ms. Elizabeth F.
Gabriel, Ms. Joanna
Gaines, Mr. Richard H.
Galatis, Ms Marjorie L.
Galgano, Ms. Kathleen
Gallwey, Mr. William J. III
Gardiner, Ms. Janet P.
Garman, Ms. Sharon
Garrard, Ms. Jeanne
Garrett, Mr. Frank L.
Garrison, Mrs. Florence
Garrison, Mrs. W.E.
Gelberg, Mr. Bob
Gentle, Mr. F.D.
George, Dr. Paul S.
George. Mr. W.F.
Georges, Miss Wiltrud Bering
Geyer, Mrs. Elizabeth D.
Gibbs, Mr. W. Tucker
Gibson, Mr. John J.
Gillesple, Mr. Norman
Gillies, Ms. Patricia L.
Gladstone, Mr. John
Glattaver, Mrs. Alfred
Godfrey, Ms. Anne-Marie M.
Gold, Ms. Meryl S.
Goldberg, Ms. BettiJean
Goldberg, Ms. Joyce
Goldenberg, Mrs. Anna C.
Golding, Mrs. Jeannette E.
Golding, Mr. Kent
Goldman, Mrs. Harry N. M.D.
Goldstein, Mr. Albert M.
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L.
Gonzalez, Mr. Jorge E.
Gonzalez, Ms. Teresa
Gonzalez, Mr. William
Goodin, Mr. Jack A. Jr.
Goodlove, Mrs. William
Goodman, Mr. Edwin
Goodridge, Ms. Jeanie S.
Goodridge, N, Varney
Goodstein, Mr. Michael D.
Gooravin, Ms. Helen M.
Gordon, Ms. Gail
Gordon, Hon. Jack
Gottfried, Mrs. Theodore
Gould, Ms. Bernice
Gowin, Dr. Thomas S.
Goza, Mr. William M.
Graham, Ms. Sharon
Grande, Ms. Jane
Grant, Stuart Mathew
Grassell, Ms. Diane B.
Green, Ms. Ann
Green, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Green, Lloma G.
Greenwald, Ms. Monique
Gregg, Mr. Robert L.
Grentner, Ms. Lynn
Griffin, Mrs. Katherine F.
Groh, Ms. Loraine 1..
Gross, Dr. Zade B.
Grout, Ms. Nancy E.
Grover, Ms. Marlene
Grutzbach, Mrs. Margaret R.
Guarino, Mr. Charles S.
Guben, Ms. Regina K.
Guilarte, Ms. Alexis
Hackett, Ms. Lynn H.
Haddock, Ms. Nancy F.
Hagner, Mr. Casper C.
Hale, Ms. Kathleen C.
Hale, Ms. Kay K.
Halgowich, Ms. Jerri
Haller, Mrs. O.W.
Halprin, Mrs. Maxine Rickard
Hambright, Mr. Thomas L.
Hammersmith, Mrs. Gwen
Hamilton, Mr. McHenry
Hamilton, Mrs. Ruth M.
Hamlin, Ms. Linda
Hamrick, Mr. David H.
Hancock, Mrs. James Thomas
Hand, Mr. Robert E.
Harless, Ms. Gwen L.
Harring, Ms, Margie
Harris, Mrs. Henriette
Harris, Mr. Robert
Harwell, Miss Wanda
Harwood, Mrs. Manton E.
Hauser, Mr. Leo A.
Hawes, Mr. Leland M. Jr.
Heald, Mr. Thomas E.
Heard, Dr. Joseph G.
Hecht, Mrs. Isadore
Heckerling, Mrs. Philip
Heldt, Ms. Agneta C.
Helene, Ms. Carol J.
Helfand, Ms. Roselee
Helfond, Mrs. Peggy
Helliwell, Ms. Anne E.
Helms, Mr. Roy Vann
Hendrick, Ms. Ann
Hendry, Judge Norman
Hennessy, Mr. Ed
Henning, Mr. George J.
Hepler, Mrs. Charlene S.
Herin, Mr. Thomas D.
Herring, Mrs. V.R.
Herst, Mr. Herman Jr.
Hertzberg, Mr. David J.
Hett, Ms Marilyn P.
Hickey, Ms. Amy K.
Hill, Mr. Gregory
Hill, Mr. Lawrence L.
