v i ei t.L, :THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
e S ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Editor: Charlton W. Tebeau
NUMBER XXXII 1972
The Development of the Major Commercial Airlines
in Dade County, Florida: 1945-1970 3
By Aurora E. Davis
Federal and State Relations with the Florida Seminoles,
By James W. Covington
Labor Problems of the Florida East Coast Railway Extension
From Homestead to Key West, 1905-1907 28
By Henry S. Marks
Mystery of the New Atlantis 34
By Bruce W. Ball
Life on the Loxahatchee 38
By Dora Doster Utz
Sailing in South Florida Waters in the Early 1880s,
Part II 58
Edited by John F. Reiger
List of Members
Officers and Directors
COPYRIGHT 1972 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
'e7 tfitA:' is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida.
I Communications should be addressed to the Corresponding Secretary
of the Society, 3290 South Miami Avenue, Miami, Florida 33129. The Association does
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or opinions made by contributors.
This Page Blank in Original
The Development of
the Major Commercial Airlines in
Dade County, Florida: 1945-1970
By AURORA E. DAVIS*
The prosperity of Dade County is built in a large measure around
tourism. In fact, tourism is Greater Miami's largest single source of in-
come, as it contributed, by 1970, over 2.1 billion dollars a year to the
area's economy. As one of the delivery and departure vehicles for tourists,
air transportation, and particularly the commercial aviation industry, as-
sumes a position of paramount importance carrying an estimated 60 to
65 per cent of tourists to South Florida. In addition, air transportation
has become since World War II a dominant stimulant to the area's eco-
nomic expansion. The industry's development and growth have helped
provide the stable base for sharp rises in tourism, aviation-oriented enter-
prises, and other institutional growth.
This study of the development and consequent effect of air transpor-
tation on the economy of Dade County and the South Florida area, because
of the enormous extent of the subject, is limited to the commercial aviation
industry. In particular, it will focus upon the four major airlines serving
Miami: Pan American World Airways; Eastern Airlines; National Airlines;
and Delta Air Lines. There are other large domestic and international
carriers serving Miami, but none have had the local impact of what this
author calls "Miami's big four."'
The aviation history of Dade County can be said to have begun in
1911 when Howard Gill brought a Wright brothers aircraft to Miami. The
appearance of this aircraft in July and subsequent favorable reaction on
the part of local officials, augured a most beneficial relationship between
*This paper is based upon a Master of Arts thesis in history written in 1972 at the Uni-
versity of Miami.
'This designation of "Miami's big four" is not to be confused with the four largest
domestic trunk carriers (American, Eastern, TWA, and United) the so-called "big four."
aviation and Miami. Aviation development was temporarily interrupted
by the outbreak of World War I. The end of the war marked the beginning
of commercial airline development throughout the world. As the commer-
cial aviation industry began to grow in the United States, a number of
attempts at commercial operation of scheduled lines were made in the
South Florida area.
Initial operations met with limited success, however, and effective
service had to wait for Congressional action to establish a solid foundation
for the commercial aviation industry. The passage of the Air Mail Act of
1925 and the Air Commerce Act of 1926 marked the beginning of the
present aviation system.2 With the authority to award contracts under
competitive bidding in late 1927 the Post Office Department established
an air route between Atlanta and Miami via Jacksonville. This route opened
the way for Miami to become a great aviation center, for it connected
Miami with the population centers of the north and other routes, at the
same time linking Latin America with the United States by air.
In 1927 an airline was founded which was to become one of the
largest and most influential airlines in the world-Pan American Airways.
In the summer of that year, the airline bid on and was soon awarded a
contract for the carriage of mail from Key West, Florida to Havana, Cuba
-the first contract awarded to any United States air transport company
for the carriage of mail to a foreign country. With the hope of further
contracts, the airline moved its terminal to Miami to gain better rail con-
nections and subsequently it undertook the carrying of passengers.
Pan American continued to expand its routes. As it was necessary
to use flying boat equipment, because of the lack of airfields and practical
long-range, land-based aircraft, the growing company established a sea-
plane base in Coconut Grove, a suburb of Miami. The base (Dinner Key)
soon became a popular local tourist attraction and in 1938, Dinner Key's
peak year, it was often necessary to have over twenty policemen on hand
to take care of the 25,000 visitors a month. That year over 50,000 passen-
gers flowed through the airport, which made Miami one of the leading
American cities as a port of entry for foreign air travelers.3
This pioneering spirit of Pan American was not an isolated experience.
From the early days of aviation in southern Florida, Eastern Airlines has
been a leading force in the industry. Miami's initial air link to cities in
other states was forged on December 1, 1928, when Eastern, then known
243 Stat. 805 (1925), 39 U.S.C. sec. 461 (1940); 44 Stat. 568 (1926), 49 US.C. sec.
3The Miami Herald, June 27, 1939; The Miami News, October 17, 1937; Grover Theis,
ed., Miami Port and Airport Book, July, 1939.
AURORA E. DAVIS
as Pitcairn Aviation, inaugurated the first air service between Miami and
the north.4 During the initial years of operations Eastern concentrated
almost exclusively on mail service. Air passenger service developed later
and more slowly.
Eastern began passenger service in 1930; however, service advanced
slowly during the depression years. Then, starting in 1935, air passenger
service entered a period of rapid expansion enhanced by the introduction
of improved equipment. Eastern continued to grow, acquiring new routes
and facilities. The Miami base expanded, relocating (from Atlanta) the
communications and purchasing departments, as well as a number of
executive offices. By 1940 the airline had 1,000 employees, 447 of whom
were in Miami. Routes totalled 5,300 miles.5
National Airlines, while small compared with Eastern or Pan Am-
erican, has held key routes since its inception in 1934. In July, 1937,
National obtained authorization to operate scheduled flights over a route
extension from St. Petersburg to Miami, via Sarasota and Fort Myers. By
1938 National had extended its routes, connecting Florida with Gulf Coast
cities. Increased competition (especially from Eastern) gave the impetus
for the addition in 1940 of the fourteen-passenger Lockheed Lodestars,
sacrificing seating capacity for speed and performance reliability.6 There-
fore, by World War II, despite fierce competition, National continued to
grow into a viable regional carrier.
Although the company operated flights outside Florida, Delta Air
Lines started in Florida in 1934 with crop dusting operations for the citrus
industry. Delta's commercial operations did not actively participate in
Miami's aviation growth until World War II when, under government
contract, it ferried cargo to the Miami terminal from other parts of the
The 1930s were a time of rapid expansion for the airlines, especially
in the southeastern part of Florida. Expansion of air facilities and routes
and the added factor of shortening flying time between the population
centers and southern Florida resulted in the beginnings and foundation of
commercial aviation as an integral part of Dade County's economy. With
the advent of World War II and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
peacetime activities were curtailed and the airline employees in the Greater
Miami area joined in the defense effort of the United States.
4The Miami Herald, December 1-3, 1928.
5Eastern Airlines, "Statistics for Miami, Florida" (Mimeographed.); Eastern Airlines,
"Eastern's Miami-based Employees." (Mimeographed.)
SLeonard Brigman, ed., Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1941 (New York: Macmillan,
1942), pp. 186c-187c; for DC-3 statistical comparison see, Ibid., pp. 161c-162c.
Although the tourist industry practically ceased to exist because of
governmental restrictions during the war, thousands of servicemen were
trained in, or passed through, Miami and other parts of Florida. The
Greater Miami area emerged from the war known to many who would
otherwise never have visited south Florida. More and more, the airplane
connected Miami with the rest of the country, and with advancements in
equipment, travel time was shortened and comforts increased. It was
thereafter in a strategic position as not only a major tourist resort, but
also as the gateway to Latin America and the world.
I. AN ERA OF DEVELOPMENT: 1946-1962
The commercial aviation industry played a significant role in the
conduct of the Allied powers in World War II. The airlines demonstrated
for the first time what an invaluable aid a peacetime air fleet can be to
national defense. With the end of the war, the airlines returned to increasing
civilian traffic, both passenger and cargo. Since the war, airlines have ex-
panded routes and added ground facilities to serve an increasingly air-
minded public. Within a few years airlines established new records in the
volume of traffic handled both in the domestic and international areas.
In a relatively brief period the airlines became an essential part of the
transportation system and continue to represent a substantial addition to
the industrial community of the United States.
Pan American Airways, more deeply involved in the war effort,
especially in Miami, than any other airline, nonetheless quickly converted
back to peaceful pursuits. Among the many "firsts" of Pan American was
a program of low-cost tourist-class air travel. Pan American, the first to
provide such regularly scheduled service, brought air travel within the
reach of the "average" person. This service, initially offered between New
York and San Juan in 1948, proved so successful that it was soon extended
over the system throughout the Caribbean and South America.7
The airline's immediate post-war flight equipment program was an
important factor in the reconversion of the nation's aircraft manufacturing
industry. First to use the DC-4 aircraft, the airline soon added Lockheed
Constellations and the eighty passenger Boeing Stratocruisers to speed its
service. As the decade of the 1950s advanced, larger four-engine craft,
such as the DC-6B and DC-7C, were purchased.
The year 1955 was Pan American's best to that date. Total operating
revenues reached $238,100,000 up from $218,900,000 the year before.
Reflecting system-wide growth, Pan American's Latin American Division
7Pan American World Airways, Annual Report, 1950; see also Annual Report, 1951.
AURORA E. DAVIS
carried 1,045,131 passengers in 1955-the first time the Division had
reached the million mark. Moreover, passenger miles flown by the Division
totalled 963,065,000 compared with 837,692,000 in 1954.8
Steadily outgrowing its facilities, Pan American had been forced to
scatter its operations all over the Miami airport complex. Finally, in 1960,
the airline had to make a decision whether to centralize its operations in
New York, or work out an integrated overhaul base in Miami. In time,
the company decided to keep a portion of its operations in Miami. With
this decision, Pan American inaugurated improvements which amounted
to a 6.2 million dollar expansion program.
Meanwhile, Eastern Airlines returned to civilian activities in a big
way when in 1947 it more than tripled the size of its Miami facilities. A
new 40,000 square foot hangar was completed as well as a five million
dollar line maintenance building. Among the principal route awards were
Tampa and Miami in 1944 and the lucrative Miami to San Juan segment
in 1946. Eastern was also able to extend its routes by the operation of
interchange services with Braniff Airways. After the war Eastern also
rapidly expanded its fleet. In addition to DC-4 and Lockheed Constellation
equipment, to accommodate the ever increasing traffic demands of the
early 1950s, additional Super Constellations and Martin 404s were pur-
chased-nearly doubling Eastern's fleet.
Post-war traffic increases are clearly shown by the activities of the
largest airline in Florida. From 1944 through 1954 Eastern carried over
seven million passengers to and from Florida. Significantly, between 1951
and 1954 the airline nearly doubled the number of passengers over the
same routes. Moreover, in 1954 alone, almost two million passengers were
served through Eastern's Miami terminal.9 Although the largest airline
in Florida and the State's largest industrial employer by 1955, and on
its way to its zenith, Eastern was at the same time plagued by poor service,
mediocre management, and equipment problems.
For the first time since the uncertain days of the early 1930s, Eastern
failed to make a profit in 1960. The deficit was even greater in 1961. This
situation was complicated by personnel problems and attitude which affect-
ed customer relations. A contributing factor was the lack of personnel,
particularly in the vital customer-oriented services, vis-a-vis the extent
of operations, aircraft, and passenger volume. Moreover, "big gamble"
decisions on the part of management, particularly concerning equipment
8Pan American World Airways, Annual Report, 1955.
9Eastern Airlines, (pam) "Eastern Airlines: 1954 Another Year of Progress for Florida
and Eastern Airlines"; Eastern Airlines, (pam) "1955: Year of Accomplishment for
Florida and Eastern Airlines."
purchase, seemingly worked out to the detriment of Eastern. Although a
series of strikes by flight engineers confused the problem, the biggest factor
in the sagging fortunes of the airline reflected fundamental equipment
The equipment problem resulted from difficulties with the turbo-prop
Lockheed Electra, as well as the vexing problem of insufficient pure jet
capacity. Tragic crashes, speed problems, and subsequent adverse passen-
ger reaction compounded the difficulties. Eastern's competitive position
grew worse with the delay of jet equipment and the strong reliance on
the Electras. Eastern experienced another heavy loss in 1962 which was,
in part, due to a strike during the summer of that year.10 The company's
downturn was not reversed until there was a complete shakeup in the
management structure in 1963.
National Airlines was transferred from a regional carrier to a major
trunkline in February 1944 when the Civil Aeronautics Board awarded
it the highly-coveted route from Jacksonville to New York. This award
put National in the lucrative New York-Miami market, one of the most
heavily traveled routes in the United States and up to that time serviced
by only one carrier. After the war, National moved its general offices and
maintenance base from Jacksonville to Miami. Its administrative office
was located in the Aviation Building on N.W. 27th Avenue, and its main-
tenance base was located across LeJeune Road from the airport complex.'"
National's existence, however, was threatened in the late 1940s.
After a long and costly pilots' strike the Civil Aeronautics Board instituted
an investigation in September 1948, to determine if the company's routes
should be parcelled out to other carriers.12 In particular, in 1948, National
was in a precarious financial position as a result of a decline in revenue
passenger mileage and consequent decline in load factor. During the two
years following the institution of the proceedings the airline witnessed a
reversal in fortunes, recapturing much lost traffic. The so-called "dismem-
berment" proceedings were finally dropped in 1951 and National there-
upon, in a major display of aggressiveness, launched a vigorous sales and
Another dimension of service was the interchange operation. In time
National became America's largest interchange operator. For example,
IoThe importance of the airlines to the economic health of Greater Miami was dramatized
in 1962 when Eastern closed down because of a strike of flight engineers. Begun in the
summer of that year, the conflict was finally settled in the fall; however, only stage-by-
stage restoration of service was put into effect. Not until December were operations
restored to a normal schedule.
I The Miami Herald, March 24, 1946.
12U.S., Civil Aeronautics Board, National Airlines, Inc., Route Investigation, Docket No.
3500 et al, Decisions of the Civil Aeronautics Board (subsequently C.A.B. Reports),
March 16, 1951, Vol. XII, pp. 798-808.
A URORA E. DAVIS
an.interchange agreement between National, Delta, and American brought
same-plane service from Miami to California via New Orleans, Dallas,
Ft. Worth, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. The early years of the decade
also witnessed a massive expansion program to enlarge and modernize
the fleet of aircraft and to construct maintenance, sales, and administration
facilities. The program called for the purchase of a fleet of turbo-prop
and jet aircraft as well as additional propeller types. The ground expansion
program included the construction of a new office building and larger
maintenance facilities in Miami.3
Arriving late on the Greater Miami aviation scene, Delta Air Lines,
nevertheless, has continued to hold an important place in the economy
of Dade County. The Miami station started out modestly with a comple-
ment of thirty-six employees, including pilots. The Atlanta-headquartered
airline inaugurated its Miami service on December 1, 1945, flying twenty-
one passenger DC-3 equipment on two round trips daily between Chicago
and Miami via Jacksonville with numerous intermediate points.'4 Five
months after the Miami service opened, the company brought down 175
employees to establish a new maintenance base. Flight crews, along with
mechanics, were among the personnel to be sent to Miami.
Miami has figured in a number of Delta's route extensions thereby
linking the southeastern part of the state with the industrial center of the
nation. For example, soon after the war, routes expanded to Knoxville and
Cincinnati. The 1950s were good years and Delta gradually expanded
in all directions to form a system serving more than seventy cities in the
United States as well as points in Central and South America. Among
Delta's most important route additions during this time was inclusion of
Indianapolis, Louisville, and several additional Florida cities on the com-
pany's Chicago to Miami route.
Like National, Delta had a strong interchange network. In 1960, a
Delta-American jet interchange flight began between Atlanta and Los
Angeles thus providing another link to the west coast for southeast Florida.
However, all these agreements ended when Delta inaugurated direct west
coast service in 1961. By the provisions of the Transcontinental Case,
the Civil Aeronautics Board awarded the airline the right to fly from
Dallas/Ft. Worth to Los Angeles and San Francisco. Despite certain re-
strictions regarding schedules, the Board estimated that full implementa-
tion of these extensions could add approximately thirty million dollars in
S3National Airlines, Annual Report, 1955.
14The Miami Herald, December 1, 2, 1945.
15C.A.B. Reports, Southern Transcontinental Service Case, Docket No. 7984 et al, Vol.
XXXIII, March 13, 1961, pp. 701-964; Ibid., Southern Transcontinental Service Case,
Docket No. 7984, et al, Vol. XXXIV, pp. 487-499.
Thus, the growth of air travel between the end of World War II and
the advent of the jet age was, despite temporary recessions, spectacular.
Consequently, Miami grew to a place of dominance in the aviation industry
and the commercial industry became the backbone of southern Florida's
tourist industry as the vehicle of delivery and departure. By the end of
the 1950s tourists made up 75 per cent of the total passengers through
Miami International Airport. Moreover, between 1955 and 1960 Miami's
aviation industry activity grew approximately 60 per cent.
During this period the airlines serving Miami increased their work force
considerably. As the jet age started, Miami's big four employed over
15,000 workers in Dade County, which accounted for an annual payroll
of approximately 75 million dollars, and made the four airlines the largest
single-type industrial employer in the area.16 Eastern Airlines, which em-
ployed over 7,000 in Miami by 1960, was the largest single employer
in the county.
Passenger and employment increase was accompanied by a sharp
rise in equipment purchases. The decade of the 1950s was a period of
uncertainty for domestic as well as international carriers regarding the
purchase of jet equipment. The advent of United States-made jet equip-
ment ushered in another era of equipment expansion. As of 1961 more
than 250 pure-jet aircraft were in service costing approximately five million
dollars each. In addition to financing purchase of the aircraft themselves,
the industry had to invest large sums in new service equipment.
Airline officials looked to a rise in passenger traffic to offset the cost
of the jet expansion program. However, this increase in passenger traffic
did not materialize as the initial years of jet operation brought a sharp
reversal in the nearly ten per cent rise in traffic in the ten year period,
1946-1956. Domestic traffic in 1960, for example, barely rose above the
1959 level. This development, coupled with heavy investment in jet equip-
ment, produced declining profits and in some cases, deficits.
Airline officials blamed a large part of the financial troubles on the
introduction of jet aircraft; however, in reality by the 1960s the airlines
had little choice but to invest in prop-jet and pure-jet equipment. With
the experimental stage complete and the reliability of the jet demonstrated,
it was obvious that this equipment would capture the bulk of the air passen-
ger market. Any airline not keeping pace with new technological advances
thereafter would soon face an economic crisis.
16Dade County Port Authority, Annual Report, 1960.
AURORA E. DAVIS
II. AN ERA OF EXPANSION AND CHALLENGE: 1963-1970
The proven ability of the jet equipment, the implementation of new
promotional fares, and the resulting increase in passenger traffic, all com-
bined to lift the airline industry to profitable years in the middle and
late 1960s. The pioneer and still predominant airlines serving Greater
Miami participated in the expansion and the consequent profits of the
For the most part, the 1960s were good years for Pan American
World Airways. Its Latin American service continued to expand. How-
ever, uncertainty arose concerning further base expansion in Miami. In
the early years of the decade airline officials agreed on centralization of
the vast company's operations in New York. Accordingly, area divisions
such as San Francisco and Miami were gradually cut back, in functions
as well as employees, although Miami retained part of the airframe and
The Miami base was not so fortunate in 1968. In the first month
of that year the company bypassed Miami in favor of Los Angeles for
the biggest construction program in its history-a sixty million dollar main-
tenance base that eventually would employ 10,000 workers.17 Airline
officials singled out those who had temporarily blocked an expansion bond
issue to expand airport facilities for National Airlines as one of the reasons
for choosing the relative stability of Los Angeles over an uncertain Miami.
In the fall of 1968, a similar situation arose concerning a proposed train-
ing complex. In addition, in 1969, Pan American decided to take its Boeing
747 training program to New Mexico instead of Miami, in part due to
economic concessions made by the city of Roswell, as well as the factor
of uncertainty over the future of the Dade-Collier jetport.
Although considered one of the most profitable airlines throughout
the decade of the 1960s, Pan American has entered upon a critical era.
Faced with increasing competition both from domestic and foreign rivals,
and from the dearth of domestic routes, Pan American suffered its first
loss (25.8 million dollars net) in 1969. This loss, plus an uncertain future,
has affected all aspects of Pan American's operations. For example, the
Los Angeles overhaul base, as of 1970, had not been built.
More than 1,000 Miami-based employees have been laid off since
the beginning of 1970 and further cuts are expected. President Najeeb
Halaby (President 1968-1971-; succeeded by William T. Seawell) cited
higher labor costs and simply "too many airlines" as the main reasons
17The Miami Herald, January 18, 1968.
for the sagging financial posture. Halaby concluded that the long-range
profit position can be enhanced by government action that would permit
the airline to have "fair and equal access to the American market by means
of route awards or acquisition or merger with other carriers.""
Eastern Airlines, one of the airlines most affected by the 1962 re-
cession, combined with plaguing strike troubles, rebounded sharply in
1964. In late 1963, a new President, Floyd Hall, was appointed and with
a new line-up of executives succeeded in turning the airline around. For
example, 1965 reported the first profitable year since 1959. In an attempt
to correct the out-of-balance employee-operation ratio, total personnel
systemwide increased from 19,848 to 22,314. In like manner, Miami-based
totals increased from 5,945 in 1962 to 8,180 in 1965.19
Eastern recovered from the "meager" early years of the 1960s with
ground as well as aircraft and personnel expansion. In 1963 Eastern com-
pleted a twenty-one million dollar jet maintenance complex at the 26th
Street site. More activity has been evident in recent years with the con-
struction of an executive building and an accompanying data service
building and reservations center. In 1968 a building for the training of
flight crews, maintenance, and customer service personnel was completed.
Anticipating the era of the jumbo jet, Eastern has plans for a ten-story
hangar complex designed to provide room for overhauling the fifty Lock-
heed L-1011 Tristar jetliners ordered.
The L-1011, powered by Rolls-Royce engines, is the wide-bodied trijet
Eastern has planned as its major aircraft for the long-range, higher-density
routes in the 1970s. However, by the end of 1970, delays in the L-1011
program affected the introduction of the aircraft, originally scheduled for
late 1972. The ultimate decision regarding this equipment situation will
not only affect Eastern's competitive position but also the proposed trijet
complex in Miami.
In 1970, an Eastern aircraft either lands or takes off from Miami
International Airport on an average of every seven minutes. While forty-
three of over 200 flights serve the Miami-New York market, Eastern also
connects the southern Florida market with practically every major city
in Florida, the United States, Caribbean, and the Bahamas with non-stop
jet service. Of the ten million people who visited the Miami area in 1969,
the domestic and international airlines carried more than one-half, or 5.3
I Pan American World Airways, Annual Report, 1970.
i Eastern Airlines, Annual Reports, 1964, 1965; Eastern Airlines, "Number of Eastern's
AURORA E. DAVIS
million. Of these, Eastern carried nearly half of all the domestic airline
traffic to Miami, or over 1.8 million people.20
National Airlines became a cross-country in 1961 with the award
of the southern transcontinental route between Florida and California.
The early years of the decade also saw a change in the management struc-
ture. At the annual meeting in November, 1961, George Baker, founder
of the airline, resigned as president. Subsequently, L. B. Maytag, Jr., who
resigned as president of Frontier Airlines, purchased Baker's interest in
National and in 1962 was elected president and chief executive officer.
