Front Cover
 Florida’s clipper ship
 Reminiscences of the Lake Okeechobee...
 John Newhouse, upper Everglades...
 Who was Juan Ponce de León?
 The association’s historical marker...
 Financial statement
 List of members
 Officers and directors
 Back Cover

Title: Tequesta
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00027
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Holding Location: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705


This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 16 MBs ) ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Page 2
    Florida’s clipper ship
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Reminiscences of the Lake Okeechobee area, 1912-1922
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    John Newhouse, upper Everglades pioneer and historian
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Who was Juan Ponce de León?
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    The association’s historical marker program
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Financial statement
        Page 63
        Page 64
    List of members
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Officers and directors
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Back Cover
        Page 75
        Page 76
Full Text

C HtestA:


Editor: Charlton W. Tebeau




Florida's Clipper Ship
By Edward A. Mueller

Reminiscences of the Lake Okeechobee Area, 1912-1922
By Dorothy Darrow

John Newhouse, Upper Everglades Pioneer and Historian
By J. E. Dovell

Who Was Juan Ponce de Le6n?
By Charles W. Arnade


The Association's Historical Marker Program

60, 61, 62

Financial Statement

List of Members

Officers and Directors


,Ceat4etI*A: is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern
Florida. Communications should be addressed to 2010 North Bay-
shore Drive, Miami, Florida 33137. The Association does not assume responsibility for
statements of fact or opinion made by contributors.

63, 64

This Page Blank in Original
Source Document

Florida's Clipper Ship


The clipper ship era is rightfully regarded as the zenith of America's
white-winged sailing ship mercantile marine. Starting in the late 1840's and
lasting up to the Civil War, American clipper ships dominated the shipping
lanes of the world, especially the stormy passages around Cape Horn to
that promised land of gold-California.

Most sea-faring people speak somewhat knowingly and with fond affec-
tion of such famed craft as SEA WITCH, FLYING CLOUD, RAINBOW,
names that tell of the glorious and short-lived era when America truly ruled
the waves. Almost every school boy has been exposed to the fabled stories
of life in the clipper ship days-the sleek, lofty sparred craft with their
gutty captains, the bullying mates-that sailed with the setting of new
record performances uppermost in their thoughts.

Almost all clipper ships were built within a 300-mile radius of New
York City. The famed builders of these ships-men such as Donald McKay
of East Boston, William Webb of New York, to mention two of the best-
known consistently launched speedy ships from their shipyards using the
skilled shipwrights of New England and the rising tide of immigrants from
the Old World as the basis of their labor supply. All clipper ships were
"Yankee" in origin with one or two possible exceptions that were built south
of Virginia.


When the clipper ship frenzy was at its highest, several Floridians
decided to build such a vessel. Launched in Key West in 1856, the ship was
christened STEPHEN R. MALLORY after the then United States Senator
from Florida, who had spent much of his career in the U. S. Customs Service
and legal practice in Key West. Later, Mallory was to become the Con-
federacy's Secretary of the Navy, this appointment being based on his
experience as Chairman of the U. S. Naval Affairs Committee for a period
of years just prior to the War and also the political need for a FIoridian
in Jeff Davis' cabinet. Mallory was also the father of a later Stephen
Mallory who went to the U. S. Senate.

A very unique feature of the clipper, STEPHEN R. MALLORY, was
the use of mahogany timber in her construction! She was the only clipper
ever constructed of this relatively hard wood. Most builders used the
relatively soft pine woods of the northeast for their hulls. Both the mahogany
and the oak for the frame and ribs may well have come from Florida.
There were magnificent stands of mahogany on Madeira Bay and the upper
Keys, and there was an abundance of live oak grown in the state much sought
after for shipbuilding. She was built with iron and copper fastenings and
her hull was coppered in 1857. A survey taken at this time classed her as
No. 1, second from the top in eleven classifications.

Unfortunately, minute details on the MALLORY are lacking but she
was 164' long, 35' 9" wide, and her hold depth was 17' 101/ ". A medium
three-masted clipper of some 959 tons, she was described as not being
extremely sharp-lined but designed to be a good carrier with a fair turn of
speed. She had two decks, a round stern and a figurehead.

The MALLORY'S constructor was John Bartlum, a native of the
Bahamas who settled in Key West and built vessels there until his death in
1870. A son of his, George J. Bartlum, went on to become a several-times
Mayor of Key West around the turn of the century after employment in
the U. S. Customs Service.

Another native Bahamian, William Curry, was undoubtedly the prime
mover behind the building of the STEPHEN R. MALLORY. Moving to

1 These dimensions are "inside" hull dimensions and are used for calculating tonnage.
The length is that "between perpendiculars," the actual overall length was many feet
more. Her actual draft, when lying in the water, was listed as 20 feet.


Key West in 1837, then a hamlet of wreckers and fishermen, he started as
a clerk in the merchandising business. Also, in his youth he had served with
U. S. Naval forces as a quartermaster. During his period of service, the
Second Seminole Indian War was in progress. When the War was over, he
served a clerkship in Key West before teaming up with George L. Bowne
in a partnership in 1855. Bowne and Curry were interested in the salvage
of the numerous wrecked vessels in the area of the Florida Keys and most
especially in the furnishing of supplies and ship's stores to the wreckers.
Bowne and Curry also built ships, including two pilot boats, the G. L.
BOWNE and EUPHEMIA, the latter being named after Curry's wife who
was a daughter of Captain John Lowe, a prominent wrecking captain. In
1846, the young firm met with disaster as a severe gale destroyed their store
and much of their general merchandise. Bowne and Curry rallied however,
and purchasing property at Front and Simonton Streets, set up an enlarged
business complete with storehouses, ample land and wharfage. Their ship-
building enterprise was climaxed in 1856 by their expenditure of $80,000
to build the STEPHEN R. MALLORY. Bowne and Curry are listed as the
official initial owners at the time of her first documentation in November,

Around 1861, Bowne withdrew from the business because of ill health
and sold out his interest to Curry. Curry, by this time, fairly well possessed
of a family, reestablished the business as William Curry and Sons with his
three sons and son-in-law coming into the business.

At the time of his death in January, 1896, William Curry was probably
the most distinguished and well-known merchant in South Florida. Business
was virtually suspended by Key Westians to attend his funeral.

Available accounts indicate that the STEPHEN R. MALLORY made
at least one voyage around Cape Horn from New York to San Francisco.
In September, 1858 she cleared New York and arrived in 'Frisco some 146
days later (or 151, according to another authority). This is relatively slow
time, the record being 89 days set by the FLYING CLOUD and ANDREW
JACKSON. Another vessel, the TALISMAN, sailing on the same day as the
MALLORY, made the passage in 136 days.

and SEAMAN'S BRIDE, sailing in September 1858, made passages of 136,


145, 144 and 185 days, so the MALLORY'S running time can not be con-
sidered to be excessive in view of what her compatriots' performance was.

A "crack" of the clipper era, FLYING FISH, made passages from
Boston to San Francisco of 114, 113, 107 and 106 days clearing in Septem-
ber of 1853, 1854, 1855 and October 1856 respectively. This consistency
points out the relative faster speeds that could be accomplished by a swifter

At the time of her initial documentation, Graham L. Lester was listed
as her official master. (The actual captain could be someone else.) On October
14, 1860, while on a voyage from London to Key West, a Captain Seaman
in command, she was passed by another ship. The MALLORY had nothing
standing but her fore lower mast. Her after house was stove, ballast shifted,
and she had a heavy list to starboard. With half her crew below trying to
shovel her ballast back to windward and the rest on deck rigging shears to
set up a spare topmast at the stub of the mainmast, her master signalled
"do not want assistance!" The Captain's optimism paid off as the STEPHEN
R. MALLORY successfully made port despite her severe dismasting.

During the Civil War, Key West was under northern control. In Sep-
tember, 1862, the ship was registered at New York City. At that time, her
owners were a partnership of Lemuel Brown, Hiriam Benner and William
Wall of New York City and Bowne and Curry. Lester was still listed as the
the master.

A year later in October, 1863, the ownership was again changed to
reflect Benner acquiring Curry's share (Bowne still owning a fourth). The
New York people remained as before, but Benner of course, had a larger
share. Towards the end of November, 1863, she was sold foreign, probably
to British interests. This was the period of the great raids on Yankee com-
merce by the Confederate Cruisers (ALABAMA, FLORIDA, etc.) and great
quantities of American ships either transferred to other flags or were sold
foreign to avoid loss. Ironically, it was the Confederate Navy cruisers which
were commissioned by the Confederate Secretary of the Navy, Stephen R.
Mallory, that drove his namesake from the sea.

Sometime in the spring of 1864, STEPHEN R. MALLORY was sold
in London and did not subsequently appear in Lloyds or any of the official
registers thereafter. Her ultimate fate is a mystery-she may have been
scrapped-or renamed to sail on for many additional years.

Reminiscences of the

Lake Okeechobee Area, 1912-1922


The Darrow family moved to Florida in 1911. The family consisted of
my father and mother, Dr. Charles Roy Darrow and Dr. Anna A. Darrow,
my grandmother Darrow, my brother Dick, and me. We had come south
mainly because of my father's health and to get away from the Chicago
climate. My father who was on the staff of the Illinois Charitable Hospital
and Cook County Hospital had as one of his patients a Mr. Louis Larson of
St. Augustine. Mr. Larson was the Northwest Passenger Agent for the Florida
East Coast Railroad. He sold my father on Florida in preference to California
to which state my parents had been thinking about for a move. In 1909 they
came to Florida and passed the state medical board examinations. Mother
was always proud of the fact she had made the highest passing grade up
to that time, a general average of 98. In 1911 my father developed a bad
heart after an attack of la grippe and that caused them to make the decision
to move. All of our household belongings, including our pet maltese cat,
Peter, arrived in Jacksonville in September 1911.

We had lived in Jacksonville less than a year when my father heard
from Mr. Larson about a new town to be built at the head of Lake Okee-
chobee. It was one of Henry M. Flagler's projects and it was planned to be
a second Miami. Among the inducements offered to get my father to move
was that he would be the railroad physician for the extension line to be
built down from New Smyrna. As soon as school was out in June we prepared
to leave. In July 1912 we left Jacksonville headed for the new town of
Okeechobee. Mother, grandmother, and Peter came down to Fort Pierce by
train and stayed at the Faber Hotel while waiting for the rest of us. We were
driving down in a new Model-T Ford car which my dad had just bought
and which he did not know how to drive. The Ford agency sent with us one
of its men to teach my dad to drive enroute.


The roads in Florida at that time were not paved and left much to be
desired. It was a most memorable trip and one that took three days. The
heat and mosquitoes were very bad. It seemed that we pushed more than
half the way. What little hard surfaced road there was consisted of crushed
oyster shell taken from Indian mounds. The road was one lane and the
surface had the effect of a washboard. Whenever we met another vehicle
which made us get off of the road we got stuck in deep sand. The more one
tried to get out the deeper the wheels sank. Then saw palmetto fronds had to
be cut and put under the rear wheels to get traction and all of us but the
driver pushed. How many times we did this is anybody's guess.

The road over to Okeechobee was impassable for an automobile due
to high water. Also there was no place for us to live. Dick and my father
went over to the settlement which until a short time before had been called
Tantie. They lived in a tent while they built a temporary shelter for us.
The local sawmill owned by Harmon Raulerson sawed the pine lumber for a
shed which was later used as our garage, servant's quarters, and washhouse.
To saw this lumber with a hand saw was a real job. It was full of resin and
the saw teeth had to be cleaned periodically with kerosene. To drive nails
into it was even more of a job as they would bend before going into the
wood. Finally, just before Christmas they were ready for us. The three of
us, with Peter, drove over in Mr. W. L. Bragg's buggy drawn by a pair of
horses. Mr. Bragg was the representative of the Model Land Company, a
subsidiary of the Florida East Coast Railroad.

While in Fort Pierce we had lived in the Budd Cottages located on the
banks of the Indian River. They were built in a large grove of live oaks and
sabal palms. The one thing that I remember about this place was the abun-
dance of pineapple juice. A brokerr sack" full of ripe pineapple culls could
be gotten by any one who would go to a packing-house for them. Nearly
everyone had a pineapple press in his yard and every ice-box had a pitcher
of cold juice in it.

One of the first problems that had to be solved was what was to be done
about a school for Dick. There was no high school in Okeechobee and he
was in the tenth grade. The solution was to send him to a private academy.
At that time Rollins College in Winter Park was both an academy and a
college. Plans were made to enroll him there in the fall of 1913. Transporta-
tion was another problem. Captain Clay Johnson of Fort Myers owned a


small side-wheeler steamboat which made regular trips from Fort Myers to
Okeechobee with supplies. I recently wrote my brother and asked him to
describe his first trip to Winter Park and I quote: "I took the boat from
Okeechobee to Fort Myers via the Caloosahatchee River. It was a pretty trip
down the river. It took a day and a half as we stopped to gossip, pick up
freight, etc. We got to Fort Myers about noon of the second day and I
remember having a time getting my trunk hauled to the railroad station. Can't
seem to remember where I stayed that night but I have no recollection of a
hotel. Captain Johnson probably let me sleep on the boat. I well remember
the train ride to Winter Park on the Atlantic Coast Line though. It was a
local with no diner or train butcher and I didn't have anything to eat all
day. When I got to Winter Park I was the most forlorn and lonesome kid
in the world. I was a half day early for the opening of the college and no
one but me got off of the train. The agent wanted to know should he put my
trunk inside or was I going to have it hauled out to the college. I had it taken
up to Chase Hall, the boys' dormitory and parked in the lobby. I had a room
assigned and fortunately we had dinner in the beaneryy'. That night the kids
turned the bed over on me and I was ready to go back home, only I didn't
have the price of a ticket. I can't remember all the places we stopped. Moore
Haven was one of them, then another down the river where we pulled up
alongside of the bank and took on a load of wood. Then at Labelle, and I
think that covered the first day. I can't remember a thing about Fort Myers,
except that the dock was much higher than the deck of the boat. That's a 'fur
piece' back and I thought nothing of it."

I was more fortunate. There was a one-room school in Okeechobee, and
there was only one teacher, a young man named Arthur Weaver from North
Carolina. He stayed only a part of the year and the term was finished by
Faith Raulerson, one of Peter Raulerson's daughters, and now Mrs. Ellis M.
Meserve. She recently told me how hard she worked to keep ahead of her
brother Cornelius and me in fifth grade arithmetic. She said that we were
entirely too smart for her. The entire enrollment of the school was nineteen
pupils in 1912. I was resented at first because I was a Yankee. It took a few
days to get used to cracker talk such as, "Hit don't make no never minds",
"Let's get shet of it", and "Do you want I should carry you home?" We were
seated by grade levels and went up front to the long recitation bench when
it was time to recite. I made grades five and six in one year. Not only that
but I learned something.


Our next teacher was a Miss Emma Bell from South Carolina. In the
meantime Okeechobee was growing in population and additions were being
built to the school and several more teachers were employed. Miss Victoria
Ingraham was the principal when I finished the eighth grade in 1916. There
was still no high school so that I, too, went to the Rollins Academy for my
freshman year. In 1916 a red brick schoolhouse was built and it included
all grades from one through twelve. I was the first graduate of the high
school in 1920 in a class of four. In the class were also Beryl Lovvorn, Alma
Camp, and Willie Dubois. The principal was W. R. Terrell, a younger brother
of the recently deceased Judge of the Florida Supreme Court, Glenn Terrell.
Mr. Terrell entered my grades for a scholarship offered in our senatorial
district. This was given annually to a student with the highest average grades
over a four year period in that district. I was awarded the scholarship and
chose to go back to Rollins College from which I graduated in 1924 with
an A. B. Degree.

Getting to Winter Park hadn't improved too much over 1913. I left on
the Florida East Coast Railroad at six o'clock in the morning and changed
trains in New Smyrna for Orange City Junction where I caught the Atlantic
Coast Line train for Winter Park arriving about ten P. M. A few years later
I took the Atlantic Coast Line to Sanford and transferred to a bus which
took me to Geneva where I caught the train for home. It took much less time
to go that way. The trip was quite an occasion. I knew practically all of the
train crews and shared meals with them. We frequently stopped to allow the
crew to shoot quail, turkey, or deer, and of course to chase cattle off of the
track as there was open range. One never knew just when we would arrive
in Okeechobee. The stations on the line had intriguing Indians names such
as Osowaw, Bithlo, Hilolo, Holopaw, and Yeehaw. The only "outcast" station
on the line was Kenansville, named for Mr. Flagler's third wife's brother.
When the train was nearing Okeechobee the whistle was blown and some one
would be there to meet me, Dick, mother, dad, or our Negro cook. The train
brought in the morning paper from Jacksonville, the Florida Times-Union,
and it was sold in our drugstore, so that some one in the family always met
the train. I frequently surprised them. I rode on a pass so it cost me nothing.

There were not many people living in Okeechobee when we moved there.
Peter Raulerson with his family were the first settlers and they had come
down from Bassenger. He was in the cattle business. The houses were mostly
log cabins and quite a few had dirt floors. There were not many glass window


panes, instead wooden shutters were used. One was forced to sleep under a
mosquito netting canopy, called a skeeterr bar.' The cooking and eating areas
were usually separate from the house and connected to it with a breezeway.
There were fireplaces in the living room for the cool winter months. Sheets
and pillowcases were made of unbleached muslin and coverlets were hand-
made quilts. Cooking was done on wood stoves with a reservoir on the side
for heating water. When our stove arrived from Montgomery Ward and was
found to have an oven thermometer it created a sensation. Water was
gotten from hand pumps or wells, but almost everyone had a rainwater barrel
in which to collect soft water. The pump water contained minerals and
tannin from tree roots which yellowed the washing.

Securing food was a problem. Louis Raulerson, Uncle Pete's oldest
son, ran a small general store in which most staples were kept. The post
office was in here, too, and mail was brought in by horseback from Fort
Drum. The staples for the store were either brought over from Fort Pierce
by wagon or from Fort Myers by steamboat. We bought flour, sugar, and
grits by the barrel. Salt pork, or sow belly, was the main meat. When a steer
or hog was butchered the meat had to be eaten right away as there was no
refrigeration. We had brought with us a three unit fireless cooker which
proved a boon to mother in keeping meat. The food was partially cooked on
top of the stove and soap stones heated at the same time. Both were put in
the cooker and food would cook and stay warm for several days. Even the
tough meat from range cattle came out tender. Local foodstuffs grown were
mainly sweet potatoes, collards, turnips, and cow peas. There were small
citrus groves and every yard had its guava trees. We varied our diet with
wild game, turkey, venison, rabbits, ducks, quail, snipe, doves, and even
coots. My grandmother Lindstedt could cook game so that even coots tasted
pretty good. We usually brought back with us from a hunting trip several
swamp cabbages. Fish were plentiful and they helped to vary our diet. We
soon raised our own chickens and had over five hundred white Orpingtons.
Most families had a milk cow so that occasionally we had fresh milk. The
crackers made biscuits with flour, lard, clabber, and soda. Mother made
'light' bread which the crackers called any bread raised by yeast, except
baker shop bread which was 'wasp nest.' We bought a lot of our staples by the
case, such as canned milk, fruits, vegetables, etc. Sears, Roebuck and Mont-
gomery Ward catalogs were our "Bibles."


The yards of houses had no lawns, instead the dirt was swept clean with
brooms made of small branches. The yards had allamanda bushes, pink vines,
crepe myrtle, and always a cape jasmine bush. I was amused when I went to
New York City and saw cape jasmine blossoms sold as gardenias for
twenty-five cents apiece.

It was not until some time in the 1920's that water was piped in from
Lake Okeechobee. Before that we had running water in both bathroom and
kitchen. My father had had erected an enormous rainwater cistern from
which we got water. While conveniences were still in the backyard dad had
gotten plans from the State Board of Health for a sanitary outhouse. It was
placed the required distance from our pump, the enclosure was ventilated
and the lower part was bricked in, the lids were made so that they would
not stay open and a bucket of slaked lime was close at hand. This was quite
an innovation and one which my dad hoped would help to teach sanitation.
All too frequently the droppings from the outhouses were tossed on the
ground a short distance from a dwelling, thus helping to spread hookworm.
Children ran barefoot the year around-all but the two Darrow kids-and
the larvae would be picked up by their feet causing ground itch and then
hookworm. Many of the youngsters were found to be infested with hookworm
when we first moved there. Another annoyance gotten from the ground, but
not so debilitating or serious, was migrating larva. This caused an intense
itching as the larva burrowed under the skin in small furrows.

