Vre 1 esit
THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks Thelma P. Peters, Ph.D.
Pamela T. Lowell
Birds of a Feather: The
by Emily Perry Dieterich
Coconut Grove Audubon Society,
Seminole Beach, "The Best Beach in Dade County"
by Frederick H. Harrington
"The Firing of Guns and Crackers Continued Till Light"
A Diary of the Billy Bowlegs War
edited with commentary by Gary R. Mormino
Railroad Stations in Dade County
by Seth Bramson
List of Members
COPYRIGHT 1985 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern
veitCUest^: Florida. Communications should be addressed to the managing
editor, Tequesta, Historical Association of Southern Florida,
101 West Flagler Street, Miami, Florida 33130. The Association does not assume
responsibility for statements of fact or opinions made by contributors.
This issue marks the fortieth year that Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau has been
part of Tequesta. We honor him for his singular contribution to the
teaching, writing and promotion of South Florida history and his dedica-
tion to the Historical Association of Southern Florida.
ON THE COVER
Posing in front of their school are the students and teachers of St. Alban's
Episcopal School in Coconut Grove, Florida circa 1910. St. Alban's was
located near Douglas Road and Grand Avenue on the present site of Tucker
Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.
FOUNDED 1940 INCORPORATED 1941
Marcia J. Kanner
Raul L. Rodriguez
First Vice President
D, Alan Nichols
Second Vice President
Sandra Graham Younts
C. Frasuer Knight
Charlton W. Tebeau, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
Associate Editor Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Associate Editor Tequesta
Randy F. Nimnicht
Carlton W. Cole
Gregory Bush, Ph.D.
H. Willis Day, Jr.
Dale B. Dowlen
William G. Dresser
Mrs. William G. Earle
Katherine W. Ezell
Dorothy J. Fields
Joseph H. Fitzgerald, M.D.
Joseph R. Grassie
Marshall S. Harris
Robert C. Hector
Maria Camila Leiva
R. Layton Mank
Joseph H. Pero, Jr.
William E. Sadowski
Clarence Smith, M.D.
Howard Zwibel, M.D.
This Page Blank in Original
Birds of a Feather:
The Coconut Grove Audubon Society,
By Emily Perry Dieterich
Three Things to Remember
A robin redbreast in a cage
Puts all Heaven in a rage.
A skylark wounded on the wing
Doth make a cherub cease to sing.
He who shall hurt the little wren
Shall never be beloved by men.
Organized bird protection in the United States began with the
formation of the American Ornithological Union (AOU) in 1883.
Addressing this specific concern, member William Brewster, curator
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, moved to form
a "Committee for the Protection of North American Birds" at the
Union's annual meeting in 1884 (Robin Doughty, Feather Fashions
and Bird Preservations: 157-58).
The original Audubon Society was born several years later, the
brainchild of the noted naturalist and outdoorsman, George Bird
Grinnell, editor of Field and Stream, the leading sportsmen's magazine
of the time. Although a big game hunter himself, Grinnell was appalled
by the slaughter of both game and non-game birds. "Gunners shot
them for sport," he wrote, "small boys killed them for fun, and egg
collectors robbed their nests." (Carl Buchheister and Frank Graham,
"From the Swamps and Back" 7).
While researching this story, Emily Perry Dieterich was director of environ-
mental education for the Tropical Audubon Society. Currently she is the research
historian for Metro-Dade Department of Historical Preservation.
In February 1886 Grinnell suggested in a front page editorial
of his magazine that "concerned men and women create an organi-
zation for the protection of wild birds and their eggs, its administration
to be undertaken by the magazine's staff." Grinnell had grown up near
the home of Audubon and even attended a school for young boys
conducted by Lucy Audubon. The obvious name for his new organi-
zation was the Audubon Society.
The public response to the Audubon Society was amazing.
"Within a year nearly 39,000 men, women, and children had joined
the society, signing pledges that they would not molest birds." (Buch-
heister and Graham: 7) After two years, however, the responsibility of
running the society became too much for a magazine whose primary
purpose was to entertain hunters and fishermen. Reluctantly, Grinnell
abandoned the project.
The AOU guided the bird protection movement for the next few
years until February 1896 when Mrs. Augustus Hemenway of
Boston called a meeting to form a Massachusetts Audubon Society.
This group, which has been called "the ancestor of all of today's
Audubon Societies" stated its purpose in its bylaws: "to discourage
the buying and wearing, for ornamental purposes, of the feathers of
any wild birds except ducks and gamebirds, and to otherwise further
the protection of native birds." Several months later the qualifying
phrase "except ducks and gamebirds" was stricken from the bylaws.
The society's first president was William Brewster, the same man
who had urged formation of the AOU's bird protection committee
twelve years earlier. By the end of its first year, the Massachusetts
Audubon Society had 1,284 members, 358 of whom were school
children (Buchheister and Graham: 10).
Audubon Societies were formed in other states almost immedi-
ately. The Pennsylvania Audubon Society was established later in
the same year and by 1897 Audubon Societies were present in New
York, New Hampshire, Illinois, Maine, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Rhode
Island, Connecticut, and the District of Columbia. In 1898, Indiana,
Ohio, Minnesota, Texas, California, and Tennessee formed societies
making a total of seventeen by the end of 1898.
In 1899 Frank M. Chapman, author and ornithologist in the
American Museum of Natural History, founded the magazine Bird
Lore, which would one day evolve into the popular Audubon Maga-
zine. This publication was accepted as the official organ of the various
state Audubon societies. Some twelve years earlier Chapman had
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 7
spent time in Florida, near Gainesville, exploring the Indian and
Sebastian Rivers and writing a description of birds on Pelican Island.
"Save the wild birds of Florida" was the call of the pioneers who
formed the Florida Audubon Society (FAS) in 1900. Fifteen people
were present at the first meeting held at the winter home of Louis F.
Dommerich, a wealthy textile manufacturer from New York. Dues
for the FAS were $1 for regular members, $5 for sustaining members,
and $25 for patrons. No membership dues were required of teachers,
and junior members paid 25 cents a year. The first president of the
FAS was Reverend H.B. Whipple, a retired Episcopal Bishop from
Minnesota, who served for one year and was succeeded by Dommerich
who presided from 1901 to 1912.
Distinguished members and patrons of the FAS included Henry
M. Flagler, Mrs. Edward Bok, and Thomas A. Edison. Among the
honorary vice presidents were President Theodore Roosevelt, former
President Grover Cleveland, former Governor W.D. Bloxham,
Governor W.S. Jennings and Kirk Munroe. Munroe was a well-
known author of boys' adventure stories and was once voted the most
popular author of children's stories in America. He was active in the
Boy Scouts and had traveled extensively throughout Florida and the
world. Munroe had lived with his wife, Mary Barr Munroe, daughter
of the famous novelist Amelia Barr, in Coconut Grove since 1885.
Bird protection received an important lift on the national level
with the passage on May 25, 1900, of the Lacey Act, sponsored by
Representative John F. Lacey of Iowa. The law "prohibited the
interstate traffic in birds and animals killed in violation of state laws,
as well as the importation of alien species (such as the starling and the
English sparrow), without government permits" (Buchheister and
Graham: 13). The Lacey Act was just a beginning, however, as it applied
only to the five states which had protective laws of their own.
Florida passed its law in 1901 with the help of the FAS. Entitled
"An act for the protection of birds and their nests and eggs and pre-
scribing a penalty for any violation thereof," it was the first law Florida
had ever considered concerning the protection of non-game birds.
The legislature passed the bill "with reservations," meaning that
hawks, crows, owls, shore birds, ducks, pigeons, butcher birds
(shrikes), meadow larks, robins, and rice birds (bob-o-links) were
still on the game list. Anyone violating the law was guilty of a misde-
meanor and was "liable to a fine of five dollars for each offense, and
an additional fine of five dollars for each bird, living or dead, or part
of a bird, or nest or eggs possessed in violation of this act, or to im-
prisonment for ten days, or both at the discretion of the court" (Laws
of Florida 1901:102).
Of interest is Section 8 of the act which read:
Nothing in this act shall prevent any citizen of the State of Florida from
destroying birds which are found injuring grapes, fruits, garden or farm
products on his premises, or from taking or keeping in a cage any cardinal,
redbird or mocking bird for his own pleasure or amusement: Provided,
that the same shall not be sold or shipped out of the State. (Laws of
Another law as passed in 1901, specifically referring to Dade
County, which was called, "An Act prohibiting killing, capturing or
shooting any deer, crocodile, water-fowl or any wild bird (except
crows), within one mile of the incorporated town of West Palm Beach,
Florida." Punishment for violation of this law was a fine "not exceeding
one hundred dollars nor less than ten dollars, or by imprisonment
not exceeding ninety days nor less than ten days" (Laws of Florida
The Lacey Act spurred the movement of a national orientation
for the various state Audubon Societies. In November 1901, the
representatives of the existing societies met in New York City and
agreed to create a loose federation called the National Committee
of Audubon Societies. Each state society retained its individual
identity rather than merging into a national organization. New York
City was designated as the committee's headquarters and William
Dutcher, former chairman of the AOU's Bird Protection Committee,
was elected chairman. Dutcher recruited T. Gilbert Pearson, who
had grown up in Florida, had formed the North Carolina Audubon
Society, and was known as a zealous bird protector. Together they
worked for passage of more individual state laws and the creation
of a game warden system.
The FAS incorporated soon after this in June 1902, with its
stated purpose to:
disseminate information respecting the economic value of birds to
agriculture, and their importance to the welfare of man, thereby pre-
venting the wanton destruction of wild birds and their eggs. As many
birds emigrate from the north to the south in the winter months, the
Florida Audubon Society is of particular importance. To discourage
the purchase or use of the feathers of any birds for ornamentation, except
those of the ostrich and domesticated fowls. To establish Bird Day
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 9
exercises and to encourage the introduction of bird study in the schools
of the State (Lucy W. Blackman, "The Florida Audubon Society:"l i).
In the past, as in the present, the national organization of Audu-
bon societies was interested in Florida because of the many nesting
grounds for plumage birds. As early as the turn of the century, William
Dutcher tried to buy Florida's Pelican Island in the Indian River
from the federal government to protect an important breeding rookery
of brown pelicans. The project became bogged down in bureaucratic
red tape, but President Theodore Roosevelt was so impressed by
Dutcher's scheme that he took matters into his own hands and set the
island aside as the first National Wildlife Refuge. The Executive Order
was signed March 14, 1903. The fact that President Roosevelt was a
charter member of the FAS undoubtedly helped the situation.
The FAS was active in the business of educating school children
about birds. One of the ten leaflets written for the society between 1901
and 1909 was by Kirk Munroe, entitled Florida Birds Worth Their
Weight in Gold. Mr. Munroe described the economic importance of
birds in Florida with respect to the eating of insects which damaged
the state's crops and fruit groves. He also mentioned the novel idea
of birds as a tourist attraction. In his concluding paragraph he wrote,
We take every precaution to prevent a thief from stealing even the most
trifling of our possessions, and at the same time make no effort to dissuade
the gunner from shooting the birds upon whose existence depends our
very livelihood. Queer, isn't it?
The Thayer Fund, which was organized by the prominent land-
scape and portrait painter, Abbot H. Thayer, had been established
in 1900 to protect bird colonies. The fund also provided financial
support for the warden system. By 1904 the fund was paying for
thirty-four wardens in ten states, including Florida (Buchheister and
Graham: 13). Four of these wardens were working in Florida and one
may have been Guy Bradley, who patrolled the South Florida coast
and mangrove jungles.
Bradley was recommended by Kirk Munroe who said that he
was "fearless and brave and had an extensive knowledge of the
country and the birds that lived there . always alert and faithful
in the performance of his duty, and was willing to undergo any hard-
ship to protect the birds." Tragically, Bradley was killed while making
an arrest at a rookery on Oyster Key. The National Committee
received hundreds of contributions to pay fora new home for Bradley's
widow and children in Key West. William Dutcher wrote, "Every
great movement must have its martyrs, and Guy Bradley is the first
martyr in the cause of bird protection."
In January 1905 thirty-five state Audubon societies filed incor-
poration papers in New York under a new name, the National
Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds
and Animals. (The name was not changed to the current National
Audubon Society until 1940). Dutcher was elected president and
Pearson was elected secretary of the association.
The bird protection movement actually began in Dade County
as early as 1906 when Mary Barr Munroe organized "a little club of
boys whom she called the Bird Defenders, and who loyally rallied
to her support in the protection of their little feathered friends"
(Lucy w. Blackman, The Women of Florida: 145). Blackman may
be referring to "The Coconut Grove Rangers," as described and
pictured in the May 1915 issue of Tropic Magazine which reported
that it was a "bird club founded in 1906 that did good work in bird
protection for four years."
By 1912 the FAS had 1,500 members and in 1913 Mary Barr
Munroe was elected to the executive committee. Also in 1913 two
important state laws were passed: "An act to protect game and birds
in the state of Florida" and "An act creating a Department of Game
and Fish of the state of Florida and creating the Office of State Game
and Fish Commissioner." The former defined game birds identical
to the 1901 law but omitted pigeons and robins from the list. It also
prohibited certain methods of capture, outlawed night hunting, and
established hunting seasons and licenses. The latter law was created
to enforce the former one and to prosecute its violators, issue licenses
and collect fees.
The year 1913 saw much progress at the national level as well.
According to Blackman, "In Washington the greatest campaign on
behalf of bird protection ever put on in any country was in full force
in the Congress." The Federal Migratory Bird Law was signed by
President Taft in March and was designed to put all game birds that
do not remain permanently within the borders of any state or territory
under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Another important
law was actually a clause, tacked onto a tariff bill, which halted the
importation of wild bird plumage into the United States.
Between 1913 and 1915 bird protection claimed a significant
victory. According to Todd Persons, "The bottom dropped out of the
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 11
international plumage market. Feather merchants had been plucked
by their own greed and by fickle dame fashion." Unfortunately, before
the FAS even had time to celebrate, "the Florida legislature, satisfied
that state legislation was no longer needed, repealed the plumage
laws and a number of valuable hunting laws with them. The slaughter
was renewed . "(Todd Persons, The First One Hundred Years:6).
It was amid these problems that the first official Audubon Society was
established in Dade County in 1915.
The first meeting of the Coconut Grove Audubon Society
(CGAS) was held on April 16, 1915 in the public school auditorium
of Coconut Grove. "By reason of his authority as one of the state vice
presidents, Mr. Kirk Munroe called the meeting to order and made
a few remarks about the need of such a society in Coconut Grove"
(CGAS Minutes, 4/16/1915). Given the active involvement of the
Munroes in the FAS, it is somewhat surprising that such an organiza-
tion was not formed sooner than fifteen years after the FAS had been
established. Nonetheless, the society was soon to become one of the
most vocal and active in the state. Mary Barr Munroe was elected to
the office of president, Mrs. Schober was vice president, Mrs. Florence
P. Haden was secretary, and Mrs. H.K.B. Davis served as treasurer.
Mrs. Haden was the wife of Captain John M. Haden, a Civil
War veteran, who retired and moved to Coconut Grove in 1896. He
purchased thirteen acres near Douglas Road and Ingraham Highway.
The property soon became known as "Haden's Corner." It was also
often referred to as "Mango Lodge," as Captain Haden became very
interested in growing mangoes. He planted a Mulgoba mango in 1898,
and in 1910 one tree bore the distinctive large yellow and red mango
known today as the Haden mango. Although Captain Haden died
shortly thereafter, Mrs. Haden marketed the mango, and groves were
planted all over the area. This variety of mango was very important
in the development of a marketable mango (Arva Moore Parks, The
History of Coconut Grove, Florida, 1821-1925:47). Mrs. Haden was
also involved with the Housekeepers Club, a women' club established
in 1891. Her contribution to the club's cookbook was appropriately
a recipe for mango chutney.
Membership dues for the CGAS were 50 cents a year plus a 10 cents
initiation fee to cover the cost of an Audubon button. Kirk Munroe
is recorded as the first person to pay his dues. A life membership cost
$25. Mrs. Munroe announced at the first meeting that she had secured
two life members: Charles Deering and W.J. Matheson. Charles
Deering was the son of William Deering of International Harvester
fame who settled in Coconut Grove in 1902. Charles lived on an estate
in the Buena Vista area and raised water birds. He bought lots in Cutler
and in 1916 bought the Richmond Cottage on the old Perrine Grant.
(The property is now known as the Deering Estate and was recently
acquired by Dade County and the State of Florida.) Charles's
brother, James, also a member of CGAS, built the exquisite
mansion, Vizcaya, on Biscayne Bay in 1916.
Mr. Matheson was one of the first millionaires to build a home
in Coconut Grove and, together with his sons Hugh and Malcolm,
built three houses on the bayfront, the first being "Four Way Lodge"
on present-day Poinciana Avenue (Parks:53). Hugh later served two
terms as mayor of Coconut Grove from 1921-1923.
Teachers, it was announced at the first meeting, would be associate
members and were exempt from dues. Apparently this didn't apply to
school administrators, however, as the minutes indicate Mr. J.W.
Asbury, principal of the Coconut Grove School, and his wife paid
their dues at the second meeting of the society, making them charter
At the fourth meeting of the society Mrs. Munroe explained that
the first thirty people who had joined would be referred to as"founders"
and would have Audubon buttons presented to them by a "friend of
the society." The following is a list of the founders of the CGAS:
Mr. and Mrs. Kirk Munroe
Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Matheson
Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Matheson
Mr. Charles Deering
Mr. and Mrs. Asbury
Mr. and Mrs. Mather
Mrs. John Gifford
Mrs. Florence Haden
Mrs. H.K.B. Davis
Miss Olive Callahan
Mrs. Charles T. Simpson
Miss Mary Callahan
Mr. and Mrs. Little
A problem concerning men being members arose when the society
decided to join the National Federation of Womens Clubs. Since men
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 13
could not belong to the federation, the alternative of making them
honorary members was discussed. At a meeting in November 1915 the
president announced that the CGAS had become a member of the
state Audubon Society but it had not joined the National Federation
which would have disbarred the men members. The society also decided
to join the National Association of Audubon Societies at the same
Mrs. Arthur Curtis James became the third life member of the
society, paying her $25 dues at the November 1, 1915 meeting. Her
husband, reported to be the second richest man in America at the time,
later purchased "Four Way Lodge" and contributed the major portion
of money to finance the building of Plymouth Church (Parks:54).
At the August 7, 1916 meeting, Mrs. Munroe proposed that
William Dutcher, past president of the National Association of
Audubon Societies, be made an honorary life member of the CGAS,
A letter from Dutcher was read at the September meeting accepting
this kind offer.
The treasurer's ledger indicates forty-one members for the year
1915-1916, classified as seven men, twenty-three married women,
and eleven single women. Ninety-eight members were recorded for
1916-1917, which included separate entries for husbands and wives.
The society held seven meetings during 1915, the first board
meeting being on August 28, 1915. The first two meetings were held
in the public school auditorium of Coconut Grove. Thereafter, most
meetings were held at members' residences. Throughout the years
the secretaries provided colorful accounts of the various meeting
places, consistently noting the name, place and sometimes even the
hour and minute of the meeting. Five meetings were held at Mrs.
Munroe's house, "The Scrububs," and one at Mrs. Haden's "Mango
Lodge."One meeting took place at the"beautiful home of Mrs. Thomas
Wyatt in 'Ye Little Woods'," one at the "pleasant home of Mrs. J.
Edward Howard," and yet another at"the beautiful home of Mrs. N.L.
Stevenson on Coconut Grove Ridge." The March, 1916 meeting was
the beautiful home of Mrs. Hugh Matheson . It would be hard to do
justice to a description of the terrace with its setting of plants, the tall pines
on the lawn with the water in the distance showing through the oleanders.
The weather was perfect for an out of door party and those present will
not soon forget the charming picture the large number of visitors and
members made (CGAS minutes, 3/6/1916).
The society went to Little River in April 1916 where a meeting
was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles T. Simpson, he the noted
naturalist and botanist:
After the meeting the party was asked to visit Professor Simpson's
wonderful hammock,'Simpson's Tangle,'which proved most interest-
ing. The Tangle is located on the shore of Biscayne Bay, in a dense
hammock. Professor Simpson has carefully guarded the native trees,
built walks and placed seats . also introduced many very rare
shrubs and plants, many of which were in full bloom. Among the rare
plants there are none more rare than the orchids. Of these Professor
Simpson has a great number of the choicest and most rare orchids
grown in any part of the world. The visit to the Tangle added much
pleasure to the meeting (CGAS minutes, 4/9/1916).
With few exceptions every meeting was opened with a bird poem,
"a special one chosen for the day," read by Mrs. Kilbourne, who was
officially appointed as "Society Poet" in June 1915. Many well known
poems by famous authors were read including Wordsworth's "Ode to
the Skylark," Vandyke's "The Goodluck Bird," and William Cullen
Bryant's "To a Waterfowl." The poetry reading was billed as a"feature
of the meetings" and a newspaper article dated January 13, 1916, gives
the following account: "Of course the meeting was opened with the
reading of a bird poem by Mrs. Kilbourne and this time it was a lovely
bit of bluebird verse. That made us all rejoice."
The treasurer's report was read at every meeting but rarely included
actual dollar figures. The minutes of the November 1915 meeting
indicate a balance of $87.47 in the treasury. The treasurer's ledger
reflects $57.40 as of March 1916, which grew to $174.09 by May 1916.
The society was primarily financed by members' dues. Of note,
however, is a series of contributions by Charles Deering totaling $300
in donations, over a six-year period. This amount was in addition to
the initial $25 fee for his life membership. The only mention of any of
these donations occurred at the February 5, 1917 meeting when Mrs.
Munroe "reported several gifts, one of which was a check from Mr.
Charles Deering for $50 which he called his modest contribution to the
Other less substantial monetary donations to the society included
one from the Coconut Grove Rangers:
at the last meeting of the Rangers it was decided to give the money
belonging to the organization to Mrs. Kirk Munroe, to use in some way
for the birds. This money was only a part of the original sum of eleven
dollars left after the Miami Bank failure, from which every society in the
county suffered loss. So now after five years it has been decided to give this
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 15
money in cash prizes to the Coconut Grove school children for bird work
Another children's club also made a donation to the society:
Mrs. Archer announced that her girls' club, "The Jenny Wrens" which
disbanded three years ago had voted to donate the money left in the
treasury, nearly $1.00, to the Audubon Society. Same was accepted with
thanks to Mrs. Archer (CGAS Minutes, 10/4/1915).
Many donations of a non-monetary nature were made to the
society including books, bird charts, and the Audubon buttons from
an anonymous donor. Mrs. Charles Boyd of East Walpole, Massachu-
setts, donated three bird charts and a book on water birds to the society
at the June 7, 1915 meeting. Mrs. Bancroft Davis of Boston donated a
Brownie camera to be given as a prize to school children, and Mrs.
Gifford donated two books and a calendar. Mr. Deering sent another
donation for supplies and "a vote of thanks was given Mr. Deering for
the many helps to the society, including stationary printed, stamps, etc."
The minutes and ledger indicate that regular expenditures were
made on printing and stationary, ($19.15), postal cards, ($2), and
stamps, (10 cents). Payment of $5 in dues to the FAS and tothe National
Association is also recorded in the ledger.
The society made contributions to other organizations such as
$5 to the Red Cross. When the society gave $5 to the Humane Society it
asked "that the officer do what he could for the protection of birds and
send a report of what he had done" (CGAS Minutes, 6/7/1915).
The meetings did not regularly include any program, in the enter-
tainment sense of the word, such as guest speakers or slide shows.
Several special programs are worth mentioning however. The May 1916
meeting "was brought to a close by a very clever recitation in French
about birds given by Miss Alice Crawford." Miss Crawford also per-
formed at the December 6, 1916 meeting with "a whistling tune" and
again at the April 2, 1917 meeting at which time she "very cleverly
imitated the notes of the wren, bob white, and the cardinal."
Another "entertainer" was Miss Isabell Goodhue who attended
the first annual meeting of the CGAS. According to a news article
from March 1916,
. a little lady stepped out from behind the palms dressed in a gown
of greens and browns made especially for out of door walking and which
she calls her field dress and was introduced by Kirk Munroe . as the
Florida Audubon's field agent. Miss Goodhue gave a charming talk on
birds and delighted everyone by her clever imitation of bird notes and calls.
Miss Goodhue performed again at the second annual meeting
when she read "her stirring appeal for the birds, describing her trip
across the continent lecturing on the importance of conserving bird life.
Her imitation of bird notes and songs are truly wonderful" (CGAS
minutes, 3/3/1917). The treasurer's ledger indicates a payment of $15
to Miss Goodhue on March 5, 1917.
A "special bird musical meeting" was held on June 21, 1915:
the members of the CGAS were invited to gather at Mrs. John
Gifford's and enjoy listening to a set of bird music records, given by
Kellogg the bird song man . After the records were finished Mrs.
Gifford and Miss Andrus played the first two parts of Beethoven's
Pastoral Symphony . in which occur the notes of the Wren, Yellow
Hammer, Lark, Dove, and Cuckoo. It is needless to say how delightful it
all was (Tropic, 1915:28).
The majority of the meetings were business-oriented, however,
with many discussions, letter readings and papers. The following is a
list of the papers for the year 1915-1916:
Mrs. Charles T. Simpson, "Historical Sketch of Audubon Societies"
Mrs. Wyatt, "Bird Reservations of the United States"
Mrs. H.K.B. Davis, "Bird Sanctuaries and How to Make Them"
Mrs. R.L. Stewart, "Land Birds of Florida"
Mrs. Florence P. Haden, "Economic Value of Birds"
A March 1916 news article reported that "these papers are so
interesting and full of valuable material that they have been entered
among the papers of the Florida Federation of Womens Club Bureau
of Information, so that club women of the state may have the benefit
of the knowledge they contain."
The meetings always concluded with a social hour. Here again
the secretaries chose to record for posterity every detail of the hostesses'
house and refreshments. The January 3, 1916 meeting adjourned and
"all enjoyed the tea and cake served by Mrs. Munroe in her usual
gracious manner." At the May meeting of the same year, Mrs. Kil-
bourne, "the hostess of the day," served "dainty refreshments she had
prepared for her guests." As a special treat in January 1917, "the guests
were given the very charming little bird cards painted in watercolors by
Mrs. Wade, and Mrs. Munroe served tea, chocolate and much
Education has always been a primary concern of Audubon
Societies at the national, state, and local levels. At the very first meeting
of the CGAS, Kirk Munroe stated, "the school children have been
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 17
pretty well instructed in bird lore, but . there is need of instruction
about the value of birds in the community" (CGAS minutes,
The society wasted no time in beginning their work. At the second
meeting Mrs. Davis reported a plan for work in "colored town and she
suggested that we form a bird society for the colored boys and have
them pay a small fee of 10 cents and pledge themselves not to kill birds
but to protect them and that they be given some sort of badge" (CGAS
minutes, 5/3/1915). At the meeting in June, Mrs. Munroe outlined the
work the society proposed to do in schools that season, "not only in
our public schools but in the colored public schools as well." Mrs.
Munroe called for volunteers for the "school work" and Mrs. Gifford,
Mrs. Schober, Mrs. Haden, Mrs. Heso and Mrs. Hugh Matheson
A board meeting was called by the president on August 28, 1915
specifically to plan the work in schools for the fall:
It was decided to begin work at St. Aibans and the colored school on the
15th of October by addressing the schools and presenting the materials
to work with. A prize will be given to both schools. The St. Albans school
children will be allowed to wear the robin button, the children to pay for
them. Two prizes will be offered, one to the girls and one to the boys for
the best poem written about the mocking bird. One prize will be offered to
the boys for the best imitation made of the mocking bird whistle or call.
Both prizes will be worth working for and will be awarded at the annual
meeting of the CGAS (CGAS minutes, 8/28/1915),
The ladies began their work that fall and at the November 1915
Full and interesting reports were read concerning the visits to St. Albans
school and the Coconut Grove colored school. Mrs. Munroe said the
St. Albans class was called the robin classand the class in the colored public
school the red-headed woodpecker class. She reported great enthusiasm
on the part of the pupils and trusted that the work would be of lasting
benefit . the last day of each month in both schools was to be
designated as Audubon Day (CGAS Minutes, 11 / I / 1915).
Special thanks were given to Mr. J.W. Asbury, the principal of the
Coconut Grove school and a charter member of the society,
for his interest shown in the work, and the thoughtful arrangements made
for doing it. In fact, Nature Study in the Coconut Grove School is one of
the taking features, and makes study of all kinds more pleasant for Mr.
Asbury's pupils (Tropic, 1915:33).
The treasurer's ledger indicates many expenditures for education-
related items including "book for school teacher, $2.00", "colored plates
for public school children, 70c", "6 prizes for schools, $5.10", "1 dozen
bird primers, $1.50", and "Bird Notebooks, $8.00."
The society received good press coverage in the two newspapers
which were being published at the time, The Miami Metropolis and
The Miami Herald. Almost every month articles appeared in one or
both papers. The articles are quite detailed and descriptive and contain
many personal observations of the various reporters.
At its first meeting in April 1915, the society voted to have Tropic
Magazine as its organ. Established by Deloss LeBaronPerrine of Buena
Vista, Tropic Magazine was first published in April 1914. It sold for
10 cents and had thirty pages with a black and white cover photo. The
first issue contained articles by the naturalist, Charles T. Simpson, and
a poem by Kirk Munroe. In its third issue an announcement was made:
A treat is in store for readers of the Tropic Magazine in the 'Bird Gossip'
series, by Mrs. Kirk Munroe, which begins in this issue and will continue
through the year. While not claiming the technical knowledge of the
ornithologist, Mrs. Munroe, who has been an active member of the
Audubon Society for years, is a lover of birds and a keen observer of bird-
life, which makes her articles of the more interest to the general reader
(Tropic, June, 1914:7).
The first article was entitled "Listen to the Mocking Bird" and at
the end of it another editorial appeared,
To help interest more of the Boy Scouts and Camp Fire Girls in our birds,
and to aid in illustrating Mrs. Munroe's 'Bird Gossip' series . we
offer One Dollar in cash each month for the best photograph, taken
afield, of any of our native birds. The subjects must be large enough to
reproduce in . The Tropic Magazine.
The bird life sketches ran for three more months and included
"The Nighthawk, Whip-poor-will, and Chuck-will's widow", "Ever-
glades Birds" and "Autumn Birds of Southern Florida." In May 1915,
several months after the first meeting of the CGAS, Mrs. Munroe began
to report on the monthly activities of the society in Tropic. The first
article in this series included a photograph of the original Coconut
The society published several brochures of its own including a
leaflet, How to Study the Birds, which was distributed free. Charles T.
Simpson wrote a leaflet especially for the society entitled, A List of
Trees, Shrubs and Plants Whose Fruits are Eaten by the Birds; in-
cluded were lists of native as well as cultivated plants to which birds
are attracted. It is interesting to note that Fairchild Tropical Garden
in Miami offers classes in this very subject in 1985.