Maytag and his management team instituted changes similar in nature
to those taking place at Eastern, with particular emphasis on fleet expan-
sion. The first jet powered airline, the carrier doubled its jet fleet by
fiscal year 1967-1968. By the end of the decade National ordered nine
McDonnell Douglas wide-bodied DC-10s and optioned eight more for a
total price of approximately 280 million dollars. Delivery of the three-
engine jets began in November 1971, and will continue through December
National began planning for the introduction of the jumbo jets with
a thirty-four million dollar expansion program in 1967.21 The facilities
to be constructed consist of a new aircraft maintenance apron, a new air-
craft hangar, and administrative buildings. However, a Dade County Port
Authority bond issue to finance the base was fought by critics all the way
to the Florida Supreme Court. The opposition claimed such public finan-
cing of private facilities was not in the public interest. The Supreme Court
of Florida upheld the bond issue.22
Miami's first direct service to Europe via a United States carrier was
authorized by the Civil Aeronautics Board in its decision in 1969 when
it approved a request by National for direct service between Miami and
London.2" Many airline officials predicted the award would mean a "bo-
nanza" for Miami. The inaugural flight had to be delayed because of a
strike by ticket agents and clerical personnel. This strike, lasting over four
months, put over 4,000 Miami-based employees out of work, complicating
the already worsening economic picture in 1970. The strike was finally
settled in May, 1970, and Miami-London service began shortly thereafter.
Throughout the remainder of the year emphasis was placed on being
o2Easter Airlines, "Miami Community Report: 1970" (Mimeographed.)
2lThe Miami Herald, August 16, 1968, May 29, 1969, October 15, 1969; The Miami News,
August 15, 1968, June 12, 1969.
2 For a more detailed discussion see Aurora Davis, "The Economic Development of the
Major Commercial Airlines and Ancillary Industries in Dade County, Florida: 1945-
1970," (unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Miami, 1972). pp. 90-94.
2zNational Airlines, Annual Report, 1969.
first in the New York-Miami market and improvement of service generally.
With the resumption of flight schedules came the difficult task of rebuilding
traffic to normal levels, a task made difficult by the already trouble-ridden
calendar year in which traffic growth for the industry in general slowed
The late 1960s saw the extension of Delta's already strong route
system culminating with service in 1969 between San Francisco and Miami,
and Houston and Miami. In response to the increasing flight schedules,
the number of Miami-based pilots increased to 203. In addition, thirty-two
more reservation employees were added to accommodate the introduction
of Boeing 747 service in December 1970. As of the end of the calendar
year,. Delta's employee contingent numbered 1,331, and the station's an-
nual payroll was in excess of fifteen million dollars. Facility improvements
announced in 1970 include a fifty-four million dollar, eight-year project
at Miami International Airport, a move to accommodate the new jumbo
In addition to the extensions in cross-country service, Delta was the
recipient in the North Carolina Points Service Case, of authorization to
provide new service between Charlotte and intermediate stops in North
Carolina and Miami. The softening in traffic growth among the airlines
in general did not substantially affect Delta until late in the calendar year
1970. This situation was in part due to the extended strike against National.
However, with a strong route network, Delta, nevertheless, improved its
market share throughout the year. Net earnings for the year were 44.5
million dollars, approximately 14 per cent above fiscal 1969.25
As indicated, the 1960s were years of expansion for the major air-
lines serving the Greater Miami area. Strengthening of route networks,
aircraft expansion, and facility improvements were all characteristic of this
growth. Moreover, the ninety-five air carriers serving Miami employed
more than 25,000 south Florida people by the end of 1970. In addition
to the people directly employed by the airlines, an additional 60,000 jobs
are dependent on or closely related to the airline industry.26
By the end of the decade, however, widespread concern was expressed
over the economic crisis facing the airline industry. Underlying the eco-
nomic troubles was the spread of inflation and the general business decline.
While the nation's economic slowdown reduced passenger growth, inflation
24The Miami News, April 22, 1969, December 16, 1969, April 23, 1970, July 1. 1970.
November 12, 1970; The Miami Herald, November 13, 1970.
25Delta Air Lines, Annual Report, 1970.
261n short, approximately one of every four jobs in the Greater Miami area is related to
the airline industry.
AURORA E. DAVIS
increased the cost of airline operation. In 1969, Pan American, for ex-
ample, reported total operating expenses per available ton-mile increased
from 17.30 in 1968 to 19.10 in 1969, and cash operating expenses went
from 15.40 to 17.20.27
In addition, deliveries of new aircraft during 1970 eliminated or at
least lowered profit margins for the airline industry. Like the previous
"crisis" in the early 1960s, concern is widespread over the prospects of
recovery. Many industry observers feel that the situation is forcing airlines
into mergers. Most serious discussions among the major trunk lines include
Northwest, Northeast, National, and Pan American World Airways.
Mergers may not solve the problem completely. Soon the airlines
will again face another aircraft expansion and purchase-the supersonic
transport. Despite the advantage of lower operating expenses, the equip-
ment represents a large investment. Unless the precarious financial position
of many airlines improves by the time of the introduction of the supersonic
aircraft, another "crisis" may appear. Like the early 1960s situation,
however, the airline which does not acquire the improved equipment may
face an even more uncertain future.
The years 1945 to 1970 witnessed the developing and maturing of
the commercial aviation industry in Dade County. Much of the develop-
ment of South Florida and the Greater Miami area has been due to con-
stant changes and improvements in the air transportation methods over
the past quarter century. Initial expansion of commercial air facilities,
routes, passenger comfort and improved aeronautical technology during
the early years of the century placed aviation within the economic structure
of Dade County. The activities of two of the four major airlines established
the foundation of the commercial aviation industry in the area.
During World War II over half the commercial aircraft were engaged
in contractual work for the United States government and Miami was
transformed into a training base and departure point for the war zones.
Consequently, thousands of military personnel and government officials
came in contact with the attractions of the south Florida area. Direct ex-
posure, with the improvement of air travel, accelerated the growth and
development of aviation.
The increased popularity of air travel and the emergence of Dade
County as a year-round resort area paralleled the expansion of the Miami
airport complex. In addition, air transportation has become since World
27Pan American World Airways, Annual Report, 1969.
War II a dominant stimulant to the area's economic expansion. In and
around Miami International Airport flows a stream of passengers and
cargo traffic supplemented by a large auxiliary industry and aviation or-
iented employment has increased accordingly, from a few thousand Mi-
amians in 1946 to over 70,000 persons by 1970.
With the heavy emphasis on commercial aviation, therefore, it is a
fact that when airlines and aviation are in trouble, southern Florida is in
trouble and the Miami airlines have been hard hit in two major recessions
within ten years of each other. Despite temporary setbacks, commercial
aviation has been the dominant delivery and departure vehicle for Dade
County's single largest source of income-tourism. Traditionally the gate-
way to Latin America, Miami has broadened its horizon across both the
Atlantic and the Pacific. With its strategic geographical location, the south-
eastern part of Florida emerged over the last quarter century as the popular
"jumping off" point to any part of the United States, Latin America, and
Federal And State Relations
With The Florida Seminoles
By JAMES W. COVINGTON*
This account concerns the Seminole Indians of Florida who fought the
United States Army and Florida militia to a virtual standstill during the
Third Seminole War (1855-1858) and, after part of the tribe had agreed
to the favorable terms which were offered and migrated to Oklahoma, the
remaining Indians were allowed to stay in Florida. The terms of a very
favorable treaty plus the payment of considerable sums of money had in-
duced the band led by Billy Bowlegs to surrender but efforts to contact
the other bands were of no avail. Finally, the Federal authorities decided
to ignore the Indians, allowing them to stay in Florida without the benefit
of a treaty which would safeguard a reservation area. The granting of
asylum for the Seminoles in Southern Florida was not an extremely gener-
ous offer on the part of the White authorities, but it was just too much an
effort to capture all of the more or less one hundred Seminoles roaming
throughout the Everglades and Big Cypress Swamp. The presence of the
few Seminoles in Southern Florida did not disturb the settlers for they
believed the unexplored Everglades to be fit only for alligators, reptiles
and the Indians.' When railroads were extended near the area and some
of the land was drained, the value of the land increased and real estate
speculators and railroad companies began to purchase or claim much of
the area. Such actions posed a threat to the Indians for they did not have
any land they could call legally their own.
At the close of the Third Seminole War (1855-1858) the Seminoles
had been so scattered throughout Southern Florida that it took some time
for the bands to regroup and establish themselves within definite territorial
bounds. The band led by Chipco did a considerable amount of moving
about the Florida wilderness during this period. Chipco's band lived in
the cypress swamps north and east of Lake Okeechobee until 1866 when
it moved to the Kissimmee River Valley. The band moved again in 1872-
1873 to Catfish Lake (Lake Pierce) located northeast of Lake Wales in
Polk County, but migrated from there in 1885 to Lake Rosalie.2
*Dr. Covington is a Professor of History at the University of Tampa.
iFort Myers Weekly Press, September 25, 1890.
2See article by Albert DeVane in "Pioneer Florida," Tampa Tribune, July 15, 1956, and
Tampa Tribune, April 2, 1950. Chipco died in 1884, but his nephew Tallabassee had
assumed his place as leader in 1877-1880 period.
During the post-war period of consolidation and migration some con-
tacts were made with the neighboring settlements of Kissimmee, Bartow,
Fort Ogden, Fort Meade, Tampa and Fort Myers to trade and to sell skins
and feathers.3 One example of such traffic took place in 1889 when three
male Seminoles carried a load of alligator skins by canoe from the shores
of Lake Okeechobee along the Caloosahatchee River to Fort Myers where
Charley Tommy sold 84 skins, Billy Motley 75 skins and Tommy 88 skins
at Blount and Company.4
In 1879 Lieutenant Robert H. Pratt was requested by the Acting
Commissioner of Indian Affairs to make an investigation concerning the
state of the Seminole Indians in Florida and to see if they could be per-
suaded to move to Oklahoma.5 During June and July, 1879, Pratt visited
Fort Meade, Chipco's village and Fort Myers but, with the exception of
Chipco and his people, was unable to make satisfactory contacts with the
other Indians. A break-down of the several bands included the following
Chipco (near Fort Clinch) 26
Tustenuggee (near Fort Center) 90
Old Tiger Tail (near Fort Shackleford) 80
Young Tiger Tail (near Miami) 20
Possible oversight 20
Pratt believed that removal to Oklahoma would be best for the Indians
but since they could not be induced to make such a move, it would be
best to establish a boarding school for the Seminoles and to encourage
them to follow agricultural and stock raising pursuits.7
Pratt has been called the "Moses of Indian education" for it was he
who realized that there was a great desire on the part of young Indians to
adjust to the White man's way of life. From 1875-1879 seventy-two Chey-
enne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche and Caddo warriors were placed in
captivity at Fort Marion, Saint Augustine, Florida. The man who was in
charge of the prisoners lodged in the old Spanish fort was Lieutenant
Pratt who hoped to transform the savage warriors into young men who
3Mr. D. B. McKay, the pioneer historian, mayor and newspaper editor, recalled the visits
of Tallahassee to Tampa.
4Fort Myers Weekly Press, November 14, 1889.
sCommissioner E. J. Brooks to Pratt, June 9, 1879, in William C. Sturtevant presented
and annotated, "R. H. Pratt's Report on the Seminole in 1879," Florida Anthropologist
IX (March, 1956), 3-4.
JAMES W COVINGTON
could enter the White man's world. In line with his philosophy, teachers
were hired to teach English and the prisoners were encouraged to develop
any usable skills.8 Within a short time some substantial progress had been
achieved so much that Pratt was encouraged to establish at a later date
Carlisle Institute a boarding school for Indians located in Pennsylvania.
The transformation of the Western tribesmen from nomadic savages
to civilized persons caused some Florida people who had contact with the
Saint Augustine experiment or who were interested in Indian education
to think that the Seminoles might benefit from such an experience. L. B.
Darrell who operated the Cookman Institute at Jacksonville suggested to
the Indian Bureau that some Seminoles could engage in learning mechan-
ical arts or agriculture at his institution.9 The suggestion received serious
consideration at Washington until it was ascertained that the Eastern
Seminoles had no rights as specified in treaties and, in addition, Cookman
Institute was neither an agriculture nor industrial school.10 Henry Car-
uthers, M.D., had observed the work of Pratt at Saint Augustine and had
been so impressed that one Kiowa was invited to stay at his home and he
followed the progress of the young man with great interest when he re-
turned to Oklahoma. Mrs. Caruthers had taught a class for two years at
the fort and was certain that such a school would be very beneficial to
the Seminoles." When nothing tangible developed from his letter, Car-
uthers offered to take ten or twelve Seminoles to his summer home on
the Hudson River at no expense to the Government and educate them.
Once again no action at all was taken regarding Caruther's suggestion.12
In order to base a Federal decision concerning the Seminoles upon
reliable evidence, Clay MacCauley was requested to visit Florida in 1881
and as a result was able to determine enough facts to write what could
become a classic account of Seminole life. MacCauley ascertained that the
Florida Seminoles were composed of thirty-seven extended families living
in twenty-two camps grouped roughly in five distinct areas The Big
Cypress Swamp, Miami River, Fish-eating Creek, Cow Creek and Catfish
Lake.'1 He discovered, as so many Federal investigators were to do, that
the Indians did not want to leave Florida or have anything to do with the
SE. Adamson Hoebel and Karen Daniels Petersen, commentary A Cheyenne Sketchbook
by Coboe (Norman, 1964), 7.
9L. D. Darrell to Commissioner Hiram Price, September 16, 1882, 16908-82, Letters Re-
ceived, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75,
National Archives, Washington, D.C., hereafter cited as BIA.
loSecretary of Interior Teller to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, September 16, 1882,
I ICaruthers to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, October 24, 1882, 6764-82 BIA.
I2Caruthers to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 10, 1883, 5011-83 BIA.
13Clay MacCauley "The Seminole Indians of Florida," Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau
of Ethnology (Washington, 1887), 447-78. MacCauley's figures are considered more
reliable than those estimated by Pratt.
White man. As a consequence of MacCauley's report, any talk of moving
the Seminoles to Oklahoma was forgotten and Congress began appropria-
ting the annual sum of $6,000 to purchase homestead tracts of land for
In December, 1884, Special Agent Cyrus Beede was ordered by the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs to determine the number of Seminoles
who would be willing to take a homestead tract and become "farmers."
Beede was able to interview a few of the Indians representing Seminoles
living at Big Cypress, the Miami River and Lake Rosalie, but found a
great reluctance on their part to have anything at all to do with the White
man.'5 In addition, he discovered that it was difficult to secure suitable
vacant land for the agents of the State of Florida were continually making
selections under provisions of the Swamp and Overflowed Land Act.'6
Tallahassee, who had succeeded Chipco as leader of one band, had con-
sented to take homestead land and three Seminoles went with Beede to
file a claim for land. When Beede was able to reach a telegraph office he
found that the desired land had been taken by other parties. Beede recom-
mended to the Commissioner that the United States Government purchase
for Tallahassee and his band of twenty persons the land on which they
had resided for some time.
At this time the majority of the Seminoles were certainly not interested
in settling on a homestead and becoming farmers in an unproductive area
which needed drainage, considerable fertilization, and excellent know how
of Florida agriculture. One visitor to a village near the Caloosahatehee
River described what he saw:
"The form of this camp was in a semi-circle fronting on a sluee" as
they call it, (we could call it a canal). This camp consisted of three
huts, built square and roofed in with palmetto fans, four upright
pineposts, planked in roughly-and the home was complete. The other
two shanties were simply covered with canvas stretched over four
straight oak poles.
When we arrived they were fixing their camp. One swarthy looking
Indian was busily engaged cutting a young pine in the requisite size
for a tent pole, another was digging the hole for the post with a large
butcher knife ... all the women go bare-headed and bare-footed and
wear their hair down their backs. Usually it grows thick and silky
and long. They raise magnificent hogs and their flesh is rich and good.
Their houses are about ten feet long by eight Wide and have a plat-
form running the length and breadth, about three feet from the
I Alfred Jackson Hanna and Kathryn Abbey Hanna, Lake Okeechobee: Wellspring of'the
Everglades (Indianapolis, 1948), 332; 23 United States Statutes at Large, 95.
s5Beede to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, April 6, 1885, 7652-85 BIA.
JAMES W. COVINGTON
ground, where the families eat, sleep and live . they live chiefly
by hunting and fishing both of which they excell in. The chief trade
with them is in March and April when the plume birds are in fine
condition. They travel from place to place in canoes about fifteen
feet long and three feet deep and one foot wide, made of solid tree
and propelled by paddles.
The staple food of the Indians is corn but they eat homing and pork
to a large extent as well as turkey and venison. Sugar cane is con-
sumed by them very largely in the camp and it is rarely that you see
the squaws without a piece between their teeth."17
The plume or feather trade was proving to be most profitable to the
Seminoles. In fashion with the times, women's hats decorated with the
white plumes or feathers of the American egret and snowy egret became
very popular throughout the United States and the egret rookeries in
Florida were a major source of supply.'8 With the settlement of areas to
the north, the Seminoles were pushed away from the Atlantic coast and
Polk County into more undesirable tracts further south or to the west.
Accordingly, their visits to Tampa and Bartow became less frequent and
enterprising businessmen established posts in the south where transactions
could be made. Such outposts included the store of George W. Storter, at
Everglades, Ted Smallwood's store at Chokoloskee, Bill Brown's store at
present day Immokalee and later at Boat Landing, Frank Stranahan at
Fort Lauderdale and the Girtman Brothers and William Brickell at Miami.
In addition to the plumes which sold for thirty-five cents and the alligator
skins which sold for fifty cents, the Seminoles traded sweet potatoes,
melons, chicken, deer hams, bananas and starch made from the koonti
The traders had developed a system which worked out very well to
the benefit of both themselves and the Indians. A sum from ten to twenty-
five dollars was advanced to each Indian so that he could purchase enough
supplies for a hunt. When he returned from the field, he was paid in cash
for the hides he had obtained and the Seminole hunter settled all or part
of the amount of money which was owed. The Indians knew the price of
hides and when they felt they were being taken advantage of, they went
to another store. They refused to accept shoddy merchandise and, as a
result, the Seminoles purchased only the best products which were avail-
able. When hunting was poor, some traders advanced credit from $350
to $800 to each Indian with his personal honor as security. Should an
t7Fort Myers Press, March 31, 1889.
tSMarjory Stoneman Douglas, The Everglades: River of Grass (New York, 1947), 278.
Indian who had substantial debts die, the trader marked the account closed
and made no effort to collect the money from his family.20
The visits to the towns and trading posts were not entirely beneficial
to the Seminoles. Often they obtained a sufficient supply of liquor to keep
them entirely drunk for some time and when they recovered, they worked
hard to get enough money for another visit and period of alcoholic dissipa-
tion. Of course, in accordance with their usual custom, one Seminole stayed
sober in order to protect the others. M. C. Osborn, a White who owned
a plantation at Kissimmee, was concerned about the liquor problem and
together with Chief Tallahassee was able to stop the sale of liquor to
Indians at Kissimmee. Consequently the Indians from this band by-passed
Kissimmee and traded at Bartow and Titusville where they were able to
obtain all of the liquor that they desired.21
In January, 1887, Mrs. Lily Pierpont of Winter Haven wrote to the
wife of President Grover Cleveland telling about the problems of the Sem-
inoles and, in consequence, she was appointed to a position which might
be called "Honorary Seminole Agent." In her letter to Mrs. Cleveland,
Mrs. Pierpont told about the visits of the Seminoles to Winter Haven and
a consequence of the settlement of the country would be the driving of
the Indians into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico.22 She related the
account of how a band of desperadoes was killing hogs and cattle belong-
ing to the Indians, but instead of resorting to warfare the Indians protested
these acts to the Mayor of Titusville. Mrs. Pierpont served for one year,
but little has been known concerning any lasting contributions or whether
she received any Federal funds at all."
Although since 1884 the United States Government had appropriated
the annual sum of $6,000 for the purpose of placing the Seminoles on
homestead tracts, little interest was expressed either by Federal represen-
tatives or the Seminoles in making use of that money and it reverted to
the Treasury. In 1887, E. M. Wilson, Special Agent appointed by the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs made two trips to Florida to determine
the readiness of the Seminoles to accept a homestead arrangement. Al-
though Wilson made a great effort to meet the leading Florida Indians in
his May and October visits, he encountered a great reluctance on the part
of the Indians to have anything to do with the White man. Wilson con-
cluded his report with the following observations:
z0Lorenzo D. Creel, Special Agent to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 20, 1911,
21M. C. Osborn to Daniel La Mont, December 24, 1886, BIA.
22Lily Pierpont to Mrs. Grover Cleveland, January 1, 1887, 1858-87, BIA.
23Hanna, Lake Okeechobee, 332.
JAMES W. COVINGTON
This was the most tedious, laborous and disagreeable trip that has
ever been my lot to make and I fear has not been very fruitful of
results. I talked with many Indians upon the subject of homesteads;
most of whom expressed a willingness to locate provided always that
other and older ones would do so themselves . I met two Miami
Indians who stated that if their people would secure the lands upon
which they live, they thought then there would be no trouble about
locating them. And I think according to the maps, their lands are
embraced in an unsurveyed territory in which case I presume there
would be no trouble because of the present proprietorship of the
In 1891, the Missionary Committee of the Women's National Indian
Association under the leadership of Mrs. Amelia S. Quinton from Phila-
delphia, Penn., purchased four hundred acres located some forty-five miles
southeast of Fort Myers for two thousand dollars with the objective of
dividing the land into small tracts: each with a home for one Indian family.
In March of 1891 Mrs. Quinton and two other women accompanied by
Francis A. Hendry visited one Indian village and several prospective sites
for the enterprise and selected one which was part of the William Allen
settlement25 The Women's National Indian Association, composed mostly
of Eastern women, had the policy of erecting chapels and missionary sta-
tions at the various reservation areas and presenting the going establish-
ments to one of the several denominations that carried on missionary work
among the Indians. The United States Government purchased eighty acres
of the tract and assigned Special Agent Chapin to a project which involved
the erection of necessary office and storage buildings, a school building
and living quarters. Although the site was situated twenty-five miles from
the nearest Indian camp and most supplies had to be hauled forty-five
miles from Fort Myers, the general location seemed to be suitable for the
During May of 1891 Doctor Jacob E. Brecht of Saint Louis, Missouri,
was appointed Seminole Agent by the Women's National Indian Assoc-
iation (WNIA) and he entered into a situation where conditions were
indeed most primitive and the Indians were friendly but untrusting. A
rough two room pine log house was erected to house the Women's
National Indian Association workers and Doctor Brecht and his wife,
but life in it was described as being "in greatest discomfort.""6 Six men
were hired to erect fences and buildings and to do farming which would
z4Wilson to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, November 3, 1887, 30447-87 BIA.
2SAnnual Report of Women's National Indian Association, 1891, 15. Although the Women's
National Indian Association had auxiliaries scattered throughout the Eastern part of
the United States, the Winter Park, Florida, Kentucky and Philadelphia auxiliaries made
special contributions to the Seminole mission.
26Mrs. Ouinton to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 21, 1892, 10792-92 BIA.
hopefully provide vegetables for the group but disaster struck when the
sawmill caught fire and suffered a complete loss. After this disaster, the
following buildings were erected: sawmill, granary, stable and living quar-
ters. In addition, enough lumber was cut to provide for a school building
and fencing about the place was provided. In the initial stage of contacts
with the Seminoles the missionaries found the Indians to be very reluctant
to hold any meetings with the Whites. The Seminoles would not accept
gifts of nails or shingles made at the sawmill or accept a fee for hauling
sawed wood to settlers. Although Mrs. Brecht opened a school for the
Indian children, the only ones who attended classes were the children of
nearby settlers.27 After the departure of the Special Agent, Brecht left the
employ of the missionary group and became Industrial Teacher for the
Office of Indian Affairs.28
Brecht realized that in order to win friends among the Seminoles he
had to provide some services which would be available at the agency.
Accordingly, a store was established in which groceries deemed useful
for the Indian diet were sold to the Indians at cost and dressed deer skins
were accepted as payment for the supplies. Some Whites, resentful of
Brecht's attempts to reduce the traffic in rum, spread stories that he was
encouraging the Indians to kill deer. Still, Brecht's efforts to attract Sem-
inoles to the agency bore fruit, for by Christmas Day, 1894, a large number
of Indians came there to hear the agent tell about the origin and meaning
of Christmas and to receive presents consisting of combs, mirrors, soap,
knives, saws and assorted items of wearing apparel.29
In 1894, a joint program for the education and conversion of the
Seminoles had been negotiated between the WNIA and the Episcopal
church. In the partnership the WNIA representatives would teach the In-
dian women the elements of sewing and the Episcopal Church missionaries
would convert the Seminoles to the Christian way of life.30 Within a short
time the Women's National Indian Association decided to withdraw from
the Florida program and give the property and project to the Missionary
Jurisdiction of Southern Florida Episcopal Church.31 Upon accepting the
three hundred and twenty acres and one frame building, Bishop William
C. Gray named the place Immokalee (his home)." Christ Church was
27Charlton W. Tebeau, Florida's Last Frontier: The History of Collier County (Coral
Gables, 1957), 197.
