THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
I I4 eFs t ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Charlton W. Tebeau
Arva Moore Parks Dr. Thelma R Peters
NUMBER XLIV 1984
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 5
By Geoffrey Lynfield
"... Everything Carried the Face of Spring":
Biscayne Bay in the 1770's 23
By Daniel L. Schafer
Miami's City Marshal and Law Enforcement
in a New Community, 1896-1907 32
By Paul S. George
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 44
By Eugene Lyon
Life in Palm Beach County Florida, 1918-1928 62
Part II: The Real Estate Boom and the Hurricane of 1928
From Noah Kellum Williams' "Grandpop's Book"
Edited by Charlton W Tebeau
List of Members 71
COPYRIGHT 1984 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern
requt-ad t Florida. Communicaitons should be addressed to the Correspond-
I ing Secretary of the Society, 101 West Flagler Street, Miami,
Florida 33130. The Association does not assume responsibility for statements of fact
or opinions made by contributors.
This Page Blank in Original
Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.
FOUNDED 1940-INCORPORATED 1941
Marcia J. Kanner
R. Layton Mank
First Vice President
Second Vice President
Sandra Graham Younts
D. Alan Nichols
Charlton W Tebeau, Ph.D.
Arva Moore Parks
Associate Editor Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Associate Editor Tequesta
Randy F Nimnicht
H. Willis Day, Jr.
William G. Dresser
Dorothy J. Fields
Joseph H. Fitzgerald, M.D.
Ronald E. Frazier
Joseph R. Grassie
Marshall S. Harris
Robert C. Hector
Frasuer C. Knight
Maria Camila Leiva
Stephen A. Lynch, IlI
Dana M. Moss
Joseph H. Pero, Jr.
William E. Sadowski
Samuel S. Smith
Sara Laxson Smith
Vivian P. Smith
Howard Swibel, M.D.
This Page Blank in Original
Retracing the Celestial Railroad
By Geoffrey Lynfield*
Prof. Shappee's memorable article on the "Celestial Railroad" in the
April 1961 issue of the Florida Historical Quarterly, pulled together for
the first time a multitude of stray references and various short newspaper
articles.' Dr. Shappee gives us an excellent picture of the contemporary
scene but ends with the somewhat sad note that with the destruction of
the historic marker in Juno the obliteration of the railroad was complete.
Dr. Shappee should not have worried.
The writer has spent the last couple of months retracing the railroad
and has in the process uncovered a number of items, some not previ-
ously recorded. There have been a large number of articles and news
items published since 1961. The local historical societies and a number
of individuals have respectable clipping collections. The sites of the
termini at Jupiter and Juno have been visited and the writer has walked
part of the original track. A number of individuals who researched the
project from various angles have been interviewed.
It is the purpose of this paper to make an attempt to present this
material in an up-dated review.
Prof. Shappee relates that the narrow gauge rolling stock for the
line was obtained from the St. Johns and Halifax Railroad which had
been converted to broad gauge. This presumably would have included
the locomotive "Old No. 3".2 When this broke down, according to
*Mr. Lynfield is a former patent attorney of New York City with degrees in
engineering from Cambridge University in England and law from New York University.
In retirement he has a home in Boca Raton and has written historical articles for the
Spanish River Papers of the Boca Raton Historical Society and for the Brown Wrapper
Supplement of the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel.
Shappee, all transportation ceased until it could be repaired, the line
never having more than one engine.3
It is possible that there is some confusion here. The engine in
Shappee's article in the picture facing p. 336 bears the numeral "1"
on the circular plate at the front of the engine. The photograph of this
"No. 1" engine first appeared in The Christian Science Monitor of May
25, 1959.4 This was sent in by Mrs. Margaret Noble Pleasant of
Shreveport, La. This picture of the "wheezing wood-burning engine"
had been unearthed by Mrs. Pleasant as a result of an earlier article in
The Christian Science Monitor by Lt. Col. Caygill of Miami.5
Mrs. Pleasant has confirmed that the little girl standing on the
cowcatcher is her mother, Dora Doster.6 The two girls in the cab are
her aunt and a cousin. Dora Doster Utz has written in detail about Life
on the Loxahatchee.' Her father, Ben Hill Doster, had a store on the
Celestial Railroad dock at Jupiter and later employed the black fireman
Milton Messer after the line had been dismantled.
A picture of a second engine was subsequently located by Mrs.
DuBois in the Library of Congress.8 The front of that engine bears
"No. 2." The man alongside the engine holding the oil can has been
identified as the engineer Blus Rice (or Reis). In the other hand Rice
is holding his hunting dog, of which more later. The man polishing the
headlights is Milton Messer. The conductor is Captain Matheson who
is standing on the step of the half-passenger half-baggage car.9
Pettengill in his chapter on the "Railroads of the East Coast of
Florida" relates in some detail the involved development of the Florida
railroad system. 1 The St. Johns & Halifax Railway Company was
organized early in 1882 by Utley J. White as a three-foot gauge logging
road from Palatka to Daytona. '
The date of October 1, 1888 for the conversion of the line to broad
gauge matches the date at which the narrow gauge stock was acquired
by the new Jupiter & Lake Worth line.12 The No. 3 engine according
to Pettengill ended up in the Yucatan. 1
Pettingill's very comprehensive survey of the Railroads of Florida
includes 174 railroads which were actually built out of a total of 429
railroad companies chartered between 1834 and 1900.14 But it is curious
that Pettengill makes no mention whatever of the Jupiter & Lake Worth
RR which was to become the most celebrated of the discontinued lines.
Its notoriety has been equated with that of the Barefoot Mailman.
The rolling stock was sold at public auction in Jacksonville in
1896."1 The eventual fate of engines Nos. 1 and 2 is not known but it
seems certain now that the line had at least two engines.
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 7
It would be of the greatest interest to the railroad buff if one or
both of these engines could be located or their eventual fate determined.
This narrow gauge stock was used for logging railways. Some narrow
gauge stock was used as a temporary spur track in the construction of
the Florida East Coast's Key West Extension. For transporting his
guests to a fishing camp on Long Key, Henry M. Flagler built a special
half-mile narrow gauge track. Guests were picked up at dockside, seated
on straw seats in the little cars, and taken by way of a tunnel to the
Atlantic side where cottages awaited them. 16
The rails of the narrow gauge are only three inches high and weigh
thirty pounds per yard as compared with regular rail stock which weighs
75-90 pounds a yard. Some of the rails from the "Celestial Railway"
were used in the construction of the old Harrell Building in Boynton, "
The writer as recently as February 1982 located two thirty-three foot
lengths of the Celestial's rails in a dump at the back of the old Jupiter
The dock of the old Jupiter terminus has been replaced by a modern
dock projecting into the river at the Suni Sands Mobile Home Trailer
Park a few yards to the east from Clemons Street off Ocean Boulevard. 1
The stumps of four or five wooden pilings of the old dock are clearly
visible at low tide next to the sea wall. This tallies with the account we
have from Dora Doster Utz. "9 Mr. Ben Hill Doster had moved to Jupiter
"At the base of our hill lay the right-of-way for the Celestial
Railroad, which ran out onto the pier upon which Papa had his store,
built on pilings over the River."
The photograph of the "Celestial" locomotive No. 1 shows the
engine standing in the middle of three tracks.20 This suggests the
presence of a shunting yard at the Jupiter terminus and the use of at
least two switches so that different cars could be coupled to the engine.
This shunting yard must have been located in the parking area of the
present trailer park. The lower end of the Indian River lies to the north
from this area and enters at this point the Loxahatchee. When the old
paddlesteamers rounded the bend on their approach to the Jupiter dock,
the engineer, Blus Rice, who played the horn in the local band, would
greet the passengers by playing Dixie on the whistle.21
Mrs. DuBois had located a picture of the Celestial Railroad dock
taken in 1891 with three Seminole Indians posing on the edge of the
dock.22 The Jupiter Lighthouse is clearly visible in the background. A
similar view of the dock shows a black workman standing on the edge.
This could be Milton Messer. In the background you see the lighthouse
and buildings of the keeper.23 There is yet another view dated 1891
taken from a slightly different angle showing a few small boats tied to
the dock and the Jupiter Lighthouse in the background.24
In 1974, Alfred Simpson painted a series of six pictures on Palm
Beach county history for a local bank. In one of these, the Celestial
dock is shown as it supposedly appeared in 1889 looking west. The
Indian River Line paddle steamer Chattahoochee is shown pulling away
from dock and heading upstream into the Indian River. The lighthouse
is shown in the right background. The Jupiter dock is shown to the left
with the engine, for better effect, facing the wrong way towards the
lighthouse. There is a small shed at the end of the T-shaped dock.25
The location of the line itself can be plotted with some accuracy
from contemporary maps. A full length map by G.R. Knight was first
recorded in October 1890.26 This map was re-published in the Jupiter
A most detailed view of the Jupiter end of the line can be seen
from a 1930 plat on file at the Palm Beach County Court.28 The right
of way of the railroad is shown to run along Juno Street, one block east
of Clemons Street, this being the area now occupied by the Suni Sands
Mobile Trailer Park. The map on file is a reduction of the original and
much of the descriptive material is quite illegible.
The line of the railroad as shown in the Knight map first runs due
south for about 500 feet and then swings slightly east to parallel the
coast line. It then continues in a straight line at an approximate angle
of 15 to the north-south line. Part of the roadbed is shown on the
Jupiter Quadrangle sheet of the U.S. Geological Survey map.29 A
broken red line, normally used to designate footpaths starts at Indian
Town Road running due east-west, and continues for about three miles
to a point level with Bench Mark 10 on the Federal Highway (Route 1).
The roadbed at this point is more accessible and closer to the
Federal Highway than Ocean Boulevard (Route A1A). There is thick
shrub and palmetto on the ocean side whilst the vegetation on the other
side is not nearly as profuse. In February 1982, the writer visited the
area between Federal Highway and Route A1A at the level of the public
beach area on Ocean Boulevard just north of the Jupiter line. The
ground was then being cleared for another development.
Modern machinery was required to strip the grounds of its dense
growth. This gives us some idea of the task faced by the traveller in
the 1880's who ventured below Jupiter. It is not surprising that the
legendary mailman took the easier route along the beach.30
The ground having been stripped, we did not have much difficulty
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 9
in locating the original roadbed roughly half-way between route A1A
and the Federal Highway. It formed a slightly raised bank one or two
feet above the generally level surrounding area with the suggestion of
ditches on either side from which some of the material for the roadbed
had evidently been obtained by the workmen in 1888."3 As the clearing
proceeded, stretches of the roadbed for a couple of hundred yards
became clearly visible.
A few scattered palms of mature size stand on either side of the
roadbed and help to identify the general direction of the line.
Jupiter Light is not visible at this point. The workmen clearing
the site were not aware that this area had at one time been traversed
twice a day by a whistle-tooting steam engine. Once alerted, the men
using metal detectors, had no trouble in finding a large number of
spikes. The wooden sleepers had all but rotted away.
The spikes on the west side of the track, away from the ocean,
seemed to be generally in better shape than the spikes found on the
near side. The ground closer to the ocean evidently contains more salt
which over the years could accelerate the corrosion rate.32
The roadbed of the "Celestial" is also clearly marked on the large
scale county plat maps. These maps are at a scale of one inch to 200
feet. On sheet 7-A for instance the old roadbed intersects the old Jupiter
town line (which has since been moved) at a point approximately 800
feet east of the Federal Highway (Route US 1).
On the west side of Ocean Boulevard, one and a half miles north
from Juno Beach Town Hall, there is a Historic Marker dated May 1,
1932. The Federal Highway (Route 1) then followed today's route
A1A. The marker states "On this spot the Celestial Railroad once
connecting Jupiter with Juno is crossed by the Federal Highway."
This portion of Ocean Boulevard runs along the old portage trail
travelled by the earliest pioneers.33 The old hack line must have fol-
lowed this route, as indicated by Gardner and Kennedy in their Business
"Previous to the building of the line of the railroad a hack line
was operated by Capt. U.D. Henrickson of Lake Worth and managed
by his brother Alvin. The route was from Jupiter to a point inside the
West Palm Beach City Park, in front where the Park Cottage Hotel
formerly stood. The distance was 17 miles and the fare two dollars,
one for trunks. The hack was a three-spring, three-seated wagon drawn
by two mules, and passengers, baggage and freight used to be carried
The Historic Marker plaque was originally mounted on an elab-
orate splith surmounted by figures in relief showing Seminole Indians
doing the sun dance against a typical Florida background. The figurines
and original bronze plate have disappeared. The present marker is less
elaborate with the bronze plate mounted on a simple plinth set back a
few feet from the highway. The marker inscription is not now correct
as the road on which it is located is no longer the Federal Highway but
Continuing south on Ocean Boulevard, one soon enters the com-
munity of Juno Beach with the Town Hall and Police Station on the
right. Quite a number of the street names in this area have galactic
associations, as Saturn Lane, Venus Drive, Mars Way, Neptune Road,
Starlight Lane and so on. At Neptune Road, Celestial Way branches
off to the left and passes between the shore and the east side of little
Pelican Lake. This side road then turns at a right angle back towards
Ocean Boulevard. There is a "Celestial Building" on Celestial Way
with the "Celestial Travel Agency" and the "Celestial Realty." (The
Celestial Travel Agency gives away ball pens inscribed "For Service
out of this World!")
After continuing along the Federal Highway for about four miles,
the old line swings further east in an arc towards the tip of Lake Worth
and ends up in the grounds of the Twelve Oaks Condominium.35
The terminal at Juno consisted of a T-shaped pier jutting into the
shallow end of Lake Worth in a generally south-easterly direction.36
Railway engineers at the time had the practice of filling in this type of
pier with rock and gravel. An embankment type structure is also sug-
gested by the 1892 Burchfiel (or Burchfield) plat.37 The head of the T-
shaped pier supported a freight shed. There was no room for the engine
to reverse so that as reported by a number of contemporary writers, on
its return journey, the train had to back up with the engine pushing the
passenger or freight cars.38
As the traffic on the line increased, some of its facilities became
inadequate. In March 1891, Guy Metcalf writing in the Juno Tropical
Sun had this to say about the terminal:
"....The building stuck on the end of the wharf at Juno that
has to answer for the purpose of a waiting room for passengers, a
storehouse for freight, a distributing room for mail, tickets, express
and telephone offices, is one of the most unsightly buildings to be
found in this entire country, and the matter appears worse when
we think of the progressive spirit manifested by the company in
other directions at other places.
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 11
"The house is very small, in the first place, being hardly
adequate for a freight house, although it might do if used for that
purpose exclusively. Persons obliged to wait in its stuffy confines
for several hours, with all sorts of ill-smelling fertilizers and other
freights, find it a very disagreeble resort, but as it is the only
available room in which to spend their time when waiting for boats
or train they have to endure and put up with what is furnished
them-though it must be confessed they do it with very audible
Very little money was spent on improvements to the road or the
equipment and the locals felt that the wood burned in the engine which
at that time sold for $2.25 a cord was the major outlay of the line.39
Juno became the county seat following the celebrated election of
1889 but the Town of Juno was not incorporated until 1953.4 In 1890,
the settlement consisted of a small two-story courthouse, the office of
the Tropical Sun newspaper and seven dwellings.
The Tropical Sun enjoyed the distinction of being the first and
oldest newspaper between Melbourne and Key West.
During its Juno regime, the Sun building was located half-way
between the courthouse and the dock of the railway. When the "Ce-
lestial Railway" had become defunct, the newspaper office was re-
moved to Palm Beach in 1895. Some of the presses were actually taken
by barge on Lake Worth as the roads at the time were very inadequate.41
A Historic Marker on the median of the Federal Highway a little
below the Juno Beach town line gives the former location of the old
courthouse about 300 feet east of the road. This area is now occupied
by the Oakbrook Square Shopping Center, Palm Beach Gardens.
The Juno courthouse was the scene of the famous and only lynch-
ing in this part of Florida.42 Sam "Sure Shot" Lewis was a bartender
in Lemon City and following a quarrel shot and killed two customers.
Lewis escaped to Bimini in a small sail boat but returned to Biscayne
Bay where he killed a third man. Lewis was eventually taken to the
county jail in Juno. On the night of August 17, 1895 a group of twelve
men from the Lake Worth area took the steamer Lake Worth from
Lantana to Juno. They then walked along the road bed of the "Celestial
Railroad" for about half a mile to the courthouse yard. The jailer
Gustave Kaiser was killed by the mob. Lewis was dragged outside and
hanged from the crosspiece of a telegraph pole.43 The Celestial Railroad
had installed a telephone line in April 1892 but it is doubtful whether
the eventual use of the telegraph pole had been contemplated by the
There were two wayside stops. The first stop was Venus three
miles south of Jupiter. The second stop was at Mars two miles farther
south. No photographs of these stations remain. Mrs. Utz who came
to Jupiter as a little girl in 1894 left us this account:
"These stations or stops along the Celestial, except Juno, were
nothing more or less than a few shacks and pineapple patches, soon to
be deserted when the Celestial ceased functioning."45
Other writers got a little carried away and allowed their imagi-
nation to run wild. "Three miles south of Jupiter was a freight-loading
stop called Venus-for shipments of pineapples, tomatoes, etc. Two
more miles south was Mars, where fish, turtles, and other seafood were
hauled aboard. The trip north from Juno could be odiferous indeed; but
tourists loved the little railroad with its three trips a day, its flower-
picking along the tracks, its old smokey funnel and its cow-catcher-
though there wasn't anything bovine within miles of the tracks.'""
Another writer somewhat exaggerated the speed of the service:
"Over six decades back Floridians whizzed from Jupiter to Juno via
Venus and Mars in a half hour not by space ship, but by rail.... A boon
to shippers too, was the railway with the array of unearthly station
names. Onto the Celestial's box and flat cars, the Junoans loaded
coconuts, the Martians fish and turtles and the Venusians pineapples
A copy of a detailed plat map of the town of Venus has been
located in Palm Beach County Court House."48 The plat shows an
elaborate grid of streets laid out in upper quadrant of Section 21. The
right of way for the Jupiter and Lake Worth RR runs at an angle of
25N 45'W across the map. The survey provides for thirty-foot road-
ways on either side of the track. Streets run north-south and east-west
and each of the nineteen blocks in the development is neatly divided
up into twelve or more lots. Curiously enough Venus station itself is
not marked on this plat but this may have been located a bit further
south as suggested by Fugate's 1937 Map of the county.49 This shows
the abandoned track and the Federal Highway in its old location along
No similar layout for a township has been located for Mars. This
is however shown on the 1889 map of The Tropical Trunk Line.50
There are occasional references in the literature to a third wayside
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 13
station "Neptune." Thus Marjory Stoneman Douglas mentions Nep-
tune as one of the stations:51
"The most famous one on the east coast (of the narrow gauge
railways) was the Celestial Railroad which began at Jupiter and ran
through Neptune, Venus and Mars to Juno on Lake Worth, a sometime
county seat of Dade County, where the mailmen started down along
the beach to Biscayne Bay."
Neptune was a post office in the Carlin House from 1895 to 1908
at the south end of Jupiter Bridge. The post office was then merged
with the Jupiter office.52
It is unimportant whether there were two or three wayside stations
or stops, as the train stopped anywhere when requested by a passenger.
These impromptu stops along the line were made so that gentlemen
passengers could leave the train for hunting forays in the woods. Blus
Rice would rent out his dog to the hunters.
The exploits of hunters along the "Celestial" line were recorded
by Guy Metcalf in the columns of the Tropical Sun published in Juno.
"The largest 'gator seen in these parts for some time past was
shot by Blus Rice Monday last. The boys of the Celestial RR saw him
as they were going to Juno. On their return they stopped the engine
long enough to put five bullets into him and haul him aboard the train.
The 'gator measured 9 feet 6 inches.53
Another hunting incident is reported the following week:
"A party of young men went deer hunting the other day. They
say they did not see a deer, although they walked all over the woods
between Jupiter and Juno. They went away from Jupiter on a crank
car, and they came back on-the remains of the crank car. Did you ever
hear of any one hunting deer on a crank car, anyway."54
The crank car was also used occasionally to bring down visitors
from Jupiter when the engine was being repaired.
Mrs. DuBois quotes the following item from the Florida Times
Union of October 10, 1890: "R.R. McCormack (sic) and family, bound
for the lake, forced to travel by handcar, the Celestial's one engine laid
Robert R. McCormick, who owned the Denver Colorado Water
Works and later founded the International Harvester Company of Chi-
cago bought forty acres on Lake Worth from Albert Geer in 1886 for
$10,000 and built a winter home. The estate was later purchased for
$75,000 by Henry M. Flagler for the site of the Poinciana Hotel.56
The lawyer C.C. Chillingworth, later a Palm Beach County judge,
shared offices in the old Juno courthouse and made frequent trips on
the "Celestial" line. In a talk given to the Harmonia Lodge in Palm
Beach in 1932 he left us a detailed account of the scene at Juno and the
"The courthouse ... was located just a little less than a half
mile north of the end of the lake just west of the right-of-way of
the Jupiter and Lake Worth Railway.
"This little railroad had a total length of seven and one half
miles and extended from the south end of Indian river at Jupiter
southward to the north end of Lake Worth. The fare was 10 cents
a mile. It had one little wood-burning engine, and if the engine
should get out of order there was no train until the engine could
be fixed. There were only two passenger cars and two or three
freight cars, and when the train came to Juno from Jupiter with
the engine at the head of the train it had to go backward to Jupiter
as the engine could not be turned around at Juno.
"The genial conductor, Captain Matheson, was one of the
most obliging of men. No one could be more accommodating than
himself. The train would run at most any time to accommodate
Mrs. Utz has recalled the names of some of the other railroad
employees.58 Gus Miller, the train conductor and wharf agent was
assisted by his brother Ed Miller. Many of the pioneer families inter-
married and were related. The men working the railroad were no
exception. Mrs. Gus Miller was the sister of Mr. Ben Hill Doster, Mrs.
Utz's father." Blus Rice or Reis was the engineer. Milton Messer, a
black "man of all work" continued to work for Ben Doster after the
line had been discontinued, as recorded by Mrs. Utz:
"Papa now secured a colored man-of-all work who had been
employed on the Celestial. Old Milton was kind and gentle to us
children, and very helpful to Papa in the store and hauling freight in
During the building of the Poinciana Hotel, the trains were running
day and night and two crews were employed.6" Others made a living
off the railway, getting the passengers from the Juno dock to points
along Lake Worth.
The trains were met by steamers, Captain Hendrickson and Cap-
tain William Moore running to the south end of the lake or to Hypoluxo.
With the completion of this road a new epoch set in. Tourists came by
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 15
the hundreds and everything in the shape of a hotel or boarding house
was filled to the overflow point, many private houses giving up their
spare rooms.62 The Cocoanut Grove Hotel owned by Captain Dimick
reported 1200 guests between September 1, 1890 and April, 1891.63
One of those catering to the tourists was Henry J. Burkhardt who
a few years earlier had been one of the "Barefoot Mailmen" who
walked the mail in three days from Lake Worth to Lemon City. Burk-
hardt recalled some years later, "I made my headquarters at Juno living
on my yacht the Maud S.B. I made a good living meeting the train from
Jupiter and in competition with other craft succeeded in gaining my
fair share of passengers at 50 cents a head landing them at Brelsford
Dock, Palm Beach."'64 Brelsford Dock is the present location of
"Whitehall" mansion, the Henry M. Flagler Museum in Palm Beach.
Theodore Pratt in The Barefoot Mailman gives a good fictional
account of the trip on the Celestial Railroad.65 Pratt who lived in Delray
did his research carefully before embarking on his historical novels.
His research notes are preserved in the Pratt Room in the Library of
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton. For The Barefoot Mailman
alone, Pratt amassed 230 single-spaced typed pages of material.66
Steven in the story is the legendary mailman who took a week off
from his mail-walking duties to do some electioneering. He had taken
the naphtha launch up the lake from Hypoluxo to visit the county seat
at Juno. He was disappointed in Juno:67
A tiny railroad station stood a short way back from the shore
at the head of the lake. There was a dock for the launch, a
warehouse at the foot of the dock, and five unpainted frame houses.
The train stood in front of the station. It consisted of a wheezy
little wood-burning engine, a passenger coach, and a boxcar. It
had come from Jupiter with the engine at the head of the train,
and with no means of getting itself about, it had to run backward
on the return journey.
Steven knew Captain Matheson, the conductor. For years
before he turned to railroading, the genial old man was a fisherman,
and Steven had often accompanied him. They hailed each other,
and Steven asked if there would be time for him to register the
people in the houses before the train left.
"Time?" asked the Captain. He tipped back his yacht cap,
as faded as Steven's. He seemed puzzled. "Why, you go right
ahead, Stevie, and let me know when you're ready to leave."
Steven obtained the names he wanted, and the promise of
the people to go in to Jupiter on election day and vote. Then
Captain Matheson boosted him aboard the coach, and climbed on
himself. The Captain jerked the signal cord running overhead along
the length of the narrow little car. With a jerk, the train started,
the engine snorting and issuing billows of acrid black smoke from
its tall stack.
Again Steven was the only passenger. Captain Matheson,
sitting beside him on one of the seats, said, "Lots more going
down than the other way. The country is opening up. Stevie, yes,
sir, it surely is going ahead. Faster than we can go backward."
Steven, looking out the window, his body rocking to the
violent sway of the coach on the narrow-gauge track, felt he was
on a toy train. Suddenly it came to a stop. On either side there
was nothing except woods. Then he saw a small shack near the
track. There was no sign of it being inhabited. "What's this?" he
"This," announced the Captain, "is the city of Venus. One
of our important stops, though nobody ever gets on." He reached
up and pulled the signal cord and the train began to back up again.
"Nobody ever gets on at the way stations," he continued, "You
The Captain's word was good. After another mile had been
covered, the train once again screeched to a stop. Looking out,
Steven saw that it had passed a family consisting of a man, his
wife, and child, who now walked down the track toward the train,
which reversed itself to go to meet them. When they came aboard,
Steven asked the man to register. He obeyed, saying surprisingly,
"You're the fellow we've got to vote for to keep his island, ain't
On its eight-mile journey the Celestial Railroad prudently
took shelter behind the beach ridge. Only here and there did there
come a glimpse of the ocean. When Steven saw the beach he
compared his walking pace with the speed of the train. It would
take him the better part of three hours to cover the distance on the
giving sand. The train, if it ran steadily, could do it in half an
The negro fireman is evidently "Old Milton" Messer who later
worked in Ben Doster's household.68
Geoffrey Birt, a popular journalist, who had a regular column in
the Palm Beach Post wrote an amusing eight-part series on the "Celestial
Railroad."69 At one point Birt began to have some doubts whether
Venus and Mars stations ever in fact existed and suggested that the
stations were purely mythical as there were no buildings to mark the
places.70 This view however is not supported by the evidence. The
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 17
stations may not have been overcrowded with shivering commuters as
a suburban stop on the New Haven line but Venus and Mars were
regular stops on the train's journey between Jupiter and Juno.
The stops at Venus and Mars were listed in the time tables which
were regularly published in the local newspapers of the day.7'
JULITER&a LAKE WORTH RAILWAY.
Trl'raiih run oll 1 TuLOniLtyH LnIl Fl'lltayk (iLtMunear
iA3'6t), iMd| INr WClMIWttil lbu,1W.
On Uthur etuay trains run as specials on vary-
71 ~ ~ (i t
a. M. A. M. i 11. i M.
:9 11 1 l. .i . .Jupiter ..... .. Ib' 4 :i
a :.] 10 ) OAr, ... un. .... 1.v 12 WII 4W 1
2. M. kA. htM. I .. ...2 n I, 41.
('OlllUwL at iJunll ith steanillbats for Luke
Lt. Col. Caygill in his original letter to The Christian Science
Monitor reproduced a slightly more elaborate timetable with four trains
a day making the Venus and Mars stops.72
Northern tour operators were quick in incorporating a ride on the
"Celestial Railroad" in a Grand Tour advertised in 1893 for $114.95.
The itinerary included going by rail from Jupiter to Juno. A stay in
Lake Worth and then back by rail and Indian River steamer to Rockledge
An 1895 railway map showing the entire system of the Jackson-
ville, Tampa & Key West Railway, "The Tropical Trunk Line," lists
all the subsidiaries of the line including the Jupiter & Lake Worth
Railway. The four stations, Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Juno are clearly
marked on the map, Juno being the southernmost point of the system.74
Allen Morris in Florida Place Names has an entry under "Galaxy"
for the short railroad linking these budding communities in what was
then Dade County:75
"Juno's newspaper, the Tropical Sun, disapproved of the nick-
name originated by travelers, thinking that they were poking fun which
could obscure the worth of the area. When cold nipped the area, the
editor wryly called the Celestial roll- Jupiter, Juno, Venus, Mars and
the Sun and said even Mercury had fallen there."
