• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Cover
 Historical Association of Southern...
 The Wagner family: Pioneer life...
 Library in a pioneer community:...
 The Cleveland connection: Revelations...
 Changing economic patterns in the...
 Contents of Tequesta, Numbers I...
 List of members






Title: Tequesta
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00042
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705

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Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Historical Association of Southern Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The Wagner family: Pioneer life on the Miami River
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Library in a pioneer community: Lemon City, Florida
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    The Cleveland connection: Revelations from the John D. Rockefeller - Julia D. Tuttle Correspondence
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Changing economic patterns in the Miami metropolitan area, 1940-1980
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Contents of Tequesta, Numbers I through XLI
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    List of members
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text







Ire I cst^:


THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA

Editor
Charlton W. Tebeau
Associate Editors
Arva Moore Parks Dr. Thelma P Peters


NUMBER XLI


1982


CONTENTS

The Wagner Family: Pioneer Life on the Miami River 5
By Margot Ammidown

Library in a Pioneer Community: Lemon City, Florida 39
By Ron Blazek

The Cleveland Connection: Revelations from the
John D. Rockefeller-Julia D. Tuttle Correspondence 57
By Edward N. Akin

Changing Economic Patterns in the
Miami Metropolitan Area, 1940-1948 63
By Raymond A. Mohl

Contents of Tequesta, Numbers I through XLI 75

List of Members 83


COPYRIGHT 1982 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA

is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern
e Ut4tst'a: Florida. Communications should be addressed to the Corresponding
Secretary of the Society. 3290 South Miami Avenue, Miami, Florida
33129, The Association does not assume responsibility for statements of fact or opinions
made by contributors,






This Page Blank in Original
Source Document









Historical Association of Southern Florida, Inc.


FOUNDED 1940-INCORPORATED 1941


James W. Apthorp
President
Sherrill W. Kellner
First Vice President
Joseph H. Pero, Jr.
Second Vice President
Kathy Ezell
Recording Secretary
Richard H. Simonet
Treasurer


Charlton W Tebeau, Ph.D.
Editor Tequesta
Arva Moore Parks
Associate Editor Tequesta
Thelma Peters, Ph.D.
Associate Editor Tequesta
Marie Anderson
Editor Update
Randy F Nimnicht
Executive Director


TRUSTEES


Marie W Anderson
B.J. Arnsparger
William 0. Cullom
Hugh Culverhouse, Jr.
Linda Sears D'Alemberte
Tracy Danese
James L. Davis
Dorothy J. Fields
Joseph H. Fitzgerald, M.D.
Ray Fleites
Ronald E. Frazier
Hazel Reeves Grant
John C. Harrison, Jr.
Marcia J. Kanner


Stephen A. Lynch, HI
C.T McCrimmon
Charles P Munroe
Mavis Narup
Arva Moore Parks
Tom Pennekamp
Thelma Peters, Ph. D.
Edward L. Reid, II, M.D.
Barbara L. Skigen
Samuel S. Smith
Sara Laxson Smith
Vivian P Smith
Mitchell Wolfson, Jr.
Mrs. James S. Wooten






This Page Blank in Original
Source Document













The Wagner Family:

Pioneer Life on the Miami River


By Margot Ammidown *



The oldest known house standing in Miami today dates from the mid-
1850s. It was built by William Wagner, a discharged Mexican War
veteran who followed his former army troop to South Florida at the end of
the Seminole Wars. The house was located near what is now N.W. 11th
Street and 7th Avenue. William Wagner remained in Miami until his
death in 1901. Many of Wagner's descendants still live in the area
including a grandson, Charles Richards who was born on his grand-
father's homestead in 1887, almost a decade before the incorporation of
the city of Miami or the arrival of the railroad. Listening to Mr. Richards'
stories of his family and their pioneer experiences from the porch of his
sixty-year-old house, one door removed from the 1-95 expressway over-
pass, one is struck by the spectrum of change in his lifetime.
The drama and suddenness of Miami's evolution is still unknown to
most of its transient population. That is one reason why Dade Heritage
Trust, a private non-profit group, felt the preservation and restoration of
the Wagner house was so important. The structure is also a rare example
of the vernacular wood frame architecture of South Florida's pioneer era.
Unfortunately the Wagner house in its original location stood directly in
the path of Dade County's new Metrorail mass transit system. Its
preservation in the Highland Park subdivision that was the Wagner
homestead was an accepted impossibility. The owner arranged to donate
the house to Dade Heritage Trust which with the cooperation and
assistance of the City of Miami, relocated the building in nearby Lum-
mus Park. Its restoration and partial reconstruction is now underway.

*Margot Ammidown, is historian for the Metro-Dade Historic Preservation
Board, and co-author (with Ivan Rodriguez) of an upcoming book on the historical
architecture of Dade County, From Wilderness to Metropolis.







6 TEQUESTA


In 1979, DHT commissioned a research report and interpretive
study of the Wagner house. Arva Parks had previously done research in
the National Archives, discovering both Wagner's military record and
homesteading papers. The following account of the Wagners and their
life in Miami is excerpted from the report commissioned by Dade
Heritage Trust.
Throughout the pioneer era until the State's Everglades drainage
program was begun early in the twentieth century, the inhabitants of the
southeast coast of Florida lived on what was essentially a rocky lime-
stone ridge stretching two to ten miles in width between the bay and the
Everglades. Except for the lush hardwood hammocks, the terrain gave
the impression of being extremely barren. Beneath the scattered pine
trees the land in most places was covered with a sparce sandy soil that
frequently revealed the porous rock which supported it. This soil, how-
ever, proved able to sustain a variety of fruit trees quite well.
In several places along the southeast coast, the ridge was broken by
rivers leading from the swamp to Biscayne Bay. The Miami River was
one. Whereas the poorly shaded pineland seemed harsh and desolate, the
crystaline rivers and bordering hammocks were cool, rich, and fertile.
The banks of the Miami River rose to an elevation of two to three feet
above sea level at the mouth, to as much as twelve feet in other places.
The waters of the Everglades fell into the river over a rocky passageway
that was from fifteen to twenty yards across and up to one hundred fifty
yards in length. This area constituted the rapids of the Miami River,
although they were not very turbulent and scarcely a foot deep.
Despite the equable climate, there were problems for those attempt-
ing to establish a life in Miami in the mid-1800s. The threat of Indian-
attack was the uppermost concern, and there was still a great deal of
criticism by many settlers of the government's failure to completely
exterminate the Indian population. The fear of Indian harassment re-
sulted in the reopening of Fort Dallas in 1855, but previous to that
occupation there was quite a bit of settlement activity on the Miami
River.
In 1850, there were ninety-six people residing in Dade County, in
addition to three officers, one doctor, and forty-seven enlisted men who
temporarily occupied the fort in that year.' The vast majority of the
civilians were young men seeking their fortunes. The professions listed in
the census that year included two carpenters, a merchant, a large number
of mariners, the Cape Florida Lighthouse keeper (Reason Duke), his
assistant (John Christian), a clerk, a manufacturer, and many laborers.






The Wagner Family 7


Manufacturers and laborers were more often than not involved in the
production of coontie starch. It was one of the few means by which South
Florida pioneers could earn cash money, a scarce commodity in those
days. There are records of Florida coontie being sold in northern markets
as early as 1835.
The profession most commonly named in the 1850 census was that
of mariner. "Mariner" in most cases was an oblique term that could be
equated with the less respectable title of "wrecker." The business of
salvaging loot from lost ships was still an attraction even though the
number of wrecks on the Florida reefs had begun to decrease by the
mid-nineteenth century due to improved charts, new lighthouses, and the
advent of steam powered vessels that were easier to maneuver. In spite of
this the number of licensed wreckers continued to increase, but for most
pioneers in the Miami area, wrecking was an adventurous supplement to
the living provided by the land.
The period between the Second Seminole War and the beginning of
the Civil War was a relatively peaceful one for Dade County. During the
brief interlude of activity brought about by the final reopening of Fort
Dallas in 1855, there was a great deal of fraternizing between the soldiers
and the local folk. Several of the officers brought their families, and the
population of Miami was considerably swelled during this time. The
occupation of the fort caused a temporary economic boom considering
there were three stores operating on the river; George Ferguson's, Dr.
William Fletcher's, and a sutler's store at Fort Dallas run by Captain
Sinclair and William Wagner. By the time the fort was preparing to close
in 1858, there was also some friendly communication between Indians
and settlers.
Over the decade of the 1850s the population expanded so that by
18603 the river banks supported a friendly little community of settlers.
Dr. Fletcher lived with his family on ten acres on the south bank of the
Miami River. Moving west, up-river, George Ferguson who ran a large'
mill, sold his place to George Lewis. Across the river from Lewis on a
small tributary that came to be known as Wagner Creek, lived the
Wagner family. Near the Wagners on the creek was a bachelor named
Michael Oxar, and further up the Miami River were two brothers, John
and Nicholas Adams. Beyond their place was George Marshall, and
Marshall's neighbor to the west was Theodore Bissell, a gentleman who
lived on the river when he was not in Tallahassee as a representative from
Dade County (1858, 1959, and 1860). There were substantial numbers of
people passing through the Miami area in those days before the Civil War,






8 TEQUESTA


seamen, laborers, squatters, but the proceeding were the ones who
remained for some length of time and helped to start a pioneer settlement
on the land that in the not too distant future would become the city of
Miami. The Wagners were important figures in that pioneer community,
partially because they were involved in many formative events, but
mostly as symbols of a spirit and character that settled the South Florida
frontier.
William Wagner according to his grandson, Charles Richards, was
born on an immigrant ship in the Hudson River. The year was approxi-
mately 1825.4 The circumstances of his birth might serve to explain the
inconsistency of the U.S. census records which alternately declare his
birthplace to be New York or Baden, Germany. Baden was, no doubt, the
home of William's parents before coming to America.
By the early eighteen hundreds there was already a sizable popula-
tion of German immigrants living in New York. Many German families
began a migration further west establishing settlements in Missouri and
Indiana. Others put down stakes in Pennsylvania, forming the Pennsyl-
vania Dutch/German communities. Although little is known of William
Wagner's childhood there is some indication he might have grown up in
Pennsylvania.5 The 1830 Pennsylvania census index lists over 100
Wagner families, however.
The earliest known official documentation of William Wagner's
existence is his military record. Wagner enlisted as a volunteer in the
United States Army on May 18, 18466 in New York City at the outbreak
of the Mexican War. He was twenty or twenty-one years old and unmar-
ried. President Polk had recently issued a call for volunteers, but whether
Wagner joined up out of national allegiance, strong political beliefs or
the restless desire of a young man to see something of the world, is
unknown. The latter reason is the more probable. The Mexican War was a
territorial war begun on the pretense of Mexican border aggression, but
even at the time the legitimacy of that claim was called into serious
question. Neither was the volunteer army known for its dedication to the
cause. Then Lieutenant George B. McClellan noted that, "The Mexican
people are very polite to the regulars.. .but they hate the volunteers as
they do old scratch himself... The volunteers carry on in a most shame-
ful and disgraceful manner; they think nothing of robbing and killing
Mexicans.7" They also gained a reputation for their lawlessness within
the camps by both disregarding orders and firing their weapons at will.
There is no indication in Wagner's later life of the reckless, lawless
character of these "disgraceful volunteers," but he enlisted in the com-







The Wagner Family 9


pany of a rough bunch of young men, mostly from poor backgrounds
who probably saw military service as an escape from an unappealing
future at home.
William Wagner entered the army as a private and was sent to
Governor's Island, New York for training. He was assigned to Company
I, of the 2nd Regiment, U.S. Artillery, which was then commanded by a
Captain Cotton.8 After training, Wagner was reportedly sent to the Rio
Grande. He followed General Winfield Scott on his march to Mexico
City via Vera Cruz, Chapultepec and Cerro Gordo, where decisive
battles were fought. In later years when he was relating stories of his war
experiences, Wagner told of marching through one particular city in
Mexico where hostile inhabitants threw boiling water down on the
American troops in the streets below their windows.9 The existing evi-
dence suggests that Wagner did not complete the victorious march into
Mexico City. He was wounded in the left leg at Cerro Gordo late in 1847
and was probably sent to Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island near Charles-
ton, South Carolina, to recuperate. Wagner was quite obviously there by
January of 1849 because at that time he married Eveline Aimar.10
Mrs. Wagner remains something of a mystery. According to census
records, Eveline was born in South Carolina, her mother in the West
Indies and her father in England. Charles Pierce, a later acquaintance of
the family in Florida wrote that Mrs. Wagner was French creole."
"Creole" is a term that was originally used in the sixteenth century to
denote persons born in the West Indies of Spanish parents to distinguish
them from immigrants direct from Spain. However, over the years
Creoles came to include people of a much wider range of ethnic
backgrounds. French and Spanish colonialists intermarried with both
Indians and blacks on the islands and their offspring were also known as
Creoles. In the United States Creoles are mostly associated with
Louisiana, but Charleston, too, had a small Creole population.There was
an influx into Charleston of free men and women of mixed ancestry from
the West Indies beginning in 1790. They were fleeing a slave revolt on the
island of Saint Domingue, a former French colony, now Haiti. It is
possible that Eveline Wagner was at least maternally descended from this
line of immigrants.
Considering Mrs. Wagner's ancestry, her marriage would have been
very controversial if not illegal. The so called Negro Laws of South
Carolina determined that anyone who was 1/32 negro blood would be
classified as black and therefore subject to further restrictions under the
law. Inter-racial marriages were among the many activities restricted.







10 TEQUESTA


William Wagner and Eveline Aimar are not listed in the register of
marriages taking place in South Carolina prior to the Civil War,? how-
ever, it may have been possible for them to marry at Fort Moultrie which
they later claimed was the case. Apparently the legality of their marriage
was called into question by suspicious and prying neighbors in Dade
County in 1869 when they were required to file an affidavit proving that
they were married.13 As the Wagners are not known to have remarried
here, they must have married in South Carolina.
In addition to the considerable difficulties incurred by what was
classified as an inter-racial marriage in a place where slavery was still in
practice, was also the curious difference in age between William and
Eveline. Eveline is recorded in various places as being anywhere from
ten to seventeen years older than her husband. Fifteen years is probably
the correct amount. The U.S. census taken in Charleston County, South
Carolina in 1850, one year after the Wagners were married, records
Eveline's age as 40 and William's as 25. It also reports him living
separately, but both were residing in the Christ Church parish district
surrounding and including Fort Moultrie.14 William was still a private in
the army living at Fort Moultrie. Eveline is listed as Eveline DeBau, the
head of a household in which the children Octavius Aimar, age 15,
Achills [sic] Aimar, 11, Laura Aimar, 10, and William Aimar, an infant,
also lived. This obviously adds to the mystery of Mrs. Wagner's past
history. Whether she was married before and whether the children whom
she cared for were wards, legitimate or illegitimate sons and daughters
can not be determined with certainty". The infant who is recorded as
William Aimar is probably the same person later known as Joseph
William Wagner the son of William and Eveline who was born in
Moultrieville, South Carolina in 1850.16 The fact that his surname is
recorded as Aimar indicates it may have been necessary for the Wagners
to keep their marriage a secret at that time.
William Wagner's military enlistment expired in 1851. As a private
citizen he continued to live and work in the Charleston area for four years.
What occupation he might have pursued is unknown. Wagner appears,
however, to have kept in close contact with his army friends. He may have
been employed in a civilian position at the fort, perhaps as a baker.17
During this interval the Wagners had two more children, a boy whose
name is unknown, and in 1852, a daughter named Elizabeth, but who
became known as Rose.
In January of 1855, Company I, William Wagner's former unit, was
sent to reopen Fort Dallas at the Miami River. Although there was little






The Wagner Family 11


activity in the on-going Seminole Wars, the settlement on the Miami
River feared an Indian reaction to their presence. Among the officers
with Company I was Captain Lawrence P. Graham who had been at
Governor's Island and through the Mexican War with Wagner.18 Com-
pany I was a sizable regiment and in fact constituted the largest group of
soldiers ever occupying the fort on a continuing basis. A considerable
amount of new construction made Fort Dallas a far more formidable
presence.
By 1855 William Wagner must have realized that his and his
family's future prospects in Charleston were limited. It is probable that he
often heard talk of the South Florida area from military friends who were
active in the Seminole Wars. They would have told him of a relatively
unthreatening situation with the Seminoles, who by 1855 had been
effectively reduced in number, and of large tracts of available land. There
was now also the added opportunity of a large military installation being
established in a place where the personnel would have little access to
additional provisions or conveniences. Wagner, with a partner, Captain
Sinclair, decided to try out South Florida and open a sutler's store for the
soldiers at the fort.
The title of Captain seems to have come to Sinclair through the
ownership and operation of schooners out of Charleston's harbor.9
Whether or not he met Wagner in the army is unknown. At any rate in
1855 they followed the troops to Fort Dallas and opened their store on the
north bank of the river where the fort was located and built a steam-
powered coontie mill a mile and a half up river on Wagner Creek. If
Sinclair was not formerly enlisted in the army, William's useful military
connections supported by Sinclair's capital may have been the basis for
their partnership.
With no home waiting for them and the uncertainty of whether he
would want to remain permanently in South Florida, Wagner decided to
leave his wife and young daughter in South Carolina for the time being.
There is some evidence that Wagner brought at least one, perhaps two of
the male children with him. Since his own boys were quite young, it may
be that some of the Aimars accompanied him. They built a house near the
mill sometime between 1855 and 1858. Wagner's home which Sinclair
may also have lived in when he was around, was a one and a half story
wood frame structure. Many early settlers' homes in the area were sided
with nothing more than palmetto fronds because milled lumber was
expensive and difficult to come by Some pioneers, such as George
Ferguson, did erect more substantial structures, but most dwellings in the






12 TEQUESTA


river settlement were of a temporary nature. In 1855, with significant
construction taking place at Fort Dallas, Wagner may have had access to
extra building supplies and experienced labor because of his friendships
with members of Company 1.20
The Miami River settlement between 1855 and 1858 became a
bustling place. In addition to the friendship, help, and income, the
soldiers at Fort Dallas also provided a reassuring presence. The fort itself
was becoming an impressive and scenic complex. While the settlement
had its share of drifters, it also had Mr. Ferguson and Dr. Fletcher who
provided an air of respectability and permanence. Coontie was getting a
fair price in the Key West markets, and the U.S.'s southernmost town was
accessible enough to keep Miami's pioneers from being completely cut
off from the outside world.
By 1858 Wagner was apparently satisfied enough with his life in
South Florida to send for the remainder of his family. Whether or not
Wagner felt the area conducive to raising a family, it was becoming
obvious that the political strife between the North and South would
eventually erupt, and that Charleston would not be a safe place in which
to live.
In February of 1858, six-year-old Rose, her mother Eveline, and
probably some other members of the family,21 boarded Captain Sinclair's
schooner, the William and John in Charleston's harbor. Rose was very
excited at the prospect of being reunited with her father and brothers
whom she had not seen in two years. The voyage south was both rough
and eventful. The schooner was to make its first stop at Indian River, but
had to anchor outside the inlet because it was too shallow to get in. The
William and John remained anchored there for one week during which
time weather conditions worsened. The schooner rocked and twisted
around the rough seas terrifying her passengers, making them fear
becoming bait for wreckers. Finally when the Captain attempted to bring
her in, he ran aground on a sand bar, but the ship eventually bumped and
creaked her way across the bar into still water near shore.
At Indian River the William and John was to meet another of
Sinclair's vessels, the Julia Gordon, which was late in arriving, forcing
Eveline and Rose to wait three more weeks. The delay made it necessary
for the William and John to return to Charleston and the passengers and
cargo had to be transferred to the Julia Gordon for the last leg of the
journey. When once again outside the sand bar, Rose and Eveline found
themselves tossed about in another storm even worse than the previous
one. All passengers were sent below deck, the hatches were battened






The Wagner Family 13


down above them and Rose, Eveline, and their fellow travelers found
themselves in the dark hull listening to the sounds of the crew running
back and forth to secure water casks which were rolling around on the
deck.22
The experience frightened young Rose terribly. She was greatly
relieved on March 15, 1858 to finally round Cape Florida and enter
Biscayne Bay at about sundown. Fort Dallas was an enchanting sight to
the weary seafarers. Rose described her first impression of the Miami
settlement:

Such a sight I had never seen before. The beautiful coconut trees, tall and
slender, and the officers quarters fine buildings nine in number all facing
the bay... also stars and stripes floating from a tall flagstaff erected on the
parade ground, all was clean and covered with Bermuda grass.
A boat named Mavenia was sent from shore to bring us off the schooner;
and I first set foot in Florida at a rock-landing in the Miami River.23

William Wagner was not at the fort to meet his family having no
way of knowing when they would arrive or even at this point, it they ever
would. The storms that had plagued the William and John and the Julia







w W--..- --..- -._-'----J _-- _-- ... --- -.-. -..._-- ,


Fort Dallas, circa 1883.







14 TEQUESTA


Gordon had broken up several other ships. He and the boys who must
have been concerned, had their fears allayed when shortly after dark they
heard the rumblings and rattles of a horse and cart.24 Soon the arrivals
were affectionately greeted and offered a supper of baked opossum
which they politely declined.
Once dinner was over, the stories of the voyage and pioneering were
interrupted by a group of soldiers who had come to serenade the newly
arrived Wagner women, The soldiers were South Carolinians who were
well acquainted with Mrs. Wagner. There was much gaiety at the Wagner
house that night. Singing and exchanging tales of Charleston and life on
the Miami River kept the visitors and new arrivals up until well after
midnight.
By the time Rose and Eveline arrived at their destination on that day
in March it was getting too dark for them to see much of their new home.
The first thing the next morning, however, all were up and ready to
explore the strange wilderness surrounding them. William and the boys
took Eveline and young Rose around to see the sights.25 Probably the first
point of interest was their own place. From the small porch at the front of
the house they could see the coontie mill and narrow creek by which it
stood. Much of the land around the Wagner home site was flat and rocky
pine land, but there were also the hardwood hammocks nearer the river
which were unlike anything that Charleston had to offer. The Miami
River, crystal clear and brimming with fish, was also a main attraction.
It is likely that Wagner took his wife and daughter to meet some of
their new neighbors and fellow pioneers. George Ferguson lived on the
south side of the river near the Wagner place. The post office was located
at Ferguson's. From there a trip up river to see the rapids and the rim of
the Everglades might have been on the agenda that day.
One of Rose's most vivid memories was of her first personal
encounter with some of the local Indians. A flag of peace was raised at
Fort Dallas in that year, and Indians were beginning to make friends with
some of the settlers. They certainly knew that it was no longer to their
advantage to continue active hostilities with the whites. Yet their reputa-
tion as warriors followed them, and Seminoles were still a fearful sight to
many. The Wagners were reunited for about six weeks when on a Sunday
morning William, Eveline, Rose, one of the boys, and a man named
Roberson were walking towards the hub of the Miami settlement at the
river mouth when they met a group of seventeen Indians. Among the
group was Old Tiger Tail, Matlow, Billie Harney, Old Alec and Big Tom,
also known as Snake Creek Tom.26 Old Tiger Tail introduced himself and






The Wagner Family 15

shook hands with all the Wagner party who shortly thereafter invited the
entire assemblage back to their house. When they arrived at the Wagner's
Tiger Tail and company stood outside as a meal and coffee were hastily
prepared. Cooking at this time was done outside around a campfire
located near the house. Rose's later description of the event indicates that
the meal was eaten either inside or on the front porch. After supper
Wagner noticed that the clothing of the Indians was particularly tattered
and he gave them all the spare wearing apparel there was about the house.
Apparently he later had to go over to Fletcher's store to replace the
clothes he gave away, but his friendliness and generosity made life-long
friends of the Indians, one of whom would later save the life of his son,
William Jr.
It seems the Wagners were rather outgoing people who did quite a
lot of entertaining at their home. Many of the Indians stayed late that
night and sat around a campfire silently watching the boys play tricks on
one another. One prank brought a delighted exclamation of "whoop,
Jesus Christ" from young Johnnie Jumper.27 Some of the Indians
camped on the Wagner property during the night, but left early the next
morning.
Although the immediate Wagner family at this time consisted of
Eveline, William, their daughter, and two sons, there are indications that
others also lived with them. Rose mentions "colored help" and other
"men folk" as being attached in some way to the Wagner place, but is no
more specific.28 It may be that the Wagner/Sinclair mill was larger than
the usual single family operation. Considering that they originally owned
the sutler's store and the mill concurrently, they must have employed
some help and it would not have been unusual for a number of people
outside the Wagner family to be occupying the same house.
Fort Dallas was the center of the Miami pioneer community. Many
of the soldiers brought their families with them, spurring a good deal of
social activity. A scattering of houses and tents surrounded the barracks
and the soldiers planted flower and vegetable gardens. Wagner's friends
at the fort provided his family with all the fresh vegetables they could eat.
However, soon after Rose's and Eveline's arrival, the soldiers at the fort
began preparing to leave for their new assignment in Key West. This
meant the Wagners were to lose a large number of their friends, not to
mention a significant portion of their income because there would no
longer be enough business to support the sutler's store. With the popula-
tion of Miami so drastically reduced, Dr. Fletcher's store, and Mr.
Ferguson's, were more than adequate.







16 TEQUESTA


The next couple of years in Miami between 1858, and the beginning
of the Civil War, were quiet ones for the Wagner family. In fact, the area
appears to have experienced a mini-depression. Late in 1858, Ferguson
sold his mill, the post office, and small store to George Lewis who had
come a few months before. His was the largest factory operating in
Miami, but Lewis did not continue it on the same scale. He retained a
scaled down mill, the store, and post office. The latter two relied on the
monthly visits of Samuel Filer's schooner, the Joshua Skinner, to bring
the mail and supplies from Key West.29
In 1859, Captain Sinclair divested himself of his interest in the
Wagner Creek mill. With the secession of the Southern states imminent,
he had to attend to his interests in South Carolina. Many of Ferguson's
former employees had been forced either to find other means of support
or leave the area. The same was probably true for any extra help employed
by the Sinclair/Wagner mill. Especially after the store was closed.
Wagner and his sons could operate the mill by themselves, or with little
additional labor.
In general, Miami's pioneers were forming a friendly and fraternal
little community, but there was at least one man possessed of some of the
wild and lawless nature that is frequently associated with frontiersmen.
George Marshall was one of these. Marshall had lived in Miami since
1828. He fled with the other residents during the Indian uprisings in the
1830s, but unlike many others he returned. In 1843 he applied for a land
grant on the Miami River under the Armed Occupation Act. In 1844 he
was listed among the jurors in Dade County. Marshall was apparently
given to drunken rages and while in that condition on February 14, 1861,
he shot and killed one of the Wagner boys in front of George Lewis'
store.30 Dade County did not have its own sheriff at that time and so it was
necessary to send for Monroe County's sheriff, Fernando Moreno.31 In
the intervening period, Marshall sold his hard earned property to Dr.
Fletcher.32 He immediately left Miami and was never heard from again.
The murder of the Wagner boy forebode the hard times that were to
come. Soon after his death came the news of the beginning of the Civil
War. The mail boat was immediately stopped and word reached the
Wagners that Captain Sinclair's ships, the William and John and the Julia
Gordon were seized for debt and would no longer be coming to Miami.33
This left the Wagners and their fellow settlers more isolated than they had
been in years.
As the Civil War commenced the allegiance of a number of people
became obvious. While George Lewis, John Adams, and Dr. Fletcher
involved themselves in blockade running, Wagner seems to have re-







The Wagner Family 17


mained at least outwardly impartial. There is evidence that he was a
Northern sympathizer,'4 although as a longtime resident of the South, he
may have empathized with the Confederates in certain aspects of the
conflict. At any rate, Wagner was able throughout the war years to retain
the friendships of Fletcher, Lewis, and Adams who were rabid Southern
supporters, and also play host to a few contingents of Union blockade
enforcers who visited the river settlement looking for Confederate sup-
porters.
The most immediate concern stemming from the outbreak of the
war was how to get supplies. Wagner and Nicholas Adams made at least
one run for provisions,35 but permission for such trips was irregular. It
was during this period that Wagner, like many other settlers, became
something of a farmer and planted a vegetable garden. The Indians told
him that the most fertile soil was in the hammocks, so Wagner cleared a
patch of nearby hammock and planted corn, beans, peas, and sweet
potatoes. The Wagners also raised hogs and chickens, and became
increasingly dependant on hunting small game and fishing. Pine wood
gopher became a popular delicacy.
Besides the isolation brought on by the war, many frightening
rumors circulated about the settlement. Stories of brutalities brought
down on those not willing to assist parties of Northern soldiers who came
ashore in Florida for additional provisions were common. Also, tales of
Confederate soldiers looking for draft evaders and Union spies kept
everyone alert. One day after the war had been in progress for sometime,
William Wagner took his daughter and went down river to the area near
the mouth where Fort Dallas and Fletcher's place were located. Dr.
Fletcher called to them from across the river and related a horrifying
story of an old man and his three sons who had been shot and killed by
Confederates for refusing to turn over all the salt they had produced
which was their means of livelihood. "Now" said Fletcher after he had
finished the story, "I am a rebel and you all know it, but I can never
approve of such crimes, even in war times."36 Stories of war brutalities
like the one Fletcher related caused the regular inhabitants of Miami to
remain loyal to one another despite their variant political beliefs. It was
especially crucial to pioneer families who were struggling to get by that
they not lose their men to Southern or Northern "recruiters" who might
pass through. Rose remembered:

Every few days word would come that the Yankees were in Miami, and
about that time the men folk had business somewhere else. You could see
them going past apparently, in a great hurry, and as if time was passing.37






18 TEQUESTA


An incident occurred at the Wagner house involving one man not
eager to enlist:

... (one day)... an officer and a party of soldiers came to the house. Father
(William) was at home at the time, and there was one of the soldiers who
was an old friend of father's and a brother-soldier in the Mexican War. In
talking of old times and noting the improvement of the guns now in use,
the soldier to show how quickly they could be fired, discharged two or
three shots in quick succession in a clump of palmettoes just outside the
yard. Well, as it happened, a man living with us then and not caring to be
seen by them had hid himself in that same clump of palmettoes. He lost no
time in getting out of there, and ever after remained at the house, thinking
it the safest place when soldiers were around.38

On February 18, 1863 Captain English and some men from the
blockade ship Sagamore came up river to buy supplies. One of the men on
this excursion noted seeing "three men and two women living in the
wilderness,"39 a few miles up the river. He also recorded buying sugar
cane, coconuts, lemons, limes, potatoes and fish. In another instance the
same party was recorded as purchasing, "one barrel and half a dozen
boxes of coontie at 6 cents the pound for a speculation in Key West where it
will sell for 15 cents.. ."40
Rose Wagner later recalled a group of Union blockaders coming to
her house to buy some chickens and vegetables for which they gave the
Wagners in exchange the first greenbacks they had ever seen. Mr. Wagner,
however, refused payment. It was this same party of soldiers that on July 8,
1863, burned the mill of George Lewis and later took him into custody.
They passed by our (Wagner's) house without saying a word to any of us,
never having done so before. Soon afterward a big black smoke was seen to
arise from where Mr. Lewis' factory had been standing, and which could
be seen by ourselves and also by the people living in Miami. Fear was
pictured on our faces, we thinking the time had come when we would be
left homeless.4
But that would not happen. The Wagners passed through the war
unscathed, although not completely removed from its effects. That was
not the case for many in Miami involved in peripheral war-time activities.
The close of the war, much like the closing of Fort Dallas, left Miami in a
quiet and somewhat abandoned state. The Wagner place became the only
home site up river. Many inhabitants had moved, or were taken away.
George Lewis returned briefly to get his personal effects from William
Wagner and moved on. He left his former slave, old Benjamin Tiner, with
the Wagners. Although Tiner was now a free man he stayed with the
Wagners until his death in 1869.42






The Wagner Family 19


In the spring of 1866, when Miami was once again peaceful, the
Wagner family had a visitor who planned to end that serenity. He was
William H. Gleason, obviously no ordinary man. Mr. Gleason engaged
John Addison who had recently settled at the Hunting Grounds, to bring
him to Miami from his place. On a trip up the Miami River Wagner
entertained the party before they proceeded on their journey.
When Gleason later returned to Miami with William Hunt and both
their families, they were greeted by the Wagners and others with some
excitement. Like the Indian Wars, the Civil War thwarted any progress in
the development of Miami. When Gleason and Hunt explained their
intentions to develop the area, they must have sounded very appealing,
especially since they claimed to have the backing and authority of the
U.S. government. The two men had tried to convince the Freedman's
Bureau in Washington to allow them to establish former slaves in South
Florida in exchange for large land grants. The failure of that endeavor did
not stop them from coming to Miami and erroneously claiming title to
the Fort Dallas property.
Hunt befriended a number of settlers including William Wagner,
and gave them advice and assistance in making their homesteads more
productive. Hunt seized an opportunity to ingratiate himself to Mr.
Wagner by helping him with his farming techniques. In the late spring
and early summer of 1866, there was so much rainfall in the Dade County
area that all of the lowlands, (much of Miami), were flooded. Wagner's
garden in the hammock, at that time producing pumpkins, watermelon,
and cabbage, was completely washed away into the creek and water was
waist deep everywhere around the Wagner home. Mr. Wagner was so
frustrated at the loss of his hard-earned crop that he vowed never again to
plant vegetables. After hearing of Wagner's difficulty with farming,
Hunt, who had recently begun to cultivate property near the Wagners,
brought him a variety of garden seeds. As soon as the ground dried
enough Hunt convinced Wagner of the potential for a winter crop. For the
first time Wagner planted during the late summer and produced the most
successful crop he ever had. From this time forward the Wagner family
was never without fresh vegetables.43
With Hunt's and Gleason's arrival pioneer interest in political
activities picked up considerably. It was during this period that the county
gained a reputation for its sordid frontier politics. In 1868 Nelson
English, supervisor of registration from Monroe County, came to regis-
ter the voters of Dade. William Wagner was among those registered. The
election of 1868 placed WH. Gleason in the office of Lieutenant Gover-
nor, and his cronies in lesser positions. Soon after a board of County






20 TEQUESTA


Commissioners was appointed. Although William Wagner seems to have
been an interested political observer, he did not at this time assume any
political position.
The year 1869 was a busy one for the Wagner family. It was the year
Rose made her first trip to Key West in the company of her brother; the
year in which her father filed a homestead claim; and the year that
Octavius Aimar is first known to be living in Dade. The first record of
Aimar is his appointment as chairman of the Board of Public Instruction
for Dade County on July 21, 1869.44 Exactly when Aimar arrived is not
known. It might be assumed that since he received a fairly significant
county appointment, that he had been in the area for at least a year or two.
In Rose Wagner Richards' memoirs, however, there is no mention of
Octavius Aimar. Whether he lived with the Wagners at any time, or if his
relationship to the family was generally known, is not apparent.
In 1870 Aimar45 did file a claim for a homestead. That was one year
after William Wagner had done the same.46 With the population of the
river settlement steadily increasing Wagner probably decided it wise to
acquire legal title to his land, something he had not previously found
necessary.
Upon Rose and William Jr.'s return from Key West, they found that
Hunt and Gleason, with some bitterness, had been forced off their Fort
Dallas property and that the new and legitimate owner, Dr. J.V Harris of
Louisiana, was soon to arrive. Harris and his family were warm and
friendly people who quickly made friends. During their brief residence
on the Miami River one of the more colorful events of the pioneer era
occurred and it involved Harris, William Wagner, his son William Jr.,
Octavius Aimar, and many others living here at the time. On October 21,
1870 a serious storm struck the area and deposited the large brig, The
Three Sisters47 on a sand bar off Virginia Key. Abandoned by her crew
and listing severely the ship must have seemed a gift of providence to the
settlers. Dr. Harris was first to notice the wreck. Harris joined by
Harrison Drew and Luke Nicholson went out to the vessel to lay claim as
"wreckmaster." After determining that the hull contained valuable
lumber, Drew and Nicholson returned to shore for supplies. Harris
remained on board to protect his claim. Unfortunately as soon as the two
men got back, the weather began to worsen and it was four days before
they were able to return to the stranded Harris. During the interim, word
of the wreck spread quickly and as soon as the weather cleared, residents
climbed into their small boats or the nearest thing that would float, to get
to the wreck. Harris was found a little the worse for wear, but made a full






The Wagner Family 21


recovery. The men began working to lash together boards to make rafts
capable of floating the lumber back to shore.48 After a few days The
Three Sisters was emptied and mysteriously burned. The lumber was
disbursed among the many settlers who took part in the salvage. Most
thought that in an area as remote as Dade County that that would be the
end of the matter. On November 28 the acting consul for the Port of Key
West, filed a libel for restitution in the District Court of the United States,
Southern District of Florida, charging J.V. Harris, William Wagner,
William Wagner, Jr., Charles E. Barnes, Daniel Clark, William Benest,
Samuel Jenkins, Washington Jenkins, Joseph Jenkins, Francis Infinger,
John Addison, William Rigby, Michael Sayers, George Sayers, Isaiah
Hall, and John Holman with the illegal seizure of cargo.49 Later others
were added to the list; Octavius Aimar, Luke Nicholson, John Frow,
Edward Pent and Harrison Drew.
Through their attorney, the men submitted the following statement
on February 23, 1871:

While admitting that they did take out the lumber "with much time,
exposure and arduous labor" they agreed that "they knew that their labor
and exposure in resqueing [sic] this lumber from impending total loss gave
them a greater vested interest in it than other parties possessed and they
desired to appeal to an admiralty tribunal to award them salvage; but no
such tribunal existed in this district and they felt under no obligation to
charter vessels to freight the lumber to Key West, a course that would only
accumulate needless expense...so

The hearing was originally scheduled for May 1871, but many of
those charged did not come to court. Because of additional complica-
tions, the trial was not held until the spring of 1872. At that time all the
libelees appeared in Key West for trial. The final decision was rendered
January 3, 1873, A transcript of the trial does not exist so exactly what
evidence the outcome was based on is not known, but Rose Wagner
wrote:

At last the trial was over and all came out fair excepting my father, William
Wagner, Samuel Jenkins and Isaiah Hall. Each one was fined one hundred
and fifty dollars and two months in the county jail of Monroe County, they
also having to pay one dollar per day board, and were fed on grits, black
strap called syrup, and dirty water for coffee. I can assure you that father
never troubled himself with any more wrecks after that time.5'

The early 1870s was the period in which the pioneer era really came
to life, and at the same time was firmly set on a path to extinction. While






22 TEQUESTA


The Three Sisters case was dragging on, other events occurred to divert
the Wagner family interests. In 1871 Rose Wagner had a son, Henry, with
Harrison Drew52 who was also involved in The Three Sisters incident.
There is no record of their marriage, but when Rose later married Adam
Richards, her marriage certificate stated that she was a widow. Drew left
Dade County for South America soon after Henry's birth and was never
heard from again."3
In the year 1872 there was another election and this time the ballot
gained some attention. William Gleason, whose reputation was already
slipping due to his escapades in Tallahassee and Miami, was running for
state legislator, and his friend and fellow carpetbagger, Ephraim T.
Sturtevant, for state senator. It was a hotly contested election, and a very
close one. Although both men were candidates, Gleason served as clerk
and Sturtevant was one of the inspectors of the election. The day before
the ballots were to be cast, William Wagner's name was struck from the
list of voters59 indicating that he was no supporter of the local carpetbag
regime. The grounds for his removal were that Wagner had been con-
victed of a felonious crime. No further explanation was given. Wagner's
removal from the voting list came before the final decision was rendered
in the case before the Wrecking Court, but after the trial. This action may
have been taken as a result of Wagner's conviction in that matter;
however, others convicted in The Three Sisters incident remained on the
1872 list of registered voters.55 The final result of the election was that
Gleason and Sturtevant were seated. Wagner's vote might indeed have
made a crucial difference.
In the summer of 1873 a yellow fever epidemic struck Key West and
was spread to the Miami settlement by Charles Barnes. Among those
stricken with the disease was William Wagner, Jr. The young man was
very ill, and Dr. Harris had given up on him. Not long after, an Indian
came by the Wagner house and spoke to Rose asking where William, Jr.
was. Having been told he was sick, the brave asked to see William and
went into the house. He soon left saying he would be back. The Indian
went to dig up a medicinal root, called "Indian Root"'; used to treat such
illnesses. He returned to the Wagner house and made a tea for William to
drink and bathed his face and body in the water.56 William took a turn for
the better and recovered fully from the malady. The Wagners felt deeply
indebted to the Indian, whose name is unknown, and credited him with
saving the young man's life.
By the early 1870s, with the opening of William Brickell's trading
post on the Miami River, settlers began seeing Indians a lot more







The Wagner Family 23


frequently. So it was with great surprise that the Wagners greeted the
rumor that the Indians were planning to attack the settlement. Everyone
was gathering at Dr. Harris' where they felt they might be safe until
passage to Key West could be arranged. John Holman, the Wagner's
closest neighbor at the time, came by to tell them of the plan. William
Wagner, apparently distrusted the information because he sent his son to
Miami to see what was going on. The worst was confirmed by those
present at the Harris' and William, Jr. returned to tell his family to start
packing up what they could. Dr. Fletcher, who previously had moved
away, was visiting the Wagners at this time and was in very poor health,
presenting a dilemma for the family. They felt he would not survive the
journey to Key West, yet leaving him there alone was unthinkable. It was
decided that they would all leave and take their chances.

It was at this time, with the help of the horse and cart brother was taking
provisions and bedding to the boat at the river landing that he was stopped
by Old Aleck and Billie Harney and asked what he was doing. Brother told
them and asked them if it was not true that they were going to fight. They
answered "No, Indian no want to fight," and taking the horse by the bridle
returned both horse and cart with all in it back to the house, assuring us in
every way they could that the Indians would not fight any more, unloading
the things from the cart themselves before leaving for their camp up the
river and to which place Miami Jimmie, who had been to our house first
that morning, and to whom mother had told the reports of the Indians
wanting to fight, had hurried off and it was through him that Old Aleck
and Billie Harney came soon after with the result just stated.
Jimmie was dispatched with all haste to their other camps at the head of
Little River and Snake Creek, from which place old Tiger Tail, at the head
of eight or ten other Indians, came to Miami and Jimmie returned to the
camp up the river from which place old Aleck and Billie Harney, with
Jimmie, came to our house first and from there to Miami, father and
brother going with them.
All the Indians were wearing white feathers in their head-dress the
emblem of peace. Had it been in the night instead of daylight, when the
Indians were on their way to Miami, there would no doubt have been
bloodshed as the people were watching and expecting them.57

Luckily, the situation was remedied amicably largely due to the
level-headedness of the Wagners, and the friendships they had cultivated
with the Indians.
The Wagners had another set of visitors that year, 1873, of a very
different ilk. Vice President of the United States, Schuyler Colfax and
Senators Osborn and Horatio Bisbee, Jr. stopped briefly in Miami.58







24 TEQUESTA


They were met by the unlikely pair of W.H. Gleason and Dr. Harris who
apparently put aside their differences for the occasion. The visitors were
interested in seeing the Everglades and on their way up river stopped at
the Wagner house. They were extended an invitation to come for dinner
on their return, which they accepted. Mrs. Wagner prepared a feast of
local specialties including a large "Leather Back" or soft shelled turtle,
and coontie pudding for which Eveline had gained a local reputation.
Life for the Wagner family seems to have passed pretty uneventfully
through 1875. By the following year things began to pick up. In August of
1875, Wagner was required to make the final "proof" in Gainesville for
his homestead claim. That was a difficult and costly journey and Wagner
wrote the following letter to the U.S. Land Office there:

Gents. I respectfully ask permit to make proof on my Homestead before
County Clerk of Dade County where I reside. I forewarded my application
through Mr. Hunt some time since unattended by the necessary affidavits
as I am now informed. I am not in possession of the number of my
certificate having been for'd [sicf9

Letters from two witnesses were also submitted, Andrew Price and
William J. Wagner, Jr. testifying that Wagner was too ill to make the trip.
This may or may not have been the case. It is probable, that he just
wished to avoid traveling to Gainesville. His request was apparently
approved because on December 28, 1875 he filed his final proof with
William Gleason, the County Clerk for Dade.60 As proof of his claim,
Wagner submitted that he had plowed, fenced, and cultivated about five
acres of said land and that he had built one mill house, 40 by 30 feet, one
dwelling 20 by 25 feet, another dwelling, 20 by 15 feet and one church,
40 by 10 feet, all were wood frame construction with shingle roofs. He
also noted the presence of orange, lime, lemon,.guava and citron trees on
his property.61 On January 31, 1878, his claim was approved and William
Wagner was granted title to the forty acres of land in Section 35 that he
had requested.62
The church mentioned in the homestead proof was built in 1875 by
the Wagners who were a Catholic family. The first priest known to have
visited the Wagners was Father Defau who came in 1872 and stayed three
weeks. During that period Holy Mass was celebrated every day, and on
Sunday the neighbors and many Indians attended services at the Wagner
house. Father Defau was sent to Miami specifically to preach to the
Indians,63 however, he seems to have had more lasting success among the
settlers. The next priest who visited the Wagner family was Father
Fammie in 1874. A year later the Right Reverend Bishop Verot, the






The Wagner Family 25


4 4





















Catholic church built by William Wagner in 1875, circa 1890.

Bishop of Saint Augustine, with Father Larocque of Key West, came to
the Wagner house to conduct confirmation services. He recommended
that William build a small church and promised to send a priest to
conduct services at least once a year. The religious ceremonies held at the
Wagners' thus far had been well attended so William Wagner, as much
for the pioneer community as his own family, constructed the first church
in the pioneer settlement at Miami. Father Hugon of Key West came to
dedicate the church in the spring of 1876.4 He arrived by schooner from
Key West and was brought up river to the Wagners by John Adams.
Father Hugon stayed with the Wagners for more than three weeks and
conducted Easter services for many of the early residents of Dade
County.
It was only a few months before Father Hugon returned. On
September 5, 1876, he married Rose and Adam Richards.65 Richards, a
relative newcomer, had ended up in Miami through a roundabout route.
He was born in Ohio on January 4, 1849.66 In 1858 he moved to Indiana
with his family where he remained until 1873. At the age of twenty-four







26 TEQUESTA


Adam Richards decided to strike out on his own; first to New York and
then, in a truly adventuresome spirit, to Venezuela. Later in life Mr.
Richards was quoted as saying: "I'd be there yet if a kind-hearted
American consul had not turned a sympathetic ear to recital of my
troubles."67 The consul managed to obtain passage for Adam and his
traveling companions, to Key West via Cuba. On January 26, 1875
Richards and his friends arrived in Miami. His friends, who were trained
mechanics, could find no work in that field in the pioneer settlement on
the Miami River, so they moved on. Mr. Richards, however, had but one
Venezuelan penny and fifty-three cents in American money in his pocket
so he was compelled to stay. He found work with Jonathan Lovelace, then
running the Fort Dallas property for the Biscayne Bay Company, a
Georgia-based firm that had purchased it in 1876. Adam worked at a
number of odd jobs until he went into the starch business with William
Wagner.
The second, smaller house mentioned in Wagner's homestead
claim became the first home of Rose and Adam Richards. It is not clear if
it was built expressly for them as they sometimes claimed because it was
standing almost a year before they were married.68 Maude Richards
Black, Adam's and Rose's second child, claimed that her father built the
house69 which may be the case since he could easily have worked for
Wagner before marrying Rose.
The wedding of Rose and Adam was quite a social event in the
fledgling settlement. The first marriage in the first church was an occa-
sion attended by many pioneers as well as a number of Indians. To the
Indians, the ceremony was a peculiar event which they watched with
some astonishment.
The Richards had been married scarcely a month when the area was
struck by one of the most severe hurricanes in years. On October 20 and
21 the storm passed just to the west of Miami, but close enough for the
full force of the winds and rains to be felt in the Miami settlement. Just
how serious a gale it was when it hit Miami is not known with certainty
for the obvious reason that the instrumentation available at the time was
not what it is today. Indications are, however, that the October hurricane
was not forceful enough to do much serious damage.70 The Wagner
homestead did feel its effects though. Adam Richards later told his son
Charlie about the storm and left him with the impression that the Wagner
house was damaged.71 Not so much though that it could not be repaired.
November 1876 brought another election to Dade County and the
nation. Samuel J. Tilden was running against Rutherford B. Hayes for the







The Wagner Family 27


presidency. Dade County still had William Gleason to contend with.
William Wagner remained off the list of registered voters in 1876, but
both Adam Richards and William Wagner, Jr. did participate in the
proceedings.72 It was an election in which tempers flared so hotly that
there was almost bloodshed resulting from the outrage of the voters who
were fed up with Gleason's carpetbag regime in Dade County. The
animosity towards Gleason was prevalent since the 1872 election which
he had manipulated in his favor. This time he was not so successful, Israel
M. Stewart and John J. Brown, the same candidates defeated in 1872,
were duly elected to the respective posts of State Senator, and Legislator
ending an era in local pioneer politics.
Feelings in the Wagner family against William Gleason ran high,
some of his antics had affected them directly. William Wagner's being
sticken from the voters list in 1872, was no doubt a humiliation. One
wonders also if the incident in 1869, when the Wagner's marriage was
called into question, was not an early form of intimidation instigated by
Gleason. Gleason's presence most certainly had something to do with
Wagner filing for a homestead when he did.73 But besides the petty and
underhanded politics the Gleason era brought something else to the
residents of Dade County; attention. More and more people were coming
to the area with big ideas and enough capital behind them to make their
plans a reality Although it would still be a few years before anything
substantial in the development of the area would occur, many pioneers
realized the value of legal title to a piece of good land.
During the early pioneer years after the final closing of Fort Dallas,
William and Eveline Wagner attained a fairly prominent position in the
social structure of the Miami River settlement. Not in the same sense as
in an urbanized society where status is related to ancestry and material
achievement, but in an isolated wilderness society where respect is
accorded to those who have the ability to live by their wits, the Wagners
held a high place. They were also known for their kindness. They
befriended many of the Indians and helped introduce them to a commun-
ity that feared them needlessly. The Wagners freely gave from their
belongings, fed the hungry, cared for the sick, and housed the wandering.
All indications are that they were honest, fair, and generous people. They
also seemed to enjoy a good time. There were frequently occasions for
large gatherings at the Wagner homestead. Passers-by were often invited
to a meal, soldiers came to serenade, Indians to watch rowdy young boys
play tricks on each other by the campfire, and others just to visit and pass
the time or discuss politics.74 Still others came to worship, although it is







28 TEQUESTA


doubtful that the services at the Wagner household and later in the
church, were formal or excluded anyone of a different faith. Residents
could rely on the Wagners to help out in many types of circumstances. In
April of 1875, even before their chapel was erected, a funeral was held at
the Wagner's for another pioneer, Mike Fallons who had died of con-
sumption. He was buried on their property in ground that had been
consecrated by Bishop Verot a few days before.75
Unfortunately, although there are frequent references to the Wagner
family in the public documents and private records of this period, a clear
picture of what Eveline and William were personally like, is not drawn.
One thing is clear, they were both individualists, unafraid to break the
taboos of the day. William's grandson, Charles Richards, later claimed
that Wagner was not given to a lot of small talk, or story telling, "I'd put it
this way," he said, "he was full-blooded German."76 Eveline may have
been the more outgoing of the two, since they seem to have been quite
sociable as a couple.
The last half of the 1870s progressed smoothly for the Wagner and
Richards families. William, William, Jr. (Bill), Adam, probably with the
help of young Henry, ran the coontie mill. In 1877 Rose and Adam had
their first child, John Paul, and two years later their second, a daughter
named Sarah Elizabeth, (she later became known as Maude). By the late
1870s the Wagner place became purely a family operation. Previous to
this period the Wagners seem to have frequently had people outside their
immediate family living with them, either as boarders, hired help, or
partners in the mill. This was not unusual on a pioneer homestead,
particularly if one did not have a large family. There were many duties
and chores that had to be performed to keep the homestead's inhabitants
supplied with the necessities of life. Besides the mill, the Wagner place
now had a two-acre orange grove,77 the vegetable garden, and some
chickens. With the presence of the Richards, Henry and William, Jr., the
Wagners seem to have been fairly self-sufficient.
Adam Richards, like his in-laws, had the luck and character to make
a successful pioneer. Richards was a friendly, gregarious man, known for
telling stories of his past and present exploits.78 Soon after his arrival in
Dade County, he began to take an active part in the growing community.
In 1877 he was appointed tax collector and assessor and his first duty was
to collect the back taxes for 1875 as well as assessing and collecting the
taxes for 1877 and 1878. It was not an easy job as Richards recalled later
in life:
We had tough times in those days. Methods of earning a little money were
few and far between and it was seldom that the people here had more than







The WagnerFamily 29


a few dollars to their names. Although the poll tax was only $1, voters
often had a hard time scraping together that extra dollar, and on one
occasion I had to accept a fat loggerhead turtle instead of cash. I ate the
turtle and paid the tax myself.79

To fulfill the responsibilities of his job, Mr. Richards had to travel
the length of the county which was a difficult task in those days consider-
ing the lack of transportation. He made one trip to assess the properties,
then tabulated his estimates and returned to collect the taxes. It took up to
several weeks to collect from the northern end of the county going the
route along the beach. When Richards set out on his long walk, he carried
a canvas bag containing two blankets, a coat, hard bread, cured meats,
coffee, tea, sugar and canned milk, as well as an empty tin can in which to
cook his food. Under his arm he bore two tax books, each 24 by 16
inches.A0 All this equipment made the walk much harder, additionally he
had to find means of getting his belongings across the rivers which cut
into the beach along the coast. At the Lake Worth inlet he had the
terrifying experience of being brushed by a shark while wading across.
He made it to dry land, but a mile further along he was confronted by a
large panther. This was the last trip Adam Richards made as tax collector.
On several occasions he paid the tax himself. One time he hired a boat
captain for a fee of fifteen dollars, to collect the taxes in the Lake Worth
district. When the captain returned he had only one dollar of the due
revenue.81
Tax collector was only one of the appointed positions Richards
held. He was also a deputy sheriff for Dade County, and in 1880, the
census enumerator.82 After a few years of the rugged life of a public
servant, Adam decided he preferred making a living as a private citizen.,
He had continued assisting William with the coontie mill. In 1882 he
began raising crops on his father-in-law's homestead and on some of the
Biscayne Bay Company tract which was then run by J.W. Ewan. This
produce was not only intended for local use but also for shipment north,
supposedly making Adam Richards the first person in the Miami area to
raise a crop for the northern winter market. He planted tomatoes, beans
and eggplant, picked them green and crated the vegetables for trans-
port.83 It was a very risky venture considering how lax ship captains
could be in keeping to schedules. Richards did have some success,
however, and for a time sold his produce in New York and New Orleans
for as high as sixteen dollars per barrel for eggplant, and seven dollars
and fifty cents for a crate of beans.4
Through the early years of their marriage Rose was kept occupied
giving birth and raising her children. After John Paul, and Maude, came







30 TEQUESTA


William Franklin, on March 15, 1882, Laura Louise on May 2, 1883, Cora
Amelia on April 29,1885 and Charles Adam on July 25,1887. While living
on the Wagner homestead Rose and Adam had six of their ten children.85
William, Jr. developed his own interests too. He frequently acted as a
guide in the Everglades on hunting expeditions. He and Henry also became
interested in taxidermy. In 1884 the Wagner family had Jean Chevelier
living with them. He was a Frenchman who spoke little English according
to one visitor, and was an expert taxidermist and collector of bird skins and
plumes.86 The exotic plumes of such South Florida birds as the egret were
beginning to bring high prices in the fashionable cities. Jean Chevelier is
believed to have been among the first large-scale plume hunters, and a
scientific collector who gathered specimens for museums. He later settled
on Possum Key87
During his stay with the Wagners, Chevelier had a serious accident in
their home. He fell down the stairs while carrying a loaded gun, it
discharged, and shot off part of his hand. He was rushed to Key West
where his hand was treated. Afterward he returned to Miami to pursue his
interests. The Wagners did not have any sizable boat for long hunting
expeditions, so Chevelier hired Charles Pierce and his boat The Bonton to
take himself, William, Jr. as his cook, and Henry as his taxidermist, on a
hunting trip into the Everglades.
Charles Pierce mentioned the Wagner family at the time as consisting
of Mr. Wagner, "an old German," his wife, William their son, about
twenty-seven years of age, and Henry their grandson, seventeen. Pierce
also mentioned that the Richards lived nearby with their two children.88
The men spent several days on and about the Wagner place preparing for
their journey which would last most of the summer.89
By the late 1880s, the hard life of homesteaders was beginning to take
its toll on William and Eveline, who were growing old. In February, 1887,
William applied for a military pension claiming disability.9 He was
sixty-one years of age. Wagner's friend, J.V. Harris who lived in Key West
at that time, wrote an accompanying letter outlining William's medical
problems which were in large part related to the leg wound he received at
the battle of Cerro Gordo. Harris stated that because of the swelling of the
leg and painful varicose veins resulting from the wound, Wagner was no
longer able to work more than a few hours a day. Wagner claimed in this
affidavit that he had been in the deteriorated condition for six years.9? On
January 23, 1888 he was awarded a pension of eight dollars per month.
In addition to the decline in William's health, this was a declining
period for the homestead too. Adam and Rose purchased 40 acres of land







The Wagner Family 31


just north of what is today Matheson Hammock. It was bought on an
arrangement where the purchaser made a down payment and lived on the
land for a year before obtaining title from the government.92 In 1888 the
Richards built a palmetto hut on their land and moved there with their six
children. They lived on this tract for eighteen months, a tract known as the
"Enfinger 40" after Francis Enfinger who had lived there previously.93
It must have been around this time that Wagner's mill closed,94 By
the late 1880s the coontie root was becoming scarce, William's health was
not what it had been and with Adam and Rose gone there would not have
been the necessary man power to keep the mill productive. Both Henry and
William, Jr. still lived in the old homestead, but they had their own
pursuits.
In 1888 life changed drastically for William Wagner when his wife
Eveline died at approximately 78 years of age. There is no record of her
burial, although it might be assumed that she was buried on the Wagner
place after a Catholic funeral service in the family chapel.
William, Jr. also moved away. He rented a place briefly on the
Biscayne Bay Company tract95 and then took up his own homestead north
of his father's. By this time Adam Richards had received title to the
"Enfinger 40" and made a homestead claim on an adjacent tract of land in
the area that would later become South Miami. Henry remained with his
grandfather. According to Charles Richards, Wagner had a couple move in
to help care for him.96
After the Richards family moved south, their small home on the
Wagner place was empty for only a short.time. Charles Lum, whose effort
at making a coconut plantation on Miami Beach failed, moved into the
house with his young wife.97 Lum intended to start a mill there but was
having no luck. According to Henry Wagner:

While willing to work he (Lum) was a farmer and nothing else. So I
proposed to my grandfather Wagner that we offer to take him in with us on
shares, which he accepted. He stayed a summer and winter and went back
to New Jersey where he was from...9"