28John E. Brecht, "Report," Sixty-Second Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs to Secretary of Interior (Washington, 1893), 356.
29Fort Myers Press, January 17, 1896.
3OBrecht, "Report" in Sixty-Third Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to
Secretary of the Interior, (Washington, 1894), 378.
31Annual Report of Women's National Indian Association, 1896, 32.
32Tebeau, Florida's Last Frontier, 72.
JAMES W. COVINGTON
opened for services in July, 1896, at Immokalee, but it was a failure as
a mission, for few of the Indians attended the services held there.
Industrial teacher Brecht experienced similar difficulties in attracting
the Indians to his agency. The children would not attend his school and
without gifts being attached, the adults would not make use of any agency
services. Finally Brecht was forced to visit the Indians in their camp. He
found that the death rate due to the "eating of trash and exposure to
the elements" was the greatest among children below the age of six, but
once past that age the Seminole had a good chance of living until seventy
years of age.33 Liquor traders did their best to discourage the visits of
Brecht to the Indian camps by telling the Seminoles that the steam engine
of the saw mill would be used as a signal to call the soldiers to capture
the Indians. By 1896, Brecht was making some limited progress by em-
ploying Indians to work in the sawmill and plant pineapples. During the
visits of the Seminoles to the Federal outpost, Mrs. Brecht attempted to
instruct them in the art of reading and writing English.34
Although the efforts of Brecht and the Women's National Indian
Association were doomed to failure, the foundation for successful religious
and governmental activities at a later date was laid at this time. In Jan-
uary, 1894, Congress authorized that one half of the annual six thousand
dollars appropriations should be spent for the purchase of land for the
Seminole homesteads. Although due to the reduced funds Brecht was
forced to release several employees, he was in favor of the measure. He
realized that much of the Everglades had been purchased by the land
companies or acquired by the railroads and a stream of settlers was
moving southward along either coast to seize quickly any overlooked land.
Unless some lands were reserved for the Seminoles, they were in danger
of being driven from their homes in Florida. In fact, settlers were already
moving on the camp and cultivated grounds of the Indians and warning
them not to return to the area. Accordingly, much of Brecht's efforts were
shifted to the purchase of land for the Indians. In selecting the land Brecht
chose tracts which were occupied by the Indians at the time or for which
they had expressed a preference. As a beginning he purchased 644 acres
from Hamilton Disston for $418; 1920 acres from Frank Brown for
$1,344; 640 acres from Brown for $448 and in the following years other
tracts were purchased from the Florida Southern Railroad and the Plant
Investment Company at prices which averaged less than a dollar an acre.
I3Brecht, "Report" in Sixty-Fourth Annual Report of the Commission of Indian Affairs
to the Secretary of the Interior (Washington, 1895) 369.
34Brecht, "Report" in Sixty-Fifth Annual Report of the Commission of Indian Affairs to
the Secretary of the Interior (Washington, 1896), 66.
By 1909, land purchased by Brecht and others at a cost of $15,265.75
amounted to 23,040 acres which was situated about seventy-five miles to
the south and east of Fort Myers and extending to the Everglades. This
land would be developed later into the Big Cypress Indian Reservation.
For eight and one half years Brecht served the Seminoles as well as
he could, but on January 1, 1898, he resigned his position, moved to Fort
Myers and the outpost was closed. The physician claimed that he could
have made four times as much in another position but he wanted to help
the Indians. The saw mill was sold to Wilt Tolles and he transferred the
equipment to another site where it became a profitable venture. By 1900
all of the improvements had been sold and moved elsewhere and the eighty
acres owned by the Federal Government was sold in 1904.
At the same time that White friends of the Seminoles were obtaining
some future gains for the Indians by putting pressure on the national ad-
ministration, some Florida citizens realized certain gains which proved to
be rather delusive. The Florida legislature on June 8, 1891, authorized
the trustees of the Board of Internal Improvements to set aside a tract of
land no larger than five thousand acres for the use of the Seminoles.3
Trustees for the proposed State Indian Reservation included the following
appointments: James E. Ingraham, Francis A. Hendry and Garibaldi Niles.
They were ready to make a selection of the site, but since no money had
been appropriated and the need for a reservation for the widely scattered
Indians was not apparent, no action was taken.36
In 1898, an organization known as "The Friends of the Seminole
Indians" was organized at Kissimmee and commenced some measures to
assist the Indians. A tract of eighty acres was purchased for forty dollars
for use of the Cow Creek band in Saint Lucie County, but the Indians
would not use the site. When they tried to purchase the actual camping
sites of the Indians, the organization found the price asked by land com-
panies to be prohibitive. Acting under pressure from the Friends of the
Seminoles, the Florida legislature on May 29, 1899, set aside a large
tract of land for the use of the Indians, but since practically all of the
land had already been deeded to corporations and individual citizens, the
action was fruitless.37 Several days later, on June 1, 1899, the state appro-
priated $500 to establish an industrial school for the Seminoles at Cow
35Acts and Resolutions adopted by Legislature of Florida at its Third Regular Session
under Constitution AD 1885 (Tallahassee, 1891), 216.
36Report of James A. Ingraham, Chairman, to Governor W. O. Bloxham as copied in
letter of Special Agent Lorenzo Creel to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 29,
1911, 27957-1911 BIA.
37C. F. Nesler, U.S. Indian Inspector, to Ethan A. Hitchcock, Secretary of the Interior,
February 23, 1904. With File 176F2-1909 BIA.
JAMES W. COVINGTON
Creek in Brevard County, but since only a total sum of $1,000 was appro-
priated, the school never progressed beyond the planning stage.38 The pass-
age of these two measures was intended to satisfy persons interested in
the Seminoles that the State of Florida was doing something for the In-
dians, but such measures really were of no benefit to the Indians. In a
third action the Friends of the Seminoles assisted Tom Tiger in his attempt
to get his horse back from a White trader but when the evidence was de-
stroyed, Tiger lost his chance to get his horse.9
Over a short span of years the combined effort of the private and
governmental agencies to aid the Seminoles was doomed to failure, for the
Indians did not want to learn English, practice the Christian faith or farm
extensively when they were free to roam throughout Southern Florida.
It would be only when the land developers had taken over most of the
available land and the drainage experts had changed the water levels that
the Seminoles would realize that changes were necessary in their way of
life. This moment of truth could not take place during the Nineteenth
38Acts and Resolutions Adopted by the Legislature of Florida at its Seventh Regular Ses-
sion under Constitution A.D. 1885 (Tallahassee, 1899), 148.
39Minnie Moore Wilson, The Seminoles of Florida (New York, 1910), 148.
Labor Problems Of
The Florida East Coast Railway Extension
From Homestead To Key West: 1905-1907
By HENRY S. MARKS*
Henry M. Flagler began his interest in Florida railroading in 1885.
By the middle of 1896 his Florida East Coast Railway extended as far
as Miami, 366 miles south of its northern terminus at Jacksonville. For
several years Miami remained the southern terminus of the road, but the
idea of continuing the line to Key West always was present.' In the mean-
time, the railroad was extended to Homestead, this extension being com-
pleted by 1904.
The extension to Key West was provided for in Florida law by the
passage of the Key West Railroad Extension Bill, commonly known as
the Crill bill. This act gave sweeping powers to Flagler, for it provided
"for a fair and equitable assessment of taxes of the corporation construct-
ing it, and to grant right of way over the submerged and other lands be-
longing to the State, and over the waters, of the State, and to authorize
filling of the submerged lands and to construct buildings, docks and depots
Actual construction began on the extension in April, 1905. As the
work progressed during the first few weeks it became evident that a large
number of workers would have to be recruited outside the confines of the
state. But good laborers were evidently in demand across the country.
The sources of labor supply relied on for digging the Panama Canal were
closed to the railway project and labor was not legally to be obtained from
outside the United States.2 As a result labor was not to be imported from
the Caribbean, the area adjacent to the construction (such areas as the
Bahamas, Cuba or Jamaica). Also Negro domestic labor was regarded
by some contemporary sources as largely unavailable.3 Thus the logical
center for labor recruitment seemed to be New York, where poverty-
*Professor Marks is a former Miamian now an educational consultant in Huntsville,
IJohn W. Martin, Henry M. Flagler (1830-1913) Florida's East Coast is his Monument!
address before the Newcomen Society at St. Augustine, Florida (New York, 1958) and
A Brief History of the Florida East Coast Railway (St. Augustine, n.d.), p. 30.
2"Over The Florida Keys by Rail," Ralph D. Paine, Everybody's Magazine, February,
1908, p. 153 and Sidney Walter Martin, Florida's Flagler (Athens, Ga., 1949), p. 210.
HENRY S. MARKS
stricken immigrants from Europe could be easily swayed by promising job
offerings in the "sunny South."
The headquarters of the recruiters in New York City, during the
first year, seemed to be the German-Italian Exchange, located at 49-51
Prince Street. Their advertising was flamboyant; attractive wages were
offered. They continually advertised "Wanted-1,000 laborers of any Na-
tionality" and offered the following wage scale:4
$1.25 per day for common laborers
$60.00 per month for interpreters
$90.00 per month for experienced foremen.
The ad also stated that whoever could get fifty men or more to work on
the extension would be preferred as interpreter or foreman. In addition,
transportation costs up to the sum of $10.00 were to be provided by the
However, actual working conditions were not as rosy as pictured by
the Exchange. Many of those sent to the working area south of Home-
stead either refused to work or came back to Miami. Typically, the story
of these dissenters is as follows:5
Many of the men were assured that they were to get employment
at their various trades. Reaching there (the working area) every man,
regardless of whether he had experience or not, was set to work with
an axe or grubbing hoe, to clear away the trees and roots preparatory
to grading work. Instead of receiving board free, as they had been
promised, they were each charged $2.50 per week; the food was scarce
and hardly fit to eat; their sleeping accommodations merely a board
sheltered by a tent. Under these conditions the men could not work,
and were brought back to Miami, where they were told they would
receive their pay. Here the party said, they were informed that their
pay would be retained to apply on their transportation south. They
would not be sent back to New York until after they had worked six
In direct refutation of the dissenters' tales of woe, the railroad main-
tained that the workers were being given the best of living conditions. In an
article in the Miami Evening Record for December 22, 1905, an account
of the working and living conditions is given as found by an executive
party headed by Mr. Flagler himself:
The laborers, consisting of Italians, Greeks, Germans, and Negroes,
are in separate camps . The men are comfortably housed in tents
all floored and sleep on comfortable double cots, or bunks, one ar-
4Miami Evening Record, November 16, 1905, p. I.
ranged above the other. They are given good, nourishing food and-
well cooked. All of the food, as well as all of the water used in these
camps is towed from Miami in barges or steamers and for this pur-
pose alone a fleet of vessels is always kept busy. The rough work of
clearing is being done entirely by Negroes, they being accustomed to
the use of the axe. The white labor then follows with the grading.
In respect to both factions, the truer picture of actual conditions in the
camps probably lies somewhere between. Later camps were established on
several of the keys and numerous house-boats or floating dormitories were
constructed for the workers.6
By the end of the first year probably about 15,000 of these workers
had been imported from New York, although another source stated that
20,000 men were carried to the area in three years.7 It had been announced
in two of Miami's papers that 30,000 laborers, "a large number of these
. . Italians, Slavs, and other hardy foreigners," would be brought in by
Flagler's special agent from Jacksonville and that the agent "is in New
York and it is said that he had been commissioned to bring 30,000
laborers to Florida." Also stated was that "A large number of these labor-
ers have been Italians, Slavs and other hardy foreigners, but it was dis-
covered a few days ago that among them was a number of the Typical
East Side denizens."8 However, two other sources indicate that the actual
number of laborers constantly working on the extension never numbered
more than four thousand.9
Now another problem began to manifest itself. These workers even-
tually created a sentiment against themselves along the entire east coast
of Florida. At first this sentiment was not evident in Miami's three news-
papers. In fact the Daily Miami Metropolis, on May 18, 1905, had stated
that the Nashville (Tennessee) American was the only newspaper South
of the Mason-Dixon line that opposed the immigration of "Italians and
Polish and Russian Jews." But with the influx of these workers into Florida
the attitude of people and the newspapers changed. Articles began appear-
ing in the Miami Evening Record concerning activities of the "Mafia" and
the "Black Hand" in this country. The Daily Metropolis stated: 0
Quite a number of Italians from the camps on the extension in the
neighborhood of Homestead are in the City today on a shopping tour.
They came up on hand cars belonging to the railroad and will return
this afternoon by hand power.
6The Week, May 4, 1907, pp. 11-12.
7Everybody's Magazine, op. cit.
SEvening Record, op. cit.
9"Construction," A. Hale, Scientific American, May 18, 1907, pp. 412-3.
lOMiami Daily Metropolis, March 24, 1906, p. 8.
HENRY S. MARKS
Then on April 7, 1906, the newspaper offered the following disparaging
comment: "Imported railroad extension laborers come to town to drink
and commit other disorders." The workers had to leave the construction
areas in order to imbibe. The company did not permit the sale of alcoholic
beverages on its properties. Later, when construction reached the lower
keys, boats offering liquid refreshment would attempt to service the work-
ers' needs (shades of the prohibition to come). Sometimes the company
employees drove off these boats by rifle fire or "a stick of dynamite."1'
Miami was the area most affected by this sudden influx of immigrants.
Miami was not only the dispersion point for all laborers on the extension,
but also the supply point for all the necessities of living in a wilderness
(for instance, all water used for drinking purposes had to be shipped in)
and a major supply point for all construction materials used on the ex-
tension. When any of the laborers refused to work they were brought to
Miami. On November 30, 1905, the Evening Record made the following
comments on this situation:
Just why the railroad, having imported incompetent men to work
on the extension, should be permitted to bring them back from the
keys, and unload them on to this city does not appear clear to the
These less hardy souls who had refused to work on the extension of the
railroad began to arouse the people of this area. Some of this agitation
was both racial and religious. The railroad found itself forced to provide
work for these men in the Miami area, the work consisting of building
and enlarging the railroad's dockage facilities in the downtown section.
Although at no time were there more than 300 of these workers employed,
this problem of what to do with the "foreigners" was not to be completely
solved until the completion of the extension in 1912.
March, 1906, presented a new problem to the officials of the railroad.
By this time spring had arrived in the North. Also arriving in the North
(principally New York City) were most of the laborers that had been
working on the Key West extension. Officials of the railroad soon began
to realize that many of these laborers had come to Florida to escape the
frigid winters of the northern United States. That many of these laborers
left Florida with little improvement in their financial status can be seen
in the following comments from the Daily Miami Metropolis on March
Another large crowd of extension workers came in on the steamers
arriving from the railroad camps last night and are wandering around
IlEverybody's Magazine, op. cit.
the city today, many of them in search of employment. But few of
the men are better off, financially, than when they went to work four
and five months ago, as the expense of living was so high and the
wages so low, $1.50 per day, that few of them are able to pay car
fare back to their homes.
This exodus continued throughout March and well into April of 1906.
As late as April 24, the Daily Miami Metropolis states that one hundred
or more laborers came up to Miami and that those that were not put into
jail due to disorderly conduct left for the North.
The officials of the railroad also began to realize at this time that it
was much more difficult to procure a sufficient working force during the
summer months than during the winter months. Accordingly wages were
increased to $1.25 and $1.50 per day.'2 However, these wages were not
enough. During May the officials were forced to post circulars throughout
Florida and in New York City offering carpenters $2.50 per day and board,
and ordinary laborers $1.50 per day and board-board was to include
"comfortably screened quarters."13
The officials seemed to have much better luck with the last mentioned
advertisement because during July and August, 1906, the railroad replaced
many of its Negro section hands with Italian labor. This was duly noted
in the Daily Miami Metropolis for July 23, 1906, in a reprint from the
Fort Pierce News:
The F.E.C. Railway is about to dispense with nearly, or all of its
colored section hands having made arrangements to get 800 Italians
along the line in the near future. Fifty are enroute now for Eden and
other points. The Sycilians they formerly tried proved too dull, but
they have secured a more intelligent set of men now. The colored
man seems rather too independent for that class of work which re-
quires a man to be constantly on the job, that he will not do: but the
Dago can be counted on the day after pay day as certainly as at any
other time; though it is admitted he will not do as much work in a
given time as the black man, but will achieve more in time, owing to
his presence at all times.
With this acquisition of additional Italian labor there would be no
further problem of an adequate labor force for work on the first segment
of the extension. In addition there apparently were no further problems
developed between the Italian labor force and the resident populace of
South Florida. By May of 1907, despite the destruction wrought by the
severe hurricane of October, 1906, the completed roadway reached Key
12Daily Metropolis, op. cit.
HENRY S. MARKS 33
Largo. This marks the end of the first phase of the Key West extension
construction, for the mainland of Florida was now to be left. Now the
construction camps and the men were increasingly farther and farther
away from Miami. They are rarely mentioned in the newspapers or the
magazines and journals of the time. Evidently the labor problems involved
with the development of the railroad extension had largely been mastered.
More likely, they had moved away from Miami as the center of construc-
tion activity moved away toward Key West.
Mystery Of The New Atlantis
By BRUCE W. BALL*
The door to the office opened softly, and a bearded, stockily built
man of a little less than middle age and wearing dungarees and sneakers
stood before us. His bright blue eyes scanned our faces.
"My name is Mott; I am a citizen of Atlantis," he said gravely.
My father smiled. "The Lost Atlantis, I presume."
The man retained his dignified gravity. "A principality which a group
of scientists have founded on fourteen small, unclaimed and hitherto unin-
habited islands in the Caribbean, near the site of what we believe to have
been that of the Lost Atlantis." His English was perfect, with only a sug-
gestion of accent.
At the time, in the summer of 1937, I was a teen-ager helping my
father operate his stamp business in Miami, Florida. Although my duties
in the office were minimal, I enjoyed the work (as I still do), and despite
my youth, my father never neglected to introduce me to the various cus-
tomers who came to visit us and look over our stock. Our customers then,
as now, were drawn from many paths of life. One customer was a United
States Senator; another, having equal interest in the hobby and making
equally good purchases was a brick layer. Doctors, lawyers, truck drivers,
clergymen, and business men made their way to our offices in search of
elusive items, so it was with no great surprise that we looked back into
the blue eyes of the roughly dressed stranger.
"And these islands are located . ." my father began.
"Not too far from Nassau." 1 have a small chart, and we noted the
following statement printed below it: 'The 1000 year search for the sunken
empire started by the Vikings about 930 A.D. and terminated 1933 in
the establishment of the Principality of Atlantis with the then 79 year old
descendant of Leif Eriksen (a Norse Jarl, leader of the first white expedi-
tion to the American continent) as Christian I, Prince Regent of Atlantis.'
"What do you want of us?" my father asked.
"It is about our mail service that I am calling on you," said Mr. Mott.
"Mr. Ball is a philatelist with offices in Miami.
BRUCE W. BALL
"Our mail is routed through Miami. Would you be interested in some letters
carried on our first flight from Odin, Atlantis to Miami?"
"Your principality . has issued postage stamps?"
"Certainly." The man took from his wallet five stamps blue, buff,
yellow, red and purple, bearing the portrait of an old lady under which
was the name "Marie." They were in 5, 10, 25, and 50 "skaloj" denom-
inations. The purple stamp bore the same picture and was for 1 "dalo"
(100 skaloj, or 32# U.S.). We ordered the covers, paying Mr. Mott a few
cents for the postage to carry them, and he departed.
Was he a crackpot? Was this all some sort of joke? Surely we didn't
expect to receive the mail, but in a few days the letters were delivered,
bearing the postmark, "Odin, Atlantis," also the postmark, "Miami Fla."
The letters were handled by U.S. mail and delivered by postman to our
office in downtown Miami. On the face of one envelope was printed the
following: "Atlantis . The World's Richest Country in History and
submerged (salvageable) interests. Radium Baths Made by Nature. Truly
a Garden of Eden, with the Fountain of Youth." Another bore this mes-
sage: "ATLANTIS SPEAKS! The Sunken Empire is Rising! The New
Atlantis Talking Exploring Camera Sees All, Hears All, Finds All, Tells
All, With Precision. From Dizzy Heights in the Air to Unlimited Depths
in the Sea, It Records All. Its Evidence is Absolute, and in Natural Colors!"
We were amused by this extravagant advertising, but primarily we were
astounded that the mail was actually delivered. We awaited with interest
the next visit of our friend Mr. Mott.
He came in one day soon after, bringing with him a copy of the
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR for November 18, 1935. An article
in it was headed, "Search for the Lost Atlantis Widens."
"I supplied the information for this," said Mr. Mott proudly.
The article began: "Group of Danish explorers and natural scientists
at Miami hunting for the elusive continent of tradition centers work in
Caribbean Sea, issues stamps and money, and designs flag for the Princi-
pality of Atlantis." The fact that Plato (who first wrote of the Lost Con-
tinent of Atlantis submerged by earthquake and flood) located the mythical
continent near the Strait of Gibraltar, apparently bothered Mr. Mott not
It was on this visit that he showed us what purported to be his At-
lantis passport which had been visaed by several near-by governments as
well as by the Immigration Inspector at Miami. Later he gave us a pho-
tograph of himself taken as he stood by his automobile in a New Bruns-
wick, New Jersey street. The car bears an Atlantis license plate! Mr. Mott
assured us that with this plate he had no difficulty in travelling through
the United States.
Mr. Mott's visits became more frequent, and we looked forward to
talking with him, for though he always appeared at the office roughly
dressed, (I've just come off my ship, he would say), he was a cultured
and interesting gentleman. While at first it was difficult to listen to him
with a straight face, as time went on the bizzare nature of his statements
was overlooked because of his apparent sincerity.
In December of 1937 he came up to see us, bursting with enthusiasm.
"We have rented an office on N.E. Second Avenue (Miami) where
we are booking passengers for tours to Atlantis on the cruiser ABEL. As
you know, I am a Danish sea captain. Tourists will visit our Hot Springs,
inspect the remains of an ancient civilization, and enjoy excellent fishing.
Why don't you take this cruise? It will be most enjoyable." He handed us
small circulars advertising the trip.
In looking back, I often wonder why we didn't take the cruise. What
would we have found, if anything? What would have happened?
Some of our friends, having met Mr. Mott in our offices, became so
curious about this gentleman, they decided to invite him to be their guest
at a meeting of the Miami Stamp Club, a social organization (still in exist-
ence), where member-collectors gather to discuss their hobby and trade
stamps. While the invitation was apparently sincere, we had the suspicion
the club members anticipated an hilarious evening. Mr. Mott accepted the
invitation with enthusiasm, appearing at the meeting in a tuxedo and
groomed to the standards of a diplomat. All he lacked was a red ribbon
across his chest.
We took our friend to the club with more or less trepidation, feeling
we were leading a very nice and very vulnerable lamb to the slaughter,
for we knew that he would be grilled about his "principality," especially
by an old gentleman member who had the reputation for getting at the
heart of a subject by the shortest and most ruthless route. We had no need
to fear. Mr. Mott never lost control of the situation. He gave a short talk
on Atlantis, and at its conclusion answered all questions politely and at
length. No one could trip him up; he had a plausible answer to every
query. After firing a barrage of questions at Mr. Mott, and apparently
accepting his answers as satisfactory, the old gentleman mentioned finally
sat down, mopping his brow. Mr. Mott told us that he had had a wonderful
BRUCE W. BALL 37
In April of 1938 we received a letter from our Atlantis friend telling
us of the death of their "revered emperor," and saying that they were
continuing with plans for a world's fair to be held in 1941. Other letters
and notes followed from time to time, the last being from San Francisco
shortly before the attack on Pearl Harbor. We never saw Mr. Mott again.