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 19
The members of the CGAS were concerned about all aspects of
birds, from sightings in their own backyards to lobbying state legis-
lators for passage of game and plumage laws. The members talked
continuously about birds; they laughed about their peculiar habits,
wrote about them in poems and papers, and imitated their songs.
At the July 1916 meeting,
Mrs. Schober asked the ladies to give their personal experiences as to
when they first became interested in birds as a study. It was interesting
to find that while most of those present had taken some interest in birds
as younger women and children their interest seems to have intensified
in some way about nine or ten years ago (CGAS Minutes, 7/1916).
The members kept abreast of current legislation and were proud
of their knowledge about birds. When Mrs. Stevenson read a paper on
"men and women who worked for birds," the secretary noted,
The paper was a beautiful one and full of interesting facts, and it is a great
comfort to know that we are familiar with the works of most of the men
and women that she mentioned (CGAS minutes, 2/5/1917).
Despite the bittersweet battles and continual conflicts involved
in the bird protection movement, the members were able to maintain
a sense of humor. The secretary noted that a man had sent some corn
and asked what he could do to protect his crops besides killingthe birds.
The society decided to simply offer him a vote of thanks for feeding the
At the very first meeting of the society Mrs. Munroe "spoke of the
need of a more intelligent study of birds and bird protection."Thus the
following committees were formed and their respective chairmen
Bird Laws Mrs. Munroe, Bird Sanctuaries Mrs. Davis, Some
Experiences with Birds Mrs. Schober, Bird Nests- Mrs. Spaulding,
Economic Value of Birds Mrs. Haden, Bird Reservations Mrs.
Wyatt, and Bird Music Mrs. Church and Mrs. Richardson.
One particular bird was selected for study and observation at
each meeting. Some technical and factual information was provided,
but mostly amusing stories were told by members. The subject of the
June 7, 1915 meeting was the Florida jay. It was reported that the bird
had "been seen as far south as Little River this being the farthest south
yet recorded." The jays were discussed as being of four different types:
the Northern, Southern, California and Florida. Mrs. Gifford "gave
a graphic account of seeing blue jays dancing on the pine tree limbs."
The Florida grackle was the subject of the January 3, 1916 meet-
ing. "The president asked for incidents of interest relative to the Florida
grackle, which had been seen in great numbers around Coconut Grove
for about ten days, and various members responded with interesting
incidents describing their many peculiarities." Mrs. Ross, wife of
Admiral Ross, who was spending the winter at Camp Biscayne, told,
most delightfully of how at one navy station the birds were driven away
on account of the noise and destruction they caused. The method was so
simple and effectual that it's worth knowing. Roman candles were fired
off in the trees where the birds went to roost, in two days they left and did
not return (The Miami Metropolis, January 3, 1916).
Other bird anecdotes by members included Mrs. Munroe's story
about "night herons which had made themselves very much at home on
her lawn bringing their food picnic fashion to eat on the grass and like
many picnickers leaving their scraps for others to clean up" (CGAS
minutes, 1/3/1916). "Mrs. Simpson told a very pretty story of her
splendid and intelligent cat and a wren's nest" (CGAS minutes,
8/7/1916). "Mrs. Gifford asked for an opinion as to the bad habits of
the blue jay and the society exonerated him. He received a good many
compliments" (CGAS minutes, 6/1916).
A highlight of the CGAS meetings were Mrs. Howard's Bird
Notes. In December, 1915: "Mrs. J. Edward Howard was asked to
collect each month any stray bits of information about birds that
often appear in magazines and newspapers and make a chapter of them
in the benefit of the society . ." (CGAS minutes, 3/6/1916). An
August 1916 news article reported that these notes were always
interesting because: "Mrs. Howard is especially happy in the selection
and arrangement of the notes, so the Bird Chapter is always looked
forward to by the members."
Mrs. Howard was not happy about cats killing birds and the
minutes reflect a long-running battle between Mrs. Howard and the
cats of Coconut Grove. She used part of her Bird Notes to preach the
evils of the "birds' worst enemies."
Mrs. Howard's bird notes were full of interesting points about bird life,
especially in regard to belling the cat, a new way of preventing the domestic
cat from catching birds (CGAS minutes, 7/1916).
Our chronicler never fails to get in a word in behalf of her beloved birds
and seizes upon any help that she finds toward the elimination of their
enemies, especially the cats (CGAS minutes, 2/5 / 1917).
The society voted to adopt John Burrough's birthday, April 3,
as "Bird Day." Burroughs was a poet and author affectionately known
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 21
as "John O'Birds" who wrote several popular books including Wake
Robin (1871) and Birds and Poets (1877). By his own admission he had
caught "bird fever" from Audubon in 1863 and became a "great
popularizer of bird study" (Doughty:40). The Miami Metropolis
reported on May 6, 1915,
bird day was beautifully observed at the Coconut Grove School. Songs
and talks on the feathery tribe were made by Principal Asbury and Kirk
Munroe. Mr. Munroe told of the life of Audubon, the great friend of the
birds. He showed the children why birds should be protected and by
asking a number of questions of the children, made the talk intensely
interesting. At the end of his address he received a great ovation.
At the April 2, 1917 meeting the society was reminded, "April 3 is
Bird Day and all Audubon members are asked to observe it in some
way if only to say a kind word for the birds."
The society was concerned about the wearing of aigrettes, the
feathers of the herons and egrets. At the first meeting, Mrs. Munroe
"made an appeal for two plume-bearing birds the egret and snowy
heron . ." At the June 1915 meeting a letter was read from Mr.
Stanley Henson, U.S. District Inspector of Migratory Birds, in regard
to the aigrettes worn in Miami.
He said that he had never seen so many anywhere in the U.S. but since
Mr. Henson's work they have almost disappeared. The society promised
to send literature to any person reported by any members of the society
as to wearing egrets. One was reported . but she could not secure
the wearer's name.
A 1915 news article gave Miami Judge Barco's opinion on the
subject: "The women who wear aigrettes in their hats are as much
violators of the law as are the men who sneak to the rookeries of the
birds and shoot the harmless creatures down for the sake of a few
dimes . ."
Finally, Mrs. Munroe had her own method of dealing with the
situation. According to Blackman,
Wheresoe'er Mrs. Munroe's keen eye saw an aigrette waving, there she
followed, cornering the wearer be it on the street, in the crowded hotel
lobby, on the beach, at church or entertainment or party there com-
pelled her to listen to the story of cruelty and murder of which her vanity
was the contributing cause. And Mrs. Munroe was eloquent. It was not
unusual for women to be reduced to tears, whether of anger or humilia-
tion or repentance, and several were known to have taken off their hats
and destroyed their aigrettes as a result of their encounter with Mrs.
Mary Barr Munroe was truly ahead of her time and one of the
pioneer conservationists of the twentieth century. In referring to the
battle against plume hunters and aigrette wearers, Blackman calls
her "probably our most militant power."
The pet conservation project of the society was establishing bird
sanctuaries within the town of Coconut Grove, as well as designating
the entire town a bird sanctuary. One place of particular interest was
the local cemetery. At the first meeting Mrs. Munroe said she "hoped
there would be many bird sanctuaries in Coconut Grove, especially
at Woodlawn Cemetery." The ladies took her directive and asked the
owners of the cemetery "to make it a bird sanctuary by protecting the
birds, erecting feeding houses and bath pools for the birds in this
sanctuary of the dead" (Tropic, 1915:23). At the second meeting of
the society a letter was read from the secretary of Woodlawn Cemetery,
"saying that they would be glad to establish a bird sanctuary . .
that they would write for a description of the one in Woodlawn
Cemetery in New York and copy the plan as far as possible."Two years
later at the January 1917 meeting, the Committee on Bird Sanctuaries
a visit had been made to Woodlawn Cemetery and it was found that the
superintendent, M r. Sutcliffe, was very much interested in both plants and
birds. They have a fountain and basin and are planning several other
places where birds can get water and have shade, and are going to put up
An interesting issue arose at the February 5, 1917 meeting when
a letter was read "from someone in Miami in regard to a caged American
eagle." A Miami Herald article, dated March 1917 was headlined,
"Black Eagle Soared Away to Freedom." The article reported,
A large eagle held in captivity for the past six weeks by William F. Bruhns,
owner of a curio shop at 213 Twelfth Street, was liberated yesterday in
Brickell Hammock . for the benefit of those who may have thought
that because of his name Mr. Bruhns is a German and wished to show his
contempt for America by keeping an American eagle in captivity, it may
be said that Mr. Bruhns is a loyal American citizen born in Philadelphia
and living in the U.S. all his life and is ready and willing to show his
patriotism as any other citizen.
At the April 2, 1917 meeting the president made a full explanation
of the case of the caged American eagle in Miami. She had investigated
its condition and found that while the bird was not badly treated, it was
dirty. The man promised to clean it and its cage and he did so. Later
the man set the bird free.
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 23
The longest running conservation project of the society was
Royal Palm State Park. For several years before the society was
established, Mrs. W.S. Jennings, wife of Governor Jennings (1901-
1905), and president of the Florida Federation of Womens' Clubs
(FFWC), led the battle to acquire Royal Palm Hammock, or Paradise
Key, as a state park. According to Jennings, however, Mrs. Kirk
Munroe, chairman of the Forestry Committee of the FFWC "is due
the honor of first suggesting that Royal Palm Hammock be conserved
by the Federation." Botanist Dr. John K. Small visited the hammock
and published a detailed description in the Journal of the New York
Botanical Garden in 1919. He recorded 162 native species of flowering
plants and thirteen species of ferns. According to Small,
the most striking feature of the Hammock vegetation that which
makes it unique- is the presence of upwards of a hundred tall and grace-
ful royal palms (Roystonea regia) which tower far above the rest of the
forest . reaching 100 to 120 feet in height (W.E. Safford, Natural
History of Paradise Key:378).
Charles T. Simpson also compiled a list of native plant species
which was submitted with the park bill in 1915. The resolution finally
agreed to by the state and the FFWC Board of Directors involved the
latter securing an additional 960 acres to match the state's donation
of 960 acres. On June 5, 1915, Governor Park Trammell signed the
legislative act creating Royal Palm State Park. Soon after the law
passed, Mrs. Henry Flagler donated 960 acres as an endowment,
which concluded and fully complied with the legislative act, making
the grant perpetual.
In November 1915, the FFWC created a park committee and Mrs.
John Gifford was appointed as chairman because, according to Mrs.
Jennings, "she has proved indefatigable in her efforts for the park."
The federation's original proposal to the legislature had included
money for care and improvement of the park, but this was not part of
the final resolution. Mrs. Gifford was concerned about the safety of
the park and felt a caretaker was needed. Thus the ladies embarked
on a fundraising campaign to pay the salary of such a person. Mrs.
Gifford acted as the liaison between the park and the CGAS and she
often gave a report or read a letter about the current status of the park.
In May 1916, the society voted to donate $10 for the warden's salary
and at another meeting Mrs. Gifford reported that she had received
$20 sent to her by a member of the Audubon Society for the park.
Charles A. Mosier of Little River was hired as game warden on
March 1, 1916 and was described as a "botanist of no mean ability and
a very energetic man." The CGAS again donated $10 in April 1917.
According to Tebeau,
"at the annual meeting in Daytona Beach in 1929, upon the recommen-
dation of Mrs. W.S. Jennings . the Federation offered the Park they
had maintained since its creation thirteen years earlier to the Everglades
National Park if and when it should be created. Appropriately enough,
the first visitors' center established in the Park was at Paradise Key."
(They Lived in the Park: 133).
The annual meetings of the CGAS provided an opportunity to
review each year's accomplishments. The first annual meeting was held
March 6, 1916 and a news article described the scene:
There never was a more beautiful setting for an airy assemblage especially
an Audubon meeting, than the terrace and lawns of Hugh Matheson's
home or a more gracious hostess than Mrs. Matheson . attheannual
meeting of the Coconut Grove Audubon Society. The weather was
perfect, even the birds seemed to realize that it was a meeting in honor
of them, by singing and calling and doing so just at the proper time.
The president opened the meeting with a "pleasant little speech
about the first annual meeting and called upon Mrs. Kilbourne to read
the poem she had chosen for the occasion." Mrs. Kilbourne gave a
list of poems she had read during the past year and Mrs. Howard re-
viewed the papers of the year and "made those who had prepared them
feel happy." The treasurer's report indicated a balance of $85, with
$115 received and $30 expended. Fifty-three people were recorded as
paid members and the society was affiliated with the FAS and the
National Association of Audubon Societies. A news article dated
March 1916 detailed the president's report:
. given six prizes to school children, contributed to the bird exhibit
at Deland during the meeting of the FFWC . written many letters
not only to Tallahassee officials but to others interested in the game laws
of thestate . presented31argecoloredbirdchartstothepublicschool,
and several bird books and distributed a great deal of Audubon literature
. also presented Frank Chapman's book on "Birds for Teacher" to
the principal of the colored school . reported law breakers of the
game laws to the proper authorities, sent news notes about birds to the
papers . given three talks on bird protection to schools and clubs -
one special one to the Fort Pierce Womens Club by request . .
Elections were held and all were re-elected except for a new
treasurer, Mrs. Mather. The president of the FAS, W.F. Blackman,
was present and highly complimented the society on its work. He gave
a short address and was followed by the famous Miss Goodhue and
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 25
her amazing bird calls. "Everyone enjoyed the afternoon. There were
many distinguished guests present and twenty-nine new members
were added to the society" (CGAS minutes, 3/6/1916).
Few details about the second annual meeting could be found. It
was held on March 3, 1917, at Mrs. Arthur Curtis James' beautiful
mansion, "Four Way Lodge." As usual, Mrs. Kilbourne read a bird
poem at the opening of the meeting:
The president read her report which covered the year's work and showed
what a tremendous lot of work the society has accomplished in addition
to the twelve delightful and inspiring meetings we have had. Many have
become interested in birds who had known almost nothing about them
before becoming an Audubon member(CGAS minutes 3/3/ 1917).
The first death of a member of the society was reported during
this second year of operation:
The president asked the society to stand while she told of the death of one
of our members, Miss Eleanor Kirkbride of Philadelphia. A memorial
has been gotten up by Mrs. Bancroft Davis and $72 had already been
collected. This memorial fund is to be used to buy garden seed for the
children of St. Albans school. The CGAS donated one dollar toward
Another "first" occurred during this year:
Mrs. Munroe then announced the birth of the first baby among our
members, Finlay Matheson, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Matheson,
and the secretary was instructed to send the congratulations of the club
to the parents of the boy (CGAS minutes, 9/4/1916).
The original birth announcement is included with the minutes
on file at the Historical Museum.
Although the activities of the CGAS may be entertaining to the
reader, it was a most serious organization. The society's agendas were
comparable to any modern environmental organization's agendas,
for sheer number of urgent problems. The secretaries wrote innu-
merable letters, corresponding with top state and national govern-
mental officials. The society sent delegates to Tallahassee, participated
in state meetings, and even helped write legislation.
The society was predominately feminine, both in membership
and in active involvement. The ladies' concern for "our feathered
friends," their tea parties, and their appreciation of the natural environ-
ment added a warm feeling to the society. The CGAS was an example
of grassroots environmental activism at its finest.
As if Mrs. Munroe didn't have enough to do, she established
another Audubon Society in 1918, this time in the city of Miami.
According to the minutes of the first meeting,
The beginning of a great power for good work along one line of conserva-
tion was when Mrs. Kirk Munroe called to order a small gathering of
women (13) at the Womens Club Building, Miami, Florida, at 3 pm,
January 17, 1918. Mrs. Munroe stated that she acted in her capacity as
chairman of the Committee on Bird Protection of the FFWC and that
there was a great need of such an organization to help the CGAS exert
influence along this important line of bird food conservation (Miami
Audubon Society minutes, I / 17/1918).
Minutes for eighteen meetings of the Miami Audubon Society
(MAS) are available, 1918-1920. The following officers were elected
the first year: Mrs. Jerome Gratigny, president, Mrs. Charles T.
Simpson, vice president, Mrs. Caddigan, treasurer, and Mrs. Hiram
Byrd, secretary pro-tem. Mrs. Simpson later resigned and Mrs.
Munroe assumed the office of vice president. Mrs. Gratigny's husband
was the estate manager for Charles Deering who was having poaching
problems at his home in Buena Vista.
The MAS was the first "bird society" to join the FFWC which
meant men were honorary members of the society. The MAS was
also quite involved with Royal Palm State Park, sponsoring a "field
day" there and participating in a bird survey of the area. The motto of
the society was "a readiness for the duty of the hour."
Other meeting minutes of the CGAS are on file at the Historical
Museum dating from 1929 to 1933, but are beyond the scope of this
article. Briefly, the officers were Mrs. A.B. Wade, president, Mrs.
Jessie Munroe, secretary/treasurer, and Mrs. Harlan Trapp, vice
president. Twelve years after the first set of minutes ended, the ladies
were still reading bird poems, still swapping bird notes, and continuing
to work for the protection of south Florida's unique natural environ-
Coconut Grove Audubon Society 27
Blackman. Lucy Worthington, "The Florida Audubon Society," pamphlet on file at the
Historical Museum of Southern Florida, Miami, Florida, n.d.
Blackman, Lucy Worthington, The Women of Florida. (The Biographies).
The Southern Historical Publishing Associates, 1940.
Buchheister, Carl W. and Frank Graham Jr., "From the Swamps and Back"
Audubon, Vol. 75, No. I, 1973.
Doughty, Robin W., Feather Fashions and Bird Preservation.
Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1975.
Jennings, Mrs. W.S., "Royal Palm State Park"
Tropic Magazine, Vol. IV, No. 1, 1916.
Laws of Florida 1901 and 1913.
The Tallahassee Book and Job Printers, Tallahassee, Florida.
Parks. Arva Moore, "The History of Coconut Grove, Florida, 1821-1925,"
Masters thesis on file at the University of Miami Library.
Coral Gables, Florida, 1971.,
Persons, Todd, The First One Hundred Years,
Maitland, Florida: The Florida Audubon Society, 1975.
Safford, W.E, "Natural History of Paradise Key"
Smithsonian Report/for 1917. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1919.
Tebeau, Charlton W., They Lived in the Park.
Miami, Florida: University of Miami Press, 1963.
Tropic Magazine, 1914-1916.
on file at the Historical Museum of Southern Florida, Miami. Florida,
"The Best Beach in Dade County"l
By Frederick H. Harrington
It is still a wonderful beach though it is no longer in Dade
County. Seminole Beach is one of the forgotten developments
that scattered the South Florida landscape with the bones of dead
dreams. It belongs with Inter-Ocean City, Holleman Park, Fulford-
by-the-Sea and other schemes to build a fortune in a sub-tropical land.
Some of these ventures were poorly planned or badly located.
Some were successful and survive as part of another city. Some
were poorly timed, too soon or too late. Seminole Beach was too
soon. In spite of an excellent location and delightful beach, it was
doomed before it began. Events no one could control or foresee
made success impossible.
Famine in Ireland was the push to begin a career that provided
financing for Seminole Beach. The 1914 war in Europe caused
inflation that made failure certain. The money was the life savings
of an Irish immigrant, a successful Irish contractor.
The immigrant was Thomas Hamilton, naturalized in 1856
at Cleveland, Ohio.2 He was born January 4th, 1833 at Saintfield,
County Down, North Ireland.
Though of a family of landowners, the potato famine and
panic of 1848-49 made life in Ireland impossible.3 He and a brother
took advantage of the offer of a labor recruiter and sailed for
America and Cleveland in 1850. There they were to help build
a new post office.4
Frederick H. Harrington, retired and living in Hialeah, was born in Miami and
graduated from Miami High School. He is the great grandson of Thomas Hamilton and
has in his possession many of the letters and other papers about Seminole Beach referred
to in the notes.
Seminole Beach 29
Thomas fulfilled his contract with the recruiter, working until
the post office building was completed on Cleveland's Public Square.
He was a good worker, soon a foreman, perfecting his skills as a
builder who would help Cleveland grow.
Cleveland was rapidly expanding and Thomas Hamilton soon
learned to apply his construction experience to the contracting
field. He was successful and had a part in building many Cleveland
landmarks. Among his clients was John D. Rockefeller who lived
nearby in East Cleveland.
By the first years of the twentieth century he was feeling
the effects of long years of very hard work. An accident with an adz
had caused a leg injury which refused to heal, and many years
of Ohio winters had begun to show in colds and chest infections
that did not go away.
A friend and neighbor, Dr. John Griese, prescribed a trip to
a warmer climate. Thomas did not need much persuading. He was
involved in a church quarrel, the result of building Park Congregational
Church.5 The quarrel and the misery he felt made the decision easy.6
Florida was his choice. Henry M. Flagler, a business associate
of Rockefeller, had built a Florida railroad and was advertising the
state intensely. Miamian Julia Tuttle had asked both for advice.7
Thomas Hamilton set off for Florida after Christmas of 1907.
It was a tortuous railroad journey of more than three days with
train changes at Cincinnati, Louisville, Atlanta and Jacksonville
before he was delivered to the Ponce de Leon Hotel at St. Augustine.
This old town was not what he had in mind, too old and too social.
Thomas took the advice of an acquaintance and boarded the train
Daytona did not impress Thomas. Mr. Casper, a friend from
Cleveland, had more advice; he should see Miami before returning
The Flagler System supplied another slow train through the
south, one that traveled a rough new roadbed and stopped at every
station. It had a coal fired engine and as warming weather made
open windows necessary, the passengers were showered with a constant
rain of soot and sparks. It was a tedious ride through endless corridors
of slash pine scarred with turpentine taps.
In Miami at last, he stayed at the Seminole Hotel on Twelfth
Street, now Flagler.9 This was a traveling salesman's hotel and more
to the taste of Thomas Hamilton than the society ridden Ponce de
Leon of St. Augustine. It was in the middle of town and he could
walk to see all there was of Miami.10
An experienced developer, he saw opportunity everywhere.
The empty high and dry waterfront property available all around
caught his eye. The warm soft breezes in mid-winter made him feel
better at once. This time he did not stay in Miami but, after a look
around, entrained for St. Augustine to use the return portion of the
excursion ticket from Cleveland.
Back home he liquidated his property, selling everything he
could for cash, until he had $42,000. He returned to Miami in the
fall of 1908."
By good planning or good luck, he arrived in time for an auction
of Brickell property being held on the steps of the Bank of Bay Biscayne,
on the comer of Miami Avenue and Flagler Street. Thomas bid
actively and bought lots and blocks of vacant land, subdivided with
streets laid out, along Miami Avenue between Southwest Eighth
Street and Southwest Fifteenth Road, which was not then dedicated.12
His enthusiastic bidding made the sellers wary. They sent word to the
Brickell office questioning the old man's credit. The answer came
promptly from Charlie Brickell, "Sell him everything; he's got money."
He was covered of course. When he arrived he had put his $42,000
in the First National Bank, made friends with president Ed Romfh,
and established credit.13
He never returned to Ohio to live, but set to work at once. He
explored the area and enjoyed the beach. He had purchased con-
siderable property that he planned to develop. It was a simple plan -
build houses to sell.
The Seminole Hotel was all right for a short stay. Still he wanted
something a little more settled. Perhaps he needed a better address
than a drummer's roost, perhaps he just wanted to live on his own
land. He began to build a house.
The new house was small, frame construction, with one bedroom,
intended for the old man only. The splurge at the auction had attracted
attention and the new white house became known as "Uncle Tom's
Cabin". He lived alone with a Bahamian woman to clean and wash.
Thomas had visitors. The folks in Cleveland were concerned.
He had vanished without a trace, not writing or replying to telegrams.
His son Herbert came down to see what was going on and reported
the old man doing well but the cooking was poor. Herbert did not
think well of Miami as compared to Cleveland. '4
Seminole Beach 31
When he did begin correspondence, the letters were short and
vague about his life in Florida. He wrote for medicines and materials
for his building projects. In a letter of April 17, 1911 he complained
that, "Everything you buy here costs almost double." It was necessary
to order hardware, plumbing, doors and windows from the north.
He bought from Sears and Roebuck whose prices he thought much
lower than the local supply companies.
His letters indicated that he was lonely, that his projects were
burdensome. In January 1911, his granddaughter, Mary, visited,
staying at the Seminole Hotel. He wrote, "Mary is homesick and may
>e home anytime although she is having a good time." Thomas offered
:o set up a dress shop for her if she would stay with him. Though she
had experience in clerking in such a shop, she refused. The attraction
of home and friends in Cleveland was too much. As soon as she could,
she went back to Ohio.
In April 1911, he reported, "I bought the lot on the bay." This
lot was near Southeast Tenth Street. The old man expected to find
a beach like the ocean where he could wade and find shells. Instead,
he waded into the bay and cut his feet badly on sharp rocks and had
to be rescued. He sold the lot hurriedly causing title and collection
In May 1911 he wrote to Cleveland, "I have been putting on the
lot where I live orange, grapefruit, mango and guava trees." He had
begun a new and more elaborate house on Southwest Twelfth Street,
across the street from the small frame house where he was living.
More and more friends and relatives were coming to Miami and he
The new house was made of poured concrete with two stories
and a large front porch. It was not a house for Florida living. It faced
the wrong way (north) and had small windows and small rooms.
It was the same house he had been building in Ohio and a total failure
during Miami's hot summers.
In the same letter of May 8, 1911, he invited his grandson to
come south and help him with his many ventures. This was Thomas B.
Hamilton, then sixteen and a junior in high school. He had been
accepted as an engineering student at Case School of Applied Science,
now part of Case Western Reserve University. In return for the help
he needed, the old man offered, "If your folks are willing I will give
you a partnership in real estate and building but I don't adviseanybody.
You better take an excursion down here and see for yourself. Your
mother would be mad if I coaxed you here."'5
When he graduated in 1912 Thomas B. Hamilton (who will be
called Tom to distinguish him from his grandfather, Thomas Hamilton)
decided that a summer in Florida would be a dandy adventure allowing
him to look around before starting at Case in the fall. He guessed
that the grandfather's supervision would be less strict than the parental
oversight of his mother and father in Cleveland. Tom set out for
Miami which he found much to his taste, a lively frontier town which
he never again left willingly.
In 1911, when Thomas Hamilton began to develop his land,
Miami was still a small town. There were barely 10,000 people,
almost all north of the Miami River.16 Beyond the city line was a
string of stations on the new railroad: Buena Vista, Lemon City,
Little River, Arch Creek, Fulford and on.
Julia Tuttle and Henry Flagler included deed restrictions on
property they sold forbidding the sale or possession of spirits in
Miami. Since they owned most of the property, this led to the
establishment of an area of bars and other enterprises just beyond
city jurisdiction and called North Miami, Police protection and
most civilization stopped just north of the cemetery at seventeenth
Along the river were a few fish houses, warehouses and marine
railroads for boat building and repair. At Miami Avenue there was
a swing bridge that led to the southside, the Brickell house, and a
few settlers trying to become vegetable and fruit growers. The Collins
bridge to Miami Beach was not opened until 1913. To go swimming
in the ocean or beachcombing, you took the launch Sallie or Lady
Lou from the dock at Flagler Street and the bay.18 Other boats took
sightseers to Cape Florida or up the Miami River to see the Everglades.
The launches ferried the bathers to the south end of the beach
where a boardwalk brought them to the ocean and Smith's Casino.
Miami Beach was a strip of sand dunes facing the ocean with a
mangrove swamp behind to the bay. The area was owned by John S.
Collins, Quaker and bridge builder, to the north; Carl G. Fisher,
retired from Prestolite, in the middle; and the Lummus brothers,
J. E. of Bank of Bay Biscayne and J. N. of Southern Bank and Trust
Company, to the south. While waiting for the bridge, land sales and
development, Collins planted the high ground in potatoes, bananas
After the fire of 1896, the center of Miami shifted away from
Seminole Beach 33
the river to Flagler Street and Miami Avenue.20 This important
corner had the Bank of Bay Biscayne, Frank T. Budge Hardware
and the Biscayne Hotel. To the west was city hall, the police depart-
ment, the fire department, and the county courthouse. Toward the
bay were Burdines, Mr. Foster's Store, Seminole Hotel, Red Cross
Drug Store, the Halcyon Hotel and Dr. James M. Jackson's home
Before the railroad arrived in 1896, Miami was isolated, reached
only by unscheduled inter-island boats from Key West. It was much
easier to travel from the state capital at Tallahassee by way of New
York and Key West than by land. Walking with the Barefoot Mailman,
who carried the mail by walking the beach, was the easiest way to travel
from Palm Beach. Even with the railroad, it was more comfortable
to take the train from Cleveland to Baltimore, steamer to Jacksonville
and the S.S. Morgan to Miami.22
Grandson Tom dove head first into the swim of this exciting
community and became a plunger with the best. He was of enormous
help to his grandfather running errands, collecting rent, interest
and mortgage payments, and supervising construction on the many
projects underway. He had a sure hand in managing black work
crews. He treated them as workers, not slaves, and they responded
with extra effort. The payroll was on time and, when really needed,
money could be advanced to be paid back next payday. In an era
when most bankers did not make loans to black people, Tom and
his grandfather had mortgage money for good workmen.23
The property bought from the Brickell's proved a good invest-
ment. After the panic of 1907, Miami was expanding rapidly. Every
train brought new people, new buyers and renters for the houses
Thomas was building on the south side.
Once started, Thomas' letters were frequent, addressed to his
grandchildren Ina and Thomas B. Hamilton. On May 31, 1911, he
wrote, "I have the roof on the new house. Wages is very high $3.50
a day for 8 hours." In the letter of July 11, 1911 he wrote, "I sold four
lots on Twenty-fifth Street (now Thirteenth Street) to the Board
of Education for a school house."
Through the summer and fall the letters report the lathing and
plastering of the house. The garden he planted became a harvest of
melons, lettuce, carrots, beets, and cucumbers. The last letter of
the year, December 30, 1911, brags: "The thermometer ranges about
75% never lower than 65% (sic)," in short a booster. His letter of
January 5, 1912 complains "Thermometer stands at 45 degrees the
coldest I have seen yet."24
When grandson Tom arrived in the spring of 1912, the south
side, the area south of the Miami River, was quite empty. Most of
the land was palmettos and pines. Part of it had been cleared or
scarifiedd," which meant removing all of the growth to the bare rock.
South of the Hamilton holdings was part of Brickell Hammock which
extended unbroken to Coconut Grove and beyond. It was hard to
clear and grew back rapidly.
Young Tom was overseeing the building of several houses, all
on the same plan. Called the "California Bungalow," they varied
the houses by reversing the plan or making it larger or smaller. The
result was five or six houses that while similar were not quite alike.
This design was open and better suited to Florida summers. They
sold well, mostly to retirees from the New York area.