By now Henry was getting older and frequently was away from his
grandfather's homestead. He continued to work as a guide and also to crew
for some of the boats which were beginning to cruise in the waters of
southeast Florida. William, whose health continued to decline was finally
persuaded to sell his homestead, a decision he later regretted. His family
had all moved off on their own, the mill was gone, and tragically even the
little church Wagner built burned down in 1891.99 There was also probably






32 TEQUESTA


considerable pressure on Wagner to sell. In the 1890s Julia Tuttle and the
Brickells were buying up a great deal of land in the Miami area. On May
15, 1893 Wagner sold his forty acres to Julia Tuttle. The agreed upon sum
was $5,000, to be paid in installments after an initial down payment of
$200.00 One of the older Richards boys moved the ailing Wagner into his
family's home.
This was a difficult period for the Richards, even though they ac-
quired a good deal of land. Adam was trying to make a go of another mill
to earn money. They now had two more children, Harley and Anthony,
making eight. Ten people in all were dependent on Adam Richards and it
was a lean time for mill owners. It was an era when many of the starch mills
in the county were shutting down. The final blow was a homestead rush
during the last decade of the nineteenth century which closed off most of
the available land to mill operators dependent on gathering the coontie
roots over a wide range of territory.
There was also something different about many of the people who
were moving to take up homesteads. Many of them were not so much
pioneers as investors and they guarded their property jealously. A number
of the homesteader neighbors of Adam Richards, even though they did not
have mills of their own, would not allow him to dig coontie from their
property. He soon closed his mill and began taking odd jobs in addition to
some farming. 101
Many of the people who were settling the land just south of Coconut
Grove were known as "Georgia crackers."102 With racism flourishing in
the South at that time, the attitudes several of these people brought with
them were most cruel. The Richards' children were not allowed to go to the
Coconut Grove school with the other children in the area because of their
darker complexion inherited from Mrs. Wagner. Charles Richards remem-
bered:
...they didn't let us go to school. I never had but three or four months of
school. The county at that time paid one of the homesteader's wife to teach
us. We went to school one term and then they cut it off.'03

In 1898, Julia Tuttle died. Before her death she had failed to pay
William Wagner the remainder of her debt. Wagner who badly missed the
place on the Miami River where he had spent so many years, pressed
Adam Richards to file a claim against the Thttle estate on his behalf. When
Julia Tuttle died her financial matters were in such disarray that her
executors were not interested in attempting to retain the Wagner property.
On March 29, 1899, E.L. White, commissioner for the estate of Julia Tuttle
deeded the property back to William Wagner.104






The Wagner Family 33


Soon thereafter the Richards and William Wagner prepared to
move back to the old homestead. It had changed a good deal in the few
years the family was away. When they returned they did not move back
into the Wagner house, but into a larger house that the Tuttle family had
built. The former Richards home was gone, like the church it had burned
down. 5 The one larger house could accommodate the family, which was
still large, although the older Richards' children were beginning to set
out on their own. Maude Richards, for one, did not return with her
family. In 1899 she married Charles Siebold and went to live on what is
now Old Cutler Road.
William Wagner, Jr. was living in Coconut Grove with his wife, the
former Josephine Stowe of Charleston. He had moved to Charleston in
the mid 1890s, married there, and had one child, Geneva in 1896, before
returning to Miami. When they returned the young Wagner family settled
in Coconut Grove, where William obtained a job working on the estate of
Commodore Ralph Munroe.
Before the Richards left the South Miami area, Adam sold some of
his land there, and gave much of it away to relatives who had moved to the
area from the midwest. He also gave a twenty-acre tract to Henry
Wagner, and several acres to Dade County for a public school,106 a
generous donation indeed considering his own children were not allowed
to attend the public school.
William Wagner fulfilled his final wish on November 26, 1901
when he died on his homestead. Death came at age 76, the result of a
combination of ailments that had plagued him for several years. Wagner
wrote a will in 1899 after he regained his property It was a succinct
document stating, "To my daughter Rosie Richards of Coconut Grove,107
Florida three quarters and to my son Joseph W Wagner of Coconut
Grove, Florida-one quarter of all my estate... ".1os He was buried, and
his grave remains, in Miami City Cemetary.
It is not known what William Wagner thought of the new city of
Miami that was burgeoning around him, or whether he felt he had any
part in what was going on after the incorporation of Miami. Few of those
very early pioneers actually did. Miami belonged to Henry Flagler after
1896. Those days before the railroad, of making coontie starch and
farming must have seemed very distant.
After William's death, the Richards family remained on the home-
stead for a few more years and then sold the property to a real estate
development firm which soon filed a subdivision plat with the county.
Rose and Adam, with their younger children moved to a new house on
N.E. 8th Street near 2nd Avenue, and in another twelve years or so found







34 TEQUESTA


themselves right in the heart of the real estate boom of the 1920s. The
Wagner family, and the Richards saw Miami through a dramatic
metamorphosis. The scope of the change must have been truly astound-
ing to the elderly Richards who had wandered the hammocks, entertained
Indians, and warded off everything from carpetbaggers to panthers to
finally take their place in the city of Miami.






NOTES
1. U.S. Department of Commerce: Census of the United States, 1850, Dade
County.
2. Mrs. Henry J. Burkhardt, "Starch Making: A Pioneer Florida Industry,"
Tequesta, XII (1952), p. 49.
3. U.S. Department of Commerce: Census of the United States, 1860, Dade
County.
4. U.S. Department of Commerce: Census of the United States, 1850, Charleston
County, South Carolina. This document indicates Private William Wagner was 25 years
old in 1850 which corresponds within a year or so with successive census records from
Dade County.
5. U.S. Department of Commerce: Census of the United States, 1850, Charleston
County, South Carolina, This document records Wagner as being from Pennsylvania.
6. "Declaration for Pension of Officer, Soldier or Sailor of Mexican War", (for
William Wagner), February 14, 1887.
7. Charles L. Dufour, The Mexican War: A Compact History 1846-1848 (New
York: Hawthorne Books Inc., 1968) pp.98-99.
8. "Declaration for Pension of Officer, Soldier or Sailor of Mexican War", (for
William Wagner), February 14,1887.
9. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences of the Early Days of Miami," The Miami
News, series beginning October 1, 1903.
10. "Declaration for Pension Officer, Soldier or Sailor of Mexican War," (for
William Wagner), February 14, 1887.
11. Charles Pierce. "The Cruise of the Bonton", Tequesta, XXII, (1962), p. 22.
George Parsons, a resident of Miami from 1873-1875, also mentioned in his personal
diary that Mrs. Wagner was Creole, and of mixed blood. George W. Parsons. Personal
Diary, 1873-1875. (University of Florida Library, Gainesville, Florida), unpublished.
12. William Montgomery Clemens, ed. North and South Carolina Marriage
Records, (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1927.)
13. Dade County, Florida, Miscellaneous Bk. A.
14. U.S. Department of Commerce: Census of the United States, 1850, Charleston
County, South Carolina.
15. Birth Records for South Carolina prior to the year 1877 no longer exist.
16. Oby J. Bonawit. Miami, Florida, Early Families and Records, Miami, Fla.:
Oby J. Bonawit (privately published), 1980.
17. Maude Black, Wagner's granddaughter, mentioned that she understood her
grandfather was a baker when he worked at the Fort Dallas sutler's store. Maude Black,
Personal Interview (by Arva Moore Parks), Miami, Fla., September 9,1971.








The Wagner Family 35


18. Mrs. A.C. Richards. "Reminiscences of the Early Days of Miami," The Miami
News, series beginning October 1, 1903.
19. Ibid.
20. In a letter to Maj. Gen. T. S. Jesup dated July 1,1855, Louis Morris reported that
lumber and shingles were purchased in New York, Savannah and Key West and were
brought to Miami on shallow draft schooners. This may have constituted some of the
building materials available to Wagner. Arva Moore Parks, "Where the River Found the
Bay." (Historical study of the Granada Site) Miami, Florida, July, 1979.
21. None of the Aimar or other Wagner children are specifically mentioned as
having come to Florida with Mrs. Wagner. However, Rose Wagner did mention others
from Charleston in their party. Octavius Aimar came to Miami later and homesteaded.
Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences...".
22. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..."
23. Ibid.
24. Ibid. Rose mentions that there were several people at the house who did not
know them. Possibly, other people were living with Wagner at this time.
25. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..."
26. Ibid.
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid.
29. Ibid.
30. Ibid. The Wagner boy (name unknown) who was shot by Marshall was a son
born between William Jr. and Rose, in 1851. This would have made him only ten years old
at the time of his death.
31. An act of the General Assembly, passed on December 11, 1850, consolidated
Dade and Monroe counties as one Court District, and provided that court for both
counties should be held at Key West. The early Monroe County sheriffs records were lost
in a courthouse fire in Key West.
32. Dade County, Florida, Miscellaneous Bk. A, p. 26.
33. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..."
34. Ibid.
35. Ibid.
36. Ibid.
37. Ibid.
38. Ibid.
39. William J. Schellings, ed., "On Blockade Duty in Florida Waters," (Excerpts
from the diary of Walter Keeler Scofield), Tequesta, XV, (1955).
40. Ibid.
41. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..."
42. Ibid.
43. Ibid.
44. EM. Hudson. "Beginnings in Dade County," Tequesta, Vol. 1, (1943), p. 23.
45. Octavius Aimar is listed in the 1870 U.S. census for Dade County with his wife
Mary and children Leopold 10, Stanislaus 8, Emile 7, and Eugene 2. Octavius, like
Eveline, is recorded as mulatto.
46. U.S. Land Office. "Application for Homestead," No. 4223 (Gainesville,
Florida), October 23, 1869.
47. Arva Moore Parks, "The Wreck of The Three Sisters," Tequesta, XXXI, (1971),
pp. 19-28.
48. In 1870 there was no saw mill in Dade County and the settlers could not have
found a cargo that would have been more valuable to them than The Three Sisters load.
49. Arva Moore Parks, The Wreck of The Three Sisters," p. 24.








36 TEQUESTA


50. Ibid.
51. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..." Rose does mention that in 1872
articles of clothing salvaged from the wrecks Mississippi and Juanietta were purchased
from the Indians by the Wagners.
52. Henry did not keep the name of Drew. He was later adopted by his grandfather
William and became known as Henry Wagner.
53. Henry J. Wagner, "Early Pioneers of South Florida," p. 71.
54. Dade County Commission minutes, November 4, 1872.
55. Dade County Miscellaneous Book A, List of Registered Voters for Election,
November 5, 1872, p. 19. This again adds to the speculation that Wagner may have
incurred some legal complications because of his marriage before coming to Dade
County.
56. Maude Richards Black, Personal Interview (by Arva Moore Parks), Miami,
Florida, September 9, 1971.
57. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..."
58. Ibid.
59. William Wagner, Letter to U.S. Land Office, Dade County, Florida, August 9,
1875.
60. U.S. Land Office, "Proof," Final Certificate, Gainesville, Florida: No. 996,
January 3, 1876.
61. Ibid.
62. Receiver's Office, "Final Receivers Receipt," (For Homestead Application
No. 4223), Gainesville, Florida: No. 996, January 31, 1876.
63. "Record of the Episcopal Acts of Rt. Rev. Augustin Verot, Bishop of Savannah
and Administrator Apostolic of Florida." (On file, Diocese of Savannah), excerpts
1861-1876.
64. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..."
65. Adam C. Richards, "Dade County In Its Earlier Days," (clipping), 1918.
66. Oby Bonawit. Miami, Florida, Early Families and Records, (Miami, Florida:
Oby Bonawit, 1980).
67. "Dade History Recalled," The Miami Herald, May 23, 1926.
68. Wagner's homestead proof, filed December 28, 1875, first records the house.
69. Maude Black, Personal Interview (by Arva Moore Parks) Miami, Florida,
September 21,1973.
70. Arva Moore Parks, "Miami in 1876," Tequesta, XXXV, (1975), pp. 116-118.
71. Charles Richards. Personal Interview (by Margot Ammidown), Miami
Florida, August 1, 1979.
72. Dade County, Miscellaneous Book A, p. 40.
73. Gleason was known to be land hungry and was accused during his residence in
Miami of cheating several of the less educated pioneers out of their land.
74. When George Parsons visited the Wagners on Sunday, November 23, 1873, he
noted in his diary that there was a fairly heated talk by Dr. Harris concerning Gleason and
Hunt. George Parsons, Personal Diary 1873-1875, p. 8.
75. George Parsons, p. 204.
76. Charles Richards. Personal Interview, August 1, 1979.
77. Henry J. Wagner, "Early Pioneers of South Florida," p. 62.
78. Adam Richards' niece, Elizabeth Castle, still lives in South Miami, and
remembers her uncle as being a very entertaining man. He is also referred to frequently in
regard to his kindness in George Parson's recollections.
79. "Dade History Recalled," The Miami Herald, May 23, 1926.
80. Ibid.
81. Ibid.








The Wagner Family 37


82. Department of Commerce: Census of the United States, 1880.
83. E.V. Blackman. Miami and Dade County, Florida, (Washington, D.C.: Victor
Rainbolt, 1921).
84. Ibid.
85. Oby Bonawit, Miami, Florida Early Families and Records. See the Richards
family geneology for a complete listing of family members.
86. Charles Pierce, Pioneer Life in South Florida, (Coral Gables, Fla.: University
of Miami Press, 1970).
87. Charlton W. Tebeau, Man in the Everglades, (Coral Gables, Florida: University
of Miami Press, 1968), pp. 91-93.
88. Charles Pierce, Pioneer Life...
89. For a detailed account see Charles W Pierce, "The Cruise of the Bonton,"
Tequesta, XXII, (1962).
90. "Declaration for Pension of Officer, Soldier or Sailor of Mexican War," Dade
County, Florida, February 14, 1887.
91. J.V. Harris, Letter. Ibid.
92. Charles Richards, Personal Interview (by William M. Straight, M.D.), Miami,
Florida. July 27,1968.
93. Charles Richards, Personal Interview (by Margot Ammidown), Miami,
Florida, August 1, 1979. Mrs. Richards claimed that she lived there eighteen months and
killed eighteen rattlesnakes.
94. The last recorded reference to the Wagner mill is in 1886 when it was visited by
a Mr. Cash. He also noted that William Wagner was a County Commissioner in that year.
EM. Hudson. "Beginnings in Dade County." Tequesta, Vol. 1, (1943).
95. Maude Black and Charles Richards, Personal Interview, September 21, 1973.
96. Charles Richards, Personal Interview, August 1, 1979.
97. Henry J. Wagner, "Early Pioneers of South Florida."
98. Ibid. Lum was probably taken in on shares in the grove and produce business,
however, this might also refer to the last days of the mill.
99. Mrs. A.C. Richards, "Reminiscences..."
100. Dade County, Deed Book I, p. 139.
101. One of the odd jobs Richards had was as a handy man at the Peacock's Inn in
Coconut Grove.
102. Charles Richards, Personal Interview, August 1,1979. Richards died at age 95
on Oct. 28,1982.
103. Ibid.
104. Dade County, Deed Book U, p. 285.
105. Charles Richards. Personal Interview, August 1, 1979.
106. Ibid.
107. This will was written in August of 1899 before the family had actually moved
back to Miami.
108. William Wagner, "Will," Dade County, filed December 4, 1901.






This Page Blank in Original
Source Document













Library in a Pioneer Community:

Lemon City, Florida


By Ron Blazek*



It was the last decade and a half of the nineteenth century and this
country had emerged from the Civil War into a period of accelerated
maturation. Social, economic, political, and philosophical forces had
blended into a course of action highly individualistic which became
associated with the American tradition later described as rugged indi-
vidualism. From an agrarian focus, the nation was veering toward an
urbanized existence. Public library development came about largely
through such individual effort, and presented a predictable pattern of
growth in communities throughout the country. Through the efforts of
women's clubs and improvement societies, the subscription libraries, in
which interested citizens purchased memberships, formed an important
component of the cultural establishment and are recognized antece-
dents of the public library as we know it today.
By the end of the century, the public library movement was well
under way in the Northeastern and Midwestern regions, but had made
much less impact in the South where the dynamism spawned by the
industrial revolution was less pervasive. Florida, a relatively new state
(1845), lacked the bookish heritage of others and early libraries were
generally found in the northern parts of the state close to the seats of
government. The public library did not appear until the 1870's in
Jacksonville, and real growth did not occur until the twentieth century.
In truth, the southern part of the state in the 1880's was still pioneer
country, and the settlers of Dade County had their counterparts in the
Western frontiersmen of the pre-Civil War era. Squatters and later

*Dr. Blazek is a professor at the School of Library Science, Florida State Univer-






40 TEQUESTA


homesteaders were few and infrequent, and the pioneer communities
were small in size. The story of Lemon City and the birth of its library is
the story of the creation of a social-cultural agency in this type of setting.
It is typical Americana and reveals the type of spirit which focused on
higher-level needs once the barriers to survival and decent living were
overcome. What happened in Lemon City occurred in thousands of other
communities in which cultural interests were eventually aroused.
The author is indebted to the staff and administration of the
Miami-Dade Public Library, both at the main building and at the Lemon
City Branch, as well as the staff of the Historical Association of South
Florida who made all materials available to him. A special note of thanks
must go to Dr. Thelma Peters, author of the fine local history on Lemon
City' (used frequently by this author), for her great kindness in consent-
ing to an interview, answering all questions, and proffering additional
information.

Lemon City: A Pioneer Community
At the corner of N.E. 2nd Avenue and 61st Street in Miami (a
neighborhood marked by increasing change as a result of newly arrived
Haitian residents) stands a marker identifying the area as "Lemon City
Pioneer Settlement." It is doubtful that the new residents, or even some
of the old ones, know that there was once a bayside village here that
antedated Miami itself and served as a shipping center for numerous
varieties of produce grown here, and as a supply center for the many
homesteaders who were seeking a new existence.
Prior to the passage of the Homestead Act in 1862, white residents
were few in South Florida except for Key West. Several early pioneers
had settled in the Miami region and traded with the Seminoles, hunted,
fished, and planted crops; but it was not until the homesteaders arrived in
significant number that the area could be said to have a population. Even
so, several of these early residents lived on the property for many years as
squatters before taking the time and trouble to make formal application
for the land. In the case of John Saunders and William Pent, they divided
much of their land into small parcels and began selling it almost as fast as
their deeds had been granted in 1889. Out of this activity emerged a
pioneer hamlet of working class families accustomed to physical labor
and eager for industrious pursuits. They were drawn to the region because
of its fertility and potential for economic development unlike the com-
munity of Coconut Grove several miles to the South. The residents of
Coconut Grove were of a more affluent class who chose their residence
for its beauty rather than its possible yield.







Library in a Pioneer Community 41


Though Lemon City was a port, it never was a port of entry; though it
called itself "City," it had no local government, no land taxes, no police or
fire department, no newspaper, no zoning, no garbage pickup, no sewer,
no water system, and until 1909, no electricity. Yet as a pioneer commu-
nity, it functioned well. It had a school, post office, churches, stores, a
library, a livery stable, and an active community improvement associa-
tion.2
For a time the community had two names since a petition signed by
twenty residents and presented to the federal government asked for a post
office to serve the community of Motlo, named after a friendly Seminole
chief. The post office was granted as Motto (the name victimized by the
usual bureaucratic bungling) in 1889. At this time, the name Lemon City
was also being used by some due to the presence of the lemon grove,
planted either by Saunders or another early settler, Samuel Filer. Obvi-
ously, Lemon City, as a name, had more appeal and by 1893, references to
Motto had ceased to exist. In this period, one would have been able to
visit a general store, barbershop, saloon, (not without its detractors),
blacksmith shop, wharves and warehouses, all prior to the coming of the
railroad and the birth of Miami, some five miles to the south. The county
had started a school in 1890, and Mrs. Cornelia Keys had opened a hotel
in 1892.3
The regional weekly newspaper, the Tropical Sun, operating out of
the county seat at Juno, regularly printed the business news as reported
by its Lemon City correspondent. On February 18,1892, it was disclosed
that Captain Adolphus Russell completed fencing of his five acre lot for
planting pineapples while his steamer was being repaired in Jackson-
ville.4 On March 31, 1892, the paper was pleased to announce the
reopening of the Lemon City Store under the supervision of Mr. Will
Filer of Key West.5 On September 29 of the same year, in addition to the
opening of Mrs. Keys' hotel and the expectation for "liberal patronage"
there, the big news was the beginning of a large steamboat wharf by Mr.
Lewis Pierce to accommodate Mr. Colgrove's steamboat between
Lemon City and Key West around November 1.6
A popular legend which has the possibility of truth and is retold by
Peters is that former Standard Oil magnate Henry Flagler, who had built
several luxury hotels in St. Augustine, was interested in bringing his
railroad to Lemon City. He consulted Pierce in 1895, but found an
unreceptive listener, who advised him to move his station south to the
Miami River. Subsequent discussions with Julia Tuttle, who owned
much of the land where Fort Dallas once stood, brought the kind of
concessions that Flagler sought. Thus, Miami was to emerge and prosper
and eventually swallow up the pioneer town of Lemon City.7







42 TEQUESTA


Brash Youngster to the South: The Growth of Miami
Up until the time Flagler brought in his railroad at the urging of
Julia Tuttle in 1896, the area around the Miami River did not attract
community development as did Lemon City and Coconut Grove. The
two major developments in the Miami area were Fort Dallas built during
the Seminole Wars on the north side of the river and the trading post of
William Brickell on the south side. Julia Tuttle, daughter of an early
settler, E.T. Sturtevant, had purchased thousands of acres around old Fort
Dallas and had used it as a residence since 1891. She was business-
minded and had great expectations and hopes for the area; at any rate,
she, more than anybody else, induced Flagler to invest in Miami. Unfor-
tunately, she died rather unexpectedly only two years after the arrival of
the railroad which was to change the course of events for the region. At
the time of her death, she left so many land holdings, mortgages, and
pending deals that it reportedly took two years to straighten out her
estate.8
With the coming of the railroad, the effects were felt immediately
in the arrival of new residents from the north, and on May 15, 1896, the
Miami Metropolis published its inaugural issue. This was the precursor to
the Miami News and in 1896 offered an impressive eight-page chronicle
on a weekly basis. In that historic inaugural issue, it set the stage for the
type of publicity it wished to provide for the bay region.

It is the first paper ever published on Beautiful Bay Biscayne the rnost
southern newspaper on the mainland of the United States, published at the
most southern railroad point in Uncle Sam's domain, and at the most
southern telegraph terminal and express office on the mainland, at Mar-
velous Miami. The town with over a thousand souls and the survey of the
place not yet completed. The coming Metropolis of South Florida.9

In the next two months, the major issue was incorporation and voter
registration lists were prepared, boundaries were determined and en-
thusiasm was kindled. Finally, in its July 31, 1896 issue, the Metropolis
was able to report that a city had been born. Out of about 440 registered
voters, including 182 blacks, 344 votes had been cast. Elected were a
mayor, several aldermen, a clerk and a marshall.10
The next few years saw great expansion and growth which was
religiously reported in the pages of the Metropolis. Typical of such
paeans was the story of August 3, 1900: "We find ourselves now after a
life of four years a prosperous little city of 3,000 people.. .In four short
years we have made a modern city, with paved streets, sewerage, water-






Library in a Pioneer Community 43


works, telephone, electrically lighted modern business blocks and dwell-
ings, schools and churches that would reflect credit on a city of 50,000
population." The main point of the article was to bring attention to what
must be done for the future, which included "appropriations for the
harbor, additional industry, and bonds for public buildings."" In 1904,
Miami reached a size of 4,500 augmented by a winter population of
visitors.
By July of 1904, the Metropolis was issuing two newspapers, a daily
for the city and a weekly for the surrounding area, and the headlines were
filled with events of national and international importance; the World's
Fair in St. Louis, the Chicago meat packers' strike, Teddy Roosevelt's
nomination and subsequent election, and the Russo-Japanese War.
Through it all Miami expanded and new growers, planters, tradesmen,
businessmen, and construction workers arrived in a continuous stream,
advertised their services in the newspaper, and helped put the city
together. Flagler was the major contributor through his railroad, which
provided transportation for passengers and freight, his construction of
the elegant Royal Palm Hotel in the center of town near the terminal, and
his many gifts. Tributes to the giant appeared frequently in the pages of
the Metropolis, and he was identified "as the most important force and
influence in developing the East Coast Country. "12
The effects of this expansion on the surrounding towns were easily
seen in examining the reports of local correspondents in the pages of the
Metropolis. This slightly bitter reflection from the Lemon City reporter
in June of 1896, soon after the railroad was completed and just before
Miami was incorporated, was typical: "The exodus still continues from
Lemon City and the prospect is that only a few of the original settlers will
be left to hold the fort. Everybody seems to be eager to get to Miami, and
the ambitious youngster is daily taking on more airs and vaunting itself
over less fortunate neighbors. "13 Although the article did indicate some
hope for future development, the "ambitious youngster" in reality effec-
tively had rendered such nearby communities as Lemon City, Coconut
Grove, and Little River to a steady growth and eventual annexation.

Creating a Library in Lemon City
Probably the most interesting and appealing legend regarding the
founding of the library at Lemon City is the story of the "Remittance
Man" which was widely reported in the newspapers of the 1950's when
the Lemon City Library and Improvement Association made a deter-
mined bid to the members of the City Commission to authorize the






44 TEQUESTA


building of a new branch. The story can be traced to one Joseph Faus,
local resident, spokesman and member of the Lemon City Library and
Improvement Association, part-time journalist, and amateur historian.
Although Peters is not willing to completely discredit all parts of the
story, since folklore in many cases does have the ring of truth, she
informed the author that documentation did not exist for the story and
was not a necessary prerequisite to Mr. Faus' journalistic style.14
The most detailed version of the story appeared in the Miami
Herald, April 3,1955. The stranger was born in England of a baronial line
and was disinherited by his father in 1869 for marrying a commoner. In
1885, he arrived in Lemon City, ill and widowed, with books of poetry
and a Bible in his knapsack. He had made the trip with Ned Pent, the
second barefoot mailman who charged $1.00 to escort people along the
beach while delivering his mail to and from Lantana. The stranger lived
in a rented cabin and was called the Remittance Man because once a
month he would go to the post office to receive his remittance. His days
were spent reading poetry to all who would listen and his audience was
generally made up of the good ladies of the town who were starved for
culture. His influence was such that he spurred them to get a school
established in 1885. Later when he died, he was buried in a field of wild
oleanders."1
The story reappeared in the Miami News with a few embellish-
ments almost nine years later at a time when the new Lemon City Branch
of the Miami public library was to be dedicated. The year of his death was
established as 1896, and the sad event inspired Mrs. Keys to step in and
get the "girls" to procure books for library development. The seeming
inconsistency of reporting the date of founding of the Lemon City Public
Library as April 7, 1894 (two years earlier) is not clarified.16
The problems in dating the library at Lemon City, the inception of
the Library Association, and the opening of its new building occur as a
result of confused thinking which, in effect, has given rise to the
development of another myth of larger proportions -that of Lemon City
having primacy in community library development for the region.
The historical marker at the site of the present Lemon City Branch
Library on N.E. 61 Street (old Lemon Avenue) identifies the Lemon City
Public Library as the earliest public library in South Florida, organized
and open to the public on April 7, 1894. The Florida Library Survey of
1935 also reports the year of 1894 for Lemon City, and 1897 for Coconut
Grove. What has happened is that the beginning date of the "public"
library at Lemon City has been confused with the inception of a school






Library in a Pioneer Community 45


Lemon City Library on N.E. 61st St., circa 1945.


library started there by Miss Ada Merritt soon after she came to town in
the 1890's. The good works of Mrs. Keys, and the creation of a library
association, were not to take place until 1902.17 This, in effect, estab-
lishes the Coconut Grove Library and Coconut Grove Library Associa-
tion as the earliest active library agencies serving the community in these
parts, a fact supported by careful examination of the records.
E.V Blackman, a local historian and former president of the Dade
County Historical Association, fixes the date of founding the Coconut
Grove Library as June 15, 1895 (two years prior to the date given in the
Florida Library Survey), and reports a donation of books by Mrs.
Andrew Carnegie after attending a meeting. In 1897, the library was
moved to a storeroom and called the Exchange Library. Four years later,
the library occupied a new building on donated land.8 On November 5,
1900, a petition was filed for incorporation of the Coconut Grove Library
Association with the general purpose being to maintain "a circulating
library for the use of its members" (white persons of good character who
will pay dues).19
Confusion exists also with respect to definitions of a public library;
but neither Lemon City nor Coconut Grove conformed to that ideal, and
neither used the term "public" to describe its character or its base of
support. Instead, they preferred the term circulating library which more
correctly described their operational modes. In both cases we have true
subscription libraries which charged membership fees. In January, 1897,






46 TEQUESTA


an item appeared in the Miami Metropolis announcing formal installa-
tion of the Exchange Library of Coconut Grove in its new quarters. "A
membership fee of one dollar per year confers the right to take out a new
book every week, besides granting the privileges of a reading-room
equipped with all the latest magazines and periodicals.. ."20 The same
situation existed in Lemon City several years later when its library was
finally completed.
At one point in 1902, Coconut Grove even attempted to share its
library resources with Miami and provide a delivery service but "owing
to a lack of patronage found it impossible to continue. Fifty subscribers
at $1.50 each were needed to make it pay, but only half that number
subscribed. The library at that time contained about 1,200 books and had
about 125 subscribers in Coconut Grove.2' This was at the time that the
good ladies of Lemon City had just decided to form their library associa-
tion and were beginning to operate out of Mrs. Keys' house.
It is obvious that the town of Coconut Grove exerted library
leadership in the area and was the first to serve its community with a
library agency of some public dimension. This is not surprising due to the
higher socio-economic level of the residents and the leadership of a few
affluent, educated people. Notable among them was the children's author
and travel writer, Kirk Munroe, who was the chief stimulus and first
president of the library association there. When in town, he was con-
stantly working on behalf of the library and the pages of the Miami
Metropolis are filled with reports of his efforts in the late 1890's and early
1900's. Such activities included essay contests on the value of books,22
lawn socials,23 and library memberships given to children as a reward for
good school behavior.24

The First Library in Lemon City
As the pioneer town of Lemon City grew in size and industry, it was
natural that people form into groups related to social and cultural in-
terests. From the Tropical Sun, the first newspaper in the area, comes the
following report from November 3, 1892.