Who was Mr. Mott? An out-and-out fraud? But apparently he had
nothing to gain from his hoax, if he were a fraud. He was selling nothing
of value, asking no favors, seeking no loans. Was Atlantis the brainchild
of one man who used it to intrigue and puzzle his friends? Or was it perhaps
of a more serious significance? Recalling that Mr. Mott and his associates
were working in the Caribbean area between 1934 and 1940, friends have
suggested that this would have been excellent camouflage for agents of an
unfriendly power interested in our Caribbean defenses. However, we prefer
to remember Mr. Mott as an entertaining visitor even though his stories
were so fantastic that sometimes I need the tangible evidence of letters,
covers, stamps, maps, newspaper clippings, circulars and other mementos
which I hold to assure myself that all this actually happened.
Life On The Loxahatchee
By DORA DOSTER UTZ*
*Dora Doster Utz was born Dora Annie Doster in Atlanta, Georgia
November 7, 1892 and passed away in Shreveport, Louisiana January 8,
Her father, Ben Hill Doster, moved his family to Jupiter, Florida
about 1894 to help his recently widowed sister, Mrs. Gus Miller, on her
homestead there. The Dosters lived first in Jupiter, then in West Palm
Beach until about 1908, when they moved to Shreveport, Louisiana.
Dora remembered her Florida childhood with so much joy that she
finally began to write down her recollections of those days and various
articles of hers were published in Florida papers. She possessed some old
pictures of Jupiter and West Palm Beach which have been either copied
or sketched from by interested persons in that area. The now familiar
picture of the old Celestial Railroad engine No. 1 with little Dora standing
on the cowcatcher is displayed at the Flagler Museum in West Palm Beach
from time to time and has been used in several articles published by var-
ious writers. Her recollections follow.
The first Sunday afternoon following our arrival at the Florida home-
stead on the Loxahatchee to rejoin Papa, he thought it would be enjoy-
able to row us up the river to Hunt's Mill and back. The outing had indeed
been pleasant, and novel to a city bred mother and two city bred little
sisters, until we turned to come back. Suddenly the warm scented breezes
became quite chilly, so that we drew our skirts up over our shoulders, and
Papa rowed a little faster. More and more the air cooled, as if someone
had left open an icebox door. The temperature dropped until we were
shivering. Mama put us children in the bottom of the boat and drew her
full skirts around us. Papa rowed like mad, not only to get us home, but
to keep himself warm. This was most unusual! By the time we reached
the cabin we were blue with cold, half frozen, and all made a wild dash
for the house to start a big wood fire in the kitchen stove.
Throughout the night the temperature continued to drop, freezing
pineapple patches, citrus groves and everything it touched. Startled home-
steaders heard the boles of their orange trees burst in the night with the
Introductory note supplied by Mrs. Margaree N. Pleasant, a daughter, living in Shreveport,
DORA DOSTER LUTZ
report of a rifle. Next morning everyone woke to a sad signt. Fruit or
chards, pineapple patches, vegetable gardens, the work of many years,
were frozen and dead. On the river, the fish were frozen and lying on
the surface of the water, some feebly waving a fin; the water birds and
vultures were having a feast. Enterprising fishermen, at some points, were
gathering up the frozen fish, packing them in ice and hurrying them north.
Some homesteaders took one look at their ruined hopes and summarily
left their cabins and acres to the encroachment of the jungle, the wildcats
and the panthers.
That was the winter of 1894-1895, and was to go down in Florida
history as the "winter of the big freeze."
It was our introduction to the homestead. We were to have many
more unique experiences; some enchanting, some frightening, but all part
of the bewitching fascination that is Florida.
Just a short while before the big freeze, Papa had taken temporary
leave of his desk in the office of an Atlanta newspaper to come to Florida
and assist a recently bereaved sister whose husband had died, leaving
her with a small daughter to raise, a store to be managed, and the home-
stead which, in order to be proved upon, had to be occupied another year.
After Papa saw and sized up the situation, he decided to stay on in
Florida. He sent for his family. He agreed to live on the homestead for
a year. He took hold in the store and soon had it running smoothly again.
With the help of some Negroes, he cleared a mile long trail through the
swamp to town, raising the path a few inches above the water line. Un-
daunted by the freeze, the sixteen acre pineapple patch was replanted.
Men were sent out from town to work it.
The Loxahatchee and the Indian rivers merged their waters at the
town of Jupiter, about two miles away, and together flowed out to sea
through a wide inlet. Up and down the rivers were other settlers and home-
steaders like ourselves, many of whom were people of culture and educa
tion, who enjoyed the challenge of a new environment. There were
"cracker" hunters and trappers, and fishermen, making their living from
the woods and streams. There were Seminole Indians who found their
way into town from the Everglades, paddling their dugout cypress canoes
through devious and mysterious channels unknown to most white men.
They brought their squaws and children with them and pitched camp
along the trail. They traded their hides, plumes, venison, for whatever
they needed in the stores, and often got soggily drunk at "blind tigers"
operated by designing white men, whose pasts no one thought of inquiring
into, who existed by trickery, thievery, and who often got the Indians
drunk in order to cheat them. Once the Indians became thoroughly con-
vinced of this deception, they began to come into Papa's store, who always
treated them fairly and gave them full measure of goods for goods. Papa
said the finest compliment he ever received was one day when the Indian
chief, Tommy Tiger, put his hand on Papa's shoulder and said: "You
The solid heart of the town held small merchants, a frame hotel,
citrus grove and pineapple planters, the lighthouse keeper and his assist-
ants, the life saving station boys, most of whom had families, the weather
bureau station keeper, and the telegraph and cable office. By way of
contrast, in the winter wealthy, fashionable tourists came down the Indian
River by steamer or in their own sumptuous yachts. Some of these spent
the night at the two story frame hotel near the dock at Jupiter, and pro-
ceeded on their way in the morning. Others stopped for a meal at the
hotel and departed. Most were on their way farther south to Palm Beach
and Miami, which were rapidly becoming the mecca for fun and frolic
among the rich and leisure class of "The Gay Nineties." The tourists who
preferred the inside water route rather than the coastal steamers neces-
sarily had to quit the river steamer at Jupiter, because there was no water
route wide enough to take the big steamers farther south. They boarded
the Celestial Railroad cars at Jupiter and rode to Juno, eight miles south,
to the head waters of Lake Worth, where they again took boat, by way
of large napptha launches, for their destination.
The little Celestial Railroad, so named because of the galaxy of
stations along its way-Neptune, Venus, Mars, Juno-was unique in that,
on the return trip from Juno, which was at one time the county seat of
Dade County, it had to back up the eight miles since it had no turntable.
The useful life of the little railroad was doomed, however, for Henry M.
Flagler, the Standard Oil magnate, had already pushed his new railroad
-which he called the Florida East Coast Railway-as far south as West
Palm Beach and was now contemplating a further extension to Miami.
Miami had been spared the "big freeze" and its citizens persuaded Mr.
Flagler that, by all means, his railroad should extend to that favored and
bustling town. The advent of the Florida East Coast Railroad created a
new town of West Jupiter, which faced the tracks, the Loxahatchee having
been spanned by a high trestle and drawbridge. The heyday of the town
of Jupiter itself was waning, but, for the moment, and for a few more
years, it still waxed important and lively.
DORA DOSTER UTZ
The homestead was a 160 acre plot hewn from the scrub oak, pine
and palmetto flats of that area. Besides the pineapple patch, a strip about
200 feet long and 100 feet wide had been cleared to the river, and the
cabin put down in the middle of it.
The cabin was one large room, a small bedroom, and a kitchen. A
pump in the back yard supplied water.
On three sides of the clearing, the woods and swamps hemmed us
in, but on the north the lovely, dark, mysterious river flowed by. The
Loxahatchee was one of those fresh water rivers of Florida which had
its source in that little known, vast swamp area called The Everglades.
We sat in front of the cabin late in the afternoons and enjoyed the
living picture of the river. Mangroves and large-boled cypress trees lined
its shores and marched out into the water. Spanish moss and beautiful
airplants hung from their limbs; graceful reeds swayed in the sweet-scented
evening breezes, and a profusion of varied colored water lilies spread their
artists' palettes to the sunset. In the shallows graceful white herons stood
like statues, and water birds of many varieties dove for fish, rose and
circled, and dove again. Sometimes one espied an eagle beating his way
up from the fishing flats in the river.
When this view was bathed in a gorgeous sunset, it was breathtakingly
beautiful. I remember most vividly the red ones, when the woods to our
west seemed on fire; the river reflecting the flames, the house and grounds
taking on a scarlet tint, and one's very face flushed with a feverish glow.
We saw all kinds of pictures in the billowing cumulus clouds, some
beautifully tinted by the last rays of the setting sun.
We listened to the birds settling down for the night; the deep-throated
bellows of an alligator; the orchestra of tiny insects and frogs beginning
their nightly serenade. The tiniest frogs crying, "Tea Table, Tea Table";
the medium sized ones: "Fry Bacon, Fry Bacon"; and the big bull frogs:
"Jug o'rum, Jug o'rum." Somewhere back in the darkening woods we
heard the hoot of an owl, the thrilling call of the Whip-Poor-Will and the
distant echoing answer of his mate. Sometimes at night in those woods
a blood-chilling scream as of a woman in distress froze the whole orches-
tration into silence, and we shivered in our beds. The first time Mama
heard that scream, she had bolted upright out of her chair, but Papa had
laid a gently restraining hand on her arm and remarked to her incredulous
ears that it was a panther prowling around and that she must never go
outside to seek a poor woman in distress at night, for their screams were
alarmingly similar. Besides, he said, there were also wildcats, poisonous
snakes, and further away in the densest undergrowth, bears and deer.
Mama was to have a very frightening encounter with a panther during
our stay at the homestead. She was raising chickens to add to our larder
of fish and wild game. One day she was feeding the chickens when she
heard a squawking commotion back of her, and whirling around, she saw
a huge panther leaping over the bushes towards the woods with a chicken
in its mouth. He must have been lying in wait for his prey as she passed
by just a moment before. She went cold with terror but, realizing that
something had to be done, for once having tasted chicken meat, the animal
would return again and again on his forays, she started for the house and
the shotgun. Just then she heard the put-put of a motor boat on the river
and ran down on the dock and signaled to the boat to put in. When our
fellow-homesteader and good friend, Mr. Ziegler, came along side the dock,
she asked, since he was headed for town, that he tell the lighthouse boys
to come and bring their dogs. The men came with their hunting dogs
and took up the feathery trail at the clearing where the huge tracks led
off into the dense woods. They followed it all day through the jungles and
the swamps, and at dusk we saw them coming back with the dead panther
strung up on poles across their shoulders. It was the largest animal any-
one had seen around there. One of the dogs had been so badly mauled
he had to be shot.
A disturbance among the chickens could mean other marauders
besides a panther, and we came to know them all. Hawks and snakes
were the worst offenders. One never knew, when reaching for eggs,
whether or not one would touch the scaley back of a snake. Of course,
we learned to look before reaching. The only consolation about coming
into contact with one of these snakes, however, was that most of them
were non-poisonous: black snakes, coachwhips and chicken snakes.
One brilliant moonlight night when we were rowing home from a
dance in town, we heard a big furor in the chicken yard while we were
still some distance from the landing. Hastening up from the dock, we
found the whole yard strewed with feathers and dead chickens. The brood-
ing coops for the hens and baby chicks had been overturned and their
occupants destroyed. The small tracks leading everywhere about told
us unmistakably that this time it was the small animals who had launched
this foray: 'coons and 'possums.
We played contentedly about the cabin, but were not allowed to go
down to the water or into the woods alone.
DORA DOSTER UTZ
Mama, on the other hand, must often have gotten very homesick
and lonely at the cabin. From our kitchen door the new Florida East
Coast Railroad trains could be seen through the trees off in the distance,
and when the mournful wail of the locomotive sounded the approach to
West Jupiter and points north, she must often have stood and watched
the cars in the far distance, snaking their way along, now hidden by
palmettos and cabbage palms, now out in the open again. A nostalgic
yearning to be on them and headed for her Georgia home must have
filled her eyes and put a lump in her throat She had been born and raised
in Atlanta, and this was her first experience with pioneering.
Although the Government had passed the Homestead Act many
years before, it was not until 1885 that this sparsely settled region of
lower Florida began to be opened up to homesteaders. Since that time,
many fine people as well as adventurers of all sorts had decided to cast
their lots in this temperate climate whose exotic growth showed such
promise. One of our neighbors, who lived across and some miles up the
river, was a physician. That must have been a reassuring thought to the
parents of two small children! Dr. Jackson was a highly educated and
cultured gentleman, whose health had been impaired by the rigors of
northern winters while making his medical rounds, so he had brought
his family to a milder climate. He was a source of merciful healing not
only to the body, as he continued his profession, but to the soul as well,
for there was no church in Jupiter at that time and Dr. Jackson read
the Episcopal service to whoever felt inclined to come on the Sabbath
to the little octagon-shaped frame schoolhouse at Jupiter. A small frame
church was built not many years later and a regular minister made his
rounds of the area.
Another gentleman and his family living on a Loxahatchee home-
stead was a Princeton graduate. He was a man of remarkable talents and
ability who loved this area and homesteading and didn't care who knew
it He had a keen sense of humor; was somewhat of a mimic and ventrilo-
quist. A visit to his home was a tonic and sure to be amusing.
There was an Englishman, suave, poised and affable, who lived on
the river. It was rumored that he had but to return to his native land to
claim an honored title.
Flowing into the Loxahatchee, and extending practically one hundred
and fifty miles along the east coast of Florida, was the Indian River. It
was a tidal river. Between it and the Atlantic Ocean were many islands
occupied by old residents who grew fine oranges, limes, tomatoes, guavas
and bananas. One of these gentlemen was internationally known as a
manufacturer of fine tomato catsup, which he made from the plants grown
on his acres.
When Mama's loneliness became an urge for company, she took
us children and rowed up the river to spend the day with our neighbors
on other homesteads. Sometimes a group of neighbors met at one home
and spent the day pleasantly sewing together, or putting up jelly. Never
will I forget the heavenly aroma of guava jelly cooking, or orange mar-
malade in the making.
Sometimes we started out along the trail Papa had cut through the
swamp to town to be among people, to see and hear and talk, and ac-
company Papa home. Mama always carried an umbrella, for she had that
lovely Georgia "peaches and cream" complexion which she was trying
hard to preserve against intense tropical sunshine, and the umbrella was
handy in case of a sudden Florida downpour or snakes in the path.
It was sort of an adventure to go down the trail towards town. There
was always the scurrying of small life in the underbrush: the little swamp
rabbit and squirrels; the masked face of a raccoon peering from the pal-
metto scrub, a 'possum in a tree. Lovely, graceful butterflies flitted about;
frogs croaked and small turtles, or "gophers," as we called them, clung
to logs and crawled across the path. Scrub oaks or cabbage palms dripped
with moss, or were entwined with wild grapevine. On tree trunks grew
exotic air plants which, we were told, are related to the pineapple.
One day when we were on the trail to West Jupiter, there came a
crashing through the brush, and half a dozen frightened cattle charged
down upon us from around a bend in the path. Mama hastily opened her
umbrella and shook it at them, and they scattered to either side of the
road and we continued on, thinking we had had a narrow escape thanks
to Mama's quick thinking and her habit of carrying an umbrella.
To walk the trail to town was sometimes a hazardous experience,
as we were to find out one dark and stormy night.
We had rowed to town to attend a soiree of some kind at Jupiter.
During the evening the winds commenced to rise and thunderheads boiled
up, portending a tropical storm. The party broke up, and people living
along the rivers hastily gathered up their children in order to make it
home before the water became too rough. We started out in our small
boat for the homestead. In midstream the Loxahatchee became so rough
and the wind so high that Papa thought it best to land and continue on
DORA DOSTER UTZ
by foot. There was no trail through the swamp on the south bank of the
river, so we had to cross to the north side and walk along the trail until
we came to the railroad trestle; then cross back on it to West Jupiter, and
so on up our own trail to the cabin. Papa pulled the boat well up on shore
and, while we crouched in the lee of a tree, he scaled a fifteen foot em-
bankment to the trail above and scouted it for a way. Then he came back
for us. Each parent took a child and struggled along the way to the trestle.
The wind had grown so strong that, having gained the bridge, it was all
each could do to keep his balance, and from plunging into the waters
below. Mama's skirts were whipping about her so wildly, time and time
again she almost tripped and fell, and sometimes it was necessary to crawl
along, buffeted by the full force of the wind, and peppered by the flying
spray from the river. The trail home through the swamp still had to be
negotiated, but, with Papa going ahead with the lantern, we were able
to slosh along, keeping a sharp eye out for water moccasins and to keep
from slipping off the trail into the muck of logs and undergrowth along
the sides. Finally, half-drowned, we stumbled into the cozy shelter of the
cabin kitchen. That was a night to remember!
Seminole Indians were a common sight in Jupiter at that time, much
more so than Negroes. Unlike most southern towns, we had almost no
Negroes. The Indians, on the other hand, appeared and disappeared
quietly through those secret channels and waterways known only to them-
selves which bore them into the inner fastness of the Everglades. The
few hundred who lived now in the 'Glades were the descendants of those
fierce warriors who defied and held the might of the United States Army
at bay for the seven years duration of the dreadful and bloody Seminole
Wars back in the 1830's, which Wars, fought from the borders to the
Keys, ended in bafflement for the Army, who tried in vain to smoke them
out of the bewildering maze of channels, sawgrass and palmetto hammocks
into which they had fled, and finally concluded in leaving the remnants
of the tribes alone, after having sent thousands of this recalcitrant branch
of the mighty Creek Nation with their Negro runaway slaves and allies,
to whom they had given sanctuary, to western lands. The exile of those
who had gone west from their loved homes in Florida had been brought
about mostly by deceit and treachery on the white man's part, and it must
have rankled even yet in the hearts of the comparatively few who still
cherished their independence and who were prepared, no doubt, to fiercely
defend it even yet, if need be. Two of the present chiefs, Billy Bowlegs
and Tommy Tiger, were descendants of two of the fiercest of those Sem-
inole War chiefs.
Much fighting had been done at Jupiter during the Seminole Wars
not only at Fort Jupiter, where the tall, red lighthouse now stood, but on
the very sand dunes of the beaches up and down the Indian River, and
crossings of the Loxahatchee; the Indians striking suddenly and then
eluding pursuit by completely vanishing into those watercourses and in-
tricate passageways which led into the fastness of the Great Swamp.
No wonder, then, that we were frightened the first time we laid eyes
on a Seminole. We had heard of them, of course, and many of the tales
we had heard were spine-chilling ones told us by our French grandmother,
whose Huguenot ancestors had owned a plantation outside of Tallahassee,
which region had been a well fought over battleground of the Wars.
So, the afternoon we were sitting quietly in front of the cabin taking
the breeze from the river, Mama's attention was caught by a movement
over the rise of the hill towards the river. It looked like a plume stuck
in the turban of an Indian. It was! Then she saw another, and another,
and soon the whole file of them were coming up the trail from where they
had beached their canoes. She was terrified, and grabbing us children,
she raced into the house and bolted the doors. They filed silently by and
headed for the trail to town. Then, to her consternation, she saw they
were preparing to camp along the trail for the night on our ground, prac-
tically cutting us off from town. To increase her further fears, she saw
them come up to the back yard pump with their pails and buckets for
water. She remained indoors. When Papa came home along the trail that
night from the store, he saw the Indians at their evening meal. The men
were sitting about a large pot in the center of the circle while the women
remained at one side, cooking and occasionally replenishing the pot with
meat. Papa paused to address them, but they paid him little attention
until the Chief spoke. Nodding his head in the direction of the cabin, he
said: "Humph, white squaw scared."
There was another instance in which Mama really showed her cour-
age. One hot afternoon she and we two children were taking afternoon
naps. There came a terrific pounding at the kitchen door. Mama raised
up and peeked through the edge of the shade. She saw the red-elbowed
sleeve of an Indian's shirt. Her heart turned over. She hastily robed and
got the gun down off its peg. She closed the bedroom door firmly on us,
put the gun handy, and went into the kitchen. She said she knew if she
ignored the knocking the Indian would probably break down the door,
so she summoned all her courage and opened it. She said a young brave
staggered into the room and took a seat at the kitchen table, cradling his
head in his hands. He said not a word and neither did Mama. Finally
he looked up and said:
DORA DOSTER UTZ
"Me drunk. Me very drunk."
Mama immediately busied herself with the coffee pot. When the
steaming mixture was ready, she poured a cupful and handed it to the
Indian. She said he gulped it down as if his mouth were lined with asbestos.
Then, extending the cup in both hands, he asked for more. She poured him
a second cup which he gulped down as before. After a little he got up
and strode out into the yard to the pump. Putting his head under the
pump, he doused himself copiously, came back, and went through the
procedure again. Mama said not a word. Finally, satisfied and feeling
better, he started off down the path towards the river. Mama stood in the
kitchen door and watched him. He reached the edge of the bluff over-
looking the river and looked up and down for a long while. She said he
was a magnificent statue of a man as he stood there silhouetted against
the dark background of the river. Being aware that she was watching him,
he turned, raised his arm high above his head in a gesture of thanks and
farewell, and called "Hi-ee-pus," which, she understood, was the Seminole
word for goodbye and I go.
Many years after, remembering all these experiences on the home-
stead when we went to visit our kinfolks in Georgia from our home in
West Palm Beach, as the train neared Jupiter and the mournful whistle
of the locomotive sounded the approach, Mama would say, perhaps rather
"Now, children, if you will look way off there in the distance,
among those scrub palms and palmettos, you will see the little
homestead where we used to live."
We were still to enjoy the life at Jupiter for a few years before we
finally moved down to West Palm Beach.
Our year's tenancy at the homestead being accomplished, we moved
down into town. That was a happy move, for now we were among people;
had near neighbors; started to school; had parties, sewing bees, and many
other interesting experiences.
We moved into a little house on a hill; that is, the hill was said to
be a shell mound which had been thrown up by the Indians many years
ago. Straight in front of us about a mile away was the magnificent At-
lantic, which was an ever moving picture. On our left the Loxahatchee
and Indian Rivers merged at the base of a high bluff, upon which stood
the weather bureau and signal station, the lighthouse, and the residences
of the men who tended them. At the base of our hill lay the right-of-way
for the Celestial Railroad, which ran out onto the pier upon which Papa
had his store, built on pilings over the river. The tourists coming down
the river by steamer always found their way into his store, and he became
a sort of first official greeter for the community. He met many wealthy
and distinguished people. At one time President Cleveland and his party,
en route to Palm Beach, stopped briefly and had dinner at the little hotel
before continuing on. (Mrs. Hebert has a picture of Pres. Cleveland and
party. It was her father's hotel).
To the south a hot, sandy, sandspur-infested road led off along the
right-of-way to the little stations of Neptune, Mars, Venus, and finally to
Juno and the head waters of Lake Worth. These stations or stops along
the Celestial, except Juno, were nothing more or less than a few shacks
and pineapple patches, soon to be deserted when the Celestial ceased
At the foot of our hill and facing the tracks on the east was the post
office, and along the river road east was the telegraph and cable office,
more homes, and, winding on around, one finally came to the life saving
station on the beach, later to be known as the coast guard. Adjacent to
the tracks on our left, built on pilings out over the swamp, was the little
two-story hotel and other one-story frame buildings, one a saloon. The
stairway of the hotel was on the outside of the building. Its kitchen was
around a boardwalk in the back, and its outhouses further out on pilings
over the swamp. One had to practically "walk a plank" to get to them.
Once, when a tiny girl, I fell into the swamp from the outside stairway
of the hotel and had to be fished out from the morass of underbrush and
logs, snakes, and perhaps an alligator or two from the precarious footing
of rolling logs. Perhaps the only thing that kept me from drowning was
the fact there was not enough open water in which to sink. The hotel dining
room was large and ran down one side of the structure, commanding a
lovely view of the rivers. Dances and entertainments of various kinds were
held in this large room. For instance, one Christmas a community celebra-
tion was held in this room. A large pine tree which touched the ceiling
was erected and beautifully decorated with candles, strings of popcorn and
other decorations, besides Chinese firecrackers. Quite a combination!