Hill, Ms. Louise
Hill, Ms. Reanie
Hiller, Mr. Herbert L.
Hines, Ms. Bea L.
Hines, Ms. Phyllis
Hingston, Rev. Allen R.
Hipsman, Mr. Mitchell
Hoder-Salmon, Ms. Marilyn
Hodes, Dr. Philip
Hofmann, Ms. Lucinda
Hogan, Mr. G.B. Jr.
Hogg, Mr. John F.
Hokanson, Ms. Ginni
Holland, Mr. Charles W. Jr.
Holland, Mr. Kim
Holshouser, Mrs. Joanne
Holzman, Ms. Tressa A.
Hooper, Mr. Lloyd C.
Hopkins, Mrs. Carter
Hoppenbrouwer, Mr. Walter D.
Horelle, Ms. Ingrid
Horta, Ms. Teresa
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie
Houghtaling. Mr. Francis S.
Houser, Mr. Roosevelt C.
Howard, Ms. Sandra S.
Howe, Mr. Ray E.
Hoyo, Ms. Kim A.
Hritz, Mr. William R.
Hunter, Frances G.
Ipp, Mrs. Martha
Jacobs, Mrs. Ruth
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen L.
Jaffe. Ms. Eleanor
Jaffe, Ms. Leah S.
James, Ms. Mary Crofts
Jenkins, Ms. Elsie A.
Jensen, Ms. Terry Wolfe
Jenson, Ms. Karen
Jerome, Dr. William T. III
Jervis, Mrs. Ida
Joffre, Ms. Marie J.
Johansson, Mr. Les
Johnson, Mr. Frederick L.
Johnson, Ms. Jean
Johnston, Ms. Suzanne B.
Jones, Ms. Anne F.
Jones, Ms, Donna Jean
Jones. Mrs. Henrietta
Jones, Ms. Jacqueline
Jones, Ms. Marie M.
Jones, Thompson V.
Jordan, Mrs. June T.
Jordan. Ms. Katharine R.
Joseph, Ms. Donna
Jureit, Mrs. L.E.
Just, Ms. Leslie A.
Kainen, Mr. Dennis G.
Kaiser. Ms. Roberta
Kaminis, Ms. Kim
Kampf, Ms. Sandy
Kanner, Mrs. Aaron M.
Kaplan, Mr. Barry
Kaplan, Ms. Karen
Kaplan, Mr. Leonard
Kaplan, Ms. Marzi
Kashmer, Ms. Ann R.
Kassewitz, Mrs. Ruth B.
Kaufelt, Mr. David A.
Kavanaugh, Mr. Daniel A.
Keaton, Ms. Debra
Keaton, Ms. Martha
Keely, Ms. Lucile F.
Keiter, Dr. Roberta M.
Keller, Ms. Barbara P.
Kelley, Dr. Robert L.
Kelly, Mr. Michael G.
Kenner, Mrs. Maynard
Kent, Ms. Deborah L.
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A.
Kent, Mr. W,R,
Kesselman, Michael N.
Kilberg, Mrs. A.J.
Kimball. Mr. Albert D.
King, Mr. Arthur Sr.
King, Mr. Dennis G.
Kirsch, Mr. Louis
Kjelson, Mrs. Betty L.
Klein, Ms. Helene
Klein, Mr. Mason Stuart
Klein, Ms. Roberta
Klein, Ms. Ruth C.
Knight, Mr. Jeffrey D.
Knott, Judge James R.
Koestline, Ms. Frances G.
Kofink, Rev. Wayne A.
Kokenzie, Mr. Henry
Koler, Ms. Ann L.
Komorowski, Ms. Camilla B.
Kononoff, Ms. Ha.zel N.
Kopelman, Mrs. Frances
Koski, Ms. Antoinette M.
Kossow, Ms. Suellen E.
Kramer, Mrs. Claire M.
Kriebs, Mr. Robert V.
Kulikowska, Ms. Helen
Kulpa, Mr. Robert F.
Kumble, Ms. Madelyn
Kurtz, Ms. Christine H.
Kurzer, Ms. Joy
LaBelle, Mr. Dexter
LaCroix, Mrs. Aerial Crofts
Lacy, Dr. George E.
LaFontaine, Ms. Patricia
Lamb, Ms. Gloria
Lamme, Mr. Robert E.