We had a variety of pets. Our maltese cat was the first of her breed ever
seen over there and she was referred to as the Darrow's blue cat. Her kittens
were much sought after and one of mother's favorite stories concerned buying
back one of her kittens for a setting of white Orpington eggs. We had all
gotten too attached to Muggins to give him up. He lived to be nineteen
years old and when he died in Fort Lauderdale he had an obituary in the
local paper. We had all kinds of dogs from curs to thoroughbreds: Bassett
hounds, Irish setters, and Airedales. Our pig was famous for getting drunk at
syrup making time when the boys would feed him fermented skimmings. He
would come home drunk as a coot and squealing every step of the way. Our
goose was too good a watch dog. She would hiss and then fly at wagons. She
caused several runaways until we clipped one wing. We used to like to ride
Piggy but he was so smart that we couldn't get on his back unless we gave
him a sweet potato. Then he would head for the house and if we didn't get
off fast we would get knocked off against the side. Once we had a sack of


sweet potatoes in the garage on the far side of the car next to the wall and
Piggy found them. He had eaten so many that we had to jack up the car to
get him out.

In those days we had to make our own amusements. Reading was our
evening diversion. We had brought with us a good library which included a
set of the Encyclopedia Americana, Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, a
complete set of Dickens, books for identifying birds, butterflies, and wild-
flowers. My father read aloud from Dickens and Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe.
He was an avid reader and kept up with current periodicals and novels.
Ridpath's history was in our collection and though its authenticity may be
questioned it did give Dick and me an historical background. Among its many
illustrations there are two that I can still vividly recall-Joan of Arc and
John Hus going up in flames. Hunting, fishing, and just exploring in the
woods and marshes we thoroughly enjoyed. We hunted at night for wildcats,
coons, possums, panthers, and alligators. It was not against the law at that
time to kill alligators and Dick skinned them and sold the hides for more
spending money.

Hunting was not only recreation but at times a necessity as we would
get meat hungry. Cotton tail rabbits were one of our main sources of meat.
Our hunting grounds for these was the Kissimmee prairie which was pocked
with bull holes. One of us would drive the Model-T while the other sat astride
the hood with a gun. Shooting the rabbits didn't require half the skill that
staying on the car did as the driver dodged the bull holes.

I thoroughly enjoyed just roaming the woods, and on the prairies and
marshes. I rode horseback whenever I had to chance to get our horse Old
Jim or when Connie Raulerson would let me ride his cowpony, Pinder. Before
our car could be gotten over from Fort Pierce we had bought a horse and
buggy in which mother made her calls so that it wasn't often that I got a
chance to ride Old Jim. Faith and I rode many miles and many hours on
horseback. When we lived in Chicago my brother and I spent a great deal of
time in the Academy of Science and in the Field Museum of Natural History.
The knowledge we picked up there came into good use in Okeechobee.

Flowers in spring were especially beautiful. Small ponds would be
ringed with the yellow and blue of butterworts. Ditch banks would have large
blue violets and the smaller white violets. After I had a course in botany I


was thrilled to find the sundew and insectivorous plant, as were the pitcher
plants. Marshes would be full of blue flags and the pine uplands would be
misty with the blue of lupine. Bayheads would be in bloom with the sweet
bay and the loblolly bay. We identified terrestial orchids and the biggest
thrill of all was finding acres of yellow lotus in bloom in the Eagle Bay
marsh. Sometimes the woods would be fragrant with the shrub whose flower
was called the tar flower. In the fall we always enjoyed picking the red lillies
and later the red berries of the Dahoon holly.

Picnics would be gotten up on any pretext. The Scharfschwerdts would
come in from Bluefields and we all would head for Trout Creek. This small
stream was one of the tributaries of Taylor's Creek, or the Onosohatchee
River. One of the last battles of the Seminole Wars was fought here and we
delighted in digging bullets out of the trees. Dick and I also found a mas-
todon' stooth embedded in the muck and sent it to the Smithsonian Institu-
tion. If our car was not available we would hitch the shafts of our buggy to
the rear end of the other Ford and away we'd go using a bamboo fishing pole
for a brake.

Dick and I owned a twenty foot Old Town canoe in which we made
day long excursions down the creek, around the perimeter of the lake, and
on the Kissimmee River. We never got far from the shore on the lake because
a sudden blow might come up and capsize the canoe. In the summer these
canoe trips were mostly fishing expeditions. We fished with rod and reel
for bass and if they weren't biting would still fish for bream. Our favorite
bait was a large white grub which we found in the stalks of the yellow pond
lily. In the winter months we hunted for geese, ducks, coots, and snipe. Once
Dick shot a duck and before it hit the ground an osprey grabbed it. Once
when I had shot a duck I walked over to a patch of tules to pick it up and
almost put my hand on a very angry cotton mouth moccasin. I had several
unpleasant experiences with cotton mouth moccasins. The one that frightened
me most occurred when I attempted to kill one that had crawled under my
brother's house. As I stooped down to aim the shotgun at him he came for
me with a rush.

Another snake story involved my grandmother Lindstedt. She was
deathly afraid of snakes and to the day she died she did not know that she
had been bitten by one or she would have died much sooner. Dick was
raising white mice to sell to laboratories and when he was away at college I


took care of them and when my grandmother was visiting us from Chicago
she would help me out with this job. This evening just at dusk she went out
to the garage to feed them and when she came in she told me that one of
the mice bit her and she showed me the teeth marks in her finger. I couldn't
imagine how that happened as they were very tame so I went out to investi-
gate. I found that a small chicken snake had gotten into one cage and was
so full of baby mice that he couldn't get back out and it was what had bitten
her. I put iodine on the bite and never told her what had bitten her. No infec-
tion ever set in either.

Driving around the roads required skill. I learned to drive a car when
I was twelve years old by steering and stopping it as Dick and Otto pushed
it through deep sand or out of the mud. Steering was no problem as one
could hardly get out of the deep ruts. But when we took off across the woods
and prairies it was another question. The lights of our first Model-T ran on
the magneto and to be able to see it had to be driven in low gear to race
the engine and brighten the lights. But for four young people that wasn't
fast enough and radius rods took a beating as we hit low stumps. We spent
one night in the woods disconnecting the radius rod, building a fire and
heating it until it could be pounded straight, and then getting it back in.
I must add that part of the night was spent swatting mosquitoes. Another
hazard to driving were the bridges across small ditches. They were built
hump-backed and springs didn't last too long. Also cattle would get up on
the graded roads at night and unless we happened to shine their eyes they
were hard to see.

After the road to Fort Pierce became passable for automobile travel we
would go over there for a swim in the ocean. There was no bridge across the
Indian River and we went over to Tucker's Cove in Clarence Summerlin's
launch. What a sight we looked in our get-ups. Mosquitoes were a real prob-
lem and this is what we wore: over our bathing-suits a light weight long coat,
a wide brimmed hat with netting hanging from the brim and tucked in
around the coat collar, newspapers wrapped around our legs and stockings
over them. We'd get the outer layer off as quick as possible and make a
dash for deep water. Fort Pierce at that time was known to us as Fort Fierce.
I think there was no place on the Florida East Coast that had more mos-
quitoes. It was their headquarters I am sure. Even train passengers were
warned by the crew not to get off there when the train stopped twenty minutes
to take on water. Every house had a. swisher made of split palm fronds


hanging by the front and back doors and they were used to drive away
mosquitoes. I thought I'd never see one of these things again but I did in
the fall of 1966 when I bought one in Luxor, Egypt, to fan away flies.

About 1915 the Southern Utilities Company built an electric power plant.
Then a moving picture theater was started by the Scharfschwerdt brothers.
It was located in our warehouse just behind our drugstore. The seats were
folding camp chairs and a player piano was used to entertain while the
reels were being changed. The machine was hand cranked and the illumination
for it was furnished by an arc of brilliant light made by two pieces of ignited
carbon placed so that they touched. Reels would break and had to be spliced.
All of this complicated business I learned to do as well as being the chief
piano player. I should have known better than to learn to operate the
machine because I frequently got stuck doing it while Dick and Otto would
vanish and forget to come back. Lottie Scharfschwerdt sold the tickets. The
movies were shown only on Saturday nights and other nights the hall might
be cleared and dances held. Roasted peanuts were sold at the door and
after the show the Scharfschwerdt's English setter would make the rounds
looking for some that still had nuts in them. When he found one he'd crack
it open and eat it.

There were no churches when we first lived in Okeechobee. An itinerant
Baptist preacher came around and a sect called Pentecosts would hold meet-
ings in the schoolhouse. The latter would talk in unknown tongues and work
themselves into a frenzy and might go sailing down the aisle to fall in a coma
in the yard. This was strange doings to my grandmother Lindstedt and once
she nearly broke up the meeting by yelling at the top of her voice to my
mother as a woman went sailing down the aisle babbling in unknown
togues, "Catch her, Anna, she's crazy." My grandmother was born in Sweden
and although she had come to the United States when she was fourteen years
old she never lost her accent which made it sound even funnier.

The itinerant preacher who came around was Edward M. C. Dunklin and
he was affectionately called Brother Dunklin. The Everglades was a haven
for all sorts of vagabonds, escaped criminals, moonshiners, migrants,
Negroes and Seminole Indians. The July 1927 issue of The American
Magazine has an account of him written by Frank E. Brimmer. Mr. Brimmer
writes, "On one occasion Brother Dunklin walked eighteen miles to a place
where no one had heard a sermon for many years. He was sitting reading


his Bible when rocks were thrown at him. After preaching he asked for a
contribution and received 300, two pieces of chewing gum, two buttons, half
a match, and two bullets. A judge offered him twenty-five cents for every
bullet he received and when the men found out that he was not afraid they
quit dropping bullets in the collection plate and a year later he received a
substantial contribution from the same place. Many times it was impossible
to drive a horse where he wanted to go. Then he took off his clothing, hung
it on a stick over his shoulder, and plowed through the mud and water. He
often fought off moccasins and stepped around alligators. When he asked at
a house where he was staying for food for himself and his horse the man
of the house told him that it was bad enough to provide food for him but to
feed his horse was just too much. So Brother Dunklin told him to feed his
horse and he'd go hungry. The man was converted shortly after that. He was
a friend of desperado gangs and some of them were really tough fellows.
People in Okeechobee built him a home on a lot he owned and also gave
him a car."

There were plenty of Indians around from the Cow Creek tribe. They
had great faith in mother and called her "Squaw Doctor". If she was not in
when they came to the office in our drugstore to see her they would wait
patiently sitting on the floor until she got back. Many years after I left
Okeechobee I met Billy Smith, a chief of the Cow Creek Indians, and asked
him if he knew who I was. He grunted and replied, "Uh-huh, think so, you
Squaw Doctor's pickaninny." Mother always had to talk to the men as the
women were very taciturn. She used the sun's position in the sky as a time
by which they could take medicine. She never charged for her services and
was repaid with venison, wild turkeys, and huckleberries. I recall vividly
one delayed trip to Fort Pierce because some squaws had brought us twenty-
five quarts of huckleberries and they had to be canned to keep them from
spoiling. The Indian ainlents were mostly malaria and hookworm. Old Aunt
Polly Parker, estimated to be well over a hundred years of age at that time,
Billy Bowlegs, the Osceolas, and the Jumpers all came into our drugstore.
One Indian was unusual because he spoke excellent English. His name was
Billy Stewart and he had been bitten by a cotton mouth moccasin and
survived. When gangrene set in he was taken to St. Augustine to a hospital
there and stayed for many months as the flesh from the entire back of one leg
sloughed off. The nurses had taught him to read and write. He would often
come into our store as an interpreter for other members of his tribe. As


I recall him he was of the Micosukee tribe. Those Indians poled around the
lake and up the creek in dugout canoes.

Ellis Meserve who lives in Okeechobee recently told me that it was
fascinating to watch the Indian squaws buy merchandise in Louis Raulerson's
store. They would point to what they wanted, pay for it, have it wrapped,
and then go on to the next item. Every item had to be wrapped no matter
how small or large. Ellis also told me about the time that he and his father.
in-law, Uncle Pete Raulerson, were rounding up cattle and they met Kneehigh
Tiger and his squaw. Kneehigh Tiger was on horseback and his squaw was
walking behind carrying a sack of groceries slung over her shoulder. Ellis
asked Kneehigh why his squaw was walking and received this answer,
"Squaw no gotten horse." A very logical response. Ellis Meserve married
Faith Raulerson and I told him I thought his claim to fame should be that
he was the first and only passenger on the first train to come into Okeechobee
and he also opened the first hardware store.

Fishermen on Lake Okeechobee were a strange lot in those days. One
didn't ask them many questions and frequently they would not give their
names when coming in for medical attention. Many were criminals who had
come to the Lake region to lose their identity. They never gave us any
trouble and mother never had any fear of them and she never carried a gun
even though many of them knew she always carried change for one hundred
dollars with her. They had great respect for her.

A woman doctor of course was a rarity and one as feminine looking and
as pretty as she was was almost unbelievable. Many times mother was asked
how she happened to be a doctor and as many times I have heard her tell
the story.

In 1902 when my parents were living in Ogden, Utah, mother became
very ill. My father was away from home at the time was sent for. When
mother recovered she remarked to my father that she wished she was a doctor
so that she could have diagnosed what ailed her. My father told her that his
one ambition had always been to study medicine. Plans were made right
then for the two of them to study medicine. There were plenty of obstacles
in the way. First was financial and the next finding a school which would
accept high school graduates and a woman. The fact that mother was eight
months pregnant with me had also to be considered. In January of 1903


they moved to Kirksville, Missouri, and entered the school of osteopathy
there. They had decided to get that training first and practice osteopathy
while putting themselves through medical school. Mother entered school
three weeks late because I was born February 2nd. In 1905 they were
accepted in the now defunct Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery after
taking and passing entrance examinations. It was the medical school of
Valparaiso University located in Indiana. It later became the medical school
of Loyola University in Chicago. They graduated in 1909 and practiced in
Chicago until moving to Florida.

Men at first were reluctant to use her services but eventually there was
no hesitancy on their part. When our drugstore was built offices were set up
in the rear of the store. Mother did most of the outside calls while my father
took care of office practice. Both were also licensed pharmacists. I wish I
knew how many hundred babies mother delivered. Her charge for an obste-
trical case was ten dollars, plus one dollar a mile if it was any distance.
I have known seventy-two hours to pass before I would see mother. Our
Negro cook, Jim Holman, always kept a hot meal waiting for her in the
warming oven and I think he worried more about her than we did. My
father was an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist in Chicago but all that
changed in Okeechobee. Both of them did all kinds of medical work, even
taking care of animals. Will Raulerson once asked mother to prescribe for
his three weeks old shoat which was having convulsions after having drunk
too much fermented cane skimming. Not being familiar with the word
shoatt' she thought it was his child. On finding out that it was a pig she
decided to treat it anyway. Asking how much it weighed she figured out the
dosage the same as she would for a twelve pound child. The pig survived
and from then on she was a veterinarian as well as a medical doctor. Her
reputation was made with the Indians when Billy Bowlegs brought in a four
year old boy whose illness she diagnosed as acute pericarditis. Billy had
told her that the "pickaninny die sunup" but according to mother's notes
she told him, "pickaninny no die if you do as I say." Then she persuaded
them to camp near Judge Hancock's house and bring in the boy every day
and she instructed them in his bringing up. She let them listen through a
stethoscope to her heart and then the child's. Much to her surprise they agreed
to do all she had told them. Five years later they brought the boy back in to
see her and she found his heart in good condition and he seemed to be a
normal healthy child. The Indians thought so much of her that they put
beads around her neck the same as the squaws wore. Some of the home


remedies curative powers she was never able to fathom. Her most curious
remedy was one used for stricture. She found the wife had been giving her
husband a brew made from crickets' legs. To quote from the notes mother
left, "The ten years I spent over in the Glades are in retrospect among the
happiest and most colorful of my forty-seven years as a physician. I had to
cope with things that medical books and lectures do not teach. Every moment
was a challenge. Historians told us that the early pioneers of the Everglades
were outlaws and hid in the wilderness to be lost from civilization. Sometimes
when filling out a birth certificate and I asked where the parents were born
the answer would be to write 'unknown' and not to ask any more questions.
Some of these pioneers were considered tough. This I became aware of when
I was called upon to take care of the Ashleys, the Mobleys, the Rice gang,
and the Upthegroves. Leland Rice had his lower jaw shot off and was carried
to our house in the middle of the night. Dr. C. R., Dick, Dolly, and I worked
for hours stopping the hemorrhage and overcoming shock. Early the next
morning we put him on the train for St. Augustine where his jaw was wired
together. A couple of months after that I was driving along the parkway when
a man stepped out and flagged me. He asked if I was Doc Anner and then
he said that he was Leland Rice and I want to thank you and Doc for being
so kind to me. He was killed later after robbing a bank at Homestead. The
other brother was sent to prison and I was called to the Ashley home near
Jupiter to see their sick father. When I treated Laura Upthegrove, who lived
on the ridge near Pahokee, I didn't know that she was in with the outlaws."
Mother said that even the cattle and hogs were tough. A man came into our
store one day and reported that on the way over from Fort Pierce a bull had
rammed his Ford car head-on. My father could testify from personal experi-
ence that hogs were tough. A wild boar attacked him while he was out quail
hunting and he had to shoot it. I well recall that we skinned it late at night
and buried skin and marked ears deep. To be a hog thief was the worst
reputation one could have.

My father's practice was different from mother's. He examined eyes
and fitted glasses, did minor surgery of all kinds such as amputations,
tonsilectomies, curettages of carbuncles, opening boils, etc. I think his worst
job was cleaning up slashes and cutting out catfish fins. There were plenty
of broken bones to be set, too. A lot of the breaks were caused by cranking
Ford cars. He pulled teeth and according to our old cash book the fee was
fifty cents a tooth. People would come with wounds stuffed with old felt hats
and cobwebs which they had used to stop bleeding. The felt hat remedy caused


very bad infections but surprisingly enough cobwebs did not. Both were a
mess to clean up though. The fishermen on the Lake always went barefoot
and would often step on catfish heads on the skinning benches. The side fins
of a catfish were very infectious and generally septicimea set in where they
had punctured the foot. Sometimes a bad abcess would form and a huge
piece of the foot would slough out.

One of the most unusual cases was that of John McLaughlin who was a
trapper. He was up near Fort Drum about fourteen miles from Okeechobee
when he shot a racoon. It crawled off into a hollow stump and as he was
certain he had killed it he reached in to get it out when he was bitten by a
diamondback rattlesnake on the thumb and index finger. He realized instantly
that he would be dead before he could ride horseback to Okeechobee for help.
He took his hatchet, put his hand on a stump, and chopped off the fingers
just above the joints. Then he put a tourniquet around his arm, tied himself
on his horse, headed it for Okeechobee and gave it a whack on the rump.
He was unconscious when he got to our drugstore but my parents saved his
life and amputated the fingers after removing the splintered bone. In 1947
when mother and I were in Okeechobee he met her on the street and gave
her a big hug and kiss.

When the railroad was built into Okeechobee and a turpentine camp was
located near town a rough element came in with them. My father was the
railroad physician and the Negroes always seemed to spend Saturday night
carousing and cutting on each other. One night an especially tough Negro
named Big Six was sitting on our steps when we got home. I can hear my
dad say, "Six, what the hell's the matter with you now?" and hear his reply,
"Doc, they bin woikin' on my haid wid an axe." They really had, too, because
I helped my father put forty-seven stitches in his scalp.

All kinds of characters came into our drugstore. During prohibition
days they drank anything that had any amount of alcoholic content, bay
rum, Lydia Pinkham's Vegetable Compound, and Hostetter's Bitters. I was
alone in the store one evening when a fisherman came in and asked for bay
rum. It and everything else he asked for were gone when he spied a bottle
on the shelf labeled Electric Bitters and bought that. I watched him as he
went behind the store, up-ended the bottle, and drank the entire contents.
When my dad came back from supper I told him what had happened and he
roared with laughter. He said he knew where that fellow could be found


for the next few days as that concoction was a potent cathartic, summing it
up with words to the effect that, "that'll larn, him, by golly."