Back of our house, we still had the familiar pattern of dense cypress
thickets in which wildcats lurked, and swamps infested with snakes. It
seemed we were never to be rid of the snakes and once a wildcat was
bold enough to come up on the back porch to steal the housecat's food.
And another time our pet dog was so lacerated from an encounter with
a "cat" that he had to be shot.
DORA DOSTER UTZ
THE PASSING OF THE CELESTIAL
After we had lived in Jupiter proper for a year, it became plain that
the heyday of the river steamers and the little Celestial was past. Mr.
Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway had sealed their doom. It was so
much more convenient for tourists to pursue an uninterrupted journey to
the paradise that was Palm Beach, and its world-famous and luxurious
hotels, The Royal Poinciana and The Breakers. In fact, Mr. Flagler had
built a railroad bridge across Lake Worth which connected the towns
of West Palm Beach and Palm Beach so that tourists rode on the cars
right up to the north entrance of The Royal Poinciana with no inconven-
ience at all. Those winter visitors who still preferred inland water routes
went out through the inlet at Jupiter and back through the inlet at Lake
Worth and Palm Beach.
So, the Celestial fell into disuse, and Papa was commissioned to dis-
mantle it. Some of the river steamers, such as the St. Sebastian and the St.
Lucie, were beached along the river and eventually rotted away there. For
a time the Captain and his family lived on one, and its grand salon was used
for entertainments of various kinds. Often itinerant theatrical groups came
down the river and put on performances on these boats for us.
The little mail boat "Dixie" was tied up in the canal and disintegrated
there. The big railroad carried the mail now, supplanting the primitive
years of boat, stagecoach, and even barefoot mailmen walking their routes
along the beach.
The hotel was abandoned and the nearby saloon vacated, becoming
the meeting place for more respectable pursuits like dances, for instance.
There was something sad about how quickly the little stops along
the Celestial right-of-way were abandoned, but it was natural that they
should be because transportation for their produce was no longer available.
So shacks were left with doors ajar, and the odoriferous pineapple patches
ripened and perfumed the air with their golden fruit unpicked.
The jungle and underbrush were fast claiming the right-of-way, and
the sorrowful call of the Mourning Dove seemed to be sounding a requiem
to its passing.
Papa continued for a time to operate his store at the end of the dock
in Jupiter. He owned it now, having bought out the interest of his sister,
who had married the young weather bureau man and moved across the
river to his station. Papa also built a second store along the tracks of the
Florida East Coast Railway at West Jupiter. A half interest in this store
was sold to a young partner, who operated it; Papa going over only oc-
casionally. A new two-story frame hotel had been built at West Jupiter
and other stores and buildings.
To carry his freight from the tracks at West Jupiter to his store at
Jupiter, Papa had a large freight boat rigged with sails which he called
"The Bacon Box." I remember how on Sunday afternoons he used to
take us sailing up the Indian River to Hobe Sound to visit friends. Often
he included friends in these jaunts and we had a picnic, returning home
by moonlight; everybody singing the old songs en route home. I loved
these trips, and, laying my sleepy head in Mama's lap, would look up at
the big sails and ask her to sing "White Wings";
"White Wings, you never grow weary,
You carry me safely over the sea."
Sometimes, though, our boat rides met with minor disasters. The
rivers were full of shoals and oyster beds, and we had to keep a sharp
watch out so as not to run aground. In fact, quite often in the old days
the river steamers had gotten stuck on these sandbars and been delayed
for hours. Dredges were constantly in use to try to keep the channels deep,
but not always with success. On Indian River pyramids of logs were em-
bedded upon which were depth gauges to prevent boats from grounding.
Sometimes we were on the sandbars before we saw them; other times we
saw the yellow water in time to pull up the centerboard and tack the sails
around to draw the boat into deeper water. If we got stuck, however, Papa
had to roll up his trouser legs and get out and push, while Mama man-
euvered the big sails and awkward boat to shift it off the bar. These times
were always distressing to me, for we never knew how long we would be
stuck, and Mama and Papa worked so hard at getting us off, and the wet
sail ropes had a penchant for dripping on me and dragging across my tiny
frame, entangling me.
Papa now secured a colored man-of-all-work who had been employed
on the Celestial. Old Milton was kind and gentle to us children, and very
helpful to Papa in the store and hauling freight in the boat. He was also
a very creditable cook, and was our cook at home for some time.
Nearly every afternoon Milton rowed a group of us children out to
the sandbar in the river, threw the anchor out and sat in the boat and
watched as we swam and cavorted about in the shallow water. The water
was crystal clear at this point, for it was not far from the inlet. Sharks had
been known to come into the river through the inlet-we knew of one man
who had his leg bitten off-but this danger was very remote, especially
on the sandbar; nevertheless, Milton was there to watch us. Milton also
rowed Papa back and forth to his West Jupiter store.
DORA DOSTER UTZ
A BATTLESHIP COMES TO CALL
The Spanish-American War, which had been festering for some time,
was now come to a head. War had been declared by our Government
against Spain. One of the main bones of contention was the Isle of Cuba
just a few miles south of us. Our new uncle was a busy man now, keeping
passing ships informed on war conditions. In those days he signaled them
by day with flags, and at night, by flares. The declaration of war had
caught many ships en route into the war zone. One night there must
have been some twenty-odd ships anchored off shore in the Gulf Stream,
awaiting important messages from him. It was essential that they get orders
from their headquarters as to whether or not to proceed or turn back to
their home ports. In order to "speak" to these ships clearly and distinctly,
our uncle took his flares to the beach. The whole town followed him to
watch proceedings. We children were left at home, and when we saw the
fires flaring up along the beach we were terrified and thought our Mama
and Papa would be killed, but old Milton was there to comfort us and to
assure us it was only our uncle signaling the ships.
Another night to be remembered, which was to go down in the history
of the war, was the visit to Jupiter of a mysterious battleship.
At the time of the declaration of the Spanish-American War, one of
our mightiest battleships had mysteriously disappeared and nothing had
been heard from her by the world at large for months. She was then the
greatest floating fortress the world had ever seen, and she was on her way
to the harbor of Santiago, Cuba, to join the fleet of Captain W. T. Sampson.
Starting out in March, 1898, from a harbor on the Pacific Coast
before the days of the Panama Canal, she was forced to sail entirely around
South America. However, even allowing for the 14,000 mile journey and
the lack of radio and wireless communications in those days, she was
considered to have mysteriously disappeared, as this lapse of time was
not required to make such a journey. With war excitement at fever pitch,
every one was asking what had become of "the pride of the American
Jupiter was an important town at that time because of its Government
stations: the tall, red lighthouse, which guarded the treacherous coast;
the cable to the West Indies terminated there; the weather bureau and
signal stations which gave messages to passing ships.
These services were essential to the progress of the war, as Florida
was the funnel through which troops and supplies poured into Cuba.
Scarcely a day went by without its long troop trains on the Florida East
Coast Railway. Jupiter always gave the boys a warm welcome. Their youth-
ful smiling faces jammed the windows. Their blue uniforms were natty
and new. They waved their large campaign hats enthusiastically in their
hands, and many of them hastily wrote their names and addresses on
"hardtack" and threw it out the windows to any pretty girl who happened
to be standing near. Seaward the Gulf Stream came in so close to shore
that the citizens of Jupiter had a grandstand seat for the passing of battle-
ships and supplies to Cuba. These formidable battleships, steaming so
determinedly towards the battle zones with flags flying, never failed to
thrill us to the core, especially my sister and me, who at such times waved
our beautiful big flags enthusiastically, hoping that the men on board
would descry on shore two patriotic little girls who had a fierce pride in
them and were wishing them Godspeed.
One day my sister and I went to spend the day at our aunt's house
and play with our cousin of the same age. The morning passed pleasantly
and as the afternoon advanced our uncle told us he was expecting a certain
ship and had been up on the tower watching for her. His observation tower
and signal platform were located on a high hill back of his residence, which
gave him an unobstructed view of the surrounding country, the ocean, and
ships passing outside. While he ate a hurried dinner, he sent us to the
tower to keep a keen watch out and report if we saw any ships coming.
We took turns climbing the tower to watch. Finally near sunset my sister's
sharp eyes discerned a wisp of smoke on the horizon and she called my
cousin to come and look too. When they were sure it was a ship, we ran
to the house to report. The ship was approaching very slowly from the
north. Our uncle told us to tell him as soon as she was within signaling
distance. It was about a half hour before sundown when he began signaling.
No answer was returned to the usual question: "What is your name?" and
"Where are you from?" He thought she might not be able to see the flags
very plainly so he decided to wait until dark and use flares. She had now
dropped anchor and was lying rather close inshore, a bit to the northeast.
She carried no flags or identification and our binoculars and powerful field
glasses could not determine her identity. She looked like an American
battleship but we could not be sure, so our uncle telegraphed the news
across the river to the cable office that a strange ship was offshore so to
be on guard. As soon as the quick tropical darkness came, he began signal-
ing with flares. Still the formidable shape lay quiescent and gave no sign.
Our uncle now became most apprehensive. There had been numerous
rumors that the Spanish fleet was somewhere about and might shell towns
along the Florida east coast, and Jupiter seemed a most likely place in
view of its importance. This ship might be a Spanish warship awaiting
darkness to launch an attack. Our uncle telegraphed the cable office again.
DORA DOSTER UTZ
The news went like a hurricane over the town that a mysterious ship was
lying offshore and would not answer Mr. Cronk's signals. The excitement
was terrific. We learned next day that one old lady had become so fright-
ened that she had spent the night in a deserted pineapple patch where, I
am sure, the imminent danger from panthers, wildcats and snakes was
much greater than danger from the Spaniards.
The men got down their firearms of whatever nature and all agreed
that the telegraph and cable station on the south bank of the Loxahatchee
was the logical place to meet. Stores and other places of business were
closed; women and children at home were given their instructions to sit
tight for further news, and the men all met at the rendezvous and waited.
Our uncle, like a modern Paul Revere, continued to watch from the tower
until he saw swinging lights of lanterns and what appeared to be a boat
being lowered and armed men getting into it. Then he telegraphed the
cable station again. The excitement grew to fever pitch. The men held
themselves ready. The landing boat approached the coast. The tension
and suspense on shore were nerve shattering. The boat came on in
through the inlet and headed for the telegraph station. The men went
down to the shore to await them, determined to give them a fight to the
finish if they had to. Imagine the scene when the boat got near enough
for the townsmen to recognize United States sailors!! The uniforms were
now unmistakable. A tremendous shout of welcome went up in which
the sailors themselves joined. They were just as glad to see us as we were
to see them. They soon made it known that it was the Oregon lying off-
shore, and that this was the first time they had stepped ashore in many
long weeks. They had come around the Horn; coaled at Barbados; given
Cuba a wide berth to avoid the rumored Spanish fleet lying in wait for
them, and they had used further precautions by not answering our signals,
for fear of being drawn into a net through some Spanish ruse. To say
they were relieved at receiving such a welcome was enormous, and to say
we felt the same way, was putting it mildly. This was May 24, 1898. The
following telegram was immediately dispatched to the Secretary of the
"OREGON arrived. Have coal enough to reach Dry Tortugas
in 33 hours. Hampton Roades in 52 hours. Boat landed through
surf awaits answer."
Again word went out all over the town. The ladies of Jupiter now
gathered at the station and got their heads together, the outcome of which
was a banquet and dance which did our little town credit. Nothing was
too good for United States sailors, and especially from our noble battleship
Oregon. The jollification kept up all night, and at dawn, when the sailors
boarded their boat to return to the ship, they declared that they would
never forget Jupiter, Florida, and its citizens, and the wonderful reception
they had received there. The news given the Oregon's men that night sent
them full steam ahead towards the battle zone where they arrived in time
to go into action against Admiral Cervera's Spanish fleet as he sought to
escape the blockade effected by the Americans to keep his ships in Santiago
harbor. The cables brought word of the Oregon's great part in the naval
engagement; in fact she was given most of the credit for either sinking
the Spanish boats, or sending them to the beaches where they burned.
A little sequel to our story is this: The official hostess to the sailors
that evening was the charming young wife of the telegraph operator. During
the festivities she had asked the sailor sitting next to her at dinner for a
souvenir capband with the magic words on it and told the young man
which was printed the words, "U.S.S. Oregon." Several years later, she
was visiting her mother in Brooklyn, N.Y., when she learned that the
Oregon was in drydock there. She told her mother they must go down to
see her. When they reached the gates, the sailor guard told them no visitors
were allowed on board. Then the lady triumphantly brought forth her
souvenir capband, with the magic words on it, and told the young man
she was from Jupiter, Florida. The words and the band worked like a
charm. The sailor's face creased into a broad grin. He escorted the two
ladies to his superior officer, and they were received most cordially and
gallantly escorted over the ship. The men and officers remembered well
the evening at Jupiter and had proved that they were as good as their word.
Grandma was with us the night we experienced one of our worst
storms, and we were glad, for Papa was in New York on a buying trip.
In those days we were not given much warning about an approaching
hurricane. Our present day elaborate storm mapping systems were not in
existence then. "Old Timers" simply took notice of the appearance of the
clouds, the movement of the water, the closeness of the atmosphere, the
little "storm birds" which came inland uttering their plaintive cries; but
when the red flag with black center went up on the weather bureau
station, we commenced to prepare.
Our house in its exposed position on the hill commanded an un-
interrupted view of the anger of the ocean at such times. It seemed like
a vicious monster, curling its jaws, showing its teeth, lashing its tail and
sending the spume flying a hundred feet high.
We had stout shutters at our windows, so we did not board up as
DORA DOSTER UTZ
people do today. Mama laid in certain provisions. Before nightfall, Papa
closed the store and came up the hill. We had early supper, and put out
all fires and lamps. We stayed dressed throughout the night. Mama put
mops and old rags handy to soak up the water which was bound to seep
in around window and door frames. We sat in the dark and listened to
the screech of the wind, like thousands of high keening demons trying to
get at you; the roar of the surf, which could be heard for miles; the crash
of trees, or the blam of unidentifiable objects striking the house as they
flew through the air. The strain was terrific. We never knew when a wall
might buckle, or the roof be blown off; but Papa reassured us. He said the
little house had been built by inexperienced carpenters who used so many
nails and such pitch-filled lumber that the house was as heavy as lead
and that it might roll over like a box but would never break up.
But the night of the big storm, Papa was in New York, and Grandma,
Mama and we two children sat in the dark and listened to the tumult going
on outside. It must have been nearly midnight, when there came pounding
on the door and men shouting Papa's name. We made out "Your store has
been blown down." Mama opened the door and braced herself against
the fury of the wind. Fishermen in oil cloth stood on the porch and told
her the store was down and half awash, but so lodged on its pilings that
they did not think it would be blown out to sea. They said they had already
taken out as much as they could through the windows and put in the
vacant hotel across the dock. When they learned that Papa was absent,
they assured Mama that they would not hear to her coming out in the
storm, but if she would give them the key, they would try to get other
merchandise out; that they would keep an eye on the store and when
morning came, if it was still lodged securely, they would salvage what
else they could. They were as good as their word, and next morning when
the storm abated, they were able to carry more goods into the hotel. The
store was later raised again on its pilings.
After such a storm everybody went around next day, especially to
the beach, to see what had been washed ashore. I remember one large
freighter aground on a reef and breaking up fast in the pounding waves,
and the sailors working like fiends to get its cargo ashore before it did.
They had rigged a line to shore and were swinging as much of the cargo
over the water on that, as they could. Some of the crew were coming ashore
in breeches buoys. The whole town had turned out to watch this feverish
activity and, of course, to lend a hand if possible.
We took storms more or less in our stride. But moonlight nights
simply did something to us. The moon in the tropics is fuller, more efful-
gent, and more brilliant, it seems to me, than anywhere else. We made
full use of the waxing of the moon and planned soirees accordingly. Some-
times these evening entertainments were dances, which were now held in
the vacant saloon next to the abandoned hotel. Or, the life saving crew
would roll their big boats out on the sand and hold a dance in their station.
Sometimes they came around in their large boats and picked everybody up
and brought them to the dance, beaching the boats in a cove and everybody
walking the mile along a narrow, palmetto-bordered path, to the station,
keeping a wary eye out for snakes.
Then, by way of further amusement, there were the sailboat races
in which the lighthouse boys vied with the life saving crew for honors.
They called them "Cake Races" for a handsome cake, baked by one of
the ladies, was presented the winning crew by the prettiest girl in town.
These races, held in the late afternoons, were colorful and everybody
gathered to do them full justice.
Sometime several congenial parties got together for a turtle hunt.
These were always at the full of the moon and at a time when the big
"loggerheads" came up out of the sea to lay their eggs. Some of these
turtles weighed six or seven hundred pounds and were six or seven feet
in length. It took several men to handle them.
We packed picnic baskets in the late afternoon and went over to the
beach. We swam and played in the surf during the late afternoon and eve-
ning, then had our picnic dinner and put out the camp fire. As the evening
grew late we were quiet as possible, and some of the men would scout
the beach for a sight of the big turtle. Her trail was as wide as a wagon
trace as she scraped her way along with her big flippers to lay her eggs
high up in the sand dunes. If there was but one trail, we knew she was
still on the nest and had not returned to the water and the men watched
to intercept her before she regained the sea. It took the combined strength
of several men to turn the turtle on its back where it was helpless. They
returned next day to butcher it and pass around the delicious steaks. While
we were not particularly fond of turtle eggs, it was fun to hunt out the nest.
The "loggerhead" often made false nests to fool bears and panthers who
were particularly fond of the eggs, so we often dug into several turtle
wallows before we found the real nest with its hundreds of soft-shelled
eggs. Once the turtle had laid her eggs, she left the hatching of them to
the sun and the sand. When the baby turtles emerged from their shells,
they were fully equipped to fend for themselves. Often we took some of
the eggs home and re-covered them in a damp place near the river bank,
where in time they hatched and became our playthings; but usually we
DORA DOSTER UTZ 57
turned the little turtles loose to find their way back to their natural habitat,
the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.
Turtle meat and the eggs as well were considered a great delicacy
in many northern markets, and the shells had many industrial uses. So,
once Papa conceived the idea of going over to the Bahamas for a boatload
of turtles to be shipped north. There would be a nice profit in this. He
secured the services of Will Bostick, a colored man, who had been a section
hand on the Celestial until it was dismantled and who professed to be a
seasoned sailor and thoroughly familiar with the route to the Bahamas
since his wife lived there. They set sail, but after many days they were
still not out of sight of the Florida coast, although Will kept declaring:
"Ise goin' to kiss my wife in Bimini's Land in the mawnin'."
They finally made it to the Bahamas and returned with a boat load
of fine turtles, but Papa never tried it again.
Sailing In South Florida Waters
In The Early 1880s
Edited by JOHN F. REIGER*
The usual route to .. [Cape Sable] from Key West is to take the East
Channel and proceed to Bahia Honda, and thence across to Cape Sable;
but not wishing to retrace that portion of our route to Bahia Honda, I
resolved to add variety to our voyage by going to the westward and north-
ward of the keys, or on the Gulf side, then sailing eastward to Key Vaccas,
thence due north, thirty miles to East Cape Sable. Accordingly, we left
Key West by the Northwest Channel, leaving all the keys to starboard,
and anchored before sundown at N.W. Boca Chica, a small key with a
beautiful sandy beach, some ten miles northwest from Key West.
The Florida Keys, like the southern portion of the peninsula, are of
recent formation, and underlaid by oolitie [sic] and coral limestones. These
coral lime rocks are formed by the action of the waves and weather upon
the calcareous secretions of coral polyps, those beautiful "Flowers of the
Sea," which are still building . on the outlying submerged reefs ..
The fishes about the keys are very handsome, both in form and coloration:
silvery, rosy, scarlet, brown and golden bodies, with sky-blue, bright yellow,
rosy or black stripes and bands, or spotted, stellated and mottled with all
the hues of the rainbow, and with jeweled eyes of scarlet, blue, yellow or
black; fins of all colors and shapes, and lips of scarlet, yellow, blue or
silver. Some of the larger keys, [such] as Sugar-loaf, .. .Pine and Largo,
contain a few deer, and some of the oldest settled ones harbor a few bevies
of quail, but most of the keys of the Florida Straits are barren of game.
The next morning, with a splendid breeze from the southwest, we
left N.W. Boca Chica, and under the lee of the keys we made good time,
arriving at Key Vaccas in the afternoon. The spongers and fishing smacks
were lying at anchor under the different keys as we bowled merrily along,
the wind being too high for them to pursue their vocations. At Key Vaccas
we found several brothers, named Watkins, with their families, all "conchs,"
who had quite a large clearing, or "cultivation," as they called it, and who
were raising tomatoes and other vegetables for Key West and the Northern
*Dr. Reiger is a member of the History Department at the University of Miami.
PART I appeared in Tequesta, XXXI (1971).
JOHN F. REIGER
markets. The soil is thin and very rocky, but rich, and produces well.
There is a fine spring of excellent water pouring out of the sharp and
jagged rocks of this key, east of the Watkins settlement, where we filled
our water casks. We collected a number of beautiful land shells . and
a rich variety of botanical specimens, for we stayed here the following
day, the wind having backed up to the north, blowing hard. The next day
thereafter, however, it hauled to the eastward, when we again set sail,
due north, for East Cape Sable. We were out of sight of land for two hours
until we sighted Sandy Key, and made the cape in six hours sailing from
Key Vaccas. Had we not gone to Key West we should have crossed to the
cape from Long Key or Channel Key. Very small boats can cross from
these points, and ... be in sight of... keys ... all the way, but the water
is shallow, with numerous banks and shoals of sand.
We sailed eastward of East Cape Sable to the mainland, where there
is abundance of deer, turkey and other game. We here saw for the first
time that magnificent bird, the flamingo,' with great numbers of egrets,
rosy spoonbills, and herons. The next day we passed East Cape Sable and
proceeded to the Middle Cape, or Palm Point, where there was a house.
We landed to call on the occupant, who was very desirous for us to stop
a day or two to kill some deer, which were plentiful, but being pressed
for time we kept on to the N.W. Cape, and a few miles further on entered
Cape Sable Creek, where we anchored. This creek is an admirable harbor
for small boats, and the only one near Cape Sable. With a narrow entrance,
some twenty feet in width, it soon expands into a roomy basin, quite deep,
where a vessel can be safely moored alongside a sand spit running out
from the shore; a hurricane blowing outside would not ripple the water
of this quiet basin. Sharks and other large fish may be harpooned or grain-
ed from the deck of the vessel, or with line and hook the angler can get
a surfeit of fishing. The stream heads in a large lagoon back of the cape,
the resort of innumerable waterfowl and aquatic birds. The region about
Cape Sable is the best south of Charlotte Harbor for camping, hunting
and fishing, there being a broad, smooth, sandy beach all around the
cape, abounding in beautiful shells and other marine curiosities, with good
dry ground for camping, and an abundance of game on the savannas and
in the pine woods and hamaks.
From Cape Sable Creek to Pavilion Key there is a succession of
mangrove keys and islands, and but very little beach or hard ground.
Between these points lie Shark, Lostman's, Harney's and other rivers, and
Whitewater and Chatham bays, which are studded with the "Thousand
IThough once quite abundant in southern Florida, the flamingo was never known to nest
here. Today, the bird appears in the state only as a rare straggler.
Islands"; had they been called "Ten Thousand Islands" it would have been
a more appropriate name.2 This whole region lies in Babia Ponce de Leon.
It is from ten to twenty miles from the Gulf to the mainland, which latter
can only be reached by following the intricate channels between these
numberless so-called islands, many of which have not a particle of soil,
being merely clumps or thickets of mangroves. It would take a month or
more to get an idea of Whitewater and Chatham bays by penetrating to
the mainland and to the Everglades, and as we were already behind time
we did not attempt it, leaving that unexplored region for a more convenient
Mangroves here grow to be tall trees, as tall as water oaks or even
pines. There are small bunches of them, and great forests of them-nothing
but mangroves, mangroves. It is wonderful how these mangroves grow,
and, when once started, how rapidly they increase. The seeds are about
as long and of the shape and appearance of the old-fashioned "long nine"
cigar. These fall into the mud or shallow water and soon take root, the
upper end giving off shoots, which, growing upward, send down other
shoots or roots parallel with the main stems, and these taking root, again
grow upward, and the parent stem as it continues to grow continues to
send down other branches or roots to the water. I have seen these pendent
branches descending twenty feet to the water, as straight and smooth as
an arrow, and an inch thick. I have walked a quarter of a mile through
a mangrove thicket on the lower arching roots, two or three feet above
the water, where there was not a particle of soil. But in time, drift, sea
weeds and shells accumulate about the roots, and floating seeds lodge and
germinate, so that at last an island is formed and lifted up above the sur-
face of the water.
Another reason for our not tarrying long in this section was the
scarcity of water. Our supply was getting short, and there had been no
rain on the southwest coast for four months. We attempted to go up one
of the creeks to the mainland or to fresh water, but the ebb tide left us
aground and we were forced to return on the next tide. The water in
these bays is quite shallow, so with an offing of several miles in the Gulf
we sailed for Chuckaluskee3 . where we expected to get a supply of
water from cisterns at that settlement, the first north of Cape Sable. Stop-
ping at Pavilion Key we found a boat with two men who told us the cis-
terns at Chuckaluskee were dry, so we went on to Panther Key and anchor-
ed for the night.
2The area just north of Pavilion Key has in fact become known as the "Ten Thousand
3Henshall spells the hamlet's name the way it's pronounced, but the more usual peeling
JOHN F. REIGER
We went ashore at Panther Key the next morning, where we found
a hut and a bright-eyed old Spaniard and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. John
Gomez. Old man Gomez is a noted character on the southwest coast, having
lived there for thirty years or more. He is reputed to be a hundred years
old.4 He told me that he went from Spain to St. Augustine when a young
man, ten years before Florida was ceded to the United States, which would
make him about that age. He is held in wholesome dread by the settlers,
who throw out dark hints of his having been a slaver, and even a pirate in
his younger days; but "He was the mildest mannered man that ever scuttled
ship or cut a throat." He had a plantation up the creek, near Panther Key,
but [with] his well going dry, he had come down to his place on the key,
where there was a shallow well with about six inches of brackish water.
But he informed me that there was a good well on Cape Romano, some
five miles to the westward. Gomez was under contract to furnish provisions
to a Government surveying party, who were then some six miles up the
creek on the mainland. His schooner had gone to Key West for provisions,
and he was daily expecting her ...
We departed for Cape Romano, where, on the southerly shore, a
quarter of a mile from the extreme point, we found a well of excellent
water, from which we replenished our water casks. We took a ramble on
the beach, where we found great quantities of shells, sea-urchins, star-
fishes, seafans, sponges, etc. We then sailed for Cocoanut Key, five miles
E.N.E. from Cape Romano where there is a pass leading to Marco and
Horr's Islands. We anchored off Goodland Point on Marco, near the house
of Capt. Roberts,5 who has a fine plantation of tomatoes, bananas, etc.
These islands are high, with good soil, and are very productive; but the
long drought had told on the plants. Capt. Roberts owns a fine schooner,
in which he carries his fruits and vegetables to Key West in their season,
and at other times engages in fishing, turtling and sponging. On Horr's
Island I found Capt. Horr, formerly of Ohio, who was well located for
raising sub-tropical fruits and early vegetables, for these islands possessed
the best soil I saw on the west coast. At the west end of Marco, near Cax-
imbas Pass, a brother of Capt. Roberts has also a large and excellent
plantation, and on its northerly side is the location of Capt. Collier,7 who
also owns a good weatherly schooner, transporting his produce to Key
41t is unlikely that Gomez was a century old in 1882, for he lived until 1900, which
would have him almost 120.
5The "Roberts" referred to here is probably one of the brothers who came into the region
in 1870, settling first on Fakahatehee Island.
6Although he gave his name to the island, John F. Horr used his home there mainly as
a vacation retreat; he spent most of his time in Jacksonville and Key West.
7W. T. Collier founded the town of Marco, having arrived on the island in 1870, The
Collier spoken of here is either W. T. or, more likely, his son: W. D. ("Captain Bill")
West. This is a fine settlement, very pleasantly situated, the waters teeming
with fish and turtles, green and loggerhead, and the flats with clams and
oysters. Immense tarpum and jewfish are speared under the mangroves
with "grains," a stout, two-pronged fish spear, in the use of which these
people are very expert.
The boat being poled quietly along the fringe of mangrove bushes
at the edge of the channels, the man standing in the bow with the grains
ready at length spies a great tarpum some six feet long, like a giant fish
of burnished silver poised motionless in the shade. When within striking
distance he hurls the grains by its long handle with a skillful and dexterous
thrust and an unerring aim, born of long experience, which strikes home
with an ominous thud, when the monster tears away, with a tremendous
spurt, leaps clear of the surface, and, falling back, makes the water fairly
boil and seethe in his desperate efforts to escape. But the barbed grains
hold fast and the long, stout line is as tense as a bowstring. The great
fish tows the boat around like a cockle-shell, until his fierce struggles and
grand leaps begin to tell on him, and at length he is towed ashore com-
pletely exhausted. Sometimes the boat is capsized or swamped by an un-
usually large and powerful fish, but, as I have mentioned before, these
"Conchs" are almost amphibious, and seldom lose their fish, even under
the most adverse circumstances ....
The mud flats about Caximbas Pass at low tide swarm with . snipe
and shore birds, and at flood tide the channels under the mangroves teem
with redfish, groupers, and snappers, while near the beds of . oysters
are schools of sheepshead and drum. In fact, all of these passes and inlets
of the west coast are fairly alive with fishes, from the mullet to sharks
and sawfish. While lying in his bunk, one can hear all night long the voices
of the deep, under and around him. The hollow, muffled boom of the
drumfish seems to be just under one's pillow; schools of sparoid fishes
feeding on shellfish on the bottom sound like the snapping of dry twigs
on a hot fire; while a hundred tiny hammers in the hands of ocean sprites
are tapping on the keel. Then is heard the powerful rush of the tarpum,
the blowing of porpoises, and the snapping jaws of the sea-trout among
the swarms of mullet, which, leaping from the surface by thousands, awake
the watery echoes like showers of silver fishes falling in fitful gusts and
On the islands about Caximbas Pass are many shell mounds, bearing
witness to the many "oyster suppers" enjoyed by the aboriginal inhabitants.
From the proximity of wild lime and lemon trees, it may be presumed that
they took them "on the half shell," and also in the form of "box stews,"
JOHN F. REIGER
if we may judge from the fragments of pottery and fire-coals scattered
through the heaps....
We left Caximbas Pass in the middle of the forenoon, with a north-
west wind, sailing close-hauled all day until an hour before sundown, when
we put into Estro [sic] Pass for the night.8 We had just made everything
snug; the kingfish was sputtering in the frying pan, the venison broiling
over the coals, and the aroma of old Government Java was ascending
toward the mastheads, when a small schooner also put in and dropped
anchor on a shoal within fifty yards of us. The sails were lowered away
and furled by the crew, which consisted of a solitary one-armed man.
In a short time the receding tide left the little schooner aground, when
I went over in the Daisy to see if we could be of any service.
"Oh no," said the combined skipper and crew, "she'll lay all the
easier aground, and she'll be afloat time enough for me in the morning ..."
Then making a fire in his little stove he began preparing his supper.
He had a cargo of bananas for Cedar Keys. This man, from the habit of
hunting alligators in the summer, had obtained the sobriquet of "Alligator
Ferguson," and was a character of some note on the west coast. After
supper he came over to the Rambler and assisted the boys in shark fishing,
regaling them, between bites, with accounts of his prowess in hunting the
huge saurians, which with him had become an all-absorbing passion.
"What I don't know 'bout 'gators, gentlemen," said he, "the 'gator don't
know himself. If I can ketch his ugly eye, I can tell jist what he's thinking'
'bout. If he sees me a coming' with old 'Sure Death,' my big Springfield
rifle, . sez he, 'Thar's Alligator Ferguson; my hide's good as off; my
teeth's good as gone; . far'well to Flurida!'"
.. We left Esters [sic] Pass9 with a northwest wind and put out into
the Gulf about a mile. Squire and Jack were trolling and caught several
kingfish and bonitos, both of the mackerel family. . We caught them
from ten to fifteen pounds in weight. In trolling for these fishes a stout
braided line is best, though the coasters generally use . cotton codfish
lines. A well-tempered codfish hook, with a long shank and a foot of
stout copper or brass wire is necessary to withstand their sharp and num-
erous teeth. The usual bait is a strip of white bacon rind, six or eight inches
long, cut in the semblance of a fish, with a slit cut in the upper end and
one in the middle, through which it is impaled or strung on the hook,
the upper end being firmly secured by small wire. A block tin squid or
a very heavy spinner is, however, a better lure ..
sPresumably Henshall is speaking of Estero Bay.
9See footnote No. 8.
We saw many of the beautiful little flying fishes, but failed to secure
a specimen. When within eight miles of Punta Rassa, and off Sanibel Island,
we encountered a school of devil-fishes . ., twenty or more.'0 These
monsters were from six to fifteen feet from tip to tip of their wing-like
pectorals. We sailed close enough to have harpooned some of them, but
we lacked the harpoon or lily iron; and as Skipper looked at them he
said he was glad we forgot to procure one in Key West as intended.
We found the famous Punta Rassa to consist of but three or four
buildings and a wharf. It is a low, flat point at the mouth of Caloosahatchee
River ... which, during the periodical overflow of the river, is many feet
under water; consequently, the houses are mounted on posts. A large
building is occupied as a telegraph office, the shore end of the Havana
cable being at this point. The office of the United States Signal Bureau
and the post-office is also in this building. Col. Summerlin" occupies the
building at the wharf. Although a small place, Punta Rassa is important
as a shipping point, as the cattle from the ranges of Southern Florida are
all driven here and shipped to Key West and Havana. The cattle interest
of Florida is quite extensive and yields a large amount of money annually.
Key West and Cedar Key steamers touch here twice a week. A small
steamer, the Spitfire, runs up the river as far as Fort Thompson,12 and also
makes trips to various places on Charlotte Harbor.
Sanibel Island, . opposite Punta Rassa, is renowned for its fine
fishing. The angler can here fairly revel in piscatorial abandon and cover
himself with piscine glory and fish scales. If ichthic [sic] variety is the
spice of the angler's life, Sanibel and its sister keys are the Spice Islands.
Sharks, rays and devil-fish, tarpum and jewfish, redfish, snappers and
groupers, Spanish mackerel and kingfish, sea-trout, bonito and crevalle,
lady-fish and sergeant fish,3 sheepshead and drum, [and] a host of smaller
fry-spots, grunts and porgies, and the ever-present . catfish can here
be jerked, and yanked, . and pulled, and hauled until the unfortunate
angler will lament that he was ever born....
The entrance to Caloosahatchee River .. is beset with oyster reefs,
but the channel is staked, and by keeping a sharp lookout the cruiser will
have no trouble. The river from Punta Rassa to Fort Myers, twenty miles
above, is a large one, as broad as the St. Johns below Palatka. Vast pine
loThis area of the Gulf became well-known for its huge "devilfish" or manta rays. Among
the fishermen who journeyed here to battle the behemoths was Theodore Roosevelt
II Jacob Summerlin was Florida's greatest cattleman.
12During the Second Seminole War, Fort Thompson was established at the head of the
Caloosahatchee by the forces of General Persifor S. Smith.
13"Sergeant fish" is another name for the cobia.
JOHN F. REIGER
forests lead up to the banks on either hand, rendering this portion of the
stream somewhat monotonous.
Fort Myers is quite a neat and thrifty village, with a church or two,
several stores, a telegraph office, and some comfortable dwellings with
tastefully arranged grounds. Some of the wealthiest cattlemen of Southern
Florida reside here, and their wholesome influence is everywhere apparent.
We arrived at Fort Myers on Sunday, and at night all hands and the cook
attended divine service. I was surprised to find so much conventional
style in a place, seemingly, so distant and so isolated from all the world.
I could not realize that I was in the wilds of Florida while gazing upward
at the lofty Gothic ceiling, with its chamfered and oiled rafters, or at the
new cabinet organ, the font and lecturn [sic], or at Jack flirting with a
pretty girl in a .. Gainsborough hat and bangs.
Two or three miles above Fort Myers there is a group of small islands,
where the river narrows and becomes . the width of the average river
of Southern Florida; the banks become diversified with a greater variety
of foliage, while guarding them like fabled dragons are numerous and
large alligators. We moored the Rambler some ten miles above Fort Myers,
near a clump of palmetto trees, where there was a good landing of hard
ground, for the shores of this portion of the river are low and wet The
banks of streams generally on the west coast are much lower than those
of the Atlantic coast, and this is true also of the shoreline of the Gulf.4
We found deer and turkeys quite plentiful, and the hunting [was]
excellent on the burns in the open pine woods. We enjoyed our tramps
here greatly, for they were the first open woods we had found since leaving
Cape Sable. The next day while dressing a deer and some turkeys at the
landing, the little Spitfire went puffing by with a party of excursionists
from Fort Denaud'1 and Fort Thompson, .. .
One day as I was returning to the schooner I ... heard ... a rattle-
snake, but as the place was thickly grown with tall grass I could not see
it, and did not care to search for it in such a place. The boys [came] . .
along shortly afterward, [and] Cuff pointed two, they having crawled out
into a more open space, when they were shot and brought in for Skipper's
dinner, but he . preferred venison or turkey, or even black bass, to
snake diet. These snakes were fully five feet long and three inches in
14The different appearances of the Gulf and Atlantic coastlines result from the fact that
the western shore is sinking into the sea while the eastern shore is rising from it.
150n the south bank of the Caloosahatchee, Fort Denaud was established during the Sec-
ond Seminole War by the forces of General Persifor S. Smith.
An episode of a serio-comic nature occurred to Jack at this place.
He had gone hunting before breakfast, and losing his bearings, when but
a quarter of a mile from the Rambler, he became himself a bewildered
rambler in the, to him, limitless pine woods of Southern Florida. Being
lost under such circumstances is sometimes a serious matter, owing to
the unvarying monotony of the surroundings. He did not return until after
sundown, though during the afternoon we had searched for him in every
direction, shouting and firing guns repeatedly, and had given him up for
the night, after setting fire to the scrub to guide his wandering footsteps
campward. Just before dark I perceived him, afar off, heading toward
the schooner. As the boys fired a volley I sprang into the rigging and
waved a white handkerchief, which he observed, and [he] made toward
us on the double-quick, swinging his hat all the way. He arrived footsore,
weary and hungry, for he had not ceased walking all day, except for a
half hour, when he stopped at a deserted cowboy's hut in the afternoon.
Here he had made up his mind to stay for the night; and finding a pile
of new cypress shingles, he wrote out a full account of the party and its
objects, and where his friends might be addressed should he perish in the
lonely flat woods. He then placed the "shingular" record in a row in a
conspicuous place in the hut, with the first shingle inscribed in large letters:
"Read and Act." He took another shingle and made a map of his supposed
whereabouts, the course of the river, and the location of the schooner.
After studying this for sometime, the idea dawned upon him to strike
out in the opposite direction to where he supposed the schooner to lay,
and acting upon this impulse he came straight toward us until I observed
him, as stated. And strange to say, though he had seen the smoke from
the fire, and the head of the mainsail, which we had hoisted as a con-
spicuous object, he could not believe that it was the Rambler, so confused
had his ideas of location become, until he heard the guns and saw me
waving the handkerchief . .
Just above our camp was Twelve Mile Creek, and twenty miles above
Fort Myers is a telegraph office where the line crosses the river. Still
further up the river are Fort Denaud and Fort Thompson. At the latter
place is the falls or rapids. In the neighborhood of Fort Thompson the
soil is rich and deep, but subject to annual overflow, as is all the Caloosa-
hatchee country. It is claimed that the canal which was being dredged
from the Caloosahatchee to Lake Okechobee, by way of the Flirt and
Hickpochee lakes, will prevent this overflow and drain all that flat section
of country; but how the overflow of the river during the rainy season is
to be prevented by bringing the waters of Lake Okechobee into it by
JOHN F. REIGER
a canal is hard to imagine, unless Okechobee can be drained to the
bottom, which is not probable.16
We returned to Fort Myers and Punta Rassa, and with a half gale
from the northeast sailed up [to] Charlotte Harbor with the little stern-
wheeler Spitfire ahead of us, the latter keeping well under the lee of the
islands and making but little headway. On Pine Island, a large one, which
we left to starboard, will be found a few deer. On our port was Sanibel,
at the northerly end of which is Boca Ceiga Pass,17 separating it from
Captiva Island, and northward of this is Lacosta Island with Captiva Pass
between them. On our starboard we passed a number of small keys and
islands, Bird, Useppa, Mandingo, etc. On some of these keys were rook-
eries of egrets, herons, roseate spoonbills, cormorants, frigate birds, etc.
We stopped awhile at a Spanish fishing ranche [sic] on Lacosta, just below
Boca Grande, the pass separating it from Big Gasparilla. We found here
a number of Spanish or Cuban families, but the season for fishing was
over. There are a number of these fisheries on the west coast engaged in
catching and curing mullet, finding a ready market at Key West and
Big Gasparilla and Little Gasparilla islands are separated by Big
Gasparilla Pass. Both of these islands contain deer, and the fishing at the
passes is excellent. On Big Gasparilla is another fish ranch, but the fisher-
men and their families had left for the season. Between two of the huts
we killed two large rattlesnakes over five feet long. Squire discovered the
first as he was in the act of stepping over it, as it lay stretched at full
length; . needless to say, the step was a long one. He despatched it,
and hunting around, we soon found its mate, which was also killed, and
both reptiles skinned ...
At Little Gasparilla we took all the usual variety of fishes, many
large sharks, and an immense jewfish, nearly as large as the one taken
at Jupiter; it weighed fully three hundred pounds, being six and a half
feet in length. Jack and I towed it ashore in the dingey, but even with
a charge of buckshot through its skull, delivered at a distance of only
two feet, we had a difficult job in beaching it, where, after dissecting it,
we rolled it in again for the sharks. The mud flats at Little Gasparilla . .
at low tide fairly swarm with bay snipe and shore birds, while brown and
16The efforts made in the early 1880s to drain overflowed land from Kissimmee to the
Caloosahatchee were not notably successful, for only about 50,000 acres were perman-
ently drained. Nevertheless, steamers could now travel from Kissimmee to the Gulf,
by way of Lakes Tohopekaliga, Cypress, Hatchineha, and Kissimmee, the Kissimmee
River, Lake Okeechobee, and the Caloosahatchee.
1?Though in many cases, Henshall's spelling is now merely archaic, here it is incorrect.
Boca Ciega is the correct Spanish spelling and literally means "blind mouth." This ex-
plains the origin of the present name for the cut: "Blind Pass."
white pelicans, gulls and gannets are fishing incessantly for mullet and
other small fry. They strike down among the schools of small fishes with
terrible force and a great splashing, completely demoralizing the little
fellows, who are gobbled up before they have discovered the cause of
the commotion. The piratical frigate birds, or man-o'-war hawks, sailing
gracefully overhead, swoop down and rob the industrious gulls of their
prey before they have time to swallow it
The noble bald-headed eagle and the magnificent frigate-bird are both
first-class sentimental frauds. We have watched the great American bird,
time and again, perched atop a lofty pine up the inland streams, sitting
motionless, in conscious pride as a king among birds and the emblem of
a glorious nation, in the interests of which he is supposed to be meditating,
with one eye upon the sun . and the other upon the maneuvers of an
industrious osprey fishing for a breakfast for its nestlings. Having secured
a fish, it starts off on joyous wing, when my noble eagle, casting to the
winds his solar observations . pursues with relentless fury the poor
fish-hawk, compelling it to drop its well-earned prey, which is instantly
seized by our noble bird ... [and] conveyed to his lofty perch, where he
ignominiously devours it ....
And the frigate bird or man o' war hawk, with its long forked tail,
the magnificent sweep of its pointed wings, stretching fully six or eight
feet from tip to tip, soaring aloaft [sic] with a grace and grandeur approached
by no other bird, commands our admiration and wonder until he reveals
his true nature by swooping down upon a poor little defenseless gull who
has just emerged from the water with a fish in its bill, and ere it can shake
the water from its eyes, the morsel intended for its callow little brood is
ruthlessly and remorselessly snatched away by this rapacious robber, who
thus prostitutes his mighty pinions and powers to such base purposes. ... .'
The beaches of the Gasparilla islands are rich in stores of sea-shells,
sea-fans, star-fishes, sea-urchins, shark's eggs, etc. While busily engaged
in picking up the treasures one day, two deer came out of the scrub about
fifty yards from us, and stood for several minutes gazing at the unusual
sight. After satisfying their curiosity they scampered off with their white
flags flying in the rear. We did not molest them, for we were already sup-
plied with venison.
Charlotte Harbor is one of the best points on the Gulf coast for
the sportsman. It is a fine body of water, with numerous keys and islands,
and nowhere will game or fish be found more abundant, while there is
IsActually, the frigate bird has a preference for fish much larger than the prey of small
gulls; the latter, therefore, are rarely molested.
JOHN F. REIGER
plenty of oysters, clams, crabs and turtles. The mainland can be penetrated
by several rivers: Alligator River in the west, Peace Creek in the north-
east, and Myakka River in the northwest portion of the bay. By sailing
or rowing up any of these streams, deer, turkeys and, if he wants them,
alligators, will be found in numbers to satisfy the greediest hunter, while
ducks, snipe, quail and shore birds are, to say the least, multitudinous.
The passes between the islands abound in fishes of endless variety. .. .
And if of an adventurous turn,... [a party] can sail up the Caloosahatchee
to Fort Thompson, and then proceed in canoes to Lake Okechobee.
We went outside at Little Gasparilla Pass with a south wind, about
noon, and at four o'clock entered Casey's Pass. Here I captured a large
white shark . and removed his formidable jaws as a trophy and memento
of the event. From Casey's Pass we sailed next morning with a southwest
wind. In passing Little Sarasota Inlet we saw the U.S. Coast Survey
schooner moored inside, and the men at work surveying the inlet. We
continued northward until we reached Big Sarasota Pass, through which
we entered Sarasota Bay. This is a fine body of water, though shallow,
and the mainland is dotted with homes of settlers. The drought still con-
tinued and water was scarce. At the fisheries on Lacasta and Gasparilla
there were good wells where we procured water, but we were now about
out of that necessary article. We sailed across the bay to a house, but
found no one at home, but as necessity knows no law, we filled our casks
at the cistern and proceeded on our way, camping near the head of the
bay. There is not much game in this vicinity, for being somewhat thickly
settled, the deer keep well back from the bay, nor did we see much smaller
game; consequently our stay was short. On one of the islands shutting
in the harbor is another fishery, and likewise one on Palma Sola Point on
the mainland at the head of the bay. There are many small keys and some
larger islands. . All of these we left to port as we sailed up the harbor.
Rounding Palma Sola Point we entered Tampa Bay, with the lighthouse
on Egmont Key to the northwest.
As we sailed into Tampa Bay we saw the steamer from Key West
sail in through the main pass, near the lighthouse on Egmont Key, and
proceed across the lower end of the bay to a small village, near the mouth
of Manatee River, and then continuing up the bay [it] met the steamer
from Tampa, where we left them transferring passengers and cargo. We
anchored at sundown near the mouth of Little Manatee River, and the
next morning sailed up to the old town of Tampa, which we found rather
a neat village, with some pretty residences surrounded by orange groves.
The barracks consist of a number of well-arranged and commodious build-
ings, models of neatness and good order. The grounds are tastefully laid
out with well-kept parade ground, lawns and drives, and magnificent
water oaks and other shade trees, rivaling our best parks in beauty and
attractiveness. Several companies of artillery are stationed here. There is
not much attraction for the sportsman about Tampa, on account of the
scarcity of game; for the invalid and tourist, however, it is a pleasant
place. Hillsboro River, the third of that name I have seen in Florida,
empties into the bay at Tampa, a small and uninteresting stream.
Tampa Bay is a large body of water some forty miles long and ten
miles wide, and is often rougher than the Gulf itself. We experienced
several days of squally weather there, with the wind continually shifting,
so that we were obliged to skip from one lee to another in quick succession.
We lost our large anchor on the east side, but found it again the next day
during a lull in the wind, but [with] a violent rain squall coming on we put
across to Papy's Bayou, near the mouth of Old Tampa Bay, where we
remained a day or two. The usual varieties of aquatic birds were here,
and one day I grained a sting ray in shallow water while in the canvas
boat, and had quite a tussle with it. We sailed down the bay to Point
Pinellas, anchoring in Big Bayou. Here were plenty of fine oysters and
fish. The peninsula lying between Old Tampa Bay and the Gulf and ending
in Point Pinellas .. is high and healthful, clothed with pine woods and
a few hamaks. Quail are quite plentiful, and fine sport may be had with
. . dog and gun in the open pine woods. Mr. W. P. Neild has a fine
orange grove near Big Bayou. The trees are eight years old, in bearing,
and look remarkably healthy and vigorous. There are a number of mango
and alligator-pear trees in the grove, with limes, lemons, guavas, shaddocks,
etc. I judge Point Pinellas to be one of the most salubrious and healthful
locations on the west coast. There are a number of ancient burial and
domiciliary mounds on the peninsula, and it seems to have been a favorite
resort or dwelling place for the prehistoric tribes. A lake near the point
is famous for its large and numerous alligators. On some of the keys
near Point Pinellas are deer and other game.
Rounding the point we left to port several large keys . and a
number of smaller ones, and stopped at Boca Ceiga Pass'9. . There is
a fine beach, thickly strewn with shells, sponges, sea fans, etc., and fre-
quented by pelicans, herons, cormorants, etc. We also saw here a few
flamingoes and roseate spoonbills.
Proceeding up Boca Ceiga Bay, we went out at John's Pass into the
Gulf with a light breeze. When within a few miles of Little Clearwater
Pass, we experienced a dead calm. The boundless Gulf became as smooth
19See footnote No. 17.
JOHN F. REIGER
as a sea of molten glass, while the setting sun loomed up, a huge red disc,
in the soft yellow haze. It was such a calm as is invariably the forerunner
of a storm, and we resolved to reach Little Clearwater Pass if possible
that night. Putting Jack ashore to walk up the beach to discover the inlet,
we poled slowly along in two fathoms of water, not far from the shore.
The sun then sank into the . sleeping sea like a great globe of fire,
sending up ... broad, fanlike rays of molten gold, diffusing tints of amber
and saffron through the dense and heavy atmosphere, while a deathlike
stillness pervaded the scene. The broad leaves of the palms fringing the
shore were in quiet repose, and nowhere o'er land or sea could be seen
the tremor of a wing or the ripple of a fin; not the slightest movement
was discernible. Even the pelicans, gulls and gannets had ceased fishing
and sat quiescent on the white beach. All nature had been seemingly
struck motionless as though by an enchanter's wand. The swish of the
poles as they were withdrawn, and the water dripping . from them
S. were the only sounds to be heard. Finally the yellow twilight seemed
to sink into the sea, the stars began to twinkle through the haze, and
the murky night closed around us.
Jack, returning toward the schooner from an unsuccessful search
for the inlet, set fire to the beach scrub as he walked along, causing a
long line of flame to shoot straight up into the still night, casting a broad
red glare far out upon the unruffled waters. After supper we put out a
second anchor, lengthened the cables, took in a double reef all 'round,
furled and stoppered the sails, made everything snug and turned in. About
two o'clock I was awakened by the main boom lashing around furiously,
and found the Rambler pitching, rolling and straining at the cables like
an untamed steed. I turned out to secure the boom, and groping around
in the darkness for the main halyard cleat, I caught hold of Skipper's
hand intent on the same office; it was so dark I could not see him. We
lowered the boom and furled sail to the deck and secured it, and then
looked out at the night.
What a contrast to the calm, serene and beautiful sunset of a few
hours before! Then all nature seemed asleep-now she was raging in a
perfect frenzy. The waters were tossed tumultuously, seething and hissing
before a gale from the southwest, drenching us to the skin with spray.
The swell was tremendous. It whirled and tossed the Rambler like a
cockle-shell, the cordage creaking, the shrouds shrieking and the halyards
rattling madly against the masts. The sky was black, the waters black,
and the shore line still blacker. Inky scuds flew across the sky, northward,
at a furious rate. The sombre sea heaved and rolled as in agony, with a
sickly pallor of phosphorescence that only rendered the darkness more
visible. The breakers roared and thundered on the beach but 200 yards
away. Oh, how we longed for daylight! We were bound for an inlet the
exact whereabouts of which we did not know, and were ignorant how to
enter it, if found, in the darkness. Skipper was for scudding before the
gale under the double-reefed foresail, but as the anchors were still holding
I counseled waiting for daylight, or so long as the anchors continued to
hold. After paying out more cable we waited and watched the eastern
sky for the first glimmer of the dawn.
It seemed as though the night would never pass away, but grew
even blacker, were that possible, while the gale increased in violence.
Squire and Jack were sleeping peacefully and calmly, perhaps dreaming
of loved ones at home. We did not wake them; we only marveled how
they could sleep so soundly with the elements at war around them. ..
Skipper and I sat in the cockpit watching the east with eyes of faith; but
. . would the day never come! We could not see each other, but our
pipes glowed fiercely red in the black night-sparks of comfort, indeed.
At last I saw a suspicion of dim light paling the eastern heavens, causing
the flying scuds to assume a shade less black. Then I heard a shore bird
"Skipper," said I, "the day is coming!"
Soon the eastern sky showed a faint change, like the passing away
of a dense mist, disclosing a heavy, dark curtain, against which could be
indistinctly outlined the palmettoes on shore. Then a slight rosy tinge,
like the delicate blush of a sea-shell, was perceived along the edge of the
horizon-a narrow pink border to the dark gray curtain-and at last
came the glorious day. We roused Squire and Jack, hoisted the reefed
foresail, hauled up the anchors, and fairly flew before the fierce gale. It
was but a few minutes ere we sighted the inlet, the breakers dashing fur-
iously over the bar. As we neared it the day broke brighter. Then we
rushed in between the lines of breakers, and over the narrow bar, and
through the narrow inlet, and a hundred yards further [on] we reached a
shelter and a harbor, with the water scarcely ruffled, under the lee of the
beach ridge, while outside the storm demons still raged and howled.
After breakfast a schooner came flying in [through] the pass under
a small sail rigged on a jurymast, her foremast having gone by the board.
We sailed across to Dunedin and anchored. Clearwater Harbor has a num-
ber of settlers, their houses appearing to good advantage on the bluffs,
surrounded by young orange groves. This is one of the few desirable points
on the west coast. The banks are higher than any place we had seen.
The bay is a fine body of water, shut out from the Gulf by several large
JOHN F. REIGER
islands, . with passes between. Fish and small game are abundant. At
Dunedin is a store and post-office. The next day we sailed for Anclote
River, fifteen miles above. Near the mouth of this river are two stores
and a post-office, and close by is an old Spanish well, where good water
can be obtained. They were expecting a railroad at this place, and we
found this same railroad expectancy and consequent "boom" at nearly
every place on the Florida coast; though what benefit would accrue to the
railroads was not apparent, for the transportation by sailboats seemed to
be amply sufficient for the produce of the country.z0 A few miles up An-
clote River is a large bayou, where good fishing may be had. Still further
up. the stream will be found Salt Lake and a salt spring, and near the
source of the river a sulphur spring. Off the mouth of the river lie the
Anclote Keys, behind which is a safe and deep anchorage, and where we
found a fleet of fishing smacks driven in by the gale. On the fishing banks,
some twenty miles off-shore, these smacks take red snappers for the
From Anclote we proceeded ten miles northward to Pithlachesticostie
River, called "Costie" for short, a small stream with its mouth completely
blocked by oyster reefs; and ten miles further north we came to Bayport,
at the mouth of Weckawachee River. The channels from the Gulf to the
mouths of these rivers, and those above, are staked. Near the wharf at
Bayport we ran on the broken mast of a sunken blockade runner, but got
off without sustaining any damage. Bayport is an old place of some note,
formerly quite important as a shipping point for cedar, It consists of a
store, post-office, and a few pleasant residences. It is a pretty place, with
some of the largest orange and lemon trees I saw in Florida. Mr. Parsons
is proprietor of the store, and will be found an agreeable and intelligent
We went up the river some two miles with the schooner, and then
proceeded to the head of the stream, about ten miles further, in the small
boats. The source of the river is a large spring, in a basin of an acre in
extent, surrounded by a rim or ridge of considerable elevation. This "White
Mountain Spring," as it is called, is a subterranean river bursting out at
this point with great force, giving to the river below a very strong current
until tide water is reached. The spring is fifty feet in depth and so clear
that one's boat seems . suspended in mid-air2' Great numbers of sheeps-
head and gars can be seen swimming near the bottom, but, as might be
expected, refuse to take a bait in water so clear. The smallest object
20Despite Henshall's feeling that a railroad was unnecessary, Henry B. Plant's South Florida
line soon entered the region, extending as far as Tampa by January, 1884.
?2A first magnitude spring (one that discharges at least a hundred cubic feet of water
a second), Weekiwachee is now a famous tourist attraction.
can be clearly defined on the bottom of pure white sand. The water boils
up through great rents in the coralline rocks at the bottom, the boil being
plainly seen at the surface. It is said that with a heavy cannon-shot the
largest rent has been sounded to a depth of ninety feet. At the bottom of
the spring, and for a short distance down the stream, are growing curious
water plants, whose small elliptic leaves exhibit tints of red, purple and
blue, which are reflected through the crystal waters with a strange and
pleasing effect. We were well repaid for our row up the river against the
strong current, in viewing the wonders of this spring. There is a store and
a dwelling on its banks, and a large schooner was resting on its bosom,
which had been built, and was being rigged, at this place. In the pine
woods near the spring deer are numerous, and turkeys are plentiful in the
Our return down stream with the current was an easy task and very
enjoyable, for most of the way is through dense, low and rich hamaks
abounding in semi-tropical scenery. Tall cypresses and palmettoes, swamp
maples and Spanish ash nod to each other across the narrow stream, while
the great white blossoms of the sweet bay and magnolia gleam like stars
amid the dark and glossy leaves and fill the air with delicious perfume.
The osprey hovers, screaming, over its huge nest on some . cypress;
the swallow-tailed kite soars gracefully overhead; the great blue heron
starts suddenly, with hoarse cry, from a secluded nook by the water's
side, and lazily flaps away, with its long legs sticking straight out behind;
and the ungainly water turkey or snake bird sits awkwardly on a limb
projecting over the stream, tilting back and forth in vain efforts to balance
rises from a large spring. Some of the rivers of the interior suddenly [sic]
undecided whether to drop to the water or take flight. Black bass, sunfish,
sheepshead and gar . with an occasional alligator, can be plainly seen
swimming along in the clear .. water.
Returning to the Rambler we put back to Bayport and up the coast,
ten miles, to Chessowiskee River. This part of the coast abounds in masses
of black rock, called "nigger heads," for which the cruiser must keep a
sharp lookout or he may come to grief, as they crop up to within a few
inches of the surface. This river, as do most of the streams in this section,
rises from a large spring. Some of the rivers of the interior suddenly [sic]
disappear under ground, and most probably . reappear at the surface
through these springs. At the mouths of the rivers are numerous oyster
banks where sheepshead and drum ... congregate. Ten miles further north
we come to Homosassa River, and following the tortuous channel at its
mouth we anchored a mile from the Gulf. The Homosassa is a beautiful
stream, unlike most others on the west coast. It rises from two large
JOHN F. REIGER
springs, and seems to have forced its way suddenly and with great violence
toward the Gulf, cutting its way through the rocky soil by numerous chan-
nels, leaving many islands of coraline [sic] rock crowned by cabbage palms
for the last four miles of its course.
The next morning we sailed up to the charming resort of Capt. A. E.
Jones, four miles from the mouth of the river. This is the most home-like
hotel in Florida, and under the able management of Capt. and Mrs. Jones
has become a favorite winter resort for many Northern sportsmen and
their families. There are two long buildings with spacious and comfortable
rooms, all on the first floor, shaded by verandas, and facing each other,
with a beautiful lawn between adorned by orange, lemon and fig trees,
with the beautiful river in front and orange groves in the rear. It was
formerly the home of Mr. Yulee,22 but was abandoned and burnt during
the war; the large sugar plantation adjoining, with its mills and machinery,
being also deserted and destroyed and permitted to lapse into a state of
tropical wildness. The fine fishing and hunting at this place is so well
known, having often being described in FOREST AND STREAM, that
I will not dwell upon it here; suffice it to say that we went out one day
with Mr. Giles and Mr. Curtis, both of New York, and hunted a strip
of hamak but a mile from the hotel, where I killed my last deer in Florida
before a young deerhound belonging to Mr. Giles. We went to the springs
at the head of the river in the schooner without difficulty under the pilotage
of Mr. Curtis.z They are similar to the other river springs of this section,
but the river itself, I think, is by far the most beautiful. To those wishing
the comforts of a home while enjoying the fishing, shooting, boating, sub-
tropical scenery and climate salubrity of the Gulf Coast, I would say, by
all means go to Homosassa and put yourselves under the hospitable roof
of Capt. and Mrs. A. E. Jones, whose efforts to secure the comfort and
well-being of their guests are untiring and proverbial, and moreover, you
will there meet with some of the best people of the North, to associate
with whom will be one of your greatest pleasures.
One night while anchored off the wharf of Capt. Jones I was awakened
by strains of melody floating over the water, and turning out I beheld
several large lights floating down the stream above us. Soon I discovered
it to be a long raft of cedar logs being poled along by negroes, whose
dusky forms were brought out in strong relief by the blazing fires of pine-
knots in hoop iron baskets, and whose clear and musical voices, singing
2 2ne of Florida's most important former citizens, David Levy Yulee is probably best
known for his long service as a United States Senator. The plantation ruins Henshall
visited are now a state historical memorial.
23Another first magnitude spring, Homosassa is acclaimed for its fish concentrations.
their . refrains, had been softened by distance and borne along the
surface of the water in the still night.
The next day we were anchored near the mouth of the river, laying
in supplies. Skipper was in the dingey tonging oysters. Squire was standing
on the cabin roof watching for ducks and shore birds. Jack had gone
ashore in the canvas boat to shoot snipe, while I was catching sheepshead.
A sudden flaw of wind sent the foresail sweeping over the cabin roof, the
boom striking Squire amidships and sent him sprawling into the river.
I seized the conch horn and blew a terrific blast to attract the attention of
the boys, for the scene was too good to enjoy alone. Jack and Skipper
looked over just as Squire emerged upright with the water up to his
As we passed out into the Gulf from the mouth of the Homosassa,
the negro boatmen were mooring the raft of cedar logs under the lee of
an island, to await the arrival of the little steamer that was to tow it up
to Cedar Key ... We put out into the Gulf some five miles, beyond the
group of Martin's Keys, and ten miles northward came to the Sweetwater
Keys off the mouth of Crystal River. The mouth of this river is beset
with oyster banks, but about it is a fine clear stream navigable to its source,
some twelve miles, where it arises from several springs, near which is the
village of Crystal River. Along this pure and beautiful stream the usual
fishing, game and oysters are to be obtained.
Ten miles further northward we came to the sand banks off the
mouth of Withlacoochee River-called "Coochee" for short. This is a
narrow, deep river, more than a hundred miles long, arising in Polk county,
to the eastward of Tampa, and [it] flows northward along the eastern
border of Hernando county, and thence westward to the Gulf. It is tiavi-
gable for some twenty-five miles. As this river penetrates so far into the
mainland, and flows through so extensive and varied a range of country,
where the finest hunting, shooting and black bass fishing can be enjoyed,
it is a desirable stream for the sportsman with a small boat. An entire
winter could be profitably spent on this river. Connected with it is Pana-
sofkee Lake, a large body of water but twelve miles from Lake Harris at
the head of Ocklawaha River. ... To the canoeist a delightful and inter-
esting trip would be from Jacksonville up the sluggish St. Johns and Ock-
lawaha rivers to Lake Harris, thence by a portage of twelve miles (by
wagons) to Lake Panasofkee and the Withlacoochee. From the mouth of
the latter river it is but twenty miles to Cedar Key, inside the Keys of
Waccasassa Bay, where the water is shallow and smooth.
Along the Withlacoochee the sportsman will find forests of pines,
JOHN F. REIGER
with deer and quail, broad savannas and cypress swamps, abounding in
herons, cranes, egrets, water turkeys, ospreys, eagles, etc., and ponds, lakes
and bayous, the resort of innumerable flocks of ducks, coots, plover, snipe
and curlew, while in the swamps and low hamaks can be found panthers,
bears, wild cattle and hogs, and in the high hamaks squirrels and turkeys.
. . On the coast, between the mouths of the Withlacoochee and Anclote
rivers, are numerous keys and many harbors, the rivers and creeks being
only from five to ten miles apart, while lying outside, parallel with the
coast and some ten miles distant, is St. Martin's Reef, breaking off the
force of the sea and rendering this portion of the coast as smooth as a
mill pond, and in consequence, the shores are green to the water's edge.
The rivers emptying into the Gulf between the "Coochee" and the
Anclote have their sources in beautiful and wonderful springs, which burst
out from the base of a high sand ridge running parallel with the coast, and
distant from it some twelve miles. This ridge is covered by open pine
forests, and eastward of it lie extensive hamaks of tropical luxuriance ...
From the mouth of the Withlacoochee we took our course northwest,
direct for Cedar Key, where we arrived in the afternoon on the first day
of May , and the "Cruise of the Rambler" was ended.
Cedar Key is now a thriving and flourishing city of several thousand
inhabitants. . Its principal industries are cedar and pine saw-mills,
fishing and turtling. It is the shipping point for the produce, and the com-
mercial emporium, of the west coast, being the western terminus of the
Florida Transit Railroad, running across the State from Fernandina, and
connecting the Gulf with the Atlantic. Lines of steamers connect it with
Tampa, ,. Key West and Havana, Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston.
There are several hotels: the Suwannee, the Gulf and Bettelini's, and many
good stores. The sportsman can be fitted out with everything needful for
camping and cruising except fine fishing tackle, fixed ammunition and
The visitor cannot fail to be interested in the cedar mills of the Faber
and Eagle Pencil Companies. The logs are here run through saw after
saw, until finally reduced to pencil stocks and pen-holders, when they are
packed in boxes and shipped East to the pencil factories to be filled and
polished. Even the cedar sawdust is utilized, being packed in casks and
sent to New York. Some of the machinery is very ingenious and interesting
and will well repay a visit. Cedar is becoming scarce, even in Florida, and
what we will do for pencil stocks when it is exhausted is hard to tell, for
no other wood will answer, and Florida cedar is the best in the world for
There are several fish houses where great quantities of fresh fish are
packed in ice and shipped North in the winter. Thousands of green turtles
are also shipped from this point. They are taken in gill-nets with a mesh
of eighteen inches. These nets are not staked down as on Indian River
on the east coast, but are anchored on the grassy banks and shoals, wher-
ever the turtles are found, sometime [sic] many miles from shore ....
At length, on the morning of the tenth day of May, I stepped aboard
the train of the Transit Railroad, and was soon rattling over the keys to
the mainland, leaving behind the broad bay, the white sails, the skimming
gulls and the mangroves. At last we were whirled into the pine woods and
hamaks, and I caught the last, grand and glorious view of the boundless,
blue Gulf, sleeping and shimmering in the bright morning sun. ...
24Part of Henshall's premonition proved correct. Although Americans never had to do
without pencil stocks, the excessive exploitation of timber was a decided factor in
Cedar Key's decline in the late 1880s. The impact of wasteful practices in commercial
lumbering and fishing on the community's history is illustrated in several exhibits of
the Cedar Key Historical Memorial.
LIST OF MEMBERS
Explanatory Note: The Association provides several classes of member-
ship. "Sustaining" members who pay ten dollars a year make up the basic
membership. For those who wish to contribute more for the promotion of
the work of the Association other classes of membership provide the op-
portunity, and the publication of their names in the appropriate category
of membership is a means of recognition. "Patrons" pay fifteen dollars a
year, "Donors" twenty-five, "Contributors" fifty, "Sponsors" one hundred,
and "Benefactors" two hundred and fifty or more. Honory Life Member-
ships are voted by the Board of Directors to recognize special services
to the Association.
This printed roster is made up of the names of those persons and insti-
tutions that have paid dues since September 30, 1971. Those joining after
September 30, 1972 will have their names in the 1973 roster. The symbol
** indicates founding member and the symbol indicates charter member.
Abbott, John F., Miami Shores Burghard, August, Ft. Lauderdale
Adams, Adam G., Coral Gables* Burns, Edward B., Las Cruces, N.M.
Adams, Eugene C., Miami Buswell, James O., III, Jamaica, N.Y.
Adams, Mrs. Richard B., Miami
Allen, Stewart D., Coral Gables Cables, June E., Homestead
Altmayer, M. S., Jr., Miami Campbell, W. A., M.D., Ft. Lauderdale
American Museum of Natural History, Capron, Mrs. Louis, West Palm Beach
New York, New York Carlton, Mrs. Patricia P., Ft. Lauderdale
Anderson, Ms. Marie, Miami Cartee, Mrs. Horace L., Coral Gables
Ansbaugh, Mrs. Fay X., Ft. Lauderdale Castillo, Robert, Miami
Arbogast, Keith L., Miami Catlow, Mrs. William R., Jr., Miami*
Ashe, Miss Barbara R., Coral Gables Cayton, Mrs. Leona Peacock, Miami
Chapman, Arthur E., Miami
Baber, Adin, Kansas, Illinois* Cherry, Hon. Gwendolyn S., Miami
Baker, Mrs. Rita L., Miami Chowning, John S., Coral Gables
Baldwin, C. Jackson, Miami Clark, Mrs. Marie, Coral Gables
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins, Miami Clearwater Public Library
Barbee, India Sue, Miramar Coconut Grove Library, Miami
Barnes, Col. Francis H., Miami Cole, R. B., Miami
Bates, Franklin W., Miami Coleman, Mrs. Florence B., Miami
Baxter, John M., Miami Beach* Conlon, Frank C., Hollywood
Baya, George J., Esq., Miami Conlon, Lyndon C., Hollywood
Belle Glade Municipal Library Connolly, William D., Jr., Miami
Bills, Mrs. John T., Miami Cook, Miss Mary C., Crownpoint, N.M.
Black, Leon D., Coral Gables Coral Gables Public Library*
Black, Mrs. Margaret F., Coral Gables Cormack, Elroy Calvin, Miami
Blount, Mrs. David N., Miami Cornell, George, Miami
Bloomberg, Robert L., Miami Coslow, George R., Miami
Boldrick, Samuel J., Miami Covington, Dr. James W., Tampa
Borton, F. W., Miami Crail, Lee, Miami Beach
Bower, Robert S., North Miami Beach Crane, Mrs. Francis V., Marathon
Bresnahan, Rev. John F., O.S.A. Creel, Earl M., Melbourne, Florida
Brevard Community College, Cocoa Creel, Joe, Miami
Brookfield, Charles M., Miami* Criswell, Col. Grover C., Citra
Brooks, J. R., Upper Key Largo Crowder, Mrs. Daniel B., Wheeling, W.Va.
Broward, Mrs. Chas. S., Jr., Coral Gables Culpepper, Mrs. Kay M., Miami
Brown, Dr. James N., Coral Gables Cummings, Mrs. J. F., Miami
Brown, William J., Coral Gables Curry, Miss Lamar Louise, Coral Gables
Brown University Library, Providence, R.I. Cushman School, The, Miami*
Brunstetter, Roscoe, Coral Gables
Budenz, Mrs. Margaret R., Miami Daryman, June N., Miami
Bullen. Ripley P., Gainesville Davis, Mrs. Carl H., Miami
Davis, Hal D., Coral Gables
Detroit Public Library, Detroit, Mich.