The traveler who apparently originated the nickname "Celestial"
was the British writer Julian Ralph who visited the area in the 1890's
and reported on the trip in Harper's New Monthly Magazine of March
1893 as follows:
"At Jupiter Inlet is found Captain Vail's floating hotel an old
steamboat that serves well as a boarding house and that entertains not
only fishermen, but many ladies that come with them. Beyond the
termination of the tour is made by what is called the celestial railway
system, so-called because it starts at Jupiter and passes stations called
Juno and Mars."76
Another user of the line was Capt. T.M. Rickards, who is con-
sidered to be Boca Raton's first settler. Rickards made a survey to
determine whether the local rivers were suitable for navigation. Trav-
eling by boat, Celestial Railroad and on foot, Rickards visited the area
that would become his future home.77
Rickards writing from Life Station 7, Biscayne, Florida reported
on February 17, 1892 to an Ohio paper as follows:
"Next morning we took passage on steamer San Sebastian for
Jupiter. There was quite a list of passengers, the table good, the officers
courteous and pleasant, the weather delightful, scenery lovely and the
river beautiful. The seven mile trip by rail from Jupiter (where the
lighthouse looms majestically over the inlet) to Juno was through what
appeared to me a rather barren waste, the monotony hardly broken by
the flag stations Mars and Venus, (these latter planets, I can affirm
confidently now, not withstanding the opinion of other eminent astron-
omers, are not inhabited.).).".7
In March 1896, following suspension of the service, foreclosure
proceedings were brought against the line by one Stephen E. Rice.79 In
the Final Decree of Sale dated March 21, 1896, the property was ordered
to be auctioned by C.C. Chillingworth, one of the local lawyers who
had offices at one time in the Juno Courthouse.80
Chillingworth was appointed a Special Master for the purpose of
the sale. The property was described as follows: "That certain line of
railway lying and being situate between Jupiter and Juno in the County
of Dade, Florida, and also the equipment and rolling stock used by the
defendant Railway Company in connection therewith; the same con-
sisting of one engine and tender, one combination coach, one day
coach, two box cars, two flat cars, all lettered J. & L.W. R.R. and also
all depots, turnouts, hand carts, and material and tools and the lands
and right of way upon which the depots and railway of the defendant
railway company is situate..." '
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 19
On March 28, 1896 Judge John D. Broome ordered that all the
real and personal property be sold by the Special Master in front of the
Juno Court House door.82
The sale took place on June 1st. All the property was bought by
Mike and Alex Sabel doing business under the style of Sabel Bros.83
Among the creditors was Ben Doster, the father of Dora Doster
Utz, who succeeded in placing a mechanics lien on the property,
presumably for work done on the railroad. Ben Doster was awarded
the sum of $67.50 after the taxes, cost of collection and advertising
had been paid.8
The later records at the Court are fairly complete and the title to
the right of way can be traced to the present owners.85
The Sabel Brothers sold the Right of Way of the railroad on March
21, 1933 to the Tennessee Company of Palm Beach for ten dollars and
"other good and valuable consideration."86 The Tennessee Company
was subsequently dissolved. The surviving directors acting as trustees
on January 31, 1967 sold the Right of Way to an attorney practicing in
West Palm Beach.87
The astonishing fact is that the Right of Way of the "Celestial"
is far from dead yet and the whistle is being blown on the developers
of the land north of Juno unless they pay their dues to the present owner
of the Right of Way.
1. Shappee, Nathan D., "The Celestial Railroad to Juno," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXXX, April 1962, pp. 329-349.
2. Shappee, op. cit., p. 340.
3. Shappee, op. cit., p. 341.
4. Pleasant, Margaret Noble, "Dear Family Features..." The Christian Science
Monitor, Boston, May 25, 1959, p. 13.
5. Caygill, Lt. Col. Harry W. "Riding the Celestial Line," The Christian Science
Monitor, Boston, March 18, 1959, p. 19.
6. Letter to the author, January 29, 1982.
7. Utz, Dora Doster "Life on the Loxahatchee," Tequesta XXXII, 1972, pp. 38-
8. DuBois, Bessie Wilson A History of Juno Beach & Juno, Florida, privately
printed, 1978, p. 6.
9. This photograph was originally taken by Mr. Sam Quincey of West Palm
10. Pettengill, George W. Jr., "The Story of Florida Railroads 1834- 1903,"
Bulletin No. 86 of the Railways and Locomotive Historical Society Inc., Boston, 1952.
11. Pettengill, op. cit., p. 103.
12. Shappee, op. cit., p. 338.
13. Pettengill, op. cit., p. 102.
14. Pettengill, op. cit., p. 10.
15. Shappee, op. cit., p. 347.
16. Parks, Pat, The Railroad that Died at Sea, Brattleboro, Vermont, 1968, p.
17. Knott, James R. "Glimpse of Boynton Beach History," Ft. Lauderdale
News and Sun-Sentinel, March 8, 1981.
18. DuBois, Bessie Wilson, The History of the Loxahatchee River, Stuart,
Florida, 1981, p. 2.
19. Utz. op. cit. p. 48.
20. DuBois, Juno Beach, p. 6.
21. DuBois, Juno Beach, p. 10.
22. DuBois, "Loxahatchee," p. 2.
23. Mclver, Stuart B., Yesterday's Palm Beach, Miami, 1976, p. 14.
24. DuBois, Bessie Wilson, History of the Jupiter Lighthouse, 1981, back cover.
25. Simson, Alfred Richardson, The History of Palm Beach County, a collection
of six oil paintings sponsored by the Home Federal Savings and Loan Association.
The pictures hang in the main office of the bank at 293 S. County Road, Palm Beach.
26. Knight, G.R., "Plat of the Jupiter and Lake Worth Railway" October 1890,
recorded in Palm Beach County Court House, Book 1, p 78.
27. Buckwalter, Roger, "Snyder Seeks Aid in Salvage of Engine of Celestial
Railway," Saturday Courier, Jupiter, August 13, 1977, p. 1. see also Bush, Betty
"The Story of Jupiter's Little Celestial Railroad 1889-1896," Section II, Beacon
News, June 30, 1966, p.8.
28. Plat of Jupiter Inlet Estates, "An Amended Plat of Johnson's Addition to
Jupiter and other Lands owned by Jupiter Inlet Estates Inc.," being part of Government
lots 5 and 6 of Section 31, dated March 12, 1930, (now in Book 16, p. 25 Palm Beach
County Courthouse, West Palm Beach).
29. U.S. Geological Survey, 7.5 minute series, Jupiter Quadrangle.
30. For a description of the ground conditions see: Mahon, John K., History of
Retracing the Celestial Railroad 21
the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842, Gainesville, 1967, p. 233. Conditions were
virtually unchanged in the 1880's.
31. Pierce, Charles W., Pioneer Life in Southeast Florida edited by Donald W.
Curl, Miami, 1970, p. 240. "A large force of Negroes started work grading the roadbed
for a railroad from Jupiter to Juno at the head of Lake Worth. They had the grade
through to Juno in short order and were laying track with handcars while waiting for
the rolling stock to come down the river from Titusville."
32. Conversation with Mr. Dale Alexander of Palm Beach, April 12, 1982. Mr.
Alexander developed much of the land in south Jupiter traversed by the railroad.
33. Daughters of the American Revolution of Florida, History 1892-1933, pp.
34. Gardner, C.M. and Kennedy C.F. Business Directory, Guide and History
of Dade County, Fla. for 1896-97, West Palm Beach, p. 98.
35. Burchfiel, R.B., "Plat of the Survey and Subdivision of Sec. 4. Township
42 South Range 43 East," March 21, 1982.
36. Potter, Geo, W., "Plat of Juno," May 5, 1892. This plat map was reproduced
in Buckwalter's article in the Saturday Courier of August 13, 1977.
37. On some of these old plat maps the name is spelled "Burchfiel" without
38. Utz, "Loxahatchee," p. 40.
39. Beacon News, (June 30, 1966).
40. DuBois, Juno Beach, p. 5.
41. Bellamy, Jeanne, "Newspapers of America's Last Frontier," Tequesta XII,
1952, p. 3.
42. Chillingworth, C.C., "Pioneering in South Florida," Palm Beach Post,
November 27, 1932.
43. Peters, Thelma, Lemon City, Miami, 1980, p. 163.
44. DuBois, Juno Beach, p. 8.
45. Utz. "Loxahatchee," p. 48.
46. Mowbray, James, "The Celestial Railroad and Old Port Village," Social
Spectator, April, 1960.
47. Van Smith, Howard, "Railroad in the Sky," n.d., Florida Living, copy in
Archives, Henry M. Flagler Museum, Palm Beach.
48. Geo. W. Potter, "Map of Venus, Dade County Florida," February 16,
1893, recorded May 15, 1893, Plat Book A, p.14. Copy now in Book 1, p.13, Palm
Beach County Court House, West Palm Beach.
49. Fugate & Brockway, "Map of Palm Beach County," Sheet 3, Townships
40 and 41 South, Range 43 East, Dolph & Stewart New York, 1937.
50. Matthews-Northrup, "Map of Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West System
and Connections The Tropical Trunk Line," Buffalo, N.Y., 1889. Copy in the col-
lection of Mrs. Bessie Wilson DuBois, Jupiter. See also Prince, Richard, Atlantic
Coast Line Railroad, 1966, p. 32.
51. Douglas, Marjory Stoneman, The Everglades River of Grass, New York,
1947, p. 287.
52. Bradbury, Albert G. and Hallock, E. Story, "A Chronology of Florida Post
Offices," Handbook No. 2, The Florida Federation of Stamp Clubs, 1962, p. 58. See
also Tropical Sun (December 5, 1895) "Neptune is the name of the latest post office
established in Dade County. It embraces the region occupied by the majority of the
Jupiter Reservation settlers." In the Jupiter Lighthouse Museum, there are two letters
addressed to "Neptune" post office.
53. The Tropical Sun, October 18, 1894.
54. The Tropical Sun, October 25, 1894.
55. DuBois, Juno Beach, p. 12.
56. Hanna, Alfred Jackson and Hanna, Kathryn Abbey, Florida's Golden Sands,
New York, 1950, p.222.
57. Chillingworth, C.C., "Pioneering in South Florida," Palm Beach Post,
November 27, 1932.
58. Utz, "Loxahatchee," p. 50.
59. Utz, "Loxahatchee," p. 38.
60. Utz, "Loxahatchee," p. 50.
61. Indian River Advocate, July 28, 1983.
Gardner and Kennedy, Business Directory, p. 98. "During the summer the large
hotel was built and the material was transferred between the two places and the freight
bills were in the neighborhood of $68,000. Some days it transported from seventy-five
to one hundred and fifty passengers at 50 cents each, besides its regular freight traffic
for the Lake people."
62. Palm Beach Post, June 26, 1933.
63. The Tropical Sun, April 22, 1891.
64. H.J. Burkhardt, the last of the barefoot mail carriers, ran in the West Palm
Beach election of 1894 and was elected alderman.
65. Pratt, Theodore, The Barefoot Mailman, New York, (1943), p. 184.
66. Montague, Margaret Ester, Theodore Pratt; The Florida Trilogy, Masters
Thesis submitted to Florida Atlantic University, 1978, p. 3.
67. Pratt, op. cit., p. 184.
68. Utz, "Loxahatchee," p. 50.
69. Birt, Geoffrey, "Celestial RR is Built," Palm Beach Post, April 25, 1963.
70. Palm Beach Post, May 4, 1963.
71. Indian River Advocate, June 30, 1893.
72. Christian Science Monitor, March 18, 1959.
73. A copy of this itinerary was found pasted inside a scrap book preserved in
the Florida Room, West Palm Beach Public Library. There is a handwritten notation
"Maps, Florida The Far South, Tours, Sporting 1893." Immediately next to it is
pasted in a map showing Jupiter, Mars and Juno. A curiosity of the map is that it also
shows the stage line from Hypoluxo to Miami (Lemon City).
74. Matthews-Northrup, "Map of Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West System,"
75. Morris, Allen, Florida Place Names, Miami, 1974, p. 65.
76. Ralph, Julian, "Our own Riviera," Harper's New Monthly Magazine
LXXXVI, March 1893, p. 507.
77. Curl, Donald W., "The Spanish River Papers," Vol. VII, Boca Raton His-
torical Society, February, 1979.
78. Ibid., p. 13.
79. Dade County Chancery Order Book AA, p. 79.
80. DuBois, Juno Beach, p. 8.
81. Dade County Chancery Order Book AA, p. 79.
82. Dade County Chancery Order Book AA, p. 357.
83. Dade County Deed Book X, p. 189.
84. Dade County Chancery Order Book AA, p. 95. (Mr. Doster had been
commissioned to dismantle the railroad, see Utz, p. 49).
85. Rickards, T.M., Oral Interview, April 27, 1982.
86. Deed Book 488, p. 291.
87. Conversation with Mr. Dale Alexander, Palm Beach, April 12, 1982.
"...Everything Carried the Face of
Biscayne Bay in the 1770's
By Daniel L. Schafer*
In March 1772 the edenic wilderness of Biscayne Bay in British East
Florida was visited by a charming gentleman whom contemporaries
referred to as "reputedly a natural brother of King George I." "' As a
Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers stationed in St. Augustine, where
he had earned a reputation as a devotee of the dinner parties and night
life of the town, Frederick George Mulcaster seemed an unlikely choice
to explore the rugged Biscayne Bay area.
Like so much of Britain's new province, Biscayne Bay was totally
uninhabited, its virgin soils uncultivated. Huge tracts of land throughout
the province had been granted to British aristocrats, but most lay
undeveloped, the major challenge to Governor James Grant's goal to
make the colony prosper.
The governor had named Lieutenant Mulcaster the Surveyor Gen-
eral of East Florida in October 1770 in order to speed up the process
of surveying land already granted and conveying final title. Mulcaster's
experience as an engineer qualified him to conduct the provincial sur-
veys, Grant said in his letter of recommendation, and he had also
"served at the Reduction of Goree and Martinique, is God son to the
late Prince of Wales, was brought into the Army under the immediate
protection of the Royal Family, and has the honor to be known to the
Following his appointment as surveyor, Mulcaster travelled
Dr. Schafer is an associate professor of history and chairman of the history
department at the University of North Florida.
throughout East Florida and became skilled at identifying lands suitable
for plantations. It was in this capacity that he visited Biscayne Bay in
March 1772 with orders from Lord Dartmouth to survey 100,000 acres
granted to his family, and with orders from Samuel Touchett and John
Augustus Ernest to survey 20,000 acres they had each received.3
Mulcaster travelled to Biscayne Bay via Andrew Turnbull's New
Smyrna settlement and William Eliot's plantation on the Indian River.
After a brief visit with Captain John Ross, a Scotsman who managed
Eliot's estate, Mulcaster departed for Biscayne, only to be caught in a
severe storm. He was forced to lay up on oyster banks and mangrove
islands, deprived of fresh water for forty hours on one layover, and to
leave three men and a horse on Point Lucea, which he estimated to be
forty miles south of Eliot's plantation and one hundred miles north of
Most of his food supplies were lost or exhausted during the
layovers, but Mulcaster and his remaining companions arrived at Bis-
cayne on March 13, 1772, and energetically proceeded with the sur-
veys. Travelling in a schooner and a smaller boat, the men were entirely
dependent on fishing and hunting for their subsistence.
After experiencing frosts in the north of Florida, and violent
storms on the way south, Mulcaster found at Biscayne Bay plentiful
food supplies, pleasant weather, sparkling clear water, and a green,
blossoming luxuriance of foliage. The land was uninhabited, yet ca-
pable of supporting several profitable plantations.
For several years Mulcaster had heard Governor Grant tell the
wealthy landlords that if they would invest in the "state of nature" that
he found East Florida to be upon his arrival in 1764, they would "create
a New World" for the British Empire while adding to their personal
fortunes.5 After viewing Biscayne Bay and returning to St. Augustine,
Mulcaster shared his experiences in a lengthy letter to the governor,
who was then in London. This correspondence has been preserved at
Ballindalloch Castle in Scotland and provides a rare eye-witness ac-
count of Biscayne Bay and its environ during the era of the American
"The Entrance of this Bay is at the North End of Key
Biscayne, a channel of above a quarter mile wide, with above
thirteen feet water, without a breaker, and the water so clear that
you might see to pick a six pence at the Bottom. The main land is
about three miles from the Inlett; it consists of large fresh marshes
and rich open Savannahs, the soil of them Dove coloured, and
Everything Carried the Face of Spring 25
Blue Clay, in other parts varied by a rich greasy Marl. The Ham-
mock land is Brown mould in some places entirely without land,
in others with a very small mixture. It runs from ten to fourteen
or fifteen inches deep upon a Rock foundation. The swamp resem-
bles the Hammock land, only has sometimes a different founda-
tion, which is Marl.
"The Timber growing on them are Live Oak, Red Bay,
Mastick, Gum Elm, Mulberry, Grape Tree, Elder, Coro Plumb,
Papa, Button Wood, Cypress, Yellow Plumb, Laurel, Black, Red
and Yellow Mangrove, Pitsimmon, Willows Cabbage, Maple,
Ivey, Pear Grannete, and several others which I am quite a stranger
to. The Papa, which is killed at the Head of the Indian River, had
here Ripe and green fruit on it, and everything carried the face of
Spring and a fine vendure.
"The pine land nearest the Bay is very Rocky and the Pine
not very good, but farther back the Pine Land is cut by savannahs,
and the timber is straight, tall and exceeding good. The back part
of these lands form back marshes of great extent, with small
Hammocks here and there dispersed among them.
"The Sound which forms the Head of the Bay has four large
fresh water Creeks, or rather small Rivers which empty themselves
into it on the West side. Three of these Rivers I am confident no
man has been up there [for] fifty or sixty years, probably much
longer, but I was obliged to make my way up them by cutting
away large branches of trees which from each side hang across.
These Rivers are deep, clear and full of fine fish. The Bottom is
Rock, and the water is sweet and good as any I ever tasted.
"On the banks of other Rivers are the same kind of land as
I have already described. Upon one of them is a remarkable natural
curiosity, being a Bridge of solid Rock forming a more regular
Arch than you can well conceive when it is certain no Human hand
has ever given it assistance. The width of the Arch at the surface
of the water is twenty-five feet. The perpendicular height from the
water is four feet and the River itself, in the center, is six feet.
The breadth of the River is thirty-three feet covered with trees and
makes a Romantic appearance."
As he passed under the arch in his four-oar boat, Mulcaster was
forced to tuck his head. He recorded water-depth up to seven feet and
estimated that the arch was located approximately one and one-half
miles from the mouth of the river on a direct line, or three miles by the
winding path of the river. There were remains of old Indian fields on
the banks of some rivers, but the cultivators had long since vanished.
On Biscayne Bay Mulcaster surveyed 100,000 acres capable of
producing rice, indigo, sugar or any other produce that was grown in
the West Indies. While surveying he admired the mangroves along the
shore: "The Trees large straight and tall, with spreading tops and carry
more the face of an open Forrest than of the Mangrove we see a little
farther to the North. The roots of the trees are entirely covered with
earth and not going out in suckers as is commonly seen."
Mulcaster noted that the head of the sound appeared to end in a
small lake, but actually was a small river which led southwest and
northwest and to several branches into a large marsh. From the lake
Mulcaster sent the schooner to the mouth of New Hillsborough River,
a distance of six miles, while he travelled overland, conducting further
surveys enroute. From New Hillsborough back to Key Biscayne was
only fifteen miles, Mulcaster estimated, "where a connection might
easily be had by land." The river, shallow at its entrance, "for about
five miles runs due North and is parted from the Sea by a Beach of
forty or fifty yards wide; it then takes a West course and branches and
seems to head in large marshes. Upon the Banks of it are many old
[Indian] fields and exceeding good land... .The fresh marshes run from
the River all the way to Biscayne."
On the south branch of the Hillsborough River, Mulcaster sur-
veyed several tracts of land he thought to be "most adapted for and
capable of making pretty settlements, which, with the lands adjoining
if once settled, would make a valuable Country. This River entrance is
but Shallow, but the Beach is almost constantly smooth as a River and
in the offing is fine anchoring ground. It is the Sea winds only that
rustle the shore, and then not in any manner like the Northern parts,
being defended by the force of the Gulph Stream and the Bahama
After viewing the North Branch of the Hillsborough River, which
he thought looked like an arm of the sea with banks and shoals,
Mulcaster departed on April 10 for Jupiter's Inlet at the mouth of the
Hobe River. Disappointed with the land on the south branch of this
river, he spent little time surveying, departing instead for the Indian
River to rejoin the men he had left at Point Lucca fifty days previously.
Arriving on the 13th of April expecting to find the rest of his
crew, Mulcaster found instead an abandoned camp site. A distressing
message scratched on a cabbage tree informed him that the party had
run out of food, powder and shot and had headed for Captain Ross's
Fearing the worst, Mulcaster abandoned the survey and launched
Everything Carried the Face of Spring 27
a search for the wanderers, who were inexperienced in the ways of
survival in Florida's wilds. The schooner was sent to the settlements
on the Mosqueto River, while Mulcaster went up the Indian River in
the small boat. After fifty miles he saw a blue flag on shore which
proved to be a blanket waved by members of an Indian hunting party.
They told Mulcaster that his men were safe and being led to Captain
Ross's place by Indian Tom. They had waited forty-two days, "the
last twelve without food but cabbage tree leaf," whereupon they wrote
a "book with knife" and abandoned their camp. The Indians gave a
hungry Mulcaster supplies of venison, honey and bear oil, as they had
previously given provisions to the wandering men.
Assured of his men's safety, Mulcaster went the next day to
Fishing Point to survey two tracts of 5,000 acres each for Michael and
Robert Herries. Unable to find a lake said to run three or four miles
back from the Indian River, he finally realized that it was instead a
gray pond which resembled a marsh more than a lake. The Indian River
shoreline looked to Mulcaster like its "savage name" implied, but
upon closer inspection, he found the land and the back swamps to be
Mulcaster described the land he travelled through as "totally
unknown," although his father-in-law, and predecessor as provincial
surveyor, William Gerard De Brahm, had previously claimed to be
familiar with it. That was highly improbable, Mulcaster said of De
Brahm, because "his age rendered him incapable of the hardship, and
it requires the constitution of a horse to go through the wilderness. A
large schooner with conveniences to make it comfortable is useless."
The only effective means of conveyance for such work were "boats of
little draught of water," but De Brahm had spurned these for the
comforts of a larger vessel.
During a surveying trip in this region, Mulcaster said, a man had
to be ready to expose himself to all extremes of weather, to sleep in an
open boat, on the beach or on an oyster bank; these are the conditions
"he must teach himself to laugh at." De Brahm, however, had been
unwilling or unable to endure such hardships and had dispatched de-
puties to conduct the surveys. Mulcaster felt that the deputies had either
been incompetent or had taken money without doing the work.
"The expenses are also enormous," Mulcaster said. "If I had not
had several large tracts to survey I could not have afforded to have
stayed so long as I did." The expedition had lasted three months and
the expenses had totalled 150 guineas. The last five weeks Mulcaster
had survived "on the chance of powder and ball, no bread, rice, flower,
or biscuit,... [yet somehow] I am in perfect health."
The only pleasant part of Mulcaster's expedition had been Bis-
cayne Bay and its environs which had been warm and "what was very
remarkable, only few Musquitos, though in summer no doubt there is
plenty." The only place that mosquitoes had been a problem was at
the mouth of the Indian River.
After surviving the rigors of this expedition, Mulcaster felt be-
trayed when, several months later, Samuel Touchett refused to pay for
his survey, complaining that he ought not be expected to pay for the
chain carriers or for their rum and provisions. An angry Mulcaster
refused to process the grant until the bill was paid and referred Touchett
to Lord Dartmouth, who had paid his fees without complaint and who
"had an Agent on the spot as Judge if the charge was just. He [Touchett]
is the first grantee who ever disputed their fees since I have been in this
office. If Mr. Touchett had been with me in an open boat in the Gulph
Stream blowing a gale of wind and had on his return back lived six
weeks on the chance of powder and shott, without Bread and Rice, or
even salt, he would not suspect that going three hundred miles to run
land was quite a party of pleasure. "7
Touchett eventually paid the fees and received title, along with
Dartmouth and Ernst, to tracts with great agricultural potential border-
ing Biscayne Bay. A subsequent bankruptcy, followed by his death by
suicide, kept Touchett from developing his tract, but both Dartmouth
and Ernst attempted unsuccessfully to establish settlements on Biscayne
Bay during the British period.8 Further efforts were discouraged by the
turbulence of the American Revolution and by the cession of East
Florida to Spain in 1783.
Lieutenant Mulcaster, who left East Florida in 1776 to join Gen-
eral Clinton's army in the northern colonies (James Grant was already
there, a Major under Lord Howe), would have been surprised to learn
that at the time Britain receded the province to Spain in 1783 not a
single settlement had been started at Biscayne. The uninhabited paradise
he had found in 1772 and promoted as possessing abundant potential
for cultivation had continued bereft of permanent human settlement.9
Following the departure of the British from East Florida, Biscayne
Bay remained largely uninhabited and undeveloped for more than a
century. Neither the Spanish nor the reputedly landhungry Americans
Everything Carried the Face of Spring 29
(who gained hegemony in 1821) brought substantial change to the area
until Henry Flagler arrived in 1896 with his Florida East Coast Railroad.
Millions of tourists and permanent settlers followed Flagler's
railroad and Miami lost forever the uninhabited aspect of its idyllic
appeal. Although its attractions remained, none more compelling than
Biscayne Bay, recent visitors have been known to wonder what it looked
like before development brought causeways, office buildings, high-
rises, hotels and condominiums. With Frederick George Mulcaster's
recorded observations from the era of the American Revolution, it is
possible to recapture Miami when it was still in a "state of nature."
1. Charles Loch Mowat, "That 'Odd Being', De Brahm," The Florida Histor-
ical Quarterly, XX (April 1942), 330. See also Mowat, East Florida as a British
Province, 1763-1784 (Berkeley, 1943; facsimile edition, Gainesville, 1964), 44 n., 46;
and Wilbur Henry Siebert, Loyalists in East Florida, 1774-1785: The Most Important
Documents Pertaining Thereto Edited With An Accompanying Narrative, 2 vols. (De.
Land, 1929), I, 13.
2. James Grant to Lord Hillsborough, April 23, 1770, Great Britian, Public
Record Office, Colonial Office 5/551 (Hereafter CO). Ironically, Mulcaster's prede-
cessor as Surveyor General had been his father-in-law, William Gerard De Brahm.
Following a long-festering feud between De Brahm and Grant, prompted by long delays
in conducting the surveys and a rash of complaints from impatient landowners, the
governor suspended De Brahm in October 1770, and said of the man he found covetous
and troublesome: "he is at variance with his son-in-law, as he is with all mankind."
(See Grant to Hillsborough, October 2, 1770, CO 5/545). Hillsborough upheld Grant's
action but De Brahm was subsequently reinstated as surveyor, although he never
returned to East Florida.
De Brahm's cartographic and scientific contributions have been admirably chron-
icled in Louis De Vorsey, Jr., editor, De Brahm's Report of the General Survey in the
Southern District of North America (Columbia, S.C. University of South Carolina
Press, 1971). The controversy between the two men is retold in careful detail (pp. 39-
54), although I believe De Vorsey has been too partial to De Brahm's version of the
incidents. Having read the extensive correspondence preserved at Ballindalloch Castle
in Scotland (Grant's home), as well as the Colonial Office materials, I am convinced
that Grant was an unusually industrious and ethical governor and was justified in firing
De Vorsey has additional thoughts in "De Brahm's East Florida on the Eve of
Revolution: The Materials for Its Recreation," in Samuel Proctor, Editor, Eighteenth-
Century Florida and Its Borderlands (Gainesville, University Presses of Florida, 1975),
78-96. Brief but insightful remarks can be found in Paul H. Smith, "Commentary,"
in the latter volume, 97-101. Still useful are the works by Mowat cited in note I above.
3. Council Orders re: Petition of Earl of Dartmouth, CO 5/544; Mulcaster to
Grant, April 7, 1773, Ballindalloch Castle Muniments, Ballindalloch, Scotland, Bundle
369 (Hereafter BCM followed by the appropriate bundle number); Siebert, Loyalists
in East Florida, II, 51-52.
4. Mulcaster to Grant, May 6, 1772, BCM 260.
5. For examples of the governor's promotional letters see Grant to: Earl of
Egmont, September 5, 1770, BCM Bound Letter Book; Thomas Thoroton, September
1, 1766, and John Tucker, September 1, 1766, BCM 659; Earl of Cassillis, February
9, 1768, and Earl of Moira, June 20, 1768, BCM Bound Letter Book.
6. Mulcaster to Grant, May 6, 1772, BCM 260. The quotes and paraphrases in
the lengthy section which follows are taken from this source unless otherwise noted.
7. The incident is discussed in Mulcaster to Grant, April 17, 1773, BCM 369.
8. For three interesting articles that deal with the Biscayne Bay lands owned by
Dartmouth, Touchett and Ernst, see James C. Frazier, "Samuel Touchett's Florida
Plantation, 1771," Tequesta: The Journal of the Historical Association of Southern
Florida (XXXV, 1975), 76-88; and in the same issue, Roland E. Chardon: "The Cape
Florida Society of 1773" and "Northern Biscayne Bay in 1776," 1-26 and 37-74
9. Mulcaster to Grant, on board His Majesty's Ship Scarborough, Cockspur in
Georgia, March 2, 1776, BCM 260; same to same, March 26, 1776, from Cape Fear.
Everything Carried the Face of Spring 31
Presumably, Mulcaster was sent for a brief period to West Florida, where he petitioned
Governor Peter Chester for 2,000 acres of land on December 21, 1776. The petition
was approved that same day. The original is in the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida
James Grant was in Boston in 1775; subsequent posts were Long Island, Halifax,
Brunswick and Morris Town. In July 1779 Major General James Grant was Commander
in Chief of His Majesty's Forces in the West Indies. See letter book in Ballindalloch
Muniments which begins August 10, 1775.
Miami's City Marshal and
in a New Community, 1896-1907
By Paul S. George*
Most American police systems developed without fundamental
reflection or debate, in response to specific problems of riot, theft,
and disorderly behavior, which were generally condemned. They
combined a variety of organizational patterns and functions, some
inherited, some based on unique experience, others borrowed from
each other or from abroad.
Roger Lane, Policing the City: Boston, 1822-1885
When Miami's first city marshal assumed his post in 1896, urban police
forces had been operating in the United States for just fifty years. Prior
to the mid-nineteenth century, most cities employed a night watch and
a small daytime force to maintain order and to attend to other duties.
New York, Boston and other large cities possessed more elaborate
policing mechanisms, including constables and marshals, to comple-
ment their large night watch.'