We had a series of automobiles because cars quickly wore out from the
use they got on the sandy or muddy roads. The prize car we had was a
Maxwell. I learned to drive gear shift with that one by the simple expedient
of being told to drive it home one day. Once we went to Jacksonville in it
and when we got on the ferry at South Jacksonville the motor wouldn't stop
running although the ignition switch was turned off. My dad had fished as
young man off the Grand Banks and he used all the words he had learned
from the fishermen telling that car what he thought of it. The motor had
overheated and the fuel in the carburetor had vaporized. Anyway, the next
morning he came around to our hotel with a nice shiny new Oakland sport

Like mother in retrospect these were ten interesting and happy years.
At first Dick and I hated Okeechobee, the crackers, and the primitive exis-
tence we had. For two children to be taken from a big city such as Chicago
and set down in the wilderness with no modern conveniences it was none
too happy an experience. But as children will, we became adjusted and had
a wonderful time. I wouldn't trade those ten years for any other ten years
of my life. I learned so much about nature, a sense of responsibility, and
hard work. My parents were strict disciplinarians for which I am most
grateful. I never had a whipping which I am certain I must have deserved
many times. The punishment I got always seemed to fit the crime. Once I
filled hundreds of capsules with quinine to pay for a window pane through
which I had shoved my brother. It is with a keen sense of appreciation that
I look back on "Those Happy Golden Years."

In writing this paper about Okeechobee I have received help
from a manuscript left by my mother, Dr. Anna A. Darrow.
I corresponded with my brother, Richard G. Darrow, now an
attorney in Tucson, Arizona. I talked with Harmon Raulerson,
a son of Peter Raulerson, who lives here in Miami. I recently
made a trip over to Okeechobee and spent most of a day with
Faith and Ellis Meserve, and I also talked with Hiram Rauler-
son, who is a grandson of Peter Raulerson, and with whom I
went to school.

John Newhouse,

Upper Everglades Pioneer and Historian


The old cliche that runs to the effect that most humans are damned to
oblivion at birth will never apply to John Newhouse (Jan Van Nyhuis or Jan
Van Nijhuis) since most histories of the Upper Everglades will be derived,
in part, from his writings and thus preserve his name for posterity. The
known historical productions of Newhouse total less than 150 typed pages:
a long narrative of 50 pages (variously titled "Everglades History", "Memo-
ries of Early Days in the Glades", and "Pioneering in the Everglades");
six narratives of from 3 to 30 pages each; and two short incomplete narra-
tives or sets of notes. None of these manuscripts have been published under
his name for reasons that will become apparent later.

Very little information exists on John Newhouse. His estate when pro-
bated after his death in 1958 amounted to approximately $5,000 and was
divided among 48 relatives, virtually all of whom were residents of the
Netherlands. He was born November 29, 1880, at Ermelo, Gelderland Pro-
vince, the Netherlands. He migrated to the United States where he went to
Iowa before entering the Upper Everglades in the fall of 1914 as one
of the original settlers of the community of Okeelanta, four miles south
of Lake Okeechobee, on the Fort Lauderdale Canal. He came to Palm Beach
County at the age of 34 and spent the remaining 44 years of his life there.
No record exists that he ever traveled outside the lines of Palm Beach and
Broward counties. Apparently he had no desire to make any references to
his earlier years in Europe or the United States.

John Newhouse was one of the countless thousands of persons from
all over the United States and many other countries of the world attracted
by the land selling boom that followed the inception of Everglades drainage
operations by the State of Florida after 1905. The financing of the drainage
operations was largely underwritten through the sale of numerous large
blocks of public land, and almost always involved alternate sections so as


to enhance the value of the remaining sections retained by the state. The
sales were to promoters and/or speculators. These buyers, in turn, organized
land sales-companies which divided the large purchases into small tracts for
resale, usually in five or ten acre tracts. By the establishment of offices in
many of the nation's large cities, through the employment of many salesmen
and the use of massive advertising campaigns an unknown number of Ever-
glades acres were disposed in sales contracts for deeds. Few of the purchasers
of the sales contracts ever saw their tracts. Much of the land involved even-
tually went back to the state for unpaid taxes. Many hundreds of persons,
among them John Newhouse, came to Florida, figuratively buoyed by the
great publicity waves created by the real estate operators.

The trials and tribulations of the settlers in the Everglades have been
recounted elsewhere. Some of the farmers along the Okeechobee lakeshore
existed, if they did not prosper. After a short period at Okeelanta, Newhouse
worked at the Bolles Hotel at Ritta on the south shore of Okeechobee,
clerked in a general store, served in land survey crews, was employed by the
Brown Company on their "Shawano" farm on the Hillsborough Canal for
several years, and lastly secured a job as a maintenance and handy-man at
the state's agricultural experiment station near Belle Glade. He retired in
1938 and spent the remaining 20 years of his life on a tract he had purchased
at Okeelanta, the place of his original Florida settlement in 1914. His small
one-room home was modestly furnished, and was kept "Dutch-clean". There
were few modern conveniences in this home when I visited there in 1948.
By the time of his demise in 1958, he had disposed of most of the land
around the house. He never married and was probably best recognized
locally as one of the section's last adult bicycle riders for he never acquired
an automobile.

When I was engaged in the research for a dissertation (which I modestly
titled "A History of the Everglades") there was no dearth of historical infor-
mation (in files and publications) concerned with the various aspects of
politics, military operations, economics, and engineering projects. There
were numerous volumes and articles of travel accounts, and even several fairly
voluminous reports on the Seminole Indians. The ever-increasing mass of
notes that I produced in this search proved the validity of a citation that I
had previously used in an earlier manuscript:

"Shortly after the American occupation of Florida, when a
great deal of ink was being spilled over Governor Andrew Jackson's


conduct in the Florida Territory (1821), a wag remarked that the
Florida Territory was: 'VERY PRODUCTIVE-OF DOCU-
MENTS'" (D. Y. Thomas, "Report on the Public Archives of
Florida," Reports of the American Historical Association, 1906,
Volume II, 158).

There was, however, little or no information (that historians now refer
to as social or cultural history) by residents of the Upper Everglades from
their first settlement until the beginning of the publication of the area's first
newspaper in 1924. From Dr. R. V. Allison, Soils Chemist in Charge, subse-
quently Fiber Technologist, of the Everglades Experiment Station, I learned
of John Newhouse's manuscripts referred to above. Newhouse had written
his narrative (in lead pencil) in copy or composition books. He graciously
loaned several of these to me. The notes I derived from these manuscripts
later became the basis of most of a 26 page chapter on "Glades Life in the
Early Days."

One anecdote bears retelling. I had quoted a sentence that Newhouse
wrote: "The real estate propaganda said, 'Take a tent, a bag of beans, and
a hoe; clear a few rows in the sawgrass, plant the seed and in 8 weeks you
will have an income.'" In a book published on the area in 1948 the "8 weeks"
was misquoted as "a week". Newhouse's wry comment in a letter to me on
the misquote was: "Even real estate agents knew better than to lie that much!"

In the early 1930's Dr. Allison was planning the preparation of an Ever-
glades history. Newhouse's writings were to be a part of Allison's larger
study. From Allison's first association with the Experiment Station in 1925
until his retirement in 1966 his hopes and works were largely directed
toward the installation of some order in the chaos that had existed in the
vast scheme of Everglades reclamation from the beginning of the undertaking
by the state in the administration of Governor N. B. Broward in 1905 to
this day.

Several years later, while I was preparing an article on Dr. Thomas E.
Will (Tequesta, VIII, 1948, 21-55) Newhouse responded to a request for an
elaboration of his memories of this pioneer resident, developer, and leader
with a seven page single-spaced epistle. He also read and criticized the manu-
script on Dr. Will and offered to compose the rough draft of an article (what
he called always "scribblings") on land sales in the Everglades during the
1912 Everglades land boom. He protested that "we now have many persons


here far better qualified by education and position to write the history of
this region than I, but if Dr. Allison and you are of the opinion that these
scribblings are worthwhile perhaps I'll start on this." He added: I'll leave it
to you to polish it up; when-and if-you want to use it in the future. I will
do so, if the spirit is still moving me."

Thus, in the late 1940's when he was reaching the Biblical "three score
and ten" Newhouse moved into his second and final period of historical
writing. He was probably motivated by the long letter on Dr. Will, his perusal
of the article in manuscript before its publication, and the pleasure he felt
and expressed on receipt of the article in print. Almost a year later he
asked for a copy of the journal "to send to friends in Europe."

Before the writings of this second period of his literary activity appeared
he expressed his fears to me that his productions might be placed in a public
library (like some of the earlier ones given to the P. K. Yonge Memorial
Library of Florida History at the University of Florida) "where everyone
can go there, and tear it apart, and misquote it, until it looks silly.... If you
would keep whatever I might write in your own care, to use it in the future
as you see fit, I would not mind it so much."

Some months later he wrote: "I have done some scribbling on Everglades
history this summer.... This writing is about the meeting of Florida Ever-
glades Land Company buyers held in West Palm Beach in 1912.... I would
like to make you a proposition-I do not like to send them to the library at
Gainesville to have them distorted as was done to the other papers, but I
would like to send them to you personally. You can look them over, and
if you like work them over, and write an article about it under your name
-not mine--then place a copy of it in your library. You can watch it better
in Gainesville than I can from here. Anyone could have written this, in
following the minutes of that meeting.... I have also written something about
the growing Everglades taxes, from 1913 to 1930, when they rose from 27
cents an acre to $4.40. This last piece contains about 2,000 words and I have
to correct it yet. If wanted you can have it under the same conditions as the
other piece. Anyone could have written it."

Whereas the writings of the 1930's involved many of his personal expe-
riences, these of the second period involved the experiences of others, and
so in his mind there occurred a distinction-anyone could have written it!


At the suggestion that some of this material, at the solicitation of the
editor, might be published in the 1950 edition of Tequesta, Newhouse wrote:
"I do not want to break into print, at this late date in my life. I have always
shied away from publicity. But if you, or Dr. Tebeau see something worth-
while in it, I'll be glad to help you along with it."

Within a few weeks, in March 1950, the material on the 1912 land
buyer's meeting arrived, written as usual in a composition book. In his letter
of transmittal Newhouse wrote: "I do not mind having this piece printed;
but I still shy away from having this done under my name. I meant it as
notes for you to keep for reference, for possible future writing by you about
the Everglades, like the information about Dr. Will that Lawrence Will and
I sent you.... I understand that professional people are supposed to have
articles published, occasionally to keep up their standing." The latter sen-
tence might well be regarded as a layman's version of the famous academic
dictum that echoes through the halls of learning: "Publish or perish!"

In his letter of May 2, 1950 to Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau, Editor of
Tequesta, Newhouse gave another reason, beyond his innate shyness, why
he would rather see one better qualified prepare the materials for publication.
"... all what I know about the English language I have had to teach myself,
while working long hours, at hard labor. I never had an hour of English
instruction in school or from tutors. And although I am glad that I have
learned to read, write, and speak it hopefully well, I can understand that
there will be many mistakes, and various expressions that can be improved.
That's why I would like to see it worked over by someone who has had more
advantages than I." In response to Dr. Tebeau's invitation to Newhouse to
join him in the activity of the bond of Izak Walton, the old Everglades
pioneer stated: "Thank you for your interest in me, but alas, I am no
fisherman. I am a book worm. Give me a paper, an interesting magazine or
book, and I am dead to the world!"

Newhouse's then known writings were concluded with the two articles
on land buyers and Everglades taxes. However, two additional articles, written
in Dutch (in the usual lead pencil and in composition books) were loaned
to me by Lawrence E. Will of Belle Glade, Florida. Internal evidence leads
to the belief that Newhouse wrote these articles (one on sugar cane and
sugar manufacturing and the other on Southern Negroes) for consumption


by persons in his fatherland. Both articles are more descriptive than historical
in content.

The material on sugar cane and the manufacture of sugar is almost
entirely factual. The material on the Negroes begins with his boyhood revul-
sion toward human slavery engendered from reading Uncle Tom's Cabin and
is summarized in his conclusion after some 30 years in South Florida:
"Though my opinion about slavery didn't change about the negroes I think

Perhaps if Newhouse's artistic talents had been expressed in brush and
colors similar to the expressions of Grandma Moses the popular schools of
the "primitives" would claim him. No doubt historiographers would label
him an unlettered amateur. But the name tag becomes inconsequential, for
his contributions to the history of the Upper Everglades will be valuable
for many generations yet to come.

Newhouse's original manuscripts have been placed in the Yonge Library
of Florida History, the Belle Glade Public Library, and the Library of the
Fort Lauderdale Historical Society. Likewise, typed copies of the manuscripts
are also in these libraries and in the libraries of the high schools of the
Upper Everglades region where it is hoped they will be used for reading
and research. Large portions of his manuscript "Pioneering in the Ever-
glades" have been quoted or paraphrased in several Florida histories and
in numerous articles in the journals of the Historical Association of Southern
Florida, Tequesta, and the Florida Historical Society, Florida Historical

Who Was Juan Ponce de Leon?


Juan Ponce de Le6n, a potent figure in the age of discovery, marked by
his landing in Florida the beginning of recorded Florida history. He is
classified in the annals of history as a conquistador, which literally translated
means "conquerer." The word conquistador is constantly used when describ-
ing the discovery and early settlement of Spanish America. They are the
daring leaders of this conquest, but no one has really ever defined when one
of these men qualified for the coveted title of conquistador. Indeed it was not
an official title but an honor, and not even publicly bestowed-when one's
deed became admired he, the one who had performed this deed, was called
conquistador. The American word "pioneer" is of the same nature. When
was one a pioneer in American history?

The able Jesuit historian, John Francis Bannon, has only recently pub-
lished a most readable but scholarly pamphlet which he entitled "The Span-
ish Conquistador: Men or Devils". Besides the introduction by Bannon, there
are collected in his booklet eleven essays by recognized historians writing
about the conquests and the conquistadores. The celebrated William Hickling
Prescott said in 1847 that the Spanish conquistador "was a singular com-
pound of the bigot, the pirate, and the knight errant. He was fierce, rapacious
and cruel." And Prescott has only harsh, indeed bad, words for the con-
quistador. All this is summarized when he says that "The magnitude of the
evil accomplished by him (the conquistador) was unhappily in full propor-
tion to the atrocity of his intentions and character." This represents the 19th
century attitude.

At an earlier time the judgments were even harsher. For example, the
famous Germat poet, Heinrich Heine, stated unequivocally that the Spanish
Conquistadores "were bandits." The great Venezuelan writer and historian,
Rufino Blanco-Fombona, said in 1922 that "The conquistadores, viewed with
great objectivity, are no more the bandits of Heine than they are the brothers
of Saint Francis. Neither are they the heroic types to which the fighting men
of a great and democratic nation of our century must conform." They are to


this Venezuelan historian "simply Spaniards, Spanish adventurers of the
sixteenth century. In them are found all the virtues of their nation and of the
age to which they belong. And in them, too one finds the national defects of
that day...."

The French historian, Jean Descola-well recognized in the words of
Father Bannon as a scholar who was "very denitely a Hispanophile"-wrote
in 1954 a book which won the Grand Prix d'Histoire and was entitled Les
Conquistadors. Descola said that he might have been a bandit "at certain
times" but one thing above everything else characterized the Conquistador:
he "never lost his sense of grandeur" and he fiercely believed in a powerful
God and a powerful Devil. The English professor Frederick Alexander Kirk-
patrick published in 1934 his well-known book The Spanish Conquistadores,
only recently issued in paperback form. In it Kirkpatrick sketches more the
main events of the conquest rather than giving the biography and motivating
forces of the Conquistadores. But he admires their persistence and "their
enterprise with invincible constancy...." Kirkpatrick reminds us that we
must always remember that in the age when the conquistadores lived and
conquered inhumanity was a trademark of this century-the Spaniards were
not worse than the Englishmen of their time. He writes that "one would
hesitate to claim that their work was more efficient or more humane" in the
English conquest and colonization of Ireland.

Father Bannon asks the question: "Were the Spanish Conquistadores
Men or Devils? He does not answer it but provides the judgments of others
of all ages. The truth is that the bad opinions associated with the Conquista-
dores are part-indeed the core-of what is known as the Black Legend. And
today there are many historians, among them many Americans, who are
totally whitewashing the Black Legend. England and Spain after the discovery
were, as we all know, locked in a long and ferocious rivalry for mastery of
sea and land. It was the English historians who described with colorful
exaggeration the negative features of the Conquistadores, often using the
critical reports of Spanish priests, especially that of the potent Padre Bar-
tolom6 de Las Casas of the 16th century. Neither the Black Legend nor the
whitewashing of recent days give the truth-the truth is in between. These
men to me are a combination of the medieval knight and the American
pioneer of the 19th century-maybe a cross between Sir Lancelot and David
Crockett. Or as the Spaniard Francisco Morales Padr6n put it in 1955, the
Conquistador showed "fortitude in the face of adversity and suffering." This


is just like the American pioneer, and again in the words of Morales Padr6n,
the Conquistadores "one and all were motivated by honor and fame." This
is the creed of the medieval knight.

Juan Ponce de Le6n certainly showed fortitude in the face of adversity
and suffering, and he was motivated by honor and fame. But it must be made
clear that Juan Ponce de Le6n is far more famous today-over four centuries
since his death-than in his day. He is not conspicuously mentioned and
Kirkpatrick has even his name only twice in his rather voluminous book. His
exploits lack the dazzling doings and results of a Pizarro or Cortes, or the
importance of key thrusts by such men as Balboa, to Panama and the Pacific
shores, or Diego Velisquez conquering the Cuban island. It lacked the un-
believable epic features of such expeditions as Francisco Orellana made into
the Amazon or that of Pedro Valdivia's conquest of Chile. It even was in want
of detailed and colorful reports by participants and therefore has left us a
pile of unaswered questions which unfortunately have been colored by a
great deal of myths and false claims. And the Ponce de Le6n exploits fail in
the excitement of a personal epic like that of Cabeza de Vaca crossing alone
from Florida through Texas to Mexico. It also does not compare in impor-
tance with the grandiose marches through North America by Hernando de
Soto and Juan Vasquez de Coronado.

Maybe the past has been unfair with Juan Ponce de Le6n, and the present
is more equitable. At the same time, the historical career from the
inconspicuous past to the attentive present of Juan Ponce de Le6n might be
of charm to this conquistador but in most parts it lacks factual historical
basis. Juan Ponce de Le6n, discoverer of Florida, is a figure involved in
riddles covered by a loose shift of weaved myths. And the reason why Ponce
de Le6n has become more important as time progressed is a most simple
one. His achievement rests in the discovery and settlement of Puerto Rico and
Florida. These two areas in the 16th century were not of prime prominence.
The expansion of the conquest during the 16th century had a different
directional importance-some areas became the basis for movement toward
other regions and others simply were deadends. The island of Cuba served
as the beachhead for the great conquest of Mexico, and Mexico in turn
became the starting point into California, Texas, Central America and the
vast Pacific Ocean. The Panama isthmus was the beachhead for the fabulous
conquest of Peru, and from Peru the roads lead to many other places in
South America. Naturally all these conquistadores of strategic areas were


celebrated far more than those men who went into closed passages. Ponce
de Le6n conquered Puerto Rico and this island did not develop into a basis
for further important conquests. When he left the island for his journey
to Florida, there were high hopes that the new land to be discovered would
serve as a highway to other great empires in the north. But Florida was a
disappointment and the Spanish had a difficult time settling the peninsula
and were often ready to give it up. All thrusts into the North American
continent ended in failure. Florida under the Spanish was a history of hard-
ships and failures and Florida did not become a road to other riches. Conse-
quently, Ponce de Le6n was not hailed as a man who has brought to his
crown great bounties.