Lancaster, Mr. R.D.
Landau, Dr. S.
Lane, Ms. Elizabeth A.
Lane, Mr. Kendall W.
Lanford, Mr. James W.
Langley, Miss Clara C.
Langner, Ms. Mildred C,
Lanman, Ms. Rosalie
LaRoue, Mr. Samuel D. Jr.
LaRussa, Ms. Lynne M.
Lasa. Mr. Luis Rogelio
Lawson, Dr. H. L.
Laxson, Mr. Dan D. Sr.
Laxson, Mr. Danny
**Leary, Mr. Lewis
LeDuc, Ms, Charlotte J.
Lee, Ms. Catherine D.
Lee, Mr. Roswell E.
Leesha, Miss Sara
Leffler, Mrs. Sara
Lehman, Mrs. David M.
Lehman, Mr. Douglas K.
Leisner, Ms. Ruth
Leon, Mr. Salvador Jr.
Leonard, Mr. Joseph S.
Leslie, Ms. Nancy L.
Leslie, Ms. Sylvia Ann
Levin, Mr. Marc
Levine, Dr. Robert M.
Levy, Ms Eleanor F.
Lewensohn, Mr. San
Liberty, Ms. Eunice
Liddell, Ms. Lynn
Lieberman, Ms. Eleanor
Liff, Mr. Robert A.
Limerick, Mr. Lester
Lindgren, Mrs. M.E.
Lindsley, Mrs. A.R.
Lineback, Ms. Janet A.
Linehan, Mrs. John
Link, Mrs. E.A.
Link, Ms. Emma Jean
Lipnick, Ms. Marie
Lipscomb, Mrs. Elizabeth
Littlefield, Ms. Doris B.
Livingston, Mr. Robert
Lloyd, Mr. J. Harlan
Locke, Mr. Mark W.
Loerky, Ms. Donna
Lom, Ms. Norma
Lombardi, Mrs. Elaine L..
Lombardi, Ms. Maria
Lombardo, Ms. Barbara A.
Longstreth, Mr. Bob
Looney, Ms. Evelyn 0.
Lopez, Ms. Carla
Lorencz. Mrs. Valerie
Lotharius, Mr. Richard
Lotz, Ms. Aileen R.
Love, Ms. Mildred A.
Lowery, Mrs. Nereida
Lowry, Mr. James R. Jr.
Lubel, Mr. Howard
Lubitz, Mr. Alan H.
Luce, Ms Marjorie
Lucero, Mr. George
Luing, Mr. Gary
Lukens, Mr. Jaywood
Lummus, Ms, Martha F.
Lunnon, Mrs. James
Lunsford, Mrs. E.C.
I.ynch. Mrs. Alethea G.
Lynfield. Mr. H. Geoffrey
Mack, Mr. Stephen B.
Mackle, Ms Milbrey W.
MacLaren, Ms. Valerie
MacVicar, Mrs. I.D.
Madeira, Ms. E.D.
Malafronte, Mr. Anthony F.
Malcomb, Mrs. John L.
Malone, Mrs. Randolph A.
Malter, Ms. Susan
Malvido, Ms. Emma
Mangels, Dr. Celia C.
Mangone, Mr. James L.
Manly, Ms. Grace
Mann, Ms. Karen
Manning, Ms. Barbara R.
Marchman, Mr. Dennis L.
Marcus, Mrs. Bessie
Marks, Mrs. G. Rosalind
Markus, Mr. Daniel
List of Members 89
Marshall, Mrs. Judy 0.
Marshall, Ms. Treva 1.
Martin, Mr. Emmett E. Jr.
Martin, Dr. John B. Jr.
Martin, Ms. Sylvia G.
Martin, Mr. Victor
Martin, Mrs. Wayne
Martinez, Mr. Enrique
Martinez, Mr. Rafael A.
Martins, Mrs. Charlotte M.
Mason, Mrs. Joe J.
Mason, Mr. William C. III
Massa, Mrs. Jeanmarie M.
Masson, Ms. Christina
Masterson, Ms. Lee Ann
Mathes, Mr. Edward S.
Matheson, Mr. James F.
Matteson, Ms. Eleanor E.