Organized police forces became necessary as America's lusty,
brawling cities grew in population and unruliness. Beginning with the
establishment of the New York Police Department in 1844, one city
after another organized a police force based on the model of the London
Metropolitan Police. Departments grew quickly. By the 1890s, the
New York Police Department employed 3,300, while its counterparts
in Philadelphia and Chicago counted 1,600 apiece.2
In addition to fighting crime and maintaining order, police duties
*Dr. George is an adjunct assistant professor of history at the University of
Miami and vice-president of the Florida Historical Society.
Miami Law Enforcement, 1896-1907 33
included "regulating public morality," enforcing sanitary laws, clear-
ing streets and sidewalks of obstructions, and, in some areas, collecting
stray animals. Police services, however, varied dramatically from city
to city and even from neighborhood to neighborhood within single
Qualifications for police work were few, and members received
little or no training. By today's standards, forensic technology was
primitive and nowhere did the police function according to the princi-
ples of managerial efficiency or modem police codes. Policemen carried
clubs and revolvers, and most wore uniforms. Their work week was
long, and there was a high element of risk attached to the job. Salaries,
however, were often higher than in other vocations. In some cities, pay
was increased by a fee system that rewarded policemen for each arrest
and conviction. Graft, a pervasive influence in municipal government,
also supplemented the income of many policemen.4
Initially, police departments came directly under the purview of
a mayor and city council, or in localities still denied "home rule,"
state authorities. But as the nineteenth century progressed, municipal-
ities turned increasingly to independent administrative boards to oversee
the operation of their police. Several police systems, including that of
New York City, came under civil service guidelines. No matter who
governed the police, however, the institution was highly politicized,
serving as a tool to advance its control group's interests.5
Studies of major urban police forces indicate that despite numer-
ous shortcomings, organized police forces were instrumental in reduc-
ing urban crime and disorder. Historian Roger Lane's study of crime
in nineteenth century Massachusetts reveals a steady decline in felonies
and street disorders accompanied by an increase in arrests for drunken-
ness and other misdemeanors as the nineteenth century waned.6
Such concerns were virtually unknown in Miami prior to its
incorporation, for the tiny settlement on the picturesque Miami River
experienced few crime problems. Miami came under the legal jurisdic-
tion of the sheriff of Dade County and a district constable, an arrange-
ment common to sparsely populated areas. Neither of these officials,
however, saw much service in the cause of the settlement.
The picture changed dramatically in 1896, when the extension of
Henry M. Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway to Miami brought an
influx of settlers that transformed the sleepy village into a municipality
of several hundred inhabitants. Now the problem of crime became a
legitimate concern, especially in North Miami, an unincorporated area
lying one mile north of the Miami River. A Gomorrah among the
palmetto brush and pine trees, North Miami offered saloons, gambling
and prostitution to Miamians denied these pleasures by their commu-
nity's Puritanical founders.
The Miami Metropolis recognized the troublesome nature of North
Miami in its inaugural edition of May 15, 1896. After noting the
presence of "unsavory characters in the booming suburb of North
Miami," the Metropolis urged the sheriff to move quickly to quell the
nightly antics of its more disreputable elements.' As summer ap-
proached, the incidents of lawlessness multiplied, spreading throughout
the area, and prompting the Metropolis to comment that it was "not
safe to go about the town at night. "8 In June, Miami gained the services
of a deputy sheriff who doubled as an unofficial marshal until its
Miami incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896. In accordance
with a Florida statute, Miami's newly constituted mayor-council gov-
ernment included the office of city marshal. Young F. Gray, a dynamiter
for Henry M. Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway, became its first
In the summer and fall of 1896, the city fathers passed a series of
ordinances designed to increase the efficiency of each municipal office.
They turned to the police arrangements of the time in defining the scope
and function of the city's law enforcement agency. The office of city
marshal, which predated that of chief of police in many American
communities, was given a wide array of traditional powers both within
and beyond the area of law enforcement. In its eleven year existence,
this office grew steadily in terms of duties and responsibilities. In
addition to "preserving the peace and maintaining order," the marshal
assumed the duties of a building inspector, sidewalk and street super-
intendent, scavenger (street cleaner), and sanitary inspector." The
marshal also served as the city tax collector during the first decade after
incorporation.2 For these tasks Gray and his immediate successors
received $50.00 per month and a small percentage of the tax money
The ordinance outlining the powers of the marshal also provided
for specific limitations on the office. The most important of these
provisions placed the city marshal under the direction of the Mayor and
Council. Specifically, the mayor could suspend the marshal for incom-
petency or malfeasance, while the council, through the Committee on
Police and Charities, was authorized to oversee his activities. Annual
Miami Law Enforcement, 1896-1907 35
elections to the office of city marshal meant that its occupant was also
regularly accountable to the electorate. Finally, the size of his staff
circumscribed the powers of the marshal. Until 1898, Gray was the
city's lone policeman.14
By October 1896, the Council had defined thirty-five offenses
punishable by fine and imprisonment. The articles outlawed offenses
of a serious nature as well as such peccadilloes as bathing in "any
public place in a state of nudity," or traveling upon the streets of Miami
"without having thereon a bell, gong or whistle with which to warn
pedestrians and drivers of vehicles at the street crossings."'5
During his first months as city marshal, Gray was hampered by
the lack of an adequate jail, prompting the Miami Metropolis, to com-
plain in November that the marshal was unable to arrest nude bathers,
sanitary violators, and other lawbreakers because he had no place to
intern them. 6 By late December, however, a modem jail, located above
the council chamber in the new city hall, opened. Gray now assumed
the additional duty of jailer. "
The high incidence of typhoid fever and other diseases attributable
to the unsanitary condition of numerous homes and privies forced the
marshal from the outset to devote much of his time to rigorous enforce-
ment of the sanitary ordinance. At the same time, the lawlessness of
North Miami, combined with Gray's predilection for liquor, took him
to that quarter daily. "
In the early part of his tenure, Gray was vigilant in upholding the
city ordinances. Clearly his modus operandi was colorful: whenever
trouble erupted, Gray quickly mounted his bicycle (later he made his
rounds on a black stallion) and rode into the "thick of the fray, bran-
dishing his pistol" while bellowing, "Stop in the name of the law!" 9
The most serious crimes during the community's early years
involved homicides in North Miami. Isidor Cohen, a pioneer merchant
who regarded North Miami as "the worst seat of iniquity possible,"
maintained with some exaggeration that "scarcely a day passed without
Dr. (James) Jackson (the city's first physician) being summoned there
to probe for bullets in the anatomies of its habitues.' "20 Another resident
wrote Florida Governor William Bloxham, complaining that "more
murders and shooting affairs have occurred in North Miami" over the
previous three years "than in any section I know of."2'
Most crimes, however, were minor in nature. In retrospect, many
of the charges appear as trivial as that of disorderly conduct, for driving
a horse recklessly, against one of the first defendants in Police Court.22
On another occasion, Gray arrested a "dusky" couple for "hugging
each other up" while strolling along Avenue D.23 In dismissing this
case for lack of evidence, the judge insisted that if the marshal arrested
everyone who put their arms around the waist of another person of the
opposite sex, half of the population of Miami would be in jail.24 Despite
the comical nature of many charges, the fines collected from numerous
arrests, along with the money Tax Collector Gray received from the
sale of merchants' licenses, provided the struggling city with its sole
source of revenue during its first months after incorporation.25
As the lone policeman in a rapidly growing settlement, Gray was
obviously handicapped in his effort to provide a comprehensive system
of law enforcement. The council refused to act on several entreaties by
the marshal for an assistant until the city found itself host to 7,500
members of the United States Army at the height of the Spanish-
American War in the summer of 1898. With the troops causing major
discomfort for many Miamians, the city council, in June, 1898, em-
powered Mayor John Reilly to appoint additional police for the pres-
ervation of "peace and order." Marshal Gray then got his assistant.26
Gray served as city marshal until June, 1899, after twice winning
re-election by commanding majorities.27 The colorful marshal fell out
of favor, however, with other municipal leaders through his failure to
provide effective enforcement of increasingly stringent sanitary ordi-
nances.28 Gray was particularly remiss in meeting this responsibility in
the black community, which the Metropolis described, as early as
September, 1897, as the "filth infested quarter of our city."29 Accord-
ingly, Mayor Reilly suspended him from office in May, 1899. Gray
subsequently resigned as marshal and tax collector, and he was replaced
by his assistant John Girtman.30
Girtman served briefly as marshal and tax collector. John Frohock,
formerly the constable for the area encompassing Miami and an unsuc-
cessful candidate for marshal in 1898, defeated Girtman and another
candidate for city marshal in a spirited electoral contest in October,
This election occurred at the height of Miami's yellow fever
epidemic. The epidemic claimed many victims, prompting the city
council to add to the marshal's responsibilities in the realm of sanitary
enforcement. In December, 1899, the solons instructed Frohock to
place a yellow flag on the home of every victim. The lawmakers also
passed an ordinance establishing rigid standards of cleanliness for each
dwelling and directed the marshal to undertake a general inspection of
Miami Law Enforcement, 1896-1907 37
the entire community during the first week of each month to ensure a
strict observance of this law. For the arrest of each violator, the marshal
received one dollar.32
Enforcement of the sanitary ordinances continued to consume a
large portion of the marshal's time as Miami entered the new century.
But the office also acquired new duties and responsibilities, as well as
additional compensation, from a variety of sources. At the behest of
the council, Marshal Frohock began collecting the innumberable stray
dogs that disturbed the city's 1,681 inhabitants. A miniature police
patrol wagon, pulled by a goat to the merriment of the citizenry, became
an all-purpose vehicle, collecting, in addition to lawbreakers, many
With Frohock's announcement of his candidacy for sheriff in the
summer of 1900, five men entered the race for city marshal. Robert
Flanagan, an early settler in the area, won both the Democratic party
primary and the general election by wide margins. Flanagan served
five consecutive terms in this post.34
In addition to the crime fighting aspects of his office, Flanagan
plunged into various other pursuits. In the waning months of 1901, the
marshal, with council authorization, commenced a series of citywide
inspections to assess the condition of its sidewalks and streets. Like his
immediate predecessor, Flanagan became enmeshed in the vexing prob-
lem of dog control. This task became somewhat more palatable after
the council provided a modest compensation for each unlicensed dog
killed by the marshal. Flanagan collected $6.50 from the council for
this service in the summer of 1902.35
Flanagan's activities as tax collector also became more profitable
with the council's establishment of a revised scale of compensation in
January, 1902. Henceforth, the city tax collector would receive two
percent of the first $2,000 in taxes collected and fifteen percent of the
remaining tax monies.36
Recognizing the additional work of policing a rapidly growing
community, the council in 1902 increased the marshal's salary to $60
per month. In the following year, the solons created a fee system that
provided the marshal and his assistant with one dollar for each person
arrested and convicted in Police Court. The profitable nature of this
arrangement, which engendered great controversy, is evident in a fi-
nancial report from the marshal to the council in November, 1904,
indicating that Flanagan received $100 and his assistant, night police-
man Louis Nicholson, $50 above their salaries for October. Other areas
of law enforcement added money to the municipal coffers. The cam-
paign against unlicensed dogs continued, prompting many Miamians
to obtain licenses from the marshal. Flanagan was especially busy here,
collecting $50 from the sale of licenses in August, 1904. In the follow-
ing month, the council instructed the marshal to purchase a net, hire a
dog catcher, and construct a kennel for stray and unlicensed dogs.37
By this period, the marshal's duties had again broadened. He
began conducting monthly inspection of all street lights. Moreover, he
became the temporary fire chief; in this capacity, the marshal compiled
a detailed inventory of the city's firefighting equipment pursuant to the
establishment of a municipal fire department.38
The adoption of a new city charter in June, 1905, led to the most
significant changes yet in the realm of law enforcement. The document
increased the marshal's term of office to two years, and granted the
mayor, with council approval, the authority to appoint a police force
"to insure the peace and good order of the city and the observance of
the law within the city limits."3" The charter also contained a provision
authorizing the city council to replace the office of city marshal with a
municipal police department under the direction of a chief of police.
While the council failed to accomplish that immediately, it did establish
a Municipal Court, which replaced the Mayor or Police Court, for the
purpose of hearing cases involving city code violations. The municipal
judge, its presiding officer, was elected biennially; in conducting daily
sessions of the court, this official was assisted by the city marshal who,
as the court's chief executive officer, was responsible for the cases
brought before it.40
Frank B. Hardee won the first contest for marshal under the new
charter in October, 1905. Several important police developments ac-
companied Hardee's accession to office. After the council voted to
double the size of the police, Mayor John Sewell appointed four men
recommended by Hardee to the force. The council placed the salary of
each new patrolman at $50 per month, and increased the marshal's
stipend to $65 for the same period. There were few qualifications for
policemen aside from a brief period of residency in the area. During
November, 1905, the police displayed uniforms for the first time. Their
attire was similar to the blue serge suits used by other police depart-
ments. Mayor Sewell, a staunch advocate of a uniformed police force,
predicted that the uniforms would not only enhance appearances, but
would also increase the prestige and efficiency of the force and lessen
the difficulties of arresting lawbreakers.41
Miami Law Enforcement, 1896-1907 39
Surely arrests proved profitable with the operation of the fee
system. The system, however, came under increasing criticism from
several public officials and numerous citizens who argued that the lure
of pecuniary gain led to many unwarranted arrests. In 1906, one
hundred citizens gathered at a rally for abolition of the fee system.
Hardee insisted that he also favored an end to it, but only if his monthly
salary and those of his assistants were raised to $100 and $75,
Amid that controversy, Marshal Hardee released a report in June,
1906, that illustrated the economic self-sufficiency of the police force.
According to the document, the police in the first five months of 1906,
collected $4,190.80 in fines and forfeitures (revenues gathered from
fines paid upon conviction for an offense against the city code, or
forfeited in lieu of court appearance.) Since the expenses of the mar-
shal's office for the period were $2,372.70, the police had actually
contributed $1,800 to city coffers.43
The figures for fines and forfeitures indicated the significant in-
crease in police activity. In 1898, the marshal and his newly appointed
assistant collected $181.40 in fines and forfeitures." Five years later,
this figure had risen to approximately $1,500, owing to a marked
increase in the number of arrests.45
Throughout 1904, the first year for complete statistics on arrests,
the police arrested approximately fifty persons per month.46 Two years
later the number of monthly arrests has risen to 125.47 The winter influx
of visitors, which included a significant criminal element who preyed
on vacationers, made that season the busiest time for arrests. In March,
1906, the police recorded a high of 243 arrests, which accounted for
$1,086.73 in fines and forfeitures.48 Behind this rise in crime was the
population growth, the increasing number of vagrants and confidence
men in the area each winter, and the Bacchanalian celebrations of the
Florida East Coast Railway extension workers, who poured into Miami
from the Florida Keys on weekends. The majority of arrests were for
disorderly conduct, a broad term that included drunkenness, cursing,
fighting, and prostitution.
Many of those arrested were blacks. The police jailed blacks not
only on charges of disorderly conduct, but also on charges of vice and
vagrancy. Arrests in the latter category were especially plentiful and
often followed on the heels of periodic "cleanup" campaigns at the
behest of municipal leaders. The police also took into custody alleged
black fornicators in large numbers. In one roundup, the city marshal,
in collaboration with the sheriff's department, arrested thirty-seven
persons, almost all of whom were black, and charged them with for-
nication. As early as 1901, black Miamians requested a Negro police-
man. For two years, the city council refused to act. Finally, in 1903,
Frank Wharton, Chairman of the council's Committee on Police and
Charities, announced that he, Mayor John Lummus and City Marshal
Flanagan regarded employment of a black policeman as unnecessary.49
As the incidents of crime increased along with the city's growth,
the mayor appointed several "special policemen" to "maintain peace
and good order" during periods when the police required such assis-
tance or in areas of the city considered highly vulnerable to criminal
acts. Marshal Hardee welcomed this assistance while calling for an
expansion in the number of regular policemen. The marshal's tireless
arguments for an enlarged police force led to the addition of two
policemen in October, 1906.50 With the police force now numbering
six and operating on a budget of $9,292.18 for fiscal year 1907, Hardee
instituted three eight-hour shifts or "watches" to provide the city with
adequate police protection.5
Police operations continued to spark periodic controversy. In the
fall of 1906, several city officials, joined by the Metropolis and numer-
ous citizens, criticized the force for its alleged failure to rid the city of
vagrants and other undesirables. Stung by this criticism and the per-
vasive discontent with the fee system, the police commenced a highly
successful campaign against those troublesome elements in the waning
weeks of 1906.52
In the following year, the council adopted another new charter.
Like its predecessor, this document contained provisions to abolish the
office of city marshal and to replace it with a Miami Police Department.
Acting on this charge, the council, in September, 1907, legislated the
Miami Police Department into existence. The chief's duties included
most of those performed by the marshal with one exception: the office
of city tax collector became a separate entity. The salary of the chief
of police was set at $1,200 per annum. His subordinates also received
a hefty pay increase ranging from $720 to $840 per annum, depending
on length of service with the force.53
As its population spiraled upward, the city had abandoned its
initial law enforcement arrangement for a more modem concept. But
the office of city marshal had "kept the peace," albeit on a somewhat
ad hoc basis. For police work in Miami's first decade of corporate life
had consisted primarily of a series of daily challenges and assignments
Miami Law Enforcement, 1896-1907 41
with one day's performance quickly forgotten in the rush of the next
day's demands. With the establishment of the Miami Police Depart-
ment, however, the city's leaders signaled their intent to place the
police force on a more systematic basis to meet the needs of their
1. Roger Lane, Policing The City: Boston, 1882-1885 (New York, 1971), 1,
10-11, 16-18, 21, 60-61; Roger Lane, "The Expansion of Police Functions," in The
Urbanization of America, an Historical Anthology, Allen M. Wakestein, ed. (New
York, 1970), 151-169; James F. Richardson, The New York Police, Colonial Times To
1901 (New York, 1970), 32-33; James F. Richardson, Urban Police In the United
States (Port Washington, New York, 1974), 4-5, 11, 22-23, 26-27.
2. Robert M. Fogelson, Big City Police (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977), 19;
Lane, Policing The City, 84, 99-101; Thomas A. Reppetto, The Blue Parade (New
York, 1978), 16-21, 41-43; Richardson, New York Police, 50-51; Richardson, Urban
Police, 19, 21-22, 25-27.
3. Lane, Policing The City, 84, 99-101; Lane, "Expansion of Police Functions,"
153-154, 157, 165; Richardson, Urban Police, 35.
4. Richardson, New York Police, 30-31, 63, 68, 143, 170, 175, 284; Lane,
"Expansion of Police Functions," 163; Richardson, Urban Police, 28.
5. Lane, Policing The City, 184, 199-205; Richardson, New York Police, 79,
109, 123, 214; Richardson, Urban Police, 36-37, 40.
6. Roger Lane, "Crime and Criminal Statistics in Nineteenth Century Massa-
chusetts," Journal of Social History, II (Winter 1968), 156-163; Lane, Policing The
City, 205; Richardson, Urban Police, 51, 53.
7. Miami Metropolis, May 15, 1896.
8. Ibid., June 5, 1896.
10. Laws of Florida, 1897, Chapter 4642 (No. 128), 252; Transcript of the
Proceedings of the Meeting Held June 28, 1896, for the Incorporation of the City of
Miami, Florida, 14; Miami Metropolis, July 31, 1896; Miami Herald, March 18, 1919.
11. Ordinances of the City of Miami, 1896, Article IV, Section 4, 11,13, 14, &
33; Miami Metropolis, October 23, 1896.
12. Ordinances of the City of Miami, 1896, Article IV, Section 3, 30.
13. Ibid., Article IV, Section 15, 33.
14. Ibid., Article IV, Section 4, 30.
15. Ibid., Article XVI, Sections 4 and 32, 34-35.
16. Miami Metropolis, November 13, 1896.
17. Miami Metropolis, December 25, 1896, 1, 4; Ruby Carson, "Miami: 1896-
1900," Tequesta XVI (1956), 9.
18. Minutes of the City Council, Volume One, December 17, 1896, 45. Hereafter
Cited as MCC; Miami Metropolis, December 11, 1896; March 13, 1899.
19. Helen Muir, Miami U.S.A. (New York, 1953), 68. Miami Herald, January
4, 1925; Miami Daily News and Metropolis, July 26, 1925.
20. Isidor Cohen, Historical Sketches and Sidelights of Miami, Florida, (Miami,
1925), 7-8; John Sewell, Memoirs and History ofMiami, Florida (Miami, 1933), 140-
21. Letter from P.H. Loud, Jr., to Florida Governor William Bloxham, March
19, 1899. Found in the Florida State Archives. Reprinted in The Miami News, April
22. John K. Dorn, "Recollections of Early Miami," Tequesta, IX (1949), 52.
23. Miami Metropolis, August 6, 1897.
25. MCC, I, February 18, 1897, 55; Miami Herald, July 23, 1916; Miami Daily
News, August 28, 1921.
26. MCC, I, December 17, 1896, 46; July 2, 1896, 101; Miami Metropolis,
December 18, 1896, January 8, 1897; Miami Daily News and Metropolis, July 26,
27. MCC, I, November 1, 1897, 97; October 31, 1898, 137; Miami Metropolis,
October 28, 1898.
28. MCC, December 22, 1898, 144; Miami Metropolis, December 11, 18, 25,
1896; January 15, 1897; April 22, 1898.
29. Miami Metropolis, September 24, 1897.
30. MCC, I, June 1, 1899, 154-155; Miami Metropolis, June 2, 1899.
31. MCC, October 24, 1899, 167; Miami Metropolis, September 27, 1899,
October 20, 27, 1899; Ethan V. Blackman, Miami and Dade County.. .Its Settlement,
Progress, and Achievement, Washington, D.C., 1921), 241.
32. MCC, I, December 9, 1899, 171; Miami Metropolis, December 22, 1899.
33. U.S. Census Office, Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Florida,
Vol. 3, Schedule No. 1-Population 259-278B, Miami Metropolis, April 20, 27, June
16, 1899; April 27, 1900.
34. MCC, I, October 29, 1900, 196; Miami Metropolis, September 21, 28,
October 16, 1900.
35. MCC, I, June 5, 1902, 229; July 3, 1902, 231; August 7, 1902, 234; Miami
Metropolis, September 6, 1901; January 23, 1903. Miami's police did not publish an
annual report until the end of the 1920s, forcing the researcher to rely on minutes of
the city council and newspaper accounts for statistical information on this arm of city
36. MCC, I, January 3, 1902, 224.
37. MCC, December 4, 1902, 248; December 17, 1903, 373; November 3,
1904,448; Miami Metropolis, December 12, 1902; Daily Miami Metropolis, September
2, 9, 1904.
38. MCC, I, October 20, 1904, 440, II, December 6, 1904, 14-15; Daily Miami
Metropolis, December 9, 1904.
39. Laws of Florida, 1905, Chapter 5519 (No. 148), 269-270; MCC, II, June
5, 1905, 167-168.
40. Laws of Florida, 1905, Chapter 5519 (No. 148) 269-270; MCC, II, Decem-
ber 7, 1905, 216; Miami Daily News and Metropolis, July 26, 1925.
41. MCC, II, October 30, 1905, 102; November 16, 1915, 199; Daily Miami
Metropolis, October 27, 1905; November 24, 1905.
Miami Law Enforcement, 1896-1907 43
42. MCC, II, October 19, 1905, 158; Daily Miami Metropolis, October 27,
1905; November 24, 1905. Despite the opposition to the fee system, it remained in
operation after the office of the city marshal had been replaced by the Miami Police
43. MCC, II, June 7, 1906; Daily Miami Metropolis, June 8, 1906.
44. Miami Metropolis, October 9, 1903.
46. MCC, II, December 1, 1904, II; Miami Daily News and Metropolis, July 26,
47. MCC, II, July 5, 1906, 311; August 2, 1906, 322; September 6, 1906, 340;
October 4, 1906, 357; November 1, 1906, 366; December 6, 1906, 377; Daily Miami
Metropolis, April 13, 1906; January 4, 1907.
48. Daily Miami Metropolis, April 13, 1906.
49. U.S. Census Office, Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Florida,
Vol. 3, Schedule No. 1-Population, 259-278B; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth
Census of the United States, 1910, Population, II, (Washington, 1913), 66; U.S. Bureau
of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920, Population, II (Washing-
ton, 1922), 759-760, 795. Depending on the year, blacks comprised twenty-five to
forty percent of Miami's population in the city's early decades.
50. MCC, II, November 1, 1906, 361; Daily Miami Metropolis, November 3,
51. MCC, II, August 19, 1907, 483;Daily Miami Metropolis, October 12, 1906.
52. MCC, II, November 1, 1906, 360; Daily Miami Metropolis, October 19,
1906; November 23, 1906; December 26, 1906; January 11, 1907.
53. Laws of Florida, 1907, Chapter 5823 (No. 228), 531-532; MCC, III,
September 19, 1907, 1-33, 40-41, 44; October 3, 1907, 48.
54. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910,
Population, II, (Washington, 1913), 311. The nearest population figures to 1907 are,
of course, those for 1910. By that date, Miami's population stood at 5,471, a significant
increase over that of the previous census.
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67
By Eugene Lyon*
Ordinary soldiers have often affected the outcome of battles and thus
changed the course of history. Mutineers have cut their own notorious
swath across the years. In Spanish Florida in the year 1566, soldier-
mutineers almost cost the Spanish Crown its newly -established colony.
Conditions in Florida helped breed the revolts, but their root causes lay
deep in the past of the soldiery of Spain.
Three successive phases of development brought the rough and
enduring peasant soldiers of Castile to the attention of the world. The
last struggles against the Moors in the Kingdom of Granada helped to
strengthen and unify the inchoate feudal levies which had featured the
earlier reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. Artillery helped overcome
enemy resistance in town after town while lightly-armed cavalry proved
its value in rough terrain. But the basic infantry arm was ill-equipped
for the mission Ferdinand's Mediterranean diplomacy set for it in Italy.
In 1495, Gonzalo Fernmndez de C6rdova, the "Gran Capitdn," led the
Royal troops to battle in Calabria. The initial successes of the French
soldiers and Swiss pikemen who had opposed them led Fernmndez de
C6rdova to make basic and lasting changes. Based upon a national
militia, the Spanish infantry and cavalary were thoroughly reorganized.
During the next century, they became the most feared and admired
soldiers in the world.
Heavier armor and stronger cavalary were provided, and there
was greater reliance upon the use of the long pike and arquebus. But
the most vital reform was that of formation and leadership. Larger units
*Dr. Lyon, a noted scholar on the first Spanish Period is an adjunct professor at
the University of Florida and author of the prize winning The Enterprise of Florida.
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 45
of manpower were formed upon the basic company, commanded by a
captain, and the cornelia, led by a colonel, was created. Philip II's
military reforms set the larger unit, the tercio at 3,000 men, composed
of ten companies, two of which would be arquebusmen and the rest
pikemen. Each tercio, commanded by a maestre de campo, featured a
sergeant-major. Each company had its ensign, the adjutant and flag-
bearer; the companies were subdivided into four squads of approxi-
mately twenty-five men each, commanded by a squad-leader, often a
corporal. The men often lodged and drew rations and pay in a smaller
unit, the camarada group.'
In the wars in Italy and with the French through the mid-16th
century, the Spanish soldier became a professional, loyal to his com-
pany's flag. Recruitment into the King's service was done among youth
eager to advance themselves and to live the free life of a soldier. In
continual tension with the form and control imposed upon the Spanish
soldier, there co-existed a tradition of individualism and pride. As the
Conde-Duque of Olivares observed of the Castilian: "One sees, along
with loyalty to their Kings, the brio and liberty with which the sorriest
commoner treats any noble, even though he be greatly unequal in
power..."2 Although such men were capable of the most striking deeds
of individual valor, they could also commit acts of infamy. The seeking
of prizes for valor could degenerate into a search for booty. As well as
noblemen, the professional soldiery included an admixture of the foul
scrapings of society. When unpaid or otherwise unhappy, these men
could and did rebel. Once when the Great Captain could not pay his
troops, they gathered to insult him; "one Biscayan captain bawled,
'Sell your daughter, and you will find the money.' "3
After the discovery voyages, the major Spanish 16th-century colo-
nial conquests were made by adventurers who often assembled their
forces in the Indies. But the men in the little armies which captured the
city of Mexico and took the empire of the Incas were direct inheritors
of the Spanish spirit and military knowledge of that time.4 Against
Indian warriors who often battled them with ferocity and skill, the
Spaniards opposed their own valor while keeping the discipline of
formation. In entering new, strange, and unconquered lands, Spanish
soldiers clung to what James Deetz has termed a "corporate alliance"-
in this case their comrade-group, squad, or company.5 They also felt
loyalty to their commanders. Yet there were mutinies against both
Hernando Cort6s and Francisco Pizarro. The great effort of Tristan de
Luna to settle West Florida failed after mutiny. Discipline was harsh,
and their captains held the power of life or death. Soldiers were caught
between the twin poles of organization and anarchy. Deference to
superiors always contained the seeds of mutiny.