Today the story is different. It is needless to say that Florida is a booming
area and that Florida can provide statistics showing its phenomenal growth.
Florida is a fountain of hope and wealth and it justifies the hope that Ponce
de Le6n carried with him when he sailed to discover this land. It took four
centuries to fulfill the conquistadores dream that Florida was a land of
riches or potential wealth. And although there is not a shred of documentary
evidence that Juan Ponce de Le6n came to seek a fountain of youth, there
remains little doubt that to some extent the myth of the fountain of youth
-so abused by amateur historians and business promoters-has partially
come true as Florida's economy is based on a great part on the influx of
older peoples seeking the sub-tropical sun and the Florida shores for their

Although the boom of Puerto Rico is not as spectacular as that of
Florida, this Caribbean island as a Commonwealth of the United States is
certainly an area of great progress. It is today probably the most progressive
spot in the Caribbean or the old Spanish Main of centuries ago. While in the
days of Ponce de Le6n, Puerto Rico was overshadowed by the valued islands
of Cuba and Espafiola. Today the one problem that Puerto Rico faces is its
split personality. The Commonwealth is Hispanic in language and ways of
life, but Americanization is corroding the Hispanic tradition and this is some-
thing much opposed by many of the intelligentsia. Naturally there developed
a nostalgic yearning for the past. That this exaggerated look to the past is
unrealistic is admitted by a brilliant political science professor at the Uni-
versity of Puerto Rico, who is at the same time an advocate of Puerto Rican
independence and a tireless critic of "Americanization." Professor Gordon
K. Lewis writes in 1963 that "The American critic who compares the


twentieth-century Puerto Rican with the sixteenth-century conquistadores, to
the disadvantages of the former, rarely pauses to reflect upon conclusions
that might be derived from comparing his own type with the independent
American farmer we read of in the pages of Crevecoeur. The modern Puerto
Rican must be judged by what he is, not by what his ancestors were...." But
the Puerto Rican is a product of the past and being part of a nation that is
predominately non-Hispanic, they constituting a small minority, finds inspira-
tion in the island's past and obviously considers the father of the island, Ponce
de Le6n, a man to be glorified and to be elevated on a historical pedestal.

This partly explains the boom in studies about Ponce de Le6n published
in the last years in Puerto Rico. On the other hand Florida-with its highly
commercialized quadricentennial festivities guided largely by historical ama-
teurs-has shown little interest in Ponce de Le6n. No publication by any
of the quadricentennial officials, agencies, etc., was planned. A book published
in 1963 by Ethel King went unnoticed, in part due to faulty distribution by a
publisher of little prestige who failed to provide review copies to leading

The Juan Ponce de Le6n Florida-Puerto Rico comparison is revealing.
He is the official discoverer of both places. This is an undisputed fact. In
Florida the Spanish tradition is negligible and the Spanish heritage bypassed
or only emphasized for crass commercial benefits, and the rather short
American period, starting in 1821, is much more emphasized. This is well
exemplified by the amount of time allotted to the Spanish periods in any
Florida history course at Florida colleges and public schools. The reverse is
true in Puerto Rico where as said the emphasis is to glorify the Spanish
heritage and periods, and where historical figures, led by Juan Ponce de
Le6n, of the Spanish period are glorified. But then in Florida there are hardly
any people, with the exception of a very small core in St. Augustine and a
few isolated cases in Pensacola, whose genealogy goes back to the Spanish
period. Florida prefers to celebrate its recent heroes and when Mr. Allen
Morris, with the help of Mr. Baynard Kendrick through the pages of the
Tampa Tribuna called for a vote of the five most celebrated Floridians only
Juan Ponce de Le6n received a fair number of votes. All other came from
the American period.

The reasons why in Florida has been shown little interest in its historical
figures of the Spanish period is simply a scarcity of qualified historians


capable by language and paleography to undertake research with primary
Spanish documents. On the other hand, Puerto Rican historians are not hin-
dered by these difficulties and such men as Vicente Murga Sanz and Aurelio
Ti6 have done careful studies in ordinal Spanish documents for more Ponce
de Le6n data as is exemplified in their recent books. The more emotional
approach, making Ponce de Le6n a symbol of the Spanish heritage of the
Island is presented in the 1960 book by Manuel Ballesteros Gaibrois, whose
title in English is "The Colonial Mind of Ponce de Le6n." The 292 pages
say little new and the main theme could have easily been reduced into an
article. To the author, Ponce de Le6n was a typical example of his time and
he summarized the best of the Spanish heritage. This is highly valued in
Puerto Rico but it hardly means anything to the Floridian.

One more matter has to be considered when discussing the lack of
enthusiasm for Ponce de Le6n in the annals of Florida history. The Florida
expeditions by Ponce de Le6n represent only two chapters-and not the most
important ones-in the full life of this conquistador. His pursuits in Puerto
Rico were the most important ones and covered crucial years of Ponce de
Le6n's life. While unquestionably documentation for Ponce de Le6n leaves
much to desire and historians Murga Sanz and Ti6 have carefully searched
all over the world for new sources, records of the doings of Juan Ponce de
Le6n in Puerto Rico are far more available than those in Florida. As a matter
of fact, we totally lack primary source material-documents-about Ponce
de Le6n's two journeys to Florida. We have only indirect printed information
by later reporters whose accuracy is questionable when dealing with details.
Every honest and scholarly effort to find in the archives over the world,
especially Spain, more Ponce de Le6n data have failed. We know that one
of the historians who is our only source, Antonio de Herrera, possessed some
of the Ponce de Le6n Florida reports. Herrera lived in the 16th century and
he had access to the Ponce de Le6n papers but failed to return them. This
loss is tragic and the main source for all later misinformation which resulted
in the myths of Ponce de Le6n in Florida.

This sparsity of information is truly frustrating and there is little hope
for finding the lost documents or even new data. Consequently no definite
biography of Ponce de Le6n is ever possible unless the impossible-the lost
documents come to light-happens. And we will not be able to sketch the
Florida happenings better than has been done in the past as we are always
forced to consult the same sources which are the 15th and 16th century


chroniclers, especially Herrera. Therefore, such a well-intentioned study as
that appearing in the Florida Historical Quarterly years ago by Frederick
Davis is basically correct in its broad outline. But everyone who writes about
Ponce de Le6n, even if he has the best intention of doing a scholarly work
-searching for the truth-will have to face the Ponce de Le6n myths. And
there are many who innocently, because of a vested interest, or especially
due to geographical loyalties are fanatically devoted to one or all myths. For
example, the most readable Ponce de Le6n biography in English, the 127 page
book by the late Edward Lawson, reveals the author to be an intentional
victim of one of the two myths, and although Mr. Lawson was well aware of
most all available sources, he failed to list some in his bibliography-those
not devoted to his beliefs.

Generally speaking the myths can be reduced to three. The first one
deals with the story of the Fountain of Youth and Ponce de Le6n's search
for those marvelous waters. The second refers to geographical locations, which
entails the various claims that Ponce de Le6n was here and there -went
up the Gulf Coast as far as...-and especially pin-pointing an exact first
landfall. St. Augustine has the distinction of claiming both, the Fountain
and the landfall! The third myth, and maybe in this case the word "myth"
is a misnomer, has to do with the matter of when Florida was discovered, in
1512 or 1513. The biography of Ponce de Le6n that follows takes into account
all available sources and is a summary of what we know of the man.

The story of the life of Ponce de Le6n starts out with difficulty-maybe
a fourth myth. Since it does not affect personal or business interests in
Florida this potential myth has not developed into a controversy in Florida.
We simply are not sure about the date of birth and the parents of Juan
Ponce de Le6n. We have a near consensus as to the place of birth-Santervas
(also spelled Santhervis) in Castilla la Vieja (Old Castille), now known as
the province of Valladolid-of the conquistador. Ti6 in his two books claims
to have solved the problem. He writes in the 1956 study, "The origin in Spain
of Don Juan Ponce de Le6n has always been an insoluble riddle for those
researchers who tried to decipher it.... All attempts to solve the mystery of
the Spanish origin have ended in failure." Ti6 cites some of those who have
tried. Then Ti6 writes "We have had the good fortune to find the key that
permits us to solve the mystery." He cites several new documents in Seville
which indirectly refer to Juan Ponce de Le6n. Ti6 writes "that by a process of
elimination we have discovered who was this brother of Juan Ponce de Le6n


[mentioned in the documents] and which was his line of ancestors in Spain."
Yet Ti6's genealogical explanation which he later amplified in his 1961 tome
fails to persuade some readers that he has found the answer. It is simply
impossible to understand the Ti6 presented genealogy and such was men-
tioned in my review in the Florida Historical Quarterly of October 1962. In
a long personal letter to me dated May 8, 1964, he provides a somewhat clearer
picture. Mr. Ti6 in this cordial and urbane correspondence said that "sim-
plicity is impossible in a genealogy of men who remarried and had 23 known
offspring, each with different family names, according to old Spanish custom."

Ti6 is quite right in the immense number of offspring. There was a
Count also called Juan Ponce de Le6n (1) (related to the Florida Ponce
de Le6n) who was the father of the rather famous Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n
(2) (known as the second Cid Campeador.) This Count Juan Ponce de
Le6n(1), who died in 1469, had 21 accounted illegitimate sons and perhaps
more. One of the "perhaps more" sons of Count Juan Ponce de Le6n could
have been the conquistador of Florida and Puerto Rico, Juan Ponce de Le6n.
This is a supposition presented in the scholarly Ponce de Le6n biography of
Murga Sanz which shows more depth and clarity than that of Ti6, who has
a personal genealogical interest in the Puerto Rican descendants of Juan
Ponce de Le6n. Anyhow, the Murga Sanz and the Ti6 sketches of Ponce
de LeOn's origin-one author ignores the other-are not too far apart.
The same key figures make their appearance. But Murga Sanz presents
them and elaborates only possibilities, while Ti6 makes confusing deductions
to which he is strongly devoted. Manuel Ballesteros Gaibrois in 1960,
ignoring or unaware of the Ti6 1956 book, wrote in what to me is an
honest statement: "It is curious that such a person like Ponce de Le6n, who
in his life will fulfill such important tasks, and who will possess the royal
trust and that of men like [Nicolas] Ovando and Diego Col6n, has left behind
so few tracks about his origins. Really we do not know who were his parents,
where he was born and when he was born." Edward Lawson in his English
biography simply states that "no record of birth has been found." Frederick
Davis' study is not concerned with the life of Ponce de Le6n, but only with his
Florida expeditions.

*These numbers in parentheses after names of the family refer to the same numbers on
my short genealogical chart.


(1) Juan Por'n i de Le6n (

(2) Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (

(3) Francisca Ponce de Le6n

+ 1469)

+ 1492) 1st cousin




Luis Ponce de Le6n Teresa Guzmin

(5) Pedro Ponce de Le6n

(6) Luis Ponce de Le6n

(7) Pedro

Pedro Ponce de Le6n
Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n

Ponce de Le6n


Ti6's complicated genealogical deductions make the conquistador Juan
Ponce de Le6n the brother of Don Pedro Ponce de Le6n (8),** who in 1520
was Caballero of the distinguished order of San Juan de Jerusal6n. This is
claimed in both Ti6's 1956 and his 1961 book. Nothing is known of the
brother of Juan Ponce de Le6n. But Pedro's parents, according to Ti6's 1956
study, were Don Luis Ponce de Le6n (6), first Marquis of Zara (or Zahara)
and the Marquise Dofia Francisca Ponce de Le6n (2) a second cousin by
marriage. The Florida conquistador was the second legitimate son and
Pedro (8) was the first. They had other children who all held distinguished
titles and positions. Ti6 writes that "Juan Ponce de Le6n was not of humble
birth as it has been claimed." He said that most writers were unaware of the
true genealogy of Ponce de Le6n and many "based their claims on an
anonymous document which attacked him (Juan Ponce de Le6n.) This
'anonymous of Simancas' said that he had been stable boy of the Prefect
Knight of Calatrava Pedro Niiiiez de Guzmdn and that he went to America
on the second voyage of Columbus as a foot soldier." Ti6, in an unpublished
answer of November 16, 1963, to my review of his 1961 book in the Florida
Historical Quarterly, states that his genealogical discoveries and deductions
show that "the solution is inescapable, Juan Ponce de Le6n emerges as a
cultured member of Spain's nobility" who later became "an intimate of King

As said, Murga Sanz in his Ponce de Le6n biography, generally con-
sidered the best Ponce de Le6n study, fails to come to such specifics. Murga
Sanz also has a Francisca Ponce de Le6n identified as Marquisa of Zahara
who was married to her second cousin, Luis Ponce de Le6n (6), who is identi-
fied as a lord of Villagarcia and Rota. It should be recalled that Francisca
was the daughter of the second Cid Campeador, Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2).
But while Ti6 in 1956 makes the Florida Ponce de Le6n the son of Fran-
cisca (3) and Luis Ponce de Le6n (6), Murga Sanz cites an interesting docu-
ment which makes the Florida Ponce de Le6n the cousin of Francisca (3).
He says that the conquistador might have been an illegitimate son of Fran-
cisca's (3) grandfather, the Count Juan Ponce de Le6n (1) (whose illegiti-
mate son Rodrigo (2) was the second Cid Campeador.) The old Juan Ponce
de Le6n (1) (grandfather) died in 1469 and his illegitimate son Rodrigo (2)
(second Cid Campeador) died on August 27, 1492. Francisca's oldest son
named Rodrigo (9) was given the right of primogeniture. Ti6 too has a

** (8) according to Tid's 1956 book but (7) according to his 1961 book.


Rodrigo as the son of Francisca, but claims that a Pedro (8) was the oldest
son. Murga Sanz fails to mention this Pedro, who is the key figure for Ti6
genealogy since he (Ti6) located a document which makes this Pedro -sup-
posed son of Francisca (3) and her legitimate husband (6)-according to
Ti6's 1956 evaluation a brother of the Florida conquistador, Juan Ponce de

In Ti6's 1961 detailed study he reproduces nearly verbatim, but often
expanded, his genealogical deductions but now-most probably because of
Murga Sanz's study which he does not acknowledge-writes that "It is pos-
sible" that the conquistador Juan Ponce de Le6n was the cousin of Francisca
Ponce de Le6n (3) and the brother of her husband, Luis Ponce de Le6n (6).
In this way Ti6 and Murga now seem to agree that the conquistador Juan
Ponce de Le6n was a cousin of Dofia Francisca Ponce de Le6n (3), who
indeed was the daughter of the second Cid Campeador (2). There is confusion
as to where exactly Francisca's husband, Luis (6), fits into the picture. He is
a second cousin to his wife Francisca (3), and while Murga Sanz makes the
conquistador Juan Ponce de Le6n a possible son of an undetermined mother
of Francisca's potent grandfather, Juan Ponce de Le6n (1) (+1469), Ti6
in his revised 1961 work makes the conquistador a possible brother of Fran-
cisca's (3) husband Luis (6) (second cousin of his wife) and his May 8,
1964 letter shows he is now convinced of this.

One might assume that the Murga Sanz claim is rather a riddle when he
affirms that the Florida Ponce de Le6n was a possible son of the venerable
Count Juan Ponce de Le6n (1). Since Francisca was his granddaughter, she
certainly would have to identify the Florida Ponce de Le6n as uncle rather
than cousin, as she does in the valuable document discovered by the same
Murga Sanz. At the same time the supposed riddle can be explained. Balles-
teros Gaibrois explains that the word primo (cousin) did not have the same
strict definition and was then used very loosely as someone related, especially
if he were illegitimate. Ballesteros Gaibrois rightly insists that the transmission
of last names as is done today according to strict traditions was not in vogue
at that time. A personal letter to me from Murga Sanz in April 1964 confirms
the Ballesteros Gaibrois claim, but is denied in the Ti6 May, 1964 letter to
me. In the letter Murga Sanz says that Francisca (3) was also illegitimate-
daughter of Rodrigo (2), the famous second Cid Campeador. He writes that
saying "my cousin is like saying my relative." Murga Sanz writes in the
letter that this makes it impossible to determine the exact relationship. He


continues saying that it simply means that Ponce de Le6n is a relative to
the second Cid Campeador (2)-"the degree of blood relationship cannot be
determined with the documents located and available to us."

Ti6 disagrees. He states in his lengthy letter of May 8 that under no
circumstances can the Florida Ponce de Le6n be a son of the venerable Juan
Ponce de Le6n (1) who fathered so many illegitimate children and who
died in 1469. (Ti6 accounts 23 offspring rather than the accepted 21.) Ti6
has a powerful argument. While the birth certificate of Ponce de Le6n has
never been located (this would clear up most all of the confusion) his year
of birth is always, by everyone, given as 1460. Murga Sanz states this date
"lacks proofs." But he accepts it as the best we have. Ti6 insists in his 1961
book that he knows of a document (not reproduced) which is a legal paper
dated September 8, 1514, in which Juan Ponce de Le6n declared that he was
born in 1474. There are no good reasons to doubt the Ti6 affirmation but it
would have been advantageous for him to have reproduced this key document.
It would mean that when Ponce de Le6n discovered Florida he was 39 rather
than 53 which does make a difference in our Ponce de Le6n research. It
would make the myth of the Fountain of Youth less appealing. This author is
willing to accept the 1474 date until a more convincing document is found
since the 1460 date has no documental basis and comes to us from unscholarly
and undiscriminatory older secondary sources and might be based on "old
wives' tales." In our own discussion this would make it impossible for the
Florida Ponce de Le6n to be the son of the productive Juan Ponce de Le6n
(1) deceased in 1469.

Ti6 finds it most plausible that the Florida Juan Ponce de Le6n is the
legitimate son of Pedro Ponce de Le6n (5) and Leonor de Figueroa and
therefore, as stated, was a brother of Luis Ponce de Le6n (6) who was
married to a second cousin, Francisca Ponce de Le6n (3). So Francisca was
indeed a true cousin of the Florida Ponce de Le6n and at the same time
sister-in-law. My opinion is that the famous Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2), the
second Cid, was the first cousin of Pedro Ponce de Le6n (5) who has emerged
as the most probable father of the Florida Juan Ponce de Le6n. Ti6 writes
in his explanatory letter of May 8, 1964, "Juan Ponce de Le6n [the Florida
discoverer] thus may have been Luis Ponce de Le6n's (6) brother, his
business partner in the New World, second cousin to his wife Dofia Fran-
cisca (3) and her brother-in-law as well. In the power-of-attorney sworn to
by Dofia Francisca (3) in her own right (the key document of Murga Sanz),


what mattered was her blood ties as cousin of Juan Ponce de Le6n, and not
her ties through marriage as his sister-in-law. Since her husband Don Luis (6)
was required by law to consent to her legal wish by signing, so as to validate
the document, no mention had to be made that he was also her second cousin.
...According to my research, Father Murga's conjecture on Juan Ponce de
Le6n's ancestry is absolutely groundless." Ti6 insists that it has "been based
mostly on centuries-old misconceptions which probably grew out of an
anonymous report to Cardinal Cisneros [who was the Inquisitor General of
Spain during the time of Ponce de Le6n], which according to its fiery style
could have been only written by [the celebrated] Father Las Casas."

In all this confusion and controversy one thing is apparent. The con-
quistador of Puerto Rico and Florida, Juan Ponce de Le6n, is related by
blood to the celebrated Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2), who died in 1492 and
who was a heroic figure in the last phase of the Moorish expulsion from
Spain. We know this because Francisca Ponce de Le6n (2)--the illegitimate
daughter of Rodrigo who was married to the lord of Villagarcia and Rota,
known as Luis Ponce de Le6n (6)-identifies the Florida Juan Ponce de Le6n
as a relative. According to Murga Sanz it is conceivable that the Florida Juan
Ponce de Le6n was an illegitimate son of Rodrigo's (2) father, also known
as Juan Ponce de Le6n (1), who died in 1469. His famous son Rodrigo (2)
was illegitimate too. The illegitimacy of the Florida Ponce de Le6n hardly
matters. Rodrigo (2) was celebrated and aristocratic; Francisca (3) was
illegitimate too and she was a Marquisa of Zahara. She married a second
cousin whose title is either Marquis or Count of Zahara and Lord of Villa-
garcia and Rota (6). The consistency of illegitimacy is responsible for this
confusion which results in vast genealogical claims in all directions.

While I am not as anxious to reject as rapidly the Murga Sanz conjec-
tures it is now more conceivable that Ponce de Le6n was not the son of
Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2) but might as well have been the son of Pedro
Ponce de Le6n (5), an aristocratic lord whose complete name and title was
Pedro Ponce de Le6n y Fernindez de Villagaria, the fourth lord of Villa-
garcia, who was a close relative of the second Cid, Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2)
and who was at the funeral in 1492 in Seville of Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2).