Dorothy, Mrs. Caroline, Coral Gables*
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman, Miami**
Dressier, Philip, Ft. Lauderdale
Drew, Miss Claire, Miami
Dubnick, Charlotte S., N. Miami Beach
Duncan, Marvin L., Miami
Dunn, Hampton, Tampa
Dusman, Mrs. Florence R., Coral Gables
Dusman, Gilbert H., Coral Gables
Edelen, Ellen, Miami
El Portal Womens' Club, Miami
Everglades Nat. His. Ass'n., Homestead
Finlay, James N., Miami
Fite, Robert H., Miami
Fleeman, David B., Miami
Flinn, Mrs. Gene, Miami
Florida Int'l. Univ. Library, Miami
Florida Technological Univ., Orlando
Ft. Lauderdale Historical Society, Inc.
Fortner, Ed., Ocala
Foss, George B., Jr., Esq., Miami
Freeman, Mrs. Ethel Cutler,
Fullerton, R. C., Coral Gables
Gardner, H. A., Miami
Garfield, Harvey T., Hialeah
Gatteri, Mrs. Kent M., Coral Gables
Gauld, Dr. Charles A., Miami
Giller, Norman M., Miami Beach
Glover, Miss Faye L., Miami
Godown, Mrs. Albert W., Ft. Myers
Goza, William M., Clearwater
Gramling, J. C., Miami
Gratton, Mrs. Joseph S., Miami
Green, Mrs. Lonsdale B., Miami Beach
Gregory, H. L., Coral Gables
Griley, Victor P., Miami
Gross, Dr. Zade Bernard, Largo
Halstead, W. L., Miami
Hampton, Mrs. John, Baltimore, Md.*
Hancock, Mrs. James T., Jacksonville
Hanks, Bryan, Fort Worth, Texas*
Hanks, J. P., Coral Gables
Harding, Col. Read B., Arcadia
Harrington, Frederick H., Hialeah
Harwood, Mrs. Manton E., Miami
Haydon Burns Library, Jacksonville
Hellier, Walter R., Ft. Pierce
Hendry, Judge Norman, Miami
Herin, Thomas D., Miami
Herin, Judge William A., Miami*
Hesslein, Frank, Miami
Hialeah, City of, Library Division
Hiers, J. B., Jr., Miami
Hill, Edwin IL, Jr., Miami
Hilles, Mrs. Margaret P., Coral Gables
Hills, Lee, Miami
Hillsborough County Historical
Hodsen, Mrs. Harry E., Miami
Holcomb, Lyle D., Jr., Coral Gables
Holland, George Russell, Miami
Hoyt, Robert L., Miami
Hubbell, Willard, Miami
Hudson, James A., Miami
Hudson, Mrs. James A., Miami
Hume, David, Miami
Henry E. Huntington Library,
San Marino, Calif.
Hutchinson, Mrs. Robert J., Coral Gables
Ingraham, William A., Jr., Miami Beach
Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, B.W.I.
James, Mary Crofts, Miami
Jasiecki, Dorothy F., Miami Lakes
Jones, Mrs. Edgar, Coral Gables
Jones, Mark B., Venice, Florida
Junkin, Mrs. Edson B., Lehigh Acres
Kanner, Mrs. Lewis M., Coral Gables
Kattel, G. Edward, Key Biscayne
Keep, Oscar J., Coral Gables
Kemper, Tim, Miami
Kitchell, Bruce P., Jr., Webster Groves, Mo.
Knight, Telfair, Coral Gables
Knott, Judge James R., W. Palm Beach
Knotts, Tom, Yankeetown
LaCroix, Mrs. Aerial C., Miami
Lake Worth Public Library
Lancaster, Dr. James W., Miami
Land, Mrs. Marjorie, Miami
Larrabee, Charles, Jr., Miami
Law, Mrs. J. B., Jupiter
Laxson, Dan D., Hialeah
Leary, Lewis, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Lebrun, Donald E., Coral Gables
Leffler, Miss Cornelia, Miami**
Leist, Virginia R., Opa Locka
Leon County Public Library, Tallahassee
Leonardy, Dr. Herberta, Miami*
Linch, Miss Frances L, Miami
Lindsley, Mrs. A. R., Miami Beach
Lippert, Mrs. Anne A., Miami
Locke, R. R., Coral Gables
Longshore, Frank, Miami
Losner, William H., Homestead
Loxahatchee Historical Society, Jupiter
Lunnon, Mrs. James, Page Page, Samoa
Malone, Randolph A., Coral Gables
Mangels, Dr. Celia C., Miami Shores
Mank, Mrs. R. Layton, Coral Gables
Manley, Miss Marion I., Miami
Marathon Public Library, Marathon
Marchman, Watt P., Fremont, Ohio*
Martin County Public Library, Stuart
Matheny, John W., Miami
Matheson, Bruce C., Goulds
Matheson, Mrs. Finlay B., Coconut Grove
Matheson, Mrs. Finlay L, South Miami
Matheson, Finlay L, South Miami
Matheson, R. Hardy, Coral Gables
Maxwell, Mrs. Arline, Miami
McDonald, Mrs. J. Martyn, Boca Raton
McElya, Norris, Jr., Miami
McKay, John G., Jr., Coral Gables
McNaughton, M. D., Miami
Miami-Dade Junior College, Miami
Miami Pioneers, Inc., Miami
Miami Public Library*
Mickler, Mrs. Thomas, Chuluota
Miller, Irving E., Miami Beach
Miller, William Jay, Miami
Minear, Mrs. L. V., Jupiter
Monk, J. Floyd, Miami
Monroe County Public Library, Key West
Montgomery, Mrs. Linda Marion,
Moore, Mrs. Jack, North Miami
Morningside Elementary P.T.A., Miami
Moss, Mrs. Harry N., Coral Gables
Moylan, E. B., Jr., Miami
Mudd, Dr. Richard D., Saginaw, Mich.
Muir, William Whalley, Miami
Muller, David Fairchild, Miami
Muller, Dr. Leonard R., Miami*
Munroe, Mrs. Wirth M., Miami
Mustard, Alice Isabel, Miami
Mustard, Margaret Jean, Miami
Myers, Ida P., North Miami Beach
Nehrbas, Mrs. Frances S., Miami
Nelson, Jon S., Miami Beach
Newberry Library, Chicago, III.
North Miami High School Library, Miami
O'Kane, Robert, Miami
Old Island Restoration Foundation, Inc.,
Orlando Public Library
Orseck, Robert, North Miami Beach
Overstreet, Estelle C., Miami
Palm Beach County Historical Society,
Pancoast, Alice A., Miami
Pancoast, John Arthur, Pompano Beach
Pancoast, Katherine French, Miami
Pancoast, Lester C., Miami
Pancoast, Mrs. Lester C., Miami
Pancoast, Peter Russell, Miami
Pardo, Mrs. Ramiro V., Miami
Parks, Merle, Miami
Patton, Mrs. Dan O., Miami
Payne, Mrs. R. W., Jr., Coral Gables
Peacock, Mrs. Albert, Jr., Coconut Grove
Pearce, Dr. Frank H., Coral Gables
Peeler, Miss Elizabeth H., Coral Gables
Pendleton, Robert S., Ft. Lauderdale
Pensacola Junior College, Pensacola
Perry, Dr. Charles E., Miami
Peterson, Stuart J., Miami
Pfaff, Robert M., Miami
Plant, Mrs. R. L., Miami
Pierce, Harvey F., Miami
Plockelman, Cynthia H., W. Palm Beach
Potter, Robert E., Hialeah
Proby, Mrs. Lucien, Jr., Miami
Proenza, Mrs. Morris G., Coral Gables
Quillian, Dr. Warren, II, Coral Gables
Rader, Earle M., Miami
Rader, Paul C., Miami
Rast, J. Lawton, Miami
Read, Mrs. Albert Cushing, Miami
Reed, Miss Elizabeth Ann, Delray Beach
Reiger, Dr. John F., Coral Gables
Renick, Ralph, Miami
Riviera Beach Public Library
Roberts, Bruce, Miami
Robinson, Mrs. Bruce, Miami Springs
Rogers, Robert C., Coral Gables
Roller, Mrs. G. Philip, Miami
Rollins College Library, Winter Park
Rosborough, Dr. Melanie R., Coral Gables
Ross, Helen, Benton Harbor, Mich.
Ross, Miss Mary I., Coral Gables
Ross, Mrs. Richard F., Delray Beach
Rubin, Mrs. Joseph, Miami
Sack, Frederick F., Miami
St. Vincent Seminary Library,
Sands, Harry B., Nassau, N.P., Bahamas
Scarborough, Mrs. Chaffee A., Miami
Scher, Mrs. Frederick, Miami
Schooley, Harry, Ft. Myers
Schuh, Robert P., Miami
Scribner, Mrs. K. J., Daytona Beach
Seley, Ray B., Jr., Miami
Serkin, Manuel, Coral Gables
Shiver, Otis W., Miami
Shiverick, Mrs. Thomas T., Miami
Shubow, Mrs. David, Coral Gables
Smathers, Frank, Jr., Miami
Smith, McGregor, Jr., Miami
Smith, Mrs. Robert Fitch, Miami
Smith, Mrs. Wm. Burford, Miami
Snodgrass, Miss Dena, Jacksonville
Snyder, Mrs. Frederick R., Sr., Miami
So. Illinois Univ. Libraries, Carbondale, Ill.
Spinnenweber, Richard P., Miami
Stamey, Ernest M., Hialeah
Stanford University Library
State Historical Society of Wisconsin,
Staubach, Mrs. Charles, Miami
Stewart, Franz H., M.D., Miami
Stewart, Dr. Harris B., Jr., Coral Gables
Stillman, Chauncey, New York, N.Y.
Stokes, Thomas J., Miami
Storch, William V., W. Palm Beach
Straight, Dr. William M., Miami
Stripling Insurance Agency, Hialeah
Sullivan, Catherine B., Bal Harbour
Sutcliffe, William H., Coral Gables
Sutton, Mrs. Norman E., Goulds, Fla.
Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C., Miami
Tampa Public Library, Tampa
Tarboux, Miss Frances, Miami Shores
Tardif, Robert Gerard, Miami
Taylor, Mrs. F. A. S., Miami
Taylor, Mrs. Nina, Coral Gables
Teasley, T. H., Coral Gables
Tebeau, Charleton W., Coral Gables*
Tebeau, Mrs. Violet H., Coral Gables
Ten Eick, Mrs. M. Nunez, Tampa*
Tennessee State Library & Archives,
Tharp, Dr. Charles Doren, South Miami*
Thomas, Arden H., South Miami
Thomas, Wayne, Tampa
Tio, Aurelio, Santurce, Puerto Rico
Thrift, Dr. Charles T., Jr., Lakeland
Tottenhoff, Mrs. J. R., Coral Gables
Twing, G. S., Coral Gables
Twing, Paul F., Miami
University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City
University of Miami, Richter Library,
University of South Florida, Tampa
University of Tampa, Tampa
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Van Beuren, Michael, Marathon
Vanneman, Mrs. Ruth C., Miami
Virgin, Herbert W., Jr., M.D., Miami
Vorel, Mildred, Miami
Walker, Evan B., Miami
Adams, Wilton L., Miami
Allen, Mrs. Eugenia, Miami
Archer, Ben, Homestead
Ayars, Erling E., Coral Gables
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Naples*
Baker, Mrs. John A., Miami
Beardsley, Jim E., Clewiston
Beare, Mrs. Richard, Miami
Bennett, 1st Lt. Richard R.,
Newport Beach, Calif.
Beriault, John G., Naples
Berkowitz, Dr. Samuel, Coral Gables
Bielawa, R. A.. Miami
Bleier, Mrs. T. J., Miami
Blumberg, David, Coral Gables
Bouwsma, Franklin G., Miami
Bowker, Mrs. Gordon R., Miami
Bumstead, Ewalyn R., Miami
Bumstead, John R., Miami
Burkett, Mrs. Chas. W., Jr., Miami Bch.
Burton, Mrs. Robert A., Jr., Miami*
Cameron, D. Pierre G., Miami
Campbell, Park H., South Miami*
Chase, C. W., Jr., Miami Beach
Combs, Walter H., Jr.,
Corwin, Dr. William, Coral Gables
Ware, Capt. John D., Tampa
Ware, Mrs. Willard M., Miami Beach
Warren, Jefferson T., South Miami
Warren, Mrs. Jefferson T., South Miami
Watters, Mrs. Preston H., Miami
Weintraub, Albert, Miami
Wellman, Wayne E., Miami
Wenck, James H., Miami
West Palm Beach Public Library
Wheeler, Mrs. Shirley C., Miami Beach
Whigham, Mrs. Florence R., Miami
Whitmer, Dr. Kenneth S., Miami
Wilkins, Woodrow W., Miami
Will, Lawrence E., Belle Glade
Williams, Harper, Miami
Williams, Mrs. Harper, Miami
Williams, Dr. H. Franklin, Coral Gables*
Williams, John B., Miami
Williams, Mrs. Joseph F., Hollywood
Williams, Robert Leigh, Tallahassee
Wilson, Peyton L., Miami*
Wilson, Miss Sara M., Miami
Wirkus, Mrs. Leonard V., Miami
Woore, Mrs. A. Meredith, Miami*
Wright, Dr. Ione S., Miami Shores
Wrigley, Mrs. Fran, Miami
Wynne, Jefferson, Miami Beach
Young, Montgomery L., Miami
Zimmerman, Augusta, Tallahassee
Cravens, Miss Jacqueline, Coral Gables
Crawford, Mrs. James W., Coral Gables
D'Alemberte, Mrs. Sandy, Miami
Deedmeyer, Mrs. George Joseph,
Deen, James, South Miami
Dismukes, William Paul, Coral Gables*
DuBois, Mrs. Bessie Wilson, Jupiter
Edwards, Robert V., M.D., Coral Gables
Erickson, Douglas, Miami
Ewell, Mrs. A. Travers, South Miami
Fascell, Dante B., Washington, D.C.
Ferendino, Andrew J., Coral Gables
Field, Dr. Henry, Miami
Fisher, E. H., Coral Gables
Florida Southern College, Lakeland
Florida State Library, Tallahassee
Fogarty, Mrs. Raymond, Miami
Franklin, Mitchell, St. Johns,
New Brunswick, Canada
Freeman, Harley L., Ormond Beach
Frohock, Mrs. Jack, North Miami
Fuchs, Richard W., Florida City
Fuller, Walter P., Clearwater
Gibson, Henry C., Jenkintown, Pa.
Gifford, Mrs. John C., Miami
Goldstein, Charles, Miami
Goldweber, S., Perrine
Hancock, Mrs. Eugene A., Miami
Harvard College Library,
Head-Beckham Insurance Agency, Inc.,
Highleyman, Mrs. Katherine D., Miami
House, Roosevelt C., Miami
Johnston, Thomas McE., Miami
Jones, Joseph Marion, Coconut Grove
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A., Coral Gables
Key West Art & Historical Society
Kincaid, Ben J., Coral Gables
Kolisch, Mrs. Joseph M., Miami
Krome, Mrs. William J., Homestead*
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E., Miami Shores
Lipp, Morris N., Miami Beach
Lloyd, J. Harlan, Miami
MacNeill, Malcolm G., Miami
Magnuson Corporation, Miami
McKey, Mrs. R. M., Coral Gables
McNaughton, Dr. Robert A., Miami
McNeill, Robert E., Jr., New York, N.Y.
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P., Coral Gables*
Merrick, Robert F., Islamorada
Miami Beach Public Library
Mitman, Earl T., Miami
Mueller, Edward A., Tallahassee
Nabutovsky, Barbara, Miami
Nelson, Theodore R., Miami Beach
Nettleton, Danforth I-, Miami
Nowland, Lucinda A., Alexandria, Va.
Otto, Mrs. Thomas Osgood, Miami Beach
Padgett, Inman, Coral Gables
Pancoast, Russell T., Miami
Pardue, Leonard, Miami
Pearce, Mrs. A. Dixon
Pendergast, Mrs. Eleanor L., Miami*
Pepper, Hon. Claude, Miami Beach
Philbrick, W. L., Coral Gables
Phoenix, Mrs. Julius W., Jr., Miami
Pierce, J. E., Miami
Admire, Jack G., Coral Gables
Admire, Mrs. Jack, Coral Gables
Angus, Mrs. Evalene K., Miami
Beal, K. Malcolm, Miami*
Beckham, W. H., Jr., Coral Gables
Biglin, Mrs. W. A., Ft. Lauderdale
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Blue, Mrs. R. L, Miami Shores
Piper, Jon K., Miami
Preston, J. E. Ted, Miami
Purvis, Mrs. Hugh F., Coral Gables
Quesenberry, William F., Coral Gables
Rice, Sister Elizabeth Ann, O.P., Miami
Russell, T. Trip, Miami
St. Augustine Historical Society
Shank, H. W., Coral Gables
Shaw, Dr. Luelle, Coral Gables*
Shaw, Mrs. W. F., South Miami
Shaw, William V., M.D., Miami
Shepherd, Mrs. William M.,
Flat Rock, N.C.
Simmonite, Col. Henry G., Coral Gables
Simon, Edwin O., Miami
Smith, Charles H., Miami
Snow, Selig David, M.D., Miami
South Florida Growers Ass'n. Goulds
Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J., Miami
Stanford, Dr. Henry King, Coral Gables
Steel, William C., Miami
Stiles, Wade, Palm City**
Swenson, Edward P., Jr., Miami
Thatcher, John, Miami
Thompson, Edward H., Miami
Thorpe, Fran Hutchings, Miami
Tibbetts, Alden M., Miami
Town, Miss Eleanor F., Coral Gables
Tussey, Mrs. Ethel Wayt, Miami
Underwood, Edwin H., Jr., Miami
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Van Orsdel, C. D., Coral Gables
Wakefield, Thomas H., Miami
Weintraub, Mrs. Sydney, Miami
White, Richard M., Miami
Whitehead, Mrs. Hugh T., Miami Shores
Whitten, George E., Miami Beach
Wimbish, Paul C., Miami Beach
Wolfe, Miss Rosalie L., Miami
Woods, Frank M., M.D., Miami
Wooten, Mrs. Eudora L., Miami
Wooten, James S., Miami
Yonge Library of Florida History,
Brannen, H. S., Miami Springs
Brodie, Mrs. Charlotte A., Miami
Buker, Charles E., Sr., Miami
Burdine, William M., Miami
Cain, Hon. Harry P., Miami
Cassidy, Owen J., Coconut Grove
Chaille, Joseph H., North Miami
Crow, Lon Worth, Jr., Coral Gables
Danielson, Mrs. R. E., Boston, Mass.
DeNies, Charles F., Hudson, Mich.
Dickey, Dr. Robert F., Miami
Dohrman, Howard I., Miami
Dunty, R. P., Jr., Lake Placid
Dunwody, Atwood, Miami
DePuis, John G., Miami
Elliott, Donald L., Miami
Eber, Mrs. Victor I., Miami
Feinberg, Mrs. David, Coral Gables
Fitzgerald, Dr. Joseph H., Miami
Fowler, Mrs. Walter H., North Miami
Franklin, Mrs. Sandra, Miami
Gabler, Mrs. George E., Miami
Gaby, Donald C., Miami
Gautier, Redmond Bunn, Miami
Hardie, George B., Jr., South Miami
Hardin, Henry C., Jr., M.D., Coral Gables
Highleyman, Daly, Miami
Hildreth, Robert R., Coral Gables
Howe, Mrs. Elden L., Coral Gables
Huston, Mrs. Tom, Miami
Jennings, Mrs. Alvin R., Miami
Johnson, Mrs. Kathryne I., Coral Gables
Kelly, J. Terence, Miami
Kislak, Jay L, Miami
Kistler, Robert S., Miami
Knight, John S., Miami
Kniskern, Kenneth F., Miami
Kolias, George C., Coral Gables
Lewin, Robert, Miami
Long, Mrs. William D., Miami
Barkdull, Thomas H., Jr., Miami
Belcher, E, N., Il, Miami
Calay, Victor N., Miami
Clark, Mrs. Mae Knight, Coral Gables
Harrison, John C., Miami
Hill, William H., Miami
Irvine, Mrs. James, Miami
Johnson, Mrs. Myron A. C., Miami
Jude, Dr. James R., Coral Gables
Jude, Mrs. James, Coral Gables
Lummus, J. N., Jr., Miami
Lynch, Stephen A., Jr., Miami
MacDonald, Robert G., Miami
Martin, Mrs. Kirby A., New York, N.Y.
McCabe, Dr. Robert H., Coral Gables
McCabe, Mrs. Robert H., Coral Gables
McCrimmon, C. T., South Miami
McKenna, Mrs. R. A., Coral Gables
Mead, Mrs. D. Richard, Miami Beach
Moylan, Edward N., Coral Gables
Murray, Miss Mary Ruth, Coral Gables
Nicolet, Mrs. Robert A., Miami
Nordt, Mrs. John C., Miami
Perrin, Mrs. John, Coconut Grove
Peters, Dr. Thelma, Miami*
Plumer, Richard B., Miami
Podhurst, Mrs. Aaron, Miami Lakes
Ross, Mrs. Stanley E., Coral Gables
Ryan, Mrs. J. H, Miami Beach
Ryder, Mrs. Jane, Coral Gables
Shipe, Paul E., Coral Gables
Smith, Wilson, Miami
Statewide Appraisal Service, Inc., Miami
Stephens, Radm. I. J. (ret'd), Miami
Taylor, Henry H., Jr., Miami
Wallace, George R., Miami Beach
Wessel, George H., V, M.D., Hialeah
Wilson, D. Earl, Miami**
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion H., Coral Gables
Wolfe, Thomas L., Miami
Wolfson, Col. Mitchell, Miami
Wolfson, Richard F., Coral Gables
Keyes Foundation, Inc., The, Miami
Link, E. A., Ft. Pierce
Parks, Mrs. Robert L, Coral Gables
Peoples American National Bank,
Randall, John J., Coral Gables
Southern Bell Tel. & Tel. Co., Miami
The Tribune, Nassau, Bahamas
Withers Van Lines of Miami, Inc., Miami
Grafton, Edward G., Coral Gables
Grafton, Martha P., Coral Gables
Graham, Mrs. Ernest R., Miami Lakes
Hudson, F. M., Miami**
Kaufman, Mrs. James M., Coral Gables
McHale, William J., Coral Gables
Mead, D. Richard, Miami
Parker, Alfred B., Miami
Peacock Foundation, Inc., Miami
Sellati, Kenneth N. G., Miami
Shaw, Henry Overstreet, Miami
Vance, Mrs. Herbert O., Coral Gables*
Burger King Corporation, Miami Florida Power & Light Co., Miami
Hill, Walter C., Miami
Brown, Daniel M., Jr., Miami
Carson, Mrs. Ruby Leach, Miami**
Rast, Mrs. J. Lawton, Miami*
Waters, Fred M., Jr., Coral Gables
Wilson, Gaines R., Miami**
Withers, James G., Coral Gables
Withers, Wayne E., Coral Gables
HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA, INC.
FOUNDED 1940-INCORPORATED 1941
John C. Harrison Dr. Thelma P. Peters
President Corresponding Secretary
Edward H. Thompson Jack G. Admire
Vice President Treasurer
Mrs. Edward G. Grafton Charlton W. Tebeau
Executive Vice President Editor Tequesta
Mrs. Robert L. Parks David T. Alexander
Recording Secretary Museum Director
Miss India Sue Barbee
Assistant to Museum Director
Mrs. Richard A. Beare Mrs. Lucien C. Proby, Jr.
Hon. Gwendolyn S. Cherry Ralph Renick
Miss Jacqueline Cravens Mrs. Stanley E. Ross
James Deen Kenneth N. Sellati
Charles A. Gauld Mrs. Thomas Shiverick
George B. Hardie, Jr. Dr. William M. Straight
Walter C. Hill Mrs. Herbert 0. Vance
Mrs. Finlay L. Matheson Woodrow W. Wilkins
Mrs. Robert McCabe Wayne E. Withers
William J. McHale Richard Wolfson
Leonard G. Pardue Mrs. James S. Wooten