The 1565 Spanish attempt to conquer Florida was not at first
intended to be a largely military expedition. Although it was known in
Spain that Frenchmen had established Port Royal, in present South
Carolina, in 1562, it was understood that their colony had failed. When
Philip II approved the contract of March 20, 1565 with Pedro Men6ndez
de Avil6s, the newly-created Adelantado was required to build two
cities, transport one hundred settlers, and bring four hundred armed
men to protect the whole. When belated news of Ren6 de Laudonniere's
Fort Caroline reached Spain, the King agreed to add three hundred
soldiers of his own to Men6ndez' force. As further news reached Spain
of the reinforcement which Jean Ribault was planning for French Flor-
ida, Philip approved a larger Royal expedition, which did not sail until
the spring of 1566, too late to affect the events which this paper treats.6
Under the urgent pressures of time and Royal exigency, the or-
ganization of Mendndez' main forces at Cadiz was hasty. Although
this was a matter for later controversy, the Adelantado evidently enrolled
some five hundred soldiers on his own account. Crown soldiers (288)
and eleven corporals were enlisted.7 Although Men6ndez equipped his
men with arquebuses as their primary weapon, pikes, swords and
crossbows were also brought. Many of Men6ndez' men were craftsmen;
117 were soldier-farmers. The King's soldiers were given two months'
pay as arquebusiers (at four ducats per month), discounted for the cost
of their weapon. A basic difference among the soldiery was that Me-
n6ndez furnished his own men rations like the rest, but gave them no
pay. His agreements with them promised their passage to Florida, lands
for farms and stock-breeding, and a part of any gold, silver, pearls or
precious stones which might be found.8 There were thus created at the
beginning two classes of soldier: the paid and the unpaid. The King's
men, however, had received no great sum for those going on a lengthy
expedition, when Men6ndez' ships finally sailed from Cadiz on June
The Florida Adelantado, en route to his clash with the French in
Florida, appointed commissioned and non-commissioned officers to
train and control the ill-assorted body of men under his command.
Although his forces by no means approximated the number in a tercio,
the Adelantado appointed a maestre de camp his future son-in-law
Pedro de Valdds. Vald6s had more military experience than many in
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 47
Men6ndez' entourage of mariners-he had served five years as a soldier
in Italy. Ten of the twelve Captains he named were from among his
own personal soldiery, while two were from the body of the King's
men. Menendez always believed in making his appointments where
possible from among the Asturian or at least north-of-Spain noblemen
who were tied by blood, marriage or close friendship to himself. By
this stiffening, Men6ndez hoped to insure loyalty and discipline and
overcome the disadvantages of his heterogeneous soldiery, in which
there were many raw troops.9
It appeared that the results of Pedro Menendez' hastily-arranged
expedition justified the risks. When, after enduring storm and the loss
of some of his ships, the Adelantado arrived at Florida, he was able to
build his base at St. Augustine, capture Fort Caroline, and erase the
forces of Ribault and Laudonniere in rapid order. The Spanish infantry,
well led by virtue of Men6ndez' clever tactics, had triumphed. Philip
II had his Florida colony. But the victory had its price. After Men6ndez'
major ship had been sent away to avoid the French and then was lost,
supplies began to run low in the two garrisons he had built. His royal
soldiers had not been paid since they had left Spain four months before;
Menendez did share out with them a clothing allowance, for which he
charged the men against their future pay. The last of October, 1565,
he left St. Augustine, promising his men to return soon. En route to
Havana, Men6ndez captured a group of Frenchmen at their makeshift
fort on Cape Canaveral and then marched southward along the beaches
to Ays. There he encountered friendly Indians and determined to leave
a garrison. Captain Juan V6lez commanded at Ays, with two hundred
men and fifty French prisoners.'( At Fort Caroline, which now bore
the name of San Mateo, there remained Captain Martin Ochoa de
Argafiaras and the former Sergeant-Major of the tercio, Gonzalo Villa-
roel, acted as Governor. In St. Augustine, Vald6s commanded military
forces, while Pedro Menendez' brother Bartolom6 served as civil gov-
The Adelantado had promised Captain Velez to return within
twenty days at the outside, but left rations for fifteen days only. Once
in Cuba, Pedro Men6ndez made every effort to send food to his Florida
garrisons, but obstacles put in his way by Governor GarciA Osorio and
the link-up with his Asturian ships took time. By the time theAdelantado
had the first goods on their way, it was too late. The first of a chain of
mutinies among the Florida soldiers had already begun.
By November 28, rations at Ays had run out, and the men had to
subsist on fish, shellfish, cocoa-plums and cabbage-palm berries. The
soldiers foraged in the woods, and relations with the Indians, who could
not long support such a large body of men, deteriorated. Some soldiers
had already died when one named Escobar preached open rebellion.
The men should, he stated, make their way to Mexico or some other
rich land. Chaplain Francisco L6pez de Mendoza Grajales came to the
Captain, advising that the rebels planned to kill him and take the small
boat Men6ndez had left. When Vl1ez defended himself and the boat,
Escobar left with a hundred men, walking the beach or the river shore-
line southward until they reached an inlet too wide to swim-probably
the present St. Lucie River or inlet.
Guiding his own few loyal men and prisoners southward, Captain
V61lez caught up with the mutineers. Careful to stay offshore in the
small boat, he shouted to them that he would attempt to bring supplies
to them from Havana. But shortly after leaving the inlet for the open
sea, V6lez encountered Diego de Amaya, Mendndez' supply ship cap-
tain, with a shipload of foodstuffs. It had been thirty-three days since
the departure of the Adelantado. Before they returned to succor the
soldiers, the two discovered another port further south and moved the
whole garrison there. Since it was discovered on December 13, the day
of St. Lucie, the fort they shortly built was called Santa Lucia.'2
Evidently it was an early and stormy winter in northern Florida.
The Spanish garrisons there remained alert for the possible return of
the French, and against the attacks of enemy groupings of the Timucuan
Indians. According to Juan de Junco, a faithful member of the Men6n-
dez entourage, serious murmuring and discontent began in the St.
Augustine garrison within a month after the Adelantado left. When
Bartolom6 Menendez, who never possessed the charisma of his brother,
ordered soldiers to make themselves houses, they swore that they had
no intention to cultivate or populate Florida. "Why," they asked,
"build in a bad land?" Only the Devil himself, they thought, could
have ever brought them there. Three Captains-Juan de San Vicente,
Diego de Alvarado, and Frencisco de Mexia-became openly disaf-
fected, together with several of their subordinates and many of their
men. The garrison chaplain, Father Rueda, was of the same mind.
Rations grew short, though food was still available. Late in December,
Pedro Mendndez sent a supply ship. St. Augustine's portion, though,
had to be shared out with the San Mateo garrison after the vessel
grounded and broke up in the heavy winter surf off the St. John's River
bar. Word was sent to Pedro Mendndez in Havana that more than a
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 49
hundred men had died from hunger or cold in the two northern forts.13
Growing bolder, the malcontents began to meet; they exchanged
letters with others in Fort San Mateo. At noon one Sunday, Captains
San Vicente and Alvarado challenged Bartolom6 Menendez in the main
plaza of the fort and town. Saying that he governed "no nada," nothing,
they belittled his authority and said they would trample the flags of his
companies. They stamped their feet on the ground. When the governor
reprehended them saying, "Gentlemen, what insubordination is this?"
they drew their swords and daggers. Cooler-headed bystanders sepa-
rated the men, but an unmistakable challenge to authority had been
made. Another moment of defiance came when the rebels began to
prepare a small boat at St. Augustine for their escape. They began to
cut wood and make pitch, and came to chief smith Alonso Vl61ez with
an order to make nails for the boat. V6lez told Captain San Vicente
that the Governor had ordered him to work on the garrison's arquebuses.
San Vicente said that he, not the Governor, gave the orders, and that
the smith would make nails or be hung. At that moment, Bartolom6
Men6ndez arrived, having heard the conversation, and said "Watch
what you say; you have put yourself forward, and you are in the
wrong." San Vicente shook his walking-stick at the Governor, saying
"Count yourself lucky! Go to your fort and hole up there." From that
moment, Bartolom6 Men6ndez withdrew to his quarters, the rebellion
gathered its own momentum, and there was little royal authority left.
Meanwhile, events at Fort San Mateo proceeded apace. A key
figure in spreading the infection of mutiny was Sergeant Gutierre de
Valverde of Captain Mexfa's company. The rebel party in St. Augustine
forced Maestre de Campo Vald6s to give Valverde written permission
to go to San Mateo. There he worked openly to subvert the garrison,
and to prepare for launching a sizeable galley left by Laudonniere.
Spanish soldiers and French prisoners joined in the work. St. Augustine
chaplain Reuda had opened correspondence with Captain Francisco de
Recalde in San Mateo, and he had come over to the rebels. Governor
Villaroel suspected that Valdes' letter had been signed under duress,
but there was little that he could do. Captain Martin Ochoa later said
that the watchword of the rebels was that they would finish the ship,
burn the fort, and kill any who oppose us." Since their superiors in St.
Augustine had yielded to the spirit of mutiny, what could they do? Yet
both parties-the loyal and the disaffected-lived in a shadow-land. The
threat of the death penalty for treason was strong. Remaining officially
in the background, the military captains at St. Augustine put forth
Christoval Rodriguez and Sergeant Sebastiin de Lezcano as nominal
leaders, while the San Mateo rebels chose Gregorio de Robles at
"electo" of mutineers. Ensign Sargilero, Sergeant Goyin, and a soldier
named Miguel de Mora were also among the rebel leaders at San Mateo.
But no overt act to overturn formal authority had yet occurred.
If the rebels' plot could have matured fully, they would have
struck when both sailing craft were ready. Then the San Mateo contin-
gent was to ship the garrison aboard the galley, stop at St. Augustine
to pick up more soldiers there, and go in company with the smaller
vessel to seek their fortunes away from Florida.
In the meantime, Pedro Men6ndez, on his mission of exploration
and evangelism, had made an expedition to the town and village of
Carlos, on Florida's lower southwest coast. Instead of returning to his
peninsular garrisons, he continued to send small supply ships to Florida.
Late one afternoon in the first week of March, thefregata La Concepcidn
crossed the St. Augustine bar and anchored in the river by the town
and fort. Its captain, Garcia Martinez de Cos, came ashore. Together
with the corn, meat and wine he brought, Martinez carried a message
from the Adelantado, promising his return within three weeks with more
supplies. This precipitated the crisis. Now the rebels had to act quickly;
another ship with supplies had been put into their hands, the better to
support their escape.
Captain San Vicente went to San Mateo to warn his fellows there
to finish preparing the galley for sailing. Pedro de Valdrs sent his own
letter to Gonzalo de Villaroel, warning him to be alert for signs of
mischief. When Pedro Menendez' letter was read at San Mateo, Gu-
tierre de Valverde gathered all the rebels in the plaza and declared "To
the Devil with (future) supplies! We want to leave this land!" Then he
and San Vicente, two leading spirits of mutiny, went to St. Augustine
to be in on the final act there.
First, the rebels seized thefregata. They tied the hands of Martinez
de Cos behind him, took him ashore to a little room in the fort, and put
him in the stocks. A little after midnight on Friday, March eighth, the
mutineers came with torches and matchcord lighted, carrying their
swords and arquebuses. Crying "Open up!" they beat upon the door
of the fort storeroom with lances and halberds. Pedro de Vald6s, ill
and discouraged, had locked himself inside. The rebels finally broke
through and captured Vald6s, Juan de Junco, storekeeper Diego de
Hevia, Martin de Argijelles, and Sergeant Pedro de Coronas-and im-
prisoned them with Martinez, also in the stocks.
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 51
Next, the mutineers began to load thefregata with arms from the
fort. They took the books of the city council away. San Vicente vowed
that he would put everyone aboard: "sick, well or crippled, dogs or
cats." They gathered 115 of the soldiers from the garrison and ferried
them out to the little ship. Sebastidn de Lezcano still commanded a
small force ashore, detailed to spike the guns of the fort while they
awaited the coming of the vessel from San Mateo.
The number of officials and soldiers who remained loyal to their
King and Adelantado at San Mateo was also small. As at St. Augustine,
they included fellow Asturians of Menbndez retinue or others from the
north of Spain. One of these, Rodrigo Montes of Oviedo, was fort
storekeeper. In true Spanish fashion, he drew up a remonstrance in
written form when a mob of soldiers came to clean out the storehouse.
But they took all the food anyway, together with sails, an astrolabe and
a marine chart to help them on their future journeys. Then, hastily
launching the galley from the ways next the fort, they loaded 128
persons aboard. Only twenty-five, including Governor Villaroel, Cap-
tain Ochoa, and Montes, remained at San Mateo. The vessel dropped
downriver towards the bar, but the mutineers hesitated and the ship
remained anchored there. It was later reported that some of their sails
had accidentally burned, and repairs held up their departure into the
Meanwhile, at St. Augustine, the rebels there wondered: where
was the San Mateo galley? While they puzzled over the delay, Pedro
de Vald6s managed to work free of his bonds and escape from his
imprisonment. Now he displayed a burst of energy and courage at
variance with his previous reluctance to act. Quickly, he freed the other
prisoners-eight men in all-and armed them. They made their way to
the riverfront, and boldly seized the small boat in which the remaining
mutineers were about to embark. These, including Sebastian de Lez-
cano and Gutierre de Valverde, then surrendered.
The maestre de campo then issued a band, calling upon all still
ashore or afloat to return to the lawful service of their King. He was
quick to work justice upon the leaders of the rebellion in his hands. As
soon as Lezcano had confessed is guilt, Vald6s issued an order for his
execution. That same night, Lezcano was taken out of the fort jail with
a rope around his neck, and led with it to the public gallows. There he
was hanged with placards at his head and feet proclaiming his twin
crimes of mutiny and treason.
At first light the next day, Pedro de Vald6s had a fort gun cleaned,
loaded and trained upon the fregata in the river. But his warning shot
fell short, as the mutineers' ship moved closer to the bar, so Vald6s
put a twelve-hundred pound artillery piece in a boat and went after the
rebels himself. Coming near the ship, Vald6s requested the mutineers
in the name of God and King to put back into the port, and that they
not leave the city without supplies, lest those in St. Augustine die from
hunger. The rebels' response was to cut their anchor line and sail away.
While his garrisons were being decimated by desertion, Pedro
Men6ndez was returning to them as he had promised. The first of the
unpleasant surprises awaiting him was encountered on March nine-
teenth, when his lookouts spied the caravel Asencion, which Men6ndez
had sent from Yucatan loaded with corn. Pedro Men6ndez himself went
aboard and immediately saw that he had to restore his authority over a
boatload of mutineers from Santa Lucia. Captain Juan Vl1ez and his
ensign, Graviel de Ayala, both wounded, had a harrowing tale to tell.
There had been fresh troubles with the Jeaga Indians, and attacks
came continually against Fort Santa Lucia. Supplies grew short, and
then ran out. There had been no food for four days when Men6ndez'
supply caravel came into the harbor on March fourteenth. Then a
scenario similar to that played out in St. Augustine took place. The
soldiery rebelled against V61ez for a second time, took a small boat,
and captured the caravel. For three days they waited, while the ship-
master pleaded with the mutineers to allow him to finish his voyage to
St. Augustine. When V61ez and Ayala attempted to back up the master,
they were wounded. The mutineers held a meeting, and elected their
captain-all properly done before a notary. But the second day out, on
their voyage south to freedom, Men6ndez had caught up with them. Of
the two hundred fifty Spaniards and Frenchmen whom Men6ndez had
left at Ays in November, only seventy-five had survived. One of the
survivors, Diego L6pez, swore that some of the men had turned to
cannibalism during their long ordeal, and this ugly report spread as
ships and men left Florida for other ports in the next few months.14
Pedro Mendndez de Avil6s turned the caravel around, and, in company
with his other ships, headed north to St. Augustine.
At that fort, Pedro de Vald6s had begun a formal legal investi-
gation of the mutinies, and was taking testimony when the Adelantado's
little fleet anchored off the bar on March twentieth. The next day, he
entered the city. His own appearance with the troops he brought from
Cuba was enough to restore Royal authority in St. Augustine. On the
twenty-second, the Adelantado summoned a notary. He issued a pro-
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 53
clamation, giving all his titles, and reviewing the reasons for the Spanish
presence in Florida. He noted that the King had licensed him to come
to convert the natives to the Catholic faith, and to expel the Frenchman
who had preached what he termed their "evil Lutheran sect."
Men6ndez reminded his soldiers how they had been recruited for
the journey to Florida: he had come openly with drum, fifer, and
trumpets to proclaim the expedition, and they had freely enrolled. He
had expended much to send a heavy armada, with 1500 men, of whom
only three hundred were paid by the King.15 He recalled the rapid and
effective conquest of the French, and how Ribault's sea attack before
the Spanish victory had necessitated sending away many of the supplies.
Then Pedro Men6ndez noted that all had agreed that he go to eradicate
the French fort at Cape Canaveral, proceeding from there to Havana
All that he had promised, he said, he had done, but returned to
find that robbery, mutiny and treason had occurred. Now he took over
and continued Vald6s' investigation; the leaders of the mutiny would
be punished, but he would give the rest another chance. Men6ndez
feared the coming of another French invasion fleet to avenge the taking
of Fort Caroline and the killing of many Huguenots. If this should
happen, he wanted no more secret or open disaffection among his
soldiers. He gave the men two choices: stay, or go home at their own
expense. They had two days to make up their minds, and put their
decision in writing.
Pedro Men6ndez learned that the shipload of mutineers from San
Mateo had not yet put to sea, but lingered in the St. Johns River. He
sent to order them to return to duty, while he prepared a force to go
thither and supplies to share with those who would obey. Whether out
of fear or hope of amnesty, there were now divided counsels among
them. First, one Ortuna, a loyal soldier, had come to St. Augustine
and told Men6ndez that the rebel galley was at the bar. Then Ensign
Sargiiero and two soldiers came to advise that the ship had returned to
the fort, where many of its people had landed; he added that he and
many of them had changed their minds and did not now wish to leave.
They asked for pardon for what they had done.
On April first, Pedro Mendndez set forth in a bergantin; Captain
Antonio G6mez accompanied him in a shallop, together with a small
boat loaded with corn. G6mez, in the lead, neared the mouth of the St.
Johns and sighted a ship: it was the galley. The mutineers had changed
their minds again.
G6mez signalled the mutineers to lay-to and anchor for a parley.
They did so, but would not allow him to approach the galley; instead,
they sent a small boat with armed men, their matchcords smouldering.
G6mez told them that they were ruined men if they persisted in their
mutinous course. He relayed Men6ndez' message that supplies had
come. If they would return to duty, the Adelantado would grant them
full amnesty. If not, he would hunt them down and hang them all.
The mutineers went to talk with their leader Robles, who soon
returned, saying he wished to speak personally with Pedro Men6ndez.
G6mez accordingly went to land, where Men6ndez had put ashore to
await a favorable wind. But, by the time the two men joined forces,
the rebel galley had fled far out to sea. Even though it was dark,
Menendez ordered G6mez to pursue, showing a stern lantern so that
the Adelantado could follow. The next day, they would take the ship.
Although G6mez spoke to the mutineers once more, they were far from
land. Men6ndez did not arrive, and a storm arose, scattering the ships.
The mutineers had escaped.
After initiating the usual legal investigation at the newly-reconsti-
tuted San Mateo garrison, Pedro Men6ndez went northward to establish
his next colony. He took with him Est6ban de las Alas, a long-time
associate from Asturias, with a hundred soldiers. After traversing the
sea islands, they arrived at Port Royal, probably on Easter day, April
14, 1566, for they named the first fort San Salvador. This, with the
associated city of Santa Elena, was established upon present day Parris
Island. Alas was named civil and military governor of the region, and
given seventy-five men. Men6ndez left, promising to send supplies
shortly. But, when he returned to St. Augustine, he found the fort had
been burned together with many supplies. It was again necessary to
supply the lack in Cuba, and yet again a garrison was left on short
After some time had elapsed, Est6ban de las Alas and company
Captain Pedro de Larrandia began to lose control of their men. Twenty
soldiers went inland to seek food among the Indians; then Alas issued
a decree authorizing them to scatter and find food. A small boat loaded
with corn, enough food for ten days, arrived from St. Augustine. As
had happened further south in March, this inspired mutiny. On June
fourth, forty-three soldiers seized their officials and put them in irons.
Twenty-eight loyal men, disarmed and with little food, were left at
Santa Elena as the rebels left in the small boat.17
The first half of 1566 in Spanish Florida had indeed been a trau-
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 55
matic time; mutiny and disease had reduced the garrisons of 1565 to
about half their original number. This had occurred at a critical time,
when the Spaniards feared the threat of another French intervention
and relations with the aboriginals were unsettled.
Pedro Men6ndez de Avil6s had to change his military tactics to
adapt to Indian warfare. The Timucuans and other groupings did not
often fight in large bodies, but often staged ambushes and minor skir-
mishes. During 1566, many Spanish soldiers were killed in those
engagements by clubs and arrows. The Indians could fire more quickly
than Spanish soldiers could load, prime and fire their arquebuses.
During attacks in the rain, their matchcord would often go out. Me-
n6ndez' solution was to import crossbows for more rapid fire, and adopt
the protective padded cloth armor developed in Yucatan: the escupil.
In the vicinity of St. Augustine during 1566, northward through Cum-
berland Island toward Santa Elena, the soldiers had to live, as Pedro
Mendndez put it, "with their beards over their shoulders" in a constant
state of alert.18 Florida was still no easy assignment, and it still offered
few compensations for service. Although some booty had been won at
Fort Caroline, or traded for with the Indians along the east coast or at
Carlos, it was evident that this was no Mexico nor Peru.
Therefore, troubles did not cease with the coming, at the end of
June, of a major reinforcement force. Fifteen hundred short-term sol-
diers under six captains had been raised in lower Spain and sent by
Philip II to help Men6ndez defeat the expected next French thrust.
Pedro Menendez sailed off again to explore the St. Johns, to pacify the
Indians in the interior, and to settle affairs in the north. The reinforce-
ments enabled the re-garrisoning of Santa Elena and San Mateo, and
enabled the rebuilding of the fort at St. Augustine. Many of the newer
soldiers, however, proved as untractable as the first had been. Although
an old soldier and diligent engineer, Captain Pedro de Redrobin was
soon embroiled with Pedro de Vald6s. When Vald6s assigned a man
from his company to perform carpenter work, Redroban seized the
soldier and beat him, breaking his arm, and swearing that he was a
Captain, and owed no obedience to any Maestre de Campo. Although
Redroban seemed to have no part in the plot, soldiers from his company
were soon conspiring to desert Florida. This time one Pedro de Pando,
sergeant in Redrobin's Company and Sergeant Joaquin de Redrobin,
nephew of the Captain, led the dissension.'9
Joaquin de Redrobdn was arrested at San Mateo by Gonzalo de
Villaroel, and put on trial there on the charge of inciting mutiny. The
charges claimed that the Sergeant had "enormous and atrocious guilt"
for secretly gathering almost a hundred men of like mind to go inland
across Florida to Carlos, seek gold there, and make their way to New
Spain. The leaders of the plot had gone inland about five leagues to
spy out a route when they were caught. The younger Redroban was
condemned to hang, but appealed his case.
This time, Pedro de Vald6s acted promptly and decisively. Under
torture, the ringleaders confessed, and Vald6s had Pando, a corporal
and a soldier hung.20 He exiled three others to serve for ten years as
galley-slaves. Upon the return of Pedro Men6ndez to St. Augustine,
suspicion fell upon Captain Redroban himself; he was arrested on
Now Pedro Men6ndez faced a dilemma: he had been charged by
Phillip II to lead many of the ships and men which had come in the
reinforcement on a naval expedition to seek corsairs and build the
defenses of the island Indies. He had to leave his Florida garrisons in
strong condition to withstand external attack and avoid further mutinies.
Men6ndez set up a system of regional governors, prepared viable supply
networks, and addressed the problem of soldier discipline.
The Adelantado gathered all his Captains and issued a declaration
which was proclaimed by voice and drumbeat in all corners of the fort.
He first noted that many past attempts to conquer Florida had come to
grief because of insubordination and poor discipline. Once lack of
respect for authority had begun, he said, then plots among the soldiers
could multiply. Thus, Men6ndez averred, the plans of both Emperor
Charles V and King Philip II had often gone astray, and the Royal
monies had been wasted on the effort. In this way, the holy enterprise
of building the Evangel among the Indians had come to naught. Now,
Mendndez stated, the latest expedition had been put into danger through
mutiny. Therefore, he had agreed with his Captains upon certain or-
dinances to govern the soldiery and the community's life. These were
published forthwith, and made the law of the land.2'
The Florida ordinances reflected the closely interwoven nature of
Royal government, religion and current military tradition. A scold or
complainer would be punished by sitting eight days with his head in
the stocks and then eight more with his feet in them; he would also
forfeit his wine ration. Any man blaspheming against the saints would
lose a day's wine. A soldier was obliged to recite the catechism twice
daily; if he did not know it after a year, he would forfeit three months'
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 57
pay. The fine would go to the hospital, and for Masses for the Catholics
who died or would die in Florida. Each man had to hear Mass every
Sunday and feast-day or lose his ration; anyone showing disrespect in
church would be rigorously punished.
To discourage the well-known hot temper of the soldiers, it was
forbidden to put hand to sword or dagger against another, on pain of
six months at hard labor on the Royal fortifications. Assault was also
forbidden; the penalty, perpetual galley service. Libel was punishable
by three lashes. Desertion by going from a soldier's assigned post to
another fort without permission could result in the death penalty.
The ordinances provided that soldiers should lodge and draw their
rations in camarada groups of ten men. Finally, it confirmed a system
of local government and justice, quite similar to that of the Metropole,
except that military Captains would serve ex-officio on the Council.
What were the immediate results of Florida mutinies of 1566? The
mutineers who had left St. Augustine in March made their way to
Hispaniola, and Pedro Men6ndez could not persuade the authorities
there to bring them to trial.22 The rebel galley from San Mateo sailed
down the coast, and put in at Tequesta in Biscayne Bay for water.
There a rising wind forced them to leave twenty men on shore. The
rest of the men sailed to Cuba. Pedro Men6ndez later rescued the men
at Tequesta, leaving some as a garrison. These he granted amnesty.23
The Santa Elena mutineers were captured in the port of Matanzas in
Cuba, and brought before Governor Osorio, who took their
The 1566 mutinies severely endangered and hampered the enter-
prise of Pedro Men6ndez de Avilts in Spanish Florida. The innate
strength of the Spanish soldier, well-led, seems to have enabled the
conquest; his innate weaknesses almost nullified it. Allegiance to the
Crown was insufficient to prevent mutiny. The events of first victory
set a body of men ashore with insufficient supplies to maintain them
through the difficult first period. This sowed the seeds of mutiny, which
grew in the absence of the strong personal leadership of the Adelantado.
Those of especial trust, with close ties to the leader, were too small in
number to resist the mutineers' demands.
Men6ndez now thought little of the common soldiers who had
come on the first expedition to Florida outside of his circle of associates.
Compared with the people of good blood who came in his own group,
they were "vile," incapable of being led to good behavior. His own
choice would be simple countrymen, instead of these so-called soldiers-
men raised with "gazpacho, onion and garlic, instead of those accus-
tomed to inns, banquets, booty and wine."25
Despite ordinances and organizations, soldiers' mutiny had not
ceased in Spanish Florida; there was more trouble in 1567 over the
alleged insubordination of Captain Miguel Enriquez. In 1568, the gar-
rison of San Mateo deserted in the face of the French enemy, Dominique
de Gourgues. In 1570, the colony was again threatened by a major
refusal of duty by many of its soldiers. But eventually the establishment
of the Royal subsidy enabled a more settled military garrison to become
the socio-economic base for Spanish Florida. But never to be forgotten
was the recollection that ordinary soldiers with weapons in their hands
could threaten a conquest from within.26
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 59
1. A description of the evolution of the Spanish infantry is found in Juan Hippolyte
Maridjol, The Spain of Ferdinand and Isabella (Translated and edited by Benjamin
Keen; Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J., 1961), 193-208. Philip's
reforms were described in his ordinance of 24 December 1560, from Archivo General
de Simancas (hereinafter AGS) Estado 217.
2. Cited by Am6rico Castro in "The Spanish Sense of Nobility," in From Recon-
quest to Empire: The Iberian Background to Latin-American History (Editor, H.B.
Johnson, Jr.; New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1970), 186-208.
3. Mari6jol, The Spain of Ferdinand and Isabella, 208.
4. See, for instance, the similarity between the regulations posted by Hernando
Cortrs at Texcoco, the ordinances which Pedro Menendez de Aviles established for
the governance of his soldiery, and the discipline suggested by Sancho de Londofio
later in the century. Cort6s' regulations are described by Bernal Diaz del Castillo in
The Conquest of New Spain (Translated by J.M. Cohen; New York, Penguin Books,
1981. Thirteenth printing in translation; original manuscript written in 1576), pp. 354-
355. Mendndez' Florida ordinances are found in Archivo General de Indias (hereinafter
AGI) Justica 99, No. 2, ramo 9. See Sancho de Londofiio, El Discurso sobre la forma
de reduzir al discipline military a meyor y antique estado (Bruselles, Roger Velpius,
1589. Reprint, Madrid, Blass, 1943).
5. See James Deetz, In Small Things Forgotten (Garden City, New York; Anchor
Books, 1977), 134.
6. Events preceding the Men6ndez conquest of Jean Ribault and Ren6 de Lau-
donnibre are described in Eugene Lyon, The Enterprise of Florida (Gainesville, Uni-
versity Presses of Florida, 1976).
7. An example of the enlisting of one of the Crown soldiers is found in the
personnel file of Antonio de Ornutegui, a native of the town of Zumaya. The excerpt
from the muster document, certified by Francisco Duarte, Royal agent of the House of
Trade in Cidiz, was done on 17 June 1565. It noted that Ornutegui was the son of
Pedro; FernAndez de Omutegui, a native of Zumaya, was twenty-two years old, and
had a wound scar on his right temple. Ornutegui was paid two ducats for each of two
months and given an arquebus with all its equipment, flask and bullet mold. This is
from AGI Justicia 905, No. 4. Men6ndez claimed that he sent 1,504 men, women and
children to Florida, including soldiers, sailors, and twenty-six settlers, in his Cadiz
contingent. (Other groups sailed from Avil6s, Santander and Gij6n in the north of
Spain.) It certainly appears that this was incorrect. See Lyon, The Enterprise of Florida,
97-98, n. 62-65; 114-115, n. 27. Muster of the Royal troops is found in AGI Justicia
817, No. 5.