In sum, Juan Ponce de Le6n, contrary to some earlier claims, mostly
due to the above cited anonymous report to Cardinal Cisneros, was not of
humble birth but came from a line of aristocratic lords the leading figure of


whom was the second Cid, Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2), a famous hero of
blue blood. We still lack his birth and baptismal records and therefore we
still cannot assume completely who Ponce de Le6n's father and mother were,
but we are quite close to the truth and the possibilities are indeed few. While
Murga Sanz has presented a commendable biography he has shown an
understandable reluctance to get deeply involved in complicated genealogical
search which Ti6 has undertaken with great competence. Yet he, Ti6, has
often presented a confused picture. At one time in his letter of May 8, 1964,
he claims that Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2) was the brother of Pedro Ponce
de Le6n (5) which sounds quite inconceivable.

As stated, historians have accepted earlier undocumented statements that
the Conquistador Juan Ponce de Le6n was born in 1460, but it appears that
he was born in 1474. Everyone seems to agree, with some documental evi-
dence but not enough to satisfy the serious historian's requirement for
absolute veracity, that the Conquistador was born in Santervis de Campos,
which today belongs to the county of Villal6n in the province of Valladolid.
Documents of descendants of Ponce de Le6n provide the historian with the
deduction that the conquistador came from the village of Santervas. This
village in 1460 belonged to the monastery of Sahagin, and Murga Sanz
located documents at the Simanca archives which show that the place-name
was spelled "Sant Erbas", but Murga Sanz's search in the monastery and
village records failed "to show any references to the Ponce de Le6ns." He
found out that the Ponce de Le6ns used two other monasteries in Castille and
Le6n because of historical customs and traditions.

The far origins of the Ponce de Le6ns are somewhat complicated but
have also become a matter of controversy. It has been generally assumed
with ample genealogical documentation that the Ponce de Le6ns of the 15th
century came in the 12th century from southern France as direct descendents
of the Counts of Toulouse and Saint Gil. It is said that their common
ancestor was Pedro Poncio de Minerva who, according to Lawson, left
France in 1142 to become major domo of King Alfonso IX of the kingdom
of Le6n. This is hardly possible as Alfonso IX reigned from 1188 to 1230.
Lawson takes his data from the genealogical studies of the Puerto Rican
Angel Panaiagua, which also were profusely consulted but also corrected by
Ti6. Ti6 claims that Poncio de Minerva, who came from Southern France as
a young boy, was related to King Alfonso VII, whose reign was from 1126
to 1157. Poncio Minerva was raised in the court of Alfonso VII and from


1140 to 1164 was an intimate advisor of the King (after 1157 Alfonso VIII
ruled) and was also Governor of the City of Le6n. There are no reasons to
doubt the Poncio de Minerva-Alfonso VII relationship.

The story of the origins of Juan Ponce de Le6n says that with the
passing of time the many descendents of Poncio de Minerva (now being
called Ponce) split into two branches, located in the south around Seville and
Cadiz and in the north around Le6n and Valladolid. The conquistador Juan
Ponce de Le6n was from the northern branch and it is written that the second
Cid Campeador, Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n (2), was a central figure of the
southern branch. Lawson, using Prescott's classic study of Ferdinand and
Isabella, the Catholic Kings, states that a Pedro Ponce de Le6n (5), Duke
of Cadiz [sic: for Rodrigo (2)], was the "head" of the southern branch. (It
should be recalled that this Pedro (5) was the Marques of Villagarcia and
that his son (7) and grandson (8) were also called Pedro Ponce de Le6n
and that either one of these two Pedros (6 or 7) was the brother of the
Florida Juan Ponce de Le6n and this brother is the key figure in Ti6's
genealogy. It must also be recalled that Rodrigo (2), the second Cid and
the real Duque of Cadiz, was the father of Francesca (3), who unquestionably
was the cousin of the conquistador Juan Ponce de Le6n.) We are relatively
sure that Juan Ponce de Le6n was born in the north. Therefore a sharp
division into the two branches: northern and southern, is apparently not a
sure fact. They were interwoven.

Murga Sanz fails to show interest into the early origins of the Ponce
de Le6n's, but Ti6, after much searching, affirms categorically that Juan
Ponce de Le6n did not descend from the famous Poncio de Minerva who
came from France. During the reign of Alfonso VII of Castille (1126-1157)
and that of his son, Ferdinand of Le6n (1157-1188) three gentlemen called
Poncio-Poncio de Minerva, Poncio de Cabrera, Poncio Velaz-lived. Of
these, Poncio Velaz was the son of Poncio de Cabrera. Poncio de Cabrera is
the ancestor of the Florida Juan Ponce de Le6n and this Poncio de Cabrera
was also a high official, indeed mayor domo of Alfonso VII. Poncio de
Cabrera was from Catalufia and came from distinguished birth. Therefore
Juan Ponce de Le6n is "of pure Spanish descent and he has no blood of the
gentleman Poncio de Minerva" writes Ti6. The Puerto Rican author is
convincing in his presentation and documentation. It is acceptable that the
old claims that Juan Ponce de Le6n origins can be traced back to France
are erroneous. He comes from an old northern Spanish aristocracy closely


associated with the rulers of Le6n and Castille. His paternal ancestry is from
the Osorio family of Castille and his maternal origins are also of blue blood
from the House of Cabrera and the Trava of Le6n and Galicia. Also, part
of his ancestral genealogy are the Dukes of Urgell and Catalufia. Poncio de
Cabrera, mayor domo in the 12th century, is the direct antecedent of Juan
Ponce de Le6n.

The Ponce de Le6n Cabrera family was related to another distinguished
and most extensive family, Nufiez de Guzmin of the house of Toral. For
example, the patrician Juan Ponce de Le6n (1)-the one with the many
illegitimate sons-and father of the second Cid Campeador (2) had eight
children, among them the Cid, with Dofia Leonor Nuifiez de Prado, who
belonged to the Ndfiez de Guzmin family. One of the daughters of the
productive Count Juan Ponce de Le6n (1), Ines, was married to Luis de
Guzmin and aristocratic lord of Algava. Another daughter was married to
Juan de Guzmin, lord of Teva. Furthermore, the grandfather, of the count of
Villagarcia and Rota (6) (husband of Francisca Ponce de Le6n) (3), also
called Luis Ponce de Le6n (4) (the same as his grandson) was married to
Teresa Guzmin of the house of Toral.

At the time of Juan Ponce de Le6n's birth the head of Toral house was
Ramiro Nifiez of the Nfifiez de Guzmin family. Ramiro's brother was Pedro
N6fiez de Guzman. Later Pedro Ndfiez de Guzmin became a Grand Master of
the Order of Calatrava and a confidant of the Spanish Crown. During his
earlier life Pedro Nfiiiez de Guzman was not too well off financially, but
might have fought with Rodrigo Ponce de Le6n, the Cid Campeador, in
the reconquest of Granada. Anyhow, the celebrated Chronicler Gonzalo
Fernandez de Oviedo tells that the future conquistador of Florida and Puerto
Rico served as a page and servant of Pedro Niiiez de Guzmin. To be a
page at that time one had to be of noble lineage and sons of Counts,
Marquises and Dukes became pages in noble related houses in order to later
"wear the larkspurs of a gentleman" of true blood.

It is not completely clear what his precise duties were as he is referred
to as a page boy, a squire and also a servant. Without proof the biographers
of the conquistador state that he accompanied Pedro Nfiiiez de Guzman in
the war against the Moors during the Granada campaign. As Murga Sanz
thinks that Juan Ponce de Le6n is the son of Count Juan Ponce de Le6n (1),
he states that it is possible that he, the conquistador Juan Ponce de LeOn,


fought on the side of Rodrigo (2), the Cid Campeador, in the conquest of
Granada. It is assumed that he fought as the squire of Pedro Nfiiez de
Guzmin. Fernandez de Oviedo tells us that when Ponce de Le6n arrived in
America he was an experienced military man who had learned his trade in
the war against the Moors.

There is nothing else available about Juan Ponce de Le6n in Spain.
The next we hear about him was that he had joined Columbus in 1493 and
was accompanying the great discoverer in his second voyage to America.
Most all biographers object to the citations of the celebrated Father Las Casas
in his famous history of America, published in the 16th century as a witness
of most of the events, that Ponce de Le6n was a stable boy of Nifiuez de
Guzmin and a footsoldier when traveling to America. Two matters are cited
to refute the Las Casas statements. First of all we possess documents that
contain the signature of Ponce de Le6n, which is that of a man who knew
how to write well, and this knowledge was in those days reserved only lo
upper ranks and not to stable boys and footsoldiers. Furthermore, his name
is not listed among the officials and to some this means that Ponce de Le6n
paid his own passage, which is a most convincing argument that he was not
a footsoldier, but a gentleman.

It should be said that this matter of not being listed creates a doubt that
Ponce de Le6n traveled in 1493 with Columbus. No single document has
been found in which the name of Ponce de Le6n is listed among the voyagers
of Columbus. The information simply comes from Fernandez de Oviedo. But
we have also claims that Ponce de Le6n accompanied the 1502 expedition of
NicolAs Ovando to America. Ovando had been sent to America to replace
Columbus, who had assumed too much power. Ovando sailed in 1502. Murga
Sanz states that the name of Ponce de Le6n is also unavailable in all docu-
mentation consulted which deals with the Ovando voyage in 1502 to America
and Murga Sanz is inclined to think-mostly on emotional grounds-that
Juan Ponce de Le6n came with Columbus in 1493. Ti6, although he shows
little interest in this matter, is also emotionally inclined to accept the 1493
journey to America. It is he who insists that the absence of the name of
Ponce de Le6n on the official traveling logs of Columbus shows his aristocratic
origins. His contentions are based primarily on the well-known Samuel Eliot
Morison's biography of Columbus where Morison states that Columbus in his
second voyage carried with him around 200 enlisted young aristocrats,
veterans of the recently won Granada campaign against the Moors. These


men, after the Granada victory, had nothing to do and on their own initiative
and paying their own expenses boarded the 1493 Columbus ships to America.
No list of these men of good birth is available. Garcia y Gararafa, in his
genealogical dictionary, expresses serious doubts that Ponce de Le6n came
to America in 1493. Lawson refuses to discuss the issue and simply states
that Ponce de Le6n "came to Haiti on the second voyage of Columbus."

Ballesteros Gaibrois, who in his biography of Ponce de Le6n evaluates
the primary documents unearthed by such scholars as Ti6 and Murga Sanz,
is inclined to dismiss the claims that the conquistador of Florida came to
America in 1493. It is a fact that no record of Ponce de Le6n activities in
America until 1504 have come to light. In that year he shows up as a protege
of Ovando in the province of Higiiey in northeastern Haiti. After rendering
valuable services in an Indian campaign at Higiiey, Ponce de Le6n in
reward was made governor of the province. From 1493 to 1504 is a long
time for a man of such energy and background as Ponce de Le6n not to be
mentioned in the fast-moving events in Espafiola, the island center of Spanish
activities of those days. Furthermore, Ovando came in 1502 to renovate
the power structure established by Columbus and his followers. It is reason-
able to assume that Ovando would use the men of his confidence, the ones
who came with him, in his key operations. Indeed, this is what he did. It is
therefore unlikely that if Ponce de Le6n came with Columbus he would be
used by Ovando. Therefore, it is my opinion that Juan Ponce de Le6n
probably came in 1502 to America with Ovando but that documentation to
prove this has not been located. At the same time the claims that he came
in 1493 with Columbus are much more unlikely. He does make his recorded
appearance in 1504 leaving us with 30 years (since his birth) of total
obscurity in regard to his person, although competent historians and paleo-
grapher have searched long and conscientiously in all kinds of dusty archives
for new documentation.

From the time he assumed the governorship of Higiiey in 1504 until his
death in 1521, the life and doings of Ponce de Le6n are far better known,
and with few exceptions are clearly written up. The main exception is his
1513 Florida trip, which therefore gave rise to those three mentioned myths.
He did a good job in Higiiey, where he acquired a considerable estate raising
crops and possessing many horses and cattle. It is said that he built himself
a substantial house. It is here that Father Las Casas, who participated in the
Higiiey campaign, met Ponce de Le6n and had much discourse with the future


conquistador of Florida. Juan Ponce de Le6n stayed put for six years in
Higiiey, bringing peace and prosperity to the region. The island adjoining
Higiiey is today known as Puerto Rico, but was then called San Juan de
Borinquen. The Indians called this medium sized island "Borinquen" and
the Spanish discovered it during the second trip of Columbus, naming it
San Juan Bautista (Saint John the Baptist). It should be recalled that some
claim that Juan Ponce de Le6n was on this second trip of Columbus. There
had been some interest in the island and the natives had established some
contact with neighboring Higiiey. In 1508 Ovando gave incentive to Ponce
de Le6n to cross over to San Juan de Borinquen and explore the island and
possibly establish settlements.

Undoubtedly, Juan Ponce de Le6n was most successful in his endeavors
in Puerto Rico and this phase of his life is well sketched and hardly pertinent
for Florida history. At the same time, Ponce de Le6n had to face tremendous
odds. The island he had brought under Spanish rule had been known, and
it was near and within easy access to Espafiola (Hispaniola), which after
all was at this time the center of the Spanish colony in America. Many
wanted to divide the Puerto Rican pie and at the same time a struggle was
occurring for ultimate leadership and royal favor to run all the overseas
empire of Spain, which still was restricted to the Caribbean. The Columbus
family was ferociously fighting for their rights and the Crown was under all
kinds of pressures from all angles. Although Ponce de Le6n had a strong "in"
with the King, Ferdinand, through his old master, Nifilez de Guzman, who
had risen to a confidant and aide of the King, and although the King
seemed to have taken a strong liking to Ponce de Le6n, the Crown felt that
it was not a convenient move and in the best interests of the Crown to make
Ponce de Le6n the one and only "boss" of the island of San Juan. The cor-
respondence of the King shows a deep and honest sorrow for slighting Ponce
de Le6n, and the Crown was most interested that this good servant of Spain
should be offered new opportunities if Ponce de Le6n wished to undertake
new ventures beyond Puerto Rico. Indeed, the King suggested such a move.
This, then, is the initial phase of the conquest of Florida. It originated not
with Ponce de Le6n, but rather from the King.

King Ferdinand began his suggestions on July 25, 1511 when he told his
Treasurer General in America "that, because I have held him (Juan Ponce
de Le6n), and continue to hold him a servant of the Crown he should talk
with you and should discuss all that appears to him in which I can do him


a favor and he can serve us; especially if he should wish to take any new
settlement in his charge as he did the island of San Juan." On September 9,
1511 he wrote to Puerto Rico requesting all officials to "show good will and
much love for Ponce de Le6n." On the same day, King Ferdinand wrote a
letter to Ponce de Le6n, thanking him for his communication and the dispatch
of gold and suggesting "that he (Ponce de Le6n) should get to know if
there are nearby islands ready for Spanish conquest." On November 1 of the
same year, the King ordered that the residencia of Ponce de Le6n for his
various duties, including the governorship and the conquest of the Island of
San Juan, should be taken. A residencia was an obligatory and public review
that any official had to face before a job transfer or retirement. This move
by the King meant, among other things, that he wanted Ponce de Le6n to
be ready for a possible departure from the island.

The next letter that has been found dates from February 23 and is from
the King to Ponce de Le6n, and it is a key letter in the discovery of Florida.
On the same day a more or less identical letter was sent from the King to
the royal officials of Espafiola in which was included a contract for Ponce
de Le6n to "discover the island of Benimy." Here then in both communica-
tions appear the island spelled either Benimy or Biminy in the communi-
cations but later written as Bimini. As we all know, the royal contractual
search for Bimini by Ponce de Le6n, a product of the correspondence with
the king, led to the definite discovery of Florida. When Ponce de Le6n
arrived on the Florida shores in 1513, indications tend to confirm but do
not provide total proof that he thought Florida was the island of Bimini.

From where the King or Ponce de Le6n got the notion of the island of
Bimini is yet unresolved, and we are only dealing in the realm of possible
answers. Again we have the case of a missing document, unlocated by
everyone who has searched for it in the many archives. The letters of
February 23, 1512 by the King, giving Ponce de Le6n a contract to go to
Bimini, are in response to a letter from Ponce de Le6n to the King, of
unknown date. In this missing letter, Ponce de Le6n unquestionably talked
to the King and his officials, especially to the general treasurer, and men-
tioned in the letter and in the talks the island of Bimini. The King wrote
to the royal officials in the February 23 letter, "Juan Ponce de Le6n wrote
me that which you will see by the enclosed letter [the lost one] about the
settlement of an Island which is called Binyny." If we had this letter we


might know more from where the Bimini information came and who had
already been at Florida before the arrival of Ponce de Le6n.

Two matters in the royal correspondence are of interest. First of all, in
the letter of September 9, 1511, in which the King suggested that Ponce de
Le6n get to know if there are nearby islands to conquer, King Ferdinand
speaks of "the secret of these islands." Ballesteros Gaibrois asks what this
means. He thinks that the information that has come to the attention of the
Spaniards (and we don't know to whom and by whom) has more than the
usual information and has excited the attention of the Crown. That a story
or stories of supernatural people or powers of this Bimini island had reached
the Spaniards is quite conceivable. Maybe this King's letter is the real origin
of the Fountain of Youth myth.

The second point of interest refers also to a letter of King Ferdinand
and this one is dated February 23, 1512 to the Royal Officials in Espaiiola,
which contains the contract for Ponce de Le6n to conquer and settle Bimini.
The King wrote, "I think that he [Ponce de Le6n] has reason to be content,
because the Adelantado don Bartolome Columbus (the son of Columbus)
talked to me here that he wished to discover this island [of Bimini]. I
believe he might have discovered it with better advantage to our treasury
than we will do with Juan Ponce de Le6n. ..." This means that the story of
Bimini was not something that Ponce de Le6n alone had acquired, but that
it was of common knowledge among the conquistadores of Espaiiola. It must
have been information (myths) of an exciting nature to attract the attention
of Bartolome Columbus. That the King was not willing to let the second
Columbus discover and settle Bimini (Florida) is nothing surprising, as
Ferdinand was not willing to extend more the rights of the Columbus family,
which in fact he was trying to reduce. Consequently, and in view of the
Puerto Rican matter, he felt he could discharge his obligation and set his
conscience at peace by giving Ponce de Le6n the chance to discover Bimini.

The Bimini contract given to Ponce de Le6n by the crown was of a new
type and less rewarding than those of earlier days given to other conquis-
tadores. The King wrote to the Royal Officials in the letter already mentioned
that "all that now can be discovered is very easy to discover and this is not
taken into account by those who want to discover [new lands]. They rush to
the contract that was made with the Admiral [Christopher Columbus, when
he discovered America]. They do not reflect that then there was no hope of


what was discovered and neither was it thought that such a discovery was
possible." The letter indicates that Ponce de Le6n indeed, after having been
encouraged by the King to look for new lands, had mailed to Ferdinand a
contract draft which the King found "very immodest and devoid from
reason", words used by Ferdinand in his letter to the Royal Officials.