All this supervising and collecting was not enough to keep the
grandson busy. He borrowed from the old man and with William
Mizell, Jr. and G. M. Hopkins, built the Atlantic Tire and Supply
Co. on Flagler just west of Miami Avenue. They were agents for Allen
Motor cars, Kelly Springfield, and Diamond and Mohawk (guaranteed
5,000 miles) tires. They pumped gas, sold oil, repaired, and Vulcanized
Another entrepreneur, Hugh F. DuVal, had been busy since
1910 selling Everglades acreage that he called Miami Gardens. He
had 6,000 acres and was promoting it for truck gardens. Hugh's father,
Harvie DuVal, had a contract to survey the range and township
lines from the St. Lucie River south to Miami. In the process the
DuVals located and contracted to buy all the choice bits and pieces
in the area within eight and one half miles of the ocean.26
Florida and the Internal Improvement Board had completely
mis-used the Federal Swamp Land Act of 1850 so that when the
Florida Coast Line Canal Company was granted state land in return
for building the inland waterway from Jacksonville to Miami, there
was not enough land left to meet the state's promise of 1,200,000
acres. They settled for an even million acres.27
By 1892, when the Flagler railroad reached Rockledge near
Cape Canaveral, Flagler learned that there was no more state land
left for the land grants he expected in payment for his railroad building.
The canal company realizing, with persuasion, that their land without
access was nearly worthless, agreed to give the railroad 1500 acres
Seminole Beach 35
for each mile of rail completed south of Rockledge.28
When the DuVals completed the survey, Hugh's brother decided
to stay in Miami where he shortly died. Hugh then returned to
Miami with his brother's partner, J. M. Barrs, a Jacksonville attorney,
to sell the land and settle the estate. Hugh decided to complete
purchase of 6,000 acres of Everglades near Miami and two sections
of land on the south shore of Lake Okeechobee. In addition there
were one hundred and eighty acres on the ocean south of the New
River. Neither DuVal nor Barrs considered the beach property of
any value. They tossed a half dollar for it and DuVal won.
Later Hugh and his secretary, Roy Busby, decided to look at
the beach land. This was not easy. The train left them at Hallandale
but there was no road or bridge to the ocean. They walked through the
tomato fields to the Florida Coast Line Canal, swam across and climbed
the dunes to the beach. Hugh DuVal reported that the beach was
strewn with thousands of board feet of excellent pine lumber, some
schooner's deck load. Hugh wrote, "It was not worth salvaging because
of the low price of lumber, twelve dollars per thousand,"and transport
to Miami was too expensive. Recrossing the canal, Busby was
alarmed when a "long-snouted crocodile" made a swirl in the water
behind him. 29
Hugh DuVal, to facilitate the sale of Miami Gardens acreage,
rented a building on Flagler Street which later became the Red
Cross Drug Store and eventually Jackson Byron's Department store.
This was very near the Atlantic Tire and Supply garage and Tom
Hamilton soon became friendly with Hugh DuVal. When Hugh
spoke of his beach property, Tom and his grandfather were interested.
Thomas Hamilton still wanted to enjoy the beach in spite of his poor
experience with Biscayne Bay, After a look at the Hallandale Beach,
Tom persuaded the old man to put up $4,000 for a one half interest
in a mile of ocean beach.30
In February 1912, before Tom arrived, Thomas took a trip to
Fulford to look at the land. He was not impressed. He wrote, "The
land was some good and some poor," but the large fields of vegetables
interested him. He was more interested in the beach and Tom made
it possible for him to see it by means of a boat which could be rowed
across the Florida Coast Line Canal. Still the trip by car from Miami
along the rough rock road or by rail was slow and there was a difficult
walk from the road or the railroad station at Hallandale to the canal.
They decided to buy a powered sailboat, but the engine was inadequate
for the long trip from Biscayne Bay up the canal. The next boat was a
twenty-foot launch with rounded stern and canopy from front to
back. There were canvas curtains to lower when it rained. It looked
like a miniature sightseeing boat.3'
Pictures of Hallandale Beach of this era show an empty land-
scape. There was no permanent structure on the beach for the thirty
miles between the Biscayne House of Refuge at Surfside and the
House of Refuge on the New River near Fort Lauderdale. These
shelters for wreck survivors were still needed since after the Barefoot
Mailman stopped delivery no one had regular business on the beach,
though visitors came by boat during the egg season to collect eggs
and kill turtles. The beach was littered with flotsam and jetsam of
every sort. Some, such as the lumber DuVal described, was of value
but the difficulty of access and isolation made salvage unprofitable.
The beach was golden sand with a bluff above the highest reach
of storm waves. Beyond the bluff the sand was covered by sea oats,
vicious sandspurs, and scattered sea grapes. From this the land
sloped toward a fringe of buttonwood and white mangrove to the red
mangrove bordering the Florida Coast Line Canal. This stretch
was potentially a great beach but without swimmers, sellers or
sunbathers it was not yet a beach, only a coastline.32
Thomas Hamilton set out to make it a beach. It was exactly to
his taste. He could paddle in the surf or wade to collect shells as it
pleased him. As soon as it was practical, he ordered Tom to build
a beach house for changing clothes and for shelter. Tom discovered
that a shallow well above the high tide line would provide drinkable
water. This made it possible for the old man to spend much time
on the beach, sometimes for a week or more until someone worried
and rescued him. He was certain that the saltwater and sun were
curing both the adz wound and his chest congestion.
The big house on Twelfth Street was complete. In spite of grand-
daughter Mary's poor report, the warm weather of Miami began
to draw other relatives and friends from Cleveland. The matriarch
of the clan, Thomas' wife Mary, followed and moved into the small
white house. She visited the new beach property but did not approve
of it. She said it was too lonesome.
Some of the children were critical and came south to find just
how the old man had spent his money. Son Herbert changed his
mind when forced to retire by a crippling hernia. He found the
climate and gardening potential a good exchange for Ohio winters.
Seminole Beach 37
Using an exaggerated bungalow design, Herbert began building
a house on South Miami Avenue. The Twelfth Street house was
For Thomas this pleasant life ended abruptly with the death
of Mary in Miami April 27, 1914. Thomas missed her fiercely and
began to lose interest in the Florida projects. He took her back to
Cleveland where she was buried in Lake View Cemetery.33
Tom dreamt of profit from the beach and its location. He and
DuVal set up the Seminole Realty and Development Co. with H. F.
DuVal president and Thomas B. Hamilton secretary and treasurer.
They opened an office at 320/2 Twelfth Street. This, by present
numbering, was between Miami Avenue and Southeast First Street
on the south side of Flagler Street. The account book of Seminole
Realty is dated April 2, 1913 with May 1, 1913 the opening day for
the office. The first order of business was a survey to establish
boundaries and prepare the plat of the proposed subdivision.
Crabtree and Zoll ran the survey which cost a total of $121.20
and was completed by September 19, 1913. Some of the expenses
of the survey are interesting for their record of prices:34
May 20 20gals. gas for boat @ $0.19 $ 3.80
June 7 To Hallandale Hotel for 33 meals
@ $0.35 and 2 beds 3 nights @$0.50 $14.58
June 7 To one team mules towing
auto car onto road. $ 2.00
To sell the lots at the beach, a road and a bridge were essential.
This was a complicated process. Permission was required from
Hallandale and Dade County for the bridge and road. In addition
the bridge over the Florida Coast Line Canal needed to be built to
state specifications and with state permission. The oolite limestone
for the road would have to come from a canal dug parallel to the
road for which permission was also needed. Seminole Realty started
work with permits from Dade County and Hallandale, state licenses
The account book shows a payment on August 12, 1913 to
A.A. Bunnell for $300; this bought the dredge, Klondike. Pictures
show a clam shell bucket on a boom from a floating barge. Some-
times it was rigged as a steam shovel, The Klondike floated in the
canal it dug as it hoisted the material it removed onto the bed of the
proposed roadway. The bucket held 3 yard and was supposed to
make two trips a minute. When in proper working order it moved
about 1000 yards a day.35
Bunnell towed the dredge up the Florida Coast Line Canal to
Hallandale Beach. The surveyors had laid out the right of way for
the road and canal to connect with the streets of Hallandale. This
was through a dense mangrove jungle beginning at the canal bank.
The Klondike commenced digging into the mangroves. These had
to be cleared first which was very hard work for a crew of four black
men and a strawboss.
The dredge was wood-fired which required a steady supply of
pine logs cut to fit the boiler firebox. The cordwood came from the
pinelands west of the railroad. The Klondike needed an engineer
to run the clamshell and boom and a fireman to keep the boiler hot.
In addition there were a couple of roustabouts to fetch and carry
and help keep the dredge in position, moving it forward as the canal
was dug. One week of dredging cost about $125. This was not the
The Klondike was no bargain, even at $300. The first few weeks
of operation show costs in the account book for roll roofing, castings,
pumps and oakum. Both the roof and the hull leaked.This was only
the beginning. They bought the dredge knowing the boiler was weak
but hoped that it would last until the canal at Hallandale was complete.
They would replace it before moving the operation to dig canals in
the Everglades. Instead, after a week of digging, the boilder began
to leak enough steam to poach the fireman. A new boiler was essential
and had to be ordered from Macon, Georgia. This was done, but it
took weeks to get the boiler ordered, shipped, and installed. This
delay hurt as they hoped to have the canal dug, the road passable
and lots ready for sale by the time the tourists arrived in early winter.
They were enjoying a great deal of expense but no income.36
Tom found that a bridge, with a forty-foot span built to state
specifications, would cost about $1500. They began to build the
abutments and piers needed for crossing the Florida Coast Line
The new boiler was installed at the end of October 1913 and
the Klondike began to perform according to promise. The canal
and road were reaching toward Hallandale from the beach at a
more reasonable speed. The limestone from the twenty-two-foot-deep
canal was piling up on the right-of-way ready for grading into a
proper road, or it was until the dredge reached Mud Lake. This was
Seminole Beach 39
an opening in the mangrove about one half mile across which soaked
up fill as fast as the boom hoisted it from the canal. It was so bottom-
less that even the mangroves would not grow. All the rock for the
roadway splashed into the ooze and sank slowly out of sight.38
Mud Lake stopped progress in its tracks. There was no need for
a canal if the road could not be built. A solution was at hand. The
early trees that were cut to clear a path for the dredge had been
burned. Now the tree trunks were used to make a corduroy road bed
on which the limestone could be floated. It seemed temporary but
the road was rough but serviceable until 1959 when the state road
department built Hallandale Beach Boulevard, the present four-lane
road and bridge to the beach.39
1f 1SL. gilth 4 frd-'ie'i If. i faniitui
Tom Hamilton at the pavilion at Seminole Beach. Now Hallandale Park,
the land was given to Broward County by Seminole Realty.
The leaks, failing boiler and Mud Lake had delayed the Klondike
so that there was no chance of completing the road in time for the
winter season. Seminole Realty began to sell lots anyway. To com-
pensate for the incomplete road and bridge, they added a paragraph
to their legal forms promising to finish the work in progress as
promptly as possible. Seminole Realty sold lots with an Agreement
for Deed which guaranteed the issuing of a deed when the final pay-
ment was received. The price for a beach lot, not waterfront, was
two hundred fifty dollars, fifty dollars in cash when the agreement
was signed and fifty dollars every six months. There was six percent
interest on the unpaid balance due with each payment.
They sold many lots. Some buyers bought two or more. Many
of the buyers were residents of Hallandale or employees of the Florida
East Coast Railroad. Some were winter visitors to Miami and Fort
Lauderdale. Most completed payment and received their deeds."
The dredge continued operating in 1914. The caption of a 1914
photograph of the Klondike, brags of a mile and one half of work
completed since January first. Since the total distance from the beach
to the Florida East Coast Railroad was about two miles, the work
was well along. The bridge construction, in preparation for the steel
span, was also progressing. This work was delayed by the traffic in
the waterway. One of the piers was severely damaged when struck
by a barge.
The death of Tom's grandmother (Thomas' wife) Mary Hamil-
ton, in April 1914 involved him in the complications of settling the
estate as she left no will. The old man had been devious in his property
dealing and most parcels were in his wife's name. There was no
Federal inheritance tax in 1914 so the process of settling the estate
was mainly transferring the property titles. Thomas, in his letter dated
June 22, 1914, insisted: "don't put anything in my name." Tom had
the new deeds made out to his aunt, also named Mary Hamilton.
She was called Mamie and had been brain-damaged when very
young by scarlet fever. Thomas asked that Ed Romfh of the First
National Bank administer the estate.41
Early in 1915 the bridge piers and approaches were complete
enough to need contracting for the steel and its erection at the bridge
site. John W. King, engineer and architect of Miami, offered the best
bid for the job. The steel delivered to the bridge site at Hallandale
would cost $1,032 payable in cash on recipt of a certified bill of lading,
and $475 would pay King to erect the steel on the site when the pier
construction was complete. Specifications required a forty-foot
clearance swing bridge with gas pipe railing ready for the wood floor-
ing and counterweights.42
For the steel erection, King agreed to accept three lots on South-
west Eleventh Street in Miami. This was a complicated deal. King
had to mortgage the lots to raise money for the steel. Seminole Realty
gave him deeds to the lots in order to secure the loan but demanded
King deed the lots back, these deeds to be held until the bridge was
complete. This made two sets of deeds and a mortgage on the same
Seminole Beach 41
In 1915 the legislature created Broward County. They took
part of southern Palm Beach County and part of northern Dade
County making a new county named for Florida Governor Napoleon
Bonaparte Broward. This change produced a new group of county
officials whose approval was required for road and bridge building.
Thomas Hamilton made trips to Fort Lauderdale, the new county
seat, where his Cleveland experience in negotiations with elected
officials was valuable.44
A deal was struck with Hallandale and Broward County which
was presented to members of both groups during a meeting at Hallan-
dale on December 21, 1915. In this proposal, Seminole Realty offered
to build the road and the bridge and donate three hundred fifty feet
of ocean frontage with a bath house and pavilion to the county in
return for the needed permits and $7,000. The beach would revert to
Seminole Realty unless used perpetually as a public park.45
In Europe, World War I was heating up. Among other things
it produced an enormous demand for steel which was being con-
sumed faster than it could be produced. England, France and Germany
were bidding up the price and the United States steel producers were
following this inflation enthusiastically. Inflation made King in a
great hurry to complete the deal before steel prices got entirely out
of hand and he could not fill his contract.46
In July 1915 a letter from the War Department stated that they
had no objection to the bridge as planned but that the canal might be
widened in the future, and they indicated that the span would have to
be increased to fifty feet. Tom complained that no one in Washington
or the War Department would admit responsibility for the canal.
The letter did require additional piling and piers to protect the bridge.
These had to be finished before the steel could be set up.47
The year 1916 began with the news from the War Department
that they really did have an interest in the Florida Coast Line Canal.
Probably it looked good for protected water transport as the European
War escalated. They expected to widen the canal and dredge it to the
planned depth which had not been maintained. This would make a
wider fifty-five-foot span necessary. They would not consider the
forty-foot span and reported that the longer bridge needed more
space and the piers already built would have to be removed.8
These changes made John King's contract and steel order useless.
It would have to be refigured anyhow because the steel company in
Alabama had canceled King's order due to the price increases.49
Tom went to Washington and on to Cleveland. His father
needed help with a building project that had become impossible for
him. The stop in Washington confirmed the War Department order.
Thomas stayed in Miami and Seminole Beach. He was pestered
by John King to release the deeds being held to insure completion
of the bridge contract.
Other things were worrying him. He thought that the beach
venture was a bottomless hole gulping all the money and property
that he had accumulated so painfully. It was his eighty-third year
and time had begun to tell. He was forgetful and wrote petulant letters
complaining of being cheated and demanded accounting of his funds
and explanations that Tom was certain he had made clear often
before. Thomas' letter dated only June 1916 is bitter. He writes:
"You took advantage of me and collected all the money you could
and left me in the lurch."50
He and Tom had loaned DuVal money on the Everglades acreage
but the 'glades land began to be more difficult to sell. A mortgage
payment was due that Hugh could not meet. A complicated deal was
set up by which DuVal gave up his interest in Seminole Beach for
satisfaction of the mortgage on the 'glades land and three lots on
Southwest Twelfth Street in Miami. The lots included a building,
a former school house. DuVal had more than $1,000 of expenses
connected with Seminole Beach which were repaid by the Hamiltons
as a part of the agreement.5'
A Hamilton family feud erupted in the spring of 1916. Ida and
Eva, daughters of Thomas Hamilton, were suspicious of his activities
in Florida. To them he seemed to have disposed of a great deal of
money with little to show for it. The death of their mother, Mary
Hamilton, gave them an opportunity to seek an accounting. The
estate had not been settled so they had grounds for an inquiry. They
hired attorney John C. Gramling to defend their interests. Thomas
engaged the law firm of Price and Eyles to protect him. After con-
siderable expense and a court hearing, the suit was settled against
the petitioners. This did not soothe the family bitterness which would
be reawakened later.52
The War Department's plans for the canal and bridge made a
new agreement with the county necessary. King, The Converse Bridge
and Steel Co., the pier builders (Furst-Clark Co.), Hallandale,
Broward County and even the Seminole Beach lot buyers all had to
be convinced that the bridge and road would be built under the new
Seminole Beach 43
The coordination of these various demands and claims was
left in the hands of C.T. McCrimmon while Tom was in Ohio.
McCrimmon Lumber Co. had supplied much of the material for the
Miami projects and the dredge. McCrimmon was also involved in
the Bay Biscayne Canning Co. that produced guava jelly and other
tropical fruit preserves. He was a reasonable, capable man who had
been saddled with a complicated problem.53
The terms for the building of the piers, bridge and the road were
agreed upon again. Broward County would build the road and bridge.
When the work was complete, the county would pay $8,000 for the
surveys, work already done, steel, etc. Seminole Realty in turn agreed
to hand over the steel and machinery, road and right-of-way and
furnish the deed for the beach property they had promised when the
road and bridge were completed.
The road and bridge were still further delayed because the county
had to advertise for construction bids. The new bridge was to be
longer and much stiffer than the original design so that the steel work
and piers were heavier and stronger. The road and bridge were not
completed until late in 1917.14
Thomas was worried about replacing the beach house. The
original house would be deeded to the county and he wanted his own
place on the beach. Tom arranged for the building of a small bungalow
of poured concrete just south of the county park, very close to the
high tide line. Work was slow as it depended on the collection from
rents and mortgages. The house had to wait until money came in
which annoyed Thomas who did not realize the extent of his fiscal
responsibilities. It was a good house with a wide front porch furnished
with cast-offs from the Miami houses and equipped with a rain water
collector and a kerosene stove.55
The old man did not have much time to enjoy his new beach
house. Letters from Miami throughout 1916 express concern about
his health. McCrimmon reported that Thomas had difficulty walking
and that his memory was becoming more unreliable.56
Thomas wrote son Herbert (Tom's father) in October 1916 that
he felt he did not have long to live, and that he would like Herbert to
come to Miami. Herbert found the old man still mobile but deterio-
rating. Herbert tried to make him comfortable and provided for his
needs and nursing. Thomas suffered a massive heart failure and died
in Miami November 2, 1916.57 Herbert accompanied the body to
Cleveland and Thomas was buried in Lake View Cemetery.
This time there was a will, a valid will drawn by R.F. Burdine
partner of the prestigious law firm Atkinson and Burdine. The will
left all property to Herbert Hamilton, Thomas' oldest son, with
provisions for his brain-damaged daughter, Mary Hamilton. Thomas
B. Hamilton was appointed executer with Ed Romfh as alternate.58
This will omitted Thomas' son Howard and daughters Ida and
Eva who had initiated the law suit demanding an accounting of the
estate of their mother Mary Hamilton. Since the will was drawn by
a partner of a respected local judge there was no possibility of con-
sidering the old man less than competent so those left out had to
attack in another manner. They sued in Cleveland, in 1917, for explana-
tion of the handling of the property and the rent and mortgage pay-
ments there. This set off suits and counter suits, claims and counter
claims that lasted into 1918.59
The result was that Tom had to go to Cleveland. Herbert
Hamilton was a skilled cabinet maker and an intelligent man, but
law and lawyers worried him. Tom had to do all the work of engaging
a law firm and helping organize the defense. The main legal tactic
of both parties was delay and Tom was stuck in Cleveland until the
suits were settled.
The previous summer, C.T. McCrimmon had been an able
advocate for Seminole Beach and its problems. He expected to
continue while Tom struggled with Cleveland lawyers and courts.
Unfortunately, McCrimmon was taken ill while on a trip to New
York and died very suddenly. Hugh DuVal was drafted to substitute
and was again involved in the roads, canals and lot sales of Seminole
The law suit foundered on Thomas Hamilton's deviousness.
For many years, his wife Mary was holder of much of his property.
The confusion of names with his daughter, also Mary Hamilton,
made it impossible for the petitioners to set upon any collections or
property that had not been carefully handled. The suit was dismissed.
By the end of 1917, prospective purchasers of beach lots were
being told that there were none available. All the lots of the platted
sections had been sold. In some cases, where the payments were not
completed, the lots were sold twice. The section that was subdivided
and platted was only about one quarter of the total acreage. Beyond
the area of streets and lots, about four blocks long, was another
three quarters of a mile of palmettos and sandspurs that remained
Seminole Beach 45
Because of the war and the depression that followed, Seminole
Realty made no effort to follow up on the opening development. The
beach stayed empty, a place for swimmers and picnickers willing to
walk from the road, A1A, to the ocean. In spite of the boom of 1925,
this section was not built upon until the 1950's.
The Boom did make a difference. In 1925, N.B.T. Roney, Miami
businessman and hotel builder, and former governor and presidential
candidate James M. Cox, bought the area north of Golden Beach,
known as Seminole Beach, for $3 million. The news of the sale aroused
speculators and promoters who demanded to be let in on the deal.
Roney resold the area by parcels in six and one half hours for $7.6
million. It was sold again, within a week, for $12 million.62 Seminole
Beach did pay off; $3 million in 1925 was real money. The value in
today's dollars would be many times that.
Tom invested most of his money in ventures in further real estate
projects. As a partner in Hamilton and Glenn he helped develop
Crystal Bluff between Tigertail Road and South Bay Shore Drive.
Later, associated with Hugh Anderson, he helped start Miami
Shores. Both of these promotions were successes but the boom, bust,
and bank failures soaked up capital and profits. Today Seminole
Beach is only a pleasant memory.63
1. Letterhead, Seminole Realty and Development Co., circa 1914.
2. Thomas Hamilton, Naturalization Papers, Cleveland: October 28, 1856.
3. Joe McCarthy, et al. Ireland (New York: Time-Life, 1964), p. 9.
4. Interview, Ina Hamilton Harrington with Thomas Henry Hamilton, son of James
Hamilton, nephew of Thomas Hamilton, 1936.
5. Report. Park Congregational Church, Cleveland: 1902.
6. Interview, Ina Hamilton Harrington, 1975 and after.
7. Edward N. Akin, "The Cleveland Connection: Revelations from the John D.
Rockefeller-Julia Tuttle Correspondence," Tequesta, XLI(1982), 57.
8. Interview, Ina Hamilton Harrington.
9. Miami Metropolis, October 6, 1920.
10. Letterhead, Seminole Hotel, January 16, 1911.
11. Interview, Ina Hamilton Harrington.
12. Insurance Map of Miami, Florida, (New York: Sandborn Map Co., 1914).
13. Statement, First National Bank of Miami, 1912.
14. Interview, Ina Hamilton Harrington.
15. Letters of Thomas Harrington, 1911-1916.
16. Letter, Hugh F. DuVal to Adam G. Adams, circa, 1957.
17. Frederick W. Dau, Florida Old and New(New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1934),
18. Helen Muir, Miami U.S.A. (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1953), p. 108.
19. Muir, Miami, p. 111.
20. Isidor Cohen, Historical Sketches and Sidelights of Miami, Florida (Miami:
privately printed, 1925).
21. Howard Kleinberg, Miami News, April 16, 1983, p. 4C.
22. Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to Thomas Hamilton, October 4, 1913.
23. Estate of Jane Q. Hamilton, 1978.
24. Letters of Thomas Hamilton, 1911-1916.
25. Letterhead, Atlantic Tire& Supply.
26. Letter, Duval to Adams.
27. Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Florida the Long Frontier (New York: Harper, 1967),
28. Dau, Florida, pp. 254-255.
29. Letter, Duval to Adams.
30. Adam G. Adams, Paper to Historical Association of Southern Florida,
March 30, 1957.
31. Photograph, "Our Boat," Harrington Collection.
32. Photograph, "Seminole Beach," Ibid.
33. Cuyahoga Common Pleas Court, "Howard Hamilton vs. Herbert Hamilton,
et aL, February 6, 1917.
34. Cash Book, Seminole Realty and Development Co., from April 2, 1913.
35. Photographs, "Dredge Klondike," 1913-1914, Harrington Collection.
36. Cash Book, pp. 22-24.
37. Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to Thomas Hamilton, October 4, 1913.
38. Interview, Ina Hamilton Harrington.
39. Florida Living Magazine, Miami News, August 30, 1959, p. 6.
40. "Agreement for Deed," Seminole Realty and Development Co.
41. Letter, Thomas Hamilton to Thomas B. Hamilton, June 22, 1914,
42. "Proposal,"John W. King, March 15, 1915.
43. Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to Thomas Hamilton, November 20, 1915.
44. C.J. Puetz, Florida County Maps, Appleton, 1980, pp. 12-13.
45. Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to Paul Sjostrom, December 22, 1915.
46. Letters, John W. King, August 14, 1915, April 12, 1916.
47, Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to Thomas Hamilton, July 25, 1915.
48. Letter, C.T. McCrimmon to Thomas B. Hamilton, June 26, 1916.
Seminole Beach 47
49. Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to Thomas Hamilton, June 26, 1916.
50. Letters, Thomas Hamilton, June, 1916.
51, Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to Thomas Hamilton, October 22, 1915.
52. Letter, C.T. McCrimmon to Thomas B. Hamilton, June 19, 1916.
53. Letters, C.T. McCrimmon, 1916.
54. Letter, C.T. McCrimmon to Thomas B. Hamilton, September 8, 1916.
55. Photograph, "Beach House," 1921, Harrington Collection.
56. Letter, C.T. McCrimmon to Thomas B. Hamilton, August 31, 1916.
57. Howard Hamilton vs. Herbert Hamilton, op cir.
58. "Last Will and Testament," Thomas Hamilton, March 29, 1915.
59. "Deposition," Mary Hamilton, 1917.
60. Letter, Mrs. L.C. Black to Thomas B. Hamilton, May 21, 1917; Letters, Mrs. C.T.
McCrimmon to Thomas B. Hamilton, 1917; Letters Hugh F. DuVal to Thomas B. Hamilton,
61. Letter, Thomas B. Hamilton to H.A. Barnett, September 5, 1917.
62. Muir, Miami U.S.A., pp. 145-56.
63. Photographs, 1925, Harrington Collection.
"The Firing of Guns and Crackers
Continued Till Light"
A Diary of the Billy Bowlegs War
edited with commentary by
Gary R. Mormino
Historians have evoked a number of powerful metaphors to
capture the spirit of the American adventure, but none arouses more
emotion than the image of the frontier. The sweep across the con-
tinent, the inexorable push westward emboldened democratic rhetoric
and rugged individualism. Free land awaited pioneers willing to fight
South Florida played a critical role in the history of the American
frontier. At a time when fur trappers and mountain men explored
the Rocky Mountains, the region south of Tampa was virgin territory.
The erection of Fort Brooke in 1824 played a paradoxical role
in the development of Tampa; on the one hand, it served as the begin-
ning of the modern city; on the other hand, military regulations
encumbered civilian growth around the fort.
Tampa was to be the cutting edge of the newest frontier, an
ethnic beachhead for Irish soldiers, Southern cavaliers, New England
Yankees, African slaves, and Seminole warriors. In the 1830s it was
a collection of wildly divergent ethnic groups held together by the
rigorous demands of frontier life, and, after 1835, the omnipresent
fear of Indian attack.
A clash of people tested the future of Florida. Would the future
architects of South Florida be homesteading pioneers or Seminole
Indians? Would Tampa be cordoned by a 256-mile military reserva-
tion, or be thrown open to homesteading white settlers? Two terrible
wars were fought to answer these questions.
Gary Mormino is an associate professor of history at the University of South
Florida in Tampa and executive director of the Florida Historical Society. He wishes
to acknowledge the assistance of Professor James Covington of the University of
Tampa, and of the staff at the Southern Collection of the University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill, especially Harry McKnown and Carolyn Wallace.
Billy Bowlegs War 49
As long as marauding Seminoles controlled the Florida interior,
few white Americans dared risk migration to this troubled land.
Florida, a promising territory for settlement in 1830, languished
under the shadow of Osceola and yellow fever a decade later. In 1830,
the Florida territory numbered 30,000 inhabitants; ten years later
population had increased a scant 5,000 persons, hardly a Cimarron
stampede. Alabama's population, in contrast, doubled during the
same period, from 300,000 to 600,000.
In 1842 Congress advanced an idea to alleviate the Indian problem
and promote population growth at the same time. Free land would
be offered to intrepid pioneers willing to settle on the edge of the
Florida frontier. Homesteaders would improve the land, populate
the state, and fight Indians. This idea had worked as the guiding
principle of American policy since colonial Virginia. The measure, a
forerunner of the Homestead Act, set aside 200,000 acres south of
Gainesville for settlers willing to brave swamps and Seminoles. Each
head of a family and single male over age eighteen agreeing to bear
arms and farm at least five acres of land for five consecutive years
was given 160 acres of free land.
Overall the Armed Occupation Act served three major functions.
First, a hardy core of pioneers penetrated South Florida. Second,
the Act articulated a frontier ethos, whereby free white citizens were
given land to exploit the wilderness. In no other nation were property-
less individuals equipped with the skills and mentality to capitalize
on the opportunities awarded land worthy of conquest. Third, the
Act, coupled with the edict of 1845 reducing the Fort Brooke military
reservation to four square miles, galvanized the embryonic community
of Tampa. Fort Brooke survived for another thirty-five years, playing
a sporadic role during the Third Seminole War and Civil War, but
never again would the fort overshadow the town.
A special breed of pioneer ventured into Florida, in quest of
cattle. They would be known as "Crackers," democrats on the palmetto
range, irascible and cantankerous figures who became cow kings,
cattle barons, and just plain folk. Their mastery of the whip, used in
driving cattle and oxen, gained them the name "Crackers," a term
later derisively used in reference to poor whites.
Cracker cowboys and Florida cattle became fixtures in the mid-
nineteenth century. These early cattlemen discovered a pasture could
be easily created by burning off palmettos and pine trees. The early
bovines, flea-ridden and tick-infested, won few blue ribbons for their
attractiveness. One wit suggested the Florida cow was as thin as a
whipsnake, had haunches like the family hatrack, and was raised on
a diet of pine cones and palmetto cabbage. Butchers refused to slaughter
the miserable creatures, dragooning them instead to the sawmill for
American gourmets may have eschewed grass-fed Florida beef,
but to meat-poor Cuba, longhorn cuts looked like tenderloin.
Tampa's Scottish Chief, Captain James McKay, is credited with the
inauguration of the Florida-Cuban cattle trade in 1858, a symbiosis
of supply and demand, of city and country. Rex Beach, who moved
to Tampa as a young boy and later became a prominent novelist,
wrote of Florida cattle: "Most of that stock was shipped to Cuba on
the hoof, the steers for the table and the bulls for the arena. The former
made tough chewing, the latter made tough fighting."
In 1858, Captain McKay took a daring gamble, leasing the
Magnolia for $1,500 on a bi-monthly run to Cuba. McKay struck
gold, literally. Paid in gold doubloons by the Cubans, the Tampa-
Havana connection made the Scottish Chief a rich man. During the
first year of operation, McKay shipped about 1,000 head of beef.
McKay's resourcefulness encouraged others to tap new markets,
and soon Punta Rassa challenged Tampa as a cattle exporter, just
as new cattle barons challenged McKay. Ziba King, John T. Lesley,
William Hooker, James Alderman, and Jake Summerlin, "the King
of the Crackers," organized vast herds of cattle and accumulated
vaster fortunes in the process. Summerlin began his cattle career as
McKay's assistant in 1859.
Cattle raising symbolized mid-nineteenth century Florida.
Cattlemen knew exactly what they wanted and how to achieve their
goals: free and vast open ranges; a compliant state legislature and a
vigilant national defense; and a future belonging to the strongest, a
Florida purged of Indians.
It was inevitable that cattle interests would clash again with the
Seminoles, Both the First and Second Seminole War had been precip-
itated by Indian thefts of American cattle. The specific issue centered
around the sanctity of private property, but the real issue concerned
the future of South Florida. Would the Kissimmee Valley and the
Everglades belong to cattlemen and farmers or a handful of renegades?
The battle over the future of South Florida was decided in a
series of engagements between 1855-58, called the Third Seminole
War, or the Billy Bowlegs War. The conflict began in the Big Cypress
Billy Bowlegs War 51
Swamp, but soon riveted the state's attention. A small detachment
of troops under First Lieutenant George L. Hartsuff had scouted the
strength of the remnant Seminoles in the Big Cypress country, when
they came across Billy Bowlegs' deserted encampment on December
17, 1855. When leaving, several soldiers gratuitously cut down some
banana trees. On December 20, 1855, a war party of thirty Seminoles
led by Chief Billy Bowlegs attacked Hartsuffs camp, killing four
soldiers and wounding several others. The Third Seminole War had
The charismatic leader of the Seminoles was Holatter Micco,
more commonly called Billy Bowlegs. His ancestors included Mi-
canopy and King Payne, and he had participated in an important
conference at Fort Brooke in August 1842.
Luther Blake, an agent appointed by the Commission of Indian
Affairs, felt confident that he could induce Bowlegs to join his red
brothers in Oklahoma. In the fall of 1852, Blake accompanied Bowlegs
and a coterie of Seminole warriors on a whirlwind tour of Washington
where they met President Fillmore. Yet upon Bowlegs' return to
Florida, the Chief expressed his desire never to leave his beloved Big
Cypress. In January 1854, Bowlegs went to Tampa to confer with
several Oklahoma Seminoles, but the Chief would not discuss emi-
gration. Another tour of Washington only hardened Bowlegs' com-
mitment to his sawgrass paradise. Bowlegs frequently visited Fort
Brooke where he grew friendly with a young officer, Lt. Colonel
John T. Greble. He told Greble that should war break out, he would
order his officers not to kill his friend; rather, he would kill Greble
himself since he deserved to be slain by a chief!
Tampa watched closely developments in the Everglades. In
September 1855, the editor of the Florida Peninsular scoffed at the
idea of another Indian war. "There is no more to be feared from
Bowlegs here (Tampa) than there is in Georgia," the editor concluded.
Earlier, in June 1855, the same paper confided how Tampa had
become a "perfect haven," a "quiet and peaceful town," as contrasted
to the early 1850s when the city "had full blast three groceries, or I
might say, houses where alcoholic poisons were dealt out by the glass
to our inhabitants. We also had a tin-pan alley, a keno table, a faro
bank, and private rooms for gamblers." Billy Bowlegs brought pros-
perity, for war meant prosperity to Tampa.
Caught in the maelstrom of war, Tampa responded decisively
to the challengers for the swamps. On January 16, 1856, local patriots
gathered in Tampa for the purpose of organizing militia units. In all,
six local companies were mobilized, composed of 125 citizens from
Manatee, Hillsborough and Hernando counties. General Jess Carter,
who owned a large tract of land destined to become the site of the
Tampa Bay Hotel, was chosen the liaison officer between federal and
local troops. Company commanders included William Hooker,
Simeon Sparkman, and Leroy Lesley, three pillars of Hillsborough
William B. Hooker personified the gritty character of the cowboy-
Indian fighter-planter. Hooker, born in Tatnall County, Georgia in
1800, responded to every challenge offered by the frontier. As a young
man, he fought Indians in the Okeefenokee Swamp on the Georgia-
Florida border. At age 28, he was elected county sheriff in Georgia;
at age 30, he moved to Columbia County, Florida and then to Fort
Meade, where he raised cattle until the outbreak of the Second Sem-
inole War in 1836. He commanded a group of volunteers during the
Second Seminole War, 1836-42, showing valor at Wahoo Swamp
and the Battle of the Withlacoochee. He attended the state consti-
tutional convention at St. Joseph in 1838, and he settled at Simmons
Hammock near Seffner under the provisions of the 1842 Armed
Occupation Act. There he raised cattle and experimented with orange
cultivation and Sea Island cotton. His "WH" mark is considered one
of the earliest registered cattle brands. He drove his cattle to Hooker's
pens, an area now called Hooker's Point.
William Hooker came to Florida to raise cattle; Leroy G. Lesley
came to save souls. The Reverend Mr. Lesley, a circuit-riding Meth-
odist preacher, migrated from South Carolina to Madison County,
Florida in 1829. His marriage to Indiana Livingston, daughter of one
of Virginia's first families, helped launch his career as a cattleman.
A veteran of the Second Seminole War, Lesley moved in 1848 with
his family and fifteen slaves to Tampa, where they acquired a 30 acre
estate (price: $25) in the area of LaFayette (Kennedy) and East Streets.
He was called to Tampa to assume the pastorate of the First Meth-
odist Church. When the Third Seminole War began, Reverend Lesley,
Bible in one hand and a Hall breech-loading rifle in the other, answered
the call. John Thomas Lesley, Leroy's eldest son, served valiantly
under his father. The Lesley contribution to the state was eloquently
noted by the Madison Recorder at the death of the patriarch in 1882:
"When the war whoop of the savage Indians could be heard and the
curling smoke seen ascending from his wigwam forty years ago .
Billy Bowlegs War 53
everyone felt more secure when it was known that Captain L.G. Lesley
was on the alert."
A new source permits the modern reader to eavesdrop on mid-
nineteenth-century Florida. In 1979, Wright Langley discovered a
longhand diary, buried amidst manuscripts at the Southern Historical
Collection at the University of North Carolina. In spite of the best
investigative work, the identity of the diarist remains a mystery.
The papers of William Henry Wills (1809-1889), a prominent
Methodist-Protestant minister and merchant of Halifax County,
North Carolina, yielded the diary. Wills' grandson, George S. Wills,
a graduate of the University of North Carolina and Professor of English
at Western Maryland College, approached Dr. Joseph Gregoire de
Roulhac Hamilton (1876-1961) in 1929 about the possibility of donat-
ing family papers. Hamilton, the legendary founder and director of the
Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Carolina,
accepted the first of what would be an extensive array of family letters,
daybooks, deeds, and memorabilia. At some point, the aforementioned
diary became part of the collection, of which George S. Wills com-
mented he knew nothing of the origins of the manuscript. Nonetheless,
the diary provides a marvelous account of South Florida life, 1855-56.
NOTE: In the 1983 issue of Tequesta, Wright Langley and Arva
Moore Parks edited the portion of the diary set at Biscayne Bay and
Diary volume #6 in the William Henry Wills Papers (#792) in the
Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Carolina
Library, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
JANUARY 22 25, 1855 Key West
JANUARY 25 28, 1855 By Sea Key West to Key Biscayne
JANUARY 28 FEBRUARY 3, 1855 Biscayne Bay (Miami)
and Surrounding Area
DECEMBER 24,1855 FEBRUARY 13,1856 TAMPA
But let me tell you, I am not going to take you on the enchanting
paths of peace, strewn with flowers, fascinating to the eye and the
fragrance most pleasant, no, no. I am going to lead you along an
uneven one with war and bloodshed and various preparations for
war all around you where you can hear war the clash of arms in
mortal combat, the shrieks, groans and war hoop of the savage Sem-
inole Indian and see the dead and dying on every side. On the 24th day
of Dean Anno Domini 1855 the peace and quiet of the citizens of
Tampa were disturbed, by the receipt of certain intelligence from the
Indian Territory, about 20 miles distant.' It was on the Lord's Holiday
the news received, which was regarded by the minister in the house
of God.2 God, a fit subject for prayer and supplication; and he made
one of his strongest appeals to the Throne of Grace in behalf of the
people. That they might not have their minds so occupied with sad
intelligence they could not attend to the worship during the hour,
that they might harmonize and consider before they acted and finally
appealed to God to stop the war and blood shed almost at the hearth
stones and cause the troubled elements, now afar in the land, to be
calm and peace to prevail throughout the world.3 After the discourse
was ended all of the congregation, with consternation, despair, and
sadness of their countenances, rose to depart, but when they met in
the aisles and around the door, and exchanged a few words with each
other their sadness and despair were dispelled, and interest and burn-
ing patriotism took the places. They finally separated and each one
went to their respective homes, discussed around the dining table
all the subjects on the probable course the war would take, and
Billy Bowlegs War 55
recounted the horrors of the last Seminole war.4 Now, as un-
important conversations may appear to one far away and not
initiated in the horrors of war, it will be shown the dispute between the
whites and savages, and cause to be presented is due from overwhelm-
ing evidence, that South Florida is the rightful owner to every foot
of soil now claimed by the Indians, and that, the good people who are
here, and may come hereafter, should not be molested in any way by
the savages in their territory or anywhere. Some of them, whose con-
sciences are more tender than others, stop to reflect a moment on the
rights of the Indians, but their minds run off to secure evidence of the
justice of their claims to the country and how they had acquired it.
After discussing the various rights of man .. they wanted to do them
a great favor by sending them beyond the Mississippi, away from their
homes where they could have the benefits of cold weather and mission-
ary preaching.5 This, they considered, the brutes ought to be satisfied
with and feel thankful for but instead of that the ungrateful wretches
persist in their resistance, and now, we are justified in forcing them
to go or send them, by the aid of gun powder to their long home. In
short, exterminate them if they will not peacefully avail themselves
of our kind offers.
The news, which produced so much feeling, was received by the
Texas Ranger, a steamboat on the line to Ft. Myers, and was given
to the people by an extra issued from the Peninsular office.6 You
know extras always command attention, because the editor never
sends one out, unless he is convinced the importance of the subject
requires it. With this fact in mind, it is not at all surprising that every
one who hears of it or sees the sheet will magnify its importance and
become very much excited. Then, don't be the least surprised at any-
thing the good people do after being thus prepared for action by their
superior, the Editor.
The account stated that an exploring party had been attacked
by the Indians near the Big Cypress on the morning of the 20th that
Lieut. Hartsuff who commanded the party and five men had been
killed, two wounded and the other three escaped unhurt by running
when the first gun was fired.7 A court martial had been ordered for
the trial of the men who had escaped unhurt and a party ordered out
to go in search of the missing. The account given of the affair by the
soldiers on their return was unsatisfactory. They stated that, about
sunrise when preparations were being made for leaving the camp
and the men, all some distance from the arms, the Indians fired on
them and killed some of them. The Indians had been hanging around
them several days, evidently watching their movements, and had
destroyed all the block houses and buildings at Ft. Denaud.8
After dinner and after the discussion of all subjects by the heads
of families connected with the recent news, the court house bell was
rung by someone long and loud and each man started to see what it
meant. When all hands reached the rooms, for that is the place where
public meetings should be held9, they called a war meeting and ap-
pointed a president and secretary to keep order during the meeting and
make a record to its proceedings. Now, one would suppose the good
people ought to have waited till night, but they acted more wisely by as-
sembling just after two o'clock, when their stomachs were full, their
pipes smoked and the active energies of the mind depressed. It is general-
ly admitted to be law of nature that hunger produces fretfulness, excites
the temper and causes all of the passions to be more violent. A good
dinner, or a full stomach, particularly if it is followed by the sedation
qualities of tobacco, produces precisely an opposite condition. Hence
the good people acted wisely.
After the president took the chair, and briefly stated the object
of the meeting, Dr. John rose to his feet and made a motion, that the
chair appoint a committee of five to draft resolutions, expressive of
the feelings of the meeting, which was seconded and passed to the
house in regular parliamentary order. 0 The motion passed, of course,
and the President appointed the committee. Now, let me beg you to
excuse me, I have not obtained the names of the officers of the meeting,
the names of the committee men or a copy of the resolutions adopted,
but I can tell you what was done, which must be satisfactory. When
the committee retired, Col. Magby, a lawyer of the town, having his
energies all stimulated by an over quantity of whiskey, rose and ad-
dressed the meeting in the most patriotic language he could use and
with such zeal . caused everyone to feel like fighting forthe country,
for their homes, the wives of their houses, and their little children. He
decanted at length on the duties of man, on the horrors of savage
warfare, and upon the treacherous character of the Indian." The
reception of the resolutions gave the good people time to catch their
breath and when they were read, their feelings softened somewhat,
and no mischief was done, nor any Indians killed. The state of the
feeling was sanguinary in the extreme, when the committee appeared
with the resolutions, which were adopted and sent to the world; but
I cannot tell why the world never received them. A list was then pre-
Billy Bowlegs War 57
sented for the signatures of those who felt disposed to fight for their
country for all they held dear and sacred and for the removal or exter-
mination of the Seminoles. Several rose up at once and with a steady
step and solemn air marched up to the Table and signed the paper.
Lieut. Hooker, Rev. McLesley and Sherad Edwards were the first
signers, all of whom were Indian fighters in the last war.12 Hooker
was the only man who entered his own name. The others entered
their sons their worthy successors . .13 After consultations were
had with groups of friends, the signers left and the meeting was ad-
journed. Each one went to his home with a pleasant smile for the good
dame and little ones, and felt very much relieved, after an account of
the proceedings had been given to the good dames and the little ones.
Thus closed the 24th day of December 1855 -just as all others had
closed for several years, without any jarring of the elements or redness
of the sky to keep alive the feeling excited during the day which had
been relieved in the old way, but an attempt to express them.
January 1st, 1856
A week had gone and its events must be preserved by my pen
for your benefit. I must leave the war path for a time and tell you what
the good people did do during Christmas holidays. You need not
expect me to tell you what the children received from the good Aunt
Christmas morning, how many articles she had deposited in the old
hay, or stockings up over the night for the reception of presents,
in accordance with the usual custom. Nor can I tell you how much
money the boys laid out in fire crackers and how many powder guns
they fired. Such things you must guess at and guess high, because there
are a great number of children about the town from one to 61 years
of age. You will readily suppose many of the boys, who dress in high
heel boots and a standing collar became very chivalrous in their feel-
ings and imagined themselves to be officers and soldiers, firing the
grand round at Billy Bowlegs and his men. What such young gentle-
men (can't call them boys) would make, if the poor things had a chance
I cannot surmise. If they even reach the point to which their imagina-
tions carried them where they charged Billy B.L. with a full platter
armed with a double round of fire crackers or if they reach the pinnacle
of which the parents placed them, there will be in this little town,
distinguished military heroes, learned judges and able statesmen. The
standard of usefulness or goodness have not been enacted by the
little hopeful or by the parents. Every change they made was accom-
panied with loud huzza . and rolled out like rain, and a turning
over of this quid of tobacco followed by a manly squirting of the juice
of the weed. The firing of guns and crackers continued till light. I should
have said the battle, and each gentleman returned without any wounds
or injury except the black faces produced by powder and the other
goats of their good mothers, who received the little man with joyful
smiles, and spread the best breakfast before them. Whilst these little
men were charging the Indians in the streets of the town, some of the
good fathers were riding in hot haste, in every direction, trying to make
up a volunteer company, with a distinct understanding that they were
to command the company, and the signers of their rolls were to be
officers, teamsters, or quarter master if not they were to have 160 acres
of good land and immortalize their names.'4
The good dames in the meantime visited each other and with
many long sighs, drew the most frightful pictures of the savages made
of warfare. Some of them became very much alarmed, particularly,
after hearing that an Indian or two was seen near the place by an old
negro man, who was out on a hunt and before the end of the week, they
had so operated on the husbands and sons, that each one entertained
fears Tampa might be attacked. One of them actually caused her
husband, who was 50 miles north of this, to collect a guard and come
to the town to escort her home. The week ended, however, without
any serious alarms, attacked on the town, or scalps taken and hair
breadth escapes. The unusual turn of the finger of time ever made
which caused 1855 with all of its events to be numbered with cen-
turies past, and the birth of the new year took place without any
commotions in the elements of earthquakes precisely at 12 o'clock,
just as it had done for 1855 years. This change, without any super-
natural manifestations of power more than common, restored in a
measure the tranquility of the town and excited fresh hopes and begot
many resolutions and quieted, in a measure, their fears.
January 8th, 1856
How swiftly time does fly away. War-like preparations are going
on which keeps the good dames of the town constantly excited.
Enterprises return and go into the garrison to report with long faces
and an air of business about them, which causes the citizens to won-
der, time and again, what news they brought. These volunteers rode
about the town on their poor steads, whose motion was increased by
a large pair of spurs, with all the self importance a valiant knight
Billy Bowlegs War 59
could feel whose strong arm the fate of his mistress depends. New
saddles were made from old ones, new blankets, new tin cups, and
saddle bags, all of which had to be put on the back of the poor horse
Sausanifat like Pasinante immortalized by his rider Don Quixote.
Despite all the preparations the good dames had found themselves
alive with scalp locks on their heads every morning and would not
give in to such idle fears any longer. The young gentlemen had become
satisfied that Billy Bowlegs could not do much and wandered around
the town, through idle curiosity, to see what was going on.15
January 16th, 1856
Oh horror of horrors we have heard all about the battle. A
company has been organized for the defense of the town. Arms
applied for and volunteer companies gone upon the scout just as
the town began to go into its previous calm this occurrence disturbs
it again. What is to be done! It has always been the case ever since the
world began. That, just as one gets the women and children quieted,
someone comes along or something takes place calculated to alarm
and excite them and the whole work has to be done over again. Just
so, it was in Tampa.
The Tampa River steamer arrived during the week from the
Indian Territory and by it, the news of Lieut. Hartsuff was brought.
The paper issued on Saturday came out with a flaming account of the
battle by the Lieut. himself on his arrival at Ft. Myers. The Indians
had followed him the proceeding day and gave other evidences of
their hostile feelings.'6 On the morning of the 20th he issued his orders
to harness and saddle the horses, intending to go to Ft. Myers, but
during the time the men were engaged in preparing to leave and while
they were some distance from the arms they were fired on and the war
whoop of the Seminole resounded all around them.17 Since few of the
men were wounded in the first fire, among them was the Lieut. who
was seated in his tent. A few of the men made a stand and fought with
much bravery while others ran. The Lieut. loaded his gun and fired
as long as he could, but at length he received in the abdomen the second
wound which disabled him so much he could not load.18 A sergeant
loaded for him and he continued to fire at the Indians for some time,
but finding his strength was failing, he told the sergeant to save himself
and leave him to his fate. He crawled out of his tent and into a pond
area where he sank himself. The battle was soon ended and now the
woods echoed again and again the savage shout of victory and brought
to the ear of the Lieut. the melancholy groans of the wounded. But
this not all now commenced the closing scene: killing and scalping
the wounded, shooting the mules, pillaging the wagons . .
mutilating the bodies and burning the wagons. One of the savages
which supposedly was Billy Bowlegs called out to him in good English
to come out swearing they did not want to hurt him. He knew them
too well to trust them, and remained in his place of concealment till
they completed their work of revenge on the dead bodies of their
enemies and the property.
What is to be done now was the question that presented itself
to the consideration of Lieut Hartsuffwith blood oozing slowly from
his wounds and discoloring the water around him his strength
nearly gone and unable to walk, what was he to do. Many hearts, less
stout than his, would have quaked many would have become
qualmish and faint when they beheld the crimson water around them,
and saw death standing ready for his victim, and many could have lain
down to die; but not so with him. He concluded after a moment's
reflection, that he could but die anyway, and so long as he possessed
strength to do anything, he would use it to get back to his friends, and
to avoid the horrid death he must die if the Indians caught him, but
how was he to get to them, walk he could not, riding was out of the
question for his horse had been killed then crawl, he must and
Ft. Denaud, six miles off, before he could hope to meet with a friend.19
He started on his Journey on his hands and knees and carefully avoided
the road, which was the only beaten track in all the country on account
of the strong probability of the Indians lying in bushes for him along
it. He kept about 200 yards distant from the road among the palmettos
where he could not be seen. In this way he struggled all day and at night
found himself only 3 miles from the battleground. The next morning
he attempted to proceed on his way, but could not. His hands were
very sore, strength gone and he only half the distance. Just at this time
he concluded he could write on the margin of an old newspaper with
his pencil a brief account of the fight and give up to die. Just as he was
pegging to a tree the account of the battle, he heard human voices,
which he at first took to be Indians, but the tap of guns convinced him
they were friends. The thought that he must die in hearing of friends
in search of him, caused him to shudder and gasp. It was overwhelming
but at length an idea suggested itself which saved him. It was to fire
the remaining charge in his revolver if it was not too wet hoping it
might be heard. He presented it, pulled the trigger, and the signal
Billy Bowlegs War 61
was heard and answered by the revile of the drum to which he had
marched so frequently.20 Relief was soon at hand, and tears of joy
trickled down the cheeks of the iron nerved soldier when they met him
in the woods. He was conveyed to Ft. Myers on a litter by a portion
of the men sent out in search of him. The others marched on to the
battleground. When the party reached the battleground everything
was still as death, but Oh!, such a scene as presented itself to the eye.
Four of their own comrades were lying dead their bodies mutilated
by the savages and some of them torn by the wild beasts. One of them,
a large strong man, was found with his ,hand clenched fast on a piece
of an Indian's shirt. Mules were lying all around. Some with their
throats cut, others shot. A hole was dug in the $and and the bodies
deposited in it and covered up. The last funeral Obesquies of the poor
soldiers were fired over the ground, and the whole patty with a solemn
tread left the place for Ft. Myers.
Brimstone matches gun powder and other explosives the
people went mad when they received the' account. One man, more
like Sancho Panza than anyone in the town or country concluded
he must do something. What is he to do! Joih a volunteer company?
What then! Why he would raise a company for the defense of the
town and be its captain or military governor, this suited him exactly
and filled him full of zeal, patriotism and chivalry. The paper was
produced and proper article which bound the signers at the peril of
their lives to protect the town and perform such military duties . .
With the paper in his pocket, huge quid in his mouth, and a heavy
walking stick in his hand he went around the town in swinging gait
(called rasita step) and called on the citizens to sign his roll. In a very
short time, he appeared at the post office, where the citizens had
assembled to get the mail as soon as it was opened, and reported that
he had been around the town to make up a company for its defense
and only one man had refused. He didn't care if he told the first letter
of his name; it was James Magby the man Who made the flaming
speech at the war meeting. Whilst the good people of town were en-
gaged in preparing for its defense, Capts. Hooker, Leslie, Darances,
Sparkman and Kendrick were busily engaged in collecting and organ-
izing their companies for the defense of the frontier on Peas Creek.2'
Several forts or stations were named; of course they were named after
the deceased Hartsuff and the gentleman officers in command. I say,
they were named after the deceased Lieut. because they thought he
was dead, singing his virtues as a funeral song but did not mention
his vices, and the women, to commemorate him, named their babies
at least a communication in the paper signed.22
At the ringing of the court house bell the citizens of the town
assembled in the rooms and each man took off his hat, just as they
would have done before the judge. Some of them wore solemnity and
gravity on their countenances and other levity; for the credit of the
good people, I must say, the former was in the majority. I could not
imagine what could be the affect of the meeting, and thought I would
wait and see. All hands were silent for awhile, at length some whisper-
ing was heard and Mr. Mansfield, whose qualities have been described,
rose and said, "Gentlemen, I move Dr. Ludd take the chair."23 The
Doctor waited a few moments and finding that no one opposed the
motion, rose, and walked slowly and solemnly to the chair, usually
occupied by the Judge. Mr. Mansfield rose again and this time said,
"Mr. Chairman, I move that Genl. Carter be Secretary," showing
clearly that he had been in a meeting before.24 The chairman then rose
and said, "Gentlemen, I suppose the object of this meeting is known
to be to organize a company for the defense of the town. Report says
an Indian has been seen near the place recently; how true it is I don't
know." He then sat down for a few minutes, but was soon up again,
and said, "I suppose the first business will be calling the roll." Mr. Mans-
field rose again and slowly drew from his large coat pocket a large
paper, folded after the fashion of a deed or mortgage, and walked to
the Secr. and handed it to him. The Secretary then proceeded to call
the roll, noting carefully the absentees and when he got through the
list reported the whole number present (53). The absentees 19. Here
a long and painful silence followed, interrupted at last by another
supposition from the chair, but not until each man began to look at
his neighbor confusedly as much as to say, what now. The chair
supposed that the next thing in order was to be the election of officers
which was followed by a greater and more painful silence because
now came the tug of war, and the fate of aspirants must be decided.
Someone rose and said, "Mr. Chairman, I nominate Mr. Oakey Mans-
field for Captain." The Chairman waited for sometime without any
action of the meeting upon the nomination, and, at length, asked if
there were no other nominations. After much whispering and con-
siderable delay, one of the gentlemen, D. Donathan, rose and said,
"Mr. Chairman, I move that the candidates just walk on to their side
of the house and let us form around the man they want to vote for."
He then took his seat apparently well pleased with himself but did
Billy Bowlegs War 63
not become quiet and stumplike until he had looked, at various faces
around him, for approval.25 I say stumplike; how are you not apprised
of the fact that some men appear very much like a stump until they
wish to say something or eat their dinner. The same want of life of
intellectual action and of motion which one could recognize in the
stump would be the predominant impressions made on the mind when
one looks at them. But this is leaving my subject. The meeting at length
concluded. The vote should be taken by ballot. That each man should
vote for a Capt., Lieut, first and seconds and that the one getting the
highest number should be elected. The election was a production of
confusion on account of the inability of many of the good citizens to
write. I won't say they couldn't read, of course; Mr. Secretary being
the writing man he could thus not do it for them. When the notes were
counted, it was ascertained that Mr. Oakey Mansfield had beaten
his opponent for the Captainery. Mr. Donathon for 1st Lieutenancy
and A. Stephens for the second.26 After the election and the exchange
of the usual congratulations, some were in favor of the adoption of
a resolution calling on the Commander in Chief of the U.S.A., Col.
Monroe for arms; others were in favor of a committee whose duty
it should be, to wait on him and make all the necessary arrangements
and others were in favor of compromise because the General Govern-
ment is conducted on comprised plans and the latter carried their
point which made it the duty of the officers to apply in person.27 The
meeting then adjourned and here endeth the chapter.
January 24th, 1856
1 can't keep the good people straight, so I will let them go on
crooked for they belong to a wicked, perverse, stiff necked people
who have concluded they are capable of self government. The source
of their ancestors, perhaps their great grandfather, fought for the
liberty of speech and thought and of action and, therefore, they have
a perfect right to hear reports, to believe them, to get frightened, to
cry over what they hear, and to fight about it as anybody. Now, I can
prove their great granddaddies didn't fight for the liberty of speech
and the stump speakers of the day ought not to be putting such things
into their heads, because if they let them alone they will talk more than
they ought under common restrictions. For my part, I am done trying
to regulate them; they may go on as they please. But, you know it is a
sin and a shame to be telling all sorts of stories calculated to scare the
weaker sex. Your womanly feelings will revolt at such conduct and
in spite of you, you must cry out shame, shame. During the past week
the people must call together another meeting to remove the Seminole
Indians and to build the railroad to Tampa. The Indians are not
gone they are still at their work of death and destruction, and the
engine whistle had not been heard anywhere in this vicinity notwith-
standing the frequent meetings. It is quite apparent, humans, to any
superficial observer that the dastardly cowards, the Indians, would
have been removed and the railroad here doing tremendous things,
provided meetings could do the work, but it is said a part of the world
must talk while the other part acts perhaps it will be well in the end.
A masquerade meeting was gotten, however, by the half-Spaniards
and yearlings of the town which has a more definite object in view.
than any other meeting. It was to scare the inhabitants of this embryo
city, and they succeeded to the fullest extent. Some thought they had
to be killed and scalped and the fight overcame them. Others thought
it best to run and shut the door and lock it and others, that it was best
to see after the baby. Mother's darling. After it was all over what then?
Why the most terrible sentences were pronounced against all mas-
querades ever heard. Some of the good dames said, "They ought to
be flogged alive, the good-for-nothing imps pretty way to do in
these troublous times scaring honest folks. Wretches, they had
better be in a gentleman's cotton field instead of ganging about here
among the low mean white folks, who are better than they are." In
addition to the foregoing facts, I have to state that a rumor has reached
the town, that two men were killed and one wounded on the Miami
River.28 The wounded man made his escape and reported the facts
to the garrison at the mouth of the river. About the same time a report
reached the town that five men were killed or captured near Ft. Denaud
in the Indian territory.
February 2nd 1856
I learned that the reports have been confirmed and one official
report of the acts of the Indians had been received. But I must stop
right here and tell you the masquerade didn't kill anyone; that no
scalps were taken and that the little children have not had fits. The
officials' report states that about the 8th or 10th of January three men
engaged in digging coontie, on the Miami River, a few miles from its
mouth, were fired upon by a body of Indians. Two of the men were
killed, the other wounded; he, however, made his escape. The corpses
were scalped and mutilated in a horrid manner. One of the deceased
Billy Bowlegs War 65
was an aged man, named Peter Johnson; the name of the other un-
known. Also that a wood party consisting of a corporal and five
privates, with two wagons and twelve mules, were fired upon by some
fifteen or twenty Indians, about five miles from Ft. Denaud on the
road heading from that post to Ft, Thompson, on the morning of the
18th January. As far as known, only one private escaped, he made
his way to Ft. Denaud and reported the attack. Lieut. Lamed, with
a party of men, went to the place and made a search, but could not
find any traces of the Indians or the missing men.30 All the mules were
shot behind the ear; the wagons and horses uninjured. The families
in Miami were brought into the fort, and in a few days, went to Key
West, where they can be accommodated. The people had not re-
covered from the excitement produced by the reception of these
reports, when a large company of mounted men marched in to the
town, in double file . and went straight on to the garrison . .
Capt. William Kendrick commanded the company which he made
known to the good citizens hollering at the top of his voice keep order.
Another company commanded by Capt. Johnson followed close
upon the heels of Capt. Kendrick. In a short time the whole town was
on the tip toe of excitement, and everyone that could dare to leave
their business, went out to see what was to pay. What the sudden
appearance of 124 men armed with rifles, double barrel guns, and
mounted on horses and mules with saddle bags and wallets under
them and a huge tin cup tied to their saddles could mean by appearing
thus, unceremoniously, in the city without having given due notice.
They returned, however, hitched their horses up to the racks enclos-
ures around and were soon engaged in giving a minute detail of their
proceedings and their reception by the Col. in command. Capt. John-
son's company was not received and, consequently, could not be
fed at the expense of the government crib.
In the evening the two companies marched out of town a short
distance and encamped for the night. The following day they returned,
made their purchases, had their guns repaired and left. Lord Welling-
ton could not have felt more self important when he was leading his
victorious army to the field at Waterloo, than did Capt. Kendrick,
after his company had been received and provisioned by Col. Monroe.
Don Quixote never felt more valiant, more confidence in the powers
of his mighty army and more important to the mistress, who guided
him to his Knight errantry, than did the major part of the company.
Rosiment never felt more spirited than did the whole beasts on which
the men were mounted. I except the mules, for a mule is a mule and
cannot be immortalized in prose or in song. The scene was full of
interest. The multitude of man, horses and mules would suggest ideas
of confusion, despite your efforts to view these through the eye of
patriotism; in fact they appeared to have been routed and on the retreat.
The variety of arms of dress of animals and equipment caused one
to feel some contempt for the volunteer's life; and to imagine, what
would be the condition of the whole, in case a charge of the evening
should be ordered. Just imagine if you please that you see 124 men
dressed in common material of various colors and ages, long beards
and smooth chins armed with a variety of blunderbusses mounted
on any sort of a horse from the poor pony to the large old rip a few
on mules and a few men riding to one side, and you will have a correct
view of the picture presented to the eye as they traveled the streets of
Tampa shelter skelter without any order whatever. But all must bid
them God's speed for they are going on a scout down on Peas Creek,
where the Indians may be met, where they are driven from their own
The week closed without any mishap, whatever calculated to
destroy life or jeopardize it to any extent except in the fruitful imagin-
ations of the good dames and the men who are required to stay at home
and take care of their families.
February llth, 1856
On last Sabbath I was alone all day and enjoyed very much good
milk for dinner the best I've drank in Florida and in the evening
had my ears shocked by the news that a man was found dead, with
his brains shot out, about 12 miles from T. on the old road to Tampa.
In a little time thereafter, notwithstanding the rains falling in torrents,
a purse of men, good souls, started off to the place and carried a wagon
with them to bring the body into town. I learned the next morning
that it was Solomon Snow who couldn't get to purgatory soon enough
so he concluded he would go and so, with his gun, blew his skull off.
Now isn't it horrible that a man should kill himself in this country
where he will die soon enough anyway. On account of the troubles
of a family, he could leave at any time, and be equally as much respected
as he had ever been. In this land where the judges put asunder what
God had joined together, it is mere child's play to get rid of a woman,
and, it is very easy to marry another. Therefore, is it hardly probable
such was the cause of his committal of suicide, ardent spirits must have
been the cause.
Billy Bowlegs War 67
Mrs. Carter returned on Monday morning and I was right glad
to see the children. The rain of the day before had detained her. I learned
that the petition of the officers of the company, organized for the
defense of the town for arms was not treated with the attention the
Captain, I ought to say Military Governor, thought it deserved. But
he did not order Col. Munroe to prison or punish him inanywayexcept
by the use of his most dangerous weapon his tongue. Now this was
enough to ruffle the feelings of an honorable Captain who had been
elevated to the post of Captain by the good people and it is not all
wonderful that he should indulge his tongue in the use of words cal-
culated to fire vent to his feelings. But the worst of all had come upon
him. Mr. Jake Gaddin, a man who had been whipped and run for
stealing cows wished to enter his company. This was more than Capt.
could bear so he let his tongue loose on him and vanquished him in
a short time without getting a scratch or a bruise. Gaddin retired, after
being told his character was too bad to join a respectable company, and
determined to have such revenge as a high-runged gentlemen would
seek. That was to get the quartermaster appointment for Lieut. Mans-
field's company, and put him on short rations till he was made to ask
his pardon and assume the position he ought to occupy. He promised
to reward his friends when he got the appointment and punish his
enemies in the company. Various reports have been in circulation in
the town since Gent. Jesse Carter left for Tallahassee. The people have
more than their share of curiosity which is always the result of a want
of business of their own to attend to and he left, after having been twice
in the garrison, closeted with Col. Munroe and Capt. Kazey, without
saying anything about the business on hand worse than he bought
him a full suit of clothes and made other preparations for his journey
and would not let others know why he made them. One of the reports
Madame Ramos started you know (she is under a bad character)
excited some of the common folk. It was that the Governor intended
to move to Tampa and stay here during the war. Another one that
Capt. Lesley's company would take Bowlegs, the chief, before Genl.
Carter could get to Tallahassee. Those reports and many as to the
nature of Gent. Carter's business occupied the public mind during the
I must tell you about minor assurances, what passed at my winter
house. The weather became very cold; yes, freezing cold, and we feared
old winter had shifted her quarters and come down in latitude 20'
nsome ice and display her other powers, but we were dis-
appointed, for just as she had begun to make ice for use, a southerly
wind came along and forced her back north, and melted the ice in six
hours. The children were delighted with the ice on the water buckets
and the icicles hanging from the shelf, but when the time came for
going to school and suffering the cold air, they concluded it was too
cold. They could not stand it, after having been out playing with the
ice some time in the early part of the morning. Their mama concluded,
however, that the youngest Maria Louise, a little girl about 8 years
of age, might stay at home, which caused the eldest (Josephine, ten
years old) to set her wits to work to stay too. Her lessons were not
studied as they should have been; the cold was extreme, and she must
stay. But how is she to manage. Say not. Children are innocent natu-
rally; she planned her resistance to the will of her mother in a few
minutes with as much wisdom and certainty of success as an older
head could have done. The first thing to be done was to leave the family
fire, and to the kitchen to get as near the fire as she could. The second
was, she must groan and grunt (children grunt as well as old folks)
as though she was in pain and then when her ma came after her she
must say her stomach aches and cry a little if her ma told her she must
go. She carried her plans out and succeeded, though she was compelled
to add disobedience to her first plan in order that she might secure
time enough to form her plans anew and for her mother to retract her
position and have her do as she pleased. The most wonderful part of
the matter is, that they were taken with pains in their stomach at the
same time momentarily after a hearty breakfast on beef steak and
buckwheat cakes. They succeeded to the fullest extent and when I
went to my dinner, Josephine acknowledged she was not sick; Mariah
didn't say anything, but she was in the same condition. Flowers may
appear beautiful to the eye and beguile one from the path, but when
they are found to be nauseous they are cast away, destroyed, and not
permitted to cumber the ground. Yes, everything in nature with de-
ceptions in its character, is regarded by man with an eye of prejudice,
but human beings are so fearfully and wonderfully made, that decep-
tion may be in every part, and yet, cannot be detected by the puny sense
February 12th, 1856
Here I begin my daily talk and hope to make it edifying to you
and I. The morning, cloudy and heavy norwester blowing, earth
saturated with water by the recent rains. After breakfast on beefsteak
Billy Bowlegs War 69
and hominy, I walked down to the garden on the river side, in which
I feel much interested, and marked off a place for ditch. Gave the boy
directions about cutting it, left for the registrar's office which I attend
to in the absence of my landlord the registrar. Mr. Hays called at the
office to look after some land near Ballast Point and after talking a
good deal about it, went off without accomplishing his object.3' Doctor
Roberts called and talked to me a good deal about Indians, the com-
pany he joined,32 and left. What can be the object of his visit, if he had
any? He asked me to visit him when he left, which I declined in manner.
Perhaps that was his object. Here a question comes up. Ought to have
told the Doctor, I can't visit you sir because I regard your wife as a
Termagant, a vixen, of the form she bears! Now this is my real reason
for not visiting the house, but I shall decide the truth had better be
withheld in some cases, particularly where it might do more harm than
good. At dinner, the little girls run into the office and without asking
any questions whatever, went into the bin of ground nuts and helped
themselves to more than they ought to have done. I determined to
restrain them in the future at least till their Pa returned then I will try
and cut loose from them. Maria wanted to kiss me after dinner,
begged me for a kiss, but I refused on the ground that she had brought
home a disgraceful report from school last evening; they love me too
well, must and will cut loose from them. Judge Lancaster called in the
evening, walked to the back door, looked in and turned and went out.
Mr. Brown came in with a preemptious claim to file for a man in
Manatee County. Don't like the English of Manatee big cow.33
Occupied myself writing to my father and when 1 got through my long
sheet of foolscap, hardly knew whether I ought to send such a letter,
so full of stuff, instead of the ideas most interesting to him. But I haven't
got much to say, therefore how could I fill a letter without talking a
long time over one idea.
February 13th, 1856
Night still cold, morning foggy till 8 o'clock. The schooner Jon
Roleffs laid all night near the house, and this morning the men com-
menced loading her with some cedar timber, which had been piled
up on the edge of the yard for some time. All hands rejoiced over its
removal because it offered a hiding place for rats and venomous
reptiles. Mr. Sterling McCarty called for his patent which was de-
livered.34 On every side, I am asked if Saul Carter has gotten home,
how the late Indians are the cause of such anxiety about him. What
ought to be done with them! Must they be driven from the land and
country made for them and given to them by the God of nature because
the savage life is the only one adapted to the country and calculated
to use the natural resources? Civilized man would starve in it but the
savage can find everything to gratify his simple wants. The lake on
which he can drive his rawhide canoe draws from its water a beautiful
supply of fish. The streams affording the same advantages and oysters
and turtle in abundance, the forest, in which he seeks and obtains by
his gun an abundance of meat; and the place of bread and the little
island in the Everglades for his little hut, all made for him and meets
to the fullest extent all his wants . I found the people at the office
excited on the subject of Genl. Carter's arrival. They had heard he was
on the way and would be at home this evening. When I reached my
house, I found the house in a state of commotion, consequent on his
arrival. After the exchange of the usual greetings I opened my letters
and found the suspected letter contained a valentine with some hard
hints on the subject of a widow's dreams about me. Now I can't help
their dreaming, but I wish she had kept it to herself. The other was
from my cousin Millie E. Johnson whose flattery is rather displeasing
After supper the presents were brought out and delivered to
Mrs. Carter and the young ones; of course they must all kiss him for
such nice presents. Josephine's new large conch gave her the fidgets
so completely she could not study her lessons.35 The truth is the whole
house had a slight touch of the same affection. But not all the good
people could stand it to wait till morning for the result of the General's
trip to Tallahassee. They must see him and that at once. Several came
in whilst he was shaving and he was compelled to answer some of their
inquiries. They were the representatives of volunteer companies and
one of them reported, that he had seen an Indian, and declared he was
the only man who had seen one. How ought he not to be rewarded!
1. In Military Order 27, issued by Colonel William J. Worth on August 14,1842
the Indians were to be given the temporary use of a two and one-half million acre
"hunting and planting" reserve situated west and south of Lake Istokpoga and west
of a line running from the mouth of the Kissimmee River through the Everglades to
Shark River and thence along the coastline to the Peace River. Actually Tampa was
nearly one hundred miles from the reserve. General Order 27 in Clarence E. Carter
editor and compiler, The Territorial Paper of the United States, The Territory of
Florida 1839-1845 XXV, (Washington, 1962),471-72.
Billy Bowlegs War 71
2. The news of the attack was printed in the Tampa Florida Peninsular
December 23, 1855.
3. Although there were three organized religious groups, Methodists, Baptists
and Presbyterians in Tampa at this time, the Methodist church situated on the north-
eastern corner of present day Kennedy and Morgan had the largest congregation.
Karl Grismer, Tampa (St. Petersburg, 1950) 119-120.
4. The Seminole War lasting from 1835 to 1842 cost the lives of nearly fifteen
hundred persons and cost between thirty and forty million dollars.
5. Nearly three thousand five hundred Seminoles were removed from Florida
and sent to the northcentral portion of Indian Territory or present day Oklahoma.
6. The Texan Ranger was on regular service between Tampa and Fort Myers.
7. Four men belonging to the Second Artillery were killed and four wounded.
See Ray B. Seley, Jr. "Lieutenant Hartsuff and the Banana Plants," Tequesta,
8. Unoccupied Forts Simon Drum and Shackleford had been burned but
Fort Denaud being occupied by 150 men could not be molested. James W. Covington,
The Bili' Bowlegs War(Chuluota, 1982), 1,41.
9. The frame courthouse had been erected by Captain James McKay in 1848.
Grismer, Tampa, 108-09.
10. The only doctor in Tampa at this time was Dr. John P. Cricht on. Grismer,
11. James T. Magbee, a lawyer, had come to Tampa during the late 1840s.
After service in the Confederate Army, Magbee was appointed Judge of the Circuit
Court for the Judicial District by Republican Governor Harrison Reed in 1868.
When he was discovered lying on Franklin Street dead drunk, Tampa Democrats
covered his body with molasses and corn meal and gathered some hogs to enjoy a meal
of molasses and corn meal. Gary R. Mormino and Anthony Pizzo, Tampa: The
Treasure City (Tulsa, 1983), 72 and articles in D.B. McKay's "Pioneer Florida,"
November 23, 1952, April 18, 1956 and December 28, 1958.
12. William Brinton Hooker raised a company of volunteers in the Second
Seminole War (1835-1842) and served as captain of the unit. Grismer Tampa, 316.
Leroy Gilliland Lesley served in the Second Seminole War.
13. Both Lesley and Hooker served as commanders of militia companies
throughout the Third Seminole War.
14. In the December 24, 1855 meeting William B. Hooker was elected com-
mander of the regional militia and with forty men moved to the Peace River where
more men were recruited and placed at various posts along the frontier line including:
Fort Meade 20 men, Fort Hartsuff 25, Fort Green 16 and Fort Hooker 24. The re-
maining sixty-four men commanded by Captain Lesley moved to the mouth of the
Peace River. Covington, The Billy Bowlegs War, 36-37.
15. On January 12, 1856 Governor James Broome tentatively accepted into
state service the six militia companies that had been mobilized and ordered them to
protect the frontier. Broome to Colonel James Monroe January 12, 1856 Journal of
the Proceedings of House of Representatives of the General Assembly of the State
of Florida at its Eighth Session. (Tallahassee, 1856), 23 Hereafter cited as House
16. During the entire scouting foray of Hartsuff, only two fleeing Indians were
seen by the soldiers prior to the attack. Ray B. Seley, Jr., "Lieutenant Hartsuff and
the Banana Plants," Tequesta, XXIII 3-14.
17. The attack commenced at five a.m. on December 20, 1855. Covington,
Billy Bowlegs War, 2.
18. George Hartsuff would take part in several battles in the Civil War on the
northern side, be wounded at Antietam and die in 1874 from pneumonia with com-
plications arising from his 1855 chest wound.
19. Fort Denaud sited on the south bank of the Caloosahatchee River some
twenty-seven miles from Fort Myers was established during the Second Seminole
War. Alexander S. Webb "Campaigning in Florida in 1855," Journal of the Military
Service Institution CLXII, has drawings and text concerning life at Fort Denaud.
20. This account of First Lieutenant Hartsuffs activity after the attack is the
only one that has been made available.
21. Omitted from this list was the company organized by Abner Johnston.
William T. Kendrick had been Sheriff of Hillsborough County and was engaged in
cattle raising.Grismer, Tampa, 314. Francis M. Durrance and Simeon L. Sparkman
were other captains. Sparkman, homesteading at Hickapusassa, was the first tax
assessor of Hillsborough County. Grismer, Tampa, 316.
22. Other posts including Forts Meade and Brooke were named for living
23. Oakley Mansfield, born in New Hampshire, was fifty-four years old at this
time. Annie Burns, compiler,"Historical Records of Hillsborough County 1830-1870."
off-set copy. Hillsborough Historical Commission Library, 29.
24. Jesse Carter holder of the stage mail contract and owner of land which is
now included within the University of Tampa campus was designated by Governor
Broome to act as liaison officer between the federal and state troops.
25. James Donathan born in North Carolina, was sixty-six years old at this time.
26. The rosters of all state militia companies may be found in Soldiers of Florida
in the Seminole Indian, Civil and Spanish American Wars. It is difficult to find these
names listed as officers of one company.
27. Colonel John Monroe was in charge of federal troops within the State
28. Five soldiers of the Fifth Artillery and twelve mules were killed in the attack.
Webb, "Campaigning," 410412.
29. Peter Johnson was killed in his home and Edward Farrell killed in the
woods while digging arrowroot.
30, First Lieutenant Frank H. Lamed of the Second Artillery served at Fort
Denaud from December 29, 1855 to August, 1856. Francis B. Heitman, Historical
Register and Dictionary of the United States Army I Washington, 1903), 616;
On January 6, 1856, the Indians killed two men six miles south of Fort Dallas at
Miami. Florida Peninsular, February 2, 1856.
31. Since the water at the Port of Tampa was very shallow, large ships anchored
near Ballast Point and smaller boats carried passengers and cargo to the docks.
32. George Robert and William Hays served in Johnston's company from
December 29, 1855 to August 29, 1856. James Roberts served in Durrance's company
during the same period.
33. Judge Joseph B. Lancaster elected on February 16, 1856 was Tampa's first
mayor. Grismer, Tampa, 117; Micajah C. Brown elected in 1845 was one of Hills-
borough County's first commissioners.
34. The patent would be the recording of the legal title to real estate.
35. General Jesse Carter was forty-six years old, his wife Ann, forty and daugh-
ter Josephine, nine. Annie Burns, Records,28.
The Railroad Stations in Dade County
By Seth Bramson
At first glance it may appear, to the casual onlooker, particularly,
that a catalogue of Dade County railroad stations would not present
anything more difficult than looking at an old railroad map and listing
the depots as they appeared on the map. The serious historian, however,
knows that cataloguing anything is never quite that simple.
The first decision to be made, in any historic situation involving
Dade County, is to geographically define Dade County. For our
purpose it is defined as modern day Dade; that is, not including the
areas partitioned from the earlier Dade County that formed Palm
Beach and Broward Counties.
The second decision involves definition also. What is a railroad
station? For the purposes of this survey, and to provide a basis for
future historical investigation and assessment, a station will be defined
as "any facility listed in a railroad timetable, regardless of type of con-
struction, but providing at least a paved or planked platform from
which to board a passenger train."
Our third, and possibly most important consideration, is, "when?"
That is, is the list for a specific date or is it to be "omnibus," attempting
to list all stations, beginning with the Florida East Coast's (FEC) in
1896 and concluding with Amtrak's 1978 edition. Obviously, it must
not be anything but 'omnibus.'
Seth Bramson is a lifelong collector of FEC Railway and Florida transportation
memorabilia, as well as Miamiana and Floridiana. He is the author of Speedway to
Sunshine: The Story of the Florida East Coast Railway, published by Boston Mills
Press in 1984. This is his first article for Tequesta.
Unfortunately, the easy way is usually not the right way. For that
reason, the formidable task of researching hundreds of FEC and
Seaboard Airline Railroad (SAL) timetables, double checking, cross-
referencing, alphabetizing, chronologizing, and establishing geo-
graphic locations had to be done in order to present a list that was as
complete as possible in every respect.
The list of stations has been broken into three segments:
A) Stations on the FEC from the present Dade-Broward line on the
north to the Dade-Monroe line on the south;
B) Stations on the SAL from the Dade-Broward line on the north
to Homestead station on the south;
C) All stations from Lists A) and B), alphabetized.
Lists A) and B) will each contain the following information:
Name of station
Railroad milepost number
Type of construction, if known:
"P" for platform only
"S" for shelter only
"W" for wooden building
"C" for concrete or stucco
If the station is still extant (standing), it is noted.
List C) will contain the following information:
Closest intersecting streets, if known
The following may also be helpful:
1) Lists A) and B) show stations from north to south with two
exceptions: the FEC's platform at Hialeah Race Track was at
mile post LR 5.8 on the east-west line to Hialeah now known
as the "Miami Belt Line," and the SAL's Miami passenger station
was east of the remainder of the line from the north to Homestead,
at mile post 1040.0.
2) In cases where stations have had name changes, all names are
shown in the alphabetical list, with a reference to the later named
station. Only the later named station (at the same point) is shown
in the geographic lists.
3) In order to establish points of reference, the following should
be noted: FEC mileage begins in Jacksonville, at mile post "0;"
Railroad Stations 75
the Dade County line is mp 351.1. The site of the former FEC
station in downtown Miami, 200 NW 1st Avenue, was mp 365.6.
FEC track ends at mp 396.7, which is roughly 4/10 of a mile
south of Palm Avenue, Florida City.
SAL (now SCL) mileage begins in Richmond, Virginia.
The Dade County line is mp 1022.36, and end of track in Home-
stead is mp 1066.6.
List "A," Florida East Coast Stations
Station Milepost Type
Ojus 353.7 W
North Miami Beach 354.7 W
*North Miami 356.8 C
Arch Creek 357.4 W
Miami Shores 359.0 W
Little River 360.6 W
Military Junction 361.1 C
Lemon City 361.8 W
Buena Vista 363.2 W
Miami 365.6 W also C
Miami River Drawbridge (Reference Point) 366.2
Southside 366.9 P
Coconut Grove 370.9 W
South Miami 373.8 C
Kendal 376.3 Unknown
Howard 378.6 Unknown
Keys 379.5 Unknown
Rockdale 380.2 Unknown
Perrine 381.6 W
Peters 382.5 P
Goulds 385.8 W
Black Point 386.6 Unknown
*Princeton 387.7 W
Naranja 389.4 P
Modello 391.5 Unknown
* Homestead 393.9 W
Florida City 395.6 W (later C)
Wooddall 401.6 P
Glades 408.3 P
*Station is still standing
All mileage (milepost numbers) is from the "Official Industrial and
Development Directory of the Florida East Coast Railway Co.
1926-1927" page 13, with the exception of the following:
Arch Creek and Wooddall MP Numbers are from FEC Employee
Timetable Number 155, December 2, 1925; Buena Vista, Military
Junction and North Miami mp Numbers are taken from FEC
Employee Timetables, 1943; Hialeah Race Track, which, as noted
in the text is at mp LR 5.8 was a platform, and was used for several
years by special trains operating from Miami Station to Little River
and thence out the "Miami Belt Line" to the Race Track. Hialeah
Race Track milepost and train operation information is from FEC
Railway Employee Timetable Number 5, for the railroad's Southern
Division, December 17, 1931.
List "B," Seaboard Airline
Station Milepost Construction
Uleta 1025.7 C
*Opa Locka 1030.0 C
*Hialeah 1036.3 C
Miami 1040.0 C
Coral Gables -
Miami Biltmore 1043.3 C
South Miami 1047.0 Unknown
*Alladin City 1058.7 W
Redland 1062.8 Unknown
*Homestead 1066.4 C
*Station is still standing
It should be noted that, although the Miami station was demolished
in 1980, the front entrance portal remains and will be used as the
main entrance to the new state hospital being erected on the former
passenger station site.
Railroad Stations 77
List "C," Alphabetical List of Stations of Both Railroads
Station Railroad Location (if known)
Coral Gables -
North Miami Beach)
Hialeah Race Track
N.E. 125 St. & 14 Ave.
either N.E. 99 St. or 103 St.
approx. N.E. 29 St. & 2 Ave.
S.W. 37 Ave. & U.S. 1I
SAL just south of Coral Way
FEC Palm Drive off U.S. 1
12.7 miles south of Florida City
N.W. 39 St. & 37 Ave.
adjacent to race track
west side of city
approx. S.W. 94 St.
N.E. 4 Ct. and 59 St.
N.E. 4 Ct. and 79 St.
N.W. 37 Ave. & 84 St.
200 N.W. 1 Ave.
2206 N.W. 7 Ave.
N.E. 4 Ct. and 71 St.
North Miami Beach
Railroad Location (if known)
N.E. 16 Ave. & 128 St.
N.E. 163 St. & U.S. 1I
N.E. 181 St. and
West Dixie Highway
S.W. 104 Ave. & U.S. I
just south of Sunset on U.S. I
just south of S.W. 8 St.
N.W. 167 St. & 5 Ave.
6 miles south of Florida City
Total, 1896-1983, forty-three stations. As of 1984, one station,
Amtrak Miami, is in use. Seven stations are still extant.
'The original site of the Miami Shores station was at the Arch Creek location, as the
originally intended site of Miami Shores was in that area. At the same time, the Biscayne
station was established at mp 359.0 (approximately the location of today's NE96th St.).
For whatever reason, the Miami Shores townsite was consolidated south of Arch
Creek, at Biscayne, and the Miami Shores station name was transferred to Biscayne.
The former Miami Shores station, at mp 357.4, was renamed Arch Creek.
2The original FEC Miami Station was located on the corner of what is now Flagler St.
and NW 1st Avenue. It was replaced by a wooden station "uptown" at what is now
Biscayne Boulevard and NE 6th Street, site of the former Miami News Freedom
Tower Building. In 1912, a new station was built at 200 NW 1st Avenue. It was de-
molished over a period of forty-seven days in October and November 1963.
'Miami Plantation and Uleta stations were on the same site. Though no record seems to
exist for name usage, the station site location would be right at the point where the
Seaboard passes under one of the main connectors of the Golden Glades Interchange.
4Glades and Wooddall stations had planked or paved platforms and were flag stops
for fishing camps.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Members of The Historical Association of Southern Florida
enjoy free admission to the museum located at the Metro-Dade
Cultural Center, invitations to special events, subscriptions to
Update, Currents, and our annual journal Tequesta, use of the
Research Center and the Archives, discounts on purchases at the
museum store, and discounts on educational and recreational pro-
grams. Each membership category offers the benefits outlined above,
plus additional privileges for the higher levels of support.
Membership revenues benefit educational programs, special
exhibitions, and daily operations of the museum.
The Membership listing is made up of the names of those
persons and institutions that have paid dues since June 1984; those
who joined after October 1, 1985 will have their names in the 1986
CATEGORIES OF MEMBERSHIP
Corporations and Foundations $500.00
Life (no longer available)
Donor $ 50.00
Family $ 35.00
Individual $ 25.00
Institutional $ 20.00
*Senior Citizen (no longer available)
*The Board of Trustees voted to discontinue the category of
Senior Citizen as of January 1985.
Any changes in the level or listing of membership should be
reported to the membership office at 375-1492.
Honorary Life Membership is voted by the Board of Trustees
to recognize special service to the association. The symbol **
indicates Founding Member; the symbol indicates Charter
Alpert, Mr. Maurice D.
Conklin, Ms. Dallas
Waters, Fred M., Jr.
Dade County Council
of Arts & Sciences
The Elizabeth Ordway
The Anna & Nathan Flax
Ruth & August Geiger
Allen Morris Foundation
The Babcock Company
of South Florida, N.A.
Shohat & Sale, P.A.
Blackwell, Walker, Gray,
Powers, Flick and Hoehl
CenTrust Savings Bank
City National Bank
Coconut Grove Bank
Deloitte, Haskins and Sells
Eisner and Lubin
Ernst and Whinney
Esso Inter-America Inc.
Etchings of Mariah
Aberman, Mr. & Mrs. James
Anderson, Ms. Marie
Anderson, Dr. & Mrs.
Batten, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Battle, Mr. and Mrs.
Benjamin B., Jr.
Britton, Dr. & Mrs.
M.R. Harrison Construction
Withers, James G.
Sam A. & B.B. Goldstein
The Graham Foundation
Greenberg, Traurig, Askew,
P.A. Philanthropic Fund
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs.
Ralph B., Jr.
Withers, Wayne E.
The J.N. McArthur
The William J. and
The Rotary Foundation
First Nationwide Savings
Fleming and Huck
Florida Power and Light
General Federal Savings
Greenberg, Traurig, Askew,
Hoffman, Lipoff, Rosen
and Quentel, P.A.
Lowell Dunn Company
Mershon, Sawyer, Johnston,
Dunwody and Cole
The Miami Herald
The Miami News
Chapman, Mr. & Mrs.
Alvah H., Jr.
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W.
Collier, Ms. Beth
Colson, Mr. & Mrs. William
Corlett, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward S., Ill
Corson, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Cox, Mr. & Mrs. Plato
Miller and Salomon, Inc.
Morgan, Lewis, Bockius
Norwegian Caribbean Lines
Poe's Hardware Rentals
Republic National Bank
Sage, Gray, Todd and Sims
Stobs Brothers Construction
Sun Bank of Miami
WBC Broadcasting Co.
WEI Enterprises Corporation
Woodlawn Park Cemeteries
Curry, Miss Lamar Louise
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
*Dismukes, Dr. William P.
Earle, Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Easton, Mr. Edward W.
Erickson, Mr. Douglas
Eyell, Mr. & Mrs. Boyce F. 111
Fitzgerald, Dr. & Mrs.
George, Dr. & Mrs. Phillip T.
Graham, Mr. & Mrs.
Gregory, Mr. & Mrs. Gary M.
Harris, Mr. & Mrs.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
John C., Jr.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
John C., Sr.
Haverfield, Mrs. Shirley
Hector, Mr. & Mrs. Louis J.
Hector, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Hicks, Mr. & Mrs.
Hills, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Hunter, Dr. & Mrs. Burke M.
Huston, Mrs. Tom
Kanner, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Kenny, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Kislak, Mr. Jay I.
Knight, Mr. & Mrs.
Korth, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Kyle, Mr. Alan G.
Laurence, Mr. Kenneth R.
Lawrence, Mr. & Mrs.
Lopez, Dr. & Mrs. Ray
Lynch, Mr. & Mrs.
Stephen A. III
Arnsparger, Mr. & Mrs.
Butt, Dr. Prudence
Hansen, Mr. William M.
Abess, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Abitol, Mr. Andre
Adams, Mr. Larry H.
Adler, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel 1.
Ansin, Toby Lerner
Apthorp, Mr. & Mrs.
Averill, Mr. Joseph
Barkell, Mr. & Mrs. William
Ben-Moleh, Dr. Josef
Berger, Mr. & Mrs. Arnold
Bermont, Mr. & Mrs. Peter L.
Black, Mr. & Mrs.
Hugo L., Jr.
Chalnick, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Chasen, Mr. & Mrs.
Mank, Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton
Marmer, Mr. Syddney
Masvidal, Mr. & Mrs. Raul P.
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs.
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs.
Matteson, Mr. Arnold C.
McCrimmon, Mr. & Mrs.
Mead, Mr. & Mrs.
D. Richard, Sr.
Mensch, Dr. & Mrs. JosephS.
Mesnekoff, Mr. & Mrs. David
Molinari, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Morrison, Dr. & Mrs. Glenn
Moss, Mr. Edward A.
Nordt, Dr. John C. III
Noriega, Ms. Lamar J.
Pappas, Mr. & Mrs.
Parks, Ms. Arva Moore
Pero, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph H., Jr.
Prunty, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Read, Mrs. Albert Cushing
Rebozo, Mr. Charles G.
Roller, Mrs. G. Philip
Slack, Mr. & Mrs. Ted C.
Smiley, Mrs. Charlotte S.
Leiva, Mrs. Maria Camila
Lowell, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Peacock, Henry B., Jr.
Clark, Mrs. Kathryn L.
Custer, Mr. & Mrs.
Roy F., Jr.
Daniel, Mr. & Mrs.
William A., Jr.
Danielson, Mr. J. Deering
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
DeCarion, Mr. George H.
Dellapa, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Dinaburg, Ms. Barbara
Dinnerstein, Ms. Jeanne
Doddo, Mr. James E.
Dowlen, Dr. & Mrs. L.W., Jr.
Dresser, Mr. & Mrs.
DuPuch, Sir Etienne, OBE
List of Members 81
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Smith, Doctors Clarence E.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Soman, Mr. & Mrs.
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs.
Earl Spencer, Jr.
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs.
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs.
Franz H., Sr.
*Tebeau, Dr. Charlton W.
Trainer, Mr. Monty P.
Traurig, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Vergara, Dr. & Mrs.
Warren, Mr. & Mrs.
Lewis Gibbens, Jr.
Wisehart, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolfe, Dr. & Mrs.
Wolfson, Mr. Mitchell, Jr.
Wooten, Mr. & Mrs. James
Younts, Mr. & Mrs. David
Zwibel, Dr. & Mrs. Howard
Pennekamp, Mr. Tom
Shapiro, Ms. Phyllis A.
Sonnett, Mr. & Mrs. Neal R.
Ellenburg, Mr. & Mrs.
Fields, Dorothy J.
Fogg, Mr. Stephen M.
Friedman, Mr. Arnold S.
Gallagher, Mr. & Mrs.
George, Mr. W.F.
Glinn, Mr. & Mrs.
Goldberg, Mr. Bruce
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Goode, Mr. Ray
Grant, Hazel R.
Grassie, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Hecht, Mrs. Isadore
*Herin, Judge& Mrs.
Hornstein, Mrs. Norene
Hunter, Dr. Caroline B.
Jaffe, Dr. Jonathan Ravid
Jinks, Mr. Larry
Kaplan, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur E.
Keller, Mr. Bruce A.
Kienzle, Mr. Carl R.
Klein, Mr. Norman S.
Kniskern, Mr. & Mrs.
Kreutzer, Mr. & Mrs.
Leake, Martin & Joan
Levine, Mr.& Mrs. Arthur R.
Levy, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Lewis, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Louthan, Barbara Lynn M.
Martinez, Dr. & Mrs.
Maxted, Mr. & Mrs. F.J., Jr.
Maxwell, Mr. & Mrs.
Mayer, R. MacFarlane
Adler, Dr. Robert M.
Anllo, Mr. Bill
August, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie J.
Bardi, Mr. & Mrs. Bruno
Beam, Mr. Frank L.
Behrmann, Mr. & Mrs.
Benn, Mr. Nathan
& Jerome, M.D.
Billings, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Black, Mr. Leon David, Jr.
Blank, Dr. & Mrs. Harvey
Blumberg, Mr. & Mrs. David
Bonavia, Mr. & Mrs. Paul J.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs.
Camp, Robert J., M.D.
Charbonnet, Mr. & Mrs.
Chardon, Roland E.
Clark, Mrs. Mae K.
Claughton, Mr. E.N.
Cleveland, Dr. John Q., Jr.
Cohn, Dr. & Mrs. L.F.
Cone, Mrs. Dee M.
McCammon, Mr. & Mrs.
McChristian, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert L., Jr.
Merritt, Mr. & Mrs. W.C.
Mizell, Mr. Earl S.
Molina, Mr. & Mrs. Luis
Moritz, Ernest & Claudette
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M.
Neinken, Mrs. Ruth
Oren, Dr. Mark E.
Orloff, Mr. Monford
Padron, Dr. Eduardo J.
Pawley, Mrs. William D.
Pettigrew, Mr. & Mrs.
Plumer, Richard B.
Poe, Mr. Frank
Quraishy, Mr. & Mrs. Masud
Rassel, Mrs. Greta L.
Regan, Mr. Carl J.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs.
Sherry, Mr. & Mrs.
Shevin, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Cornfeld, Mr. Robert M.
Crockford, Mrs. Linda
Crump, Mr. & Mrs. C.C.
D'Alemberte, Mr. & Mrs.
Daum, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Davis. Mr. & Mrs. Darrey
Davis, Hal D.
Davis, Roger Barry
de Castro, Mr. & Mrs.
DeBayle, Mr. & Mrs.
Dilthey, Mr. & Mrs. A.W.
Dowdell, Mr. & Mrs. S.H.
Duncan, Mr. & Mrs. James
Eaton, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Edelman, Mr. & Mrs.
Ehrhard, Mrs. Harriet
Ellison, E. Otho
Ellison, Mr. Edward 0.
Ericson, Mr. Arthur E.
Espindola, Mr. Robert
Evoy, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Shula, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Simonet, Richard H., CPA
Smith. Mr. & Mrs. Samuel L.
Spector, Mr. & Mrs.
Stearns, Gene, Esq.
Steinberg, Mr. Alan W.
Storer, Mrs. Peter
Straight. Dr. & Mrs. William
Stuart, Ms. Helen
Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C,
Swenson, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward F., Jr.
Taft, Mr. Richard A.
Taylor, Mr. & Mrs.
Thorpe, Jean M.
Voelter, Mrs. Karl E.
Wien, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Witz. Mr. Joseph
Wood, Mr. & Mrs.
Warren C., Sr.
*Woore, Mrs. Meredith A.
Yates, Mrs. Eunice P.
Zeppa, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Zubrik, Ms. Nadja
Feltman, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs.
Willard L., Jr.
Forman. Mr. & Mrs.
Foss, Mr. George B., Jr.
Gaby. Mr. & Mrs. Donald C.
Gardner, Mrs. Dick B.
Garner, Dr. Stanley G.
Gerace, Mrs. Terence
Gerber, Dr. & Mrs.
Paul U., Jr.
Gilbert, Donald H.
Gilbert, Mr. & Mrs. Homer
Goldwyn, Dr. Robert H.
Goosen, Mr. & Mrs.
Grafton, Mr. & Mrs.
Guyton, Dr. & Mrs.
Harte. Mr. Chris
Hawa, Mr.& Mrs. Maurice B.
Hawkins, Mrs. Roy H.
Helsabeck, Rosemary E.
Hertz, Mr. Arthur H.
Hildner, Mr.& Mrs. Frank J.
Hipps, Mrs. T.F.
Hoehl, Mr. John R.
Hooper, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Horacek, Mr. & Mrs.
Howe, Mrs. Helen DeLano
Irvin, Dr. & Mrs. George
Jacobs, Robert H.
Jacobs, Mr. & Mrs. Walter L.
Jacowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Johnson, Mr. Hal R., Jr.
Jollivette, Mr. & Mrs.
Jones, Dr. & Mrs.
Walter C. III
Jude, Mrs. Sallye
Kalett, Dr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Kehoe, Mr. Joseph M.
Kistler, Robert S.
Kleinberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Kraslow, Mr. David
Kreisberg, Mr. & Mrs, Irving
Leesfield & Blackburn, P.A.
Leigh, Mr. & Mrs. Charles N.
Leonard, Mr. & Mrs.
Litt, Dr. & Mrs. Richard E.
London, Mr. & Mrs.
Losak, Mr. & Mrs. John
Loxahatchee Hist. Society
Lubel, Mr. Howard
Maingot, Dr. & Mrs.
Matheson, R. Hardy
Mayer, Mr. & Mrs. Budd
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs,
McGilvray, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Abess, Allan, Jr.
Abrams, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey
Acle, Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo P.
Adams, Mr. Andrew D., Jr.
Adams, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
Admire, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Agha, Dr. Abdul
Aibel, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
McMinn, Mr. John H.
McSwiggan, Mr. Gerald W.
Meyer, Mr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Miller, Ms. Carolyn R.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dean R.
Minkes, Dr. & Mrs. Jules G.
Moore, Mr. Richard W.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. David
Moss, Mr. Steven
Muir, Mrs. William Whalley
Murray, Mr. John
Murray, Mrs. Mary Ruth
Myers, Ruth Dowell
Myers, Mr. & Mrs. StanleyC.
Needell, Dr. & Mrs.
Nelson, Mr. John E., Jr.
Newport, Ms. Carol
Norton, Dr. Edward W.D.
Oliver, Dr. & Mrs.
Robert M., Jr.
Ostrenko, Mr. & Mrs.
Pagliarulo, Mr. & Mrs.
Pancoast, Katherine F.
Parnes, Dr. & Mrs.
Pepper, Hon. Claude
Perryman, Mr. & Mrs,
Peskie, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Petrey, Mr. & Mrs.
Pierce, Mr. J.E.
Post, Ms. Amelia M.
Post, Mr. Howard M.
Pryor, Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter
Reilly, Mr. Phil
Rice, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E.
Robinson, Mr. Edward J.
Rodriguez, Mr. & Mrs. Raul
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Arnold S.
Aixala, Mr. & Mrs. Angel M.
Aizenshtat, Mr. & Mrs.
Aker, Ms. Mary A.
Akerman, Mr. & Mrs. John
Albl, Mr. & Mrs. David E.
Alexander, Mr. David T.
Alford, Mr. Walter H.
List of Members 83
Rossman, Mr. & Mrs.
Sarafoglu, Dr. & Mrs.
Schoen, Mr. & Mrs. Roy E.
Selva, Ms. Mary Anne
*Shaw, Dr. Luelle
Shockley, Mr. J.R., Jr.
House, Abbie H.
Siegel, Ms. Sammi L.
Simon, Mr. Edwin 0.
Smith, Dr. A,G,
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
William H., Jr.
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. J.B.
Stein, Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Stuntz, Consuelo A.
Summers, Ms. Victoriana
Sutton, Mr. & Mrs. William
Swift, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest
Thomson, Mr. & Mrs. Parker
Thorndike, Mr. & Mrs.
Troner, Dr. & Mrs.
Tunstall, Mr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Villa, Dr. & Mrs. Luis, Jr.
Warner, Mr. & Mrs.
Weisberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs.
Wimbish, Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.
Wolfe, M r. & Mrs. Gregory B.
Wolfson, Ms. Lisa
Wolfson, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolpert, Mr. & Mrs. George
Workman, Alene & S.J.
Wragg, Mr. Otis 0., lil
Wyllie, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart S.
Allen, Mr. & Mrs. Gary L.
Allenson, Mr. & Mrs.
Allington, Mr. Gary
Allsworth, Mr. E.H.
Alspach, Dr. & Mrs.
Alter, Mrs. Patricia
Aly, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas B.
Amato, Mr. & Mrs. Fred T.
Amerkan, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Amery, Mr. & Mrs. Sean A.
Ammarell, Mr. John S.
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. Duane
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. John
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs.
Anglin, Mr. Bruce
Apgar, Mr. & Mrs. Ross
Aptman, Mr.& Mrs. Michael
Arboleya, Mr. Carlos J.
Archer, Mr. Edward M.
Armada, Mr. Manuel A.
Armbrister, Mr. & Mrs.
Armstrong, Mr. John D.
Aronson, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Arrington, Ms. Viviana
Ashmore, Mr. & Mrs.
Athan, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Atkins, Judge& Mrs. C. Clyde
Atlass, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin
Atwill, Mr. Rick, Sr.
August, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur J.
Avant, Mr. John L.
Averbook, Mr. & Mrs.
Ayer, Mr. & Mrs. H.E., Jr.
Baer, Mr. & Mrs. Ken
Baggesen, Mr. & Mrs.
Walter W., Jr.
Bailey, Mr. & Mrs.
Baisden, Mr. & Mrs. Fred, Jr.
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Baker, Dr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. Terry
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Ivan E.
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Rod C.
Ballard, Mrs. Betty
Ballard, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Bander, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Banks, Col. & Mrs. Richard
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert
Barkdull, Mr. Thomas H., Jr.
Barker, Douglas and Sandra
Barkett, Mrs. Sybil
Barnes, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie 0.
Baros, Mr. & Mrs. Eric E.
Barrs, R. Grady
Barton, Mr. George
Bashford, Mr. & Mrs.
Bass, Dr. Robert T.
Bassett, Mr. & Mrs,
Baumann, Ms. Grace E.
Baumel, Mr. & Mrs. Rey
Baumgartner, Mr. & Mrs.
Bavly, Mr. & Mrs. Harry D.
Beales, Mr. & Mrs.
John H., Jr.
Beaudry, Mr. Ralph
Beck, Mr. & Mrs. Allen M.
Becker, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Beckham, Mr. & Mrs.
Beckham, Mr. & Mrs.
Bendler, Mr. & Mrs. Fred A.
Bennett, Dr. & Mrs.
Benovaich, Mrs. Nancy
Benowitz, Mr. H. Allen
Benz, Mr. Jack A.
Berg, Mr. & Mrs. Randy
Berger, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Bergeron, Mr. & Mrs. David
Bergman, Mr. & Mrs.
Berke, Mr. & Mrs. Michael A.
Berkowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Berns, Mr. Neil D.
Bernstein, Joan N.
Berrin, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Berryman, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Bertzel, Mr. & Mrs. John J.
Beveridge, Mr. & Mrs. J.A.
Bienenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Bierman, Mr. & Mrs.
Bigelow, Mr. & Mrs. John H.
Bigger, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Bilbao, Ms. Luisa G.
Billman, George B.
Bingham, J. Reid
Binkerd, Mr. Edward
Birmingham, Mr. & Mrs.
Blackard, Mr. & Mrs.
Blackburn, Mr. & Mrs.
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin M.
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Tim
Blanck, Mr. & Mrs.
Blanco, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Blanton, Mr. Floyd
Blechman, Mr. & Mrs.
Blecker, Mr. & Mrs. Barret
Blikre, Wayne C,
Block, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey W.
Bloom, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Bloom, Mr. & Mrs. Philip
Bloom, Mr. & Mrs. Sam
Bloom, Mr. & Mrs. Sy
Blowers, Mr. Jay H.
Blue, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Blum, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Blumenthal, Mr. & Mrs. Ed
Boldrick, Samuel J.
Bolton, Dr. & Mrs. John
Bonsignore, Ms. Victoria
Borovay, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart
Borroto, Mr. & Mrs.
Botifoll, Mr, Luis J.
Botwinick, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Bowen, Mrs. R.
Bowker, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Bradley, Mr. & Mrs.
Brady, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T.
Brake, Mr, & Mrs. Robert M.
Brand, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
Brantley, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Bray, Mr. & Mrs.
Wallace S., Jr.
Brayman, Mr. & Mrs.
Breakspeare, Mr. & Mrs.
Breit, Charles E.
Brellis, Mrs. Hazel K.
Bridis, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Brod, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Brody, Mr. Alan C.
Bronson, Mr. Daniel B.
Brooke, Mr. & Mrs. Peter M.
Brown, Mr. JJ.,
Brown, Bradford E.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Jack N.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Brown, Mr. Roger
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald B.
Brownell, Mr. E.R.
Brumbaugh, Mr. & Mrs,
Brush, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Bryant, Marjorie & Franklin
Buchbinder, Mr. & Mrs.
Bucholtz, Mrs. Piedad
Buchsbaum, Mr.& Mrs. Fred
Bucolo, Mr. & Mrs. William
Buhler, Mr. & Mrs. Jean Emil
Buhrmaster, Mr. & Mrs.
Burgess, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Burke, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Burns, Mr. M. Anthony
Burt, Mr. Al
Burton, Mr. John J.
Burton, LeLand, Jr.
*Burton, Col. & Mrs.
Robert A., Jr.
Bush, Mr. Gregory W.
Bush, Louis & Frances
Bushman, Mr. Karola
Butler, Mr. Donald H.
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. John
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Butler, Mr. & Mrs.
Button, Mr. & Mrs. V.W.
Cabrera, Mr. & Mrs. Rolando
Cades, Ralph & Lilli
Calcagno, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Caldwell, Mr. & Mrs.
Caldwell, Mr. & Mrs.
Cambest, Lynn M.
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Campbell, Mr. Jack
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Camps, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos R.
Cancela, Mr. & Mrs.
Cantens, Mr. Agustin J.
Cantor, Dr. & Mrs. Ronald
Capen, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Caplin, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Cappelli, Mr. Joe
Card, Mr. & Mrs. James
Carey, Mr. & Mrs.
Wesley and Ute
Carmichael, Dr. & Mrs. Lynn
Carpenter, Mr. & Mrs. John
Carpet, Mr. A.K.
Carr, Mr. & Mrs. A. Marvin
Carrera-Justiz, Mr. & Mrs.
Carrillo, Mr. & Mrs.
Carroll, Mr. Mark M.
Carter, Mr. & Mrs.
Beverly R., Ill
Cary, Mr. Robert C.
Cassel, Dr. & Mrs. Chester
Cast, Mr. & Mrs. Robert B.
Castro, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Castro, Ms. Rose
Cesarano, Gregory M.
Chait, Mr. & Mrs.
Chandler, Dr. & Mrs. J.
Chaplin, Mr. Lee
Chapman, Arthur E.
Chassner, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Chastain, Mr. & Mrs. R.B.
Cherkas, Mr. & Mrs. Byron
Chowning, Mr. & Mrs.
Church, Mr. & Mrs. David
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Clark, Ms. Lydia S.
Clayton, Mr. & Mrs. C.G.
Cleater, Mr. & Mrs. John
Cline, Mr. Stephen
Coburn, Mr. & Mrs.
Codina, Mr. Armando
Coffey, Mr. & Mrs. D.W.
Coffey, Mr, & Mrs. L.F.
Cogswell, Mr. & Mrs. T.J.
Cohen, Mr. S.E.
Cohen, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Cohen, Dr. Stanley
Cold, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald F.
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. William D.
Coll, Dr. & Mrs. Geoffrey A.
Collier, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Collins, Mr. & Mrs. Terence
Collins, Mr. & Mrs.
Colson, Mr. & Mrs. Dean
Connally, Ileana L.
Connor, Mr. & Mrs.
Connor, Dr. & Mrs. Morton
Connor, Mr. & Mrs.
Conroy, Mr. & Mrs. John
Consuegra, Mrs. Maria
Conte, Mr. & Mrs. Alexander
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. Robert F.
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. William F.
Cool, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E.
List of Members 85
Coolidge, Mr. & Mrs.
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Coords, Mr. Robert H.
Corbe, Mr. Eduardo
Corbett, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Cornejo, Mr. & Mrs. George
Cornelison, Mr. & Mrs. Dale
Costo, Mrs. Louise A.
Coverman, Mr. & Mrs.
Covin, Michael & Mildred
Cox, Mr. & Mrs. William
Cross, Mr. & Mrs. J. Alan
Crout, Mr. & Mrs.
Crow, Mr. & Mrs.
Lon Worth, Jr.
Culbertson, Mr. & Mrs. Lyn
Cullom, Mr. & Mrs.
Curtis, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Daley, Mr. & Mrs. James M.
Dane, Mr. & Mrs. George P.
Daniels, Mr. Albert C., Jr.
Dann, Dr. & Mrs.
Daughtry, Mr. Dewitt C.
Davidson, Mr. & Mrs.
Davis, Mrs. Graciela C.
Davis, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Davis, Mr. Lew
Davis, Mr. Sam A., II
Davison, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
Day, Mr. H. Willis, Jr.
Day, Mr. & Mrs. Joel B.
de Armas, Mr. & Mrs.
de Garmo, Mr. & Mrs.
De La Cruz, Ms. Eulalia
DeKonschin, Mr. & Mrs.
Delano, Mr. & Mrs.
Deutsch, Mr. Hunt
Diaz, Mr. & Mrs. Bruno M.
Dickey, Dr. Robert F.
Didomenico, Mr. Louis W.
Diehl, Mr. Joseph R., Jr.
Dietrichson, Mr. & Mrs.
Dion. Mrs. Sarah F.
Dix, Dr. & Mrs. John W.
Dobson, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Doheny, Mr. David
Dombro, Mr. & Mrs. Roy S.
Dominguez, Mrs, Elsa, DDS
Donnelly, Mr. & Mrs. J.F.
Doss, Mr. & Mrs. William
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs.
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs.
Downey. Mr. & Mrs.
Downs, Mr. & Mrs. R.M.
Doyle, Mr, & Mrs. James
Dubitsky, Hon. & Mrs, Ira
Dugas, Mrs. Faye
Dunam, Mr. & Mrs. Otis E.
Dunbar, Mr. Ron
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. R.T.
Duntley, Frank E., Jr.
Dunty, Mr. R.P,, Jr.
Duvall, Mr. & Mrs. Walker
Dyer, Mr. & Mrs. David F.
Eachus, Mrs, Dolores K.
Eaton, Honorable Joseph
Edgar, Mrs. Richard L.
Edison, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Edwards, Mr. Mike
Edwards, Newton L.
Ehlert, Dr. & Mrs. E.L.
Eidenire, Mr. & Mrs. Todd
Einspruch, Mr. & Mrs.
Eisenberg, Ms. Barbara
Elkin, Mr. & Mrs. Roy
Elsasser, Ms. Ruth B.
Emas, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall
Emerson, Dr. & Mrs.
Engel, Ms. Beatrice B.
Engh, Ms. Mary Duffy
Entenmann, Mr. & Mrs,
Erikson. Mr.& Mrs. Henry B.
Esserman, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Estevez., Ms. Linda
Evans, Ms. Greta
Evans, Mr. James D.
Ewald, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Fairchild, Mr. & Mrs. Dan
Fales, Gordon and Donna
Farber, Mr. & Mrs. Mark 1.
Farina, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P.
Farkas, Mr. Marshall I.
Farrell, John S. & Susana
Farwell, Mr. & Mrs.
Fascell, Rep. & Mrs. Dante B.
Faust, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Faysash, Mr. & Mrs. Gary J.
Feingold. Dr. & Mrs. Alfred
Feldman, Dr. & Mrs. H.T.
Feldman, Mr. & Mrs, Jeffrey
Feltman, Mrs. Diana James
Fennell, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas A., Jr.
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. J.R.
Fernandez, Mrs. Betty
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Fernandez, Ms. Vivian M.
Ferrer, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Field, Capt. & Mrs.
Fierro, Mrs. Mary Ann
Figuera, Mrs. Mary N.
Fine, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Fink, Mr. & Mrs. Richard K.
Finkelman, Mrs. Mindy
Finkelstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Finkelstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Finlay, Mr. & Mrs. James N.
Fischer, Mr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Fishbein, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Fisher, Dr. & Mrs. David E.
Fisher, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis F.
Fishman, Dr. & Mrs.
Fishwick, Mr. Joseph
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs. W.J.
Fitzgerald, Mrs. W,L.
Fitzgibbon, Dr. & Mrs. J.M.
Flattery, Mr. & Mrs.
Michael J., Jr.
Fleming, Mr. & Mrs.
Fleming, Joseph Z.
Flick. Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Flick, Mr. & Mrs. Willis H.
Flinn, Mr. & Mrs. Gene
Flinn, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Flipse, Donn & Diana
Florez, Mr. Leopoldo
Foltz, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Forbes, Mr. & Mrs. Robert S.
Ford, Richards & Mimi
Forman, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Emilio
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Spencer
Frazer, Mr. & Mrs. Fred J.
Frazier, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight
Freed, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Freeman, Mr. & Mrs.
Freidin, Mr. & Mrs. Philip
Friberg, Mr. Richard E.
Friedman, Dr. & Mrs. Evan
Friedman, Mr. & Mrs.
Friedman, Mr. & Mrs.
Frost, Mr. & Mrs.
Fruitman, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Fulcher, Mr. R.L.
Gabler, Mrs. George E.
Gadinsky, Mr. & Mrs, Seth
Gale, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Galigani, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Gallagher, Mrs. Alice Carey
Ganguzza, Mr. & Mrs.
Gannett, Mr. & Mrs.
J. King, IV
Gannon, Mrs. Martha B.
Garcia, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge E.
Garcia, Nereida & Hector
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Penny and Seymour
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Gardner, William A.
Garis, Mrs. Millicent
Garland, Mr. & Mrs.
Garvett, Mr. & Mrs. Peter B.
Gaub, Dr. Margaret L.
Gautier, Mr. & Mrs.
Larry P., Jr.
Gautney, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Geiger, Ms. Susan R.
Gelabert, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Geller, Dr. & Mrs.
Gentry, Mr. Hugh E.
Georgeff, Mr. & Mrs.
Gerhardt, Mr. & Mrs.
Gerson, Mr. & Mrs.
Gertler, Mr. Sidney
Giegel, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Gill, Mr. & Mrs. Horace
Gill, Mr. & Mrs. Richard F.
Giller, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Giller, Mr. & Mrs.
Gillman, Judge & Mrs.
Gilmore, Mr. & Mrs. Hugh R.
Ginn, Mr. & Mrs. P.J.
Ginsburg, Mr.& Mrs. Robert
Gjebre, Mr. William
Gladstone, Mr. & Mrs.
Glass, Mr. & Mrs. Reeder
Glasser, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall
Glorieux, Mr. John
Glukstad, Mr. & Mrs. Sig M.
Goddard, Mrs. Hilda
Godoy, Mr. & Mrs. Jarbas
Godoy, Mr. Louis
Goeser, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Golden, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Golding, Mrs. Jeanette E.
Goldman, Dr. & Mrs.
Goldman, Ms. Sue S.
Goldstein, Mr. & Mrs. B.B.
Goldstein, Richard M., Esq.
Goldstein, Mr. Robert
Goldwebber, Mr. & Mrs.
Golob, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Gomez, Mr. Tito
Gonzalez, Jose B.
Gonzalez, Mr. Ralph
Gonzalez, Mr. Steve
Good, Mrs. Joella C. &
Dr. Jack Dendy
Goodlet, Mr. & Mrs.
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs.
Gordon, Dr. & Mrs. MarkW.
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Reed
Gort, Mr. & Mrs. Willy
Grabiel, Mr. & Mrs. Julio
Grad, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Graham, Mr. & Mrs.
Grant, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie L.
Gray, Mr. & Mrs. Maurice
Grayson, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce E.
Green, Ms, Ann
Green, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Green, Dr. Edward N.
Green, Marcia R.
Green, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs,
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenfield, Mr. Burton D.
Greer, Dr. & Mrs.
Pedro J., Jr.
Gregory, Mr. & Mrs.
Griffin, Mrs. Katherine F.
Griffis, Mr. & Mrs. David N.
Griffith, Mr. & Mrs.
Grimm, Rev. & Mrs. Robb
Gross, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie
Grossman, Mr. & Mrs.
Grover, Mr. & Mrs.
Grunwell, Mr. George
Guilfoyle, Mr. Thomas D.
Haber, Mr. & Mrs. Marty
Hackett, Mr. & Mrs. Bob
Hackley, Mr. & Mrs.
Haefele, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Haft, Mr. & Mrs. Richard J.
Hahn, Mr. & Mrs. Jack D.
Haldane, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Hall, Mr. & Mrs. Clifford J.
Hall, Mrs. Leona J.
Hall, Mr. & Mrs. Wendall T.
Halpert, Dr. E. Stephen
Hammersberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Hammond, Dr. Jeffrey
Hand, Mr. Jeffrey C.
Hann, Mr. Robert R.
Hansen, Mr. & Mrs. Christian
Harcharik, Mr. & Mrs.
Hardin, Dr. Henry C., Jr.
Drs. Hardin, Fitzgerald,
Mekras, Dowlen et.al.
Harllee, John W., Jr.
Harrington, Mr. Frederick H.
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Elliott
List of Members 87
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Gene
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Robert E.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Harrison, Ms. Liz
Harrison, Mr. Peter
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Hartman, Robin W.
Harvelle, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Harwitz, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Hastings, Mr. Barry G.
Hatfield, Mr. & Mrs.
Hathorn, Donald B.
Hayes, W. Hamilton
Healy, Mr. Robert
Heath, Mr. & Mrs. Bayard E.
Heckerling, Mr. Dale A.
Helfand, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Heller, Mr. & Mrs. David A.
Heller, Mrs. Elaine G.
Hellman, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Hellman, Mr. & Mrs.
Henry, Mr. & Mrs.
Edmund T., III
Henry, Mr. & Mrs.
Henry, Mr. & Mrs. William
Hepler, Mr. & Mrs. David
Herbert, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Herrera, Mr. & Mrs. Ignacio
Hersh, Mr. Barry
Hertz, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin
Hessen, Mr. & Mrs.
Hester, Mr. & Mrs.
Hester, Louis & Maria
Hickey, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
High, Mr. Joshua
Hill, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight L.
Hill, Lawrence L.
Hill, Mrs. Lois L.
Hinckley, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Hirsch, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Hirschl, Dr. Andy
Hitz, Mr. & Mrs. Kelly C.
Hobbs, Mr. James C., Ill
Hochen, Mr. & Mrs. Louis L.
Hodges, Mr. & Mrs.
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth M.
Hoepner, Mr. Theodore J.
Hoffman, Mrs. Julia
Hoffman, Mr. & Mrs.
Hoffman, Dr. & Mrs.
Holbert, Mr. & Mrs.
Holcomb, Mr. & Mrs.
Holloway, Mr. W.T.
Holmes, Mr. & Mrs.
Horwich, Mr. Harry &
Horwitz, Mrs. & Mrs.
Houck, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Houghton, Mr. Peter
Howard, Dr. & Mrs. Paul
Howl, Mrs. Martha L.
Hubbard, Mrs. Edgar W., Jr.
Hudson, J. Stephen
Hume, Mr. David
Humkey, Joe Erskine
Hunt, Mr. & Mrs. Charles L.
Hutchinson, Mr. & Mrs.
Hutson, Dr. & Mrs. James J.
Huysman, Dr. Arlene
Hynes, Kenneth & Adele
Iglesias, Mr. & Mrs. Roberto
William A., Jr.
Irvin, Mr. & Mrs.
E, Milnef, III
Isen, Mr. & Mrs, Leo
Isnor, Mr. & Mrs. Russell S.
Israel, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard A.
Issenberg, David & Olga
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs.
Jacobs, Mr. & Mrs. Eric
Jacobs, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Jacobs, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Jacobsen, Mr. & Mrs. T.M.
Jacobson, Dr. & Mrs. Jed
Jacobson, Mrs. Lela G.
Jacobson, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin
James, Dr. Edward M.
James, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
James, Mr. & Mrs.
Ralph M., II
James, Mr. & Mrs.
Richmond A., Jr.
Jeffers, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Jefferson, Dr. & Mrs.
Jenkins, Mrs. Mary D.
Jensen, Mr. & Mrs. Christian
Jensen, Edward C.
Jimenez, Mr. Juan
Johns, Denise A.
Johnson, Mrs. Juanita B.
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Kari
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs.
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. Albert
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Bardy
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Darrell E.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Jones, Terry & Anne
Jorgenson, James R.
Joyner, Mr. EH., Jr.
Juncosa, Ralph A.
Junkin, Mr. & Mrs.
John E., III
Justiniani, Dr. & Mrs.
Kahn, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Kahn, Mr. & Mrs. David
Kalback, Mr. & Mrs.
Kane, Mr. & Mrs.
Arthur W., Jr.
Kanis, Mr. & Mrs. Michael D.
Kann, Dr. & Mrs. Solomon
Kanold, Mr. & Mrs.
Kantor, Mr. & Mrs. Stan
Kaplan, Mr. & Mrs. Barry
Kaplan, Mrs. Betsy
Kaplan, Mr. & Mrs.
Kapusta, Mrs. Eleanor
Karl, Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Karo, Mr. & Mrs. William H.
Karp, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Hy
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. William
Katzker, Mr. & Mrs. William
Kaufmann, Mr. & Mrs. Otto
Kay, Mr. Mark W.
Kayyali, Ms, Susanne S.
Keefe, Dr. & Mrs. Paul H.
Keep, Mr. Oscar J.
Kelley, Mr. John B.
Kelley, Mrs. Marilyn C.
Kelly, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert G., Sr.
Kendall, Mr. Harold E.
Kenny, Mr. Matthew A.
Kenyon, Sue C.
Keoughan, Mr. & Mrs. Ken
Kerestes, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Kern, Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Kerness, Mr. & Mrs.
Kessler, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Kessler, Mr. & Mrs. Mel
Ketay, Jennifer W.
Keusch, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Keye, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Khoury, Ms. Betty
Kiem, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kilpatrick, Mr. Charles W.
King, Mr. & Mrs. Martin K.
Kingsley, Rabbi & Mrs.
Kinzer, Mayor & Mrs. M.
Kipnis, Mr. & Mrs. Dan
Kirschner, Mr. & Mrs. Morris
Klausner, Mr. & Mrs.
Klein, Mr. & Mrs. Gene
Klein, Mr. & Mrs. Harris
Knapp, Mr. & Mrs. Morris
Knotts, Mr. & Mrs. Kim
Kolber, Mr. & Mrs.
Kolski, Mrs, Patricia M.
Koo, Ms. Jackie M.
Koonce, Dr. & Mrs.
Kopin, Mr. & Mrs. Irwin J.
Kosanke, John P.
Koss, Phyllis and Abe
Kossman, Mr. & Mrs. David
Kotler, Mr. & Mrs. Meyer
Kramer, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kraus, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest R.
Krauter, Dr. Susan
Kronowitz, Mr. & Mrs.
Kronstadt, Mrs. Susan
Krug, Mr. & Mrs. Warren
Kuring, Mr. & Mrs. Gerhard
Laird, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Lamberton, Mr. H.C., Jr.
Lamphear, Mr. & Mrs.
Land, Mr. & Mrs. Malcolm
Landau, Cal & Ann
Lange, Waiter G.
Langer, Mr. & Mrs. Lester
Langer, Mr. & Mrs. Roger E.
Langley, Mr. Wright & Joan
Lapidus, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
LaTour, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Lauer, Mr. & Mrs. John F.
Launcelott, Mrs. Janet
Lazarus, Mr. & Mrs.
Lazarus, Mr. & Mrs.
Lazarus, Ms. Pearl J.
LeFebvre, Andrea and
Leftwich, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Lehman, Ms. Joan
Lehman, Mr. Richard L.
Lemos, Mr. & Mrs. Ramon
Lenner, Mr. Sandor
Leposky, Mr. & Mrs,
Levan, Mr. & Mrs. Alan B.
Levin, Mr. & Mrs. S. Michael
Levin, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Levine, Dr. Harold
Levine, Mr. Martin J.
Lewander, Mr. & Mrs. Lars
Lianzi, Mrs. Margaret
Liebman, Dr. & Mrs.
Liebman, Mr. & Mrs.
Liebman, Mr. & Mrs.
Liebowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Liles, Mr. & Mrs. Clark E.
Lindsay, Mr. & Mrs.
Lipman, Mr. Robert
Lipof, Mr. & Mrs. Elliot
Lipoff, Mr. & Mrs.
Lipp, Mr. & Mrs. Allan
Lipsky, Mr. & Mrs. Bernie
Little, Mr. & Mrs. Albert C.
Little, Mr. DeWayne
Little, Mr. & Mrs, Robert
Livesay, Mr. & Mrs. Leigh
Livingston, Mr. & Mrs.
Lodato, Dr. & Mrs. Arthur A.
Loerky, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Logue, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Lomonosoff, Mr. & Mrs.
Long, Mr. & Mrs. Duke E.
Long, Glenn and
Long, Mr. & Mrs. James D.
Lord, Mr. William P.
Lores, Dr. & Mrs. Edward
Lotspeich, Mrs. Jay W.
Loumiet, Juan P.
Loving, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Lowenstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Ludovici, Mr. & Mrs. Phil
Luginbill, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Lummus, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn
Lurie, Ms. Roberta
Luten, Janis B.
Luykx, Dr. & Mrs. Peter
Lynch, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Lyons, Mr. & Mrs.
MacCullough, Mr. & Mrs.
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
Macintyre, Mr. & Mrs.
Mackin, Ms. Patricia
Madan, Mr. & Mrs.
Magaz, Mrs. Theresa
Mallow, Mr. Robert A.
Man, Dr. Eugene H.
Mandell, Mr. & Mrs. Saul
Mank, Mr, & Mrs.
Philip J., Jr.
Manlio, Dr. F.L.
Mannion, Mr. Jan T.
Manship, Mr. & Mrs. E.K.
Marconi, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Marcus, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
Marcus, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis
Marks, Stewart & Julienne
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs.
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs,
Marsh, Mr. & Mrs. Ulad A.
Martell, Mr. & Mrs, James
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
List of Members 89
Martinez, Mr. & Mrs.
Martinez, Mr. & Mrs.
Martinez-cid, Mr. & Mrs.
Masin, Mr. Michael A.
Mass, Mr. & Mrs. Paul M.
Masterson, Nancy S.
Matchette, Mr. & Mrs.
Mathews, Mr. & Mrs.
Edward N., Jr.
Matkov, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Matlack, Mr. & Mrs.
Mattucci, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Maxwell, Mr. R.D., Jr.
Maxwell, Mr. Thomas C.
May, Dr. & Mrs. John A.
May, Mr. Joseph D.
Maynard, Mr. & Mrs. Carl
Mayo, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
Mazer, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel R,
McAliley, Janet R.
McAuliffe, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas F., Ill
McCabe, Dr. & Mrs.
McCarthy, Mr. & Mrs.
McCausland, Micaela F. and
McClellan, M r. & Mrs. David
McClintock, Jack and
McCormick, Dr. James
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs,
McDonnell, Ellen W.
McElveen, Ms. Susan
McEnany, Mr. & Mrs.
McGarry, Mr. & Mrs.
McGill, Mr. & Mrs. William
McGonigal, Mr. Richard M.
McGuinness, Mr. & Mrs.
McGuire, Mr. & Mrs. John J.
Mclver, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart B.
McJilton, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
McKenzie, Dr. & Mrs.
McKenzie, Mr. & Mrs.
McLellan, Mr. James B.
McNair, Mr. & Mrs.
McNaughton, Dr. & Mrs.
Mead, Dr. & Mrs. D.R., Jr.
Means, Dr. & Mrs.
Medina, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
McGee, Mr. & Mrs. B.L.
Meister, Dr. & Mrs. Malcom
Melendez, Mr. & Mrs,
Meloan, Carol C.
Menachem, Neal J.
Mendible, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest
Meriwether, Mr. & Mrs.
Merrill, Mr. & Mrs. Darrell
Merten, Mr. & Mrs. Ulrich
Mescon, Mr. & Mrs.
Metcalf, Drs. George and
Michelson, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Migliaccio, Mr. & Mrs.
Mikus, Mr. & Mrs. Pat
Milander, Henry R.
Millas, Mr. & Mrs. Aristides
Milledge, Evalyn M.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dale
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Frank E.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Miller, Mr. & Mrs.
Millott, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Moeller, Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd L.
Mohr, Mr. Alfred B.
Mok, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Molt, Fawdrey A.S.
Monroe, Mr. & Mrs,
William F., Jr.
Monsanto, Judge & Mrs.
Montano, Mr. & Mrs. Fausto
Monteagudo, Mr. & Mrs.
Monzon-Aguirre, Mr.& Mrs.
Moore, Donald R.
Morales. Mr. & Mrs, Israel
Morales, Mr. & Mrs.
Moretti. Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph G., Jr.
Morgan, Capt. Robert G.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin S.
Morton, Mr. & Mrs. David C.
Moses, Arthur L.
Moss, Mr. & Mrs. Dana M.
Moss, Ms. Suzanne H.
Mrozek, Mr. & Mrs.
Muir, Mr. & Mrs. William T.
Muller, Mr. & Mrs. Wayne
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs.
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs. Kirk
Mur, Mr. & Mrs. Irwin
Murai, Mr. & Mrs. Rene
Murphy, Mr.& Mrs. Roger J,
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs.
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. O.C.
Musgrove, Mr. & Mrs.
Musselwhite, Mr. & Mrs.
Mustard, Misses Margaret &
Nagy, Mrs. Shirley L.
Nahmad, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Nance, Mr. & Mrs.
G. Tracy, Jr,
Napoli, Mr. & Mrs.
Nass, Dr. & Mrs. Hal
Neal, Dr. & Mrs. Richard W.
Nehrbass, Mr. Arthur F.
Nerney, Mr. & Mrs. Denis
Capt. & Mrs. Carl
New, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin E.
Newman, Mr.& Mrs. Fred C.
Newman, Mr.& Mrs. Nathan
Newmark, Mr. & Mrs. Stan
Nichols, D. Alan
Nick, Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.
Nielsen, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph C.
Nisbet, Mr. Michael M.
Nordt, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
North, Mr. & Mrs. David
Northrop, Mr. & Mrs.
Novack, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Noy, Mr. & Mrs. Enrique
Nuckols, Mr. & Mrs. B.P., Jr.
Nuehring, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
O'Brien, Mr. & Mrs. Emmett
Ocasio, Mr. & Mrs. Manuel
O'Connor, Mr. & Mrs.
Oletzky, Mr. & Mrs. Sheldon
Olle, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis J.
Olsson, Mr. Fred R.
Onufrieff, Paula Baker
Oremland, Benjamin &
Orlen, Ms. Roberta
Orlin, Ms. Karen
Oroshnik, Mr.& Mrs. Samuel
Osborn, Mr. & Mrs.
Ostrovsky, Mr. Abe
Ostrovsky, Mr. Emanuel
Otto, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas, Ill
Owen, Mr. & Mrs. David
Owens, Mr. & Mrs. James T.
Owens, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Owre, Mr. & Mrs. J.
Padin, Mr. & Mrs. Juan E.
Palmer, Mr. & Mrs. R. Carl
Palmer, Alfred R., R.P.A.
**Pancoast, John A.
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs.
Pancoast, Peter Russell
Papper, Mr. & Mrs.
Parcell, Mr. & Mrs. Paul W.
Parish, Mr. & Mrs. David
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Austin
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Garth R.
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Robin E.
Parkhurst, Mr. & Mrs.
Parks, Mr. & Mrs. Elliott G.
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs.
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs.
Huber R., Jr.
Parsons, Mr. Stephen
Patterson, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Pawley, Ms. Anita
Paxton, Dr. & Mrs. G.B., Jr.
Payne, Mrs. R.W., Jr.
Payne, Ruth D.
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Pearce, Dr. F.H.
Pearson, Mr. Wilbur
Peddle, Mr. & Mrs. Grant L.
Pehr, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin S.
Penhekamp, Mr. John D.
Perez, Mr. & Mrs. George J.
Perez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Pergakis, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Perron, Mr. & Mrs. Bernard
Perrone, Mr. & Mrs.
Person, Mr. & Mrs. Eric R.
Perwin, Mrs. Jean
Peters, Mr. & Mrs.
Peters, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry L.
Peters, Mr. & Mrs. Walton
Peterson, Mrs, Edward E.
Phillips, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Piccini, Mr. & Mrs. Silvio
Piehl, Mr. Wesley C.
Pimm, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Pistorino, Mr. & Mrs.
Pitts, Mr. & Mrs. Victor H.
Plotkin, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Plunkett, Lawrence L.
Polish, Mr. & Mrs.
Polizzi, Mrs, MaryAnn
Pollack, Mr. & Mrs. David C.
Porta, Mr. John E.
Portela, Mr. Mario P.
Porter, Mr. & Mrs. Lester W.
Potts, Mr. & Mrs. Roy V.
Powell, Mr. & Mrs.
Price, Mrs. Dorothy M.
Primar, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Prince, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Provenzo, Dr. Eugene
Pruitt, Mr. Peter T.
Prussin, Mr. & Mrs.
Quartin, Mr. & Mrs.
Quesenberry, William F., Jr.
Quillian, Dr. Warren, II
Quinton, Mr. & Mrs. A.E., Jr.
Raattama, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Rabin, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel J.
Rad, Mr. & Mrs. Jesus S.
Railey, Mr. & Mrs.
Ramberg, Mr. & Mrs. Elliot
Ramirez, Mr. & Mrs.
Ramsey, Mrs. Manuela M.
Randolph, Mr. & Mrs.
Rapee, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart M.
Rapperport, Dr. & Mrs.
Rauch, Mr. Jon L.
Rauzin, Mr. & Mrs, Alan
Ray, Peter C.
Raymond, Mr. & Mrs.
Reddick, Mr. David
Reeves, Garth C,
Reich, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Reid, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Reid, Dr. & Mrs. Walter B.
Reiley, Ms. Dannielle
Reilly, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Reinertson, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Reininger, Steve and
Reisman, Mrs. Gail
Relish, Mr. & Mrs. John
Resnick, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Armando
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Reyna, Dr. L.J.
Rich, Dr. & Mrs. Maurice
Richard, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Richards, Mr. & Mrs.
Ridolph, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Riechmann, Mr. & Mrs.
Rieder, Mrs. William Dustin
Riemer, Dr. & Mrs. W.E.
Riess, Mrs. Marie S.
Righetti, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Riley, Mr. & Mrs. Patrick
Rist, Mr. & Mrs. Karsten
Roach, Patrick and Carol
Robbins, Alice & Eugene
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs.
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs.
William R., Jr.
Roberto, Mr. Michele
Robins, Dr. & Mrs. C.
Robinson, Mrs. Ruth
Robinson, Mr. Steven D.
Rodriguez, Mrs. Alba
Rodriguez, Mr. Ivan
Rodriguez, Dr. Jose A.
Rodriguez, Mr. & Mrs.
Rodriguez, Mr. Ronnie
Rogge, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Rojas, Mr. & Mrs.
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Keith
Rose, Mr. & Mrs. James
Rosen, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
List of Members 91
Rosen, Mr. & Mrs.
Rosenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Rosenberg, Dr. & Mrs.
Rosenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Rosenthal, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred
Rosinek, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Roston, Mr. Gilbert C.
Rostov, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
Roth, Mr. & Mrs. E.S.
Rothblatt, Ms. Emma A.
Roujansky, Mr. & Mrs.
Routon, Mr. Thomas R.
Rowe, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
Rubenstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs.
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs. Sid
Rubini, Dr. Joseph R.
Ruff, Mr. & Mrs. Al M., Jr.
Ruffner, Charles L.
Russell, J.C. & Carol
Russell, Mr. Terry
Russell, Mr. & Mrs.
Russo, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Rutkin, Mr. Bert
Rutter, Mr. & Mrs.
Ryan, Mr. & Mrs. Richard P.
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. William
Ryskamp, Mr. & Mrs,
S. Steffen Associates
Sacher, Mr. & Mrs.
Sackman, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Sackner, Dr. & Mrs.
Sacks, Mr. & Mrs.
Saffer, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Saffir, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Sager, Mr. & Mrs. Bert
Salokar, Mr. & Mrs.
Samet, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin M.
Samson, Dr. Stephen
Samuels, Mr. & Mrs. Harris
Sandberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Sanders, Paul George
Santa-Maria, Ms. Yvonne
Santarella, Mr. & Mrs.
Sapp, Mr. & Mrs. Neil C.
Sapp, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Sarbey, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Sarduy, Ms. Cira
Saulson, Mr. & Mrs.
Schaeffer, Mr. & Mrs,
Schafer, Mr. & Mrs. George
Schechter, Mr. & Mrs.
Schecter, Mr. & Mrs. Aaron
Scheuerman, E. Hunt, M.D.
Schiller, Mr. & Mrs.
Schimpeler, Dr. Charles C.
Schindler, Mr. & Mrs. Irvin
Schneider, Mr. & Mrs.
Schoen, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Schoonmaker, Mr. & Mrs.
Schreer, Mr. & Mrs. Andy
Schreiber, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Schroeder, Mrs. Edna Mae
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Allan
Schwartz, Mrs. Jay R.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Schwartzberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Sciortino, Mr. & Mrs.
Scroggs, Mr. & Mrs. Barry
Seipp, Mr. & Mrs.
John C., Jr.
Self, Mr. Bob
Selig, Mr. & Mrs. J.R.
Seligman, Mr. & Mrs.
Selinsky, Dr. Herman
Selvaggi, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Seng, Mr. William R.
Serafini, A.N. & Lani
Shafer, Mr. & Mrs. Ron
Shapiro. Mr. & Mrs. J.H.
Shapiro, Dr. & Mrs. Alvin J.
Shauffer, Dr. & Mrs.
Shay, Mr. & Mrs. Rodger D.
Shayne, Mr. & Mrs. William
Sheehe, Mr. & Mrs. PhillipJ.
Sheppard, Mr. & Mrs. H.E.
Sher, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Sheridan, Mr. & Mrs. George
Sherman, Mr. & Mrs. Meyer
Shey, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Shey, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Shipley, Mr. & Mrs. Vergil A.
Shippee, Robert W.
Shlachtman, Mr. Irving
Shoffner, Mr. & Mrs.
Shohat, Mr. Edward R.
Short, Mr. & Mrs. Riley
Siegel, Ms. Denise
Siegel, Mr. & Mrs. Mark A.
Sievers, David J.
Silver, Mr.& Mrs. Bernard F.
Silver, Mrs. Doris S.
Silver, Mr. Roger
Silverman, Mr. & Mrs. Victor
Silvester, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Glen
Simon, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Simons, Mr. & Mrs. J. Paul
Simpson, Mr. & Mrs. M.L.
Sims, Dr. & Mrs.
Robert J., Jr.
Sindelar, Mr. Robert L.
Singer, Dr. & Mrs. Eli
Singer, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A.
Sister, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Sisselman, Mr. & Mrs.
Skaggs, Dr. & Mrs. Glen 0.
Skigen, Dr. & Mrs. Jack
Skor, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Slesnick, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Slosser, Dr. & Mrs.
Gaius J., 11
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. R.C.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Alan W.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur V.
Smith, Chesterfield, Jr.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Edward F.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Robert V.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
Snedigar, Mr. & Mrs.
Snetman, Mrs. Bette
Snow, Dr. & Mrs. Selig D.
Snyder, Dr. Gilbert B.
So. Kendall Animal Hosp.
Sobodowski, Mr. & Mrs. Joe
Socol, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Solloway, Mr. & Mrs.
Solodovnick, Mrs. Sara L.
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs, Abner
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Solomon, Harold & Muriel
Soper, Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Sorrentino, Mr. & Mrs.
Soto, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Sowers, Mr. & Mrs. Alberto
Spak, Mrs. Rosalind Pallot
Sparks, Mr. Herschel E., Jr.
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. John
Spillis, Mr, & Mrs. James P.
Stafford, Mr. Morgan J.
Stahl, Mr. & Mrs. Fain S.
Stanfill, Dr. & Mrs. L. M.
Stanton, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Stearns, Reid F.
Steel, Mrs. William C.
Stefanech, Mrs. Bernadina B.
Stein, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Stein, Mr. & Mrs.
Steinberg, Mrs. Jacquelyn
Steinberg, Marty L.
Steiner, Mrs. Barbara
Steinhauer, Mr. & Mrs.
Stern, Dr. & Mrs. Sidney J.
Stewart, Mrs. Cynthia
Stieglitz, Mr. & Mrs.
Stillman, Mr. & Mrs.
Stirrup, Ms. Edeane W.
Stokes, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn
Stone, Mr. & Mrs. A.J.
Stone, Mr. Art
Stone, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Strachman, Mr. & Mrs. Saul
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob
Stresau, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Stridfeldt, Mr. Carl E., Jr.
Struhl. Mrs, Ruth
Stubins, Mr. & Mrs. Morton
Suaraez, Mr. Henry
Suchman, Mr. & Mrs.
Sullivan, Mr. & Mrs.
Supple, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Sussex, Dr. & Mrs. James
Svaldi, Mr. & Mrs. John
Swann, Judge Richard H.M.
Sweet, Mr. George H.
Taffer, Mr. Jack
Tanis, Dr. & Mrs.
Tanner, Dr. & Mrs. Ben
Taracido, Mr. & Mrs.
Tarr, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis L.
Tartak, Mr. & Mrs.
Tatham, Mr. & Mrs.
Tatol, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A.
Taylor, Dr. & Mrs. AndrewL.
Taylor, Mrs. Dorothy
Taylor, Henry H., Jr.
Taylor, Mr. Marshal]
Taylor, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel J.
Teagarden, Mr. & Mrs.
Teagarden, Mr. & Mrs.
Robin B., Jr.
Teman, Mr.& Mrs. HymanS.
Tendrich, Mr. & Mrs.
Terman, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Theakston, Mr. Pierce
Theobald, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas, Mr. Marshall M.
Thomas, Mr. & Mrs. Scott C.
Thorn, Mr. Dale A.
Tibaldeo, Mr. & Mrs. Victor
Tierney, Mrs. Joy
Tilghman, Mr. & Mrs.
James B., Jr.
Tillow, Mr. & Mrs. Hyman
Timmons, Mrs. Elizabeth R.
Tobin, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Toms, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Torres, Mr. & Mrs.
Torres, Mr. & Mrs. Pastor
Tostanoski, Mr. & Mrs. John
Touchton, Mr. & Mrs.
Toupin, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Tranchida, Mr. & Mrs.
Traum, Mr. & Mrs. Sydney S.
Trejo, Mrs. Maria A.
Tremaine, Mr. & Mrs.
Tribble, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Trochet, Dr. & Mrs. Jean A.
Tschumy, Mr. William E., Jr.
Tuggle, Mr. & Mrs. Auby L.
Turk, Mr. & Mrs. Abner
Turner, Mr. & Mrs. Dale D.
Turner, Mrs. Sherry
Turner, Mr. & Mrs.
Tyson, Mr. & Mrs. Alan M.
Ulsh, Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Valdez-Fauli, Mr. & Mrs.
Valentino, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Van Denend, Mrs, Herbert
Van Orsdel, Mr. & Mrs.
Vasquez, Mr. & Mrs.
Vaughan, Mr. & Mrs.
Vaughn, Mr. & Mrs.
Ventura, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Vera, Mr. & Mrs. Pedro
Viera, Mr. Jorge L.
Vodicka, Mr. & Mrs. Chuck
Vogel, Mr. & Mrs. Joel J,
Voss, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert L.
Waas, Mr. & Mrs. Maxwell
Wakeman, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles H., Jr.
Waldin, Mr. & Mrs.
Earl D., Sr.
Walker, Ms. J. Frost, Ill
Walker, Mr. & Mrs,
Wall, Mr. & Mrs. Burt
Wanless, Mr. & Mrs.
Ward, Ms. Joanna K.
Ward, Mr. & Mrs. Myles Glen
Warden, Mr. & Mrs.
Warrington, Mr. & Mrs.
Warshaw, Mr. & Mrs. Nat A.
Watkins, Mr. & Mrs.
Watts, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Weaver, Mr. & Mrs. David
Weems, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Wegman, Charles B.
Weinberger, Mr. & Mrs.
List of Members 93
Weinberger, Mr. & Mrs.
Weinkle, Mr. & Mrs. Melvin
Weinthal, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
Weintraub, Mr. & Mrs.
Weintraub, Mr. & Mrs.
Weisenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Weiss, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel A.
Weissel, Mr. & Mrs. Roy F.
Weldon, Norman R., Ph.D.
Welles, Mr. & Mrs. Peter D.
Wellington, Mr. & Mrs. leff
Welsh, Mr. & Mrs. R.M.
Wenck, Mr. & Mrs. James H.
Werner, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart A.
Wersen, Mr. William D,
West, Mr. & Mrs. Everett G.
Whalin, Mr. Michael J.
White, Mr. Robert A.
White, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
White, Mr.& Mrs, William O.
Whiteside, Mr. & Mrs. Eric
Whitman, Mr. & Mrs.
Wicks, Mrs. Phyllis
Wilcosky, Mr. & Mrs.
Wilcox, Mr. & Mrs. W.P.
Wilker, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Williams, Mr. & Mrs.
Williams, Mr. & Mrs.
Williams, Lt. Col. & Mrs.
Williams, Dr. & Mrs.
Williams, Mr. & Mrs.
Willingham, Mr. & Mrs.
Richard B., Jr.
Wilson, Carolyn R.
Wilson, Mr. Chuck
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. David L.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Grey
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs, Lewis A.
*Wilson, Mr. & Mrs.
Wilson, Miss Virginia
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs, Walter B.
Wimmers, Howard L. and
Winston, Mr. & Mrs, Michael
Wirkus, Mr. & Mrs.
Wiseheart, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolff, Mr. & Mrs.
Henry E., Sr.
Wolff, Mr. & Mrs.
William F., Jr.
Wolfson, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Wolpe, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Woods, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Woods, Mr. & Mrs, John P.
Woods, Mr. & Mrs.
Workman, Mr. & Mrs. David
Worley, Mr. & Mrs.
Worth. Mr. & Mrs.
Wright, Mr. & Mrs. J.A.
Wright, Mr. & Mrs.
James A., Ill
Wronski, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Wyman, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Yaeger, Ms. Marilyn
Yehle, Ms. Jean T.
Yoder, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Yost, Mr. Roger L.
Zane, Dr. & Mrs. Sheldon
Zapata, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Zaydon, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Zdon, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph Paul, Jr.
Zeder, Mr. & Mrs. Jon W.
Zelenak, Mrs. Pam
Zeller, Mr. Ronald J.
Zelman, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Ziff, Mr. & Mrs. Sanford L.
Zigmont, Mr. & Mrs,
Zinn, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel A.
Zitnick, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Zolten, Robert A., M.D.
Zuckerman, Mr. & Mrs.
Zwick, Charles J.
Abascal, Mario C.
Abele, Mr. C.. Robert
Accursio, Mr. James P.
Adams, Mrs. E.C.
Adams, Mrs. Betty R.
*Adams, Mrs. Faith Y.
Adams, Mr. Gus C.
Adams, Ms. Janice
Adams, Mrs. Richard B.
Adamus, Ms. Joanna
Aguirre, Mr. Xavier A.
Albet, Berta Diaz, M.D.
Albietz, Ms. Carol
Albury, Dr. Paul
Alderman, Mrs. Jewell
Alexander, Dr. & Mrs. Julius
Allen, Ms. Sue Ellen
Alpert, Mr. Stanley
Alterman, Mr. Richard
Alterman, Mr. Sidney
Altman, Ms. Ruth B.
Alzola, Jose A.
Amazon, Mrs. Virginia
Amdur, Mrs. Phyllis
Ammidown, Ms. Margot
Amsterdam, Mr. Carl D.
Ancona, Mrs. John
Andersen, Mr. Hans
Anderson, Dr. Raymond T.
Andreu, Mrs. Lenor R.
Andrews, Ms. Ellen
Aparicio, Ms. Mara
Apple, Mr. Lawrence B.
Arango, Mrs. Judith
Arber, Ms. Raquel
Armentrout, Ms. Tommy J.
Arredondo, Dr. Carlos R.
Ashley, Mrs. John W.
Atwood, Mr. Charles F., Ill
Ayer, Mr. John H.
Backus, Ms. Hazel R.
Bacon, Mrs. Jones
Bagg, Mrs. John L., Jr.
Baker, Mr. Charles H., Jr.
Baker, Mr. George
Baker, Mr. & Mrs.
Baker, Mrs. Rita
Baldwin, Mr. C.J.
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins
Bamberg, Mr. Harold S.
Banks, Ms. Joyce
Baque, Mrs. Frank
Barbon, Mr. Carlos
Barlow, Ms. Mindy
Barr, Ms. Ellen M.
Basch, Mr. Gustavus
Batty, Ms. Frances V.
Baumann, Mr. John
Baumez, Mr. W.L.
Baya, Mr. George J., Esq.
Beamish, Ms. Josephine P.
Beardmore, Dr. Elizabeth L.
Beazel, Ms. Mary G.
Beck, Mr. Clyde
Becton, Ms. Irene
Beebe. Dr. Von N.
Beery, Mrs. Anna S.
Bell, Mr. Edward
Bennett, Allan J.
Bennett, Ms. Barbara
Bennett, Mr. Forrest
Bennett, Ms. Isabelle
Bercovich, Ms. Gertrude
Beriault, John G.
Berman, Neil J.
Berning, Ms. C,
Bessent, Ms. Mary Lou
Biedron, Mrs. Stanley
Bild, Ms. Raquel
Bills, Mrs. John T.
Biondi, Mrs. Jerris
Bishop, Mrs. Edwin H.
Bishop, Ms. Elizabeth
Bishop, Mr. James E.
Bitter, Mrs. Barbara
Black, George R.
Blackwell, Mr. & Mrs. W.L.
Blake, Ms. Lucille B.
Blakeslee, Miss Zola Mae
Blakley, Mr. Jeff
Bloch, Ms. Katie
Bloland, Harland G.
Blumberg, Mr. Philip F.
Blyth, Ms. Mary S.D.
Boddicker, Ms. Bonnie
Bodrato, Mr. Gregg P.
Bohne, Ms. Lily
Bolt, Mrs. Katherine H.
Bonawit, Oby J.
Bonham, Ms. Jacqueline J.
Bonn, Ms. Laura W.
Booth, Phillip B.
Borgnes, Ms. Marie N.
Bower, Roy P.
Boyd, Ms. Debrah Lee
Boymer, Mr. Leonard
Braddock, Mrs. Ruth
Brady, Ms. Margaret R.
Braid, Ms. Linda S.
Brannen, Mrs. Helen S.
Breck, E. Carrington
Brice, Mrs. Nancy
*Brookfield, Mr. Charles
Brooks, Mr. J.R.
Brown, Mrs. Andrew G.
Brown, Doris S.
Brown, Ms. Linda R.
Brown, Mrs. Mildred P.
Brown, Mr. Steven M.
Brown, Mrs. William J.
Bruce, Mr. & Mrs. Thor
Brush, Robert W.
Bryant, Ms. Nancy
Bryant, Mr. Thomas M.
Buckley, Ms. Irene
Buhier, Emil, II
Buker, Mr. Charles E., Sr.
Burch, Mr. William M.
Burke, Mr. Gordon
Burnett, Ms. Sandy
Burrus, Mr. E. Carter, Jr.
Bush, Ms. Malvina E.
Cail, Ms. Essie M.
Calandrino, Anne C.
Calderwood, Ms. Elsa
Calhoun, Mr. & Mrs.
Cameron, Ms. Marion
Campbell, Beth G.
Caravetta, Ms. Jeanne
Carbone, Mrs. Grace
Carden, Ms, Marguerite G.
Carlebach, Ms. Diane G.
Carruthers, Mr. & Mrs.
Cason, Mr. Robert W.
Cassel, John, M.D.
Cassidy, Opal D.
Caster, Dr. P., FACS
Caster, Mrs. George B.
Casuso, Mr. Martin
Cauce, Ms. Elena M.
Cerlingione, Mr. Alfred C.
Cesarano, Ms. Marilyn
Chaille, Mr. Joseph H.
Chaille, Mrs. Josiah
Chaviano, Mr. & Mrs.
Chavoustie, Mr. Robert M.
Cheezem, Ms. Jan C.
Childs, Mrs. Marina
Christ, Mrs. Anita
Christensen, Bruce A.
Christie, Mrs. Robert E.
Clay, Madeline M.
Cobb, Ms. Jeffie Alice
Coburn, Mr. Louis
Cohen, Ms. Elaine G.
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert
Colbert, Ms. Marsha
Cole, Ms. Dianne
Cole, Richard P.
Coleman, Hannah P.
Collins, Ms. Anna M.
Collins, Ms. Barbara H.
Commings, Ms. Arlene
Conduitte, Ms. Catherine J.
Cone, Mr. Lawrence B.
Congdon, Ms. Diane M.
Conlon, Mr. Lyndon C.
Connellan, Ms. Barbara E.
Connor, Mrs. Pearl A.
Conte, Ms. Martha
Cook, Mr. Gary L,
Cooper, L. Bryan
Copelan, Mr. John J., Jr.
Corson, Mr. Hal
Corson, Ms. Ruth D.
Cosgrove, Rep. John
Costello, Mr. James
Couper, Mr. & Mrs.
Courtelis, Mr. Pan
Coxe, Ms, Debra
Craig, Ms. Dorothy A.
Cramer, Mr. Lowell
Crankshaw, Mr. Joe
Creel, Mr. Earl M.
Creel, Mr. Joe
Croucher, Mr. William J.
Crowell. Ms. Sylvia C.
Culmer, Mrs. Leone
List of Members 95
Cummings. Mr. George, III
Curl, Mr. Donald W.
Curry, Bettye Faye
Danko. Cassie L.
Daugherty, Georgette H.
Davidson, Mrs. Robert
Davis, Mr. Alton A.
Davis, Ms. Dorothy J.
Davis, Jim Frank
Dawson, Phyllis M.G.
De Lello, Mr. Thomas W.
De Los Santos, Ms. Adele
Deans, Mr. Douglas W.
Deem, Mr. William J.
DeFoor, J. Allison, II
del Castillo, Ms. Marques
Del Castillo, Mr. Siro
Demoya, Ms. Ana E.
Derleth, Linda Ann
Deville, E. Josephine
DeWald, Mr. Bil
Diamond, Mr. J. Leonard
Diamond, Ms. Janis
Diamond, Mr. Walter W.
Diaz, Ms. Elda L,
Dieterich, Ms. Emily Perry
Diltz, Mr. John W.
Dix, Ms. Barbara
Dobrow, Mr. Stephen
Doerner, Mrs. Rosemary
Donovan, Mr. James M., Jr.
Dorn, Mr. Michael C.
Dorsey, Ms. Mary C.
Douberley, Ms. Valerie
Drs. Dowlen, Fitzgerald,
Downey, Ms. Martha R.
Drew, Mrs. H.E.
Drulard, Mrs. Marnie L.
DuBois, Miss Winifred H.
Duffy, Ms. Elizabeth M.
Dumas, Ernest M.
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. D.
Dunn, Mr. James F.
Dunn. Mr. Les Gerson
Dunning, Ms. Jenny B.
Duntov, Ms. Lili
Durant, Ms, Debra
Duvall, Mr. John E.
Dykes, Mrs. Debra L.
Eaton, Ms. Sarah
Eberhart, Ms. Claire A.
Echavarria, Mr. Juan T.
Eckhart, James M.
Edelen, Ms. Ellen
Ederer, Ms. Norma
Edwards, Mr. Ronald G.
Eggleston, Ms. Jeanette
Eisenhauer, Mr. & Mrs.
Eleri, Mr. Mark
Elliot, Donald L.
Ellis, Ms. Beverly
Ellison, Dr. Waldo M.
Ender, Mrs. Geraldine M.
Ernst, Ms. Patricia G.
Etling, Mr. Walter
Evans, Mr. Harold S.
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers
Farrell, John R.
Fernandez, Dr. Rolando
Fernandez, Ms. Rosalia
Feuer, Ms. Kathy
Feurtado, Ms. Mary Lou
Fidelman, Mr. A.I.
Field, Mrs. Lamar
Finley, Mr. George T.
Fischer, Ms. Elaine R.
Fisher, Jane Simmons
Fisher, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Fishman, Mrs. Bibi
Fitzerald-Bush, Frank S.
Fitzgerald, Ms. Sharon A.
Fleming, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
Florence, Mrs. Robert S.
Fojaco, Dr. Rita M.
Fonte, Ms. Joan Conner
Foote, Mrs. Edward T.
Foote, Ms. Elizabeth
Fortner, Mr. Edward
Foye, Nancy R.
Fraga, Mr. Ramon J.
Fredbauer, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Fried, Ms. Susan M.
Frisbie, Mr. Loyal
Fritsch, Miss Renee Z.
Frohock, Mr. John M.
Fuchs, Mr. Richard W.
Fundora, Ms. Raquel Maria
Fuster, Mr. R.
Gaines, Mr. Richard H.
Galbraith, Christine S.
Gallwey, Mr. William J., 111
Garcia, Mr. Adriano, Jr.
Garcia, Tessi J.
Gardiner, Ms. Janet P.
Gautier, Mr. & Mrs.
Gelberg, Mr. Bob
Genehr, Ms. Monika
George, Cherie M.
George, Dr. Paul S.
Getz, Mr. Samuel A.
Geyer, Mr. & Mrs.
Russell I., Jr.
Gibbs, Mr. W. Tucker
Gibson, Mr. John J.
Gillies, Ms. Patricia L.
Glassman, Connie & Stuart
Glattaver, Dr. Alfred
Goldenberg, Mrs. Anna C.
Goldstein, Mrs. S.
Goldstein, Mr. Albert M.
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L.
Gonzalez, Mr. Jorge E.
Gonzalez, Manuel Marcelo
Gonzalez, Mr. William
Goodin, Jack A., Jr.
Goodlove, Mrs. William
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin
Goodstein, Mr. Michael D.
Gordon, Ms. Gail
Gordon, Hon. Jack
Gordon, Ms. Karen
Gottfried, Mrs. Theodore
Gould, Mr. Bernice
Gourgue, Mr. Joseph F.
Gowin, Dr. Thomas S.
Goza, William M.
Gracer, Gene B.
Grant, Stuart Mathew
Grassell, Diane B.
Green, Judith Wilkinson
Greening, Ms. Susan
Grentner, Ms. Lynn
Grethen, Mrs. J.
Grier, Ms. Helen R.
Gross, Dr. Zade B.
Grout, Ms. Nancy E.
Grover, Ms. Marlene
Guarino, Mr. & Mrs.
Gutman, Ms. Jacqueline
Hackley, Ms. Marie K.
Haffner, Mr. Shelly
Haggard, Ms. Cora Nell
Hagner, Mr. Casper C.
Hale, Ms. Kay K.
Haley, Mr. John C.
Hall, Mr. M. Lewis, Jr.
Haller, Mrs. O.W.
Hamersmith, Mrs. Gwen
Hames, Ms. Christina
Hamilton, Mr. James F.
Hamrick, Mr. David H.
Hand, Robert E.
Hanson, Mrs. Mary Jo Rader
Hardie, Mr. George B., Jr.
Hardwick, Mr. Todd
Harrington, Mr. Bill
Harris, Mrs. Henriette
Harter, Ms. Nancy L.
Harwell, Miss Wanda
Harwood, Mrs. Manton E.
Hauser, Mr. Leo A.
Heald, Thomas E.
Heard, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph G.
Hebert, Mr. Mark A.
Heckerling, Mrs. Philip
Helene, Ms. Carol J.
Heller, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel N.
Helliwell, Ms. Anne E.
Helms, Mr. Roy Vann
Hendry, Judge Norman
Herin, Mr. Thomas D.
Hernandez, Ms. Mirtha A.
Herndon, Mr. Joseph L.
Herren, Mr. Olive G.
Herring, Mrs. V.R.
Herst, Mr. Herman, Jr.
Hertzberg, David J.
Hesser, Ms. Dolores
Hett, Marilyn P.
Heyer, Ms. Rome
Hiller, Mr. Herbert L.
Hinds, Mr. & Mrs. L.F., Jr.
Hingston, Rev. & Mrs.
Hipsman, Mr. Mitchell
Hirsch, Mr. Milton
Hodges, Barbara A.
Hofstetter, Mrs. Ronald
Hogan, Mr. G.B., Jr.
Hogg, Mr. John F.
Holcomb, Lyle D., Jr.
Holland, Mrs. Francine D.
Holland, Mr. Kim
Hollinger, Mrs. Barbara
Holsenbeck, Mrs. J.M.
Holzman, Ms. Tressa A.
Hopkins, Mrs. Carter
Horta, Ms. Teresa
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie
Howard, Miss Elaine V.
Howe, Mr. Ray E.
Howell, Mrs. Dorothy
Hoyo, Ms. Kim A.
Hucker, Mr. Gary
Hughs, Mr. Kenneth
Hunter, Frances G.
Huston, Catherine B.
Ipp, Mrs. Martha
Jablonski, Ms. Elizabeth
Jacobs, Mrs. Ruth
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen L.
Jaffe, Ms. Eleanor
Jaffe, Ms. Leah S.
James, Ms. Mary C.
Jesffreys, David E., Jr.
Jenkins, Ms. Elsie A.
Jervis, Mrs. Ida
Jimenez, Ms. Patricia
Joffre, Marie J.
Johnson, Ms. Eleanor
Johnson, Ms. Jan
Johnston, Ms. Suzanne B.
Jones, Mr. A. Tillman
Jones, Anne F.
Jones, Mr. Donald W.
Jones, Donna Jean
Jones, Mrs. Frances
Jones, Gail G.
Jones, Mrs. Henrietta
Jones, Ms. Jacqueline
Jones, Ms. Margaret A.
Jones, Thompson V.
Jones, Mr. William F.
Jordan, Mrs. June T.
Jordan, Ms. Katherine R.
Julian, Mrs. Lawrence C.
Jureit, Mrs. L.E.
Kainen, Mr. Dennis G.
Kaplan, Mr. Barry
Kaplan, Dr. Joseph E.
Kaplan, Mr. Leonard
Karlin, Mrs. Sydelle
Kassewitz, Mrs. Ruth B.
Kastan, Mr. Peter
Kaufelt, Mr. David A.
Kavanaugh, Daniel A.
Keaton, Ms. Martha
Keener, Mr. Jim
Keiter, Dr. Roberta M.
Keller, Ms. Barbara P.
Keller, Mr. Michael
Kelley, Mr. Jan
Kelley, Dr. Robert L.
Kelly, Dr. J. Terence
Kendall, Peter H.J.
Kenner, Mrs. Maynard
Kent, Mr. W.R.
Kent, Deborah L.
Kesselman, Michael N.
King, Mr. Arthur, Sr.
King, Mr. Dennis G.
King, George E.
Kipnis, Mr. Jerome
Kirpick, Mr. Billie
Kirsch, Mr. Louis
Kjelson, Mrs. Betty L.
Klathe, Ms. Helen S.
Klein, Ms. Helene
Klein, Ms. Ruth C.
Koestline, Ms. Frances G.
Kofink, Rev. Wayne A.
Koler, Ms. Ann L.
Komorowski, Camilla B.
Kononoff, Hazel N.
Korach, Mr. Irvin
Koski, Antoinette M.
Kossow, Ms. Suellen E.
Koth, Ms. Gwen
Kriebs, Mr. Robert V.
Kruse, Mr. Jerry
Kurtz, Ms. Christine H.
Kurzer, Ms. Joy
Kyle, Mr. Alan
LaBelle, Mr. Dexter
Lacy, Dr. George E.
Lama, Ms. Mary C.
Lamme, Mr. Robert E.
Lancaster, Mr. R.D.
Lane, Elizabeth A.
Langley, Miss Clara C.
Langner, Mildred C.
LaRoue, Mr. Samuel D., Jr.
LaRussa, Lynne M.
Lasa, Mr. Luis Rogelio
Lawson, Dr. H.L.
Laxson, Mr. Dan D., Sr.
Leban, Mrs. Mary H.
List of Members 97
LeDuc, Charlotte J.
Lee, Mr. Roswell E.
Leon, Mr. Salvador, Jr.
Leonard, Mr. Joseph S.
Leshay, Mr. Michael A.
Leslie, Mr. John L., IIl
Leslie, Nancy L.
Levenson, Ms. Rachel S.
Levin, Mr. Marc
Levine, Dr. Robert M.
Levy, Ms. Elyse
Lewensohn, Mr. San
Lewis, Mrs. Elizabeth H.
Liedman, Mrs. Marilyn
Lind, Ms. Anita
Lindgren, Mrs. M.E.
Lineback, Ms. Janet A.
Linehan, Mrs. John
Link, Mrs. E.A.
Link, Ms. Emma Jean
Lipman, Ms. Kay
Littlefield, Ms. Doris B.
Lloyd, Mr. J. Harlan
Lombardi, Mrs. Elaine L.
Lombardo, Ms. Barbara A.
Longshore, Mr. Frank
Lonsdale, Mrs. Charles K.
Looney, Evelyn 0.
Loughry, Mrs, Jean F.
Lowery, Mrs. Nereida
Lubitz, Mr. Alan H.
Lunnon, Mrs. James
Lunsford. Mrs. E.C.
Lynch, Ms. Althea G.
Lynfield, Mr. Geofrey H.
MacDonald, Mr. Frank
Mackle, Milbrey W.
MacLaren, Ms. Valerie
MacVicar, Mrs. I.D.
Maer, Ms. Miriam
Malafronte, Mr. Anthony F.
Malcomb, Mr. & Mrs.
Malone, Mrs. Katherine
Malone, Mrs. Randolph A.
Malvido, Ms. Emma
Mangels, Dr. Celia C.
Mantone, Ms. Monique
Marks, Larry S.
Marks. Mrs. G. Rosalind G.
Marlowe, Helen L.
Marshall, Mrs. Judy 0.
Marshall, Ms. Treva 1.
Martin, Emmett E., Jr.
Martin, Mrs. Margaret W.
Martin, Sylva G.
Martin, Mr. Victor
Martin, Mrs. Wayne
Martinez, Mr. Hilarion A.
Martinez, Mr. Antonio, Jr.
Mason, Mr. William C., Ill
Matheson, James F.
Mathews, Mr. D. Dennis
Mathews, Ms. Eleanor
Maxwell, Mr. Michael
Mayer, Mrs. Elizabeth D.
Maymi, Ms. Ana Teresa
McClure, Mrs. John C.
McCreary, Ms. Jane
McCulloch. Mr. John E.
McCurdy, Ms. Rosalee
McDermott, Ms. Marion E.
McDowell, Mr. Charles
McIntosh, Mr. & Mrs.
McIntosh, Ms. Jeannette C,
McKenna, Mrs. Alice M.
McKenna, Mr. Daniel C.
McKey, Mrs. Robert
McLeod. Mr. & Mrs.
Michael J., Ph.D.
McNeil, Ms. Kate
McTague, Mr. R.H.
Mell, W.B., Jr.
Melman, Mr. D.A.
Mendez, Mr. Jesus
Mendoza, Mrs. Enid D.
Merritt, Mrs. Mary W.
Metz, Mr. J. Walter. Jr.
Metz, Martha J.
Michel, Ms. Mary Ellen
Mickler, Mrs. Thomas
Middelthon, Mr. William
Miles, Lewis W.
Milian, Ms. Christine
Miliar, Mrs. Gavin S.
Milledge, Mrs. Sally
Milledge, Sarah F.
Miller, Mr. H.E.
Miller, Mrs. Elizabeth C.
Miller, Ms. Gertrude
Miller, Mr. Philip Orme
Miller, William J.
Millstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Mitchell, Robert, Jr.
Molinari, R.E., DDS
Mollinedo, Ms. Ana
Monahan, Mr. Laurence E.
Monroe, Mr. Michael L.
Montague, Mrs. Charles H.
Montelone, Mr. Beth A.
Montero, Miss Carolina
Moore, Patrick F.
Morris, Ms. Thomasine
Morton, Ms. Jan
Moss, Ms. Pamela
Moss, Mrs. Renee
More, Mrs. Edwin P.
Moylan, Mrs. E.B., Jr.
Moynahan, John H.
Mulcahy, Mrs. Irene D.
Muller, David F.
Muller, Dr. Leonard R.
Muniz, Mr. Manuel 1.
Murphy, Ms. Mary Jo
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs. Tim
Myers, Lillian G.
Myers, Mrs. Walter K.
Naccarato, Ms. Mary T.
Napolitano, Ms. Marianne
Narot, Mrs. Helene
Narup, Mrs. Mavis
Nasca, Ms. Suzanne
Navarro, Mr. Pablo A.
Nelson, Mr. Jonathan
Nelson, Ms. Merlene
Nelson, Ms. Susan
Nelson, Mr. Theodore R.
Neway, Ms. Roberta
Newcomm, Mrs. Sally E.
Newman, Mr. Stuart G.
Nichols, Ms. Patricia
Nicholson, Mrs. Allene
Nimnicht, Mrs. Mary Jo
Nitzsche, Mrs. Ernest R.
Norman, Mr. Walter H.
Norton, Mr. Claude C., Jr.
O'Brien, Ms. Dorothy
O'Connell, Mr. & Mrs.
Orovitz, Mr. & Mrs.
Oshinsky, Dr. Judy C.
Osman, Mr. Peter
Osterman, Ms. Rebecca
Oswald, Mr. M. Jackson
Otterson, Ms. Dana
Otto, Mrs. Thomas
Overstreet, Estelle C.
Padgett, Mr. Inman
Palen, Mr. Frank S.
Palmer, Mr. Miguel
Palmer, Miss Virginia
Pancoast, Ms. Alice A.
Parente, Mr. Robert
Park, Mr. Dabney G., Jr.
Parker, Crawford H.
Parker, Ms. Ruth S.
Parks, Ms. Jeanne M.
Parks, Mrs. Merle
Paroz, Ms. Amie
Parrish, Mr. James C., Jr.
Paul, Mrs. Kenneth
Paulk. Mr. Jule
Paxton, Ms. Barbara W.
Peacock, Mrs. Albert, Jr,
Pearce, Mrs. Edgar B.
Pearson, Ms. Lillian
Peck, Ms. Jeanette D.
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth
Pelton, Dr. Margant M.
Peoples, Anita J.
Perez, Ms. Maria-Teresa
Perl, Mr. Hermine
Perlmutter, Mr. Bernard P.
Perner, Mrs. Henry
Perrin, Mrs. John
Peskoe, Ms. Ann
Peters, Mr. John S.
*Peters, Dr. Thelma
Philbin, Helen K.
Phillips, Ms. Bernadette
Pichel, Mrs. Clem A.
Pickard, Ms. Carolyn
Pickering, Ms. Julie
Pierce, Mrs. J.B., Jr.
Pierce, Mr. Douglas
Pierce, Mrs. Margie K.
Piercy, Mrs. Gwen
Pinder, Mr. Ray
Platt, Ms. Ellen L.
Plummer, Lawrence H.
Polinsky, Mrs. Lois
Poole, Mr. Edwin L.
Pope, Ms. Connie
Popp, Mrs. Lucene L.
Porter, Mr. Daniel
Posner, Mr. Joseph
Postlethwaite, Ms. Nina
Prado, Ms. Miriam
Prebianca, Ms. Carol
Primus, Richard Lee
Proenza, Christina D.
Provost, Mr. Orville
Purmaiis, Ms. Ruth
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F.
Ragone, Mrs. Emily
Raiden, Mr. Michael E.
Raim, Mr. Jerome
Ramos, Pauline E.
Rappaport, Dr. Edward
Raskin, Ms. B.J.
Reagan, A. James, Jr.
Recio, Mrs: A.
Reed, Ms. Elizabeth Ann
Reed, Richard E.
Reeder, Mrs. Cecelia P.
Reeder, William F.
Rehwoldt, Mr. Ralph
Reilly, Mrs. R. Thomas
Reinhardt, Miss Blanche E.
Reiss, Ms. B.K.
Rempe, Lois D.
Renaman, Mr. James C., Jr.
Renick, Mr. Ralph
Reno, Ms. Janet, Esq.
Reordan, Mr. William C.
Resnick, Mr. Larry
Retz, Ms. Diane L.
Reville, Ms. Anna
Rey, Ada M.
Reyes, Ms. Lina T.
Rice, Sister Eileen O.P.
Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R.
Ries, Dr. Daryl T.
Rifkin, Mr. M.S.
Riley, Mrs. O.V.
Riley, Ms. Sandra
Risley, Mr. Douglas L.
Ritter, Mrs. Emma B.
Robbins, Mrs. Lawrence J.
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Robert, Mr. Claude
Robertson, Mr. Neil P.
Robertson, Mrs. Piedad
Robinson, Mr. Steven
Robinson, Mrs. Webster
Roca, Pedro L.
Rochkind, Ms. Sarah D.
Rodriguez, Ms. Ofelia M.
Rogers, Mrs. Walter S.
Rollins, Ms. Annie Leigh
Roper, Margaret M.
Rosen, Mr. Mitchell A.
Rosen, Mr. Paul
Rosen, Mr. Robert
Rosen, Mr. Robert R.
Rosenberg, Mrs. Edythe L.
Rosenberg, Mr. Steven
Rosendorf, Howard S., Jr.
Rosenthal, Mr. Paul E.
Ross, Mrs. Jack
Ross, Mrs. Leroy W.
Roth, Mr. Allen
Roth, Mrs. Ellen
Roxton, Mr. V.E.
Rubio, Mr. Edward
Ruden, Mrs. Eliza P.
Russell, Ms. Darlene
Sachlis, Sharon A.
Sachs, Ms. Brenda
Sakhnovsky, Mr. A,A.
Sakson, Ms. Sharon
Saliba, Ms. Barbara
Salley, Mrs. Sadie S.
Salley, Virginia Sutton
Salzman, Phyllis S.
Samet, Ms. Barbara J.
Sanabria, Mrs. Idella
Sanchez-Pando, Dr. Josefina
Sandberg, Ms. Shirley J.
Santo Pietro, James Joseph
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan
Sargent, Joy E.
Sargent, Priscilla M.
Sax, Connie A.
Saye, Mr. Roland A., Jr.
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffee
Schaefer, Norah K.
Schaeffer, Mrs. Oden A.
Scherr, Mrs. Ruth E.
Schilt, Esther M.
Schneider, Miss Marilyn C.
Scholtz, Mrs. Mary L.
Schulte, Mrs. William L.
List of Members 99
Schultz, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Schweiger, Mr. H. Denny
Scurr, Mr. Charles
Segal, Ms. Estelle
Segal, Mrs. Natalie J.
Seidler, Mrs. Sara
Seixas, Margarita E.
Sellati, Mr. Kenneth
Sepler, Mr. Richard
Serpico, Mrs. Clara N.
Sharer, Mr. Cyrus J.
Sharlow, Mrs. Evelyn W.
Shaw, Mrs. H.O.
Shaw, Mrs. W.F.
Sheeran, Ms. Kathy
Sheffield, Mrs. Charlotte
Sherman, Mr. John S., Jr.
Shrewsbury, Mr. Homer A.
Sicius, Dr. Francis J.
Siegel, Mr. Bernard
Siegel, Ms. Lynn
Silbert, Mr. Jeffrey M., PhD
Silver, Mrs. Sam 1.
Silverman, Ms. Dina
Silverstein, Mr. Mitchell E.
Silverstein, Ms. Myra
Simonhoff, Mrs. Ilse D.
Sims, Mrs. Vi
Sinclair, Mrs. Edna P.
Singer, Ms. Frances L.
Skipp, Ms. Marjorie
Skolnick, Mr. Nathan
Smalley, Diane E.
Smith, Mrs.' Avery C., Jr.
Smith, Mr. George H.
Smith, Harrison H.
Smith, Jitske B.
Smith, Ralph K.
Smith, Ms. Rebecca A.
Smith, William R., III
Sniffen, Mr. Lon M.
Solomon, Norman F.
Sommers, Mr. L.B.
Sonderegger, Ms. Martha
Sorice, Ms. Sue
Sorondo, Ms. Astrid
Sowell, Mr. J.A.
Sperling, Mr. Stephen M,
Speroni, Mrs. Dorothy
*Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J.
Spinnenweber, Catherine M.
Spivey, Ms. Joan M.
Spore, Ms. Mary Jane
Stacey, Mr. George L.
Stamey, Mr. Ernest N.
Stark, Miss Judi
Stearns, Laura P.
Stein, Lois L.
Stein, Ms. Matilda N.
Stevens, Dr. Elizabeth
Stewart, Mrs. Chester B.
Stewart, Ms. Edyth
Stewart, Mr. Rod
Stiles, Mr. Wade
Stobbs, Ms. Martha M.
Stock, Ms. Ruth V.
Stofik, Ms. Marty
Stone, Mr. Robert L., Jr.
Stone, Mrs. Samuel J.
Storm, Ms. Larue
Stovall, Ms. Lucy P.
Stripling, Mr. John R.
Strobi, Miss Annette
Stuart, Dr. Frank C.
Stuntz, Martha M.
Suiter, Patricia A.
Sundquist, Mr. Percy U.H.
Susaneck, Comm. Stuart
Sutherland, Dr. Claudia S.
Swartz, Donna C.
Swisher, Mr. John E.
Szita, Ms. Blanche
Taddeo, Hilda L.
Tambor, Ms. Rosemary F.
Tardif, Robert G.
Taylor, Mrs. F.A.S.
Taylor, James I.
Taylor, Ms. Jane I.
Taylor, Kareen E.
Teed, Ms. Mary M.
Ternent, Mrs. James S.
*Tharp, Mrs. Charles Doren
Thatcher, Mr. John
Thayer, Ms. Margaret J.
Thomas, Phillip A.
Thompson, Ms. Margaret
Thompson, Ms. Mona Denise
Thomsen, Sharon, M.D.
Thornton, Mr. Dade W., Esq.
Thorpe, Ms. Fran Hutchings
Thurlow, Mr. Tom, Jr.
Tilden, Mr. David
Timanus, Mrs. Martha D.
Tingler, Mrs. C.F.
Tinkoff, Ms. Norma
Tipmore, Mr. David B.
Toledo, Mr. Claudio
Tomlinson, Mr. Edwin L.
Tosch, Ms. Linda
Tottenhoff, Mrs. J.R.
Towle, Mrs. Helen C.
Trautvetter, Mr. Paul
Trescott, Ms. Jean L.
Trimble, Ms. Judi
Trotta, Judy E.
Trubenbach, Ms. Rheta V.
Trussell, Mrs. Ralph
Tucker, Bruce E,.
Tucker, Dr. Gail S.
Turk, Mr. Jonathon
Turner, Mrs. Roberta H., Jr.
Underwood, Mrs. Jean
Urrutia, Mrs. Edna
Vallega, Mr. Jack
Vanderlinden, Mrs. E.A.
VanLandingham, Mr. Kyle S.
Vaughn, Mrs. Elizabeth M.
Veenstra, Mr. Tom H.
Velar, Mr. Pedro L.
Venditti, Mr. Robert E.
Veronski, Mr. D.J.
Victoria Hospital, Inc.
Vivian, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Vogt, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Vohs, Mr. Lester J.
Volker, Mrs. Mary Frances
Wacks, Mr. Howard
Walaitis, Ms. Jane
Waldberg, Mrs. Jean
Waldron, Mrs. Neal E.
Wall, Mr. Arthur E.P.
Walters, Miss Ruthe
Washburn, Mrs. James V.
Waterman, Ms. Alice
Waters, Miss Elva Jane
Watson, Ms. Hattie E.
Watt, Mr. Jim
Weber, John 0.
Weinkle, Julian 1.
Weiss, Elaine E.
Weiss, Mrs. Melton
Weiss, Mrs. Meryle
Weissenborn, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Weit, Mr. Richard
Wenck, Ms. Dorinda B.
Werblow, Mrs. Marcella U.
West, Karen C.
Wherrity, Ms. Gloria
White, Mr. Richard M.
Whitenack, Mrs. Helen E.
Whiting, Ms. Christine
Whitlock, Ms. Mary
Whitten, Mr. George E.
Widen, Ms. Judith
Wiener, Donald M.
Williams, Ms. Billie Jo
Williams, Ms. Celia
Williams, Mr. David J.
Williams, Ms. Dorothy E.
Williams, Mr. G.L.
Williams, Ms. Linda K.
Williams, Ms. Meredith
Williams, Ms. Nancy
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Wayne
Willing, Mr. David L.
Willis, Mrs. Hillard Wood
Wilson. Mr. Daniel F.
**Wilson, Mrs. Gaines R.
Wilson, Mr. Gary E.
Wilson, Ms. Mary Ann
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion
Wisenberg, Ms. Sandi
Wolfe, Ms. Rosalie L.
Wolfe, Mr. Thomas L.
Wood, Mr. Edward A.
Woodruf, Ms. MaryLou
Worley, Mr. Robert
Wright, Ms. Donna
Wright, Mrs. Edward H.
Wright, Mr. Robert C.
Wynne, Mr. James R.
Yesner, Mrs. Barbara D.
Young, Ms. Ann
Young, Montgomery L.
Zabsky, Mr. Harold J.
Zajonc, Ms. Margaret
Zarzecki, Ms. Suzanne
Zeller, Mrs. Leila
Zimmerman, Mrs. Louis
Zoller, Eugene D.