Lemon City will soon be noted as the Club City of Dade. They have now
the "Pleasure and Profit Club"-object, mutual improvement and church
and Sunday School work; a society called "The Busy Bees of the
Everglades" composed of the young people and school children of the
neighborhood object, the establishment of a circulating library, and
general improvement. They have already on their shelves more than one
hundred books. "The Lemon City Literary Society" meets every Wed-
nesday evening for debate, readings, recitations, etc. "The Lemon City






Library in a Pioneer Community 47


Yacht Club" is yet in its infancy, and last but not least is "The Lemon City
Baseball Club" which, from the talk of its members, must have reached its
full stature weeks ago.25

The desire to join organizations is a predictable phenomenon with
respect to human dynamics and was even more important to the pioneer
culture where both independent thought and cooperative action were
required for survival. Social life, therefore, dictated the union of like
spirits in such a way as to extract personal pleasure from group activities
designed to promote worthy causes. Thus, religious and cultural groups
and clubs abounded then (as they do today), and when a social, educa-
tional, or religious agency was the object of such consciousness its
creation was generally assured.
The "Busy Bees of the Everglades" was formed by Miss Merritt,
the highly regarded school teacher, soon after she came to Lemon City.
Tributes to this dedicated lady appeared frequently, such as the one in the
Tropical Sun of February 18, 1892.

The patrons of the Lemon City school should more than appreciate the
effort that Miss Ada Merritt is making to establish this as the best public
school in the county. It is perfectly phenomenal the progress all the pupils
have made under Miss Merritt's instructions.. 26

The Busy Bees did, indeed, succeed in their quest to establish a
library in the school, and it may well have been the first formal library in
these parts. That it has become confused with the development of the
Library Association and the public library is unfortunate, but under-
standable, historically. The pages of the newspaper of the time are replete
with reports of the Bees' activities in behalf of their worthy cause, and
are the same types of activities waged in behalf of the community library
by members of the library association some ten years later.
On November 10, 1892, came the report that "The Busy Bees will
give a supper on Thanksgiving evening for the benefit of the library. They
cordially invite all to come, and to come hungry that they may be fed."27
The success of that venture was reported over a month later: "Thanksgiv-
ing was duly celebrated here, and that evening a large assembly gathered
at the school house to partake of a beautiful spread given by the Busy
Bees of the Everglades. It proved a success both socially and finan-
cially "28 A final reference may be included here because of an interest-
ing name change as a result of a printer's error or reporter's carelessness
early the following year. "A society of maidens calling themselves The
Buzzing Bells gave a pleasant supper and dance at the residence of







48 TEQUESTA


Captain A. Russell on February 17, to raise money to purchase a library.
Forty-seven dollars and thirty-eight cents were taken in. "29
Another factor which may have added to the confusion is the rebirth
of this group ten years later with a true name change from the "Busy
Bees" to the Pioneer Literary Society. "The pupils of the Lemon City
School reorganized their old literary club and are now in excellent
working order..."30 They had built a collection of 400 volumes over the
years, and evidently, the desire for further activity was strong. This came
at a time when the Library Association had been in operation for eight
months and was busily pursuing its own course.

The Village Improvement Association and Library Involvement
The biggest step forward in the development of a community
library in Lemon City, as it was in many nineteenth century towns, was
the creation of an organization composed of ladies who had the time,
interest, and energy to give to community betterment. These individuals
were usually of the upper or upper-middle socio-economic strata and
represented a compelling force in local affairs. So it was in Lemon City
when, in 1896, the ladies "met at the residence of Mrs. C.H. Keys and
organized an improvement society, object- to improve the streets of the
city. 31
What followed was a series of activities designed to earn money and
gain the cooperation of the community in building better roads. Rocking
a road was hard labor and Lemon City men had very little time to give to
the crushing and laying of stone; therefore, it is not surprising that
progress was slow and references in the newspapers were fairly frequent
with respect to the need for volunteers or the importance of the work.
"The V.I. A. had a number of men yesterday on the streets. The pavement
from the railroad station to the city dock will be completed in a few days
and will be an improvement which will do great credit to a town of our
size. Too much praise cannot be given the enterprising members of this
society. "32

The oyster supper given by the ladies of the Improvement Society for the
benefit of the road fund was fairly attended and a complete social success.
About $10 was realized.The ladies are doing a good work in this direction,
for this community. Good hard roads are being built and that means more
for a place than anything else. People are glad to settle in a community
where they have good roads.33

The difficulties associated with the procurement of volunteers to
do heavy labor must have been burdensome to members of the V.I. A.,







Library in a Pioneer Community 49


and we can only speculate on the degree of relief they felt when Dade
County took over the job of building roads and sold bonds for this
purpose in 1902. They had already demonstrated their prowess in fund
raising activities of social nature in the past, staging such events as
poverty socials,3 box lunches,35 holiday balls,36 and social dances,37 as
well as the aforementioned oyster supper. Fortunately, the development
of a library became their next project, one to which they brought five
years of wisdom and experience.

The Push for a Community Library
The Lemon City Library Association and its Success
The first newspaper reference to the future development of a library
was a rather innocuous item in November of 1901. "There are good
prospects that a circulating library will be established here at no late day.
This will be a grand thing for Lemon City and vicinity and we trust it will
be done."38 There is no telling who provided this information, for the
Library Association had not yet been formed, but it had evidently been
considered by the ladies of the V.I.A.
Just as the V.I.A. had been organized in the home of Mrs. Cornelia
Keys six years earlier, it ended its existence in the same place and the
Lemon City Library Association was born February 4,1902. Mrs. Keys,
twice widowed and relatively affluent, had come to Lemon City from
Chicago in 1890 and had taken charge of the cultural life of the commu-
nity. Her house was to serve as the library for nearly three years until a
library building was finally completed. In attendance on that historic
occasion in 1902 were thirteen women (most of whom were members of
the V.I. A.) who had agreed to pay ten cents per month dues, bring a book
to donate, and take home a book to read. Officers were elected on a
six-month basis; Mrs. Dupont, president; Mrs. Higgs, librarian; Mrs. R.
Russell, assistant librarian; Mrs. Brown, treasurer; and Mrs. Keys,
secretary. Mrs. Brown was able to report a total of $3.10 ($1.30 in dues
and $1.80 from the treasury of the V.I.A.). The newspaper carried an
item on February 14 announcing the entertainment to be given by the
Lemon City Circulating Library on Washington's birthday. "The pro-
ceeds to go towards buying a bookcase and other equipment necessary
for furnishing the library room. Oysters and other refreshments will be
served. It is ardently hoped and expected that a large audience will be
present to help with their money and appreciation in this most laudable
enterprise. "39
This was only the beginning of a stream of activities conducted,







50 TEQUESTA


staged, and organized by the members of the Library Association, as
they were encouraged by the success of their effort. "The social the night
of the 22nd proved a success, and the sum of $19.00 was made for helping
the circulating library."40 In reference to a Saturday evening affair held
two weeks later in which oysters, ice cream, and cake were served; "The
social held Saturday evening in the interest of the library was liberally
patronized, and a neat sum was added to the fund already collected. "41
Two months later, in May: "The Library Association of Lemon City will
give a pie social at Lemon City hall, Wednesday evening, May 14th, the
proceeds to go for the benefit of the library. All are cordially invited to
attend. "42
Association members evidently succeeded in getting others to help
them conduct a dance the following month.

Refreshments were prepared by the following ladies of the Library As-
sociation.. Also, some non-members of the Library Association kindly
consented to assist the ladies in preparing the refreshments, as the burden
of these entertainments always falls on the first-mentioned above ladies,
and this should not be, as all ought to be willing to "lend a hand as all are
mutually benefitted.43

Evidently, volunteerism was still a problem, but at any rate, the
dance cleared $10 for the library and was an enjoyable affair.44
The Independence Day issue of the Miami Metropolis reported in
dramatic fashion the first substantial material donation to the library
cause:

The monthly meeting of the Library Association was held TUesday and
proved to be even more interesting than usual. After the general routine
business of the meeting was over, our dear generous member, Miss Dellie
Pierce, presented in a few modest words a handsome lot for a library
building.
Now that the Association has had such a handsome donation, it trustingly
hopes that in the not distant future, a neat and commodious library
building can be erected. One that will be a pride to the Association and a
credit to the settlement.45

Up to this time, philanthropy, a necessary ingredient to public
library development, had been manifest in terms of time and energy
generously given to the library cause. Working-class people of Lemon
City could afford little else, but Dellie was the daughter and heir of Lewis
Pierce, land developer and businessman, who is reported to have rejected
Henry Flagler's offer seven years before. Her gift was a tangible one






Library in a Pioneer Community 51


which spurred even more vigorous fund-raising activity; the largest affair
to date was thrown the very next month.

The young ladies of Lemon City have about completed the arrangements
for the library entertainment to be given a week from next Thesday, August
19th, in the town hall. The library has grown to such large proportions that
a building has to be built to accommodate it. Two lots have already been
donated and now the young ladies have taken it upon themselves to start
the ball rolling towards the building. They have gone to a great deal of
work and have prepared a program which cannot fail to please everybody
The admission, 25 cents for grown people and 15 cents for children, is very
reasonable and there is no reason why the hall should not be crowded with
people willing to be entertained and eager to help the library along.6"

The Miami Metropolis of August 29 carried a detailed account of the
entertainment and called it a "decided success," consisting of an orchestra
of home talent, broom drill, chorus, recitations, and duet while "ice cream
and cake disappeared like magic, and a jolly sociable time with it." It must
have been a long evening and an ambitious undertaking for in addition
there were two tableaux, "Cupid Conquering Mars", and "National Col-
ors", and a light drama entitled The Precious Pickle. "The proceeds will
benefit the library about $50.00."47
The final newspaper item regarding the Library Association in its
maiden year appeared on October 17 and acknowledged with thanks for
"favors shown and generous donations to the library fund by Messrs. Beck
and Froscher of Miami. They hope these young men in their laudable
ambition to furnish the best of entertainment and amusement for the
people will meet with good success."48 It, indeed, had been an eventful
year and the sum of $240.77 had been raised. This type of activity was to
continue for the next two years until the dream of a new library building
was finally realized. In the year 1903, $195.20 was raised, and in 1904,
$247.49 was earned for a total of $683.46 in three years.49
Work on the library building was begun during this third year and was
finally completed in December 1904. It was a single-story frame edifice
much like an auditorium with a stage at one end. Furnishings were only a
few tables and chairs and the books and bookcases brought from Mrs.
Keys' house.s5 It must have looked very grand, though, to the members of
the Library Association who had worked so hard to achieve this end, and
they had every right to feel proud of their collection of 346 books all neatly
shelved. Unfortunately, the Association had to employ the more contem-
porary economic policy of deficit spending since the $683.46 was about
two hundred dollars short of what was needed. Expenditures over the past






52 TEQUESTA


three years were $727.85 for land and building, and $125.90 for books and
furnishings, a total outlay of $853.75, or a balance yet to be raised of
$170.29. A loan was obtained for $200.00 to meet such obligations in
opening the facility.

Dedicating the Library-January 13,1905
At the time of the dedication of the library building in 1905, the
president of the Association was Flora Simpson, the second wife of Lemon
City's most illustrious citizen, Charles Torrey Simpson, biologist,
naturalist and author. The Simpsons had arrived in Lemon City in 1903 in
order to give Mr. Simpson the opportunity to study and write about
tropical wildlife. Flora opened the dedicatory exercises with an expression
of gratitude for the successful results of their mission.
During the three years, the Association membership had swelled to
35, including seven men, among them the Reverend George Waldron, the
main speaker at the dedication of the library on January 13. Waldron
apparently had served as minister of the Congregationalist Church in
Miami, and had been a respected citizen of the area for several years. His
acknowledgement of the male membership at that time is tongue-in-
cheek:

Thirteen women and not a man! But the new organization, wise beyond its
years made provision for the admission of these lords of creation, and with
noble haste they rushed forward in large numbers to ally themselves with
these women, until today there are a vast army of seven men members of
this Library Association! And, beyond a doubt whatever has been ac-
complished for good in the past three years is the work, not of the women
who have slaved for many a hard-earned dollar, but of the seven men who
have permitted their names to do honor to this library.51

Waldron also addressed the debt and freely admitted the "impeach-
ment", but spoke with optimism of its resolve. "But let me remind you that
the association has only to continue raising funds with the same success as
in the past and one year more will see the society free from debt." Thanks
were extended to Mr. B. B. Tatum, editor of the Miami Metropolis, Captain
W.B. Shaw, and County Clerk E.C. Dearborn for their valued services in
bringing about the legal incorporation of the Library Association, and to
Frederick Morse and Henry Flagler for donations.52
The dedication was a joyful event before an enthusiastic audience.
"During the early part of the evening a beautiful supper was served while
the Biscayne Orchestra of Miami discoursed sweet music to the assembled
guests." Waldron's speech closed with a hopeful look to future participa-






Library in a Pioneer Community 53


tion by the community in meaningful activities housed in the new library.
As if a sign of future success, that memorable day was a financially
rewarding one: "A very substantial sum was added from the receipts of the
evening to the funds of the library"53 Already the debt was on its way to
retirement, and the pioneer community had gained a permanent cultural
center.

Epilogue
That the early activists were successful in establishing a permanent
agency is seen in the fact that the Lemon City Library outlived the
community itself. In 1925, Lemon City became part of the brash youngster
to the South, but it was not until 1942 that the library was joined to the
Miami Public Library System. Up to that time it continued to serve its
public with volunteer workers managed by the Lemon City Library and
Improvement Association. The original building was in service until 1963
and, itself, became a legend and the subject of much attention.
During the 1950's when Joseph Faus and the Lemon City Library and
Improvement Association made a determined bid for a new branch to be
built while at the same time having the old building protected as a historical
shrine, it was described in glowing terms. "What the old North Church is to
Boston and the Hermitage is to Nashville, this sturdy and attractive edifice
is to Southeast Florida."54 The theme was picked up by local columnists
like Jack Bell in his Town Crier column,55 and reporters like Lawrence
Thompson.56 This romantic press treatment heightened in view of its
scheduled closing in 1963 and upon the occasion of its removal in 1964
(after a fire had made it impractical to restore). What most of these pieces
had in common was the misinformation associated with the story of the
"Remittance Man" and dates of founding.
It is certain that the old library, indeed, had met the Reverend
Waldron's expectations in serving the community as a center for meetings,
projects, and entertainments. It is probable that some of these events were
of far reaching consequence as reported in a two-minute picture and
narrative feature for television station WTVJ. Among these were the
disclosure by State Senator F.M. Hudson of his plan to create an additional
two political divisions out of Dade County, which resulted in the creation of
Broward and Palm Beach Counties, planning meetings for the establish-
ment of Everglades National Park as attended by Charles Torrey Simpson,
the building of the Dade County School System, and the deep water harbor
for Miami .57 In his 1955 article Faus also described the advocacy, here, of
Dr. J.G. DuPuis, early physician and druggist, for the establishment of a






54 TEQUESTA


Pan-American university, later developed by George Merrick into what
was to become the University of Miami, and the idea for the Palm Fete
(forerunner of the Orange Bowl) as presented in a forum by E.G. Sewell.s8
To be sure, this is the stuff of which dreams are made and upon which
human interest thrives, but whether or not these events really occurred
there, the building of the library at Lemon City is an important event. It is
tangible evidence of the cultural progress in American community life
which bespeaks a higher level of felt need than that of mere survival. The
necessary social, cultural, economic, and industrial forces were melding
here in the nineteenth century to create a condition favorable to permanent
establishment of community libraries. The natural evolution of those
which had begun as membership-for-fee agencies into public libraries was
symptomatic of this country's growth and progress, an important compo-
nent of the adult education movement. The Lemon City Library was an
example of that condition in South Florida, its development inexorably
bound to the people it served.







NOTES
1. Thelma Peters, Lemon City, Pioneering on Biscayne Bay, 1850-1925 (Miami:
Banyan Books, 1976), p. 302.
2. Ibid., p. 3.
3. HASF Exhibit, "Beginning of Community Development", March 1981.
4. "Lemon City Locals", The Tropical Sun, February 18, 1892. Historical Associ-
ation of South Florida (HASF) has two microfilm reels of this elusive publication dating
from this time period.
5. Ibid., March 21, 1892.
6. Ibid., September 29, 1892.
7. Peters, Lemon City, pp. 68-69.
8. rbid., p. 33.
9. The Miami Metropolis, May 15, 1896 (R-1-Miami Public Library). The
Library has a complete run of this publication in which the reels are numbered sequen-
tially.
10. "Miami Incorporated", Miami Metropolis, July 31, 1896 (R-l).
11. "Miami's Past, Present, and Future ", Miami Metropolis, August 3,1900 (R-3).
12. "Our Prosperity and Its Contributing Causes", Miami Daily Metropolis, De-
cember 31, 1904, (R-7).
13. "Lemon City Matters", Miami Metropolis, June 5,1896, (R-1).
14. Thelma Peters, personal interview, February 12,1981.
15. Joseph Faus, "Library Was Cradle of Dade's Culture", Miami Herald, April 3,
1955.








Library in a Pioneer Community 55


16. Agnes Ash, "Library Bugs Beneath the Lemon Trees," Miami News, March 29,
1964.
17. Peters, Lemon City, p. 208.
18. E.V. Blackman, Miami and Dade County, Florida: Its Settlement, Progress and
Achievement (Washington, D.C.: Victor Rainbolt, 1921), p. 75.
19. "Coconut Grove Library Association,"Miami Metropolis, November 2,1900,
(R-3).
20. "Coconut Grove," Miami Metropolis, January 29, 1897, (R-1).
21. "Coconut Grove," Miami Metropolis, April 4, 1902 (R-5).
22. "Coconut Grove," Miami Metropolis. January 29, 1897, (R-I).
23. "Coconut Grove Notes," Miami Metropolis, March, 12, 1897, (R-I).
24. "Coconut Grove School," Miami Metropolis, April 28, 1899, (R-2).
25. "Lemon City Locals," Tropical Sun, November 3, 1892. HASF Microfilm. See
Footnote no. 4.
26. Ibid., February 18,1892.
27. Ibid., November 10, 1892.
28. Ibid., December 15, 1892.
29. Ibid., February 23, 1893.
30. "Lemon City Items," Miami Metropolis, October 31, 1902.
31. "Lemon City Gleanings," Miami Metropolis, November 13, 1896, (R-1).
32. "Lemon City Items," Miami Metropolis, May 14, 1897, (R-2).
33. "Lemon City Lispings," Miami Metropolis, February 25, 1898, (R-2).
34. "Lemon City Items," Miami Metropolis, February 26, 1897, (R-1).
35. Ibid., June 4, 1897.
36. "Lemon City Liners," Miami Metropolis, February 8, 1900, (R-3).
37. "Lemon City Items," Miami Metropolis, September 13, 1901, (R-4).
38. Ibid., November 22, 1901, (R-4).
39. Ibid., February 14, 1902, (R-4).
40. Ibid., February 28, 1902, (R-4).
41. Ibid., March 14, 1902, (R-4).
42. Ibid., May 8, 1902, (R-5).
43. Ibid., June 13. 1902, (R-5).
44. Ibid., June 20, 1902, (R-5).
45. Ibid., July 4,1902, (R-5).
46. Ibid., August 8, 1902, (R-5).
47. Ibid., August 29,1902, (R-5).
48. Ibid., October 17,1902. (R-5).
49. "Lemon City's New Library," Miami Metropolis, January 17, 1905, (R-9).
50. Peters, Lemon City, p. 209.
51. "Lemon City's New Library," Miami Metropolis, January 17,1905, (R-9).
52. Ibid.
53. Ibid.
54. Joseph Faus, "Library Was Cradle of Dade's Culture," Miami Herald, April 3,
1955.
55. Jack Bell, "Town Crier," Miami Herald, January 19, 1958.
56. Lawrence Thompson, "Progress OK, But Lemon City Wants History Too,"
Miami Herald, February 9, 1958.
57. Joseph Faus, Television Transcript, WTMS, two minute feature untitled. Dade
County Reel no. 63, "Dade Libraries-Miami Public through 1963," Florida Collection,
Miami Public Library.
58. Joseph Faus, "Library Was Cradle of Dade's Culture," Miami Hearld, April 3,






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The Cleveland Connection: Revelations

from the John D. Rockefeller -

Julia D. Tuttle Correspondence


By Edward N. Akin*




There are many facets to the founding of Miami. Most historical material
in the past has concentrated on the principals in the event: Julia D. Tuttle
as the "Mother of Miami" and Henry M. Flagler, Standard Oil associate
of John D. Rockefeller and Florida railroad builder, as the "Father of
Miami." Also, historians have noted the prominent role of William and
Mary Brickell, who were responsible-along with Mrs. Tattle-for giving
Flagler large tracts of land to induce him to build his railroad to Miami.'
From the collections at the Rockefeller Archive Center in North Tar-
rytown, New York, this author has pieced together correspondence
between John D. Rockefeller and Julia D. Tuttle which indicates her
evolving commitment to Florida.
John D. Rockefeller's association with Julia Tuttle was a long and
productive one at least for Mrs. Tuttle and her philanthropic activities.
Mrs. Tuttle's father-in-law had been Rockefeller's first boss, having been
associated with the mercantile and grain commission business of Hewitt
& T'ttle which hired the young Cleveland (Ohio) high school graduate
after his completion of a brief business course. During the formative
years of the Standard Oil Company in the 1860s and 1870s, Mrs. Tuttle
and Rockefeller were both members of the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church
in Cleveland. By the 1880s Rockefeller was in New York most of the time,
but he maintained close ties with his Cleveland friends. From time to

*Dr. Akin is an assistant professor of history, Mississippi College, Clinton, Miss.
He holds a grant from Rockefeller University for a study of Henry M. Flagler.







58 TEQUESTA


time Mrs. Tuttle solicited Mr. Rockefeller's aid for her favorite charities.
On one occasion, he stated to Mrs. TUttle that he was unable to serve on
the board of directors for the Women's Repository, which seemed to have
been a home for unwed mothers; however, he did send her a fifty-dollar
contribution for the institution .2
With the death of her husband in February 1886, Mrs. Tuttle
requested a new kind of assistance from Rockefeller. Although she had
visited her father in the Miami area as early as 1874, she was now
considering a new kind of Florida venture, which would need some
assistance from Rockefeller. In a letter dated December 20, 1886 (with a
black border to indicate her period of mourning), Mrs. Tuttle wrote
Rockefeller the following:

I shall need to do something to increase my income somewhat and I have
been thinking of getting something to do for a part of the year in a more
genial climate.
Now if you think I am equal to such an undertaking I think I would
like the position of housekeeper with the new hotel Mr. Flagler is building
at St. Augustine and if you would be good enough to recommend me to
Mr. Flagler I am sure your good word would do much to induce him to give
me a trial. Of course you may not think this is a feasible project at all, but
you can easily say so. As I understand it the building will not be completed
until next season but I thought if one was going to get the position it was
time to be moving in the matter.
I would like to take my daughter Fannie to a milder climate for she is
not quite as well as I wish she was. There is nothing alarming but I want to
avoid any trouble for her. If I am all wrong about this it will do no harm to
know it, and perhaps you know of something else it will be better for me to
do only I could not do what would confine me constantly indoors or at a
desk.3

Rockefeller quickly acted on Mrs. 'Tttle's request. He informed her
a week later, in a letter of December 27, 1886:

Yours of the 20th at hand and I will see Mr. Flagler as requested and advise
you. If you are in good health I have no doubt you could fill the position
referred to providing any other woman could, and I will say the same to
him.
I will gladly communicate with you if anything in any other direction
presents itself that might seem to be favorable for you. I congratulate you
on your success in administering your own affairs. Hope you can so shape
your investments as to give you the necessary income with less hard
work.4

Two days later Rockefeller informed Thttle of Flagler's response:








The Cleveland Connection 59


I have spoken to Mr. Flagler. He will not give any personal attention to the
running of his hotel when it is completed, and is of the opinion that his
Manager, Mr. Seavey, has arranged in respect to the position you refer to.
His address is, O.D. Seavey, St. Augustine, Fla.
I wish I had at my command the position you want.
I may be in Cleveland within a few weeks, and if so, will try to see
you.5

In responding to Rockefeller's note, Mrs. Tuttle indicated she had
written Seavey in any case: "Nothing may come of it but there was no
harm in trying ."6 Indeed, nothing did come of it; but Mrs. Tuttle was now
definitely intrigued by the prospects of investment in Florida. A year
lapsed before her next correspondence with Rockefeller. By that time she
was dividing her time between Cleveland and her newly-acquired land
holdings at Ft. Dallas, near the mouth of the Miami River.
Mrs. Tuttle began to hear exciting rumors concerning Rockefeller.
She wrote him on March 6, 1888:

Yesterday in a letter from Florida I heard that you were about buying a
tract of land in Fla. but what most interested me was the fact that only a
narrow river divides it from my own property So I could not but hope it
was true and that we might be winter neighbors; for another winter will
find me & mine in Fla.
If you are thinking of investing down there do tell me about it. I think
Fla. will become my headquarters-
At present my plans are in a most chaotic state. My mother's health
has been failing all winter and now she is confined to her room and most
of the time to her bed. I feel very anxious about her for at her age (this
month is so trying). Had she been well as in former years we should even
now be in Italy but owning to her illness I was obliged to change my plans.
I have rented the property here at least the house and I am hoping for a rest
and change after my long work time. I have carried my point and now I am
ready to stop. If I had been able to sell part of this as I would like I should
have been well pleased but I can carry it now I think so it is no doubt but as
it is. I get very weary of it all sometimes and wonder if it all pays.
Well I shall know how to appreciate rest when it comes and that is
what those who never work cannot do.
I hope your family are all quite well and that you enjoyed your trip
abroad. By the way, I was much amused to read in a Painesville paper last
summer that Mrs. Fred Tuttle was travelling with Mr. Rockefeller's family
in Europe. How it got there remains a mystery, but then newspaper items
often are mysterious.
To conclude I only hope it is time that you are going to invest in
South Fla. I can think of no one that I would prefer for a neighbor.7
Two weeks later Rockefeller quashed the rumor:







60 TEQUESTA


It was a mistake about my purchasing property in Florida. I hope your
venture there will prove successful. I am just returned from Cleveland and
regret to hear your Mother was quite ill. I congratulate you on the success
of your efforts to save your property and cannot say too much in your
praise for the battle you have made. We hope to see you on returning to
Cleveland after a few weeks and hope before this your Mother is better,
and that you will enjoy a good rest after your long and hard struggle.8

By the end of 1889, Mrs. Tuttle had decided to completely sever her
Cleveland ties and live in South Florida on a permanent basis. She wrote
Rockefeller on December 7:

I hoped I should hear something from Mr. Cowles in reference to the sale
of my property here [Cleveland] but I have not seen him or heard from
him. Do you think I had best go to see him?
I am very sorry you were out when I called and had I known just
when I could call should have dropped you a line -
I am as much troubled as ever about my business and I confess I do
not quite see how it is coming out.
Fannie is going to Fla. with her Grandma TUttle and leaves the 16th-
After that I think I shall close the house and go and stay with my friends at
Lakewood going South later for a short time -
If you can induce Mr. Cowles to take up that matter I hope you
will and please let me know if I am to call upon him or to wait his move-
ments 9

With a new home and life style established, Mrs. Tuttle returned to
one of her early ties with Rockefeller: their common concern with
philanthropy. She solicited, and received from Rockefeller a $50 dona-
tion for a Baptist Church in Miami.10
This correspondence only offers a brief glimpse into the "Cleve-
land connection" which played a role in the founding of Miami. William
and Mary Brickell had lived in Cleveland before their family's move to
Florida. James Ingraham, who had worked for both the Plant System and
Flagler to encourage a rail link to Miami, was from Cleveland. Flagler
had spent his formative years with Standard Oil in Cleveland. Of course,
Mrs. Turtle and Mr. Rockefeller had roots firmly planted in Cleveland.








The Cleveland Connection 61

NOTES
1. For a full discussion of Flagler's role in the founding of Miami, see Edward
Nelson Akin, Southern Reflection of the Gilded Age: Henry M. Flagler and His System,
1885-1913, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, 1975.
2. John D. Rockefeller to Julia D. Tuttle, January 24 and September 30, 1884, JDR
Letterbook 6, Rockefeller Archive Center. All subsequent material is from the Rockefel-
ler Archive Center.
3. Thttle to Rockefeller, December 20, 1886, Record Group 1, Incoming Corres-
pondence, Office, MS Box 47 (Office, 1879-1894). All correspondence from Tuttle to
Rockefeller is in this place.
4. Rockefeller to Thttle, December 27, 1886, JDR Lb. 12.
5. Ibid., December 29, 1886.
6. Tuttle to Rockefeller, January 7, 1887.
7. Ibid., March 6, 1888.
8. Rockefeller to Tuttle, March 19, 1888, JDR Lb. 16.
9. Tuttle to Rockefeller, December 7, 1889.
10. Rockefeller to Tuttle, May 21, 1892, JDR Lb. 31.






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Changing Economic Patterns in the

Miami Metropolitan Area, 1940-1980


By Raymond A. Mohl*




The Miami metropolitan area has been a dynamic and changing urban
region since World War Two. Beginning as a tourist and retirement
haven, Miami developed a more diversified economy in the post-war
years. Small-scale and specialized manufacturing spread during and
after the 1950s. Air travel acquired a growing importance in the local
economy after the war. The population of the Miami Metropolitan area
(Miami SMSA) rocketed upward in the post-war era, reaching 1.6
million in 1980 a demographic change which in turn stimulated the
local construction industry for several decades. The arrival of Cuban
refugees in the 1960s and 1970s helped to reshape the economy, as well.
Hard-working, upwardly mobile Cubans energetically developed new
business and industry, not only in Little Havana but throughout the entire
metropolitan area. By the end of the 1970s Miami had emerged as an
exciting center of international trade and banking. Foreign investment
was pouring into the city, as was illegal drug money. Symbolic of these
economic changes, new skyscraper construction in the city's central
business district began to transform Miami's skyline. The city that began
as a tourist playground early in the twentieth century had become by
1980 an international business center with a booming economy.
Miami's tourist trade remains a vital component of the local
economy. By 1940, the Miami metropolitan area was serving about two
million vacationers each year -putting them up in hotels, motels, and
apartments, serving them in restaurants and retail establishments, and

*Dr. Mohl is professor of history at Florida Atlantic University, an editor of the
Journal of Urban History, and author of several books and articles on urban history.






64 TEQUESTA


entertaining them in night clubs and theaters, at race tracks and dog
tracks, and at beaches, parks, and other amusement centers. At the
outbreak of World War Two, one observer wrote, the tourist dollar was
"the lifeblood that feeds the economic organism." The war cut tourism
drastically, although war-related activities helped to sustain the economy.
The post-war era witnessed a great hotel building boom, with most new
construction in Miami Beach and other oceanfront communities to the
north. In 1942 Miami Beach had 291 hotels; by 1955, the number had
increased to 382. Tourists continued to come to the Miami area in ever
larger numbers 5.5 million in 1960, over 6 million in 1970, and 12.6
million in 1980.' But, while total tourist volume rose over the post-war
decades, the proportion of workers employed in tourism gradually de-
clined. In 1940, for example, about 35 percent of all Dade County
workers earned their living in hotel, restaurant, and other service occupa-
tions. The proportion of tourist-related workers declined to about 20
percent of the labor force in 1960, and to about 10 percent in 1979.2
Thus, the tourist industry has declined in the post-war era in
relation to other sectors of the local economy. Nevertheless, tourism
remains the largest single economic force in the Miami SMSA. Building
upon Miami's climate and location, hotel men and others in the tourist
industry have begun promoting the area as a center for foreign vacation-
ers. "The British are coming" the Wall Street Journal reported in a 1980
article on Miami Beach; some 327,000 British tourists visited Dade
County in 1980, along with 67,000 Germans, 38,000 Spaniards, 22,000
French, and thousands of other Europeans. However, the European
tourist influx pales before the two million visitors from Central and
South America and from the Caribbean. These new tourists have pumped
up the local retail trade, purchasing designer clothing, jewelry,
appliances, electronic equipment, and other consumer items. Indeed,
according to local tourist officials, the 12.6 million tourists who visited
Miami in 1980 spent 9.1 billion dollars in local hotels, restaurants, and
retail establishments.3 New highrise hotels are going up in downtown
Miami to accommodate the new tourist influx, while industry officials
are seeking to attract Japanese and other Asian tourists. In addition,
Miami is the nation's leading cruise ship port, with more than 1.6 million
passengers in 1980.4Thus, through boom and recession, tourism remains
a mainstay of the Miami economy. However, the nature of the industry
has changed, and increasing proportions of European and Latin Ameri-
can tourists have added to Miami's international character.
The post-war tourist boom in the Miami metropolitan area was






Changing Economic Patterns 65


facilitated by the growth of air travel. In the years since 1945, the
commercial aviation industry has also provided a major impetus to
Miami's economic growth. As a result of military aviation activities in
south Florida during World War Two, Miamians in the post-war era had a
new consciousness of the importance of air travel. As early as 1945, one
Miami leader noted that "the life blood of Miami is aviation." Several
major airlines, including Pan Am, Eastern, National, and Delta, origi-
nated in Miami in the pre-war period. In 1945, the Dade County Port
Authority was created to administer the city's airports and seaport. In the
same year, Pan Am's terminal facilities at N.W. 36th Street were pur-
chased for a public airport (now the site of Miami International Airport).
City and County officials began promoting Miami as the "gateway" for
international air travel, particularly to Latin America, and seeking fed-
eral authorization for new air routes. By the early 1970s, some 65 percent
of all tourists came to Miami by air.5
In addition, several of the major airlines located their aircraft
overhaul, repair, and maintenance facilities at Miami's airport, thus
adding to the area's employment payroll. Employing over 7,000 workers,
for example, Eastern Airlines was the largest single employer in the
Miami SMSA in 1960; by 1980, Eastern employed 14,000 workers.
Miami passenger traffic and international air freight skyrocketed in the
1970s. Miami International handled 20.5 million passengers in 1980,
making Miami the ninth busiest airport in the world. Furthermore, the
Miami airport was the world's sixth largest in air cargo tonnage.
Moreover, among U.S. airports, Miami stands second only to New York's
Kennedy International in international passengers and international
cargo. According to Florida International University economist Jan
Luytjes, an estimated 160,800 workers, or about one-fifth of the Miami
labor force, are directly or indirectly employed in airport and aviation
activities. More so than in most cities, commercial aviation has helped to
fuel growth and development in post-war Miami.6
Tourism and commercial aviation have been closely interrelated in
the Miami economy throughout the post-war period. In addition, the
growing influx of annual tourists, along with the rapidly rising popula-
tion of permanent residents, has supported a vigorous construction
industry in the Miami SMSA. In 1940 and again in 1950, about 10
percent of the Dade County labor force was employed in the building
trades. The post-war era began with a ten-year boom in new hotel
building. At the same time, the demand for new apartments and single-
family homes remained high, sustained by a population increase of 84.9






66 TEQUESTA


percent in the SMSA in the 1940s and 88.9 percent in the 1950s. In 1954,
when new homes were going up at the rate of 11,000 per year, Miami led
all U.S. cities in new home construction per 1,000 population.7 Between
1960 and 1980, the construction industry thrived on continued real estate
subdivision and development on the suburban periphery and on a high-
rise condominium boom in Miami Beach and on the fringes of the Miami
CBD. Interestingly, by the early seventies, Cuban-owned construction
companies were putting up at least 35 percent of all Dade-County's new
buildings.8 As the 1970s drew to a close, downtown Miami sprouted 68
major construction and development projects, including dozens of new
skyscrapers, hotels, office buildings, and condominiums a virtual
Miami "renaissance," according to some observers. As the Miami News
has noted, some 2.2 billion dollars in private and government funds have
been invested in this downtown construction. Thus, throughout the entire
post-war period, the construction industry has been an integral part of
the local economy, building to accommodate new tourists, new perma-
nent residents, and new business functions.9
Although heavily dependent upon tourism and tourist-related ac-
tivities, the Miami economy has developed an increasingly important
manufacturing sector since World War Two. Miami was the least indus-
trialized metropolitan area in the United States in 1940, when 3,600
workers, or about 3.3 percent of the labor force, held factory jobs. By
1950, manufacturing employment had risen to 14,600, or 9.4 percent of
SMSA workers. At the end of the fifties, factory work had expanded still
further, employing some 38,000 people about 13 percent of the labor
force. "Tourism," one study suggested in 1962, "appears to be gradually
giving way to manufacturing in relative importance." This prophecy has
never been completely fulfilled, but manufacturing employment con-
tinued to rise steadily after 1960, reaching 75,000 in 1970, 92,500 in
1974, and an estimated 118,000 in 1980.10
In the 1940s and 1950s, Miami manufacturing was characterized by
relatively small plants and centered on consumers' goods food prod-
ucts, bread baking, meat packing, bottled beverages, home furnishings,
fishing and sports equipment, and clothing. In addition, local factories
provided other products for local needs: concrete and lumber products,
fabricated metal and aluminum goods, printing and publishing, and boat
building. By the 1970s, however, Miami manufacturers were expanding
beyond local and regional markets and beginning to tap national and
international markets. New industries included plastics, electronic
equipment, aircraft parts, and medical technology."1 An extensive gar-







Changing Economic Patterns 67


ment industry emerged, often using refugees and illegal alien workers
who labor under conditions reminiscent of old-time sweatshops.12 Most
of the Miami SMSA's manufacturing firms- some 4,700 of them in 1980
- are small, but taken together they have helped to create a more
balanced economy no longer exclusively dominated by tourism.13
Over the course of the post-war era, the location of manufacturing
has shifted. At first, most manufacturing was located in the city of
Miami, either in the CBD or along a north-south strip running parallel to
the two rails lines entering the city. By the 1950s, according to economist
Reinhold Wolff, many industries had relocated to Hialeah, North Miami,
and the northwest unincorporated areas. More space, cheaper land,
lower taxes, availability of a working-class population, and other in-
ducements drew new industry to Hialeah and the northwest area. County
zoning policies contributed to the deconcentration of industry as well.
Designation of large sections in the western unincorporated area for
industrial development, as well as the growth of industrial parks near
Miami International Airport and major expressways, has tended to
decentralize Dade County manufacturing. Following the dispersal of
population, industrial activity has spread far beyond the boundaries of
the central city.14
If industry has decentralized in Dade County, international trade
and banking has concentrated in Miami and Coral Gables. Local officials
and businessmen began promoting Miami's place in international and
especially Latin American trade soon after World War Two. But not until
the 1970s did Miami become a true center of international trade and
banking. The dramatic emergence of Miami in a new world role stems
from a combination of geographic location, excellent air and sea links to
Latin America, aggressive business leadership, and the growth of Miami
after 1960 as a bilingual city. As noted earlier, the Miami International
Airport does a heavy air freight business with Latin America and the
Caribbean. Similarly, the Port of Miami provides a base for no less than
85 steamship companies, most of them operating freighters to Central
and South America. During 1979, more than 5 billion dollars in goods
were shipped by air and sea from Miami to Caribbean and Latin Ameri-
can countries.15
At least three other developments of the 1970s contributed to
Miami's emergence as an international trade center. First, U.S. multina-
tional corporations began to locate their Latin American headquarters in
the Miami area, particularly in Coral Gables. Some 55 regional offices
had been established in Coral Gables by 1977, and by 1980 the number







68 TEQUESTA


had increased to an even 100. The multinationals betting on the Miami
area's future prospects included Exxon, Gulf Oil, Texaco, Dow Chemi-
cal, International Harvester, ITT, DuPont, Alcoa, General Electric,
Goodyear, Uniroyal, Lockheed, American Express, and other huge cor-
porations. At the same time, numerous Latin American and Caribbean
corporations are setting up shop in Miami and Coral Gables to facilitate
trade and business with North America.16 Second, under the provisions
of the federal Edge Act, 24 large U.S. banks established branches in
Miami by 1981 in order to engage in international banking and finance.
Similarly, after favorable state legislation in 1978, 43 foreign bank
agencies opened offices in Miami by early 1981 .These banks, along with
about two dozen major local banks with aggressive international de-
partments, have revolutionized trade, finance, and banking in Miami in a
very short time. The city is now North America's third largest interna-
tional banking center. Miami, one financial writer noted in 1980, had
become banking's new "frontier town."17
The third significant business development was the establishment
of the Miami "free trade zone," a large designated area west of Miami's
airport accommodating almost 200 companies involved in international
trade. In addition, a "free zone industrial park" to be located in Home-
stead is planned for 1982. The largest of several such free trade zones in
the United States, the Miami free zone provides a place for export-import
companies to store, process, manufacture, assemble, display, or re-
export goods from abroad without first paying tariffs. Local
businessmen expect this free trade zone to handle two billion dollars
worth of goods per year. Like the Edge Act banks, this free trade zone
has tremendously stimulated international business activity in the Miami
SMSA.18 Enormous changes, therefore, have taken place in metropolitan
Miami's business pattern during the past ten years. Miami is finally
fulfilling the dreams of early post-war businessmen who envisioned their
city as the gateway to Latin America. As Joel Garreau has suggested in
his recent book, The Nine Nations of North America (1981), Miami
experienced a sweeping "geographic reorientation" during the past
decade-one which made Miami the economic and cultural capital of the
entire Caribbean basin.19
While Miamians have been developing new overseas business and
banking connections, foreigners have been investing in Florida on a vast
and unprecedented scale. Latin American, European, and Arab investors
have been buying up Florida farm land, purchasing citrus and phosphate
industries, and investing heavily in urban real estate, office buildings,






Changing Economic Patterns 69


shopping centers, condominiums, hotels, and private homes. According
to economist Mira Wilkins, author of Foreign Enterprise in Florida
(1979), Miami "has proven to be a magnet for non-U.S. investments in
land and real estate, construction, manufacturing, retail and wholesale
trade, transportation services, insurance, and banking."20The full extent
of this foreign financial involvement in the Miami SMSA is unknown,
but it undoubtedly represents a huge investment. One hint as to how huge
comes from Charles Kimball, a south Florida real estate analyst. In a
recent study, for example, Kimball found that 1980 property sales using
Netherlands Antilles corporations totaled a staggering one billion dollars
in Dade County and another 900 million dollars in Broward and Palm
Beach counties. Foreign investors also use corporations registered in
Panama, the Bahamas, and the Cayman Islands. From these off-shore
tax havens, foreign investment has been pouring into the Miami met-
ropolitan area. This tremendous investment has pumped up the south
Florida economy and partially insulated Miami from the economic woes
of the rest of the nation, but it has also tended to make the city dependent
upon the continued flow of foreign capital.21
A substantial portion of the money flowing into south Florida no
one knows exactly how much is illegal drug money. From its earliest
days as a tourist playground, Miami and Miami Beach attracted
gamblers, bookies, and gangsters. Racketeering became even more
widespread in the post-war era, and in 1955 the Miami Herald called the
city the nation's leading gangster haven. When mobsters began buying up
swanky Miami Beach hotels in the 1960s, Newsweek labeled the place
"Mob Town, U.S.A."22 In the 1970s, a new kind of crime wave swept
metropolitan Miami illegal drug smuggling, mostly organized by
gangs of Columbian "cocaine cowboys." Like much legitimate business,
smuggled cocaine, marijuana, and quaaludes come to Miami by sea and
air from Latin America and the Caribbean; like legitimate business
profits, much of the drug money, properly laundered, finds its way into
Miami banks, real estate, and business operations. "Illegal money is the
major factor in the current boom in south Florida," says real estate man
Kimball. Almost half of all Miami real estate sales to offshore corpora-
tions or foreign investors, Kimball contends, are paid for with laundered
"narcobucks." At least four Miami banks, law enforcement authorities
say, are actually owned by drug smugglers. Federal officials estimate that
at least 28 billion dollars worth of illegal drugs come into the United
States through south Florida each year. Miami in the 1980s is the
undisputed drug capital of the world. Joel Garreau argues that drug







70 TEQUESTA


smuggling has become south Florida's number one industry-surpassing
even tourism. Illicit drug dealing, another writer claims "may be Flori-
da's biggest retail business."True or not, even as staid a source as the New
York Times agreed in 1980 that the multibillion dollar transfusion of drug
money protected Miami's economy from recession.23
In many ways, therefore, the economy of metropolitan Miami has
been dramatically transformed in only a few short years. It would be
difficult to dispute the contention that the remarkable progress of the
Cuban refugees after 1960 had a lot to do with Miami's changing
economy. "There's no doubt about it," Miami Herald editor Jim
Hampton wrote in 1980. "Refugees have been the economic salvation of
Dade County. They've given it a rich cultural milieu. They've been
instrumental in turning an unremarkable Southern tinseltown into an
international city of unlimited potential."24 With its downtown in de-
cline, its image as a tourist playground losing its glitter, and its popula-
tion dispersing to the suburbs, Miami was rejuvenated by the Cuban
influx of the 1960s and early 1970s. In essence, an entire professional
middle class population was uprooted from Cuba and set down in Miami.
After a short period of adjustment, the Cubans pursued the American
dream with a vengeance. By 1980, they had established some 18,000
businesses in the Miami area restaurants, banks, construction com-
panies and service stations, wholesale and retail outlets, clothing, shoe,
and cigar factories, auto dealerships and fishing fleets, and the like. Over
a period of two decades, their economic success has been nothing short
of spectacular. Moreover, they made Miami into a Latin American city,
one in which the Spanish language and Latin culture existed side by side
with English and the native Anglo culture. This Latin ambience has
attracted businessmen and tourists from Central and South America, and
Miami Cubans have aggressively promoted international trade and
commerce.25 "It is an article of faith in Miami," one writer noted in 1980,
"that without the impetus provided by the Cuban-exile community the
city today would be just another Sun Belt spa well past its prime."26
Thus, the Miami metropolitan area has experienced significant
economic shifts since World War Two. Tourism remains important,
although the industry has shifted considerably in its new reliance on
European and Latin American tourists. Continued population growth has
provided long-term strength to the construction industry, and develop-
ment continues in downtown Miami and all across the suburban
periphery. The most dramatic change, however, appears to be Miami's
emergence as a major center of international banking, trade and finance.







Changing Economic Patterns 71


All the elements of a new Florida boom came together in the late 1970s.
"Miami seems to have grown young again," one writer noted recently.
"Rather than nodding off with the old folk, Miami goes roaring into the
80s... Miami boils and bubbles, making history faster than even South
Florida ever saw before. This is an urban frontier, full of the risk and
turbulence and opportunity that all true frontiers offer."27 Like some of
the Sunbelt cities of the southwest, Miami has become a dynamic and
rapidly changing metropolitan center.





NOTES

1. Reinhold P Wolff, Miami: Economic Pattern of a Resort Area (Coral Gables,
1945), 39; "Miami Beach Hotels: 12 Years of Building and Still SRO," Business Week
(January 15, 1955), 28-29; "Stampede to the Sun," Business Week (March 9, 1963),
108-112; Miami Herald, January 21, 1973; Miami News. April 25, 1981.
2. Wolff, Miami, 154; William W. Jenna, Jr., Metropolitan Miami: A Demo-
graphic Overview (Coral Gables, 1972), 34; "The Dilemma of Miami-Dade," Florida
Trend, 15 (December 1972), 30; Miami News, March 17, 1981.
3. Reinhold P. Wolff, Miami Metro: The Road to Urban Unit) (Coral Gables,
1960), 5; Jenna, Metropolitan Miami. 34; Susan Harrigan, "Paul Revere Rides into
Miami Beach: British Are Coming," Wall Street Journal, June 17, 1980; Miami News,
April 25, 1981; Mimi Whitefield, "North to Florida," Miami Herald, Business Monday.
August 10, 1981; Annetta Miller, "Tourism 1981: Still a Growth Industry," Florida Trend,
24 (June 1981), 58-61.
4. Larry Birger, "Major Hotel Construction Bejewels the Gold Coast," Miami
Herald, Business Monday, December 8, 1980; Dan Millott, "The Cruise Capital of the
World," Florida Trend, 19 (April 1977), 144-146; Miami News, March 17, 1981.
5. Miami Herald, January 4, 7, 11, 12, April 5, 1945; Edward Sofen, The Miami
Metropolitan Experiment (Anchor edition; New York, 1966), 22-23; Thomas P. Caldwell,
"The History of Air Transportation in Florida," Tequesta, 1 (1941), 103-106; Aurora E.
Davis, "The Development of the Major Commercial Airlines in Dade County, Florida:
1945-1970," Tequesta, 32 (1972), 3-16.
6. Davis, "Development of Major Commercial Airlines," 3, 10; Wolff, Miami
Metro, 15-16, Miami News, April 24, 1981; Mimi Whitefield, "Middlemen Guide
Billions in Freight through S. Florida," Miami Herald, Business Monday, October 6,
1980; Martin Merzer, "Airports: S. Florida's Money Machines," Miami Herald, Business
Monday, May 18, 1981; Otis Dudley Duncan, et al., Metropolis and Region (Baltimore,
1960), 530.
7. Wolff, Miami, 101; Wolff, Miami Metro, 12-13; "Why Florida Grows So Fast,"
U.S. News and World Report (April 13, 1956), 71; "Southeast -Where the Action Is,"
Florida Trend, 14 (April 1972), 200-201.
8. "How the Immigrants Made It in Miami," Business Week (May 1, 1971), 88;
"Success with a Spanish Accent," Nation's Business, 60 (March 1972), 78; William S.
Franklin, "Cuban Contractors in Miami," Business and Economic Dimensions (Univer-
sity of Florida), 10 (November-December 1974), 20-26.







72 TEQUESTA


9. Miami News, March 19, May 5, July 24, 1981; Robert Dodge, "Superbuilders
Redraw South Florida's Skyline," Miami Herald, Business Monday, August 18, 1980;
Fred Tasker, "South Florida Review," Southeast Real Estate News, 9 (March 1981), 1,
20-25, 31.
10. Wolff, Miami, 154; "Growth of Manufacturing in Metropolitan Dade
County," Miami Economic Research, 12 (October 1959), 2; Urban Development Services,
Metropolitan Miami (Miami, 1962), 31; Robert Johnson, "Recession Sick Southeast
Seeks New Medicine," Florida Trend, 18 (April 1976), 67; "Region's Focus Turns
Toward Development," Miami Magazine (September 1977), 33.
11. Wolff, Miami, 85-94; Wolff, Miami Metro, 13-15, Jenna, Metropolitan
Miami, 43-51; Gene Burnett, "Medical Technology Quietly Becomes a South Florida
Growth Industry," Florida Trend, 19 (April 1977), 149-158; Michael Silver, "Electronics:
The Circuits Connect Here," Miami Herald, Business Monday, August 11, 1980; Robert
Dodge, "Health Industry Matures, Suffers Growing Pains," Miami Herald, Business
Monday, September 29, 1980.
12. Barry J. Hersker, "Women's Apparel Manufacturing in Florida," Business
and Economic Dimensions, 1 (November 1965), 1-4, 18-21; James Risen, "Sweatshops
Pervasive in Miami," Miami Herald, Business Monday, May 18, 1981; Bernard Swartz,
"Sweatshops in Fashion," Miami Magazine, 32 (August 1981), 40-43, 92; Miami News,
May 21, 22, 23, 28, 1981; Miami Herald, May 25, 1981.
13. "Region's Focus Turns Toward Development," Miami Magazine, (September
1977), 33.
14. Wolff, Miami Metro, 45-49; Jenna, Metropolitan Miami, 43-53; "Industrial
Parks Plentiful," Miami Magazine (September 1977), 48; Larry Birger, "Suddenly, the
West Dade Land Rush Is On," Miami Herald, Business Monday, January 19, 1981.
15. Joel Garreau, "The Nine Nations of North America (Boston, 1981), 167-206;
"A New Stature in International Trade," Florida Trend, 15 (January 1973), 30-44; "Trade
Winds Blow Southward," Florida Trend, 17, (May 1974), 30-44, 95; Robert Stickler,
"Florida: Marketplace in the Heart of the Americas," Miami Herald, Business Monday,
January 26, 1981; Miami News, August 31, 1981.
16. Miami Herald, January 21, 1973; David A. Heenan, "Global Cities of Tomor-
row," Harvard Business Review, 55 (May-June 1977), 79-92; Robert Stickler, "Multina-
tionals Find the Gateway in Coral Gables," Miami Herald, Business Monday, September
22, 1980; Joe Hice, "Coral Gables: Trade Center for the Americas," Florida Trend, 23
(February 1981), 54-59.
17. New York Times, December 10, 1980; Miami News, May 1, 1981; Erik
Calonius, "Banking's Frontier Town," Florida Trend, 22 (March 1980), 62-66; Robert
Stickler, "Miami Has the Latin Edge in Foreign Banking," Miami Herald, Business
Monday, September 8, 1980; Donald E. Baer, "Behind Miami's Surge in International
Banking," Caribbean Basin Economic Survey, 7 (January-March 1981), 1-16; "Interna-
tional Deposits in Miami-A Profile," Economic Review (Federal Reserve Bank of
Atlanta), 66 (May 1981), 28-33.
18. Miami Herald, October 14, 1980, January 26, September 3, 1981; Miami
News, September 3, 1981; "The Foreign Trade Zone Is a New Economic Stimulant,"
Florida Trend, 20 (February 1978), 23-27; Annetta Miller, "Miami Free bTrade Zone,"
Florida Trend, 23 (November 1980), 60-64.
19. Garreau,Nine Nations, 172; Mimi Whitefield, "Miami: International City,"
Miami Herald, Business Monday, September 14, 1981.
20. Mira Wilkins, Foreign Enterprise in Florida: The Impact of Non-U.S. Direct
Investment (Miami, 1979), 104.
21. Larry Birger, "Billion-Dollar Money Funnel into S. Florida," Miami Herald,
Business Monday, August 4, 1980; Phyllis Berman, "Miami: Saved Again," Forbes, 120








Changing Economic Patterns 73


(November 1, 1977), 37-41; Jeffrey Tucker and Wayne Falbey, "Foreigners Find Florida
Safer Than Their Banks," Florida Trend, 21 (March 1979), 26-33; Erik Calonius,
"Offshore Money Floods Miami," Florida Trend, 22 (April 1980), 38-47; Mira Wilkins,
"Venezuelan Investment in Florida," Latin American Research Review, 16 (1981),
156-165.
22. Miami Herald, February 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 1945, May 4, 1955; Henning
Heldt, "Miami: Heaven or Honky-Tonk?" in Robert S. Alien, ed., Our Fair City (New
York, 1947), 88-91; "Miami: Mob Town, U.S.A.," Newsweek (February 13, 1967),
38-39; Paul G. Ashdown, "WTVJ's Miami Crime War: A Television Crusade," Florida
Historical Quarterly, 58 (April 1980), 427-437; Hank Messick, Syndicate in the Sun
(New York, 1968).
23. "Miami: Latin Crossroads," Newsweek (February 11, 1980), 41; Garreau,
Nine Nations, 169, 176, 183-196; "Miami's 'Narcobucks,' "Newsweek (June 9, 1980), 44;
Stanley Penn, "The Pot Trade," Wall Street Journal, July 22, 1980; Hank Messick, "The
Drug Enforcement Farce," New Florida, 1 (August 1981), 48-53; "The Sun Belt Today,"
Changing Times, 35 (September 1981), 28; New York Times, April 1, 1980.
24. Miami Herald, May 11, 1980.
25. "To Miami, Refugees Spell Prosperity," Business Week (November 3, 1962),
92-94; "La Saguesera: Miami's Little Havana," Time (October 14, 1974), 24; "Miami:
Headquarters Town for Latin Business," Business Week (August 7, 1978), 40-41; Anthony
Ramirez, "Making It," Wall Street Journal, May 5, 1980; David Wilkening, "Pluck and
Luck in Little Havana," Florida Trend, 23 (December 1980), 46-48; "Hispanics Make
Their Move," U.S. News and World Report (August 24, 1981), 60; Antonio Jorge,
"Caracteristicas y Consecuencias de la Economia Hispanica en Miami, Antes y Despues
de la Revoluci6n Comunista en Cuba," in Jose Agustin Balseiro, ed., Presencia His-
panica en la Florida (Miami, 1976), 171-191.
26. Herbert Burkholz, "The Latinization of Miami," New York Times Magazine
(September 21, 1980), 46.
27. Al Burt, "Miami Today: The Best of Times?" Miami Herald Tropic, Sep-
tember 28, 1980.






This Page Blank in Original
Source Document














Contents of Tequesta


Numbers I through XLI


Introduction by the Associate Editors

With this edition of Tequesta, Volume XLII of the journal of the Histori-
cal Association of Southern Florida, we present an index to all the
preceding volumes. In 1970 we indexed Volumes I through XXX but we
repeat that index here for the benefit of our many new members, and add
an index for Volumes XXXI through XLI.
In its first forty-one years Tequesta has published one hundred and
forty-three writers, some professional historians, some the makers of our
history with an eye-witness story to tell. About thirty-five of the con-
tributors have appeared more than once in Tequesta. The prize, if we had
one, would go to James W Covington of Tampa for a total of nine articles.
One article about Key Vaca, in two parts (Vols. XVII, XVIII) was written
by Florence S. Brigham, then fifteen and a student at Southwest High
School. In preparation for her paper Miss Brigham exchanged letters
with over one hundred individuals and had ninety-four interviews.
Among the contributors are such renowned names as David Fairchild and
Marjory Stoneman Douglas.
The first article in the first volume was written by George E.
Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables and the first president of the
Historical Association of Southern Florida. In last year's volume we had
an article by Hugo Black III who was not even born when Tequesta was
founded.
Tequesta has had four editors, all associated with the University of
Miami: Volume I, Lewis Leary; Volume II, Robert E. McNichol; Vol-
umes IV and V, Leonard R. Muller; Volumes III and VI through the
present volume, a total of thirty-eight volumes, Charlton W. Tebeau. All
the editors have been volunteers working without compensation in their
dedication to pinning down our remarkable South Florida history for
present and future generations.







76 TEQUESTA


VOLUME ONE, NUMBER ONE, 1941
"Pre-Flagler Influences on the Lower Florida East Coast" by George E. Merrick
"The Caloosa Village Tequesta: A Miami of the Sixteenth Century" by Robert E.
McNicoll
"Bradish W. Johnson, Master Wrecker, 1846-1914" by Vincent Gilpin
"General Problems of Florida Archaeology" by Doris Stone
"Pre-Columbian Man in Southern Florida" by Karl Squires
"The Episcopal Church in South Florida, 1764-1892" by Edgar LeGare Pennington
"To Miami, 1890 Style" by Mrs. John R. Gilpin
"The History of Air Transportation in Florida" by Thomas P. Caldwell
"An Annotated Check List of Florida Maps" by John Matthews Baxter
Notes and Queries.
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER TWO, AUGUST 1942
"George Edgar Merrick" by Helen C. Freeland
"Some Plant Reminiscences of Southern Florida" by David Fairchild
"Henry Perrine, Pioneer Horticulturist of Florida" by T. Ralph Robinson
"Ceremonial Practices of the Modem Seminoles" by Robert F Greenlee
"Food Plants of the DeSoto Expedition" by Adin Baber
"The Administrative System in the Floridas, 1791-1821" by Duvon Clough Corbitt
"Florida in History and Literature" by Watt Marchman
Constitution of the Historical Association of Southern Florida
Communication from Spessard Holland
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER THREE, 1943
"Beginnings in Dade County" by F M. Hudson
"The Florida Indians in the Seventeenth Century" by Charles M. Andrews
"Pioneer Women of Dade County" by Mary Barr Monroe
"The Administrative System in the Floridas, 1783-1821, II" by Duvon Clough Corbitt
NUMBER FOUR, 1944
"Frank Bryant Stoneman" by Marjory Stoneman Douglas
"Archaeological Investigations on the Upper Florida Keys" by John M. Goggin
"Five Plants Essential to Indians and Early Settlers of Florida" by John C. Gifford
"Recent Economic Trends in South Florida" by Reinhold P. Wolff
"The Freducci Map of 1514-1515 by David 0. True
1945 (NO OTHER DESIGNATION)
"Flagler Before Florida" by Sidney Walter Martin
"Blockade Running in the Bahamas During the Civil War" by Thelma Peters
"A Canoe Expedition into the Everglades in 1842" by George Henry Preble (reprint)
"Three Florida Episodes" by John James Audubon (reprint)
1946 (NO OTHER DESIGNATION)
"Pirate Lore and Treasure Trove" by David 0. True
"Medical Events in the History of Key West" by Albert W. Diddle
"Some Reflections on the Florida of Long Ago" by John C. Gifford
"The Adjudication of Shipwrecking in Florida in 1831" by Albert W Diddle
"Population Growth in Miami and Dade County, Florida" by James J. Carney
"Select Bibliography for History of South Florida" by the Publications Committee
The manner of numbering the successive issues has been changed several times. In each case
the designation used at the time is reproduced.
Most back issues are available for purchase.







Contents of Tequesta, I through XLI 77


NUMBER SEVEN, 1947
"The Ingraham Everglades Exploring Expedition, 1892" edited by Watt P. Marchman
"Diary of a West Coast Sailing Expedition, 1885" by Mrs. John R. Gilpin
"Perrine and Florida Tree Cotton" by T Ralph Robinson
"The Perrines at Indian Key, Florida, 1838-1840" by Hester Perrine Walker
NUMBER EIGHT, 1948
"Jacob Housman of Indian Key" by Dorothy Dodd
"Thomas Elmer Will, Twentieth Century Pioneer" by J. E. Dovell
"The Lower East Coast, 1870-1890" by W T Cash
"Miami: A Study in Urban Geography" by Millicent Todd Bingham
"Discovery of the Bahama Channel" by Robert S. Chamberlain
NUMBER NINE, 1949
"Cape Florida Light" by Charles M. Brookfield
"A Dash Through the Everglades" by Alonzo Church
"Recollections of Early Miami" by J, K. Dorn
"Early Pioneers of South Florida" by Henry J, Wagner
"William Selby Harney: Indian Fighter" by Oliver Griswold
NUMBER TEN, 1950
"Colonel Thompson's Tour of Tropical Florida" by George R. Bentley
"The Indians and History of the Matecumbe Region" by John M. Goggin
"Army Surgeon Reports on Lower East Coast, 1938" by James E Sunderman
"John Clayton Gifford: An Appreciation" by Henry Troetschel, Jr.
"Across South Central Florida in 1882" reprint from New Orleans Times Democrat
NUMBER XI, 1951
"Miami on the Eve of the Boom: 1923" by Frank B. Sessa
"The Pennsuco Sugar Experiment" by William A. Graham
"Random Recollections of Tropical Florida" by Dr. Henry Perrine (reprint)
"Across South Central Florida in 1882" reprint from New Orleans Times Democrat
NUMBER XII, 1952
"Newspapers of America's Last Frontier" by Jeanne Bellamy
"We Chose the Sub-Tropics" by F Page Wilson
"Starch-Making; A Pioneer Florida Industry" by Mrs. Henry J. Burkhardt
"South Florida's First Industry" by Earnest G. Gearhart, Jr.
An Early Map of Key West
"William Adee Whitehead's Description of Key West" edited by Rembert W. Patrick
The Association's Historical Marker Program
NUMBER XIII, 1953
"Building the Overseas Railway to Key West" by Carlton J. Corliss
"John Loomis Blodgett (1809-1853)" by R. Bruce Ledin
"Chakaika and the 'Spanish Indians'" by Wiliam C. Sturtevant
The Association's Historical Marker Program
NUMBER XIV, 1954
"Stronghold of the Straits: Fort Zachary Taylor" by Ames W Williams
"Miami; From Frontier to Metropolis; An Appraisal" by F Page Wilson
"The South Florida Baptist Association" by George C. Osborn and Jack P. Dalton
"A Petition from Some Latin American Fishermen, 1838" edited by James W. Covington
"Volunteers Report on the Destruction of Lighthouses" edited by Dorothy Dodd






78 TEQUESTA


NUMBER XV, 1955
"Forty Years of Miami Beach" by Ruby Leach Carson
"Vizcaya" by Adam G. Adams
"The Florida Keys: English or Spanish in 1763" by Charles W Arnade
"On Blockade Duty in Florida Waters" edited by William J. Schellings
NUMBER XVI, 1956
"Miami: 1896-1900" by Ruby Leach Carson
"Miami in 1926" by Frank B. Sessa
"Mango Growing Around Early Miami" by Harold W. Dorn
"A Seminole Personal Document" by William C. Sturtevant
NUMBER XVII, 1957
"Homesteading in Florida During the 1890's" by Mary Douthit Conrad
"Some Pre-Boom Developers of Miami" by Adam G. Adams
"Key Vaca, Part I," by Florence Storrs Brigham
"Soldiers in Miami, 1898" by William J. Schellings
NUMBER XVIII, 1958
"Wreck on the Reef" by Joseph M. Cheetham
"Exploring the Ten Thousand Islands in 1838" edited by James W Covington
"Earliest Land Grants in the Miami Area" by Henry S. Marks
"Key Vaca, Part II, Modern Phase" by Florence S. Brigham
The Association's Historical Marker Program
NUMBER XIX, 1959
"Flagler's Undertakings in Miami in 1897" by Nathan D. Shappee
"The Wreck of Houseboat No. 4, October 1906" by William H. Saunders
"Dedication of Tamiami Trail Marker" by James Lorenzo Walker
"Digging the Cape Sable Canal" by Lawrence E. Will
NUMBER XX, 1960
"Jupiter Lighthouse" by Bessie Wilson DuBois
"Key West and the Spanish American War" by William 1. Schellings
"Captain Brannan's Dilemma: Key West 1861" by Vaughan Camp, Jr.
"Two Opinions of Key West in 1834" edited by Charlton W Tebeau
"A Forgotten Spanish Land Grant in South Florida" by Henry S. Marks
"Notes on the Passage Across the Everglades" from The News. St. Augustine, January 8,
1841
The Association's Historical Marker Program
NUMBER XXI, 1961
"Robert E. Lee and the Civil War" by Bruce Catton
"Fort Dallas and the Naval Depot on Key Biscayne, 1836-1926" by Nathan D. Shappee
"Anti-Florida Propaganda and Counter Measures During the 1920's" by Frank B. Sessa
"The Indian Scare of 1849" by James W. Covington
"Doctor Stobel Reports on Southeast Florida, 1836" edited by E.A. Hammond
NUMBER XXII, 1962
"The Cruise of the Bonton" by Charles William Pierce
"Ornithology of "The Cruise of Bonton'" by William B. Robinson, Jr.
NUMBER XXIII, 1963
"Lieutenant Hartsuff and the Banana Plants" by Ray B. Seley, Jr.








Contents of Tequesta, I through XLI


"The Wreck of the Victor" by Mrs. Bessie Wilson DuBois
"Cycles of Conquest in Florida" by Charles W Arnade
"North and South Through the Glades in 1883" edited by Mary K. Wintringham
NUMBER XXIV, 1964
"Miami Beach Reaches the Half Century Mark" by Ruby Leach Carson
"St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Built and Forgotten" by Laura Conrad Patton
"The Florida Excursion of President Chester A. Arthur" by Joe M. Richardson
"The Florida Seminoles in 1847" by James W. Covington
"North to South Through the Everglades in 1883" tfart II, edited by Mary K.
Wintringham
NUMBER XXV, 1965
"William Adee Whitehead's Reminiscences of Key West" edited by Thelma Peters
"First in Palm Beach" by Louis Capron
"A Short History of Liguus Collecting with a List of Collectors" by Ralph H. Humes
"Three Early Spanish Tampa Bay Maps" by Charles W Arnade
"Two Spanish Expeditions to Southwest Florida, 1783-1793" by Jack D.L. Holmes
NUMBER XXVI, 1966
"The Tampa Bay Hotel" by James W Covington
"The Spanish Camp Site and the 1715 Plate Fleet Wreck" by Marion Clayton Link
"King of the Crackers" by Lawrence E. Will
"Jose del Rio Cosa" by Jack D. L. Holmes
"Kissimmee Steamboating" by Edward A. Mueller
NUMBER XXVII, 1967
"Florida's Clipper Ship" by Edward A. Mueller
"Reminiscences of the Lake Okeechobee Area, 1912-1922" by Dorothy Darrow
"John Newhouse, Upper Everglades Pioneer and Historian" by J. E. Dovell
"Who Was Juan Ponce de Leon?" by Charles W Arnade
NUMBER XXVIII, 1968
"The Orange Grove House of Refuge No. 3" by Gilbert L. Voss
"Jupiter Inlet" by Bessie Wilson DuBois
"The Rockets Come to Florida" by James W. Covington
"Workers on Relief, 1934-1938, in Key West" by Durward Long
"A Lost "Psyche": Kirk Munroe's Log of a 1,600 Mile Canoe Cruise in Florida Waters,
1881-1882" edited by Irving A. Leonard
"Juan Baptista Franco and Tampa Bay, 1756" by Jack D. L. Holmes and John D. Ware
"The Juan Baptista Franco Document of Tampa Bay, 1756" by Charles W. Arnade
NUMBER XXIX, 1969
"Sponge Fishing on Florida's East Coast" by Davis Shubow
"The Iron Horse on the Florida Keys" by Carlton J. Corliss
"Pioneering on Elliott Key, 1934-1935" by Charlotte Niedhauk
"Who was the Frenchman on Frenchman's Creek?" by Walter P Fuller
"A Scottish View of West Florida in 1769" by Charles A. Gauld
"Richard Keith Call's 1836 Campaign" by George C. Bittle
"Sketches of the Florida Keys, 1829-1833" by E. A. Hammond.
NUMBER XXX, 1970
"The Federal Music Project in Miami, 1935-1939" by Marilyn S. Stolee
"Miami's Bootleg Boom" by Patricia Buchanan







80 TEQUESTA


"150 Years of Defense Activity in Key West, 1829-1970" by Clayton D. Roth, Jr.
"Samuel Hodgman, Haines City, Florida, Pioneer" by Bruce W. Ball
"The Matecumbe Methodist Church" by Rev. J. U. Guerry, Pastor
Contents of Tequesta, Volumes I-XXX, 1941-1970
NUMBER XXXI, 1971
"The Coconut Grove School" by Gertrude M. Kent
"The Wreck of the Three Sisters" by Arva M. Parks
"Marco, Florida, in 1925" by Mary S. Lundstrom
"Glimpses of Antebellum Florida: Tampa Bay, Key West, North Florida" by Bartlett C.
Jones
"Sailing in South Florida Waters in the Early 1880s" Part I, edited by John F Reiger
NUMBER XXXII, 1972
"The Development of the Major Commercial Airlines in Dade County, Florida: 1945-
1970" by Aurora E. Davis
"Federal and State Relations with the Florida Seminoles, 1875-1901" by James W
Covington
"Labor Problems of the Florida East Coast Railway Extension From Homestead to Key
West, 1905-07" by Henry S. Marks
"Mystery of the New Atlantis" by Bruce W Ball
"Life on the Loxahatchee" by Dora Doster Utz
"Sailing in South Florida Waters in the Early 1880s" Part II, edited by John F Reiger
NUMBER XXXIII, 1973
"Key Biscayne Base Marker- 1855" by Arva M. Parks
"Two Way Stretch: Some Dichotomies in the Advertising of Florida as the Boom
Collapsed" by Elliott Mackle
"Martyrs All: The Hero of Key West and the Inocentes" by Jose B. Fernandez and Jerrell
H. Shofner
"Two South Florida Lighthouse Keepers" by Bessie Wilson DuBois
"West Palm Beach" by Dora Doster Utz
"The Port of Palm Beach: The Breakers Pier" by Sue Pope Burkhardt
"James M. Jackson, Jr., Miami's First Physician" by William M. Straight, M.D.
NUMBER XXXIV -1974
"The 'Friends of the Seminole' Society: 1899-1926" by Harry A. Kersey, Jr.
"Judge Henry Hudson Hancock, 1868-1951" by Ruby Jane Hancock
"Ernest Graham and the Hialeah Charter Fight of 1937" by Peter G. Klingman
"Foreign Colonies in South Florida, 1865-1910" by George E. Pozzetta
"Early Families of Upper Matecumbe" by Richard E. Gentry
"Miami's Earliest Known Great Hurricane" by Donald C. Gaby
"Cape Sable and Key West in 1919" (reprint) by Willis S. Blatchley
NUMBER XXXV-1975
"The Cape Florida Society of 1773" by Roland E. Chardon
"Northern Biscayne Bay in 1776" by Roland E. Chardon
"The Samuel Touchett Plantation, 1773" by James C. Frazier
"Miami in 1876" by Arva Moore Parks
NUMBER XXXVI-1976
"Indian Key" by Michael G. Schene
"The Evolution of Miami and Dade County's Judiciary, 1896-1930" by Paul George
"The Florida East Coast Steamship Company" by Edward A. Mueller








Contents of Tequesta, I through XLI


"Brighton Indian Reservation, Florida, 1935-1938" by James W Covington
"Yamato Colony: A Japanese Presence in South Florida" by George E. Pozzetta and
Harry A. Kersey, Jr.
"I Remember the Everglades Mail Boat" by Gordon L. Williams
NUMBER XXXVII- 1977
"Traffic Control in Early Miami" by Paul S. George
"Not a Shot Fired: Fort Chokonikla and the 'Indian War' of 1849-50" by Michael G.
Schene
"Richmond Naval Air Station, 1942-1961" by David A. Macfie
"Notes on South Florida Place Names: Norris Cut" by Roland Chardon
"Aftermath of the Brown Decision: The Politics of Interposition in Florida" by David R.
Coleburn and Richard K. Scher
NUMBER XXXVIII- 1978
"Christmas Day in Florida, 1837" by J. Floyd Monk
"The Log of the Biscayne House of Refuge" by Thelma Peters
"History of Pinewood (Cocoplum) Cemetery" by Oby Bonawit
"From Tampa Bay to Biscayne Bay in 1799" by Andrew Ellicott, introduction by
Charlton W Tebeau
NUMBER XXXIX- 1979
"Railway Location in the Florida Everglades" by William J. Krome, introduction by Jean
C. Taylor
"The Kissimee Valley: An Appreciation" by Ruby Jane Hancock
"A Letter by Dr. Henry Perrine"
"Bootleggers, Prohibitionists and Police: The Temperance Movement in Miami, 1896-
1920" by Paul S. George
"The Dania Indian School, 1927-1936" by Harry A. Kersey, Jr. and Mark S. Goldman
"The West Palm Beach that I Remember" by Gordon L. Williams
"Biscayne Sketches at the Far South" by James Buck, introduction by Arva Moore Parks
NUMBER XL-1980
"Growing Up, Sort Of, in Miami, 1909-1915" by Will Davenport
"Seminole Leadership: Changing Substance, 1858-1958" by James W Covington
"The Seminole's Christmas," "A Seminole Reminiscence," (reprints from the Miami
Metropolis) by J. W Ewan
"Richard Fitzpatrick's South Florida, 1822-1840" Part I, Key West Phase, by Hugo L.
Black, Ill, introduction by Charlton W. Tebeau
NUMBER XLI- 1981
"The John DuBois Family of Jupiter: A Florida Prototype, 1887-1981" by Harry A.
Kersey, Jr.
"The Seminole Women of Florida" by Mary Barr Munroe, introduction by Arva Moore
Parks
"Richard Fitzpatrick's South Florida, 1822-1840" Part II, Fitzpatrick's Miami River
Plantation, by Hugo L. Black, III
"Sugar Along the Manatee: Major Robert Gamble, Jr. and the Development of Gamble
Plantation" by Michael G. Schene






This Page Blank in Original
Source Document
















LIST OF MEMBERS


Members of the Historical Association of Southern Florida enjoy the
ongoing program of the Association, the special events, meetings, and
publications: the quarterly Update, director's letter and Tequesta. They
have the use of the research library and the archives located in the
Historical Museum. Members will be admitted to the new Historical
Museum without charge.
Membership revenues benefit the educational programs and projects
of the Association and Museum.
The roster below is made up of the names of those persons and
institutions that have paid dues since July 31, 1981. Those joining after July
31, 1982 will have their names on the 1983 roster.
The following code designates categories of membership:

Senior Citizen (Sc) $15.00
Student (Stu) $10.00
Individual (I) $20.00
Institutional (IS) $20.00
Family (F) $25.00
Donor (D) $50.00
Sponsor (Sp) $100.00
Fellow (Fw) $500.00
Corporate (C) $500.00
(and up)
Life (L) $1,000.00
(no longer available)
Honorary Life (HL)

Honorary Life Membership is voted by the Board of Trustees to
recognize special service to the Association. The symbol ** indicates
Founding Member; the symbol indicates Charter Member.








84 TEQUESTA


Aberman, Mr. & Mrs. James
(F)
Abess, Mr. & Mrs. Leonani (F)
Abrams, Harvey & Kathleen
(F)
Ackerman, Gail (I)
Accomero, Gelicia (I)
*Adams, Mrs. Adam G
Adams, Betty R. (F)
Adams, Eugene C. (I)
Adams, Mrs. Richard B. (I)
Aderhold, E.D. (I)
Admire, Mr. & Mrs. Jack G
(F)
Albury, Mrs. Calvin G. (I)
Albury, Dr. Paul (I)
Alderman, Ira S. (I)
Alexander, David T. (F)
Alexander, Dr. & Mrs. Julius
(F)
Alexander, Ms. Romaine J. (I)
Allen, Mrs. Eugenia (I)
Allen, Laurie (I)
Allen, Raymond (I)
Allen Morris Company (C)
Alpert, Maurice (L)
Alterman, Richard (F)
Aly, Douglas B. (F)
American Bibliographical
Center (IS)
Amerkan, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph
(F)
Ames, Minna (I)
Ammarell, John (F)
Ammidown, Margot (I)
Amsterdam, Carl D. (1)
Ancona, Mrs. John (I)
Andersen, Hans (F)
Anderson, Judith (I)
Anderson, Marie (Fw)
Anderson, Phillip R. (I)
Anderson, Mrs. Thomas H. (I)
Anderson, Tim & Ann (F)
Anderson, Dr. & Mrs. Wm.
Way (Fw)
Andre, Mrs. Robert (I)
Andrews, Ellen (1)
Angus, Mrs. Evalene K. (I)
Anllo, Bill (I)
Ansin, Mr. & Mrs. Edmund (F)
Apgar, Mr. & Mrs. Ross (F)
Apthorp, Mr. & Mrs. James (D)
Archer, Mildred E. (I)
Arend, Geoffrey (F)
Arias, Joan (F)
Amsparger, Mr. & Mrs. William
(F)
Arthur Anderson & Company,
CPA (C)


Arthur Young & Company (C)
Arvida Corporation (C)
Ashley, Mrs. John W. (I)
Atherton, Laurine E. (I)
Atkins, Mrs. C. Clyde (F)
Atkinson, Judge Edith M. (1)
Allass, Mr. &Mrs. Alvin (F)
Averhill, Joseph (I)
Awad, Mr. & Mrs. Elias (F)
Ayer, Mr. & Mrs. H. E., Jr.
(F)
Ayer, John H. (I)

Babson, Dorothy S. (I)
Bacon, Mrs. Jones (I)
Baer, Mrs. Barbara A. (1)
Bagg, Mrs. John L., Jr. (I)
Baisden, Mr. & Mrs. Fred, Jr.
(F)
Baker, Charles H. Jr. (I)
Baker, Joyce C. (1)
Baker, Dr. & Mrs. Robert M.
(F)
Baldwin, Ms. Bethany A. (I)
Baldwin, C. Jackson (I)
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins (I)
Balfe, Roberta (I)
Ball, Mr. & Mrs. Ivan E. (F)
Ball, Rod (F)
Ballou, Daniel (F)
Banks, Col. & Mrs. Richard (F)
Barkdull, Judge Thomas, Jr. (I)
Barkett, Mrs. Sybil (F)
Barnes, Col. Francis H. (I)
Barr, Ms. M. (I)
Barron, Ida. W. (I)
Bartoli, Ms. R. A. (I)
Bassett, Mr. & Mrs. George R.
(F)
Batten, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
(Fw)
Battle, Mr. & Mrs. Benjamin
(F)
Battle, Ben. Jr. (F)
Baucom, Mrs. Ruth Kaune (I)
Baumez, W. L. (I)
Baya, George J. Esq. (1)
*Beal, Rachel (S/C)
Beasley, James Jr. (I)
Beatty, Harry G. (F)
Beaudry, Ralph (I)
Beaver, Jacquelyn (F)
Beber, Dr. Bernard (F)
Bechily, Antonio (F)
Becker, Earl (F)
Beckham, Mr. & Mrs. James
K. (F)
Beckham, W. H., Jr. (F)
Beery, Anna S. (I)


Beilinson, Les D. (I)
Belcher, J. A. (Sp)
Belcher, Tony (I)
Bennett, Allan J. (F)
Bennett, Tom & Joan (F)
Beriault, John G. (I)
Bercovich, Ms. Gertrude (I)
Bermont, Mr. & Mrs. Peter (D)
Bernardine, Betty J. (I)
Biedron, Mrs. Stanley (I)
Biewala, R. A. (I)
Biggane, Mrs. Chas. F., Jr. (F)
Biglin, Mrs. W. A. (I)
Bills, Mrs. John T. (I)
Billups, Mrs. Frederick H. (I)
Birmingham, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
(F)
Biscayne College (IS)
Bischoff, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
(F)
Bishop, Edwin H. (I)
Bitter, Mrs. Barbara (I)
Black, George R. (F)
Black, Mr. & Mrs. Hugo L.,
Jr. (F)
Blackburn, Elmer E. (D)
Blackwell, W. L. (1)
Blair, Charles B. (I)
Blake, Mrs. Richard E. (I)
Blake, Mr. & Mrs. Tim (F)
Blakey, Mr. & Mrs. B. H. (F)
Blakley, Jeff (I)
Blank, Harvey & Joan (F)
Blecke, Berta (F)
Blomberg, Robt. L. (I)
Blumberg, Mr. & Mrs. David
(F)
Bogaards, Mrs. Martha (I)
Bohlmann, Irene L. (1)
Bohringer, Evelyn (F)
Boldrick, Samuel J. (I)
Bolt, Katherine (F)
Bond, Kathleen A. (I)
Bonowit, 0. J. (1)
Bonham, Jacqueline (I)
Borgognoni, Gregory P. (I)
Boshara, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
(F)
Bounds, Mr. & Mrs. Bruce (F)
Bowden, Beryl (Sc)
Bowen, Forrest H. (F)
Bower, Roy P. (I)
Bowker, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon
(D)
Bowling, John W. (1)
Braddock, Mrs. Ruth (I)
Bradley, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. B.
(F)
Bradman, Sara (Stu)











Brady, Margaret R. (Sc)
Brady, Ray (I)
Braid, Linda (I)
Brake, Robert M. (F)
Bramson, Seth H. (1)
Brannen, Mrs. H. S. (1)
Braswell, Julian H. (Sc)
Breck, E. Carrington (1)
Breeze, Mrs. K. W. (F)
Breit, Charles E. (F)
Brewer, Mr. & Mrs. Thos. F.
(F)
Brewer, Mr. & Mrs. Walter R.
(F)
Brock, Wallace D. (I)
Broder, Dr. Lawrence D. (I)
Brogen, Mr. & Mrs. James (F)
Brooker, Mrs. Robert (1)
*Brookfield, Charles (I)
Brooks, J. R. (F)
Broward County Archeological
Society (IS)
Brower, Mr. & Mrs. Carl (F)
Brown, Mrs. Andrew G. (Sc)
Brown, Ann Bamett (I)
Brown, Mrs. Irma M. (I)
Brown, Mr. & Mrs. James K.
(F)
Brown, Linda R. (I)
Brown, Maida F. (I)
Brown, Sylvia G. (Sc)
Brown University (IS)
Brown, Mrs. William (Sc)
Brownell, E. R. (F)
Brunstetter, Mrs. Roscoe (Sc)
Bryan, Mrs. Annette (F)
Buchbinder, Mark (F)
Buck, Mr. & Mrs. B. E. (F)
Budemrs, Roseann (F)
Buell, Mr. & Mrs. Rodd R. (F)
Buhler, Emil, II (I)
Buhler, Mrs. Jean E. (F)
Buker, Charles E., Sr. (F)
Burger King Corporation (C)
Burglass, Dr. Milton E. (F)
Burnham, Mrs. Roger (F)
Bums, Lillian G. (Sc)
Burr, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond 0.
(F)
Burrus, E. Carter, Jr. (I)
Burt, Al (F)
Burton, Leland, Jr. (F)
*Burton, Col. & Mrs. Robt. A.,
Jr. (F)
Bush, Janet (Stu)
Byrd, Sallie (I)

Cahen, Stephen (I)
Caines, Jane A. (D


Calandrino, C. Anne (I)
Calcagno, Janet L. (Stu)
Caldwell, Mr. & Mrs. Allen G.
(F)
Calhoun, Donald W. (F)
Camejo, Mr. & Mrs. Armando
(F)
Camp, Dr. Robert J. (I)
Campbell, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
(F)
Campbell, Penny, Kevin & Troy
(F)
Camps, Roland (I)
Cangro, Charles V. (F)
Capiro, Mirtha (I)
Carbone, Grace (F)
Card, Mr. & Mrs. James (F)
Carlebach, Diane G. (F)
Carmichael, William W. (I)
Carnevale, Emma (F)
Carney, Mrs. Sarah B. (Sc)
Carr, Mr. & Mrs. Marvin A.
(F)
Carr, Robert S. (I)
Carrero, E., Sr. (F)
Carroll, Mrs. Edith A. (Sc)
Carroll, Elizabeth J. (1)
Carroll, L. T. (F)
Carroll, Mark M. (I)
Cartee, Mrs. Horace L. (I)
Carter, Mr. & Mrs. Beverly R.,
III (F)
Casey, Christina (Stu)
Caso, Carlos R. (I)
Cason, Robert M. (I)
Cassell, Dr. John (1)
Casselberry, Hibbard, Jr. (F)
Cassidy, Opal D. (I)
Caster, Mrs. George B. (I)
Castro, Dianne (D)
Catlow, Mr. & Mrs. Win. R.,
Jr. (F)
Cauce, Elena M. (I)
Cesarano, Mr. & Mrs. P. J.
(Fw)
Chaille, Joseph H. (I)
Chaille, Mrs. Josiah (Sc)
Chandler, Mrs. Winifred (1)
Chaplin, Mrs. Katherine D. (I)
Chapman, Mr. & Mrs. Alvah
H., Jr. (Fw)
Chapman, Arthur E. (Stu)
Chardon, Roland E. (D)
Chasen, Laura E. (Sp)
Chastain, Mr. & Mrs. R. B.
(F)
Cheezem, Ms. Jan Carson (1)
Chiaravallo, Mrs. Frank (I)


List of Members 85

Chowning, Mr. & Mrs. John
S. (F)
Christie, Francis J. (F)
Christie, Mrs. Robt. E. (1)
Christensen, Charlotte Curry (I)
Churchman, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph H. (1)
Clark, Lt. Col. Bemal E. (Sc)
Clark, Betty Carman (I)
Clark, Mrs. Ida M. (Sc)
Clark, Mrs. Janet K. (F)
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. John (D)
Clark, Mrs. Kathryn (Sp)
Clark, Mrs. Mae Knight (Sp)
Clarkson, Diana (F)
Clearwater Public Library (IS)
Clopton, Peggy (Sc)
Cobum, Laura (I)
Coconut Grove Bank (C)
Coffey, Mr. & Mrs. L. F. (D)
Cogswell, Mr. & Mrs. T. J.
(Fw)
Cohen, Dr. Gilbert H. (I)
Cole, Carlton W. (1)
Cole, Mr. & Mrs. R. B. (F)
Cole, Richard P. (1)
Cole, Mrs. Wallace H. (F)
Coleman, Hannah P. (Sc)
Collier County Public Library
(IS)
Collier, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
(F)
Collins, Barbara H. (1)
Colsky, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob (F)
Colson, Mr. & Mrs. William
(Fw)
Commings, Arlene (F)
Conduitte, Catherine J. (I)
Cone, Mrs. Dee M. (1)
Cone, Lawrence B. (1)
Conese, Lillian S. (1)
Conklin, Miss Dallas M. (L)
Conlon, Lyndon C. (Sc)
Conroy, Mr. & Mrs. John (F)
Cook, Donna C. (I)
Cook, Gary L. (I)
Cookston, Dana C. (F)
Cool, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen E.
(F)
Coolidge, Mr. & Mrs. R. S.
(F)
Coon, Lt. Col. Firman A. (1)
Cooney, Mrs. Robert E. (Sc)
Cooney, Thomas (F)
Cooper, Mr. & Mrs. W. Worth
(F)
Coral Gables Federal Savings
and Loan (IS)








86 TEQUESTA


Coral Gables Historic
Preservation Board Archives
(IS)
Coral Gables Jr. Women's
Club (F)
Corlett, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
S., m (Fw)
Cormack, Elroy Clavin (I)
Corson, Allen (Sp)
Corson, Hal (I)
Cosentino, Teresa S. (I)
Costello, Mrs. Gertrude (I)
Costello, Mr. James (1)
Costomiris, Joyce (I)
Cothron, Pat (1)
Couper, James M. (F)
Covert, Lynn & Clyde (F)
Cox, Mr. & Mrs. Plato (Fw)
Craig, Dorothy A. (1)
Craig, Gina & Barry (F)
Cramer, Lowell (Stu)
Crawshaw, George (F)
Creel, Joe (I)
Crockford, Mrs. Linda &
Family (F)
Cross, Mr. & Mrs. Alan J.
(Sc)
Crow, Lon Worth, Jr. (F)
Crow, Mrs. Mary Graham (D)
Crowder, Mr. & Mrs. James
F., Jr. (F)
Crump, Mr. & Mrs. C. C.
(D)
Cuellar, Dr. & Mrs. Jorge (Sp)
Culbertson, Mr. & Mrs Stephen
(F)
Cullom, Mr. & Mrs. William
0. (Fw)
Culmer, Mrs. John E. (1)
Culpepper, Mrs. K. M. (1)
Cummings, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
C. (D)
Cummings, Sandra K. (F)
Cunningham, Les (I)
Cureton, W. J. (I)
Curry, Ms. Lamar Louise
(Fw)
Curry, Mrs. Tommy (I)
*Cushman, Dr. Laura (Sc)

Dade Heritage Trust (F)
Dager, H. J., Jr. (F)
D'Alemberte, Mr. & Mrs.
Sandy (D)
Daly, Mrs. Doris W. (F)
Dane, Mr. & Mrs. George (F)
Danese, Mr. Tracy (D)
Daniel, Mr. & Mrs. W. A., Jr.
(F)


Daniels, Mr. Hubert & Ms.
Dale (F)
Danielson, J. Deering (Sp)
Dann, Dr. & Mrs. 0.
Townsend (Fw)
Daum, Mr. & Mrs. Phillip (F)
Davenport, Mrs. Carolyn (F)
Davidson, Mrs. Robert M. (I)
Davies, Joan M. (I)
Davis, A. B. (I)
Davis, Mrs. Carl H. (Sc)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Donald (F)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Frank C.
(D)
Davis, George E., Sr. (Sc)
Davis, Mrs. Graciela (F)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. Hal D. (F)
Davis, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
(Fw)
Davis, Jim. F. (F)
Davis, Marion Peters (I)
Davis, Roger (D)
Davis, Ron (F)
Davison, Mrs. Walter (F)
Dawson, Phyllis M. G. (Fw)
Dean, Jane (I)
Dearborn, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur
(F)
Dearman, Rachel A. (I)
Deen, James (F)
De Garmo, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth (F)
Del Vecchio, Chuck (Stu)
Del Vecchio, Mr. & Mrs.
Patrick (F)
Denham, David B. (I)
De Nies, Charles F. (F)
Dennis, Richard A. (F)
Detroit Public Library (IS)
De Vane, Jeene (I)
De Wald, Bill (1)
Diamond, Leonard J. (1)
Dickey, Dr. Robert F. (F)
Dietrick, Ms. Yvonne M. (1)
Dine, Mr. & Mrs. Sidney (F)
Dinn, Walter E. (F)
*Dismukes, William Paul, Sr.
(Fw)
Dix, John W. (F)
Dodge, Darlene (I)
Doemer, Mrs. Rosemary (I)
Doheny, David (F)
Donaldson, Eugene (1)
Donovan, James M., Jr. (I)
Dom, Jacob L. (I)
Dorsey, Mrs. Mary C. (1)
Dotson, Martha Jo (I)
Dougherty, Mr. & Mrs. Jas.
C. (F)


**Douglas, Marjory Stoneman
(Sc)
Dowdell, Mr. & Mrs. S. H.
(D)
Dowlen, Dr. & Mrs. L. W.,
Jr. (D)
Dowlen, Dr. & Mrs. L. W.
(D)
Drulard, Mamie Loehr (I)
DuBois, Mrs. Bessie Wilson (Sc)
Duffy, Mr. & Mrs. E. Hugh
(F)
Dugas, Mrs. Faye (F)
Duke University Library (IS)
Dumas, Ernest M. (1)
Dunan, Mrs. G. V. R. (I)
Dunn, Frances G. (1)
Dunn, Hampton (Sc)
Dunty, R. P., Jr. (D)
Dunwody, Atwood (D)
Dupuch. Sir, Etienne, O.B.E.
(D)
DuPuis, John G., Jr. (Sp)
Duvall, Mrs. John E. (I)

Eaton, Mr. Joe (F)
Eckhart, James M. (I)
Edelen, Ellen (Sc)
Edward, Jim (1)
Eggleston, Jeanette (D)
Ehlert, Dr. & Mrs. E. L. (F)
Ehrhard, Mrs. Harriet (I)
Eiben, Mrs. Carl F. (I)
Eickmeyer, Ann (1)
Eig, Mrs. Lois (F)
Eldredge, Mr. & Mrs. Chas.
L. (Sp)
Elfmont, Karen (I)
Ellenbury, Mr. & Mrs. James
C. (F)
Elliott, Annette (Sc)
Elliot, Donald L. (F)
Ellison, Dr. Waldo M. (1)
Ely, Mr. & Mrs. Winston T.
(F)
Emmerson, Mr. & Mrs.
Steven (F)
Engelke, Ms. Syble (I)
Eppes, William D. (I)
Erickson. Mr. & Mrs. Douglas
(Fw)
Erickson, Pauline 0. (I)
Ernst, Martha (I)
Ernst, Patricia G. (I)
Errera, Mrs. Dorothy (I)
Escapa, Cesar L. (I)
Esslinger, Ms. W. F. (Sc)
Etling, Walter (1)
Evans, Mrs. Gail (F)











Evans, James D. (F)
Evans, Michael R. (I)
Everard, W. H. (F)
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers (I)
Eyster, 1. R. (I)
Ezell, Mr. & Mrs. Boyce (Sp)
Fales, Mrs. Donna F. (F)
Farina, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P,
(F)
Farrell, John R., P.A. (I)
Farrey's Wholesale Hardware
Company, Inc. (C)
Fascell, Dante B. (D)
Fee, Mrs. George (1)
Feingold, Dr. & Mrs. Alfred
(F)
Feldhausen, Ms. Annabel (I)
Feldman, Barbara (F)
Feltman, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
(F)
Felton, Mrs. W. C., III (F)
Ferber, Melanie (F)
Ferendino, Andrew J. (F)
Ferguson, Mrs. James C. (1)
Ferguson, Mrs. Milton (1)
Fernandez, Gus (F)
Fernandez, Vivian M. (1)
Fertucci, Tina C. (F)
Field, Capt. & Mrs. Benjamin
P. (F)
Field, Dr. Henry (I)
Field, Mrs. Lamar (I)
Fields, Mrs. Eddie L. (F)
Figuera, Mary N. (F)
Fincher, Richard W. (Sp)
Finlay, James N. (F)
Fiorella, Barbara (I)
Fischer, Anne Marie (I)
Fischer, Mr. & Mrs. Frank M.
(F)
Fisher, Mrs. Ray (I)
Fishman, Dr. & Mrs.
Lawrence M. (F)
Fitzgerald, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph
H. (Fw)
Fitzgerald, Mrs. W. L. (F)
Fitzgerald, Mr. & Mrs. Willard
L., Jr. (D)
Fitzgerald-Bush, Frank S. (I)
Fitzgibbon, Dr. J. M. (F)
Flagship National Bank of
Miami (C)
Flattery, Michael J., Jr. (F)
Fleites, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
A. (Fw)
Fleming, Dr. & Mrs. Richard
(F)
Flick, Charles P. (I)


Flinn, Rep. & Mrs. Gene (F)
Florence, Robert S. (F)
Florida Atlantic University (IS)
Florida International University
(IS)
Florida Southern College (IS)
Florida University Library
of Florida History (IS)
Floyd, Shirley P. (Sc)
Fonte, Joan Conner (I)
Fornes, Judith (F)
Ft. Lauderdale Historical
Society (IS)
Fortner, Edward (I)
Foss, George B., Jr. Esq. (D)
Foster, P. (F)
Fotsch, Charles (I)
Foumier, Paul R. (F)
Fox, Chief & Mrs. Kenneth (F)
Frachiseur, John, Jr. (1)
Frank, Capt. Wm P. (1)
Franklin, Mitchell (L)
Frankowitz, Mrs. Stanley (D)
Frates, Mr. & Mrs. William
(F)
Frazer, Col. & Mrs. Fred J.
(F)
Frazier, Mr. & Mrs. Dwight
(F)
Freed, Mr. & Mrs. Owen (F)
Freedline, Mr. & Mrs. Yale (F)
Freeman, Ms. Gill S. (I)
Friberg, Richard (F)
Frisbie, Mr. & Mrs. Loyal (D)
Frost, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond
M. (F)
Fuchs, Richard W. (Sc)
Gaby, Donald C. (D)
Gabler, George E. (F)
Gadinsky, Brian (I)
Galbraith, Christine S. (I)
Galletti, Suzanna (I)
Gallogly, Ms. Vera (I)
Gallwey, William J., III (1)
Gannett, J. King, IV (I)
Gannon, Mrs. Martha B., (F)
Garavaglia, Louise (F)
Garcia, Francisco (I)
Gardner, Mrs. Dick B. (D)
Gardner, Donald F. (F)
Gardner, Mr. & Mrs. Robt.
J. (F)
Garland, James E. (F)
Garrett, Deborah B. (I)
Garrison, Susan K. (I)
Gaub, Dr. Margaret L. (I)
Gautier, Redmond Bunn (F)
Gelberg, Bob Inc. (I)


List of Members 87

George, Paul S. (I)
George, Dr. & Mrs. Phillip T.
(Fw)
George, Mr. & Mrs. William
F. (Fw)
Gerace, Mrs. Terence (D)
Gerber, Dr. & Mrs. Paul U.
(F)
Gersten, Joseph (1)
Geyer, Elizabeth D. (I)
Gibson, John James (F)
Giegel, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph (F)
*Gifford, Mrs. John C. (Sc)
Gilday, B. J., Jr. (I)
Gilleland, Carolyn (I)
Gillespie, Norman (1)
Gillespie, Sandra (Stu)
Gimbel, Mr. & Mrs. Paul (Fw)
Ginn, Mr. & Mrs. P. J. (F)
Glazer, Mr. & Mrs. Harold (F)
Godshall, Mr. & Mrs. R. W.
(F)
Goddard, Mrs. Hilda (F)
Goeser, Mr. & Mrs. Robert (F)
Goldberg, Mr. & Mrs. Harold
(F)
Golden, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. T.
(F)
Goldman, Sue S. (F)
Goldsmith, Mrs. Cornelia S.
(Sc)
Goldstein, Judge Harvey L. (I)
Goldweber, Mr. & Mrs.
Seymour (F)
Gonzalez, Louis (I)
Gonzalez, Noemi (F)
Gonzalez, Pedro B. (F)
Gonzalez, William (I)
Good, Joella C. (1)
Goode, Ray (Sp)
Gooding, Naomi Cornell (1)
Goodlove, Mrs. William (I)
Goodman, Mr. & Mrs. Jerrold
F. (Sp)
Gopman, D'vora J. (F)
Gorden, William P. (F)
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. David
(F)
Gordon, Dr. & Mrs. Mark W.
(F)
Gordon, Seth (I)
Gotbaum, Dr. Irwin (F)
Gould, Patricia Lummus (F)
Gould, Taffy (I)
Gowin, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
Skaggs (1)
Goza, William M. (I)
Gracer, Gene B. (I)








88 TEQUESTA


Grafton, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
G. (F)
Graham, Carol (I)
Graham Foundation
Graham, Governor & Mrs.
Robert (F)
Graham, Mr. & Mrs. William
E. (F)
Graham, Sandra (D)
Graham, Mr. & Mrs. William
A. (Fw)
Gramling, Frank R. (1)
Grant, Hazel Reeves (Sp)
Grasselli, Eleanor D. (1)
Gray, Gloria H. (I)
Green, Dan (I)
Green, Dr. Edward N. (1)
Green, Mrs. Lonsdale B. (1)
Green, Marcia R. (D)
Green, Margie (I)
Greenfield, Burton D. (F)
Greer, Mr. & Mrs. Alan (D)
Grethen, Mrs. J. (Sc)
Griffis, Mr. & Mrs. David N.
(F)
Grinter, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
B. (F)
Gross, Dr. Zade Bernard (I)
Grossman, Mark (I)
Grossman, Michael (F)
Grout, Mrs. Elizabeth (Sc)
Grout, Nancy L. (I)
Grunwell, George (F)
Gubbins, John M. (I)
Gullage, Richard H. (F)
Guyton, Mrs. Stewart E. (I)
Guyton, Dr. & Mrs. T. B. (F)
Haas, Joan G. (Sp)
Haefele, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph (F)
Hagner, Casper C. (Sc)
Haley, Mr. & Mrs. John C. (F)
Hall, Mrs. Jane C. (I)
Hall, Mrs. M. Lewis, Jr. (F)
Halprin, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
(F)
Hamill, Bernardis (1)
Hamilton, Mr. & Mrs. Clinton
(F)
Hamilton, McHenry (1)
Hamilton, John C. (I)
Hammett, Virginia R. (I)
Hammond, Dr. Jeffrey (1)
Hampton, Catherine Sullivan (I)
Hanafourde, Lucy (F)
Hancock, Cis (F)
Hancock, Mrs. James T. (I)
Hand, Jeffrey C. (F)
Hanni, H. S. (F)


Hansen, William M. (Sp)
Hardie, George B., Jr. (F)
Hardin, Fitzgerald, Dowlen &
Mekras, Drs., (F)
Hardin, Henry C., Jr. M.D. (F)
Harless, Gwen (F)
Harllee, John W., Jr. (F)
Harllee, J. William (Sc)
Harlow, Mr. & Mrs. John (F)
Harper, Florence F. (I)
Harrington, Frederick H. (F)
Harris, Colonel Emrys (I)
Harris, Gloria W. (I)
Harris, Robert (I)
Harrison, Jennifer (I)
Harrison, John C., Sr.
(LFw)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John
C., Jr. (Fw)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. John
H. (F)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs.
Joseph R., Jr. (F)
Harrison, Mr. & Mrs. M.
R., Jr. (F)
Hart, Dr. Robert (F)
Hartman, Robin W. (F)
Hartnett, Mr. & Mrs. James
D. (F)
Hartog, Mr. & Mrs G. (F)
Harvard College Library (IS)
Harwood, Mrs. Manton E.
(I)
Hatfield, Mrs. M. H. (F)
Hauser, Leo A. (Sc)
Hawa, Mr. & Mrs. Maumice
B. (F)
Hayes, W. Hamilton (D)
Head, Patricia (I)
Heald, Thomas E. (I)
Heard, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph
C. (F)
Hector, Louis J. (F)
Hector, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
C. (D)
Heinl, Mrs. J. L. I1I (I)
Heldt, Agneta C. (Sc)
Helene, Carol J. (I)
Helfand, Leonard (F)
Heller, Mrs. Daniel N. (I)
Helsabeck, Rosemary E. (I)
Hendry, Judge Norman (I)
Henry, Mr. & Mrs. Edmund
T., I (F)
Hennessy, Mr. & Mrs. John
E. (F)
Hennington, Atmie Ruth (I)
Henriquez, Mr. & Mrs.
David R. (F)


Hepler, Mr. & Mrs. David
(I)
Heraux, Esther (I)
*Herin, Thomas D. (Sc)
*Herin, Judge William A.
(F)
Herman, Mrs. W. Fred (Sc)
Hernandez, Dr. Maria C. (I)
Herreshoff, Mrs. Rebecca
(Sc)
Hertzberg, David J. (I)
Hesser, Charles (1)
Hess, Dorothy D. (I)
Hialeah Library (IS)
Hibbard, R. W. (I)
Hicks, Williams M. (Sp)
Highleyman, Daly (I)
Hill, Bruce (I)
Hill, Larry (I)
Hillbauer, Mrs. Win. C., Sr.
(Sc)
Hills, Mr. & Mrs. Lee (Fw)
Hinckley, Gregg (F)
Hingston, Rev. Allen R. (I)
Hipps, Mrs. T. F. (F)
Historic Preservation Division
(IS)
Historical Honor Society of
Miami Southridge Sr. High
Scl. (IS)
Historical Society of Palm
Beach County (IS)
Hodsden, Mrs. Harry E. (I)
Hoeffel, Mrs. Kenneth (I)
Hoehl, Mr. & Mrs. John R. (D)
Hoffman, Mary Ann (I)
Hoffman, Wayne H. (I)
Hogan, G. B., Jr. (F)
Hogan, Mrs. Thomas D., Ill
(I)
Holcomb, Jack (Sc)
Holcomb, Mr. & Mrs. Lyle
D., Jr. (I)
Holland & Knight (C)
Holland, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
(I)
Hollands, Dick T. (F)
Hollinger, Mrs. Barbara (I)
Holmes, Brad (1)
Holsenbeck, Mrs. J. M. (Sc)
Holt, Mary L. (Sc)
Holly, Dr. & Mrs. John (F)
Hoodenpyle, Edgar, Jr. (F)
Hoover, Mrs. John (F)
Horacek, Mr. & Mrs. Frederick
W. (F)
Honmik, Mr. & Mrs. Martin F.
(Fw)
Horta, Teresa (F)










Hoskins, Mrs. Eddie (F)
Houck, Mr. & Mrs. Jason (F)
Houser, Roosevelt C. (Sc)
Houghtaling, Mr. Francis S. (I)
Howe, Helen Delano (Sp)
Howell, Mrs. Ronald M. (F)
Howland, Paula (F)
Hudnall, Helen (I)
Hudson, Mr. & Mrs. James
A. (I)
Hume, David (F)
Hunt, Mr. & Mrs. Charles L.
(F)
Hunter, Rhonda (I)
Henry E. Huntington Library
& Art Gallery (IS)
Huntsberry, Margaret N. (I)
Huston, Mrs. Tom (Fw)
Hutchinson, Mr. & Mrs
Robert (F)
Irvin, Mr. & Mrs. E. Milner,
II (F)
Izen, Elaine (1)

Jackman, Mr. Stephen (Fw)
Jacks, Ms. Rachael (I)
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Frederick
C. (F)
Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. George
P. (F)
Jacobson, Mrs. Jeanette (Sc)
Jacobstein, Dr. Helen L. (I)
James, Mary Crofts (Sc)
Jeffreys, David E., Jr. (I)
Jemeson, Dimitri (I)
Jensen, Mr. & Mrs. Bob (F)
Jenkins, Elsie A. (Sc)
Johnson, David W. (F)
Johnson, Douglas W. (I)
Johnson, Hal. R. (I)
Johnson, Mr. & Mrs. Kari (F)
Johnson, Rose Ann (I)
Johnson, Mrs. Westerdahl (F)
Johnson, Mr. Wm. G. (I)
Johnston, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
McE. (F)
Jollivette, Mr. & Mrs. Cyrus
M. (F)
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. Albert (F)
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W.
(F)
Jones, A. Tillman (Sc)
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C.
(F)
Jones, Donna Jean (1)
Jones, Harry, Jr. (I)
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Jesse (F)
Jones, Marie M. (I)
Jones, Thompson V. (I)


Jones, William F. (I)
Jordon, Mrs. June (I)
Joyce, Hortense H. (Sc)
Jude, Mrs. James R. (F)
Julian, Mrs. Lawrence C. (1)
Junkin, Mr. & Mrs. John E.,
I (F)
Jureit, Mrs. L. E. (I)
Kahn, Donald (F)
Kahn, Leslie (I)
Kammer, Barbara (I)
Kanner, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis M.
(Fw)
Kantor, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley (F)
Kaplan, James S. (F)
Karadbil, Mr. & Mrs. Neil (F)
Kassewitz, Mr. & Mrs. Jack
(F)
Kattel, G. Edward (1)
Katz, Mr. & Mrs. Horace (F)
Kaufman, Mr. & Mrs. Otto
(F)
Kaufman, Judy (I)
Kavanaugh, Daniel A. (I)
Kazi, Nancy (D)
Keep, Oscar J. (I)
Keiter, Dr. Roberta M. (I)
Keith, William V. (I)
Keller, D. Duane (I)
Kelley, John B. (F)
Kelley, Kristine (I)
Kelley, Marilyn C. (F)
Kellner, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
(Sp)
Kemper, Marlyn (1)
Kendall, Peter H. F. (I)
Kennedy, L. D. (F)
Kenner, Mrs. Maynard (I)
Kenney, Mr. & Mrs. James
J. (Sp)
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A. (F)
Kent, Marguerite (I)
Kent, Olga (I)
Kent, W. (F)
Kenyon, Sue C. (F)
Kerestes, Mr. & Mrs Bruce (F)
Kesselman, Michael N. (I)
Keusch, Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth
(F)
Khoury, Betty (F)
Key West Art & Historical
Society (IS)
Kiem, Mr. & Mrs. Stanley
(F)
Kilpatrick, Charles W. (D)
Kilpatrick, Ronald Paul (F)
Kimen, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas,
Jr. (F)


List of Members 89

Kincaid, Gretchen Hand (Sc)
King, Charles E. (1)
King, Dennis G. (1)
King, George E. (Sc)
Kingsbury, George M. (I)
Kinsloe, Evelyn B. (F)
Kinzer, Mayor & Mrs. M. (F)
Kipnis, Mr. Jerome (D)
Kislak, Mr. Jay I.(Sp)
Kistler, Robert S. (D)
Klein, Norman S. (Sp)
Kleinberg, Howard (D)
Kline, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas (D)
Kline, Mrs. Cynthia (F)
Klotz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael D.
(F)
Knight, Frasuer V. (Sp)
Kniskern, Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth
(Sp)
Knott, Judge James R. (Sc)
Knotts, Tom (Sc)
Knowles, Mrs. C. F. (Sc)
Kockritz, Ewald (1)
Kokenzie, Captain H. (I)
Koler. Mr. & Mrs. Victor (F)
Kolisch, Mrs. Joseph M. (D)
Kolski, Mr. & Mrs. Alexander
(F)
Kononoff, Hazel N. (1)
Korth, Valerie W. (D)
Kovacs, Steven (Stu)
Kraslow, David (I)
Kratish, Robert (F)
Krichton, Carl V. (I)
Krome, William H. (I)
Kubli, Eloise (F)
Kuci, Ellyn R. (F)

Lacy, Dr. George E. (I)
LaCrmix, Mrs. Aerial C. (Sc)
Lake Worth Public Library (IS)
Lamberton, H. Christopher (Sc)
Lamme, Robert (Sc)
Lane, Elizabeth A. (I)
Lane, Mr. & Mrs. Robert C.
(F)
Langen, Mr. & Mrs. Roland (F)
Langhomrne, Richard M. (I)
Langley, Wright (I)
Langner, Mrs. Mildred C. (Sc)
Lanier, Mrs. Patricia P. (F)
LaRoue, Samuel D., Jr. (I)
Larrabee, Charles, Jr. (I)
Lanrry, Louis & Fay Hochen (F)
LaSalle, Mr. & Mrs. A. L., Jr.
(I)
Lasseter, Harley 0., Sr. (I)
Lauer, Mr. & Mrs. John F. (F)
Lawson, Dr. H. L. (I)








90 TEQUESTA


Laxson, Dan D. (I)
Leake, Martin C. (Sp)
**Leary, Lewis (I)
Leathe, Mr. & Mrs. Paul (F)
Lee, Mr. & Mrs. Marty (F)
Legge, Laura (Stu)
Lehman, Richard L. (I)
Lesnick, Alan (F)
Levin, Mrs. Kitty Darling (I)
Levine, Dr. Harold (F)
Levine, Richard B. (I)
Levitz, E. (Sc)
Lewin, Robert (D)
Lewis, Ann E. (Sc)
Liles, Mr. & Mrs. E. Clark (F)
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E. (F)
Lindsley, Mrs. A. R. (Sc)
Linehan, Mrs. John (I)
Link, Mrs. E. A. (1)
Lippert, Mrs. W. K. (I)
Lipsky, Mr. & Mrs. Bernie (F)
Little, Mr. & Mrs. Robert (F)
Livingston, Mr. & Mrs. John
H. (F)
Livingston, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
(I)
Lloyd, J. Harlan (Sc)
Lohnes, Mr. & Mrs. Daniel,
Jr. (F)
Longshore, Frank (D)
Looney, Evelyn 0. (I)
Lopez-Aguiar, Mr. & Mrs.
Henry A. (F)
Lord, William P. (Sp)
Lores, Mrs. Edward (1)
Loumiet, Juan P. (F)
Love, Mildred A. (Sc)
Lowell, Mr. & Mrs. Robert (F)
Lowry, Patricia (I)
Loxahatchee Historical Society
(IS)
Luginbill, Mr. & Mrs. Mark
(F)
Lukens, Mr. & Mrs. Jaywood
(F)
Lummus, J. N., Jr. (1)
Lunnon, Mrs. James (1)
Lunsford, Mrs. E. C. (Sc)
Luskin, Mr. & Mrs. Paul (1)
Lutterbie, Patricia H. (I)
Lutton, Mrs. Stephen C. (Sc)
Lux, Thomas J. (I)
Lynch, Mr. & Mrs. Stephen A.,
m (Fw)
Lynfield, Geoffrey H. (I)
Lyon, Dr. & Mrs. Eugene (F)
Lyons, Mrs. J. (Sp)


MacDonald, John E. (Sp)
MacDonald, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
(F)
Macintyre, Mr. & Mrs. A. C.
(F)
MacVicar, Mrs. I. D. (Sc)
McAuliffe, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
F., III (F)
McCabe, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
H. (F)
McCall, C. Lawton (1)
McClure, Mrs. John C. (Sc)
McCollum, John I., Jr. (F)
McCorquodale, Mrs. Donald,
Jr. (I)
McCormick, Mr. & Mrs. C.
Deering (D)
McCreary, Ms. Jane (I)
McCrimmon, C. T. (Fw)
McDermott, Dorothy J. (1)
McDonald, Mr. & Mrs. John
K. (F)
McDonough, Martha Morrill (I)
McDowell, Charles (I)
McGarry, Mr. & Mrs. Richard
M. (F)
McGuire, Jeanie L. (I)
McHale, William J. (Sp)
Mclver, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart (F)
McJilton,Mrs. Jeanee (F)
McKenna, Daniel C. (I)
McKenna, Mrs. R. A. (1)
McKenzie, Dr. & Mrs. Jack A.
(F)
McKinstry, Mr. & Mrs. John
W. (F)
McKittrick, Sarah L. (I)
McLamore, Mr. & Mrs. James
(Fw)
McLean, Lenore (Sc)
McLean, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
L. (F)
McMillan, Dr. G. William (I)
McMinn, John H. (D)
McNaughton, M. D. (I)
McNaughton, Dr. & Mrs.
Robert A. (F)
McNeil, R. C. (D)
McPhee, Harriett (I)
McSwiggan, Gerald W. (Sp)
McVicker, Dan A. (I)
Mackle, Milbrey W. (D)
Madan, Richard (I)
Maer, G. Miriam (F)
Maingot, Dr. & Mrs. Anthony
P. (F)
Malafmnte, Anthony F. (I)


Maldonado, Dr. & Mrs. Adolfo
(Fw)
Malone, Mrs. Randolph A. (I)
Malone, Mrs. Katharine (F)
Maltby, Mr. & Mrs. L. A. (F)
Mangels, Dr. Celia C. (I)
Mangum, Mr. & Mrs. A. C.,
Jr. (F)
Mank, Mrs. Nancy (I)
Mank, Philip J., Sr. (Sc)
Mank, Philip J., Jr. (I)
Mank, R. Layton (Fw)
Manley, Marion I. (Sc)
Manly, Grace (F)
Manning, Mr. & Mrs. J. (F)
Mannion, Jan (1)
Manship, Mr. & Mrs. E. K.
(F)
Marchant, Michael J. (I)
Marks, Bella (I)
Marks, Larry S. (I)
Markus, Daniel 0. (1)
Markus, Victor (F)
Marlowe, Hellen L. (D)
Marmesh, Dr. & Mrs. Michael
(F)
Marotti, Mr. Frank, Jr. (I)
Marshall, Muriel S. (I)
Martin County Public Library
(IS)
Martin, Emmett E., Jr. (1)
Martin, J. William CPA (F)
Martin, Mr. & Mrs. James 0.
(F)
Martin, Sylva G. (Sc)
Martinez-Ramos, Alberto (1)
Maslanova, Elena (1)
Mason, Mrs. Joe J. (Sc)
Mason, William C., 11I (1)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. Finlay
B. (Fw)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. Finlay
L. (F)
Matheson, R. Hardy (D)
Matheson, James F. (I)
Matheson, Mr. & Mrs. J.
. Henry (F)
Mathews, Dennis D. (1)
Matthews, Mr. & Mrs. A.
Lamar, Jr. (I)
Matkov, Mrs. Thomas (F)
Matlack, Mr. & Mrs. Wm.
C. (F)
Mattucci, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
(F)
Maxted, F. J., Jr. (F)
Maxwell, Marjorie (I)











May, Dr. & Mrs. John A. (F)
Mayers, LeAnn (I)
Mayo, John A. (F)
Mead, Mr. & Mrs. D. Richard
(Fw)
Mears, Rachel (I)-
Medina, Martin (I)
Megee, Mrs. B. L. (F)
Metz, Martha J. (Sc)
Meier, Virginia (F)
Mell, W. B., Jr. (I)
Mende, Mrs. L. G. (I)
Mensch, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph
(F)
Mercer, Mattie 1. (1)
Mercy College Library (IS)
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P. (I)
Merrill, James C., III (F)
Mesnekoff, Mr. & Mrs. David
(Fw)
Metcalf, Dr. Elizabeth (F)
Metka, Joseph A., Jr. (1)
Metzinger, Reva (I)
Miami Beach Public Library
(IS)
Miami Dade Community
College Architecture Dept.
South (IS)
Miami Dade Community College
South Campus Periodicals
Dept (IS)
Miami Herald Library (IS)
Miami Public Library (IS)
Coconut Grove Library (IS)
Coral Gables Public Library
(IS)
North Dade Regional
Library (IS)
Northeast Branch Library
(IS)
South Dade Regional
Library (IS)
West Dade Regional Library
(IS)
Miami Times (IS)
Miccousukee Community Library
(IS)
Mickins, Rev. & Mrs. I. C. (F)
Middelthon, Win. R., Jr. (I)
Miles, Mr. & Mrs. R. S. (F)
Millar, Mrs. Gavin S. (Sc)
Milledge, Deidre (F)
Milledge, Evalyn M. (I)
Milledge, Sarah F. (1)
Miller, Bessie (Sc)
Miller, Bud (F)
Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dale (F)


Miller, Mr. & Mrs. Dean R.
(F)
Miller, Gertrude R. (Sc)
Miller. Philip Orme (I)
Miller, Mr. Thomas L. (I)
Miller, William Jay (1)
Milner, Henri (t)
Milward, William (I)
Minear, Mrs. L. V. (Sc)
Mincy, Mrs. Evlyne (I)
Minsker, Joel N.. Esq. (I)
Mizell, Earl S. (Sp)
Mizrach, Larry (I)
Molinari, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
L. (Fw)
Molinari, Dr. R. E. (I)
Molt, Fawdrey A. S. (F)
Mondun, Judith (I)
Monk, J. Floyd (Sc)
Monroe County Public Library
(IS)
Monroe, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. F.,
Jr. (F)
Monsanto, Judge & Mrs. J. (F)
Monsegur, Anita P. (1)
Montague, Mrs. Charles H. (I)
Monteagudo, Mr. & Mrs.
Mario E. (F)
Monticino, Mrs. Alma (1)
Moore, Mrs. Jack (I)
Moore, Mrs. Jasper (F)
Moore, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
T. (D)
Mordaunt, Mr. & Mrs. Hal (I)
Morehead, Mimi (I)
Morgan Guaranty International
Bank (C)
Moretti, Joseph G. (I)
Morgan, Capt. Robert G. (F)
Morris, B. W. (D)
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. C. C.
(F)
Morris, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin
S. (F)
Morris, Mr. James (F)
Morris, Lucy (I)
Morris, Thomasine (I)
Morrison, Glen (F)
Moselle, Joan (F)
Moss, Mr. Lyman R. (F)
Moure, Mrs. Edwin P. (I)
Moylan, Mrs. E. B., Jr. (I)
Mrozek, Ronald W. (I)
Mucci, Ursula (I)
Muir, Bill (1)
Muir, William T. (1)
Muir, Mrs. William W. (I)


List ofMembers 91

Muller, David F. (I)
Munroe, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
P. (F)
Munroe, Elizabeth P. (F)
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M. (D)
Murphy, Mr. & Mrs Thos.
W. (F)
Murray, James C. (1)
Murray, John (F)
Murray, Mary Ruth (D)
Murray, Mr. & Mrs. P. J. (F)
Mustard, Alice Isabel (Sc)
Mustard, Margaret Jean (1)
Myers, Mrs. Ida P. (Sc)
Myers. Lillian G. (1)
Myers, Ruth Dowell (I)
Myers. Mrs. Walter K. (1)

Nagy, Shirley L. (1)
Nagel, Mr. & Mrs. Brent (F)
Nance, G. Tracy, Jr. (F)
Napier, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey (F)
Natup, Mrs. Mavis (I)
Nehrbass, Arthur F. (F)
Neil, Luise, R. (I)
Nelson, Mrs. Bowen (F)
Nelson, Jonathan (I)
Nelson, Theodore R. (I)
Netherland-Brown, Capt,. &
Mrs. Carl (F)
New, Edwin E. (1)
Newberry Library (IS)
Newbold, Edmund W. (F)
Nicholson, Allene (I)
Niles, Mr. & Mrs. Jim (F)
Nimnicht, Mary Jo (1)
Nordt, Mr. & Mrs. John C.
(F)
Noriega, Mr. & Mrs. Win,
L. (F)
Norman, Dr. & Mrs. Harold
G. (Fw)
Norman, Mr. & Mrs. Walter
H. (Sc)
Norris, Mrs. Jennie W. (Sc)
Norton, Dr. Edward (D)
Norwood, William C. (Sp)
Nuckols, B. P. (F)

Oldham, Dorothy C. (F)
Olesker, Kathy (I)
Oliver, Dr. & Mrs. Robert
M., Jr. (F)
O'Marah, Mrs. J. F. (Sc)
Orlando Public Library (IS)
Orseck, Robert (F)
O'Steen, Mrs. Edna (1)
Ostrenko, Witold, Jr. (I)









92 TEQUESTA


Ostrenko, Witold, Sr. (F)
Oswald, Mr. & Mrs. Jackson
(F)
Otero, Mr. & Mrs. Jorge (F)
Otto, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas, Ill
(F)
Otto, Mrs. Thomas Osgood, Sr.
(I)
Overhultz, Clara (Stu)
Overstreet, Estelle C. (I)
Owens, Mrs. Bradley (F)
Padgett, Inman (Sc)
Palmer, Alfred R. (I)
Palmer, Carolyn A. (I)
Palmer, Miriam (I)
Palmer, Virginia (I)
Pancoast, Alice A. (I)
Pancoast, John Arthur (I)
Pancoast, Katherine French
(D)
Pancoast, Mr. & Mrs. Lester
C. (F)
Pancoast, Peter Russell (I)
Pappas, Mr. & Mrs. Ted (Fw)
Papper, Patricia M. (I)
Pardue, Leonard G. (Sc)
Park, Mr. Dabney G., Jr. (F)
Parker, Alfred B. (1)
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. Austin
(D)
Parker, Crawford H. (I)
Parker, Robin E. (1)
Parker, Dr. & Mrs. R. Latanae
(F)
Parkhurst, Mr. & Mrs. Wm.
D. (F)
Parks, Mr. Merle (I)
Parks, Mr. & Mrs Robert L.
(Fw)
Pames, Dr. & Mrs. Edmund I.
(F)
Parsons, Mr. & Mrs. Edw. G.
(F)
Passella, Mrs. George (I)
Paterson, Mr. & Mrs. Jay (F)
Patton, Mrs. Dan 0. (Sc)
Paulsen, Wiliiam, Sr. (I)
Pawley, Anita (F)
Pawley, Mrs. William D. (Sp)
Payne, Ruth D. (F)
Payne, Mrs. R. W., Jr. (F)
Peacock, Mrs. Albert, Jr. (I)
Peacock, Mr. & Mrs. Larry
(F)
Pearce, Billee P. (I)
Pearlsom, Richard A. (F)
Pearson, Wilbur (F)
Pedreira, Luis (I)


Peeler, Ms. Elizabeth (I)
Peeples, Vernon (I)
Peer, Robert (I)
Pell, Charlotte H. (I)
Pennekamp, Tom (Sp)
Pepper, Hon. Claude (I)
Perez, Carmer (Stu)
Perner, Mrs. Henry (I)
Peru, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H.,
Jr. (Fw)
Perrin, Mrs. John (Sc)
Perry, Roy A. (Sc)
Perwin, Jean (F)
Peters, Gloria (1)
Peters, Gordon H. (F)
Peters, Mrs. Jackson L. (I)
Peters, John S. (I)
*Peters, Dr. Thelma (F)
Peterson, Mrs. E. E. (I)
Philbin, Helen K. (I)
Philbrick, W. L. (I)
Piano, Lawrence J. (I)
Pichel, Mrs. Clem A. (I)
Piehl, Wesley C. (F)
Pierce, Mrs. J. B., Jr. (I)
Pierce, J. E. (F)
Pierce, Staples L. (F)
Pimm, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon (F)
Pinnas, Ruth Meltzer, PHD
(F)
Pinto-Torres, Francisco J. (I)
Plumer, Richard B. (Sp)
Plummer, Lawrence H. (I)
Poliakoff, Dr. & Mrs. Steven
(F)
Polizzi, Mary Ann (F)
Polk County Historical Library
(I)
Pollack, Richard (F)
Poorman, Mrs. Elizabeth H. (I)
Poorman, Mr. & Mrs. Joel
(F)
Post, Amelia M. (D)
Post, Howard M. (D)
Potash, Dr. & Mrs. Irwin (F)
Potter, Chris (I)
Potter, Gene (F)
Potter, Robert E. (I)
Potts, Roy V. (F)
Powell, Barbara R. (D)
Powers, Jack J. (1)
Powers, Mrs. Lila M. (Sc)
Powers, Mamo Kuwanow (D)
Prahl, Mrs. Ann (I)
Prio, Maria Antonieta (F)
Pritchard, Barbara (1)
Porvenzo, Dr. Eugene (I)
Pruitt, Peter T. (F)


Prunty, Mr. & Mrs. John W.
(F)
Pryor, Mrs. T. Hunter, Jr. (F)
Puckett, R. M. (F)
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F. (I)
Pushkin, Dr. & Mrs. Emanuel
(F)
Quackenbush, Ida (F)
Quarles. Julian, Atty. (F)
Quesenberry, William F. (F)
Quillian, Dr. Warren II (I)
Quinton, Mr. & Mrs. A. E.,
Jr. (F)
Raatma, Linda (F)
Radosta, Dr. Melanie R. (Sc)
Ramos, Pauline E. (1)
Rappaport, Dr. Edward (I)
Rapperport, Dr. Alan (I)
Ratner, Nat (I)
Ray, Peter C. (F)
Read, Mrs. Bess B. (Sp)
Reagan, A. James, Jr. (F)
Rebozo, C. G. (D)
Redman, Virginia R. (Sc)
Reed, Beatrice (I)
Reed, Elizabeth Ann (I)
Reed, Richard E. (I)
Reeves, Garth C. (F)
Rehwoldt, Eileen (I)
Reid, Dr. & Mrs. Edward L.,
UI (Fw)
Reiger, John F. (I)
Reiling, Dr. Susan W. (I)
Reilly, Phil (F)
Rein, Martin (I)
Reinhardt, Blanche E. (I)
Relish, Mrs. John (F)
Rempe, Lois D. (Sc)
Renick, Ralph (I)
Renninger, Julie (I)
Reno, Mrs. Jane (Sc)
Reno, Janet (F)
Reordan, William C. (I)
Resnick, Larry (I)
Reubert, Mrs. Jay F. (F)
Rey, Homero L. (I)
Reyna, Dr. L. J. (F)
Reynolds, Diane (F)
Rhyne, Paul (F)
Rice, Sister Eileen, O.P. (I)
Rice, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph E. (D)
Rice, R. H., Jr. (I)
Rich, Harry (I)
Rich, Ms. Louise (Sc)
Richards, Charles A. (Sc)
Richmond Hgts. Jr. High
School (IS)











Ricketts, Mrs. Ronald R. (F)
Ridolph, Edward (F)
Rieder, Mrs. Wm. Dustin (F)
Rigsby, Richard (1)
Riley, Mrs. Bernard (I)
Rilby, Sandra (1)
Rivera, Jean (I)
Rivera, Leslie (1)
Riviera Beach Public Library
(IS)
Roach, Mrs. Raymond W.
(Sc)
Robbins, Mrs. Lawrence J.
(1)
Robbins, Mr. & Mrs. Wm.,
R., Jr. (F)
Roberts, J. (I)
Roberts, Richard E. (I)
Robertson, Alan F. (1)
Robertson, Michael (I)
Robinson, James (F)
Roca, Pedro L. (I)
Rodgers, Mr. & Mrs. Frank
(F)
Rodriguez, Ivan (I)
Rodriguez, Dr. Jose A. (F)
Rogers, Mrs. Walter S. C. (F)
Roller, Mrs. G. Phillip (Fw)
Rollins College (IS)
Roone, Mr. & Mrs. Martin (F)
Roper, Mrs. George P. (Sc)
Rosemond, Garth A. (I)
Rosenblatt, Dr. A. W. (I)
Rosendorf, Mr. & Mrs. Howard
S. (F)
Rosengarten, June M. (1)
Rosinek, Mr. & Mrs. Jeff (F)
Ross, Mr. & Mrs. Jay (F)
Ross, Mrs. Leroy W. (1)
Rostas, Dr. Thomas J. (F)
Roth, Mrs. Ellen (F)
Rothblatt, Emma A. (F)
Rothenberg, Arthur L. (F)
Rowell, Donald (D)
Rubini, Dr. Joseph R. (D)
Rudolph, Alfred (I)
Ruffner, Charles L. (1)
Ruggles, Read S_, Jr. (F)
Ruiz, Joseph A., Jr. (I)
Russell, Darlene (1)
Russell, George (1)
Ryan, Dr. & Mrs. Bryce (F)
Ryder, Ralph (L)
Ryder Systems, Inc. (C)
Ryskamp, Mr. & Mrs.
Kenneth L. (F)
Sacher, Mr. & Mrs. Charles
P. (F)


Sadler, J. D. (D)
Sadowski, Robert (1)
Sakhnovsky, Nicholas (F)
Salerno, Evelyn (I)
Salvatore, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
L. (F)
Salzman, Phyllis S. (Sp)
Samet, Alvin M. (F)
Samet, Barbara J. (1)
Samuels. Mr, & Mrs. Harris (F)
Sandier, John (I)
Sands, Harry B. (I)
Santa-Maria, Yvonne (I)
Sanz, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph (F)
Santiago, Pury L. (I)
Santos, Arnold (I)
Sapp, Mr. & Mrs. Neil C.
(F)
Sarasohn, Dr. Sylvan (F)
Sargent, Priscilla M. (1)
Saster, William (1)
Sauvigne, Cecile D. (I)
Sawyer, Viola (Sc)
Sax, Connie A. (1)
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffee
(Sc)
Schaeffer, Mrs. George (F)
Schaeffer, Mrs. Oden A. (F)
Schanck, Margie (1)
Schelberg, Mrs. Richard (I)
Scheridan, Joseph P. (F)
Schmitz, Paul L. (1)
Schmucker, Bob (I)
Schober, Warren (I)
Schoen, Marc (F)
Schofield, Bishop & Mrs. Calvin
O, (I)
Schoonmaker, Mr. & Mrs. T.
P. (F)
Schreer, Mr. & Mrs. Andy (F)
Schuh, Niles (I)
Schulz, Linda A. (I)
Schwalbe, Mrs. Elinor T. (Sc)
Schwartz, Mr. & Mrs.
Frederick, III (F)
Schwarz, Mr. & Mrs. Michael
(F)
Scott, Clarissa S., PH.D. (F)
Searle, Philip F. (F)
Selawry, Dr. & Mrs. Oleg (F)
Seipp, Judy (Stu)
Seitlin, Mr. & Mrs. Sam (Fw)
Selby Public Library (IS)
Serkin, Manuel (1)
Selvaggi, Albert (1)
Serrins, Dr. & Mrs. Alan (F)
Seixas, Margarita E. (I)
Shafer, Kathryn E. (I)


List of Members 93

Shafer, Ron (F)
Shane, David (F)
Shapiro, Anita R. (I)
Sharer, Cyrus J. (I)
Sharp, Harry Carter (D)
Shaw, Henry Overstreet (Sc)
*Shaw, Luelle (I)
Shaw, Mrs. W. F. (Sc)
Shay, Mr. & Mrs. Rodger D.
(F)
Shea, Charles., Jr, (I)
Shea, Michael (I)
Shenstone, Mrs. Allen G. (Sc)
Sheppard, H. E. (F)
Sheridan, Drew (F)
Sherman, Ethel Weatherly (Sc)
Sherman, John S., Jr. (I)
Sherman, Dr. Roger (F)
Sherman, Mrs. Virginia C. (D)
Shields, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
E. (F)
Shipley, Mr. & Mrs. Vergil
A. (F)
Shiver, Otis W. (Sc)
Shoffner, Mr. & Mrs. George
A. (F)
Shouse, Abbie H. (F)
Sibert, J. D. (I)
Simmonite, Col. Henry G. (Sc)
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Glen
(F)
Simmons, Mr. & Mrs. Steven
(F)
Simon, Edwin 0. (F)
Simon, Philip (1)
Simonet, Richard H., CPA
(Sp)
Simonhoff, Mr. & Mrs.
Michael (F)
Simons, Mr. & Mrs. J. P. (F)
Sisselman, Murray (F)
Sizemore, Christina (I)
Skigen, Dr. & Mrs. Jack (F)
Skipp, Marjorie (I)
Slack, Mr. & Mrs. Ted (D)
Slaney, Patricia (I)
Slesnick, Mr. & Mrs. Donald
(F)
Smiley, Dr.& Mrs Karl (F)
Smiley, Nixon (F)
Smith, Mrs. Avery C. (I)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Chesterfield
(F)
Smith, Chesterfield, Jr. (I)
Smith, Clarks (F)
Smith, Dorothy W. (F)
Smith, Mrs. Edward F. (I)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. R. C. (F)
Smith, Harrison H. (Sc)









94 TEQUESTA


Smith, James Merrick (I)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. John E.
(F)
Smith, Josephine (F)
Smith, Leslie (I)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Linton (F)
Smith, Louise Tennent (I)
Smith, McGregor, Jr. (F)
Smith, Ralph K. (I)
Smith, Ralph S. (F)
Smith, Rebecca A. (I)
Smith, Mrs. Robert L. (Sc)
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Samuel
(D)
Smith, Stephen (I)
Smyth, Pete (1)
Snare, Rose Tower (I)
Snodgrass, Dena (I)
Snyder, Jason (F)
Solomon, Steven (I)
Sommers, Mr. & Mrs. L. B.
(F)
Songer, Mrs. Gerald R. (I)
Southern Bell Telephone and
Telegraph Co. (C)
Sorg, Stuart (1)
Sottile, Mr. & Mrs. James (F)
South Florida Growers Assoc.
(IS)
Southern Illinois University (IS)
South Florida Water
Management District (IS)
Southeast First National Bank
of Miami (C)
Souviron, Dr. R. R. (I)
Spach, Helen Keeler (Sc)
Sparks, Mr. & Mrs. Herschel
E. (F)
*Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J. (Sc)
Staats, Mrs. Riley J. (I)
Stadler, John B. (F)
Stadler, John W. (L)
Stadnik, John (1)
Stafford, J. Morgan (I)
Stafford, Robert C. (I)
Stamey, Ernest N. (I)
Stanley, Ruth L. (I)
Stapp, Kathryn (I)
Stark, Louis (F)
Steams, Reid F. (F)
Steel, William C. (F)
Steiden, Roger (I)
Steinberg, Alan W. (Sp)
Stetson University (IS)
Stepner, Mrs. Sara (Sc)
Stevens, Mrs. Elizabeth (I)
Stewart, Carl R. (Sc)
Stewart, Mrs. Chester B. (I)


Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Earl
Spencer (Fw)
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Franz,
Jr. (Fw)
Stewart, Dr. & Mrs. Franz,
Sr. (Fw)
Stewart, Ruth A. (F)
Stiles, Wade (I)
Stillman, Mr. & Mrs. R. Y.
(F)
Stobs, Martha M. (I)
Stoker, Patricia E. (1)
Stone, Mrs. A. J. (I)
Storer, Mrs. Peter (D)
Storm, Lame (I)
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Jacob (F)
Straight, Dr. & Mrs. Wm. M.
(F)
Stripling, John R. (F)
Stuart, Dr. Frank C. (I)
Stuart, Marie Ilene (I)
Stuart, Victoria (I)
Stuntz, Martha M. (I)
Suiter, Patricia A. (I)
Sullivan, Barry T. (I)
Sullivan, Catherine B. (Sc)
Sullivan, Jacqueline E. (I)
Supple, Mr. & Mrs. Frank (F)
Sussex, Dr. & Mrs. James (F)
Sutton, Mr. & Mrs. William
(Sp)
Svaldi, Michael (Sp)
Swanko, J. John (I)
Swartz, Donna C. (I)
Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C. (Sp)
Sweeney, Mrs. Ethel (1)
Sweet, George H. (F)
Symmes, Lee E., UI (F)
Sysskind, Mr. & Mrs. Eric
(F)
Szymanski, Edward (1)

Taffer, Jack (F)
Tampa Public Library (IS)
Tangorra, Achilles (F)
Tartak, Mr. & Mrs. N. (F)
Tardif, Robert G. (I)
Tashiro, Joe (I)
Taylor, Ann (I)
Taylor, Henry H., Jr. (F)
Taylor, Mrs. F. A. S. (F)
Taylor, Howard L. (F)
Taylor, Richard F. (Sc)
Teasley, T. H. (Sc)
*Tebeau, Dr. Charlton W. (HL)
Tennessee State Library (IS)
*Tharp, Dr. & Mrs. Charles D.
(F)


Thatcher, John (I)
Thayer, M. W. (I)
Theobold, Elizabeth D. (I)
Theophilos, Athena (I)
Thilmont, Diane (I)
Thomas, D. (I)
Thomas, Philip A. (I)
Thomas, Wayne (I)
Thompson, Mr. & Mrs. Edward
(F)
Thomson, Mr. & Mrs. Parker
(F)
Thorn, Dale A. (I)
Thrift, Dr. Charles T., Jr. (1)
Thurlow, Tom, Jr. (I)
Timanus, Martha D. (Sc)
Todd, Eva R. (I)
Toffer, Jay (F)
Toms, Mr. & Mrs. Gerald (F)
Toledo, Alfredo R., Jr. (F)
Tongay, Mrs. Betty (I)
Tonkin, Henry M., Jr. (I)
Tottenhoff, Mrs. J. R. (F)
Traer, Mrs. Zilla P. (Sc)
Trammell, Dr. Mary Kay (1)
Traurig. Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
(F)
Traurig, Mr. & Mrs. Robert
(Fw)
Trenery, Frank (I)
Tresh, Jeannette C. (I)
Tribble, Mr. & Mrs. James L.
(F)
Troner, Dr. & Mrs. M. (F)
Tucker, Bruce E. (I)
Turken, Robert (F)
Turner, Mrs. Lawrence 0.,
Jr. (1)

Udy, Eleanor F. (I)
University of Central Fla (Is)
University of Florida, Library
of History (IS)
University of Iowa (IS)
University of Miami, Campus
Sports & Recreation (IS)
University of Miami, 0. Richter
Library (IS)
University of Pennsylvania (IS)
University of South Florida
(IS)
University of West Florida (IS)
Upshaw, Mrs. Florence A. (1)

Valentine, Atlee A. (1)
Van Bezooyen, Mae A. (Sc)
Van Denend, Mrs. Herbert (D)
Vanderwyden, William P. (I)
Van Landingham, Kyle S. (1)











Vamer, Edwina G. (I)
Vazquez, Lulio S. (I)
Van Orsdel, C. D. (F)
Veenstra, Tom H. (I)
Van Velsor, Joan (I)
Vergara, Dr. & Mrs. George
(F)
Vemam, Mr. & Mrs. John N.
(F)
Veronski, D. J. (I)
Vetovich, Margaret (F)
Vidal, Franca (I)
Villa, Dr. & Mrs. Luis., Jr. (D)
Visser, Maaike (1)
Vital, Mr, & Mrs. Frank (Sp)
Volker, Mary Frances (I)
Von Ousley, Mrs. (Sc)
Wacks, Howard (I)
Walaitis, Jane (I)
Waldron, Mr. & Mrs. Edw.
J. (F)
Waldron, Mrs. Neal E. (I)
Walker, J. Frost (Sp)
Walker, Mr. & Mrs. Thomas
B. (F)
Wall, Richard D. (I)
Walsh, Bryan 0. (I)
Warner, Mr. & Mrs. Jonathan
(F)
Warren, Mr. & Mrs. Lewis
G., Jr. (F)
Warshaw, Donald (I)
Wassell, Mrs. John R., Jr. (F)
Wasser, Beatrice C. (I)
*Waters, Fred M., Jr. (HL)
Watson, Hattie (Sc)
Watt, Rep. Jim (I)
Weaver, Mr. & Mrs. David
(F)
Weber, John 0. (I)
Weber, Mrs. Patricia (1)
Weinkle, Julian T. (F)
Weiss, Meryle (I)
Weissenbom, Mr. & Mrs. Lee
(F)
Weit, Richard (I)
Welles, Mr. & Mrs. Peter D.
(F)
Wells, Helen, D. (I)
Welsh, Eric L. (I)
Wenck, James H. (F)
Wepman, Warren S. (I)
Werbstein, Timothy P. (I)
Wersen, William (Sc)
West, Mr. & Mrs. Everett (F)
West, Karen C. (1)


West Palm Beach Public Library
(IS)
Westbrook, Mrs. A. J. (I)
Whitham, Mrs. Florence (Sc)
White, Ivah (I)
White, Richard M. (I)
Whitenack, Mrs. Irwen A. (I)
Whitlock, Mr. Luke (I)
Whittelsey, K. (I)
Whitmer, Dr. Kenneth S. (Sc)
Wiener, Donald M. (I)
Whitten, George E. (F)
Wilkins, Woodrow Wilson (Sc)
Wilkinson, Judy (I)
Williams, Billie Joe (1)
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Dennis
(F)
Williams, Dorothy E. (1)
Williams, Mr. & Mrs. Elmo H.
(F)
Williams, Freeman J. (F)
Williams, Dr. & Mrs. George,
Jr. (F)
Williams, Harvey L., II] (D)
Williams, Mrs. Jean F. (1)
Williamson Cadillac Co. (C)
Willing, David L. (I)
Willis, Mrs. Hillard (Sc)
Wills, James (D)
Wilsey, Jane (I)
Wilson, Daniel F. (1)
**Wilson, Mrs. G. R.
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. George M.
(F)
Wilson, Nancy L. (I)
*Wilson, Nell G. (Sp)
Wilson, Peyton L. (F)
Wilson, Robert L. (1)
Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Walter B.,
Jr. (F)
Wimbish, Paul (F)
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion (I)
Wirkus, Mr. & Mrs. Leonard
V. (F)
Wisconsin State Historical
Society (IS)
Wiseheart, Mr. & Mrs. Malcolm
B., Jr. (Fw)
Withers, James G. (HL)
Withers, Wayne E. (HL)
Withers Van Lines of Miami (C)
Witlock, Mary (Sc)
Wolfe, C. F., Jr. (I)
Wolfe, Dr. & Mrs. Gregory
B. (F)
Wolff, Robin M. (I)
Wolfe, Rosalie (Sc)
Wolfe, Dr. & Mrs. Anthony
(Fw)


List of Members 95

Wolfe, Thomas L. (D)
Wolff, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. F.,
Jr. (F)
Wolfson, Mrs. L. (F)
Wolfson, Mrs. Louis, II (D)
Wolfson, Mitchell, Jr. (Fw)
Wolfson, Col. Mitchell (D)
Wolfson, Sherry (I)
Wolpert, Mr. & Mrs. George
(I)
Wometco Enterprises Inc. (C)
Wonsik, Jo Ann (I)
Wood, Marybeth (I)
Wood, Mrs. Warren (F)
Wood, Mr. Warren, Jr. (F)
Woods, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M.
(F)
Woods, Mrs. Thomas C. (F)
*Woore, Mrs. Meredith A. (I)
Wooten, Mr. & Mrs. James
S. (Fw)
Workman, Mr. & Mrs. David
(F)
Worley, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene
C. (F)
Wragg, Otis 0., 111 (I)
Wright, Mrs. Edward (I)
Wright, Dr. Jack L. (1)
Wright, Dr. Sheffel H. (I)
Wulf, Karlinne (1)
Wunderlich, Paul B. (F)
Wylie, Bernadine H. (I)
Wynne, Deena (I)
Wynne, Mr. & Mrs. James R.
(D)
Wytrwal, Veronica (I)

Yarborough, Joan (I)
Yates, Elizabeth J. (1)
Yelen, Bruce (F)
Young, Mary E. (Sc)
Young, Montgomery L. (I)

Zapata, Mr. & Mrs. Albert (F)
Zarzecki, Stephen (I)
Zaydon, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas
(F)
Zdon, Joseph Paul J. (1)
Zeder, Mr. & Mrs. Jon W.
(F)
Zeller, Mrs. Leila (I)
Zimmerman, Mr. & Mrs. Louis
(F)
Zwerner, Mrs. Carl (Sc)
Zwibel, Dr. & Mrs. Howard
(Fw)
Zyscovich, Bernard, AIA (F)




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