The contract that the King mailed for Ponce de Le6n's acceptance was
dated February 23, 1512. A good English translation is available in the
Frederick Davis study and in the book by Lawson. Let us only state the 17
key points, with the help of the excellent summaries of Ballesteros Gaibrois
and Murga Sanz: (1) He had three years to do the task and 12 months to
initiate the expedition from the day the contract was duly signed and
registered by everyone concerned; (2) The expenses of the expedition would
be the responsibility of Ponce de Le6n; (3) He was allowed to recruit people
from Spain and Espaiiola; (4) Ponce de Le6n had a priority in his claims
of Bimini and the lands discovered if he initiated the expedition within one
year; (5) Ponce de Le6n should assume the executive and all the judicial
functions in the new territory; (6) He should have the ownership of all the
houses and estates that he will establish with his own funds in these new lands;
(7) The construction and direction of forts is a royal prerogative and
therefore not under the jurisdiction of Ponce de Le6n; (8) Ponce de Le6n
shall receive for 12 years from the day of the discovery the appropriate
"tenth" of all the revenues and profits, with the exception of those specified
as royal properties; (9) The distribution of the Indians to the Spanish lords
should be done by the Crown, but the Crown will give priority in the allot-
ment of Indians to those who have participated in the Ponce de Le6n expedi-
tion; (10) Gold and precious metals, plus other possible valuable com-
modities, shall be the property of Ponce de Le6n and his men, with the
exception of the "tenth" during the first years to the Crown; thereafter, the
tax had to be a ninth for the second year, an eighth during the third, seventh
for the fourth, sixth for the fifth year, and from then on, one fifth; (11)
Ponce de Le6n should receive the governorship of all the discovered neigh-
boring islands of Bimini as long as these places are unknown and unassigned;
(12) Ponce de Le6n is given the title of Adelantado of Bimini and of the
other lands that he would discover. This title was a desired one, going back
many centuries, and was "a kind of royal deputy placed over an extensive
territory and endowed with civil and judicial functions," according to C. H.
Haring. And Professor Haring tells us that "Of the seventy or more indi-
viduals who in the sixteenth century contracted with the Crown to subdue


or colonize new areas in America, the rank of Adelantado was vouchsafed
to somewhat less than half...; (13) The exploitation and collection of gold,
if there were some, would be the same as done in Espaiiola or as ordered
by the King; (14) Ponce de Le6n was forbidden to have in his expedition
foreigners and people not resident in Spain or Spanish dependencies and
colonies; (15) Everyone in the forthcoming expedition to Bimini before
leaving must deposit before the Royal Officials of Espafiola valid bonds;
(16) Any frauds and other dishonesties must be reported to the Crown and
its appropriate officials and anyone who was negligent of dispatching such
reports should be as severely punished as those guilty of fraud; (17) Ponce
de Le6n was required to mail detailed reports of his discoveries.

The King had signed the contract on February 23, 1512 but Ponce de
Le6n did not register the expeditionary force until January 29, 1513 at the
port of Yuma in the province of Higiiey on the island of Espaiiola. According
to the contract, he had one year from that date to discover Bimini. Although
time meant nothing in those days, some historians show concern about this
delay. Furthermore, in a letter dated August 12, 1512 the King personally
addressed Ponce de Le6n, showed concern and "commanded" Ponce de Le6n
to come to see him in Spain to have a personal conference. There is no
doubt that Ponce de Le6n and the contract for Bimini faced difficulties. The
Columbus group was still anxious to go in search of Bimini and obviously
did much behind the scene to kill the Ponce de Le6n contract. Ponce de Le6n,
even before the King had suggested that he go in search of new islands, had
wanted to go to Spain for a private royal conference. His rivals and enemies
had impeded such a trip. Furthermore, it is possible-Lawson is of such
opinion-that Juan Ponce de Le6n was quite disappointed with the contract
which, as the King had said, was much scaled down from his original demands.

Again we face a dark spot in the life of Ponce de Le6n, as we have no
record that proves that he went to Spain. Lawson writes, "There can be
little doubt that he made this voyage, as the urgent tenor of the King's
command would not permit its being disregarded." The Lawson assurance
lacks a certain logic. The Murga Sanz biography, based on painstaking
research, fails to mention a trip to Spain. Furthermore, the time element is a
good argument against such a trip. The King requested his presence in a letter
of August 12, 1512. This indeed was a rapid mail, as letters usually took
much longer. Furthermore, Ponce de Le6n's residencia was not finished until
October 6, 1512, something told to us with documentary evidence by Lawson


himself. The next day, October 7, Ponce de Le6n filed an appeal of the
decision of the residencia. This meant he was still in America. Then on
January 29, 1513 he registered in Espafiola his Bimini expeditionary force,
which we know because of a newly discovered and important document in the
Archives of the Indies in Seville, found by Murga Sanz.

On March 3, 1513 the Ponce de Le6n expedition for Bimini lifted sail
from the Port of San German in Puerto Rico. Therefore, we know that Ponce
de Le6n was in America in October, 1512, January, 1513 and March, 1513,
when he left for Bimini. The King's request to come to Spain to discuss
Bimini was dated August, 1512 and reached America in September or October.
How could Ponce de Le6n have been in Spain to discuss the forthcoming
Bimini expedition between October, 1512 and January, 1513, or between
January, 1513 and March, 1513? Usually a trip to Spain and back, taking
into account connections, etc., took more or less one year. Any historian
dealing with the period is aware of this. This is one reason why Murga Sanz
does not even discuss the matter.

If Ponce de Le6n did not go to Spain to talk about Bimini, then we are
unaware what reason he used to excuse himself from the appointment with
the King. It is possible that the King wanted to persuade Ponce de Le6n to
go and therefore accept the contract, although it was somewhat disappointing
to Ponce de Le6n. Somehow, Ponce de Le6n was persuaded or came on his
volition to accept the contract without seeing the King. This, then, would
have made unnecessary the long journey to Spain. Furthermore, conditions
had improved in Puerto Rico and apparently had made Ponce de Le6n less
bitter. And this certainly was a situation the King wanted to smooth over. At
any rate, Ponce de Le6n apparently did not go to Spain and seemingly was
busy collecting men and provisions and getting boats. As said, on January 29,
1513 he registered his expedition and this document of registry discovered
by Murga Sanz represents so far the best new data unearthed in the Florida
discovery by Ponce de Le6n,

Still the data are not complete. Juan Ponce de Le6n sailed to Florida
(Bimini) with three ships. These were named Santa Maria de la Consolaci6n,
Santiago and San Crist6bal. Apparently Ponce de Le6n initially had hoped
to make the trip to Bimini with two ships-the Consolaci6n and the Santiago.
These two sails Ponce de Le6n registered in January 1513 at Yuma, on the
island of Espafiola. Ponce de Le6n sailed with the Consolaci6n and Santiago


to San GermAn in Puerto Rico, where they arrived in February, 1513. In
Puerto Rico Ponce de Le6n acquired a third ship, called San Crist6bal,
which was captained by Juan P6rez de Ortubia. We do not have the registry
of the San Crist6bal and therefore do not know its crew. As we possess the
registry of the Consolaci6n and the Santiago, we now know about two-thirds
of the force that came with Ponce de Le6n when he discovered Florida in
1513. Indeed, it is a pity that the identity of the San Crist6bal crew has not
been located. It would complete the roster of the brave force that officially
discovered Florida.

The Consolaci6n carried Ponce de Le6n himself, and its captain was
Juan Bono de Quejo. The registry unfortunately does not give us the tonnage
or description of the ship. Since some of the material that Ponce de Le6n
carried was duty free, it was therefore not registered. The crew, however,
was registered. The Consolaci6n carried ten sailors, ten civilians and eight
cabin or ship boys. Among the civilians was one woman, identified only as
Juana Ruiz, and therefore she was the first European woman to come to
Florida. Among the cabin boys was one named Jorge, who was identified as
a Negro, and this one is then the first Negro in Florida. Among the civilians,
there is listed a "Fernandico, Indian, slave." No other identity is given. It is
conceivable that he was a native of some Caribbean island captured in an
Indian war, which was the only permissible way of making an Indian a slave.
It is also possible that he was an Indian who knew Bimini or Florida, and
was taken as an interpreter and guide. Another individual among the civilians
was "Juan de Le6n, slave." Since he is not identified as an Indian, it is
conceivable that he too was a Negro, although such racial identity is not
given as was the case of the shipboy, Jorge. All the names except two, which
were totally illegible, who traveled to Florida in the Consolaci6n are listed
in the Murga Sanz book. The same is true of the Santiago. This unspecified
ship carried eight naval men and six cabin boys. The captain, identified as
"mainmaster", was Diego Bermidez. Aboard was also the mare of Juan
Ponce de Le6n.

As said, the two ships arrived in the port of San German in Puerto
Rico-near today's San German-on February 8. We have no information
why Ponce de Le6n selected San Germin as.the embarkation point for his
Bimini expedition. It should be stated that he had founded San GermAn and
certainly must have strong reasons-which might have been purely personal-
for selecting the spot. It might have been that he still found opposition,


mostly based on jealousy, from his rivals in Puerto Rico and Espafiola.
These men had openly abandoned their objections to the Ponce de Le6n
Bimini venture under pressure from the King. Fifteen days after Ponce de
Le6n with his three ships had left San German for Bimini, the official in
Espaiiola reported to the King, and Ferdinand answered, "It is with great
pleasure that I have received your news that Juan Ponce de Le6n has left
for Bimini." The King forcefully requested all the officials to aid in every
way possible Ponce de Le6n's effort to discover Bimini and other islands.
The King requested the officials to report to the Crown every piece of news
about the Ponce de Le6n trip and the planned discovery. The Columbus
family and its partisans, composed of many high officials, regardless of their
promises of good will to the King were not ready to let Ponce de Le6n get
away with new discoveries. There is hardly any doubt that Diego Columbus,
the discoverer's son, dispatched a trusted lieutenant to spy on Ponce de Le6n
or to discover Bimini ahead of Juan Ponce de Le6n. This man was the sailor
Diego Miruela, whom Ponce de Le6n found apparently shipwrecked on
Bahama Island on their return trip from Florida in July, 1513. It was quite
ironical that Ponce de Le6n came to the aid of Miruela and carried him back
home. We know next to nothing of the results of the 1513 Miruela spying trip,
and this includes the answer to the often asked question of whether Miruela
reached Florida ahead of Juan Ponce de Le6n, or if he got lost in the
Bahama islands. At any rate, Ponce de Ledn failed to find a great rich island
called Bimini, although he sailed in the Bahamas but did not touch what we
call Bimini today. He did find a new land he called Florida, and he main-
tained his rights and title to Florida, and it was not taken from him by the
Columbus family.

Ponce de Le6n returned to Puerto Rico from his Florida discovery on
October 15, 1513 and he had left on March 3. He and his crew sighted
Florida, which they thought at first to be an island, on April 2, 1513. The
evening of the same day they anchored off the coast and stepped ashore, more
probably the early morning of April 3 than the night of April 2. Either on
April 2 or 3, they named the new land La Florida. Florida had been officially
discovered and its continuous history had begun. When he and his expedition
reached Florida on that day of April 1513, he was unaware that this land
he discovered would one day become a booming civilization. And he was
unaware that he left great controversies which gave rise to many myths. On
that day of April 2 he was in Florida, but history would not let us decide
where, in what spot, he was. Only one source, composed three quarters of a


century later, has come down to tell us of the 1513 trip-even in the year
of when the trip was taken this source is wrong, as it vaguely claims 1512,
which has proven to be incorrect. This is the Herrera account. And the
Herrera part that describes the Ponce de Le6n discovery of Florida-really
quite short-has been used by innumerable authors, and many of them have
done all kinds of interpretations, interpolations and calculations to make
Ponce de Le6n land at their favored spot. A few others have honestly tried
to deduce the exact landing site.

In April, 1513 Ponce de Le6n with his three ships, Consolaci6n, Santiago
and San Crist6bal, reached Florida somewhere between Cape Kennedy and
the mouth of the St. Johns River. It is a good bet that the landing was closer
to the St. Augustine area than any other spot in this 200 mile range. But it is
most doubtful that Ponce de Le6n entered what is today the St. Augustine
harbor. After remaining a few days at their original landing spot, Ponce de
Le6n and his crew sailed in Florida waters and in this way started the
recorded history of Florida. Unquestionably other European sailors had seen
Florida and even landed on its shores. The early pre-1513 cartography of
America and the Caribbean prove this assertion. But to Ponce de Le6n goes
the honor of the official discovery of Florida, in 1513, which took place not
too far away from the present-day site of St. Augustine.

There has been done thorough and intense research on Juan Ponce de
Le6n but in all instances by Spanish speaking, especially Puerto Rican, his-
torians. Two of them have produced key works which are absolutely neces-
sary for any Ponce de Le6n discussion. These are the able Catholic prelate
and the celebrated historian Vicente Murga Sanz and the dedicated amateur
historian Aurelio Ti6. Both men have, with ample funds and time available,
searched with patience and persistence in all archives of Spain for Ponce de
Le6n material. One can hardly duplicate these efforts and only unexpected
discoveries by chance in unexpected corners or boxes in public or private
archives might bring to light new information. The documentation located is
still sketchy in many parts, especially those dealing with Ponce de Le6n's
early life and his Florida ventures. This has given cause for various deduc-
tions and since Murga Sanz and Ti6 competed in their search they have
become rivals and presented the reader and researcher with different inter-
pretations and deductions of what they considered their important archival


discoveries. Father Murga Sanz has written a well-annotated biography of
Ponce de Le6n which today represents the most definitive study of the Florida
discoverer. Mr. Aurelio Ti6 has two books which contain much Ponce de
Le6n material, including valuable documentation he has discovered. He has
not written a biography of Ponce de Le6n.

A third Spanish-writing author is the Spaniard, Manuel Ballesteros
Gaibrois, Professor of History at the University of Madrid. His Ponce de
Le6n book is not an original study based on primary sources nor is it a
straight biography, but rather an interpretative monograph and in this
capacity it is first rate. The document index, organized chronologically and
containing 254 key documents or bundles of documents related to Ponce de
Le6n, is one of the most valuable research aids in any Ponce de Le6n research.
But since the book was published in 1960 it did not include the second Ti6
book information. Unfortunately the Ballesteros Gaibrois book is hardly
known by Florida historians.

To the Florida reader and those who do not know Spanish there is only
one slim biography, written by the late Edward Lawson of St. Augustine.
Today the book leaves much to be desired in view of the new documental
discoveries by the Puerto Rican researchers. But for the unspecialized student
and the interested man on the street the Lawson book stands as a readable
and concise biography which in its broad outlines tells the truth as we
know it from better-known sources which are listed. Only in one spot does
Lawson permit his prejudice enter the picture. He was devoted to a pre-
conceived belief that Ponce de Le6n landed in St. Augustine and he later
published under contract for a private tourist business two pamphlets in
which he tried to prove that the Fountain of Youth was located in St.
Augustine at a known spot advertised to tourists. But this should not mean
that his earlier biographical book is not of value. Unfortunately, a recent
biography in English of Ponce de Le6n published by an obscure publisher
in Brooklyn is an utterly defective book as explained in my review in the
Florida Historical Quarterly. It suffices to say that among the legion of mis-
takes is one which confuses the Spanish word caballero (gentleman) for
caballo (horse). There is one article by Frederick Davis in one of the older
issues of the Florida Historical Quarterly, but this is not biographical and
only deals with Ponce de Le6n's expeditions to Florida. It is a solid and
unbiased article and since practically no new documents dealing with the
Florida phase of Ponce de Le6n have come to light the Davis article is basic


to this phase, and in my mind is far preferable to the Lawson chapters
dealing with the Florida Ponce de Le6n expeditions. As a final word: anyone
interested in further sources of studies dealing with or marginal to Ponce
de Le6n should especially consult the Murga Sanz footnotes and bibliography
and do the same with regard to the Aurelio Ti6 books and that of Ballesteros
Gaibrois. Before terminating this study, I would like to warn that it is con-
ceivable that very little new Ponce de Le6n material will be discovered in
the future and that we might have reached a near termination point of Ponce
de Le6n research which will leave many questions unanswered. Hope has
not been abandoned of a sudden and unexpected find of additional data.
But no one should bet on it.


Ballesteros Gaibrois, Manuel. La idea colonial de Ponce de Le6n. San Juan,
1960. 292 pp.

Bannon, John Francis, ed. The Spanish Conquistadors. Men or Devils? New
York, 1960. 43 pp.

Davis, Frederick T. "Juan Ponce de Le6n's Voyages to Florida," Florida His-
torical Quarterly, XIV (1935), 1-70.

Garcia Carraffa, Alberto and Arturo. Enciclopedia herdldica y geneal6gica
hispano-americana. Madrid, 1952-1958.

King, Ethel. The Fountain of Youth and Juan Ponce de Ledn. Brooklyn, 1963.
152 pp.

Lawson, Edward. The Discovery of Florida and Its Discoverer, Juan Ponce
de Ledn. St. Augustine, Fla., 1946. 127 pp.

SDetermination of the First Landing Place of Juan Ponce de
Le6n on the North American Continent in the Year 1513. [St. Augustine],
1954 (25 p.-pamphlet).

SThe First Landing Place of Juan Ponce de Leon on the North
American Continent in the Year 1513. St. Augustine, Fla., 1956 (29-page


Murga Sanz, Vicente. Juan Ponce de Ledn. San Juan, 1959. 385 pp.

Olschki, Leonardo. "Ponce de Le6n's Fountain of Youth: History of a
Geographical Myth," Hispanic American Historical Review, XXI (1941),

Ti6, Aurelio. Fundacidn de San German. San Juan [1956]. 274 pp.

Nuevas fuentes para la historic de Puerto Rico. San German,
P. R., 1961. 653 pp.


Aurelio Ti6 to Charles W. Arnade, Nov. 16, 1963 (enclosing an answer to
my review in the Florida Historical Quarterly, XLI, 1962. The answer
was not published. It is entitled "Review of a Review").

Charles W. Arnade to Aurelio Ti6, Nov. 26, 1963.

Aurelio Ti6 to Charles W. Arnade, August 3, 1963.

Charles W. Arnade to Aurelio Ti6, Sept. 24, 1963.

Aurelio Ti6 to Charles W. Arnade, Dec. 2, 1963.

Charles W. Arnade to Aurelio Ti6, March 25, 1964.

Aurelio Ti6 to Charles W. Arnade, April 17, 1964.

Charles W. Arnade to Aurelio Ti6, April 24, 1964.

Aurelio Ti6 to Charles W. Arnade, May 8, 1964. Long and important letter
containing a valuable explanation or rationalization of his deductions
as contained in his two books.

Charles W. Arnade to Aurelio Ti6, May 15, 1964.

Charles W. Arnade to Vicente Murga Sanz, April 8, 1964.

Vicente Murga Sanz to Charles W. Arnade, April 21, 1964.



CHARLES W. ARNADE, a professor of History and Social Science at the
University of South Florida is best known for his research and writing on
Spanish Florida, See for example The Siege of St. Augustine and Florida
on Trial.

MIss DOROTHY DARROW identifies herself in the article she writes. She
is on the library staff of Dade County School system.

J. E. DOVELL, author of Florida: Historic Dramatic, Contemporary,
History of Banking in Florida, and frequent contributor of articles in profes-
sional journals is a professor of Social Science at the University of Florida.

EDWARD A. MUELLER, a frequent contributor of articles on steamboating
in Florida, is editor of Steamboat Bill, the quarterly publication of the Steam-
ship Historical Society.


The Association's Historical Marker Program

On November 19, 1966, a marker was dedicated to the oldest public

library in South Florida, now the Lemon City Branch Library of the

Miami Public Library system at 430 N. E. 61st Street, Miami. Judge Ray

Pearson, who had grown up in the community was the keynote speaker.



Oldest public library in South Florida. Opened April 7,
1894, by Lemon City Library and Improvement Association in
Lemon City, then the largest settlement in Dade County. The first
library building was on present N. E. 63rd Street near Biscayne
Bay. On May 10, 1902, the library was moved into its second
building 65 feet west of this marker. That historic edifice
(demolished in 1964) was also used for county-wide socials,
plays, public forums, religious services. On Feb. 26, 1942, this
pioneer library became a branch of Miami Public Library. On
July 1, 1963, it was moved into the present building.


The Association's Historical Marker Program

A marker commemorating Miami's first telephone exchange was dedicated
on November 29, 1966, in ceremonies in the Gulfstream Room of Bayfront
Park Auditorium. The wall plaque type marker was later affixed to the
Southern Bell Telephone Company Building at 36 N. E. Second Street. Mrs.
Leonard R. Muller of Miami, a granddaughter of Alexander Graham Bell,
in the keynote speech gave some recollections of her famous ancestor.


"Greater Miami's First Telephone Exchange began operating
near this site early in 1899. The City of Miami granted a fran-
chise in December 1898, and the Miami Telephone Co. was in-
corporated in February, 1899. The first switchboard was in a
drugstore at Miami Avenue and Southwest First Street. The
exchange was later moved to a building on the south side of
Flagler Street in the block east of Miami Avenue. Lines were
quickly extended to Lemon City and Coconut Grove. The com-
pany provided the first music to be broadcast in the area from
the switchboard to subscribers who listened on their telephones.
In June, 1917, with some 2,000 subscribers, this company. and
Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Co. formed the South
Atlantic Telephone Co. The exchange became part of the Southern
Bell Co. Dec. 31, 1924."