Maxwell, Ms, Marjorie
Maxwell, Mr. Michael
Mayer, R. MacFarlane
Maze, Ms. Marcia
McAllister, Mr. Jim
McAuliffe, Ms. Julia W.
McCall, Mr. C. Lawton
McClure, Mrs. Florence
McCormick, Rev. George
McCulloch, Mr. John E.
McDaniel, Ms. Bettye Grace
McDowell, Mr. Charles
McGarity, Ms. Mary D.
McGuire, Ms. Jeanie L.
McKenna, Mrs. Alice M.
McKenna, Mr. Daniel C.
McKey, Mrs. Robert M.
McKinney. Mr. Bob
McLean, Ms, Leonore
McLeod, Mr. William J.
McNally, Rev. Michael
Medina, Mr. Robert K.
Mekras, Drs. Dowlen,
Mell, W.B. Jr.
Mendez, Mr. Jesus
Mendoza, Mrs. Enid D.
Mercy, Lamb of
Merriss, Ms. Joan
Mesich, Mr. George
Metz, Mr. J. Walter Jr.
Metz, Martha J.
Meyer, Mr. Richard G.
Meyers, Mrs. Bert
Mickler, Mrs. Thomas
Middelthon, Mr. William
Mielke, Mr. Timothy R.
Miles, Mr. Lewis W.
Millar, Mrs. Gavin S.
Milledge, Ms. Evalyn M.
Milledge, Ms. Sarah F.
Miller, Ms. Carolyn R.
Miller, Mr. Dean R.
Miller, Mrs. Elizabeth C.
Miller, Ms. Gertrude
Miller, Ms. Huntley
Miller, Ms. Margaret L.
Miller, Mr. Philip Orme
Miller, Mr. William E.
Mills, Ms. Rosemary
Miranda, Ms. Mercy M.
Mitchell, Mr. Robert Jr.
Miyar, Ms. Olga E.
Molinari, R.E. DDS
Monk, Mr. J. Floyd
Montague, Mrs. Charles H.
Moon, Ms Donna L.
Moore, Ms. Carlene
Moore, Mrs. Jack
Moore, Mr. Jim
Moore, Mr. Kevin
Moore, Mr. Patrick F.
Morales, Ms. Eliza S.
Mordaunt, Mr. Hal
Morgan, Mr. Gregory A.
Morris, Ms. Mary B.
Morris, Ms. Thomasine
Morton, Ms. Jan
Moss, Ms. Pamela
Moss, Mr. Steven
Moss, Ms. Suzanne H.
Moore, Mrs, Edwin P.
Moylan, Mrs. E.B. Jr.
Muir, Mrs. William Whalley
Muniz, Mr. Manuel 1.
Murphy, Mr. Edward W.
Murphy, Ms. Joan
Murphy, Mr. Timothy
Myers, Ms. Austin
Myers, Ms. Lillian G.
Naccarato, Ms. Mary T.
Naccarato, Ms. Rosa
Napier, Mrs. Harvey
Napolitano, Ms. Marianne
Narot, Mrs. Helene
Narup, Mrs. Mavis
Nasca, Ms. Suzanne
Navarro, Mr. Pablo A.
Neinken, Mrs. Ruth
Nelson, Mr. Jonathan
Nelson, Mr. Theodore R.
Nelson, Ms. Winifred H.
Neway, Ms. Roberta
Newcomm, Mrs. Sally E.
Newman, Mr. Stuart G.
Newton, Capt. W.L. IlI
Nichols, Ms. Patricia
Nicholson, Mrs. Allene
Nimnicht, Mrs. Helen
Nimnicht, Mrs. Mary Jo
Nitzsche, Mrs. Ernest R.
Noble, Dr. Nancy Lee
Nodarse, Ms. Anita
Nodarse, Mr. Raul
Noll, Mr. Russell L.
Norman, Mr. Walter H.
O'Brien, Ms. Dorothy
O'Connell, Mr. Peter J.
O'Dempsey, Ms. Keara
Orlen, Ms. Roberta C.
Orovitz, Mr. Warren James
Orr, Judge George
Osman, Mr. Peter
Ostrenko, Mr. Witold Sr.
Ostrout, Mr. Howard F. Jr.
Oswald, Mr. M. Jackson
Otterson, Ms, Dana
Overstreet, Ms. Estelle C.
Overstreet, Mr. James D. Jr.
Owen, Ms. Patti
Padgett, Mr. Inman
Palen, Mr. Frank S.
Palmer, Mr. Miguel
Palmer, Miss Virginia
Pappas, Ms. Kathryn D.
Park, Mr. Dabney G. Jr.
Parker, Crawford H.
Parks, Ms. Jeanne M.
Parks, Mrs. Merle
Paroz, Ms. Amie
Parrish, Mr. James C. Jr.
Paugh, Mr. Gerald L.
Paul, Mrs. Kenneth
Paulk, Mr. Jule
Pavlow, Ms. Shara T.
Peabody, Mr. Edward L.
Pearce, Mrs. Edgar B.
Pearson, Ms. Lillian
Pearson, Ms. Madeline S.
Peckham, Mrs. Angelyn R.
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth
Peeples, Mr. Vernon
Pell, Ms. Gloria
Petton, Dr. Margaret M.
Peoples, Anita J.
Perez, Ms. Ester
Perez-Stable, Ms. Alina
Perlmutter, Mr. Bernard P.
Perner, Mrs. Henry
Perrin, Mrs. John
Peskoe, Ms. Anne
Peters, Mr. John S.
*Peters, Dr. Thelma
Peterson, Mrs. Edward E.
Pfenninger, Mr. Richard C.
Philbin, Helen K.
Pichel, Mrs. Clem A.
Pickard, Ms. Carolyn
Pickering, Ms. Julie
Pierce, Mr. Douglas
Pierce, Mrs. Margie K.
Pierce, Ms. Renee
Pinder, Mr. Ray
Pinto, Mr. Jorge E.
Plummer, Mr. Lawrence H.
Poole, Mr. Edwin L.
Poole, Mr. John Lindsley
Popp, Mrs. Lucene L,
Porter, Mr. Daniel
Portnoy, Ms. Rita
Posner, Mr. Joseph
Prado, Ms. Miriam
Price, Col. Thomas A.
Price, Mr. W. Bedford
Primus, Mr. Richard Lee
Pritchard, Ms. Barbara
Proenza, Ms. Christina D.
Provost, Mr. Orville
Puga, Mr. J. David
Purcell, Ms. Carol
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F.
Quincy, Ms. Suzanne F.
Ragan, Ms. Patti
Rahm, Mrs. Virginia S.
Raiden, Mr. Michael E.
Ramos, Mrs. Pauline E.
Ramsey, Ms. Donna G.
Rankin, Ms. Sally
Rappaport, Dr. Edward
Rapport, Mr. Stephen R.
Rasmussen, Mr. Ray S.
Ratliff, Mr. John
Reagan, Mr. A. James Jr.
Reed, Ms. Elizabeth Ann
Reed, Mr. Richard E.
Reeder, Mr. William F.
Reese, Mr. John
Rehwoldt, Mr. Ralph
Reilly, Mr. Phil
Reilly, Mrs. R. Thomas
Rein, Mr. Martin
Reinhardt, Miss Blanche E.
Reiss, Ms. B.K.
Rempe, Ms, Lois D.
Renaud, Ms. Theresa M.
Rendic, Ms. Marcia H.
Renick, Mr. Ralph
Renninger, Ms, Julie
Reno, Ms. Janet Esq.
Reordan, Mr. William C.
Revilie, Ms. Anna
Rey, Ms. Ada M.
Reyes, Ms. Lina T.
Reynaldos, Mr. Miguel A.
Rice, Sister Eileen O.P.
Rice, Mr. R.H. Jr.
Richard, Ms. Judith
Richheimer, Ms. R.
Richman, Ms, Wendy
Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R.
Ries. Dr. Daryl T.
Rifkin, Mr. M.S.
Riggins, Mrs. Marilyn L.
Riley, Mrs. O.V.
Riley. Ms. Sandra
Ringemann, Mrs. Ruth
Risley, Mr. Douglas L.
Ritter, Mrs. Emma B.
Rivas, Ms. Julia
Robbins, Ms. Bonnie Lee
Roberts, Mr. Richard E.
Roberts, Ms. Ruth
Robertson, Mrs. Paul H.
Robertson, Mrs. Piedad
Robinson, Ms. Margaret V.
Robinson, Mr. Steven
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List of Members 91
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