8. The characteristics of the Adelantado's soldiers and the lists of supplies he
brought from Cadiz are found in "Relaci6n de los navios, gente, bastimentos, artilleria,
armas, municiones . que lleva el Adelantado Pedro Men6ndez de Aviles para la
conquista de la Florida," from AGI Escribania de Crmara 1,024-A. Men6ndez'
agreement with his own private soldiers is dated at Seville, 25 May 1565 and is found
in AGI Justica 879, No. 3, piece 1.
9. The naming of Valdds is described in "Relaci6n de los bastimentos, artillerfa,
armas . municiones que recibi6 Juan de Junco," AGI Contaduria 941, ramo 1.
Menmndez describes the naming of the captains and Valdes in his letter to the King,
dated at St. Augustine on 11 September, 1565, from AGI Santo Domingo 231. The
author has described the interlocking familial network which acted as the governing
61ite in Spanish Florida in "The Control Structure of Spanish Florida, "(Unpublished
paper, St. Augustine Restoration Foundation, Inc., 1980), and in The Enterprise of
Florida, "Network for Conquest," 71-77. The raw nature of the troops was described
by witness Antonio Diez Pereyra in a hearing on the mutinies held on 28 March 1566
in St. Augustine, from AGI Justicia 999, No. 2, ramo 9. Men6ndez himself said in
hindsight that the admixture of experienced soldiers was insufficient; this from his letter
to the King from St. Augustine dated 20 October 1566, from AGI Santo Domingo 115.
10. Menendez' succor of his Royal soldiers with clothing in the fall of 1565 is
described in AGI Justicia 817, No. 5. The appointment of Juan V61lez de Medrano as
commandant of the Ays garrison (also known as Ais, Aiz or Ayz) is found in his
petition for benefits from AGIJusticia 894, No. 8, and in the Madrid Notaries' archive,
Archivo Hist6rico de Protocolos (hereinafter AHP) 646, fol. 265-59.
11. Gonzalo de Villaroel's appointment is found in AGI Contaduria 941, under
the date of 20 September 1565; that of Bartolom6 Men6ndez was done at St. Augustine
on 7 September; from AGI Indiferente General 1,219. Gonzalo Solis de Meras,
Menendez' brother-in-law, wrote that the military captains left in St. Augustine were
also ex-oficio members of the cabildo, or city council there, and thus had their place
in the civil-military hierarchy. See Gonzalo Solis de Meras, Pedro Menindez de Aviles;
(translated by Jeannette Thurber Connor; DeLand: Florida State Historical Society,
1922; facsimile edition, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1964), 125.
12. The materials relating to the Florida mutinies of November, 1565 to June,
1566 are largely found at the end of a legal case involving the alleged mutinous acts
of a few months later, in "El Fiscal con Capitan Miguel Enriquez . ." from AGI
Justica 999, No. 2, ramo 9. It may be assumed that the papers relating to all the
mutinies were joined together at some later time. The testimony of Juan V61lez de
Medrano (taken on 15 May 1566 at St. Augustine) and other data relating to the
mutinies has come from this bundle, except as otherwise noted. See also the "Merits
and Services of Diego L6pez, "the petition of the chief artillerist of the garrison who
was present at Santa Lucia, found under the date of 16 December 1569, from the
Woodbury Lowery Collection (microfilm in the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History,
University of Florida), 1:2:414: 265-290.
13. Pedro Men6ndez described conditions which had been reported to him from
Florida in his letter to the King dated at Havana 30 January 1566, from AGI Santo
14. See "Merits and Services of Diego L6pez," 16 December 1569, op. cit.
15. With regard to the number of troops Men6ndez brought, see note 7 above.
16. For detailed information regarding the settlement and eventual abandonment
of Santa Elena, see Eugene Lyon, "A Brief History of the Colony, 1566-1587," in
"History and Archaeology: The Spanish Colony of Santa Elena," unpublished paper,
Southern Historical Association, Memphis, Tennessee, November 5, 1982.
17. The Santa Elena mutiny is described in testimony taken before Governor
Garcia Osorio of Cuba from July 5-19, 1566, and found in "El Fiscal con Capitan
Miguel Enriquez," AGI Justicia 999, No. 2, ramo 9.
18. Pedro Men6ndez describes his adaptation to Indian tactics and the state of
vigilance of his men in his letter to the King dated at St. Augustine 20 October 1566,
from AGI Santo Domingo 115. An illuminating chronicle on the similar use of the
crossbow by Spaniards in the first exploration of the Amazon by Orellana in 1541-42
is found in George Millar's A Crossbowman's Story, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
19. The Redroban case is from AGI Justicia 999, No.2, ramo 6.
20. Vald6s' letter about punishment of the August-September mutiny attempts is
dated at St. Augustine on 12 September 1566, from AGI Santo Domingo 168. Another
example of judicial torture in St. Augustine occurred when soldier Jorge Cardoso was
The Florida Mutineers, 1566-67 61
given the torture of cord and water to force a confession of petty larceny. This case is
detailed under the date of 18 November 1567 and is found in AGI Escribania de
Cdmara 154-A, fol. 1382-1383vo.
21. Menendez' statement and ordinances, probably issued in mid-September,
1566, are found in the Enriquez segment, AGI Justicia 999, No. 2, ramo 9.
22. See "Probanza de Alonso de Grafeda," Santo Domingo, 15 February 1569,
AGI Santo Domingo 12.
23. See Pedro Mendndez to Crown, St. Augustine, 20 October 1566, AGI Santo
24. The Santa Elena mutineers' inquiry is in AGI Justicia 999, No. 2, ramo 9.
25. Pedro Men6ndez' comment about the soldiers is found in his letter to the King
dated at St. Augustine 20 October 1566, from AGI Santo Domingo 115.
26. The Enriquez case is in AGI Justicia 999, No. 2, ramo 9. The desertion in
1568 is treated by Alas under the date of 5 May 1568, and is found in AGI Patronato
254, No. 2, ramo 1; it is also discussed in the case in AGI Justicia 1001, No. 2, ramo
5. The 1570 mutinies were described by Juan de Junco at folios 1494-1495vo, from
AGI Escribania de Cdmara 154-A.
Life in Palm Beach County,
Part II: The Real Estate Boom
and the Hurricane of 1928
From Noah Kellum Williams' Grandpop's Book
Edited by Charlton W. Tebeau
Moved by the boom-as millions of others were-Birdie's brother-in-
law, Chester Weekes, came down from Nebraska. His father was a
grain dealer and he had grown up in that business. It isn't a very big
jump to switch from selling grain to selling real estate. He talked me
into renting an office and going into the real estate business with him.
So Kelsey City had another business-Williams and Weekes, Real Es-
tate. He ran the office and I stuck to my engineering. Among the first
properties we listed was my other 160 acres. At the same price I sold
the 80, together with the notes for my cows and my house in Kelsey
City, it brought my present worth up to well over $100,000. The Real
Estate Office did a lot of business till the bubble burst, but did not sell
my land. The Abstract Office was so slow that the bubble burst before
they got my abstract for the 80 acres. Although the buyer had paid me
$2,000, he told me I might keep my land. For $100 he would give me
a quit claim deed to clear my title. I accepted his offer. As things turned
out later, I had better have kept my money.
Kelsey had a big tract of timber land up in Georgia. It was in the
southeast part of the State and lay south of the Satilla River. The Atlantic
Ocean was its eastern boundary. A big part of this land had belonged
Life in Palm Beach County 63
to General John Floyd of Revolutionary fame. After the Revolution,
he and his descendants had a lot of slaves and raised a lot of cotton.
Being on deep water-the Estuary of the Satilla River-they had conve-
nient shipping to any part of the world and this became one of the most
prosperous parts of Georgia. The Civil War freed their slaves; the
railroad passed them by; the descendants scattered and the whole plan-
tation reverted to woods. We cut many pine saw logs on land once in
cotton. Kelsey gave Felton and me a letter to his representative up there
and sent us up to see what we could do about building barges out of
his lumber, cut off his land. We made a thorough investigation, then
came back and signed a contract to build him 100 barges-each one of
which would carry one hundred tons and would draw only four feet of
On the bank of the Satilla Estuary there had been a very large
sawmill served by a narrow gauge railroad with many of the buildings
still standing. We found one, that by patching a few holes in the roof,
was good enough to live in. We utilized the lumber of others to build
us a big shed. We got a tractor for power and bought a planer to set up
in this shed. We then made deals with two natives who were operating
portable sawmills to move over onto Kelsey's land and saw for us. We
got the lumber coming through the mills and running through the planer;
hired carpenters; built ways; got everything running smoothly; built
and delivered one barge and had another on the ways and about half
built when we got a letter from Kelsey. The bubble had burst! He
wouldn't be able to pay for any more barges and couldn't get any freight
to haul on them if he had them. Return our planer (at a loss); pay our
bills and figure up all of our expenses. He would pay all the expenses
we had incurred and pay both of us salaries for the time we had worked.
We thought that was mighty nice of him under the circumstances, for
he had been hit awfully hard. It left both of us out of a job. We had
almost enough lumber sawed to finish the barge we had on the way, so
we went ahead and finished it on our own. We rented it to a road
contractor for a while and eventually sold it. Then we dissolved part-
nership and Felton went home.
In my running around through the woods, I had seen a lot of ash
in the swamps. I learned that there was a carriage factory not too far
away that was buying ash, so I wrote to Kelsey and got permission to
cut his ash on a stumpage basis. I put the sawmills to sawing ash instead
of pine and put in several months there. I didn't get rich at it but did
make a pretty fair salary and I had a job.
When I finished getting my ash lumber out up in Georgia (prior
to the 1926 election) and came back to Florida, the bubble had burst in
a big way. I not only had no regular job but found very few little jobs.
The first of the year, 1927, I took over my duties as County Commis-
sioner. That gave me a little to do, but not enough to keep me busy nor
to feed my family. So I moved back to my farm west of Jupiter and
started farming between my other jobs. The man who had bought my
cows had paid a little along, but only a very small percent of what he
was supposed to pay. He said he didn't see how he would ever be able
to pay for them, so suggested I take them back. I borrowed money;
built a barn; took the cows back and was in the dairy business again.
As if I hadn't already had enough trouble, my cows suddenly com-
menced dying. The veterinarian had never seen anything like it. He
started searching his doctor books and eventually found a tropical
disease in Africa that had the same symptoms. How a disease from
Africa could ever get over here, we had no idea. Nevertheless, he
injected my entire herd with the recommended medicine and it did the
trick. In the meantime, I had lost several cows.
In July, 1928, my sister Luella, and two children from Cuba
stopped for a visit on their way to Indiana to put her daughter in school.
When two women get their heads together, you never can tell what will
come up. Birdie hadn't seen her mother for two years, so decided this
would be a good time to go and pay her a visit. Result, two women
with seven children, ranging in age from eighteen months to fourteen
years, set out for Indiana in an Oldsmobile touring car that was well
past its prime and had a leaky radiator in the bargain. Only one woman
and the fourteen year old boy could drive, and he wasn't supposed to.
A few days later I got a wire from Rome, Georgia. The water had
run low; the engine had heated and burned out some bearings and they
were tied up till they could get some parts from Atlanta. Please wire
money. But that wasn't the end of their troubles. Things went fairly
well till they reached Richmond, Indiana, only about forty miles from
their destination. There, right in the heart of the city, about five o'clock
on Sunday afternoon when everybody was rushing to get home, the old
car died. Birdie phoned my sister, Zona, at Charlottesville, and her
husband drove to Richmond and brought them in with a rope. Then she
wrote me that they had had so much trouble that if I wanted her back I
would have to come and get her. We had an uneventful trip back home
and reached there just in time to get the three oldest children off to
Life in Palm Beach County 65
college; Gordon and Vera for the first time and Elizabeth for her second
Just one week to the day from the time we got the children off to
college, on Sunday, September 16th, 1928, the worst hurricane that
ever hit the East Coast of Florida, hit us. Radios had just been invented
and were not yet in common use. On Saturday afternoon I was down
in West Palm Beach. The latest report was that it was headed straight
for there and had winds of tremendous velocity. Men were standing
around in groups discussing it and wondering if it would hit there. They
were guessing which of the big buildings could withstand it and which
ones would go down if hit and all were hoping it would change its
course. On Sunday morning I took my milk, as usual, to the bottling
plant near Kelsey City. Owners of buildings in town were out boarding
up their windows. They said that according to the latest information,
the hurricane was coming right at us. When I got home, instead of
getting ready for church, as I usually did on Sunday morning, I got
some boards and went up on the roof and nailed them on to hold the
roll roofing down so the wind would not tear it off and boarded up the
windows. It was wasted effort.
A big fruit company had erected a high-power radio station in
Jupiter so they could communicate with their banana plantation in
Central America. At three o'clock in the afternoon a neighbor came in
and said the radio station had sent him out to warn people to flee for
safety. They recommended that we go to the new $160,000 schoolhouse
in Jupiter. He said the hurricane had gusts of wind up to two hundred
miles per hour, and was preceded by a tidal wave fifty feet high. I had
run levels over a lot of the country around there and knew that the
Coastal Ridge was only twenty-five feet high, so I said, "If the wave
is that high, it will top the Coastal Ridge. We are more than five miles
inland here, so the water will have that much room to spread itself in.
This house isn't too strong, but the barn is new and well-built. I think
we would be safe there; or, if we run at all, we should go inland. The
trouble there is, there is no protection at all against the elements."
One of my tenants said, "I have a hunch that those people have
figured this thing out and know what they are talking about. I think we
should do what they say."
I went to the barn. The men had just put the first batch of cows in
to milk and fed them. I told them the bad news. Then I told them to
fasten the barn door open so it couldn't blow shut and to loosen the
cows in the stanchions so they could come and go at will. We would
all go to the schoolhouse. I had a screen-side truck that had been worked
over into a school bus. It had better curtains and would hold more
people than the touring car. Birdie gathered up a lot of bedding and
pillows; and, between the bus and one milkman's car, we all went to
the schoolhouse. The road ran straight east and had a very high crown.
The wind was already so strong from the northeast that I was afraid to
drive on the right side of the road for fear the wind would turn the bus
over, so drove on the left. There was no one going west at that time.
About five-thirty the wind and rain hit with all their fury. I stood
by a south window and watched lumber from houses and big tree limbs
go by and big trees snapped off like toothpicks. I saw a dog standing
in the lee of the building. He suddenly took a notion to go somewhere
and started off on the run. When he got out where the wind could hit,
it just rolled him. He half rolled and half crawled back into the lee of
the building. He was still standing there when the darkness shut down
till I could no longer see him.
As the night advanced, the wind intensified. Windows, transoms
and doors on the windward side gave way. The carpenters had very
conveniently left some two-by-fours and two-by-sixes inside the build-
ing. When a door gave way we got enough men ahold of it to force it
shut between gusts. We then nailed a brace in place to hold it shut. All
we could do with the windows and transoms, was to move things away
from in front of them and let the rain blow in. When those strong gusts
hit, they shook the building from stem to stem and we feared that the
next one would bring down the building. There wasn't a thing we could
do but pray. Strong men prayed who had never prayed before. Strange
to say, those who were not in the habit of praying, prayed the loudest.
Those who were in the habit of praying were more trustful. Many of
them did their praying in silence. Birdie spread the bedding on the floor
and put the children to bed just the same as she did at home, except
that she didn't undress them, and for the most part they slept. Some
other children slept too, but many of them cried in panic till the storm
abated. Did the children who slept do so because they had their beds,
or was there a deeper reason? Did the children who cried do so because
they didn't have their beds, or did they get fear from the attitude of
their parents? I can't answer.
About one o'clock in the morning the wind abated a little, and I
stretched myself on the floor for a little sleep. At two the janitor called
me. They wanted help. An elderly couple lived in a two-story garage
Life in Palm Beach County 67
apartment near the schoolhouse. The stairway was outside. I don't
know whether they had not been warned, or didn't take the warning.
But that as it may, they stayed in their apartment until they were afraid
it was going to blow away, then came down and started for the school-
house. The wind was so strong it blew them down. They managed to
crawl back and sat down in the lee of the building under the stairway.
The apartment blew off the garage and the garage careened over to
such an extent that it pinned them down. Eventually he was able to free
himself. Just as soon as the wind abated a little he crawled over to the
schoolhouse for help. Enough men went over to get the stairway off
her and carry her to the schoolhouse. She was badly injured. By that
time, the wind had pretty well died down but the rain was coming down
in torrents. A carload of us set out to see if we could find anyone else
in distress. The destruction was terrific! Many times we had to turn
back because the road was blocked with fallen trees and other debris.
Where we went no one had stayed at home except those with houses
strong enough to stand.
We got back to the schoolhouse just at daylight. I called my son,
Kenneth, and two of my dairy hands to go home with me. When we
got to the first bridge, it was out. The tidal wave had not topped the
Coastal Ridge but it had shoved enough water through the Loxahatchee
Inlet to raise the water in the bay and its tributaries to wash out some
of the nearby bridges. We turned back to the schoolhouse and found
about one hundred and twenty-five people who wanted some breakfast.
In times like that most people are helpless. They need a leader. Whether
it was because I was County Commissioner or not, I don't know; but
they promptly appealed to me. I went downtown to see what I could
find. We found a store that had blown away. Most of the goods that
water would damage were ruined but there was a lot of canned goods.
When the owner heard that the hurricane was coming, he turned the
key in the door and fled north. We loaded all the usable goods in my
bus and took them over to the schoolhouse, where I had them all
inventoried so they could be paid for. The Red Cross paid for them
Just as there was no leader in getting something to eat, so there
was no leader in the kitchen to prepare it. It is no small job to feed 125
people, especially when your facilities are so meager. Finding no head
cook, Birdie turned the care of her children over to others and she took
over the kitchen. She didn't do the work. There were plenty of willing
helpers. She did the planning and directing.
After breakfast we started for home again, by a longer road. Half
a mile before we got there, we passed where had been a two-story
concrete block house. Several of the immediate neighbors had assem-
bled there thinking that, being of concrete, it would stand. It had gone
down, killing four on the spot and another died later. Men were at work
taking out the dead and laying them out on the ground with nothing
over them. A ghastly sight!
When we came in sight of home, it didn't look like home at all!
Our dwelling was blown about ten feet off of the foundation and broken
off at the upper story! All the upstairs furniture was strewn over the
landscape! The north wall was blown out as if there had been an
explosion, and the whole north side of the upstairs floor was just
hanging. I hunted a 2-by-4 and propped it up. The roof and the sides
to the upstairs looked like they had been picked up and shaken to pieces
and were scattered out in a fan shape to the northwest.
The tenant house nearest our dwelling was treated even worse.
The south side was blown clear across the highway to the southwest.
The roof was picked bodily up; hit a pine tree to the west and broke
the tree off about fifteen feet above ground and landed wrong side up
some thirty or forty feet away. The other three sides and the floor went
very much as the roof and upper part of the dwelling and went in the
same direction. The longest piece of flooring I found was about eight
The sleepers were lying around with the nails sticking out of them
where the floor boards had been ripped off. One sleeper was near a
dead cow, some five or six hundred feet to the northwest of where the
house had been. She was my biggest Holstein cow and just happened
to be dry at that time. She was the only animal I had killed out in the
open. The rest were killed right in the barnyard. I figured this cow was
killed by that sleeper and the rest by flying timbers from the barn.
The other tenant house was located northeast of the barn and
suffered least of anything. It was well enough built that it didn't fly to
pieces. It got up and started all in one piece! When it was about ten
feet on its way, a big pine tree about twenty inches in diameter hooked
it; brought it down and held it. The fiber of the tree was twisted off
about stump height. It had caught the house just as it was leaving and
the only damage to it was a few roof boards broken where the tree fell
and some of the roll-roofing torn. The furniture in the house was
damaged very little. The foundation was concrete blocks. It was easier
to move the blocks than the house, so we jacked up the house; put the
Life in Palm Beach County 69
blocks under it; mended the roof and the tenant moved back in. The
windmill and water tank were down. The milk house and chicken house
were scattered far and wide. The barn wasn't exactly gone. It had too
much concrete in it to get away. The stanchions were set in concrete,
but the roof was gone. Eleven head of my cows were lying dead in the
barnyard. The fences were down in many places and about half the
cows had wandered away. (The hurricane was on Sunday night. We
didn't find them till Wednesday afternoon. They had been so long
without milking that the udders on the heaviest milkers were spoiled.)
We milked what cows we could find and took the milk to the school-
house for consumption there.
When I got back to the schoolhouse and told Birdie how things
were, she insisted on going right out to see for herself. When she saw
the wreckage, she sat down and cried like a child. "For twenty-three
years we have worked and slaved to get something ahead. We got it
and now it's gone in a night." I told her I didn't feel like crying. I felt
much more like being thankful. We had been hit very hard financially.
I didn't yet know how hard. Many people had been killed. Four of
them I had seen within half a mile of home and not a one of us had
received a scratch. It turned out later that several had been killed within
just a few miles of us. Out south of Lake Okeechobee, more than two
thousand people, two of them our very dear friends, had been drowned.
They took draglines into the cemeteries and dug trenches to bury the
corpses as they were brought in.
How right Birdie was! Our entire life savings, amounting to more
than thirty thousand dollars, was gone. I thought I could save some of
it, but I could not. I had mortgaged the cows to build the barn. When
I was forced to sell them, it took all I got for them to pay the mortgage
and a few back bills. I tried to sell my land. I listed it with several local
real estate firms, and advertised it in northern real estate magazines.
After the break of the boom and the hurricane, people just weren't
buying Florida. I couldn't pay the taxes. It took the County eleven
years and a new tax law before they could sell it for the taxes-and I
didn't get a nickel out of it.
I got a truck and salvaged all our household goods possible and
.hauled them to the schoolhouse. All trains were stopped and no mail
either out or in. We promptly wrote to the children and assured them
that we were personally all right, but that the property destruction had
been terrific. We sent the letter by the first person we found going
north. They all three wrote right back and offered to leave school and
come home if they could help. I wrote them that there wasn't a thing
they could do. Elizabeth and Gordon had their tuition paid till mid-
year, and Vera had a scholarship for all year. They should stay right
there and make the best of it, but they were on their own. I couldn't
help them anymore. They all three went through. Vera had a scholar-
ship. Gordon had worked a year after high school and found work to
do in school. Those two went straight through. Elizabeth had to stay
out a year and teach.
It was time for school to begin, so we had to vacate the school-
house, with no place to go. Near the schoolhouse was a small house.
It had been shoved off of its foundation, and some of the roll-roofing
blown off, but aside from that, it was in pretty good shape. The owner
was in the North, so I got some material and repaired the roof. We
moved in without even so much as a "by your leave" to the owner. It
was small, but we crowded in.
All the milk I got right after the hurricane, I took to the schoolhouse
to supply the folks there. After the folks scattered to their homes, I had
to do something else. The bottling plant near Kelsey City, where I had
been selling, was scattered over the landscape and was never rebuilt.
My milk production had been cut down so much by the cows that died
of disease; those that had just been killed; and those whose udders were
spoiled, that I didn't have enough to justify the twenty-seven or eight
miles haul to the West Palm Beach Creamery. Trains were running
again. I tried shipping, but the trains were very irregular. The milk
frequently had to sit long periods on the platform, and, consequently,
soured. I had to throw up my hands! The Red Cross was buying cows
to rehabilitate other dairies, so I sold them all of mine except enough
to supply ourselves and Jupiter.
I turned back to farming. I reasoned that the Everglades was
drowned out, so beans would sell high this year. I plowed up a large
part of my pasture and planted beans. My reasoning was all right, but
the rains all fell during the hurricane-then quit! My beans didn't make
half a crop! I also planted a few watermelons. They did just fine and
the price was good! I had gambled on the wrong crop and lost. My job
as County Commissioner expired about three months after the hurri-
cane. My sad experience at farming convinced me that farming was
too hazardous, and that I should look for an engineering job.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy
free admission to the new museum located at the Metro Dade Cultural
Center, invitations to special events, subscriptions to Update, Currents,
and our annual journal Tequesta, use of the Research Library and the
Archives and discounts on purchases at the museum store.
Membership revenues benefit educational programs, special ex-
hibitions, collections, and day to day operations of the Association.
Each membership category offers the benefits outlined above, plus
additional privileges for the higher levels of support.
The Membership Listing is made up of the names of those persons
and institutions that have paid dues since April 1983; those joining after
October 1, 1984 will have their names in the 1985 roster.
CATEGORIES OF MEMBERSHIP
Corporations and Foundations $500.00
Life (no longer available)
Senior Citizen $20.00
Honorary Life Membership is voted by the Board of Trustees to
recognize special service to the Association. The symbol ** indicates
Founding Member; the symbol indicates Charter Member.
Any changes in the level or listing of membership should be
reported to the membership office at 375-1492.
Aberman, Mr. & Mrs. James
Anderson, Dr. & Mrs.
Anderson, Ms. Marie
Batten, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Callahan, Mr. & Mrs. K. W.
Chapman, Mr. & Mrs. Alvah
Colson, Mr. & Mrs. William
Corlett, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Corson, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Cox, Mr. & Mrs. Plato
Crow, Mrs. Mary Graham
Curry, Miss Lamar Louise
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
*Dismukes, Dr. William P.
Erickson, Mr. & Mrs.
Esslinger, Mr. & Mrs. W. F.
Ezell, Mr. & Mrs. Boyce
Fitzgerald, Dr. & Mrs.
George, Dr. & Mrs. Phillip T.
Graham, Mr. & Mrs.
Gregory, Mr. & Mrs. Gary M.
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John
Haverfield, Mrs. Shirley
Hector, Mr. & Mrs. Louis J.
Hector, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Hills, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Hunter, Dr. & Mrs. Burke M.
Huston, Mrs. Tom
Kanner, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Kellner, Ms. Sherrill W.
Kislak, Mr. Jay I.
Korth, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Lynch, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Mank, Mr. & Mrs. R. Layton
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs.
Matteson, Mr. Arnold C.
McCrimmon, Mr. & Mrs.
Mead, Mr. & Mrs. D.
Mensch, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph S.
Merrill, Mr. & Mrs. James
Mesnekoff, Mr. & Mrs.
Molinari, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Nordt, Dr. John C., Ill
Noriega, Ms. Lamar J.
Pappas, Mr. & Mrs.
Parks, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Pero, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Read, Mrs. Albert Cushing
Reid, Dr. & Mrs. Edward
Roller, Mrs, G. Philip
Smith, Drs. Clarence E.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs.
Soman, Mr. & Mrs. William D.
Stewart, Dr. Earl Spencer
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Franz
*Tebeau, Dr. Charlton W.
Trainer, Mr. Monty P.
Traurig, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Warren, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis
Wisehart, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolfe, Dr. & Mrs. S.
Wolfson, Mr. Mitchell, Jr.
Wooten, Mr. & Mrs. James
Younts, Mr. & Mrs. David
Zwibel, Dr. & Mrs. Howard
CORPORATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS
Amerifirst Federal Savings
The Babcock Company
Banana Supply Company
Bowker, Brown & Company
Citicorp Real Estate
Coconut Grove Bank
Deloitte, Haskins & Sells
First Nationwide Savings
Alpert, Mr. Maurice D.
Conklin, Ms. Dallas
Greenberg, Traurig, et. al.
The J. N. McArthur
The Knight Foundation
The Miami News
Norwegian Caribbean Lines
Ponce de Leon Federal
Savings & Loan
Ruth and August Geiger
Charity Foundation, Inc.
Ryder System, Inc.
Sage, Gray, Todd, et. al.
Southeast Banking Corp-
Suniland Music Shoppes
Wallis, Francis E.
The Wilder Foundation
William J. & Tina
FE AND HONORARY LIFE
M. R. Harrison Construction *Waters, Fred M., Jr.
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Withers, James G.
B., Jr. Withers, Wayne E.
Arnsparger, Mr. & Mrs.
Abess, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Abitol, Mr. Andre
Adams, Mr. Larry H.
Ansin, Toby Lerner
Apthorp, Mr. & Mrs. James
Averill, Mr. Joseph
Barkell, Mr. & Mrs. William
Battle, Mr. & Mrs. Benjamin
Ben-Moleh, Dr. Josef
Bermont, Mr. & Mrs. Peter L.
Bienenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Blackburn, Mr. & Mrs. Elmer
Bondhus, Mrs. Kathleen
Chasen, Laura E.
Chasen, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Custer, Mr. & Mrs. Roy F.,
Danielson, Mr. J. Deering
Davis, A. B.
DeCarion, George H.
Doddo, Mr. James E.
Dotson, Mr. & Mrs. Harry H.
Dowlen,Dr.& Mrs. L. W., Jr.
DuPuch. Sir Etienne, OBE
Ellenburg, Mr. & Mrs. James
Evoy, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Falcon, Mr. Raymond
Fields, Dorothy J.
Fogg, Mr. Stephen M.
Furr, Mr. & Mrs. William F.
Gallagher, Mr. & Mrs.
Gerber, Dr. & Mrs. Paul U.
Gilbert, Donald H.
Glinn, Mr. Franklyn B.
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Adler, Dr. Robert M.
Alterman, Mr. Sidney
Anllo, Mr. Bill
Atkins, Mrs. C. Clyde
Butt, Dr. Prudence
Hansen, William M.
Grant, Hazel R.
Grassie, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Greer, Alan G.
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Marshall
Hawkins, Mrs. Roy H.
Hecht, Mrs. Isadore
*Herin, Judge & Mrs.
Hicks, William M.
Hunter, Dr. Caroline B.
Jaffe, Dr. Jonathan Ravid
Kehoe, Mr. Joseph M.
Keller, Mr. Bruce A.
Kellner, Mr. Stewart C.
Kenny, Mr. & Mrs. James J.
Klein, Norman S.
Knight, C. Frasuer
Kniskern, Mr. & Mrs.
Kreutzer, Mr. & Mrs.
Lancaster, Mr. R. D.
Lawrence, Mr. & Mrs.
Leake, Martin C.
Levy, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Lord, Mr. William P.
Louthan, Barbara Lynn M.
Lowell, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Martinez, Dr. & Mrs. Milton
Masin, Mr. Michael A.
Maxted, Mr. & Mrs. F. J., Jr.
Maxwell, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
McChristian, Mr. & Mrs.
Robert L., Jr.
McHale, Mr. William J.
Mixson, Mr. & Mrs. R. L.
Mizell, Mr. Earl S.
Molina, Mr. & Mrs. Luis
Beam, Mr. Frank L.
Behrmann, Mr. & Mrs. John
Billings, Mrs. Jim
List of Members 73
Peacock, Henry B., Jr.
Schaefer, Mr. Paul T.
Moss, Mr. Ed.
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M.
Nitzsche, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest
Orloff, Mr. Monford
Padron, Dr. Eduardo J.
Pawley, Mrs. William D.
Pearlman, Mr. Arthur
Pettigrew, Mr. & Mrs.
Phillips, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Plumer, Richard B.
Prunty, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Rebozo, Mr. C. G.
Regan, Mr. Carl J.
Salzman, Phyllis S.
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs.
Sherry, Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Shevin, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Shula, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Silvester, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Simonet, Richard H., CPA
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
Sonnett, Mr. & Mrs. Neal R.
Spector, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Stearns, Gene, Esq.
Steinberg, Alan W.
Storer, Mrs. Peter
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. William
Stuzin, Mr.& Mrs. Charles B.
Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C.
Taft, Mr. Richard A.
Vital, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Walker, Harold E.
Wien, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
*Wilson, Nell G.
Witz, Mr. Joseph
Zeppa, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Zubrik, Ms. Nadja
Black, Mr. Leon David, Jr.
Blank, Dr. & Mrs. Harvey
Blumberg, Mr. & Mrs. David
Bonavia, Mr. & Mrs. Paul J.
Brown, Mrs. Irma M.
Carman, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Carter, Mr. & Mrs. Beverly
Charbonnet, Mr. & Mrs.
Chardon, Roland E.
Clark, Mrs. Mae K.
Cleveland, Dr. John L., Jr.
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. Carlton W.
Cole, Ms. Dianne
Cone, Mrs. Dee M.
Crawford, Ms. Joan
Crump, Mr. & Mrs. C. C.
D'Alemberte, Mr. & Mrs.
Davis, Hal D.
Davis, Roger Barry
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Darrey
DeBayle, Mr. & Mrs. Jose E.
Dilthey, Mr. & Mrs. A. W.
Duncan, Mr. & Mrs. James
Eaton, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
Ehrhard, Mrs. Harriet
Ellison, Mr. Edward 0.
Ericson, Mr. Arthur E.
Farris, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs.
Willard L., Jr.
Foss, George B., Jr.
Freixas, Mr. & Mrs.
Gaby, Mr. & Mrs. Donald C.
Gardner, Mrs. Dick B.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Garfield, Mr. & Mrs. Gary J.
Garner, Dr. Stanley G.
Gautier, Redmond Bunn
Gerace, Mrs. Terence
Gilbert, Mr. & Mrs. Homer
Ginn, Mr. & Mrs. P. J.
Goldberg, Mr. Bruce
Goldwyn, Dr. Robert H.
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs.
Goosen, Mr. & Mrs.
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Merrill
Grafton, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Green, Mr. & Mrs. George M.
Hancock, Mrs. Cis
Hardin, Dr. Henry C., Jr.
Hardy, Miss Adrian
Hardy, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Hawa, Mr. & Mrs. Maurice
Haynes, G. W.
Hector, Mr. William F.
Helsabeck, Rosemary E.
Hertz, Mr. Arthur H.
Hildner, Mr. & Mrs. Frank J.
Hinds, Mr. & Mrs. L. F., Jr.
Hipps, Mrs. T. F.
Hoehl, Mr. John R.
Holsenbeck, Mrs. J. M.
Horacek, Mr. & Mrs.
Howe, Mrs. Helen DeLano
Jacobs, Robert H.
Jacobs, Mr. &.Mrs. Walter L.
Johnston, Mr. & Mrs.
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. Walter
Jude, Mrs. Sallye
Karp, Mr. Irving R.
Kistler, Robert S.
Kleinberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Leesfield & Blackburn, P.A.
Lewis, Doris C.
Lewis, Mr. & Mrs. Robert L.
Lubel, Mr. Howard
MacDonald, Mr. John E.
Mark, Mr. & Mrs. Robert A.
Masington, Mr. & Mrs.
Matheson, R. Hardy
May, Mr. Joseph D.
Mayer, Mr. & Mrs. Budd
McCammon, Mr. & Mrs.
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs. C.
McGilvray, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
McMinn, John H.
McSwiggan, Mr. Gerald W.
Merritt, Mr. & Mrs. W. C.
Meyer, Mr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Miles, Mr. & Mrs. R. S.
Miller, Ms. Carolyn R.
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dean R.
Minkes, Dr. & Mrs. Jules G.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. David
Muir, Mrs. William Whalley
Murray, Mrs. Mary Ruth
Nathenson, Mr. & Mrs.
Newport, Ms. Carol
Norton, Dr. Edward W. D.
Olin, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Pancoast, Katherine F.
Perryman, Mr. & Mrs. James
Person, Mr. John
Petrey, Mr. & Mrs. Roderick
Post, Amelia M.
Post, Mr. Howard M.
Prio-Odio, Maria Antonieta
Pryor, Dr. & Mrs. T. Hunter
Quinn, Mr. William T.
Reilly, Mr. Phil
Rice, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E.
Robertson, Mrs. Piedad
Rodriguez, Mr. Raul
Rossman, Mr. & Mrs.
Rubini, Joseph R.
Sanders, Mr. & Mrs. Sid
Santarella, Mr. & Mrs.
Sarafoglu, Dr. & Mrs.
Schweiger, Mr. Denny H.
Shapiro, Mr. Phyllis A.
Sharp, Harry Carter
Shockley, Mr. J. R., Jr.
Siegel, Ms. Sammi L.
Simon, Edwin 0.
Slack, Mr. & Mrs. Ted C.
Smiley, Dr. & Mrs. Karl
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel L.
Stadler, John B.
Stein, Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Stuart, Ms. Helen
Sutton, Mr. & Mrs. William
Swann, Judge Richard H. M.
Swift, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest
Taylor, Mr. & Mrs. Mitchell A.
Villa, Dr. & Mrs. Luis, Jr.
Warner, Mr. & Mrs.
Waters, Miss Elva Jane
Weissel, Mr. & Mrs. Roy F.
Wheeling, Mr. Craig
Williams, Harvey L., IIl
Williams, Linda K.
Wolpert, Mr. & Mrs. George
Wragg, Mr. Otis 0., III
Abrams, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey
Acle, Mr. & Mrs. Eduardo P.
Adams, Mr. Andrew D., Jr.
Adams, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
Adler, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel I.
Admire, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
Agha, Dr. Abdul
Aixala, Mr. & Mrs. Angel M.
Aizenshtat, Mr. & Mrs.
Aker, Ms. Mary A.
Albert, Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence
Albl, Mr. & Mrs. David E.
Allen, Mr. & Mrs. Gary L.
Allenson, Mr. & Mrs.
Alspach, Dr. & Mrs. Bruce
Aly, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas B.
Alzola, Jose A.
Amerifirst Fed. Savings
Amerkan, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Amery, Mr. & Mrs. Scan A.
Ammarell, Mr. John S.
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. Duane
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. John
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs.
Anderson, Mr. & Mrs. Tim
Andreu, Mr. & Mrs. Nelson
Ansell, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Apgar, Mr. & Mrs. Ross
Aptman, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Archer, Mr. Edward M.
Armbrister, Mr. & Mrs.
Arroyave, Mr. Efrain
Ashmore, Mr. & Mrs.
Askowitz, Dr. & Mrs.
Athan, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Atlass, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin
Atwill, Mr. Rick, Sr.
August, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur J.
August, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie J.
Averbook, Mr. & Mrs.
Ayer, Mr. & Mrs. H. E., Jr.
Bage, Mr. Robert
Baggesen, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
Baisden, Mr. & Mrs. Fred, Jr.
Baker, Dr. & Mrs. Terry
Baker, Dr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Baker, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Ivan E.
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Rod C.
Ballard, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Balz, Douglas C.
Bander, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Banks, Col. & Mrs. Richard
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. George
Barber, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert
Bardi, Mr. & Mrs. Bruno
Barkdull, Mr. Thomas H., Jr.
Barkett, Mrs. Sybil
Barnard, Mr. & Mrs. Church
Barnes, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie 0.
Baros, Mr. & Mrs. Eric E.
Bartelstone, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Bashford, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Bass, Dr. Robert T.
Bassett, Mr. & Mrs. George
Bates, Ms. Lucille
Bauly, Mr. & Mrs. Harry D.
Baumgartner, Mr. & Mrs.
Baxter, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Beales, Mr. & Mrs. John H.,
Becker, Mr. & Mrs. Earl
Beckham, Mr. & Mrs. James
Beckham, Mr. & Mrs. W. H.,
Behar, Mr. & Mrs. Bart M.
Belcher, Mrs. E. N., Ill
Bennett, Allan J.
Bennett, Dr. & Mrs. William
Benowitz, Mr. Allen H.
Benson, Minette and Jerome,
Benz, Mr. Jack A.
Berg, Mr. & Mrs. Randy
Bergman, Mr. & Mrs.
Berke, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Berkowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Bernat, Glady B.
Berrin, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
List of Members 75
Bess, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Beveridge, Mr. & Mrs. J. A.
Bigelow, Mr. & Mrs. John H.
Bilbao, Ms. Luisa G.
Billman, George B.
Bingham, J. Reid
Birmingham, Mr. & Mrs.
Black, George R.
Black, Mr. & Mrs. Hugo L.
Blackard, Mrs. Trudy
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin M.
Blakeslee, Mr. & Mrs. Jim
Blalock, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Blanco, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Blazejack, Mr. & Mrs. John
Block, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey W.
Bloland, Harland G.
Bloom, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Blowers, Mr. Jay H.
Blue, Mr. & Mrs. R. L.
Blue, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Bobadilla, Mr. & Mrs.
Boldrick, Samuel J.
Bonn, Ms. Laura W.
Bonsignore, Ms. Victoria
Borroto, Mr. & Mrs.
Boshara, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Boshnick, Mr. & Mrs.
Bowker, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Boyle, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J.
Bradley, Mr. & Mrs. William
Brady, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T.
Brake, Mr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Bramson, Bennett A.
Brand, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
Brantley, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Braxton, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Brayman, Mr. & Mrs.
Breit, Charles E.
Brewer, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
Brezo, Mrs. Ester
Bridis, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Brody, Alan C.
Brooke, Mr. & Mrs. Peter M.
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
Brownell, Mr. E. R.
Bruce, Mr. & Mrs. Thor
Brumbaugh, Mr. & Mrs.
Bryant, Mr. & Mrs. Franklin
Buchbinder, Mr. & Mrs.
Bucholtz, Mrs. Piedad
Bucolo, Mr. & Mrs. William
Buhler, Mr. & Mrs. Jean Emil
Burgess, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Burglass, Dr. Milton E.
Burke, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Burns, Mr. M. Anthony
Burroughs, Mr. & Mrs.
Burton, Col. & Mrs. Robert
Burton, LeLand, Jr.
Burton, Mr. John J.
Bushman, Mrs. Karola
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. John
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Butler, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Cabrera, Mr. & Mrs.
Calcagno, Mrs. Anna L.
Calcagno, Mr. Edward
Calcagno, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Caldwell, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Caldwell, Mr. & Mrs. Russell
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs.
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs. John
Camps, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos R.
Cancela, Mr. & Mrs. Andres
Cantens, Agustin J.
Capen, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Carbone, Mrs. Grace
Card, Mr. & Mrs. James
Carey, Mr. & Mrs. Ute
Carmichael, Dr. & Mrs. Lynn
Carpet, Mr. A. K.
Carr, Mr. & Mrs. A. Marvin
Carrera-Justiz, Mr. & Mrs.
Carrillo, Mr. & Mrs.
Carroll, L. T.
Carruthers, Mr. & Mrs. John,
Casas, Mr. & Mrs. Armando
Cassel, Dr. & Mrs. Chester
Castro, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Cerniglia, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Cesarano, Gregory M.
Chandler, Mr. & Mrs. J. R.
Chassner, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Chastain, Mr. & Mrs. R. B.
Chaviano, Mr. & Mrs.
Chesney, Mr. & Mrs. John G.
Chowning, Mr. & Mrs. John
Church, Mr. & Mrs. David
Clark, Lydia S.
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. D. M., Jr.
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. W. C.
Clarke, Mr. & Mrs. Raphael
Clay, Ms. Dana L.
Clayton, Mr. & Mrs.
Clayton, Robyn M.
Cleater, Mr. & Mrs. John
Coats, Mr. & Mrs. John B.
Cockram, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis
Codina, Mr. Armando
Coffey, Mr. & Mrs. D. W.
Coffey, Mr. & Mrs. L. F.
Cogswell, Mr. & Mrs. T. J.
Cohen, Dr. Stanley
Cohen, Mr. S. E.
Cohn, Dr. & Mrs. L. F.
Cole, Mrs. Wallace H., Jr.
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. William D.
Cole, R. B.
Colin, Mr. & Mrs. Georges
Collier, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Colson, Mr. & Mrs. Dean
Conard, Mr. & Mrs. William
Conley, Dr. & Mrs. James
Connally, Ileana L.
Connor, Dr. & Mrs. Morton
Connor, Mr. & Mrs. Terence
Conroy, Mr. & Mrs. John
Conte, Mr. & Mrs. Alexander
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. Robert F.
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. William F.
Cool, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E.
Coolidge, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Corbett, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Couper, Mr. & Mrs. James
Coverman, Mr. & Mrs.
Cox, Mr. & Mrs. William
Craig, Ms. Dorothy A.
Crenshaw, Mr. Richard A.
Crockford, Mrs. Linda
Crockwell, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Cross, Mr. & Mrs. J. Alan
Crout, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Crow, Mr. & Mrs. Lon
Crowder, Mr. & Mrs. James
Csonka, Mr. & Mrs.
Cubbison, Mrs. Mary Paige
Culbertson, Mr. & Mrs. Lyn
Cullom, Mr. & Mrs. William
Cunningham, Mr. Les
Curtis, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Cynamon, Mr. Nathan L.
Dane, Mr. & Mrs. George P.
Daum, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Davidson, Mr. & Mrs. Barry
Davis, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph H.
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
Davis, Mrs. Graciela C.
Davis, Mr. Lew
Davison, Mrs. Walter
Davitian, George N.
Day, Mr. & Mrs. Joel B.
Day, Mr. H. Willis, Jr.
D'costa, Mr. & Mrs.
de Garmo, Mr. & Mrs.
Dean, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald A.
DeArriba, Ms. Magaly A.
DeKonschin, Mr. & Mrs.
Delano, Mr. & Mrs. Edmond
DeMeo, Ralph A., Assn.
DeNies, Mr. Charles F.
DeRobaina-Arguelles, Mr. &
Mrs. Juan Carlos
Dickey, Dr. Robert F.
Didomenico, Mr. Louis W.
Dietrichson, Mr. & Mrs.
Dine, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney
Dion, Mrs. Sarah F.
Dix, Dr. & Mrs. John W.
Dobson, Mr. & Mrs. Bill
Doheny, Mr. David
Dombro, Mr. & Mrs. Roy S.
Dominguez, Mrs. Elsa, DDS
Dorn, Mr. Jacob L.
Dorsey, Ms. Mary C.
Doss, Mr. & Mrs. William
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs.
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs.
Dowdell, Mr. & Mrs. S. H.
Downey, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Downs, Mr. & Mrs. R. M.
Dubitsky, Hon. & Mrs. Ira
DuBois, Bessie W.
Dugas, Mrs. Faye
Dunam, Mr. & Mrs. Otis E.
Dunbar, Mr. Ron
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. D.
Dunn, Mr. & Mrs. R. T.
Duntley, Frank E., Jr.
Dunty, R. P., Jr.
Duvall, Mr. & Mrs. Walker
Eachus, Mrs. Dolores K.
Eaton, Honorable Joseph
Edison, Mr. & Mrs. Mike
Edwards, Newton L.
Eggleston, Ms. Jeanette
Ehlert, Dr. & Mrs. E. L.
Eidenire, Mr. & Mrs. Todd
Einspruch, Mr. & Mrs.
Eisenhauer, Mr. & Mrs.
Elliott, Kiki McShane
Elsasser, Ms. Ruth B.
Engelke, Mr. Michael
Engh, Ms. Mary Duffy
Erbesfeld, Dr. & Mrs. Marvin
Ersoff, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Espindola, Mr. Robert
Essner, Mr. & Mrs. Gene
Estevez, Ms. Linda
Evans, Mr. James D.
Everard, W. H.
Eyres, Mr. & Mrs. Robert M.
Fairchild, Mr. & Mrs. Dan
Fales, Donna T.
Farina, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P.
Farkas, Mr. Marshall 1.
Faysash, Mr. & Mrs. Gary J.
Feingold, Dr. & Mrs. Alfred
Feldman, Dr. & Mrs. H. T.
Feldman, Mr. & Mrs. Irwin
Feltman, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Fennel, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. Gus
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. J. R.
Fernandez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Fernandez, Mrs. Betty
Ferrer, Mr. & Mrs. Jose E.
Fetzer, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Field, Capt. & Mrs.
Field, Mr. & Mrs. Egon
Figuera, Mary N.
Filer, Mr. & Mrs. Jerome
Fine, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Finegold, Dr. & Mrs. Ira
Finkelstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Finkelstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Finlay, Mr. & Mrs. James N.
Fischer, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Fisher, George R.
Fishman, Dr. & Mrs.
Fishwick, Mr. Joseph
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs. W. J.
Fitzgerald, Mrs. W. L.
Fitzgibbon, Dr. & Mrs. J. M.
Flattery, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Fleitman, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Fleming, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
Fleming, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Flick, Mr. & Mrs. Charles P.
Flinn, Mr. & Mrs. Gene
Flinn, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Flores, Mr. Leopoldo
Forbes, Mr. & Mrs. Robert S.
Ford, Mr. & Mrs. Richards
Fournier, Paul R.
Fox, Chief & Mrs. Kenneth
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Emilio
Fox, Mr. & Mrs. Spencer
Frank, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Frates, Mr. & Mrs. William
List of Members 77
Frazer, Mr. & Mrs. Fred J.
Frazier, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight
Fredbauer, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Freidin, Mr. & Mrs. Philip
Freund, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Friberg, Richard E.
Friedman, Dr. & Mrs. Evan
Friedman, Mr. Arnold S.
Frost, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
Fullerton, Mr. & Mrs. John
Furst, Mary Lou
Gabler, Mrs. George E.
Gale, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Ganguzza, Mr. & Mrs.
Gannett, Mr. & Mrs. J. King,
Gannon, Mrs. Martha B.
Garcia, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge E.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Donald,
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Gardner, William A.
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs.
Garis, Mrs. Millicent
Garland, Mr. & Mrs. James
Garvett, Mr. & Mrs. Peter B.
Gaub, Dr. Margaret L.
Gautier, Mr. & Mrs. Larry P.,
Gautney, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Geigel, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Geller, Dr. & Mrs. Edmund
Gent, Mr. Earl
Georgiades, Mr. & Mrs.
Gerson, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Geyer, Mr. & Mrs. Russell I.,
Ghammashi, Mr. & Mrs.
Gill, Mr. & Mrs. Richard F.
Giller, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Giller, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Gillman, Judge & Mrs.
Gilmore, Mr. & Mrs. Hugh
Ginsberg, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Gladstone, William E.
Glass, Mr. & Mrs. Reeder
Glazer, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Glorieux, Mr. John
Glucksman, Dr. & Mrs.
Glukstad, Mr. & Mrs. Sig M.
Goddard, Mrs. Hilda
Goeser, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Golden, Mr. & Mrs. William
Goldman, Judge & Mrs.
Goldstein, Richard M., Esq.
Goldweber, Mr. & Mrs.
Golob, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
Gonzalez, Jose B.
Good, Dr. Joella C.
Goodlet, Mr. & Mrs. James
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs.
Gordon, Dr. & Mrs. Mark W.
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Reed
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Gotbaum, Dr. & Mrs. Irwin
Grabiel, Mr. & Mrs. Julio
Grabowski, Casimer T.
Graham, Mr. & Mrs. William
Grant, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie L.
Green, Dr. Edward N.
Green, Marcia R.
Green, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Allen
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Greenberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Greene, Mr. & Mrs. Stanton
Greenfield, Mr. Burton D.
Greenfield, Mr. & Mrs.
Greer, Dr. & Mrs. Pedro J.,
Gregory, Mr. & Mrs. Ledford
Griffis, Mr. & Mrs. David N.
Griffith, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Grimm, Rev. & Mrs. Robb
Gromet, Mr. & Mrs. Gary
Grover, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight
Guarino, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Gutierrez, Mr. & Mrs.
Guyton, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Haber, Mr. & Mrs. Marty
Hackett, Mr. & Mrs. Bob
Haefele, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Hahn, Mr. & Mrs. Jack D.
Haldane, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Haley, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
Halpert, Dr. E. Stephen
Halprin, Mrs. Maxine
Hammersberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Hammond, Nina S.
Hand, Jeffrey C.
Hann, Mr. Robert R.
Hanson, Mr. & Mrs.
Harcharik, Mr. & Mrs.
Hardin, Fitzgerald, Dowlen
Harllee: John W., Jr
Harrington, Frederick H.
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Elliott
Harris, Mr. & Mrs. Robert,
Harris-Clare, Mrs. Beverley
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. A., D.,
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Hart, Dr. Robert
Harte, Ms. Chris
Hartman, Robin W.
Harvelle, Mrs. Theresa
Hatfield, Mr. & Mrs. Milton
Hathorn, Donald B.
Hayes, Mr. & Mrs. James D.
Hayes, W. Hamilton
Heard, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph G.
Heckerling, Mr. Dale A.
Helfand, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Heller, Mr. & Mrs. David A.
Henington, Ms. Annie Ruth
Henry, Mr. & Mrs. Edmund
Hepler, Mr. & Mrs. David
Herrera, Mrs. Digna C.
Herrera, Mr. & Mrs. Ignacio
Hershman, Mr. & Mrs.
Hershorin, Mr. & Mrs.
Hertz, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin
Hessen, Mr. & Mrs. Arnold
High, Mr. Joshua
Hill, Lawrence L.
Hill, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight L.
Hingston, Rev. & Mrs. Allen
Hitz, Mr. & Mrs. Kelly C.
Hodges, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth M.
Hoessly, Dr. & Mrs. Michel
Hoets, Ms. Mary R.
Hoffman, Dr. & Mrs.
Holbert, Mr. & Mrs. Willard
Holcomb, Mr. & Mrs. Mack
Holly, Dr. & Mrs. John
Holshouser, Mr. & Mrs.
Horowitz, Mr. & Mrs.
Horwitz, Mr. & Mrs. Roberto
Howard, Mr. & Mrs. Paul
Hroch, Mr. & Mrs. William,
Huber, Mr. & Mrs. Laurence
Hudson, J. Stephen
Hume, Mr. David
Hunt. Mr. & Mrs. Charles L.
Hutchinson, Mr. & Mrs.
Hutson, Dr. & Mrs. James J.
Huysman, Dr. Arlene
Huysman, Mr. & Mrs. Michel
Hynes. Kenneth I.
Ingraham, Mr. William A.,
Irvin, Dr. & Mrs. George
Irvin, Mr. & Mrs. E. Milner,
Isen, Mr. & Mrs. Leo
Isnor, Mr. & Mrs. Russell S.
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs.
Jacobs, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Jacobsen, Mr. & Mrs. T. M.
Jacobson, Dr. & Mrs. Jed
Jacobson, Mrs. Lela G.
Jaffer, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
James, Dr. Edward M.
James, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph M.,
James, Mr. & Mrs.
Richmond A., Jr.
James, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
Jeffers, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Jefferson, Dr. & Mrs.
Jensen, Edward C.
Jensen, Mr. & Mrs. Christian
Jimenez, Mr. Juan
Jinks, Mr. Larry
Johns, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Johnson, David W.
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Karl
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. William
Jollivette, Mr. & Mrs. Cyrus
Jones, Dr. & Mrs, Albert
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Bardy
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Darrell E.
Jones, Harry, Jr.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. James E.
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Jesse
Jones, Terry & Anne
Jorgenson, James R.
Joyner, E. H., Jr.
Juncosa, Ralph A,
Junkin, Mr. & Mrs. John E.,
Justiniani, Dr. & Mrs.
Kalback, Mr. & Mrs. Irving
Kallow, Mr. & Mrs. Don D.
Kamlani, Mr. & Mrs. Sham
Kane, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W.,
Kann, Dr. & Mrs. Solomon
Kanold, Mr. & Mrs. William
Kantor, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Karl, Dr. & Mrs. Robert H.
Karl, Mr. & Mrs. Mel
Karo, Mr. & Mrs. William H.
Kassner, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Katzker, Mr. & Mrs. William
Kaufman, Mr. & Mrs. Otto
Kay, Mr. Mark W.
Kayyali, Ms. Susanne S.
Keefe, Dr. Paul H.
Keeley, Mr. & Mrs. Brian
Kelley, John B.
Kelley, Mrs, Marilyn C.
Kelly, Mr. & Mrs. Robert G.,
Kendall, Mr. Harold E.
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A.
Kenyon, Sue C.
Keoughan, Mr. & Mrs. Ken
Kerestes, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Kern, Mr. & Mrs. James A.
Kerness, Mr. & Mrs. Wayne
Kessler, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
Ketay, Jennifer W.
Keusch, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Keye, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Kien, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kilpatrick, Charles W.
Kilpatrick, Ronald Paul
Kinzer, Mayor & Mrs. M.
Kipnis, Mr. & Mrs. Dan
Klausner, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Kleckner, Mr. & Mrs. Ray W.
Klimoski, Mr. & Mrs.
Kline, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Knight, Mr. & Mrs. Jeff
Knotts, Mr. & Mrs. Kim
Koenigsberg, Ms. Linda
Kolski, Mrs. Patricia M.
Koss, Mr. & Mrs.
Kramer, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kraus, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest R.
Krause, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Krauser, Mr. F. W., Jr.
Krauter, Dr. Susan
Kreisberg, Mr. & Mrs. Irving
Kreitman, Dr. & Mrs. Gary
Krig, Mr. & Mrs. Warren
Kronowitz, Mr. & Mrs.
Kronstadt, Mrs. Susan
Krugman, Dr. & Mrs. Stanley
Kuring, Mr. & Mrs. Gerhard
List of Members 79
Lafont, Mr. George
Laird, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Lamphear, Mr. & Mrs.
Lang, Dr. & Mrs. Arnold
Lange, Walter G.
Langer, Mr. & Mrs. Ann
Langley, Mr. Wright
Lapidus, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
LaPorta, Dr. & Mrs. Mark A.
Largay, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Laroche, Mr. & Mrs.
Larry, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Laskin, Mr. & Mrs. Mel
LaTour, Mr. & Mrs. Tony
Lauer, Mr. & Mrs. John F.
Launcelott, Mrs. Janet
Lazarus, Mr. & Mrs. Murray
Lazarus, Ms. Pearl J.
Leathe, Mrs. Paul
Leb, Dr. & Mrs. Stephen M.
Leftwich, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Lehman, Ms. Joan
Lehman, Richard L.
Lemos, Mr. & Mrs. Ramon
Leonard, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Levin, Dr. & Mrs. Herbert S.
Levin, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
Levin, Mr. & Mrs. Robert B.
Liebman, Mr. & Mrs. Walt B.
Liebowitz, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
Lifter, Ms. Anita M.
Liles, Mr. & Mrs. E. Clark
Lindblom, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
Linden, Mr. & Mrs. Jean 0.
Lipman, Mr. Robert
Lipof, Mr. & Mrs. Elliot
Lipoff, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Lipsky, Mr. & Mrs. Bernie
Little, Mr. & Mrs. Albert C.
Livingston, Mr. & Mrs. John
Lodato, Dr. & Mrs. Arthur
Loerky, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
London, Mr. & Mrs. I.
Lopez, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar D.
Lorenzo, Mr. & Mrs. Pedro
Lores, Dr. & Mrs. Edward
Losak, Mr. & Mrs. John
Lotspeich, Mrs. Jay W.
Loumiet, Juan P.
Lovely, Mr. & Mrs. Warren
Ludovici, Mrs. Barbara
Luginbill, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Lummus, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn
Lurie, Ms. Roberta
Luten, Janis B.
Lutton, Mrs. Stephen C.
Luykx, Dr. & Mrs. Peter
Lynd, Mr. & Mrs. Wayne
Lyons, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
MacCullough, Mr. & Mrs.
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs.
MacIntyre, Mr. & Mrs.
MacNaughton, Kevin A.
Madan, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Magaz, Mrs. Theresa
Maingot, Dr. & Mrs.
Mallow, Mr. Robert A.
Mandell, Mrs. Jacqueline K.
Mangum, Mr. & Mrs. A. C.,
Mannion, Jan T.
Manship, Mr. & Mrs. E. K.
Marchante, Mr. & Mrs.
Marcus, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
Marks, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs.
Marsh, Mr. & Mrs. Ulad A.
Martell, Mr. & Mrs. James
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Martinez-cid, Mr. & Mrs.
Mass, Mr. & Mrs. Paul M.
Masterson, Nancy S.
Matchette, Mr. & Mrs. John
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. Finlay
Matkov, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Matlack, Mr. & Mrs. William
Mattucci, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
May, Dr. & Mrs. John A.
Maynard, Mr. & Mrs. Carl
Mayo, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
McAliley, Janet R.
McAuliffe, Mr. & Mrs.
Thomas F., III
McCabe, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
McClellan, Mr. & Mrs. David
McCormick, Dr. James
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs. John
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs. M. B.
McGarry, Mr. & Mrs.
McGraw, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
McGuire, Mr. & Mrs. JohnJ.
Mclver, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart B.
McJilton, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry
McKenzie III, Mr. & Mrs.
McKinstry, Dr. & Mrs. John
McLellan, Mr. James B.
McNaughton, Dr. & Mrs.
Mead, Mr. & Mrs. D., Jr.
Medina, Mr. & Mrs. Martin
MeGee, Mr. & Mrs. B. L.
Mellon, Mr. Leonard E.
Meloan, Carol C.
Mendible, Mr. & Mrs. Ernes-
Merten, Mr. & Mrs. Ulri,
Mescon, Mr. & Mrs. Tim
Metcalf, Dr. George
Metraux, Ms. Jane Y,
Meyer, Mr. & Mrs.
Migliaccio, Mr. &
Mikus, Mr. & Mrs. -
Milander, Henry R.
Millas, Mr. & Mrs. Aristides
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dale
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald S.
Millott, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel
Minahan, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Mishler, Mrs. Jane C.
Moeller, Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd L.
Mohr, Alfred B.
Monahan, Mr. & Mrs.
Monroe, Mr. & Mrs. William
Monsanto, Judge & Mrs.
Montano, Mr. & Mrs. Fausto
Monteagudo, Mr. & Mrs.
Montgomery, Mrs. Maria
Monzon-Aguirre, Mr. & Mrs.
Moore, Donald R.
Moore, Mr. Richard W.
Morales, Mr. & Mrs. Juan
Morales, Mr. & Mrs.
Moretti, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Morgan, Capt. Robert G.
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin S.
Morris, Mr. William H.
Morrison, Dr. & Mrs. Glen
Morton, Mr. & Mrs. David
Moses, Arthur L.
Moss, Mr. & Mrs. Dana M.
Moss, Mrs. Renee
Mrozek, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Muir, Mr. & Mrs. William T.
Muller, Mr. & Mrs. Wayne
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs. Kirk
Murai, Mr. & Mrs. Rene
murphy, Mr. & Mrs. Roger J.
urphy, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. Jon R.
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. 0. C.
Musgrove, Mr. & Mrs.
Musselwhite, Mr. & Mrs.
Mustard, Misses Margaret &
Nagel, Mr. & Mrs. Brent C.
Nance, Mr. & Mrs. G. Tracy,
Nass, Dr. & Mrs. Hal
Natiello, Dr. Thomas A.
Navarini, Mr. & Mrs. George
Neal, Dr. & Mrs. Richard W.
Needell, Dr. & Mrs. Mervin
Nehrbass, Arthur F.
Netherland-Brown, Capt. &
New, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin E.
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Fred C.
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Joel P.
Newman, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan
Newman, Mr. Stuart G.
Nichols, D. Alan
Nichols, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Nielsen, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph C.
Nordt, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
North, Mr. & Mrs. David
Northrop, Mr. & Mrs.
Novack, Mr. & Mrs. Ben
Nuckols, Mr. & Mrs. B. P.,
Nuehring, Mr. & Mrs.
Ocasio, Mr. & Mrs. Manuel
O'Connor, Mr. & Mrs. James
O'Connor, Mr. & Mrs. James
Oliver, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
Olle, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis J.
Onufrieff, Paula Baker
Opes, Ms. Sandra J.
O'Phelan, Mr. & Mrs. Cesar
Orlen, Ms. Roberta
Osborn, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Oswald, Mr. & Mrs. M.
Otto, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas, III
Owens, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
Owre, Mr. & Mrs. Riis J.
Padin. Mr. & Mrs. Juan E.
Pagliarulo, Mr. & Mrs.
Palmer, R.P.A., Alfred R.
Pancoast, John A.
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs. Lester
Pancoast, Peter Russell
Papper, Ms. Patricia M.
Parcell, Mr. & Mrs. Paul W.
Pardington, Mr. & Mrs.
Parish, Mr. & Mrs. David
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Austin
Parker, Crawford H.
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Garth R.
Parkhurst, Mr. & Mrs.
Parnes, Dr. & Mrs. Edmund
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs. Huber
Parsons, Mr. Stephen
Patterson, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Paxton, Dr. & Mrs. G. B., Jr.
Payne, Mrs. R. W., Jr.
Payne, Ruth D.
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
Pearce, Dr. F. H.
Pearson, Mr. Wilbur
Peddle, Mr. & Mrs. Grant L.
Perez, Mr. & Mrs. George J.
Perez, Mr. & Mrs. John
Perron, Mr. & Mrs. Bernard
Perrone, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Perwin, Mrs. Jean
Peskie, Mr. & Mrs. Ted
Peters, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Peters, Mr. & Mrs. Jerry L.
Peters, Mr. & Mrs. Walton
Peterson, Mrs. Edward E.
Phillips, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
Pickens, Dr. John H.
Piehl, Mr. Wesley C.
Pierce, Mrs. Margie K.
Pimm, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
Pistorino, Mr. & Mrs. John
Pitts, Mr. & Mrs. Victor H.
Plunkett, Lawrence L.
Poliakoff, Dr. & Mrs. Steven
Polish, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
Pollack, Mr. & Mrs. David C.
Pooler, Ms. There
Porta, Mr. John E.
Portafekas, Mr. & Mrs. John
Powell, Mr. & Mrs. Carl T.,
Prescott, Mr. John
Prevatt, Mr. & Mrs. Preston
Prevatt, Mr. & Mrs. Preston
Provenzo, Dr. Eugene
Pruitt, Peter T.
List of Members 81
Prussin, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Pushkin, Dr. & Mrs.
Putman, Mr. & Mrs. Emory
Quartin, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Quillian, Dr. Warren, II
Quinton, Mr. & Mrs. A. E.,
Raattama, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Railey, Mr. & Mrs.
Ramberg, Mr. & Mrs. Elliot
Ramirez, Mr. & Mrs.
Ramsey, Mrs. Manuela M.
Randolph, Mr. & Mrs.
Rapee, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart M.
Rapperport, Dr. & Mrs. Alan
Rassel, Greta L.
Rauch, Mr. Jon L.
Rauzin, Mr. & Mrs. Alan
Ray, Peter C.
Raymond, Mr. & Mrs.
Reece, Mr. & Mrs. Evan D.
Reeder, Mr. & Mrs. William
Reeder, William F.
Reeves, Garth C.
Reichbach, Dr. Edward
Reid, Dr. & Mrs. Walter B.
Reiley, Ms. Dannielle
Reilly, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Reinertson, Mr. & Mrs.
Reisman, Mrs. Gail
Relish, Mr. & Mrs. John
Reubert, Mrs. Jay Franklin
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Armando
Reyes, Mr. & Mrs. Jose A.
Reyna, Dr. L. J.
Richard, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph
Richards, Mr. & Mrs.
Richardson, Mr. & Mrs.
Ridolph, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Rieder, Mrs. William Dustin
Riemer, Dr. & Mrs. W. E.
Riess, Mrs. Marie S.
Righetti, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Riley, Mr. & Mrs. Patrick
Rioseco, Mr. & Mrs. Emilio
Rivera, Mr. & Mrs. Tulio
Roach, Mr. Patrick C.
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs. Harry
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs. William
Roberto, Mr. Michele
Rodriguez, Dr. Jose A.
Rodriguez, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Rodriguez, Mr. Ronnie
Rodriguez, Ms. Concepcion
Rogers, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis J.
Rojas, Mr.& Mrs. Esteban R.
Root, Mr. & Mrs. Keith
Rosell, Mr. & Mrs. Antonio
Rosen, Mr. & Mrs. Norman
Rosenberg, Dr. & Mrs.
Rosenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Rosenberg, Mr. & Mrs. Theo
Rosendorf, Mr. & Mrs.
Rosinek, Mr. & Mrs. Jeff
Rosinek, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
Rostov, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
Roth, Mrs. Ellen
Roth, Dr. William
Rothblatt, Emma A.
Roujansky, Mr. & Mrs.
Rowe, Mr. & Mrs. John A.
Rubin, Scott L.
Rubin, Mr. & Mrs. Sid
Ruffner, Charles L.
Ruggles, Read S., Jr.
Russell, Mr. Terry
Russell, Mr. & Mrs. William
Russo, Mr. & Mrs. Anthony
Rutter, Mr. & Mrs.
Ryan, Mr. & Mrs. Richard P.
Ryder, Mr. & Mrs. William
Ryskamp, Mr. & Mrs.
Sacasa, Mr. & Mrs. Octavio
Sacher, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Sackman, Mr. & Mrs. Don
Sacks, Mr. & Mrs. Bernard
Saffir, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Sager, Mr. & Mrs. Bert
Salokar, Mr. & Mrs. Claude
Samson, Dr. Stephen
Samuels, Mr. & Mrs. Harris
Sanchez, Mr. Mario
Sandberg, Mr. & Mrs.
Sands, Mr. & Mrs. George
Sanford, Mr. & Mrs. David
Sanz, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Sapp, Mr. & Mrs. Neil C.
Savage, Mr. John A.
Sax, Mr. & Mrs. George Jay
Schaeffer, Mr. & Mrs. Oden
Schafer, Mr. & Mrs. George
Schafer, W. S.
Schiller, Mr. & Mrs. Melvin
Schimpeler, Dr. Charles C.
Schlang, D. J.
Schneider, Mr. & Mrs.
Schoen, Mr. & Mrs. Marc
Schoonmaker, Mr. & Mrs.
Schreer, Mr. & Mrs. Andy
Schultz, Mr. & Mrs. Tomn
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick W., Ill
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs. Sol
Sciortino, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Scott, Clarissa S., PhD
Scott, Jack L.
Scott, Mrs. Shirley G.
Segal, Mr. & Mrs. Fred
Seipp, Mr. & Mrs. John C.,
Selig, Mr. & Mrs. J. R.
Seltzer, Mr. & Mrs. A. F.
Selvaggi, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Shafer, Mr. & Mrs. Ron
Shapiro, Dr. & Mrs. Alvin J.
Shapiro, Dr. & Mrs. Stanley
Shapiro, Mr. & Mrs. J. H.
Shaw, Mr. & Mrs. Martin L.,
Shay, Mr. & Mrs. Rodger D.
Shayne, Mr. & Mrs. William
Sheehe, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip J.
Shell, Mr. & Mrs. Kevin M.
Sheridan, Mr. & Mrs. George
Sherman, John S.
Shipley, Mr. & Mrs. Vergil A.
Shippee, Robert W.
Shoffner, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Siegel, Mr. & Mrs. Mark A.
Sievers, David J.
Silver, Mr. & Mrs. Bernard F.
Silver, Mrs. Doris S.
Silverstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Glen
Simons, Mr. & Mrs. J. Paul
Simpson, Mr. & Mrs. M. L.
Sims, Dr. & Mrs. Robert J.,
Sindelar, Robert L.
Sisak, Mr. & Mrs. John G.,
Sisselman, Mr. & Mrs.
Skaggs, Dr. & Mrs. Glen 0.
Skigen, Dr. & Mrs. Jack
Sleppy, Nano D.
Slesnick, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Smalley, Diane E.
Smith, Chesterfield, Jr.
Smith, Mr. Edward
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur V.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Harry B.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Linton
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. McGregor
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. R. C.
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. William
Snetman, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Snow, Dr. & Mrs. Selig D.
Snyder, Dr. Gilbert B.
Solodovnick, Mrs. Sara L.
Solomon, Mr. & Mrs.
Sommerville, Mr. & Mrs.
Soper, Mr. & Mrs. Robert P.
Sorrentino, Mr. & Mrs.
Soto, Mr. & Mrs. Carlos
Soto, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
Sowers, Mr. & Mrs. Alberto
Sparks, Herschel E., Jr.
Spechler, Col. & Mrs. Jay W.
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. J. B.
Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. John
Spillis, Mr. & Mrs. James P.
Stage, Mrs. Agnes G.
Stahl, Mr. & Mrs. Fain S.
Staley, Mr. & Mrs. B. R., Jr.
Stanfill, Dr. & Mrs. L. M.
Stark, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
Starkman, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
Stearns, Reid F.
Steel, Mr. William C.
Steeles, Mr. & Mrs. Allan
Steinberg, Mr.& Mrs. Robert
Steinhauer, Mr. & Mrs.
Stieglitz, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Stillman, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Stincer, Dr. & Mrs. Carlos E.
Stinson, Mr. & Mrs. Guy
Stokes, Mr. & Mrs. Lynn
Stone, Mr. & Mrs. A. J.
Stone, Mr. Art
Stone, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce
Stone, Mr. & Mrs. Lynda
Strachman, Mr. & Mrs. Saul
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob
Strehan, Dr. & Mrs.
Struhl, Mrs. Ruth
Stubins, Mr. & Mrs. Morton
Suarez, Mr. Nestor
Suchman, Mrs. Betty
Sukhnovsky, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Sullivan, Jacqueline E.
Sullivan, Mr. & Mrs. Patrick
Supple, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Sussex, Dr. & Mrs. James
Suttile, Mr. & Mrs. Anthony
Sweet, George H.
Tabak, Dr. John D.
Taffer, Mr. Jack
Tanis, Dr. & Mrs. Arnold L.
Taracido, Mr. & Mrs.
Tartak, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan
Tatham, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Taylor, Dr. & Mrs. Andrew
Taylor, Henry H., Jr.
Taylor, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel J.
Taylor, Mr. Marshall
Teagarden, Mr. & Mrs.
Robin B., Jr.
Tenhagen, Mr. & Mrs.
Terman, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert
Theobald, Mrs. Elizabeth
Thomson, Mr. & Mrs. Parker
Thorndike, Mr. & Mrs.
Thornton, Mr. & Mrs. John
Tibaldeo, Mr. & Mrs. Victor
Tilghman, Mr. & Mrs. James
Tillow, Mr. & Mrs. Hyman
Timmons, Mrs. Elizabeth R.
Toms, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Torres, Mr. & Mrs. Alfred
Torres, Mr. & Mrs. Esteban
Torres, Mr. & Mrs. Pastor
Tostanoski, Mr. & Mrs. John
Tranchida, Mr. & Mrs.
Trapaga, Mrs. Victoria T.
Traum, Mr. & Mrs. Sydney S.
Tremaine, Mr. & Mrs. James
Tribble, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
Trochet, Dr. & Mrs. Jean A.
Troner, Dr. & Mrs. Michael
Tschumy, Mr. William E., Jr.
Tuggle, Mr. & Mrs. Auby L.
Tunstall, Mr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Turner, Mr. & Mrs. Vernon
Turner, Mrs. Sherry
Uhalt, Jerry Lee
Ulsh, Mr. & Mrs. William G.
Unger, Dr. Harold M.
Valdez-Fauli, Mr. & Mrs.
List of Members 83
Valentino, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Valiente, Mr. & Mrs. David
Van Orsdel, Mr. & Mrs.
Van Riper, Mr. & Mrs. W. B.,
Vasquez, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Vaughan, Mr. & Mrs.
Vaughn, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Ventura, Mr. & Mrs. Henry
Vergara, Dr. & Mrs. George
Villanova, Mr. & Mrs. F. L.
Villar, Mr. & Mrs. Jose
Vlasuk, Mr. & Mrs. George
Voght, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
Vohs, Mr. & Mrs. Lester J.
Wade, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
Wakeman, Mr. & Mrs.
Charles H., Jr.
Wald, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis E.
Walker, J. Frost
Walker, Mr. J. F.
Wall, Mr. & Mrs. Burt
Waller, Mr. & Mrs. David F.
Ward, Mr. & Mrs. Ronald
Ward, Mrs. Virginia A.
Ward, Ms. Joanna K.
Warden, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
Warrington, Mr. & Mrs. C.
Watkins, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald
Watson, Mr. Anthony V.
Watson, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey
Watts, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen
Weaver, Mr. & Mrs. David
Weems, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
Wegman, Charles B.
Weidenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Weinkle, Mr. & Mrs. Melvin
Weinstein, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis
Weinthal, Mr. & Mrs. Riva
Weintraub, Mr. & Mrs.
Weisenfeld, Mr. & Mrs.
Weissenborn, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
Weldon, Norman R.
Welles, Mr. & Mrs. Peter D.
Welsh, Mr. & Mrs. R. M.
Wenck, Mr. & Mrs. James H.
Wepman, Warren S.
Werner, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart A.
Wersen, Mr. William D.
Wershil, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey
West, Mr. & Mrs. Everett G.
Whigham, Mr. & Mrs. R. E.
White, Mr. & Mrs. Robert R.
White, Mr. & Mrs. William
Whiteside, Mr. & Mrs. Eric
Whitman, Mr. & Mrs.
Wicks, Mr. & Mrs. Alan C.
Wicks, Mrs, Phyllis
Wiggins, Mr. & Mrs. Mack
Wilcox, Mr. & Mrs. W. P.
Williams, Dr. & Mrs. George,
Williams, Lt.Col. & Mrs.
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Carl
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Denzyl
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Elmo
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Tom
Wilson, Mr. Chuck
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. David L.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. George
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Grey
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Hugh H.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Peyton
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Walter B.
Wimbish, Mr. & Mrs. Paul C.
Wimmers, Howard L.
Winebrenner, L. M.
Wingerter, Mr. & Mrs. Roger
Winslow, Mrs. Sally Wood
Wirkus, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
Witkoff, Dr. & Mrs. Fred
Wittenstein, Mr. & Mrs.
Wolfe, Mr. & Mrs. Gregory
Wolff, Mr. & Mrs. William
Wolfson, Mrs. L.
Wollner, Mr. Alan
Wood, Mr. & Mrs. Warren
Woods, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M.
Woods, Mr. & Mrs. John P.
Woods, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Workman, Mr. & Mrs. David
Worley, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
Worth, Mr. & Mrs. James G.
Wright, Mr. & Mrs. J. A.
Wright, Mr. & Mrs. James
Wronski, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Wunderlich, Mr. Paul B.
Wyllie, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart S.
Yarborough, Dr. & Mrs.
Yoder, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
Yost, Mr. Roger L.
Young, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
Zane, Dr. & Mrs. Sheldon
Zapata, Mr. & Mrs. Albert
Zaragovia, Mr. & Mrs.
Zaydon, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Zdon, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
Zeder, Mr. & Mrs. Jon W.
Zeledon, Mr. Steven
Zelenak, Mrs. Pam
Zeller, Mr. Ronald J.
Zelman, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Zeno, Mrs. Olimpia T.
Ziff, Mr. & Mrs. Sanford L.
Zigmont, Mr. & Mrs.
Zinn, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel A.
Zolten, Robert A., M.D.
Zwick, Charles J.
Abercrombie, Ms. Nell
Abreu, Ms. Gloria M.
Adams, Mrs. Betty R.
Adams, Ms. Janice
Adams, Mrs. Richard B.
Aguirre, Mr. Xavier A.
Albury, Dr. Paul
Alexander, Dr. & Mrs. Julius
Alexander, Mr. David T.
Alterman, Mr. Richard
Alvey, Ms. Frances Kent
Amdur, Ms. Phyllis
Ammidown, Ms. Margot
Amsterdam, Mr. Carl D.
Ancona, Mrs. John
Andersen, Mr. Hans
Andrew, Mr. James R.
Andrews, Ms. Ellen
Aparicio, Ms. Mara
Apple, Mr. Lawrence B.
Appleby, Mr. Vernon F.
Arango, Mrs. Judith
Armentrout, Ms. Tommy J.
Arredondo, Dr. Carlos R.
Arrington, Ms. Viviana
Artiles, Ms. Ana M.
Astroth, Ms. Elizabeth
Atwood, Mr. Charles F., III
Aye, Mr. Charles
Ayer, Mr. John H.
Babson, Mrs, Dorothy S.
Bagg, Mrs. John L., Jr.
Baker, Mr. Charles H., Jr.
Baker, Mrs. Elaine M.
Baker, Mr. George
Baker, Ms. Joyce
Baldwin, Mr. C. J.
Bamberg, Mr. Harold S.
Baque, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
Barr, Ms. Ellen M.
Barritt, Ms. Evelyn R.
Bauer, Ms. Doris C.
Baumann, Mr. John
Baumez, Mr. W. L.
Beardmore, Dr. Elizabeth L.
Beasley, Mr. James W., Jr.
Becker, Mr. Wayne
Beery, Anna S.
Benivegna, Mr. Raymond
Bennett, Ms. Barbara
Bennett, Ms. Olga S.
Benovitz, Dr. Larry P.
Bercovich, Ms. Gertrude
Beriault, John G.
Berman, Neil J.
Berning, Mr. C.
Bessent, Mary Lou
Bishop, Mr. James E.
Bitter, Mrs. Barbara
Blakeslee, Miss Zola Mae
Bloomberg, Robert L.
Bodrato, Mr. Gregg P.
Bogaards, Mrs. Martha
Bohne, Ms. Lily
Bolt, Mrs. Katherine H.
Bonham, Jacqueline J.
Booth, Phillip B.
Bower, Roy P.
Boyd, Ms. Debrah Lee
Braddock, Mrs. Ruth
Braid, Ms. Linda S.
Bramson, Seth H.
Brannen, Mrs. Helen S.
Braunstein, Dr. Jonathan J.
Bray, Mr. Wallace S., Jr.
Brice, Mrs. Nancy
Bridges, Ms. Terry
Brown, Ms. Deborah
Brown, Doris S.
Brown, Ms. Linda R.
Brown, Maida P.
Brown, Mr. Steven M.
Bruk, Ms. Barbara A.
Brush, Robert W.
Bryant, Mrs. Karen
Bryant, Mr. Thomas M.
Bryant, Ms. Nancy
Buhler, Emil, HI
Buker, Mr. Charles E., Sr.
Burch, Mr. William M.
Burkam, Mr. Douglas R.
Burke, Robert R.
Burr, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
Burrus, E. Carter, Jr.
Bush, Gregory W.
Bush, Ms. Malvina E.
Byer, Ms. Darlene
Calandrino, Anne C.
Camp, Robert J., M.D.
Carden, Ms. Marguerite G.
Carey, Hon. Barbara
Carlebach, Ms. Diane G.
Carroll, Elisabeth J.
Carroll, Mark M.
Carter, Martha W.
Cason, Robert M.
Cassel, John, M.D.
Casselberry, Mr. Hibbard, Jr.
Cassidy, Opal D.
Caster, Mrs. George B.
Caster, Dr. P., FACS
Castro, Ms. Rose
Casuso, Mr. Martin Eduardo
Cerlingione, Mr. Alfred C.
Chaille, Joseph H.
Chapman, Arthur E.
Cheezem, Ms. Jan C.
Chimerakis, Mr. Poppi K.
Christ, Mrs. Anita
Christensen, Bruce A.
Christensen, Mrs. Charlotte
Christie, Mrs. Robert E.
Clark, Hon. Stephen P.
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert
Cohen, Ms. Elaine G.
Cole, Richard P.
Collins, Ms. Anna M.
Collins, Ms. Barbara H.
Colville, Mr. Gilbert G.
Conduitte, Catherine J.
Congdon, Ms. Diane M.
Connellan, Ms. Barbara E.
Connor, Mrs. Pearl A.
Cook, Gary L.
Copelan, Mr. John J., Jr.
Copeland, Ms. Patric E.
Cornfeld, Mr. Robert M.
Corson, Mr. Hal
Corson, Ms. Ruth D.
Cosgrove, Rep. John
Costello, Mr. James
Costomiris, Ms. Joyce
Cox, Mr. Hallie M., Jr.
Creel, Mr. Joe
Crockett, Mr. Jeffrey B.
Culmer, Mrs. Leone
Culpepper, K. M.
Cummings, Mr. George, III
Curl, Mr. Donald W.
Davis, Alvin B.
Davis, Jim Frank
De La Cruz, Ms. Eulalia
De Los Santos, Mr. Adele
Deans, Mr. Douglas W.
List ofMembers 85
Deem, Mr. William J.
del Castillo, Ms. Marques
Demoya, Ms. Ana E.
Derleth, Linda Ann
Diamond, Mr. J. Leonard
Diamond, Ms. Janis
Diaz, Ms. Elda L.
Doerner, Mrs. Rosemary
Donovan, Mr. James M., Jr.
Dorn, Mr. Michael C.
Dougherty, Georgette H.
Downey, Ms. Martha R.
Drozdowicz, Mrs. Dawn
Drulard, Marnie L.
Dumas, Ernest M.
Dunan, G. V.
Dunn, Frances G.
Durant, Ms. Debra
Duvall, Mr. John E.
Dykes, Mrs. Debra L.
Dysart, Mary Ann
Eaton, Ms. Sarah
Eberhart, Ms. Claire A.
Ebsary, Richard W.
Echavarria, Mr. Juan T.
Eckhart, James M.
Edelen, Ms. Ellen
Ederer, Ms. Norma
Edwards, Mr. Ronald G.
El Portal Women's Club
Elliot, Donald L.
Ellis, Ms. Beverly
Ellison, Dr. Waldo M.
Engelke, Ms. Syble
Ernst, Ms. Martha
Ernst, Ms. Patricia G.
Errera, Mrs. Dorothy
Etling, Mr. Walter
Evans, Ms. Greta
Evans, Mr. Harold S.
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers
Fabricio, Mr. Roberto
Farrell, John R.
Fascell, Mrs. Jeanne-Marie
Ferguson, Mr. & Mrs. James
Fernandez, Mr. Amado E.
Fernandez, Dr. Rolando
Fernandez, Ms. Rosalia
Fernandez, Ms. Vivian M.
Fidelman, Mr. A. I.
Field, Mrs. Lamar
Finley, Mr. George T.
Fisher, Mr. & Mrs. Ray
Fitzgerald-Bush, Frank S.
Fitzgerald, Ms. Sharon A.
Fleischmann, Mr. Thomas F.
Florence, Mrs. Robert S.
Florida House, Inc.
Floyd, Mr. Lynn C.
Foley, Sheila T.
Font, Mrs. Milagros
Fonte, Joan Conner
Foote, Mr. & Mrs. Edward T.
Foote, Ms. Elizabeth
Forsyth, Ms. Helen
Fortner, Mr. Edward
Foye, Nancy R.
Fraga, Mr. Ramon J.
Frank, Capt. William P.
Freeman, Ms. Gil S.
Freeman, Mr. Richard Allen
Fried, Ms. Susan M.
Friedman, Ms. Emily
Frohock, John M.
Galbraith, Christine S.
Gallwey, William J., III
Garcia, Mr. Adriano, Jr.
Garcia, Tessi J.
Gelberg, Mr. Bob
George, Cherie M.
George, Dr. Paul S.
Gibbs, Mr. W. Tucker
Gibson, Mr. John J.
Gilbert, Mr. Chester
Gillies, Ms. Patricia L.
Ginsburg, R. N.
Goebel, Harry B.
Goldforb, Mrs. Cindy B.
Goldman, Sue S.
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L.
Goldsticker, Ms. Helene
Gonzalez, Maria I.
Gonzalez, Mr. Adrian R.,
Gonzalez, Mr. Jorge E.
Goodin, Jack A., Jr.
Goodlove, Mrs. William
Gordon, Hon. Jack
Gordon, Mr. Gail
Gordon, Ms. Polita C.
Gottfried, Mrs. Ted
Gould, Mr. Bernice
Gowin, Dr. Thomas S.
Goza, William M.
Gracer, Gene B.
Graham, Gov. & Mrs. D.
Grant, Stuart Mathew
Grassell, Diane B.
Grayson, Ms. Tamar L.
Greater Miami Chamber of
Grentner, Ms. Lynn
Grier, Helen R.
Griffis, Mr. Dennis J., Jr.
Gross, Zade B.
Grout, Ms. Nancy E.
Guanci, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
Gubbins, John M.
Gudis, Ms. Patricia A.
Haas, Mrs. Joan G.
Hale, Ms. Kay K.
Hall, Mr. M. Lewis, Jr.
Hames, Ms. Christina
Hamilton, Mr. James F.
Hamlin, Ms. Linda
Hammett, Mrs. Virginia R.
Hammond, Dr. Jeffrey
Hancock, Mrs. James
Hanni, H. S.
Hardie, Mr. George B., Jr.
Harrington, Mr. Bill
Harris, Col. Emrys
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. M. R.,
Harter, Ms. Nancy L.
Harwood, Mrs. Manton E.
Hazday, Mr. Charley A.
Heald, Thomas E.
Hebert, Mr. Mark A.
Helene, Carol J.
Helliwell, Ms. Anne E.
Hendry, Judge Norman
Hernandez, Ms. Mirtha A.
Herring, Mrs. V. R.
Hertzberg, David J.
Hett, Marilyn P.
Hibbard, R. W.
Hinote, Ms. Joan
Hipsman, Mr. Mitchell
Hirsch, Mr. Milton
Hirschl, Dr. Andy
Hodges, Barbara A.
Hofstetter, Mrs. Ronald
Hogan, G. B., Jr.
Hogg, Mr. John F.
Hogin, Ms. Nancy H.
Holcomb, Lyle D., Jr.
Holland, Mrs. Francine D.
Holland, Mr. Kim
Hollinger, Mrs. Barbara
Holzman, Ms. Tressa A.
Hoover, Mrs. John
Hopkins, Mrs. Carter
Horruitiner, Mr. Rolando
Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie
Hotchkiss, Mr. Walter
Howard, Miss Elaine V.
Hoyo, Ms. Kim A.
Hubbart, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip
Huff, Van E.
Humkey, Joe Erskine
Hunter, Frances G.
Huntsberry, Margaret N.
Huston, Catherine B.
Irwin, Mr. C. J.
Jack, Mrs. Rose
Jacks, Ms. Rachael
Jacobs, Mrs. Ruth
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen L.
James, Mr. Tandra
Jeffreys, David E., Jr.
Johnson, Mrs. Eric W.
Jones, Donna Jean
Jones, Gail G.
Jones, Mr. Donald W.
Jones, Mr. William F.
Jones, Mrs. Ardith D.
Jones, Mrs. Frances
Jones, Ms. Margaret A.
Jones, Ms. Jacqueline
Jones, Thompson V.
Jordan, Mrs. June T.
Julian, Mrs. Lawrence C.
Kainen, Mr. Dennis G.
Kanis, Mr. Michael D.
Kaplan, Dr. Joseph E.
Karafel, Robert D.
Karlin, Mr. Ronnie Lynn
Kassewitz, Mrs. Ruth B.
Kaufelt, Mr. David A.
Kavanaugh, Daniel A.
Keaton, Ms. Martha
Keiter, Dr. Roberta M.
Keith, William V.
Keller, Barbara P.
Kelley, Dr. Robert L.
Kelley, Mr. Jan
Kelly, Dr. J. Terence
Kendall, Peter H. J.
Kenner, Mrs. Maynard
Kent, Deborah L.
Kent, Mr. W. R.
Kesselman. Michael N.
King, Mr. Arthur, Sr.
King, Charles E.
King, Mr. Dennis G.
King, Mr. Michael M.
Kipnis, Ms. Norma
Kister, Ms. Suzon 0.
Kjelson, Mrs. Betty L.
Klein, Mr. Henry
Kofink, Rev. Wayne A.
Koler, Ms. Ann L.
Kononoff, Hazel N.
Kopituk, Mrs. Dorothy 0.
Koski, Antoinette M.
Kossow, Ms. Suellen E.
Krichton, Mrs. Carl V.
Kriebs, Mr. Robert V.
Kruse, Mr. Jerry
Kurtz, Ms. Christine H.
Lacy, Dr. George E.
Lake Worth Public Library
Lama, Ms. Mary C.
Lane, Elizabeth A.
Laroue, Samuel D., Jr.
Larson, Mr. Peter
LaRussa, Lynne M.
Lawson, Dr. H. L.
Laxson, Mr. Danny
Leban, Mrs. Mary H.
LeDuc, Charlotte J.
Leon, Mr. Salvador, Jr.
Leonard, Mr. Joseph S.
Lerner, Ms. Shirley
Leshay, Mr. Michael A.
Leslie, Nancy L.
Levenson, Ms. Rachel S.
Levine, Richard B.
Levine, Dr. Robert M.
Levitz, Esther M.
Levy, Ms. Elyse
Lewis, Mrs. Elizabeth H.
Light, Mt. Kevin S.
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E.
Linehan, Mrs. John
Link, Mrs. E. A.
Lippert, W. K.
Littlefield, Ms. Doris B.
Lloyd, J. Harlan
Lobdell, Mr. Richard B.
Lombardi, Mrs. Elaine L.
Lombardo, Ms. Barbara A.
Lomonosoff, Boris M.
Long, Mr. & Mrs. Charles M.
Lonsdale, Mr. Charles K.
Looney, Evelyn 0.
Lotz, Aileen R.
Lowery, Mrs. Nereida
Lowry, James R., Jr.
Loxahatchee Hist. Society
Lubitz, Mr. Alan H.
Lunsford, Mrs. E. C.
Lux, Thomas J.
Mabbatt, Ms. Patricia W.
MacDonald, Mr. Frank
Mackin, Ms. Patricia
Mackle, Milbrey W.
MacLaren, Ms. Valerie
Madeira, Ms. E. Duane
Maer, Ms. Miriam
Malafronte, Anthony F.
Malone, Mrs. Katherine
Malone, Mrs. Randolph A.
Malvido, Ms. Emma
Mangels, Dr. Celia C.
Marks, Larry S.
Marks, Lee P.
Marlowe, Helen L.
Marotti, Frank, Jr.
Marshall, Mrs. Judy 0.
List of Members 87
Marshall, Ms. Treva I.
Martin, Emmett E., Jr.
Martin, Mrs. Margaret W.
Martin, Mrs. Wayne
Martinez, Mr. Hilarion A.
Mason, William C., III
Matheson, James F.
Mattaway, Marlene Weiss
Maxwell, Mr. Michael
Maymi, Ms. Ana Teresa
McCall, C. Lawton
McCollum, Mr. John I., Jr.
McCreary, Ms. Jane
McCulloch, Mr. John E.
McDermott, Ms. Marion E.
McDonough, Martha Morrill
McDowell, Mr. Charles
McGuire, Jeanie L.
McIntosh, Jeannette C.
McIntosh, Ms. Patricia M.
McKenna, Mr. Daniel C.
McKenna, Mrs. Alice M.
McKey, Mrs. Robert
McNaughton, Ms. Virginia
McTague, Mr. R. H.
Mekras, Drs. Dowlen,
Mell, W. B., Jr.
Melman, Mr. D. A.
Mendez, Mr. Jesus
Mendoza, Mrs. EnidD.
Metka, Joseph A., Jr.
Michel, Ms. Mary Ellen
Middlethon, William Royal,
Milledge, Evelyn M.
Milledge, Sarah F.
Milledge, Mrs. Sally
Miller, Mr. Philip Orme
Miller, William J.
Mills, Ms. Meredith
Milton, Ms. Sandra C.
Minton, Thomas L.
Mitchell, Mr. Michael J.
Molinari, R. E., DDS
Monroe, Mr. Michael L.
Montague, Charles H.
Montelone, Mr. Beth A.
Moore, Patrick F.
Morris, Mr. James
Mortimer, Mr. Lawrence N.
Morton, Ms. Jan
Moure, Mrs. Edwin P.
Moylan, Mrs. E. B., Jr.
Moynahan, John H.
Muller, David F.
Multhauf, Mr. Christopher
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs. Tim
Myers, Lillian G.
Nagel, Dr. Daryl T.
Nagy, Mrs. Shirley L.
Narot, Mrs. Helene
Narup, Mrs. Mavis
Navarro, Mr. Pablo A.
Neal, Mrs. Margaret S.
Nelson, Mr. Joe
Nelson, Mr. John E., Jr.
Nelson, Mr. Jonathan
Nelson, Ms. Susan
Nelson, Theodore R.
Newcomm, Mrs. Sally E.
Nicholson, Mrs. Allene
Nimnicht, Mrs. Helen
Nimnicht, Mrs. Mary Jo
Nodine, Donald E.
Nolden, Ms. Jill
Obradovich, Mr. Timothy G.
O'Brien, Ms. Dorothy
O'Connell, Mr. & Mrs. Peter
O'Connor, Ms. Dorothy B.
Oesterle, Hon. Clara
Oliver, Hon. William G.
Olivieri, Mr. Robert V.
Orovitz, Mr. & Mrs. Warren
Oshinsky, Dr. Judy C.
Osterman, Ms. Rebecca
Overstreet, Estelle C.
Padgett, Mr. Inman
Palen, Mr. Frank S.
Park, Mr. Dabney, G., Jr.
Parker, Mr. Robin E.
Parks, Ms. Jeanne M.
Parsons, Ms. Heather Marie
Pasawicz, Mrs. Teresa
Paul, Mrs. Kenneth
Paulk, Mr. Jule
Paxton, Ms. Barbara W.
Peck, Ms. Jeanette D.
Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth
Pepper, Hon. Claude
Perez, Ms. Maria-Teresa
Perl, Mr. Hermine
Perle, Mrs. Veronica
*Peters, Dr. Thelma
Petrilla, Mr. William J.
Philbin, Helen K.
Philbrick, W. L.
Phillips, Hon. Beverly
Pickard, Ms. Carolyn
Pickering, Ms. Julie
Pierce, Mrs. J. B., Jr.
Pierce, Mr. J. E.
Pierce, Mr. & Mrs. L. Staples
Pinder, Mr. Ray
Pinnas, Ms. Ruth Meltzer,
Plummer, Lawrence H.
Poole, Mr. Edwin L.
Pope, Ms. Connie
Portillo, Mr. Eduardo
Posner, Mr. Joseph
Poston, Sandra E.
Proenza, Christina D.
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F.
Quesenberry, William F., Jr.
Ramos, Pauline E.
Rappaport, Dr. Edward
Raskin, Ms. B. J.
Reagan, A. James, Jr.
Redford, Honorable James
Reed, Ms. Elizabeth Ann
Reed, Richard E.
Refcofski, Ms. Veronica
Rehwoldt, Mr. Ralph
Reinhardt, Miss Blanche E.
Reiss, Ms. B. K.
Rempe, Mr. & Mrs. E. T.
Renaud, Yvonne M.
Reno, Ms. Janet, Esq.
Reordan, William C.
Retz, Diane L.
Rey, Ada M.
Reyes, Mr. Paul D.
Reyes, Ms. Lina T.
Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R.
Risley, Mr. Douglas L.
Robbins, Mrs. Lawrence J.
Roberts, Ms. Jacquelyn A.
Roberts, Richard E.
Robertson, Mr. Neil P.
Roca, Pedro L.
Rodriguez, M. Conchi
Rodriguez, Mr. Juan A.
Rodriguez, Ms. Ofelia M.
Rogers, Mrs. Walter S.
Roman, Mr. Carlos
Rosen, Mr. Mitchell A.
Rosenblatt, Dr. A. W.
Rosendorf, Howard S., Jr.
Ross, Mrs. Leroy W.
Roth, Ms. Iris
Routon, Mr. Thomas R.
Rowe, Mr. Robert E.
Roxton, Mr. V. E.
Rubin, Hon. Harvey
Rubinstein, Mr. Leonard
Rubio, Mr. Edward
Ruden, Mrs. Eliza P.
Russell, Ms. Darlene
Russell, Laurie Snow
Sakson, Ms. Sharon
Salley, Mrs. Sadie S.
Salley, Virginia Sutton
Samet, Alvin M.
Samet, Barbara J.
Sanabria, Mrs. Idella
Sanchez-Pando, Dr. Josefina
Sands, Harry B.
Santa-Maria, Ms. Yvonne
Santalla, Gilda M.
Santo Pietro, James Joseph
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan
Sargent, Priscilla M.
Sauer, Wendel L.
Sax, Connie A.
Schaefer, Nora K.
Schmitz, Mr. Paul Lambert
Scholtz, Mrs. Mary L.
Schotz, Mr. Sylvan, P.A.
Schreiber, Hon. Barry D.
Scurr, Mr. Charles
Segal, Mrs. Natalie J.
Seidler, Mrs. Sara
Seixas, Margarita E.
Selati, Mr. Kenneth
Shack, Hon. Ruth
Sharer, Cyrus J.
Sheeran, Ms. Kathy
Sheffield, Mrs. Charlotte
Shouse, Abbie H.
Siegel, Ms. Lynn
Silbert, Jeffrey M., PhD
Silverstein, Ms. Myra
Simmonite, Col. Henry G.
Sims, Mrs. Vi
Skipp, Ms. Marjorie
Smith, Irene C.
Smith, Jean Z.
Smith, Mr. James Merrick
Smith, Mrs. Avery C., Jr.
Smith, Ms. Leslie
Smith, Ms. Sandra P.
Smith, Rebecca A.
Smudski, Ms. Martha 0.
Snoweiss, Mr. Howard
Sorice, Ms. Sue
Soto, Mr. Keith E.
Sottile, Mr. & Mrs. James
Sowell, Mr. J. A.
Spencer, Mrs. Mary M.
Speroni, Mrs. Dorothy
Spivey, Ms. Joan M.
St. Augustine Historical
Stafford, Mr. Morgan J.
Stark, Miss Judi
Staubach, James C.
Stearns, Laura P.
Stein, Lois L.
Steinberg, Marty L.
Steirheim, Hon. Merritt
Stevens, Mrs. Elizabeth
Stewart, Ms. Edyth
Stewart, Mr. Rod
Stirrup, Ms. Edeane W.
Stobbs, Ms. Martha M.
Stock, Ms. Ruth V.
Stofik, Ms. Marty
Stone, Mr. Robert L., Jr.
Stovall, Lucy P.
Stuntz, Martha M.
Suiter, Patricia A.
Sundquist, Mr. Percy U. H.
Sutherland, Dr. Claudia S.
Swartz, Donna C.
Sweed, Mr. Art
Sweeney, Mrs. Ethel
Swisher, Mr. John E.
Sysskind, Mr. & Mrs. Eric
Taddeo, Hilda L.
Tambor, Mr. Rosemary F.
Tardiff, Robert G.
Taylor, James I.
Taylor, Mr. Brian Scott
Taylor, Ms. Jane I.
Tharp, Mrs. Charles Doren
Thomas, Phillip A.
Thompson, Mona Denise
Thorn, Dale A.
Thorner, Mr. Robert
Thornton, Esq., Mr. DadeW.
Thorpe, Fran Hutchings
Thurlow, Tom, Jr.
Tipmore, Mr. David B.
Toledo, Mr. Claudio
Tomlinson, Mr. Edwin L.
Trescott, Mr. Jean L.
Trimble, Ms. Judi
Trotta, Judy E.
Tucker, Bruce E.
Tucker, Dr. Gail S.
Turner, Mrs. Barbara A.
Turner, Mrs. Roberta H., Jr.
Underwood, Mrs. Jean
University of Iowa
Valdez, Hon. Jorge
Van Denend, Mrs. Herbert
Van Landingham, Mr. Kyle
Vanderwyden, William P.
Veenstra, Mr. Tom H.
Velar, Mr. Pedro L.
Venditti, Mr. Robert E.
Veronski, D. J.
Via, Miss Elizabeth A.
Viele, Mr. John W.
Visser, Mrs. Maaike
Vivian, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
List of Members 89
Volker, Mary Frances
Walaitis, Ms. Jane
Waldberg, Mrs. Jean
Waldron, Mrs. Neal E.
Walker, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
Wall, Mr. Arthur E. P.
Walsh, Bryan 0., Mngr.
Wassell, Mrs. John R., Jr.
Waterman, Ms. Alice
Watt, Mr. Jim
Weaver, Ms. Carol Lynn
Weidenfeld, Ms. Barbara
Weihrauch, Miss Dorothy E.
Weller, Mr. Frank
Weiss, Mrs. Meryle
Weit, Mr. Richard
Wellenhofer, Mr. John L., Jr.
Wenck, Ms. Dorinda B.
Werblow, Mrs. Marcella U.
Werbstein, Timothy P.
Wersen, Mrs. Bessie
West, Karen C.
West, Ms. Patsy
Westmoreland, Ms. Colleen
Whalin, Mr. Michael J.
Wherrity, Ms. Gloria
White, Richard M.
Whitenack, Mrs. Helen E.
Whitten, George E.
Wiener, Donald M.
Williams, Ms. Billie Jo
Williams, Ms. Celia
Williams, Ms. Kathryn
Willing, Mr. David L.
Wilson, Daniel F.
Winn, Honorable Sherman
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion
Wolfe, Ms. Rosalie L.
Wolff, Robin M.
*Woore, Mrs. Meredith A.
Worley, Mr. Robert
Wright, Dr. lone S.
Wright, Mr. Robert C.
Wynne, Mr. James R.
Yates, Ms. Patricia
Yehle, Ms. Jean T.
Young, Montgomery L.
Young, Ms. Ann
Abbott, Mrs. Monica
Abele, Mr. C. Robert
Abraham, Mr. George
Adams, Mr. Eugene C.
Adams, Mr. Gus C.
Alderman, Mr. Jewell
Alexander, Ms. Romaine J.
Allen, Mrs. Eugenia
Allen, Ms. Anne
Allen, Ms. Babs
Allsworth, Mr. E. H.
Amazon, Mrs. Virginia
Anderson, Mrs. Florence E.
Anderson, Dr. Raymond T.
Andreu, Mrs. Leonor R.
Archer, Mrs. Mildred E.
Archutowski, Ms. Jean J.
Arnold, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
Ashley, Mrs. John W.
Backus, Ms. Hazel R.
Bacon, Mrs. Jones
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins
Balfe, Ms. Roberta
Barnes, CoL Francis H.
Barrentine, Sara G.
Baucom, Mrs. Ruth K.
Baumann, Ms. Grace E.
Baya, Mr. George J., Esq.
Beasley, Mr. J. W.
Beazel, Ms. Mary G.
Beck, Mr. Thomas M.
Benitez, Mr. Manuel E.
Bennett, Mrs. Clark N.
Biedron, Mrs. Stanley
Bielawa, R. A.
Bills, Mrs. John T.
Biondi, Mr. Jerris
Bishop, Mrs. Edwin H.
Blackwell, Mr. & Mrs. W. L.
Blake, Ms. Lucille B.
Blake, Mrs. Richard E.
Blakey, Mr. B. H.
Blanck, Mr. Bernard G.
Blazevic, Raymond L.
Blumenefield, Mrs. Beatrice F.
Bonawit, Oby J.
Boruff, Mrs. Hannah H.
Bouterse, Mr. Howard
Zabsky, Harold J.
Zagar, Ms. Suzanne
Boymer, Mr. Leonard
Brady, Mrs. Alice E.
Brady, Margaret R.
Braswell, Mr. Julian H.
Breck, E. Carrington
Breeze, Mrs. K: W.
Brooks, J. R.
Brown, Mrs. Andrew G.
Brown, Mrs. Mildred P.
Brown, Mrs. Sylvia G.
Brown, Mrs. William J.
Brunstetter, Mrs. Roscoe
Burnstein, Mr. Barney
Buslow, Miss Selma
Butler, Mr. Donald H.
Buxbaum, Lt.Col. P. U.
Cail, Ms. Essie M.
Calhoun, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
Camps, Mr. Roland
Carleton, Mrs. Lowis
Carroll, Mrs. Edith A.
Carroll, Ms. Myrtice P.
Cartee, Mrs. Horace L.
Catlow, Mr. & Mrs. William
Caudell, Miss Brownee
Chaille, Mrs. Josiah
Chandler, Mrs. Winifred
Childs, Mrs. Marina
Clark, Betty C.
Clark, Ida M.
Clark, Lt.Col. Bernal E.
Clay, Madeline M.
Clay, Mr. Everett A.
Cobo, Mr. Lionel M.
Coburn, Mr. Louis
Coleman, Hannah P.
Commings, Ms. Arlene
Cone, Lawrence B.
Conlon, Lyndon C.
Cook, Donna C.
Cooper, Jay B.
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. W.
Costello, Mrs. Gertrude
Creel, Mr. Earl M.
Crowell, Ms. Sylvia C.
Cushman, Dr. Laura
Zeller, Mrs. Leila
Zwickler, Ms. Betty Usdan
Dann, Mr. Charles W., Jr.
Daughtry, Mr. Dewitt C.
Davis, Carl H.
Dawson, Phyllis M. G.
Dearman, Rachel A.
Delaney, Mrs. W. J., Jr.
Delgado, Mr. Heriberto
Dermody, Ms. Rose E.
Deville, E. Josephine
Diamond, Mr. Walter W.
Dodge, Mrs. C. W.
**Douglas, Marjory Stoneman
Drew, Mrs. H. E.
Driver, Mr. Charles P.
Duffy, Ms. Elizabeth M.
Dunn, Mr. James F.
Duntov, Ms. Lili
Eames, Ms. Helen F.
Ellis, Mrs. Elgar P.
Eppes, William D.
Eyster, Irving R.
Fairbrother, Ms. Bette D.
Feingold, Mrs. Natalie
Ferguston, Mrs. Milton
Field, Dr. Henry
Fischer, Elaine R.
Flick, Mr. & Mrs. Willis H.
Floyd, Robert L.
Floyd, Shirley P.
Font, Mrs. Aurelia
Frisbie, Mr. Loyal
Fritsch, Mr. Renee Z.
Fuchs, Richard W.
George, Mrs. Edwana T.
Gertler, Mr. Sidney
*Gifford, Mrs. Martha Wilson
Gingold, Ms. Eugenia
Glattaver, Dr. Alfred
Goldsmith, Mrs. Cornelia S.
Goldstein, Mr. Albert M.
Gonzalez, Mr. Emilio M.
Grasselli, Eleanor D.
Green, Dorothy B.
Grethen, Mrs. J.
Gutman, Ms. Jacqueline
Haggard, Ms. Cora Nell
Hagner, Casper C.
Hajek, Ms. Eva
Hall, Jane C.
Hall, Mrs. Leona J.
Haller, Mrs. 0. W.
Hand, Robert E.
Harllee, J. William
Harris, Mrs. Henriette
Harris-Herscher, Ms. Ruth
Harrison, John H.
Harrison, Mr. Herman
Hauser, Leo A.
Heckerling, Mrs. Philip
Heldt, Agneta C.
Hengge, Mr. Bernard G.
*Herin, Thomas D.
Herreshoff, Mrs. Rebecca
Herst, Mr. Herman, Jr.
Hester, Mrs. Virginia H.
Hill, Mr. Arthur R.
Hill, Mrs. Lois L.
Hillbauer, Mrs. William C.,
Holt, Mary L.
Houghtaling, Mr. Francis S.
Houser, Roosevelt C.
Howe, Mr. Ray E.
Hudson, James A.
Hunt, Mr. Zetta D.
Ipp, Mrs. Martha
Jackson, Mrs. Mary
Jacobson, Mrs. Jeanette
James, Ms. Mary C.
Jenkins, Elsie A.
Joffre, Marie J.
Johnson, Frederick L.
Johnson, Miss Anna Dagny
Johnson, Mr. Peter S.
Johnson, Ms. Eleanor
Johnston, John C.
Jones, Mr. A. Tillman
Jones, Mrs. Henrietta
Jordan, Ms. Katherine R.
Jureit, Mrs. L. E.
Kanberg, Ms. Frances
Kanner, Mrs. Aaron M.
Kaplan, Mrs. I.
Kaplan, Mr. Leonard
Karlin, Mrs. Sydelle
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Horace
Katz, Mrs. Alfred W.
Keehey, Mr. Thomas D.
Keely, Ms. Lucille F.
Keep, Oscar J.
Kienzle, Mr. Carl R.
Kimball, Albert D.
King, George E.
Kinnin, J. P.
Kipnis, Mr. Jerome
Kirpick, Mr. Billie
Kirsch, Mr. Louis
Knott, Judge James R.
Knowles, Mrs. C. F.
Koestline, Ms. Frances G.
Komorowski, Camila B.
Korach, Mr. Irwin
LaCroix, Mrs. Aerial Crofts
Lamberton, Mr. H. C., Jr.
Lamme, Robert E.
Langley, Miss Clara C.
Langner, Mildred C.
Lasa, Mr. Luis Rogelio
Lasseter, Harley 0., Sr.
Laurence, Mr. Kenneth R.
Laxson, Dan D., Sr.
Lee, Mr. Roswell E.
Lekashman, Ms. Priscilla
Levitem, Mr. & Mrs. Sam F.
Lewensohn, Mr. Sam
Lindemann, Mr. Harold W.
Lindsley, Mrs. A. R.
Loughry, Mrs. Jean F.
Love, Mildred A.
Lowe, Mr. Reid H.
Lowenstein, Mrs. Janet U.
Lummus, Martha F.
Lunnon, Mrs. James
Lyda, Ms. Eloise B.
Lynch, Mrs. Althea G.
Lynfield, Geofrey H.
MacVicar, Mrs. J. P.
Maholm, Reverend Richard
Malcomb, Mr. & Mrs. John
Marks, Mrs. Rosalind G.
Martin, Sylva G.
Mason, Mrs. Joe J.
Maspons, Mr. Victor
Matteson, Ms. Eleanor E.
Maurin, Ms. Raissa B.
Maxwell, Mr. R. D., Jr.
McClure, Mrs. John C.
McClure, Mr. Raymond W.
McCormick, Mr. Pafford L.
McGovern, Collette V.
McKellar, Mrs. James D.
McKinney, Mr. Kenneth W.
List of Members 91
McKinney, Mrs. Seth A.
McLeod, Mr. & Mrs. William
McNally, Mr. Michael J.
Merriss, Ms. Joan
Merritt, Mrs. Mary W.
Metz, Martha J.
Millar, Mrs. Gavin S.
Miller, Ms. Bessie
Minear, Mrs. L. V.
Mitten, Mr. Miles E.
Molt, Fawdrey A. S.
Monk, J. Floyd
Montgomery, Mrs. A. J.
Monticino, Mrs. Alma
Moore, Mrs. Jack
Mordaunt, Mr. Hal
Morris, Mr. C. C.
Morris, Mrs. Dorothymae B.
Morris, Ms. Thomasine
Moulds, Ms. Marion
Muller, Dr. Leonard R.
Murphy, Ms. Mary Jo
Myers, Mrs. Ida P.
Myers, Mrs. Walter K.
Napier, Mrs. Harvey
Newrock, Ms. Tessie
Norman, Walter H.
Norton, Mr. Claude C., Jr.
Nottebohm, Mrs. Kurt
O'Brien, Mrs. Norman P.
Olund, Erica 1.
Osman, Mr. Peter
Ostrenko, Mr. & Mrs.
Otto, Mrs. Thomas Osgood,
Pancoast, Alice A.
Parker, Ms. Ruth S.
Parkinson, Mr. Frank
Parks, Mrs. Merle
Patton, Mrs. Laura C.
Peacock, Mrs. Albert, Jr.
Pearce, Mr. Edgar B.
Perner, Mrs. Henry
Perrin, Mrs. John
Perry, Mr. Roy A.
Peters, Mr. John S.
Petit, A. F., Sr.
Pichel, Mrs. Clem A.
Pick, Mrs. Albert
Pollack, Mrs. Casra K.
Popp, Mrs. Lucene L.
Porter, Mr. Lester W.
Porto, Mr. Manuel
Powell, Mr. Francis Marion
Quintana, Mr. Pedro A.
Raim, Mr. Jerome
Raimond, Ms. Frances P.
Redman, Virginia R.
Reilly, Mrs. R. Thomas
Reynolds, Ms. Anita
Rice, Eileen 0. P.
Rice, R. H., Jr.
Richardson, Ms. Sally M.
Rickey, Mrs. E. E.
Rid, Ms. Florence B.
Riley, Mrs. 0. V.
Ritter, Mr. & Mrs. Emma B.
Roach, Mrs. Ella
Robertson, Mrs. Paul H.
Robinson, Mrs. Webster
Rochkind, Ms. Sarah D.
Rollins, Ms. Annie Leigh
Roman, Mr. & Mrs. John R.
Romero, Ms. Lillian B.
Roper, Mrs. George P.
Rosenthal, Mr. Albert A.
Ross, Mrs. Nat
Roston, Mr. Gilbert C.
S. Steffen Associates
Sargent, Joy E.
Sauvigne, Ms. Cecile D.
Scarborough, Mr. & Mrs.
Schilt, Esther M.
Schlosser, Ms. Pat
Schneider, Mrs. Rae Graham
Schroder, C. H.
Schwartz, Mrs. J.
Selinsky, Dr. Herman
Shafer, Kathryn E.
Sharlow, Mrs. Evelyn W.
Allen County Public Library
Boca Raton Historical
*Shaw, Dr. Luelle
Shaw, Mr. Henry Overstreet
Shaw, Mrs. W. F.
Shiver, Otis W.
Shrewsbury, Mr. Homer A.
Sibert, J. D.
Silver, Mrs. Sam I.
Simonhoff, Mrs. Use D.
Sinclair, Mrs. Edna P.
Smith, Harrison H.
Smith, Mr. George H.
Smith, Ms. Vera M.
Snare, Rose Tower
Sniffen, Mr. Lon M.
Solomon, Norman F.
Sommers, Mr. L. B.
*Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J.
Spohn, Edward A.
Stacey, Mr. George L.
Stadnik, Mr. & Mrs. John
Stamey, Mr. Ernest N.
Stava, Mrs. Constance
Stepner, Mrs. Sara Jane
Stewart, Mrs. Chester B.
Stewart, Ruth A.
Storck, Mrs. Christa
Storm, Ms. Larue
Stripling, John R.
Stuntz, Consuelo A.
Taylor, Mrs. F. A. S.
Teasley, T. H.
Terment, Mrs. James S.
Thomas, Ms. Dolores
Thompson, Ms. Margaret
Tierney, Mrs. Joy
Timanus, Martha D.
Tingler, Mrs. C. R.
Torres, Dr. Samuel
Tottenhoff, Mrs. J. R.
Towle, Mrs. Helen C.
Broward County Historical
Brown University Library
City of Hialeah Library
Townsenn, Ms. Lucille B.
Trautvetter, Mr. Paul
Trujillo, Mr. Conalic
Tumon, Mrs. Dorene
Upshaw, Mrs. Florence Akin
Van Bezooyen, Ms. Mae A.
Vanderlinden, Mrs. E. A.
Varner, Edwina G.
Vaughn, Mrs. Elizabeth M.
Vetowich, Miss Margaret
Vigil, Mr. Miguel F.
Walsh, Mr. George C.
Walsh, Mrs. Janet
Walshon, Mr. Everette H.
Walter, Mr. Arthur L.
Walters, Miss Ruthe
Washburn, Mrs. James V.
Wasser, Beatrice C.
Watson, Ms. Hattie E.
Weber, 0. John
Weiss, Mrs. L. F.
Wepman, Mr. David
Westbrook, Mrs. A. J.
White, Major Louise V.
Williams, Mr. David J.
Williams, Ms. Dorothy E.
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Wayne
Willis, Mrs. Hillard
Wilson, Mr. George Ray
Wilson, Miss Virginia
"Wilson, Mrs. Gaines R.
Wolfe, Mrs. Mary
Wood, Mr. Harry
Wright, Dr. & Mrs. Jack L.
Wright, Dr. Scheffel H.
Wright, Mrs. Edward H.
Yates, Mrs. Eunice P.
Young, Mary E.
Zarzecki, Ms. Suzanne
Zimmerman, Mr. & Mrs.
Zuckerman, Mr. Bertram
Zwerner, Mrs. Carl
Clearwater Public Library
Coconut Grove Branch
Collier County Museum
Collier County Public
Coral Gables Branch Library
Coral Gables Historic
Dade Heritage Trust
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