The Association's Historical Marker Program

At a breakfast in Fort Lauderdale in Hollywood International Airport
restaurant on Wednesday, May 31, 1967 at 8:00 o'clock, the Fort Lauderdale
Historical Society and the Greater Fort Lauderdale Chamber of Commerce
joined the Historical Association of Southern Florida in the dedication of a
marker to Mackey Airlines. The program was informal. Colonel Joseph
Mackey and others associated with him in the early days of flying spoke of
their early experiences.



Founded in 1946 by Colonel Joseph Mackey, Mackey Air-
lines became (August 5, 1952) the first certificated carrier in
Broward authorized to engage in scheduled foreign transporta-
tion. Operations began January 5, 1952 between Fort Lauderdale,
West Palm Beach and Nassau, N. P. Bahamas. Increased certifi-
cation later allowed service to all Bahama Islands from Fort
Lauderdale-HoIIywood, Miami, West Palm Beach, St. Petersburg,
Tampa and Jacksonville, Mackey operated without mail pay or
subsidy. Passengers increased from 15,000 to 150,000 annually.
Mackey and Eastern Airlines merged January 1, 1967.




RECEIPTS 1967 1966

Admissions to Museum ---------------------- 178.00
Contributions to Museum Fund -------------------- 506.38
Dividends earned on stocks ----------------------- 257.18
Dues annual --_------------------------- 6,691.00
Interest Earned ---------------- -- ------------- 199.27
Sale of prior "TEQUESTA" issues ---------- 327.80
Sale of OTHER BOOKS, novelties ------------------- 3,642.58
Miscellaneous ---------------------------------_ 6.50
W. C. Parry R. R., donations ----------------- 784.97
Funds transferred from Savings Account --------- 2,000.00
Marker Fund Income ------ -- ---- ---
Other Income ------------ ----
Inventory Ads -_-------_____ -___- __ ________
Mortgage Pledge -_--________

TOTAL RECEIPTS --------------- $14,593.68

$ 353.00




Building Repairs & Ground Maintenance ------_---
Insurance General..-------
Library Expense-- ------------_- __ ---
Meeting Expense --- --------------------____
Miscellaneous ---- --------
Purchase of Books for resale ---------------_
Office Expense ----- --
W. C. PARRY R.R., expense -----_--__-____
Postage ------- -----------
Printing TEQUESTA annual ----_----- __--
Printing NEWSLETTERS -----__ _--__
Printing Other _----__ _____-_________
Salaries -------- ---
Taxes-Payroll & Sales Tax -_-- ------____-
Utilities Light, Sewer & Telephone ------------
Marker Fund Expense --- ...-._-______
Stocks Purchased _____
Mortgage Principal _-- _________.............



TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS --------_---$14,723.64

NET GAIN OR (LOSS) ---------------- (129.96)

$ 2,964.73





$ 1,904.80


AS OF AUGUST 31, 1967


1967 1966 Difference
First National Bank of Miami-Checking --- $ 397.24 $ 711.71
First National Bank of Miami-Savings ----. 4,271.21 6,074.94
PETTY CASH-Museum ------------------- 50.00 50.00
TOTAL CASH ON HAND-8-31-67 -- $ 4,718.45 $ 6,836.65 ($2,118.20)

SECURITIES (at market value-8/31/67)
Continental Casualty Co. ---------------- 609.00 $ 798.00
Continental Oil --------------------------- 1,048.13 -
Eastman Kodak Co. ----------------------- 1,515.00 1,429.50
Hooker Chemical Corp. -------------------. 1,386.00 1,196.25
Standard Oil of N.J. --------------------- 2,801.25 2,937.68
TOTAL STOCKS ----------.------- 7,359.38 $ 6,361.43 997.95

Inventory on Hand-8-31-67 "TEQUESTAS" -$ 1,279.00 $ 1,638.00
Inventory on Hand-8-31-67
OTHER PUBLICATIONS ----.----- 2,982.45 657.42
Office Supplies ------------------------------------ 322.24
Utility Deposits ---------------------------- 50.00 50.00
TOTAL OTHER ASSETS _-- ------ 4,311.45 1$ 2,667.66 $1,643.79

Museum Property:
Land ---------------- -----..-------$15,000.00 $15,000.00
Building ------------------------ 34,705.44 34,705.44
Furnishings & Equipment ------------ 2,953.79 2,953.79
TOTAL ------------------------ $52,659.23 $52,659.23
Less Balance due on Mortgage --------- (13,000.00) (14,000.00)
MUSEUM EQUITY (Net) ------------ 39,659.23 38,659.23
TOTAL FIXED ASSETS -----------$39,659.23 $38,659.23 $1,000.00
TOTAL ASSETS ----------------.$56,048.51 $54,168.29 $1,880.22

Notes Payable ---------- -----------($1,000.00) -
Accounts Payable (Payroll Taxes) --------- (177.86) 166.16
TOTAL LIABILITIES ------------($1,177.86) 166.16 ($1,011.70)
HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION EQUITY -----_ $54,870.65 $54,358.87 511.78



EXPLANATORY NOTE: The Association provides several classes of membership.
"Sustaining" members who pay five dollars a year make up the basic member-
ship. For those who wish to contribute more for the promotion of the Associa-
tion's work the other classes of membership provide the opportunity, and the
publication of their names in the proper category of membership is a means of
recognition. "Patrons" pay ten dollars a year, "Donors" pay twenty-five dollars
a year, "Contributors" pay fifty dollars a year, "Sponsors" pay one hundred
dollars a year, and "Benefactors" pay two hundred and fifty or more dollars
a year.
This printed roster is made up of the names of those persons and institutions
that have paid dues in 1966, or in 1967 before September 30 when this material
must go to the press. Those joining after this date in 1967 will have their names
included in the 1968 roster. The symbol ** indicates founding member and
the symbol indicates charter member.


Abbott, John F., Miami
Adams, Adam G., Coral Gables
Adams, Anne L, Miami
Adams, Eugene C., Miami
Adams, Mrs. Eugene C., Miami
Adams, Richard B., Miami
Adams, Mrs. Richard B., Miami
Adkins, Herbert W., Coral Gables
Admire, Jack G., Coral Gables
Admire, Mrs. Jack G., Coral Gables
Aldridge, Miss Daisy, Vero Beach
Allen, James M., Miami
Allen, Joe, Key West
Allen, Paul A., Miami Beach
Allen, Mrs. Paul A., Miami Beach
Allen, Stewart D., Coral Gables
Altmayer, M. S., Jr., Miami
American Museum of Natural History
Anderson, T. David, St. Petersburg
Arbogast, Keith L., Miami
Archer, Marjorie L., Homestead
Arnold, Mrs. Roger Williams, Miami
Ashbaucher, Lorin F., Miami
Atkins, Judge C. Clyde, Miami
Axelson, Ivar, Miami
Balfe, Mrs. E. Hutchins, Miami
Bankston, Mrs. Dolores, Miami
Bankston, Jarrell M., Miami
Barnes, Frances H., Miami
Batcheller, Mrs. George E., Miami
Bates, Franklin W., Miami
Bates, Barbara, Miami
Baxter, John M., Miami
Baya, George J., Esq., Miami
Beare, Richard, Miami
Beare, Mrs. Richard, Miami

Bishop, Edwin G., Miami*
Black, Leon D., Jr., Coral Gables
Black, Mrs. Margaret F., Coral Gables
Blauvelt, Mrs. Arthur M., Coral Gables
Bloomberg, Robert L., Miami
Blount, Mrs. David N., Miami
Bowen, F. M., Miami
Boyd, Joseph A., Jr., Hialeah
Boyd, Dr. Mark F., Tallahassee*
Boyd, Mrs. William E., Jr., Miami
Bozeman, R. E., Gulfport
Brady, A. N., Miami
Brigham, Florence S., Miami
Broking, Gilbert S., Miami
Bromsen, Maury A., Boston, Mass.
Brookfield, Charles M., Miami*
Brooks, J. F., Key West
Brooks, Marvin J., Coral Gables
Broward, Charles S., Jr., Coral Gables
Browde, Miss Willa, Miami
Brown, Daniel M., Jr., Miami
Brown University Library
Bryant, Donald, Miami
Bryant, Mrs. Ruby, Miami
Buchheister, Carl W., Wakulla Springs
Buckley, Edward S., IV, Miami Shores
Buhler, Mrs. Paul H., Miami
Bullen, Ripley P., Gainesville
Bumstead, Evvalyn R., Miami
Bumstead, John R., Miami
Burghard, August, Ft. Lauderdale
Burns, Edward R., Las Cruces, N. M.
Bush, Frank S. F., Opa Locka
Busse, Raymond J., Miami
Byrd, Mrs. J. Wade, Miami
Caldarone, Caesar, Waterbury, Conn.


Caldwell, Mrs. Thomas P., Coral Gables*
Capron, Louis, West Palm Beach
Carbajo, Antonio, Miami
Carnine, Miss Helen W., Coral Gables
Carson, Mrs. Ruby Leach, Miami
Carter, Mrs. George deL., Coral Gables
Carter, Miss Harriet V., Miami
Casey, Mrs. Helen S., Coral Gables
Castillo, Robert, Miami
Catlow, William R., Jr., Miami
Catlow, Mrs. William R., Jr., Miami
Chastain, R. B., Jr., Miami
Clarke, Lynn B., Coral Gables
Clarke, Mary Helm, Coral Gables
Close, Kenneth, Coral Gables
Cochrane, Frank, Toronto
Coconut Grove Library
Cold, Ronald F., Miami
Coller, Mrs. Harris A., Coral Gables
Collot, Harry A., Miami
Comerford, Miss Nora A., Coral Gables
Connett, Mrs. Virginia, Coral Gables
Connolloy, William D., Jr., Miami
Cook, John B., Sanibel
Cooperman, Albert B., Miami Beach
Cooperman, Mrs. Esther, Miami Beach
Coral Gables Public Library*
Corley, Miss Pauline, Miami*
Covington, James W., Tampa
Cravens, Miss Jacqueline, Coral Gables
Creel, Joe, Miami
Criswell, Col. Grover C., Citra
Culpepper, Mrs. Kay M., Miami
Cummings, Rev. George W., Venice
Cushman, The School, Miami*
Museum of Modern Art, Miami
Davis, Sidney, Ft. Myers
DeBoe, Mrs. Mizpah Otto, Coral Gables
DeCarion, Mrs. G. H., Miami
DeLamorton, Fred, Tampa
Detroit Public Library
Dilullo, Mrs. Luedith, Downey, Calif.
Dodd, Miss Dorothy, Tallahassee*
Dorothy, Mrs. Caroline, Coral Gables*
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman, Miami**
Dressier, Philip, Ft. Lauderdale
Dugger, Charles M., Jr., Miami
Duncan, Marvin L., Miami
Dunn, Hampton, Tampa
DuPree, Mrs. Thos. O'H., Coral Gables
Elder, Dr. S. F., Miami*
Erickson, Hilmer E., Miami Shores
Estocapio, Don, Miami
Everglades Natural History Association
Fenn, Abbott T., Fitchburg, Mass.
Fields, Robert Ken, Miami
Fisher, A. A., Jr., Miami Shores
Fisher, E. H., Coral Gables

Fite, Robert H., Miami
Fitzgerald, Dr. Joseph H., Miami
Fitzgerald, Willard L,, Jr., Coral Gables
Henry W. Flagler Elementary School
Henry M. Flagler Museum, Palm Beach
Flynn, Stephen J., Coral Gables
Ft. Lauderdale Historical Society
Fortner, Ed., Ocala
Foss, George B., Jr., Esq., Miami
Foster, Miss E. L, Miami Shores
Foster, Mrs. William T., Miami
Franklin, Mrs. Gail, Miami
Fraser, Donald L., Miami
Freedberger, Peter, Miami
Freeland, Mrs William L., Miami**
Freeling, J. S., Miami
Freeling, Mrs. J. S., Miami
Freeman, Mrs. Ethel Cutler, Morristown, N.J.
Freeman, G. L., Miami
Fritz, Miss Florence, Ft. Myers
Fullerton, R. C., Coral Gables
Fuzzard, Miss Jessie M., Miami*
Gabianelli, Vincent J., Miami
Gaffney, Virginia, Miami
Gardner, H. A., Miami
Garner, Levi C., Miami
Gauld, Charles A., Miami
Gautier, Charles C., Miami
Glennon, Mrs. James A., Miami
Gocking, Anthony J., Miami
Godfrey, Clyde, Miami
Golden, Mrs. Margaret, Miami
Goza, William M., Clearwater
Graber, Boris M., Miami Beach
Graves, David, Miami, Florida
Greenberg, Gerald, Miami Beach
Greenia, Jack, Miami Beach
Grey, Hugh M., Venice
Grey, Mrs. Hugh M., Venice
Griener, Richard E., Miami Springs
Grinde, O. Henry, No. Miami
Gross, Zade B., Clearwater
Halstead, W. L., Miami
Hamilton, Mrs. Warren W., Homestead
Hampton, Mrs. John, Sparks, Md.*
Harding, Col. Read B., Ret., Arcadia
Harllee, Ella, Washington, D.C.
Harllee, William J., Miami
Harrington, Frederick H., Hialeah
Hart, Mrs. Reginald, Coral Gables
Hartnett, Fred B., Coral Gables*
Harvey, C. B., Key West
Havee, Justin P., Miami*
Haydon Burns Library, Jacksonville
Hendry, Judge Norman, Miami
Henry, Mrs. Arthur N., Miami
Herin, Thomas D., Miami
Herin, Judge William A., Miami*


Hernandez, Gale, Miami
Hesslein, Frank, Coral Gables
Hialeah City Library
Hiers, J. B., Jr., Miami
Higbie, William S., Miami Shores
Higgins, Mrs. Donald E., Cotuit, Mass.
Hills, Lee, Miami
Hillsborough County Historical Commission
Hines, Kermit J., Ft. Lauderdale
Hines, Sue, Ft. Lauderdale
Hodsden, Mrs. Harry E., Miami
Holcomb, Lyle D., Miami
Holcomb, Lyle D., Jr., Miami
Hoover, Mrs. John W., Coral Gables
Hoyt, Mrs. M. J., Miami
Hubbell, Willard, Miami
Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Hurwitz, Robert, Miami
Hurwitz, Mrs. Robert, Miami
Hutchinson, Mrs. Robert J., Coral Gables
Indian River Jr. College Library
Ingersoll, Jean, Miami
James, Mary Crift, Miami
Jenkins, Wesley E., Miami
Jennings, Alvin R., Miami
Jennings, Mrs. Alvin R., Miami
Jernigan, Ernest H., Ocala
Johnson, Mrs. Herbert H., Miami
Johnson, Robert V., Miami
Jones, Beverley B., M.D., Coral Gables
Jones, Mrs. Rosemary, Coral Gables
Jones, Mark B., Venice
Jones, Mrs. Mark B., Venice
Judson, Charles H., Miami
Karg, Betsy, Opa Locka
Karg, Kitson, Opa Locka
Kelleher, Phillip A., Sr., Miami
Kelleher, Phillip A., Jr., Miami
Kent, Selden G., No. Miami Beach
Kenyon, Alfred, Ft. Lauderdale
Kettle, C. Edward, Miami
Kettle, Mrs. C. Edward, Miami
Kiem, Miss Iris, Miami
King, Sidney, Surfside
Kirk, C., Ft. Lauderdale
Kitchen, Mrs. Karl K., Miami
Kline, Burton, Miami
Knight, C. Fraseur, Coral Gables
Knight, Telfair, Coral Gables
Knott, Judge James R., W. Palm Beach
Knowles, Mrs. J. H., Miami
Kos, Jerome C., So. Miami
LaCroix, Mrs. Aerial C., Miami
Lake Worth Public Library
Laxson, Dan D., Hialeah
Liebensperger, Miss June, Miami
Lewis, Gerald, Miami
Lewis, Mrs. Gerald, Coral Gables

Limmiatis, Ernest, Coral Gables
Lindsley, A. R., Miami Beach
Lloyd, A. F., CEC, FPO New York City
Lunnon, Mrs. James, Coral Gables
Lynch, Thomas P., Coral Gables
Lynch, Mrs. Thomas P., Coral Gables
MacArthur, Scot, Miami Shores
MacDonald, Miss Barbara, Miami
MacDonald, Miss Betty, Miami
Mack, William J., Tarpon Springs
Macnow, Larry M., Miami Beach
Malone, Randolph A., Coral Gables
Manley, Miss Marion I., Miami
Manning, Mrs. William S., Jacksonville
Manucy, Albert, Richmond, Va.
Marchman, Watt P., Fremont, Ohio*
Marks, Henry S., Huntsville, Ala.
Martin, Melbourne, Coral Gables
Mary, Robert T., Miami
Mason, Dix, Miami
Mason, Mrs. Joe J., Coral Gables
Mason, Dr. Walter S., So. Miami*
Matheny, John W., Miami
Matheny, Mrs. Juliet L., Miami
Matheson, Finlay L., So. Miami
McDonald, Mrs. John M., Boca Raton
McDorman, C. S., Boca Raton
McKay, John G., Coral Gables
McKey, Mrs. Lucille, Miami
McKey, Robert M., Jr., Miami
McLarty, Robert P., Vero Beach
McNaughton, M. D., Miami
MeNichol, Herbert T., Coral Gables
McNicoll, Robert E., Coral Gables
Merrill, Ron, Hialeah
Merritt, Robert M., Miami
Mertz, John S., Miami
Meyer, Hank, Miami Beach
Miami Dade Junior College South
Miami Public Library*
Miami Senior High School Library
Miami Springs Library
Mickler, Mrs. Thomas, Chuluota
Mileo Photo Supply, Coral Gables
Miller, William Jay, Miami
Minear, Mrs. L. V., Jupiter
Monk, J. Floyd, Miami
Monroe County Public Library
Moulds, Mrs. Andrew J., Coral Gables
Moylan, E. B., Jr., Miami
Mueller, Edward A., Washington, D.C.
Muir, William Whalley, Miami
Muir, Mrs. William W., Miami
Muller, David Fairchild, Miami
Muller, Leonard R., Miami
Muller, Mrs. Leonard R., Miami
Mustard, Alice Isabel, Miami
Mustard, Margaret Jean, Miami


Neelands, Lois R., W. Miami Ross, Miss Mary I., Coral Gables
Neff, Miss Marie E., Miami Ross, Mrs. Richard F., Boca Raton
Nelson, Winifred H., Miami Rubin, Mrs. Joseph, Miami
Newberry Library, Chicago Ruffley, Kathleen, Miami
Newman, Miss Margaret, Clearwater Russell, Mrs. David A., Miami
North Miami High School Library Santanello, M. C., Miami
Northrup, Martin R., Miami Sapp, Alfred E., Miami
O'Kane, Robert, Miami Saunders, Dr. Lewis M., Miami
Old Island Restoration Foundation, Sawyer, Clifton A., Warwick. R. I.
Key West Saye, Roland A., Jr., Miami Beach
Orlando Public Library Schiefen, Msgr. Robert W. V. G., N. Miami
Ostrow, Miss Joan P., Miami Schooley, Harry, Ft. Myers
Pace, Rev. Johnson H., Jacksonville Schubert, Wenzel J., Miami
Pancoast, Mrs. J. Arthur, Miami Schunicht, William A., Miami
Pancoast, Katherine F., Miami Seley, Ray B., Jr., Miami
Pancoast, Lester C., Miami Sellati, Mrs. Dorothy, Miami
Pancoast, Mrs. Lester C., Miami Sellati, Nicholas, Miami
Pardo, Mrs. Ramiro V., Miami Serkin, Manuel, Coral Gables
Parker, Alfred B., Miami Sessa, Frank B., Pittsburg, Pa.
Parker, Theodore R., Grand Bahama Sevelius, E. A., Miami
Parks, Robert L., Miami Shaw, G. N., Homestead
Parks, Mrs. Arva M., Miami Shenandoah Branch Library, Miami
Parmelee, Dean, Miami Shepherd, Mrs. William M., Flat Rock, N.C.
Patton, Mrs. Dan O., Miami Shiver, Otis W., Miami
Peacock, Harvey, Jacksonville Shore, Martin, Miami
Peirce, Gertrude C., Miami Simmons, Glen, Homestead
Pendleton, Robert S., Ft. Lauderdale Sirico, William, No. Miami Beach
Pensacola Junior College Skill, Pearl T., Homestead
Peters, Mrs. Thelma, Miami* Slaughter, Dr. Frank G., Jacksonville
Pierce, Harvey F., Coral Gables Smiley, Mrs. Nora K., Key West
Pierce, J. E., Miami Smith, Annie M., Coral Gables
Platt, T. Beach, Miami Smith, Bernard J., Jr., Miami
Ponce de Leon Junior High School Smith, Gilbert B., Coral Gables
Porter, Cip, Miami Smith, Mrs. Jo Hill, Miami Springs
Powers, Mrs. Lila M., Miami Smith, Mary Ellen, Miami
Prahl, William, Miami Smith, McGregor, Jr., Miami
Prevatt, Preston G., Miami Snodgrass, Miss Dena, Jacksonville
Price, G. Leland, Miami Snyder, Dr. Clifford C., Coral Gables
Prior, Leon 0., Coral Gables Sokoloff, Lt. Col. Norman, (Ret.) C. Gables
Proby, Mrs. Kathryn Hall, Miami Southern Illinois University Library
Quackenbush, Mrs. Charles K., Miami Beach Southwest Miami High School Library
Quigley, Ellen N., Miami Beach Sparks, Mrs. Charles, Fortville, Ind.
Rader, Paul C., Miami Spelman, Henry M., Boston, Mass.
Rader, Vivian Laramore, Miami Spillis, Peter, Miami
Rasmussen, Dr. Edwin L., Ft. Myers** Stamey, Ernest M., Hialeah
Read, Mrs. Albert C., Miami State Historical Society of Wisconsin
Reed, Miss Elizabeth Ann, Delray Beach Stedman, Carling H., Miami
Reeder, James G., Miami Shores Stemmer, Vona, Miami
Reiner, Paul E., Miami John B. Stetson University Library
Renick, Ralph, Miami Stranahan, Mrs. Frank, Ft. Lauderdale*
Reynolds, Mrs. Caroline P., West Dennis, Stripling Insurance Agency, Hialeah
Mass. Stuart, Mrs. Jack F., Miami
Rivas, Luis R., Coral Gables Sullivan, Dr. Raymond S., Miami
Rivett, Lois Culmer, Miami Sullivan, Mrs. Raymond S., Miami
Rogers, Robert C., Coral Gables Sweeney, Mrs. Edward C., Miami
Rollins College Library Taft, Adon C., So. Miami
Romer, Gleason Waite, Miami Talley, Howard J., Miami
Ross, Caroline B., Miami Tampa Public Library


Tarboux, Miss Frances, Miami Shores
Taylor, William S., Leisure City
Teachers Professional Library, Miami
Teasley, T. H., Miami Shores
Teboe, Ray M., Miami
Ten Eick, Mrs. M. Nunez, Tampa*
Tennessee State Library
Tharp, Charles Doren, So. Miami*
Thibedeau, Philip, Jr., Hialeah
Thompson, Mrs. Anna, Tavernier
Thompson, Edward H., Miami
Thompson, Mary F., Miami
Thornton, Dade W., Miami
Thornton, Mrs. Edmund A., Miami
Thrift, Dr. Charles T., Jr., Lakeland
Tio, Aurelio, Santurce, P. R.
Troeller, Mrs. W. Frederick, Opa Locka
Trogdon,, George R., Coral Gables
Trogdon, Mrs. George R., Coral Gables
Tussey, Mrs. Ethel Wayt, Miami
Tuttle, M. Glenn, Miami
Tyler, Palmer, Miami Shores
Ullmann, John Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
University of Miami Library
University of South Florida Library
University of Tampa Library
University of Tennessee Library
Voelker, Paul Jr., Miami
Waldhauer, Miss E. Ardelle, Coral Gables
Wallace, Lew Jr., Miami
Ward, Mrs. William D., Coral Gables
Ware, Capt. John D., Tampa
Ware, Mrs. Willard M., Miami Beach
Washington, James G., Miami

Waters, Fred M., Jr., Coral Gables
Watters, Mrs. Preston H., So. Miami
Weems, Capt. P. V. H., Annapolis, Md.
Wegner, Dana M., Elmhurst, Ill.
Weller, Robert M., Miami
Wellman, Wayne E., Miami
Wentworth, T. T., Jr., Pensacola
West India Reference Library
Wetmore, Ralph H., Miami
Wheeler, B. B., Lake Placid
Whigham, Mrs. Florence R., Miami
Whitner, Dr. Kenneth S., Miami
Wigginton,, Clayton C., Miami
Wight, William S., Coral Gables
Williams, Dr. H. Franklin, Coral Gables*
Williams, John B., Miami
Williams, Lawrence C., Hialeah
Williams, Dr. Raymond A., St. Petersburg
Wilson, Albert B., Miami
Wilson, Gaines R., Miami**
Wilson, Mrs. Gaines R., Miami
Wilson, George M., Coral Gables
Wilson, Peyton L., Miami
Wilson, Miss Virginia E., Miami
Withers, James G., Coral Gables
Withers, Wayne E., Coral Gables
Wolf, Fred, Sr., Hallandale
Wood, H. Edward, Miami
Woods, Frank M., M.D., Coral Gables
Woore, Mrs. A. Meredith, Miami*
Wooten, James S., Coral Gables
Wooten, Mrs. Eudora L., Coral Gables
Worley, Mrs. Alice M., Miami
Wrigley, Mrs. Fran, Miami


Adams, Wilton L., Coral Gables
Alexander, David T., No. Miami Beach
Alexander, John L., No. Miami Beach
Allison, Mrs. John I. D., Miami Lakes
Ann Sister Elizabeth, O.P., Miami
Anthony, Roscoe T., Palm Beach
Archer Ben, Homestead
Atmus, Rudolph E., Islamorada
Ayars, Erling E., Miami
Baber, Adin, Kansas, Ill.*
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Miami*
Baker, Mrs. John A., Miami
Barge, Mrs. Hubert A., Miami
Barry College, Miami
Bartow Public Library
Baskin, M. A., Coral Gables
Bassett, Rex., Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Beal, K. Malcolm, Miami*
Beardsley, Jim E., Clewiston
Beckham, W. H., Jr., Coral Gables

Belcher, E. N., Jr., Coral Gables
Bennett, Richard R., Miami
Bergstrom, Robert W., Miami
Bills, Mrs. John T., Miami
Bingham, Mrs. Millicent T.,
Washington, D.C.
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Blanton, Judge W. F., Miami
Blumberg, David, Coral Gables
Bow, Mary M., Miami
Bradfield, E. S., Miami Beach**
Brody, Mrs. Margaret E., Key Biscayne
Brooks, J. R., Homestead
Brown, Clark, Jr., Arcadia
Brunstetter, Roscoe, Coral Gables
Buckley, Mrs. Edward S., III, Miami Shores
Burkett, Mrs. Charles W., Miami Beach
Burton, Mrs. Robert A., Miami*
Cables, June E., Homestead
Cameron, D. Pierre G., Miami


Campbell, Park H., So. Miami*
Carr, Mrs. Margaret McCrimmon, Miami
Cartee, Mrs. Horace L., Coral Gables
Chaille, Col. Joseph H., New York
Chase, Jr., C. W., Miami Beach
Chase, Randall II, Sanford
Clark, George T., Miami
Cole, R. B., Miami
Collins, Mrs. Charles M., Miami
Combs, Walter H., Jr., Miami*
Corliss, C. J., Orlando
Coslow, George R., Miami
Craighead, Dr. F. C., Homestead
Crane, Mrs. Francis V., Marathon
Crow, Jr., Lon Worth, Coral Gables
Cummings, Sadie Belk, Miami Beach
Darrow, Dorothy, Coral Gables
Davis, Hal D., Coral Gables
Deedmeyer. Mrs. George J., Coral Gables
Deen, James L., So. Miami
Deen, Mrs. James L., So. Miami
Dees, Mrs. Elizabeth Gautier, Coral Gables
Dismukes, William P., Coral Gables*
DuBois, Mrs. Bessie Wilson, Jupiter
Dunwody, Atwood, Miami
Edelen, Ellen, Tavernier
El'iott, Donald L., Miami
Embry, Tally H., Miami
Emerson, Dr. William C., Rome, New York
Fascell, Dante B., Washington, D. C.
Feibelman, Herbert U., Miami
Ferendino, Andrew J., Miami
Ferendino, Susan R., Miami
Field, Dr. Henry, Miami
Florence, Robert S., Miami
Florida Southern College, Lakeland
Florida State Library, Tallahassee
Franklin, Mrs. Dolores M., Miami Shores
Freeman, Edison S., Miami
Freeman, Harley L, Ormond Beach
French, Dester S., Miami
Frohock, Mrs. Jack, No. Miami
Fuchs, Richard W., Florida City
Fuller, Walter P., Clearwater
Gaby, Donald C., Miami
Gardner, Jack R., Miami
Gardner, Mrs. R. C., Miami
Gibson, Henry C., Jenkintown, Penna.
Gibson, Mrs. Walter C., Miami*
Gifford, Mrs. John C., Miami*
Gillespie, Mrs. W. R., So. Miami
Gingery, Mrs. C. Louis, Miami Shores
Glorie, Rev. John W., West Palm Beach
Goldstein, Charles, Miami
Goldweber, S., Perrine
Graham, D. Robert, Miami Lakes
Gramling, Jr., J. C., Miami
Green, Herschel V., So. Miami

Griffen, F. S., Miami
Guilmartin, James L., Miami
Hall, Frank D., Miami
Hall, Willis E., Miami
Hancock, Mrs. J. T., Jacksonville
Hank, Mrs. Bryan, Ft. Worth, Texas*
Harvard College Library
Haycock, Ira C., Miami
Head-Beckham Insurance Agency, Miami
Hellier, Walter R., Ft. Pierce
Herren, Norman A., Naples
Highleyman, Mrs. Katherine D., Miami
Hogan, Francis L., Pompano Beach
Holland, Hon. Spessard, Washington, D.C.
Hopkins, Dr. Oliver B., Miami
Houser, Roosevelt C., Miami
Hudson, F. M., Miami**
Hudson, James A., Miami
Hughes, Mrs. Edmond A., Coral Gables
Hunter, William A., Miami
Irwin, Frank, Jr., Miami
Jamaica Inn, Key Biscayne
Johnson, Mrs. Kathryne I., Coral Gables
Johnston, Thomas McE, Miami
Jones, Archie L., Miami
Jones, William M., Miami
Kendall, Harold E., Goulds
Kent, Mrs. Frederick A., Miami
Kerr, James Benjamin, Ft. Lauderdale*
Key West Art & Historical Society
King, Dr. C. Harold, So. Miami
Kinloch Park Junior High School Library
Kistler Company, The C. W., Miami
Kitchell, Jr., Bruce, P., Miami
Koch, Mrs. Helen E. McN., No. Miami
Krome, Mrs. William J., Homestead*
Leon County Public Library, Tallahassee
Lewallen, A. J., Miami
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E., Miami
Lipp, Morris N., Miami Beach
Longshore, Frank, Miami
MacDonald, Duncan, Miami*
MacNeill, Malcolm G., Miami
Maders, Mrs. D. R., Miami
Mangels, Dr. Celia C., Miami Shores
Mangels, Henry E., Jr., Miami
Marks, Paul H., Miami
Martin, John M., Sr., Freeport, Gd. Bahama
Martin, Mrs. Kirby A., New York
May, Bruce M., Miami Beach
Mayes, Mrs. C. R., Jr., Pompano Beach
McCarthy, Don L., Nassau
McGahey Chrysler Plymouth, Inc., Miami
McNeill, Robert E., New York
Mead, Mrs. D. Richard, Miami Beach
Meisel, Max, Miami Beach
Melrose, Mary Jane, Miami
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P., Coral Gables*


Mershon, M. L, Miami
Miami Beach Public Library, Miami Beach
Molt, Fawdrey, Key Biscayne
Morgan, Stewart M., Jr., St. Thomas, V.I.
Morison, Horace, Boston
Mudarra, Capt. Pedro M., Miami
Mudd, Dr. Richard D., Saginaw, Michigan
Munroe, Wirth M., Miami*
Murray, Mary Ruth, Coral Gables
Nelson, Bowen C., Miami
Nettleton, Danforth H., Miami
Newton, Jessie Porter, Miami
Nitzsche, R. Ernest, Miami
Nordt, Mrs. John C., Miami
Norris, Hardgrove, Miami
Otto, Mrs. Thomas Osgood, Miami Beach
Padgett, Inman, Coral Gables
Pancoast, J. Arthur, Miami*
Pancoast, Russell T., Miami
Pearce, Mrs. Dixon, Miami
Pedersen, George C., Perrine
Pendergast, Mrs. Eleanor, L., Miami*
Pepper, Hon. Claude, Miami Beach
Peters, Gordon H., Miami Shores
Philbrick, W. L., Coral Gables
Pitt, Gerard, Miami*
Plowden, Gene, Miami
Polk County Historical Library, Bartow
Preston, J. E. Ted, Miami
Quesenberry, William F., Coral Gables
Raap, Dr. Gerard, Miami
Rader, Earle M., Miami
Richmond, Charles M., Miami
Rigby, Ernest E., Miami
Roberts, R. B., Jr., Miami
Romfh, John H. Miami
Russell, T. Trip, Miami
Ryder, Ralph B., Miami
St. Augustine Historical Society
Schultz, Donald A., Miami
Sellati, Kenneth N. G., Miami
Shank, H. W., Coral Gables
Shaw, Henry Overstreet, Miami
Shaw, Luelle, Miami*
Shaw, W. F., So. Miami
Siddall, E. Ray, Coral Gables

Ashe, Mrs. Bowman F., Coral Gables
Baggs, William C., Miami
Barton, Alfred I., Surfside
Brannen, H. S., Miami Springs
Brown, William J., Miami
Buker, Charles E., Sr., Miami
Burdine, William M., Miami
Cain, Hon. Harry P., Miami
Cooper, George H., Princeton

Simmonite, Col. Henry G., Coral Gables
Smith, Charles H., Miami
Smith, McGregor, Miami
Sokola, Anton, Miami
Sottile, Jr., Mrs. James, Coral Gables
Spicer, Dr. Robert T., Miami
Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J., Miami*
Stanford, Dr. Henry King, Coral Gables
Steel, William C., Miami
Stiles, Wade, So. Miami**
Straight, Dr. William M., Miami
Sumwalt, G. Robert, New York
Swenson, Edward F., Jr., Miami
Swift, Patricia, Miami Beach
Thatcher, John, Miami
Thomas, Arden H., So. Miami
Thomson, John W., Jr., Coral Gables
Tibhetts, Alden M., Miami
Town, Eleanor F., Coral Gables
Tritton, Mrs. James, Opa Locka
Troeller, W. Fredrik, Opa Locka
Turner, Vernon W., Homestead
Tuttle, Mrs. Harry E., Miami
University of Florida Library
University of Pennsylvania Library
Vance, Mrs. Herbert O., Coral Gables*
Vanderpool, Fred W., Miami Beach*
Van Orsdel, C. D., Coral Gables
Vickery, Gordon, Miami
Wainwright, Mrs. John T., Sr., Miami
Weintraub, Mrs. Sydney, Miami
Wenner, Henry S., Jr., Miami
West Palm Beach Public Library
White, Dorothy, Miami Beach
White, Richard M., Miami
Whitten, George E., Miami Beach
Wi!son, Claude S., Miami
Wimbish, Paul C., Miami Beach
Wolfe, Miss Rosalie L, Miami
Wolfe, Thomas L., Miami
Wright, Dr. Scheffel, Miami
Wright, Mrs. Victor A., Miami Shores
Wylie, Mrs. W. Gill, Jr., Palm Beach
Young, Elizabeth S., Miami Shores
Zim, Mrs. Sonia Bleeker, Tavernier

DeNies, Charles F., Hudson, Michigan
Dickey, Dr. Robert F., Miami
Dixon, Mrs. James A., Jr., Miami Shores
Dohrman, Howard I., Miami
DuPuis, John G., Miami
Dykes, R. J. Iron Works, Miami
Emerson, Hugh P., Miami
Gardner, Dick B., Miami
Gautier, Redmond Bunn, Miami


Gearhart, Ernest G., Jr., Wilmington, Del.
Hardin, Dr. Henry C., Jr., Coral Gables
Helliwell, Paul L. E., Miami
Highleyman, Daly, Miami
Hildredth, Robert R., Coral Gables
Hill, William H., Miami
Holland, Judge John W., Coral Gables*
Howard, Lee, Miami Beach
Howe, Mrs. Elden L., Coral Gables
Huston, Mr. & Mrs. Tom, Miami
Kislak, Jay I, Miami
Knight, John S., Miami
Leffler, Cornelia, Miami**
Levin, Robert B., Miami
Light, George H., Miami
Lloyd, J. Harlan, Miami
Loening, Grover, Key Biscayne
Lummus, J. N., Jr., Miami
Magnuson Properties, Inc., Miami
P. R. Mallory Family Foundation, New York

Plummer, Richard B., Miami
Poyer, Charles Edison, Miami Beach
Shipe, Paul E., Coral Gables
Taylor, Henry H., Jr., Miami
Tebean, Chariton W., Coral Gables*
Tebeau, Mrs. Violet H., Coral Gables
Timoner, Joan, Miami
Underwood, Edwin H., Jr., Key Biscayne
Wallace, George R., Miami Beach
Weinkle, Julian I., Coral Gables
West, William M., Miami
White, Mrs. Louise V., Key West
Will, Lawrence E., Belle Glade
Wilson, D. Earl, Miami**
Wipprecht, Mrs. Marion H., Coral Gables
John E. Withers Transfer & Storage Co.,
Withers Van Lines of Miami, Inc., Miami
Wolfson, Col. Mitchell, Miami


Crane, Mrs. Raymond E., Miami Beach
Davis, Mrs. Carl H., Miami
Fee, David M., Ft. Pierce
Keyes, Kenneth S., Miami*

Nassau Daily Tribune, Nassau
Redford, Mrs. Polly, Miami
Wayne, Thomas, Tampa
Ungar, Arthur A., Miami


Duttenhoffer, F. Sennett, Miami
Grafton, Edward G., Coral Gables
Grafton, Martha P., Coral Gables
Graham, Mrs. Ernest R., Miami Lakes
Hozza, Mrs. Kathleen L., Miami Beach
Jaudon, Mrs. James Franklin, Miami
Link, Edwin A., Binghamton, N.Y.
Matheson, Mrs. Finlay L., So. Miami
Matthews, Mrs. Flagler, Rye, New York

Mead, D. Richard, Miami
The Baron DeHirsch Meyer Foundation,
Miami Beach
Peacock Foundation, Miami
Peninsular Armature Works, Miami
Ross, Donald, Benton Harbor, Michigan
Southern Bell Tel. & Tel. Co., Miami
Voorhees, Theodore, Miami


Florida Power & Light Co., Miami
Gondas Corporation, Miami

Pan American World Airways, Miami
The Miami Herald, Miami




Wirth M. Munroe
Mrs, Herbert O. Vance
First Vice-President
Ben Archer
Second Vice-President
Mrs. Edward G. Grafton
Executive Secretary

Mrs. Richard A. Beare
Recording Secretary
D. Richard Mead, Sr.
Charlton W. Tebeau
Editor Tequesta
Miss Jacqueline Cravens

David T. Alexander
Museum Director


Karl A. Bickel
Dr. James W. Covington
David M. Fee
Fort Pierce
Mrs. James T. Hancock


Adam G. Adams
Mrs. Jack G. Admire
Jarrell M. Bankston
Mrs. Leon Black, Jr.
Mrs. Ruby Leach Carson
James M. Deen
Mrs. Marjory Stoneman Douglas
Gerald Greenberg
Robert Hurwitz
Dan D. Laxson

Norman A. Herren
Judge James R. Knott
West Palm Beach
Dr. Charles T. Thirft, Jr.
Mrs. Louise V. White
Key West

Mrs. Finlay L. Matheson
Mrs. William M. Muir
Mrs. Lester C. Pancoast
Gene Plowden
Charles E. Poyer
Mrs. James F. Redford
W. F. (Fred) Shaw
Edward H. Thompson
Gaines R. Wilson
Wayne E. Withers

James S. Wooten


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs