THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Editor: Charlton W. Tebeau
NUMBER XV 1 9 5 5
Forty Years of Miami Beach
By Ruby Leach Carson
By Adam G. Adams
The Florida Keys: English or Spanish in 1763?
By Charles W. Arnade
On Blockade Duty In Florida Waters
Edited by William I. Schellings
Contents of Tequesta, Numbers I through XIV
The Treasurer's Report
List of Members
List of Officers
COPYRIGHT 1955 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
& 4t t' is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida
't4 t~ a: and the University of Miami as a bulletin of the University (but will
not hereafter be included in the University of Miami Bulletin series). Subscription $3.00.
Communications should be addressed to the Corresponding Secretary of the Society, 1340
duPont Building, Miami 32, Florida. Neither the Association nor the University assumes
responsibility for statements of fact or opinion made by contributors.
This Page Blank in Original
Forty Years of Miami Beach
By RuBY LEACH CARSON
It was nearly two decades after Miami was incorporated as a town before
the challenging, ocean-front strip facing it across Biscayne Bay was considered
ripe for development. Not until March 26, 1915, did Miami Beach, boasting 33
voters, make its bow as an incorporated municipality, bidding for a share
of the area's fast-growing travel market.
Just what is Miami Beach?
During this, its fortieth anniversary year, its citizens are giving interest-
"Miami Beach is the capitol of vacationland," said Leon C. McAskill,
1955 director of the Miami Beach Hotel Association and former publisher of
the Miami Beach Sun. "Miami Beach is unique even in the somewhat amazing
and certainly unusual development of the United States. All the superlatives
have been used sometimes to the tiring point. Some descriptions are
unflattering, most are in glittering praise. Whatever the opinion, the un-
adorned facts reveal an unprecedented growth, an ever increasing prosperity
and a concentration of investment of 'smart money' the like of which is
probably unmatched anywhere. When one remembers that only 40 years ago
Miami Beach was a mangrove swamp, the present picture does approach the
The city's present mayor, D. Lee Powell, in a signed article in the Miami
Daily News of September 11, 1955, outlined Miami Beach as a community
of more than 6,000 private residences and 20,000 apartment units . the
homes of an estimated 60,000 persons.
"Miami Beach's community life," wrote Mayor Powell, "has been subject
to the same growth and development as its tourist economy. As the city's
resort pattern has shifted from a short winter season enjoyed principally by
the wealthy, to a year-'round vacationland visited by close to 2,000,000 per-
sons a year. The city's permanent population has grown from a mere handful
to the present estimated 60,000."
What does the city of Miami Beach officially call itself? On the city
hall's outgoing mail is stamped this slogan: "The Closest Thing to Paradise
We Know." And the Miami Beach Chamber of Commerce has come forth
with this: "The World's Placation Land." "But it is not," says Samuel A.
Rivkind, President of the Miami Beach Hotel Association, "the exclusive
domain of the rich."
Much has been said in recognition of the city's fortieth birthday. The
pioneers, the economists, the statisticians and the press, all have been
delightfully informative. These contributions will be valuable, along with
the record books, when the historians close in during some future year to
follow only the long shadows to their origin. And of those shadows, the
longest will be the one cast by John S. Collins.
To begin the history of this now-distinguished resort city is to begin
with the arrival there of the first man capable of foreseeing the area's possi-
bilities and of starting the formidable reclamation necessary to make the
dream come true. The Man of the Hour was Collins.
Almost immediately after Collins, however, five other men of destiny
appeared on the mangrove-palmetto scene in this order: Collins' son-in-law,
T. J. Pancoast; the Lummus brothers, J. N. and J. E., Miami bank presidents;
and finally the sportsman millionaire, Carl Graham Fisher and his marine
engineer, John H. Levi. Looking over the old records, it is inspirational to
note that these six men, by their willingness to come to each other's assistance,
brought success to themselves beyond their fondest dreams, and gave happi-
ness to others. Only one of these men, J. N. Lummus, is living to help cele-
brate the city's fortieth birthday.
The concatenation of events which brought these men together in an epic
struggle for reclamation could not have happened precisely at this time had
not Henry M. Flagler brought civilization to the bay's edge. The arrival of
his railroad in Miami in 1896 and the building of the great Royal Palm
Hotel in 1897, had established a resort economy, creating a travel market
which has continued to expand to this day.
If Flagler ever envisioned the bright future in store for the Miami Beach
area, he made no further contribution to it. His main interest was transporta-
tion, therefore in 1903 he turned his attention to the building of the extension
RUBY LEACH CARSON 5
to Key West, where his passengers could connect with the steamship company
of which he was president.
By the time his locomotives began moving over the rails to Key West
in January, 1912, the travel picture was changing. Automotive transport
was "the thing", and its future would have tremendous impact upon Florida's
economy. For the development of Miami Beach, John S. Collins was the
first to recognize this fact, and by the building of a bridge for vehicles, he
did something about it. By July of 1912, when the construction of this bridge
began, Collins had already spearheaded other developments on the peninsula.
Collins was a distinguished and successful horticulturist in his native
state, New Jersey, when in the 1880's his interest was aroused in the area that
is now Miami Beach. He had become curious about the horticultural possibil-
ities after the failure of a coconut planting venture in which he had been an
absentee investor. More will be said about this highly dramatic venture.
It was not until the early 1890's, before the Florida East Coast Railroad
had been brought south as far as West Palm Beach, that Collins made the trip
to Miami. Charles Edgar Nash, in his book "The Magic of Miami Beach",
(for which Pancoast wrote an approving foreword) describes Collins' emo-
tions at this time:
He hired two blacks to row him across Biscayne Bay to the penin-
sula and we may imagine with what mingled emotions he first set
foot on Miami Beach.
The situation was admirable, the climate was perfect. Here
summer spent the winter and thousands of people would spend it,
too, given the opportunity. It would eventually make an ideal winter
resort and was just what he had been looking for. The future could
be allowed to take care of itself, but was for the present he
walked into a virgin jungle of palmetto scrub, kneeled and dug into
the earth with his hands, allowing the black, sandy loam to run
through his fingers, the knowing fingers of a dirt farmer with more
than half a century of experience behind him.
That settled it. The last vestige of doubt was gone. As he rose
to his feet and dusted the clinging particles of sand from his hands
Miami Beach was born. He knew that with water, fertilization, and
proper care of this land could be made .. into a town and the town
into a city of trees and flowers and pleasant vistas.
To point to Collins' first active interest in this beach land, is to turn
backward to the middle 1880's when he encountered an old friend at a pomo-
logical meeting in New Jersey. This friend, Elnathan T. Field of Middletown,
N. J., was enthusiastic about a coconut planting project which he and some
associates had launched three years previously, in 1882. The project, how-
ever, had been halted by lack of funds since expenses involved had been
greater than had been anticipated.
The various versions which have been published about this exciting
early chapter in Miami Beach history agree in the main and vary only in
the small details. Besides Nash, Authors E. V. Blackman, C. H. Ward,
Kenneth L. Roberts, Tracy Hollingsworth, and J. N. Lummus, as well as
countless journalists, have told the story. It's a good story for the homefolks
to know, since visitors invariably ask: "Are coconuts native to this penin-
sula?" This article will rely for the most part on Nash.
A few coconuts, which had probably washed ashore, had succeeded in
growing near an old wharf at Miami Beach by the year 1870, when they were
seen by two northern visitors, Henry B. Lum and his 15-year old son Charles.
For years these fellows kept thinking about the economic possibilities of
planting coconuts along Florida's south east coast for shipment to northern
By the year 1882 they had purchased from the government ocean-front
land at 35 cents an acre and had interested several others, including Field
and his fellow-townsman, Ezra Osborn. The Lums' land included the present
south Miami Beach and Lummus Park area. The land which Field and
Osborn purchased from the government extended not only from the Lum
property north to Jupiter, but southward to Cape Florida. Their acreage,
with breaks, totaled 65 miles of ocean front. It cost them from 75 cents to
$1.25 an acre.
To help with the loading and unloading of provisions, and to do the
planting, the coconut promoters hired 25 men from the New Jersey life-
saving stations. Old lifeboats were bought and repaired. These, along with
wagons, tents, mules, tools and food, as well as a small portable house, were
put on board a Mallory line vessel bound for Key West. At Key West they
were transferred to a chartered schooner, and taken to the Florida coast. The
schooner anchored near the Lum acreage and began unloading men and provi-
sions. Much was taken to shore in life boats, but much was floated ashore. The
men dumped the mules into the water and led them as they swam with them
The schooner then headed for Trinidad for the first load of coconuts
for planting, and the men under the leadership of Captain Richard Carney
RUBY LEACH CARSON
of Middletown, N. J., set up camp. There was a natural clearing on the site
of Lummus Park, and here the tents were pitched and the sections of the
portable house were bolted together.
Nash tells of the old Indian trail which ran north and south, winding
among the trees and which was believed to have been used by the Tequesta
Indians and later by the Seminoles. This was widened for a wagon trail. They
were working on this when the first load of 100,000 coconuts was brought in
for planting. The labor involved was formidable, since dense jungle growth
grew close to the shore. Paths were hacked with machetes.
By spring of 1883 they had planted the 38,000 nuts allowed for Miami
Beach, and had moved camp to the Cape Florida area to plant the rest. The
next camp site was established on the present north beach area at the site of
the Biscayne House of Refuge. Here, a shipment of 117,000 coconuts from
Nicarauga was brought ashore for planting. The next site for operations was
the Hillsboro House of Refuge above Boca Raton, and for this planting
another load of 117,000 coconuts was brought, this time from Cuba.
Although the original plans had called for a planting of 450,000 nuts,
by this time 334,000 had been planted. Nash writes that "by the end of the
third year's work the liquid assets of the company had been virtually ex-
hausted. This brought the active proceedings to a halt and nothing further
was planned until Nature had a chance to show what results had been
The work had been so exhausting for the laborers that each year the com-
pany had had to recruit a new crew. It was reported that they had employed
negro convict labor.
At this point, Collins was told of the project. He advanced to his
friend Field the sum of $5,000 so that the work could be continued. Of course,
the project failed. Some of the nuts failed to put forth shoots. Some, having
sprouted and started growing, were choked out by strangler fig vines and the
fast-marching mangroves. Most of the nuts which germinated lasted only
long enough to provide food for rabbits, wood rats and other animals. Only
a comparatively few kept growing and bore fruit.
The men had overestimated a coconut tree's yield of fruit, underestimated
the expense of the project, and had practically ignored transportation and
marketing problems. There were about sixty stockholders in this first big
effort to commercialize Miami Beach.
But, as Historian Nash points out, "Failure had no place in Collins'
make-up." That was why Collins came down to look over the Field and
Osborn beach acreage in the 1890's. Mention already has been made of his
favorable reaction. It was some years, however, before he could return.
Collins' grandson, Arthur Pancoast, told this writer that as early as 1900
Collins and Field had been acquiring the ocean-front land at Miami Beach
by buying up shares of the coconut-planting company from the other stock-
holders. By 1906, Collins was a Miami Beach landowner, with a land-clear-
ing project under way. Arthur Pancoast established the year from the fact
that the family had record of a negro employee's death by a hurricane on
the project at that time.
Back in his native city, Moorestown, N. J., Collins had left his business
interest with his son, Irving; and in Merchantville, he had left his son-in-law,
T. J. Pancoast, in charge. These interests included nurseries and the selling
of farm machinery and builders' and farmers' supplies. This combined knowl-
edge of plant life and the machinery needed for its cultivation, together with
an adventurous and inquiring mind, equipped Collins sufficiently for pioneer-
ing development of the jungle strip across Miami's bay.
After thought and study and conferences with other experts, Collins
decided to begin by planting an avocado grove. Field protested, remembering
the coconut venture; but Collins had his way. When the clearing of land
by manpower began costing from $70 to $300 an acre, Collins designed a
tractor with special knife-bladed wheels. These tractors were made in the
north, shipped by train to Miami and ferried to the beach on barges. The
cost of clearing was then reduced to $30 an acre.
To protect the young grove from the wind, Collins planted the twin lanes
of Australian pine trees which later became Pine Tree Drive.
In 1909, when the apprehensive Field was glad to sell his half of the
enterprise, Collins bought Field's share and became the proud owner of the
largest avocado grove in the world. Arthur Pancoast revealed to this writer
that Field had arrived upon the scene, which he and Collins were to develop
jointly, with the complete plans for a city in his pocket. Collins realized such
a plan was premature.
"Anyway, my grandfather was 'agriculturally minded," said Arthur
Pancoast. "He wanted to make a go of farming developments on cleared
swamp land first. Then that ocean strip not suited to farming he thought
could be available for a city later. He did not think of starting a city develop-
RUBY LEACH CARSON
ment until he needed a canal for solution of his farm transportation problems.
Then he knew a canal would help in both developments.
"Just what sort of townsite Mr. Field had planned I do not know," con-
tinued Mr. Pancoast. "Mr. Collins' idea was to pattern it after Atlantic City,
N. J. Mr. Fisher didn't depart too much from that concept, as Atlantic City
at that time was the summer playground of the United States, and Mr. Fisher
wanted to make this the winter playground. From that point on of course,
his showmanship and salesmanship took over, and the city has gradually
evolved until it really is fabulous."
From this point on, Collins had the enthusiastic support of his family.
His son-in-law, T. J. Pancoast, arranged his business affairs in New Jersey
so he could live at Miami Beach and help with its development.
He arrived in 1911 and helped Collins direct the work on his canal. It
was dug from what is now Lake Pancoast, to Biscayne Bay, and quickly became
one of the most beautiful features of Miami Beach. It still retains his name.
Both Collins and Pancoast realized at this time that the canal would not only
provide a quick way to get his avocadoes to market, but also would help open
up an area which would soon be in demand for residences. If homes were to
be built, then a bridge for vehicles would be needed.
The Collins family organized the Miami Beach Improvement Company on
June 3, 1912, with Collins as president and Pancoast as secretary, treasurer
and active manager. The following month, July 22, work began on Collins
Toll Bridge which, when finished in March 1913, was to connect the beach
at Dade Boulevard with Miami at North East 15th Street, a distance of two
and a half miles. It was to be known as the longest wooden bridge in the
world. At the formal opening on June 12, 1913, Mayor J. W. Watson of
Miami was speaker.
The wooden bridge was only half finished, however, when the unexpected
expenses caused a temporary halt in the construction. At the outset, Collins
and Pancoast had borrowed $25,000 for the project from two local banks -
$15,000 from the Bank of Bay Biscayne, of which J. E. Lummus was presi-
dent; and $10,000 from the Southern Bank and Trust Company, of which
J. N. Lummus was president. That was early in 1912. By May of that year
J. N. Lummus had resigned as bank president to organize and direct a Miami
Beach improvement company to be known as the Ocean Beach Realty Com-
pany. J. N. Lummus was born in Bronson, Levy County, Fla., and had first
visited Miami in 1895. He returned in 1904 to live.
In a booklet condensed from his book, "The Miracle of Miami Beach",
Lummus stated that he and his brother, J. E. Lummus, and a few stockholders
in 1912 purchased 605 acres of swamp land from Lincoln Road south and
"immediately put men chopping down swamp, clearing and grading the
Ocean Front at the South end. We paid from $150 per acre to $12,500 per
acre for swamp land. The large price was paid for small tracts but we had
to have them to put streets through. . Our development was south from
15th Street and was known as 'Ocean Beach'." Most of this purchase had been
the Lum holdings.
Lummus pointed out that his Company was the first to file a plat and sell
lots for a subdivision. It was filed July 9, 1912.
Collins' first plat was filed December 11, 1912. Collins' sale of lots was
stimulated by his announcement that Collins Bridge had been refinanced and
was on its way to completion! The fact that a patron saint had appeared
upon the scene to give needed financial aid, not only to Collins and Pancoast,
but also to the Lummus brothers, makes the year 1912 stand out as the year
that gave birth to the city of Miami Beach. Of course, almost every Miami
and Miami Beach citizen knows who this "patron saint" was:
It was Carl Graham Fisher.
This Indianapolis millionaire of Prest-O-Lite fame and fortune had
come to Miami to make contact with his yacht, brought here by his marine-
engineer friend, John H. Levi. The original plan had been for the two men to
meet in Jacksonville. In January of 1912, Levi wired Fisher: "Arrived
safely. Miami pretty little town. Why not meet me here instead of Jackson-
Fisher came, was captivated by the climate and tropical beauty every-
where, and bought a home on Brickell Avenue. He was so impressed with the
wooden bridge which had been built half way across the bay by a gentleman
in his 74th year, that he made Collins' acquaintance and advanced $50,000
on the project. The total cost of the bridge was about $100,000.
Collins, not to be outdone, not only put up the bridge bonds as security,
but as an outright gift gave Fisher his first chunk of Miami Beach real estate
- 200 acres, a strip 1800 feet wide from ocean to bay and nearly a mile in
Fisher was so enthusiastic that he bought 200 acres south of the Improve-
ment Company's land, and 60 acres on the bay front. Then he hunted up the
Lummus brothers, whose work had slowed down, judging from J. N.'s own
record. Lummus wrote:
RUBY LEACH CARSON
In 1913 my Brother and I met Carl Fisher, who had a winter home
on Brickell Ave., Miami. Fisher asked me why we did not do all
this work at once. I told him we had an awful good reason and that
was we did not have the money, so he loaned us $150,000 and we
paid him 8 per cent interest for the money and gave him 105 acres of
swamp land from Lincoln Road South to 15th St. as a bonus for the
loan. We had paid $150.00 per acre for the land that we gave Fisher.
That, and that alone, is what started Miami Beach in a big way ....
On July 1, 1913, according to Lummus, he and Fisher signed a contract
together with the First Clark Dredging Company of Baltimore to move six
million cubic yards of bay bottom from the bay to the bay side of the beach.
This was to fill in the bay land and deepen the bay for a Motor Boat Race
Course. It was January 15, 1914 before Fisher's first plat was filed.
Fisher was only 38 years of age when he began cooperating with Collins,
Pancoast and the Lummus brothers in the creation of Miami Beach. Levi was
in charge of Fisher's developments which were to include man-made islands,
hotels, polo fields, golf courses, streets and subdivisions. The work advanced
despite the agonizing physical labor involved in the clearing of the mangrove
trees and the accompanying discomfort caused by the hordes of mosquitos,
and the constant danger of being bitten by poisonous snakes. Fisher's com-
pany was the Alton Beach Realty Company. It was bounded on the South by
15th Street, on the North by 20th Street, on the Ocean, and Purdy Boat Ways
on the bay.
Even after the town was incorporated in 1915 under the name Miami
Beach, many visitors thought of the beach strip as Alton Beach, so well adver-
tised had been the Fisher interests there. Only the Collins interests were
previously referred to as Miami Beach; and the Lummus area was called
Before the Collins Bridge was built all visitors and workers and the
beach area's few residents were obliged to cross the bay by boat. Even for
the auction sales of lands in the Collins and Lummus developments, the bid-
ders for lots in the still-swampy area went to the sales by boat. E. E. ("Doc")
Dammers, famous auctioneer of those days, presided at these events. He was
best known for his policy of handing out new pieces of china to his delighted
After the Lummus Company began selling real estate they operated three
passenger boats from the foot of Flagler Street to the beach at Biscayne
Street. Five cents one way was the charge. And business was good!
The bathing casino business got an early start at Miami Beach. The
history of Miami by the American Guide Series tells of the first one which
was a one-room shack built on the Lum property in 1901 by Dr. Gillespie
Enloe. He leased it occasionally to Miamians for a week or two at a time.
Then came Richard M. Smith of Hartford, Conn., who got the financial back-
ing of a Miamian, Charles H. Garthside, for the two-story pavilion known
as Smith's Casino to all the old-timers. In 1908 another Smith, Avery C.
Smith of Norwich, Conn., bought out "Dick" Smith's share and made improve-
ments and innovations. He built two ferry boats for cross-the-bay service
for passengers from Miami.
A more pretentious bath house was built by Dade County's sheriff, Dan
Hardie, on the ocean front near Smith's casino in 1914. The Hardie Casino
was popular for its bathing facilities, restaurant and semi-weekly dances.
Robert Gow, who among other duties, had charge of the restaurant, was the
father of five youngsters of school age who enjoyed to the utmost the social
activities the beach afforded. Alice Gow, now Mrs. Charles DeWitt Strong of
Coral Gables, enjoyed most of all the school bus trips on the Collins toll
bridge. "Those trips were fun," she recalled. "We took our fishing lines
along and fished while the driver stopped to talk to the bridge tender. We
were forgiven for being late to school when we finally arrived in Miami."
The Pancoasts built the Miami Beach Casino during 1912 and 1913 on
the ocean at 23rd Street. This two-story structure was the finest the area had
known, built of driftwood inside, and shingled outside. In 1914 a swimming
pool was added. Arthur Pancoast had from time to time managed the Casino,
even after Fisher took it over in 1916 and spent large sums on its improve-
ment. Another interest was now consuming Arthur, however, and in 1923
he made the plunge the building of the ocean front's first large luxury
hotel. He opened it to a distinguished clientele in 1924 and operated it
for 20 years, selling it in 1944. It was the Grossinger Pancoast after that,
until 1955, when it was razed for the erection of the larger Seville.
In answer to the speculation as to who built and occupied the first home
in Miami Beach, it is interesting to recall that 72nd Street and Collins avenue
was the site for the Biscayne House of Refuge, established in 1876 and
operated until 1926. Its purpose was to "afford succor to shipwrecked per-
sons who may be cast ashore and who, in the absence of such means of relief,
would be liable to perish from hunger and thirst in that desolate region." It
was manned by one keeper and had facilities for a family, if the keeper had
RUBY LEACH CARSON
one. Wm. J. Smith was the first keeper. So probably he should receive credit
for being the first home-maker on the beach.
Then there was that portable house which Captain Richard Carney, one
of the stockholders in the Lum-Osborne coconut planting company, brought
to the beach in 1882 and kept there as his residence until 1886.
And even before Captain Carney moved that house to the rear of his estate
in Coconut Grove, the house had a companion structure. Charles Lum built a
two-story dwelling nearby and brought down his bride. The beach's first hon-
eymooning couple lived there three years.
In J. N. Lummus's book there is a photograph of a tiny cottage which
Mrs. Philip Clarkson had shipped from Chicago in 1913, and set up at 3rd
Street and Collins Avenue. Lummus built his own home in 1914 on the ocean
front at 12th Street, next to the present Tides Hotel. Some of the others who
built in 1914 were S. A. Belcher, E. B. Lent, Willie A. Pickert, George A.
Douglass, T. E. James and Mrs. John McSweeney. Collins built by the ocean
in 1917. In 1914 T. J. Pancoast built a mansion on the edge of the deepened
wading pool which connected Collins Canal with Indian Creek, and which
had been named Lake Pancoast. Carl Fisher's first home was built on the
Ocean and Lincoln Road in 1915.
The first hotel was built in 1914 and operated by its owner, W. J. Brown.
The Wofford Hotel and Apartments was second, on the site of the present
Wofford Hotel. The Breakers was third. By 1915 the beach had one of the
largest Marconi wireless stations in the South. It had telegraph service, two
bath houses, an 18-hole golf course, mail service, a free school bus and
winter boat racing!
The cream of the sports world was brought to the beach by Fisher. The
first annual regatta was held January 15, 16, and 17, 1915, by Fisher who
not only dredged the course, but built the grandstand for the spectators and
provided the trophy cups for the winners. He had secured the fastest speed
boats and cruisers to compete. The national magazine Power Boating fea-
tured the event.
The beach was really getting under way, and the developers and the
several hundred persons living there decided that NOW WAS THE TIME
On March 26, 1915, the town of Miami Beach was incorporated. Meet-
ings were held in the Lummus office building and 33 voters were registered.
J. N. Lummus was given the deserved honor of being the first mayor. In
his abridged booklet he wrote that "the Lummus Company paid all the cost
of incorporating Miami Beach and paid the City Clerk's salary and all other
bills until the Town could get in some tax money in 1916."
James Whitcomb Riley planted an Indian laurel tree in the parkway on
Lincoln Road and James Avenue on April 12, 1915, and read verses he had
written commemorating the building of the National Lincoln Highway, a
Fisher-promoted enterprise. The tree which Riley planted was later moved to
the Carl Fisher Park. The poem Riley read pointed to the fact that Miami
Beach's Lincoln Road was named for this national highway. Fisher had
become nationally popular not only for that Lincoln Highway going east
and west across the United States, but for his leadership in the development
of the Dixie Highway, running north and south.
This appreciation of a proper network of roads showed in Fisher's
development of his Miami Beach land. His interest in recreation areas and
sports facilities was revealed by golf courses and parks. There are now two
city golf courses and ten city parks within the limits of Miami Beach.
Lummus Park from the time it was given for public use in 1912 has
been one of the city's favorite attractions. The gift of J. N. and J. E. Lummus,
it cost their Ocean Beach Realty Company more than $40,000 for creating
and maintaining between 1912 and 1917. The company built board walks,
planted Bermuda grass and coconut trees and put in twelve pumps and two
tennis courts when the park was given to Miami Beach. J. N. Lummus recorded
these achievements in the 1952 abridgement of his book. He considered the
park by 1952 to be worth at least sixteen million dollars.
When it became apparent another bridge across the bay was needed and
that the wooden bridge could not last much longer, the two Lummus
brothers and Carl Fisher each donated $2,000 toward expenses involved in
planning a $600,000 county bond issue to build a three-mile causeway across
the bay. When completed in 1920 it connected Miami's 13th Street with 5th
Street at Miami Beach. Two lines of street car tracks were laid on it at a
cost of $740,000. Of course later the tracks were pulled up and the causeway
widened, and a modern bus transportation system established. World War
II resulted in its getting a new name the McArthur Causeway. The cause-
way was planned by the Lummus Company's engineer, Roy Wilson.
Much credit is due the civil and construction engineers who pioneered
the Miami Beach developments. Although John H. Levi was Fisher's direct-
ing engineer at the outset, W. E. Brown remained throughout the Fisher de-
RUBY LEACH CARSON
velopments at the beach. The first city engineer employed by Miami Beach
was Robert M. Davidson, who stayed with the job for seven years, until he
became city manager of Coral Gables. Later he became a real estate broker
at Miami Beach. J. I. Conklin was the civil engineer in charge of the Collins
In 1916 the Lummus Company sold part of its holdings to a group of
northern millionaires: James A. Allison, who was Fisher's Indianapolis
banker and his Prest-O-Lite partner and who was to be a Fisher partner in
the Miami Beach developments; James and George Snowden, Carl Fisher and
Henry McSweeney. They built Star Island and made roads, built residences
and planted trees and shrubs on the peninsula west of Washington Avenue.
The first building to be erected on Lincoln Road was Fisher's ocean-
front residence in 1915. His office was built in 1917 on Lincoln Road and
Washington Avenue. Then followed the Lincoln Hotel, the Community
Church and, in 1921, the Miami Beach First National Bank at Alton Road.
From the beginning, August Geiger was Fisher's architect.
In 1924 Geiger built Lincoln Road's first commercial building, a struc-
ture with location for 17 stores, and situated on the site of Sak's Store and
westward to the corner. When the Lincoln Road Association was formed,
D. Richard Mead became its first president. Geiger served later for ten years.
The Community Church from its beginning maintained a real community
spirit. The Rev. Elisha King who became its pastor in 1921, remained as
leader of his flock for 18 years.
The men did not do all of the work in the building of Miami Beach. Vol-
umes could be written about the women! The wives of the mayors, from Mrs.
Lummus and Mrs. Pancoast on down the line, were helpful in innumerable
Mrs. T. J. Pancoast, president of the Miami Beach Woman's Club for
13 years, from 1928 to 1942, had been the guiding spirit of the development
of the Miami Beach Public Library. This was started by the Woman's Club
and Mrs. Pancoast not only gave of her time and thought, but helped finan-
cially. Her son, Russell T. Pancoast, was architect for the building.
To Russell Pancoast goes credit for much of the fine architecture seen
in Miami Beach homes and business buildings. He designed the Surf Club,
the Church by the Sea and was an associate architect for the Miami Beach
Auditorium. Besides being a member of the Florida State Board of Architects,
Russell Pancoast is a Fellow in the American Institute of Architecture.
The Lincoln Hotel attracted celebrities from the political, literary, sports
and social world. Fisher's mother lived there in 1920-21. The James A. Allison
family was there and their daughter Cornelia, was an attractive and popular
teen-ager. As she later married a pioneer Miamian who was to become the 1938
president of the Miami Beach Board of Realtors, she remained at the beach.
Mrs. Frazure was persuaded to write some of her recollections for the
June 13, 1954, issue of the Miami Beach Sun. She wrote, in part:
I remember . .
At night, driving along the ocean one could see the eyes of droves
of land crabs shining in the car headlights and occasionally you
would see the bright eyes of a wild cat . . I remember .... Carl
Fisher's glass enclosed tennis court back of where the Albion Hotel
now stands . . The polo field was south of Lincoln Road between
Meridian Avenue and Alton Road.
(Mrs. Frazure also remembered when her father built Allison Hospital,
now St. Francis Hospital, and)
.. Carl Fisher's battered old slouch hat and the snappy Panama
hat worn by the handsome first mayor of Miami Beach, J. N.
Lummus, Sr. .. on New Year's Day of 1921 the opening of the
beautiful Aquarium that Father built at Fifth Street and Biscayne
Bay . . and the night before, New Year's Eve of 1921, the open-
ing of the Flamingo Hotel with a gala party, and the Sunday tea
dances held there in the gardens . .. the nine-hole golf course
connected with the hotel and the famous Regatta for all types of
craft, from Hydro-planes to Express Cruisers, held in Biscayne Bay
in front of the Flamingo Hotel.
Referring to the trolley which made a circuit of Miami Beach, she aptly
described it as "Toonerville" type. Horseback riding was one of the sports
Fisher had introduced, and Mrs. Frazure recalled
riding horseback along the surf and the bridle paths circling Bay
Shore and LaGorce Golf Courses, and the bridle path in the center
of Pinetree Drive.
She remember Jungle Inn, Miami Beach's "first speakeasy and gam-
bling joint, which was located in the wilderness at approximately 67th Street
and Indian Creek Drive", and that there was nothing between there and the
Firestone Estate at, 43rd Street and Collins Avenue (now the Fontainbleau)
except Ocean Drive, a narrow beach sand road. With logic she concludes
The peaceful life of those "good old days" is something to be re-
membered and cherished but we should not regret their passing to
make way for progress on Miami Beach.
RUBY LEACH CARSON
How well Mrs. Frazure has recaptured the flavor of life at Miami Beach
at that time is appreciated by this writer, who as a newspaper reporter for
the Miami Metropolis (now the Miami Daily News) lived at the Lincoln
Hotel that season and covered beach activities.
That was the winter President-elect Warren G. Harding came to "straw-
hat land" for his pre-inauguration vacation. The president-elect and men he
expected to appoint on his cabinet came on Senator Frelinghuysen's house-
boat, which was floated down Florida's inland waterways to Miami Beach.
On the trip down, they had stopped at various Florida resorts to play golf,
and now they were ready for golf at Miami Beach.
When they arrived on January 29, 1921, they were taken to the Lincoln
Hotel for lunch. The host for this occasion was one of the party, Senator
A. B. Cummins, who had spent the previous month at the Lincoln. This
writer had enjoyed many conversations with the Senator and had even tried
to swing golf clubs properly under his supervision. Such informal instruc-
tion was given on the golf course across the street from the Lincoln, where
smart stores do business today. As early as that, Cummins had promised that
this reporter might have a personal interview with the president-elect when
The promise was kept, but with difficulty. Crowds in front of the hotel
parted so that the smiling, bowing president-to-be could enter with his cabinet-
to-be. At the luncheon, the writer was privileged to be seated between Harding
and the honor guest at his right, who was of course! Carl Fisher. James
A. Allison also was an honor guest. Harding was enthusiastic about Miami
Beach and talked about it for half an hour. "Your own people here have not
awakened to the possibilities of this playground of America," he began.
"This beach is wonderful. It is developing like magic." He said much more,
all of it carefully recorded.
This was the only personal interview given by Harding during this trip
to Florida, although he was followed continuously by newspaper men. Dur-
ing the luncheon they stood outside the dining room on the terrace, looking
inside through closed French doors. Among them were the male colleagues
of the reporter who was getting the only interview. And this reporter, while
not one to gloat, couldn't forget that her managing editor had phoned her
early that day telling her not to bother her head about Harding's arrival -
that any effort would be futile and that the men "were taking care of it".
But it was this exclusive interview that made the front page that evening,
thanks to Senator Cummins!
The Harding party was lodged over the week-end at the Flamingo, the
beach's second and most pretentious luxury hotel which had opened on Jan-
uary 1. On Sunday afternoon Harding visited Cocolobe, Carl Fisher's pri-
vate island 38 miles south of Miami. While at the Flamingo, he occupied one
of the villas on the Flamingo grounds. As a publicity stunt, the young ele-
phant Rosie caddied for him. His friendly interest in Miami Beach was not
forgotten. Harding Avenue was named for him.
One of Fisher's contributions which was deeply appreciated by the pub-
lic was the Flagler Memorial placed on a tiny island in the bay. It was made
in 1920 at a cost of $125,000. H. P. Peterson was the sculptor. At the four
corners of the base are symbolic figures representing Pioneering, Engineering,
Industrialism and Prosperity. In this contribution Fisher was assisted by
John B. Orr and Allison. The monument is located between Hibiscus, Rivo
Alto and Belle Islands and can be reached only by boat. In 1939 it was deeded
to the City by the Alton Beach Realty Company.
Miami Beach was ready for a Chamber of Commerce by 1921, when
the population was estimated at 644, so on July 13 of that year T. J. Pancoast,
Line Harger and Charles W. Chase, Jr., Lambert Rook and A. J. Zoller met
to plan the organization. The Miami Herald files reveal that the By-Laws were
adopted nine days later at a meeting at Smith's Casino and that Pancoast
was elected president. By December over 350 members, (over half the beach
population), had been recruited. A site by the entrance to the county cause-
way was chosen for a Chamber of Commerce building. The structure erected
there was used until 1954, when headquarters was shifted to a new building
at 1700 Washington Avenue. The old building is now the Junior Chamber
Miami Beach's Chamber of Commerce was directed by Ike Parrish from
1943 to 1953. The present general manager is John G. Proctor, whose aim,
he says, is to devise and improve ways of serving visitors to the city and to
constantly work on a community development program. Mr. Proctor said
that the work of any one of the Chamber's present 18 committees would be a
story in itself. F. B. Cresap is the 1955 president of the organization.
When T. J. Pancoast was elected as the first president of the Miami Beach
Chamber of Commerce in 1921, he remained at its head for 20 years. He
had been the second mayor of Miami Beach, serving from 1918 to 1920. His
civic contributions included also the presidency of the Miami Beach Realty
Board, which he held for several years. As a business executive, Pancoast
RUBY LEACH CARSON
was president for the Miami Beach Improvement Company and later vice-
president of the First National Bank and the Pancoast Hotel Company.
Collins Bridge was sold in December, 1920, after seven years of contin-
uous use. It was replaced by the Venetian Causeway, built during 1922 and
1923 by the developers of the Venetian Islands at a cost of approximately
$2,505,300. Hugh M. Anderson was the guiding spirit in this enterprise. The
Venetian Islands are among the most beautiful of the beach residential areas,
and are greatly admired by the sight-seeing boats which make scheduled tours
of the bay.
During 1923 and 1924 Fisher's dredges poured bay bottom land along
the bayshore at 43rd Street for another luxury hotel and also for polo
grounds. The hotel was the Nautilus, not to be confused with the equally
swanky Nautilus built later on the Ocean. The first Nautilus required elab-
orate ground preparation. The rich top soil was scooped aside for the sand
fill, and later spread over the surface. Fifty mules and Fisher's two young
elephants, Rosie and "Young" Carl assisted in this work. Photographers of
the era left pictures of Carl pulling a sand scoop, and Rosie carrying happy
children on her back.
By July of 1924, the first coconut tree was planted on the Nautilus
grounds and the road building was proceeding. The rock for this was hauled
from the mainland on barges. They were floated up Collins Canal to the
bantam line railroad which the Fisher interests were using. They found this
little railroad almost indispensable, for with it they could pick up the tracks
and little cars and deliver them wherever most needed.
Also of much interest at the time was the activity of the 1,000-horse-
power dredge named "Norman H. Davis" which was said to force a 20-inch
stream of wet bay land for a full mile. It could bring in 20,000 cubic yards
of fill in 24 hours and it had on board a complete machine and repair shop
and its own ice plant. Two other less powerful dredges also were used.
The Nautilus opened formally in 1925 and for some years was a favored
luxury spot. Although the structure is no longer a hotel, it is more important
than ever for now it houses the Mount Sinai Hospital. The polo grounds are
now Polo Park, one of the city's garden spots. Fisher's fourth hotel, the King
Cole, erected on North Meridian Avenue on Surprise Lake, is now the home
of the Miami Heart Institute.
New construction in Miami Beach during 1923 showed the biggest in-
crease since developments started. The value reached $4,185,600. The big
Florida Boom was on its way. In 1924 the construction figures reached
$7,014,750. Real estate could be sold quickly, at a profit. This was the year
Carl Fisher sold his Miami Beach Electric Company to the American Power
& Light Company.
N. B. T. Roney, declared by J. N. Lummus to have built more houses
than any one man on Miami Beach in those early years, was building the
million dollar Roney Plaza that year. It opened in 1925 as one of the most
elaborate hotels of the era. Instead of bringing interior decorators down from
New York, as did the Fisher interests, Roney employed local talent, Miss Mary
Albert Hinton, who was Miami's first interior decorator. This hostelry has
been operated under several ownerships, its 1955 owner being J. Meyer Schine.
In 1925, the boom year, the state census showed the beach to have 2,342
voters. From here to the present time, comparisons by decades are interesting.
In 1935, voters numbered 13,300. In 1945, 32,327 and in 1955, an estimated
The estimated yearly tourists jumped from 50,000 in 1935 to an estimated
2 million in 1955.
Assessed property valuation the year the city was incorporated, 1915,
was $244,815. Ten years later it was $44,094,950. Ten years later, 1935,
there was a four million dollar drop, but by 1945 the assessed property val-
uation had climbed back up. It was $85,757,650. In 1955, the figure
Nash wrote that at the beach early in 1925 "credit soared to such dizzy
heights that small-timers came to swing big-time propositions on a little cash
and a lot of confidence", and that "paper millionaires came to blossom as
the rose". Fisher, Collins and Pancoast were said to have retained most of
their unsold property until the hysteria died down, which came about after a
stock market crash in November of that year. The boom continued to develop.
Two more bay front hotels had appeared the Fleetwood and later the
Floridian, the latter on the site of the Allison Aquarium.
For the difficult days before and after the explosion of the boom,
Beachites considered themselves fortunate in their leadership. Claude A.
Renshaw had been made city manager in 1925, a position he holds as this is
written in 1955. Typical of the regard with which he is held is this comment
by Arthur Pancoast:
"Renshaw is level-headed, non-political in his thinking, and constructive.
He has Miami Beach entirely at heart."
RUBY LEACH CARSON
The mayor of Miami Beach from 1926 to 1928 was J. N. Lummus, Jr.,
the 26-year-old son of the first mayor J. N. Lummus. As "Newt" was born
and reared on the beach, always alert to its problems, he was so highly
regarded that he had served on the City Council between 1922 and 1952. He
holds the record for being the Beach's youngest mayor. During his term the
Venetian Causeway was finished, piping to carry water from Hialeah to the
beach was installed, and the planning of the present City Hall and street
widening were undertaken. Lummus, Jr., later served as Dade County Tax
Assessor from 1929 to 1952.
Miami's third mayor, T. E. James, was a connection of the Lummus
family, a fact which adds to the contribution this family made to the area.
One of the most distinguished of the early mayors was, of course, John H.
Levi, who was first elected to the City Council in 1918. Three years later he
was elected to a two-year term as mayor, after which he continued serving
on the council. He served there more years than any other member has to date.
Another pioneer to become mayor was Val C. Cleary, elected in 1930.
Louis F. Snedigar, native Floridian, was elected Mayor in 1922, when he
was 31 years of age. He was re-elected in 1924 and served until 1926.
Under Snedigar's administration the real estate boom was working itself
up into a frenzy. And then, on January 10, 1926, an accident occurred which
helped precipitate the "bust" in a most unforseeable manner. The four-mast
barkentine Prins Valdemar in an attempt to leave the Miami harbor, got
grounded and rolled over on its side. Its 241-foot length completely blocked
the ship channel leading into and out of the harbor. It was 25 maddening
days before an 80-foot channel could be cut so ships could pass around it.
Ships in the meantime had lined up on the gulf stream, waiting with boom-
bought cargoes for delivery to awaiting merchants and builders. Even the
causeway was lined with impatient freighters, and many ships inside the har-
bor were unable to leave. The results were fatal to the rising tide of the boom.
Kenneth Ballinger in his book "Miami Millions" wrote that the Prins
Valdemar saved people a lot of money. "In the enforced lull which accom-
panied the efforts to unstopper the Miami harbor," he wrote, "many a shipper
in the North and many a builder in the South got a better grasp of what
actually was taking place here."
There is no space here to fully discuss the collapse of the boom; nor
the still-famous "hurricane of '26"; nor the subsequent 1926 Miami bank
failures but Miami Beach survived them. The city even blossomed forth
in the 1930's into a steady building program.
Golden Beach, which had been developing as a residential area during
the 1920's, was incorporated in 1929 with the Dade-Boward county line as its
northern boundary. The next municipality to develop as a result of the "spill-
ing over" of the city of Miami Beach area, was Surfside. It was incorporated
in 1935 to extend from the ocean to the bay and from 87th Terrace on the
south to 96th Street. In Miami Beach proper, the '30's were devoted to hotel
building. Although assessed property valuation dropped nine million dollars
between 1930 and 1935, by 1940 the figures had leaped to over 70 million.
The Miami Herald claimed in 1940 that Miami Beach had 3,041 homes and
239 hotels with 15,044 rooms. Besides these, there were 706 apartments. In
the year 1940, forty hotels had been built.
Thomas W. Hagan, present editor of the Miami Daily News, in a signed
feature article in the News on August 8, 1940, gave figures to show that hotels
represented then from 13 to 38 per cent of Miami Beach building. "The 1940
construction," Hagan pointed out, "showed a trend toward more costly con-
struction. Prophets amateur and otherwise disagree violently on the
question of saturation." Hagan then gave more figures to show that the
demand was at that time still ahead of the quantity and quality of supply.
That same issue of the News announced that the City had set aside
approximately $122,565 for its advertising and publicity program. Dorr &
Hume, now Miami's oldest agency and operating under the name August
Dorr Advertising, received the city account; and Steve Hannagan, favorite
of Carl Fisher and the public generally, was to continue doing beach publicity.
Three more municipalities were to appear on the north of Miami Beach:
Indian Creek Village, in 1939; Bal Harbour, in 1946 and Bay Harbor Island,
in 1947. Bal Harbour extends from 96th Street to Baker's Haulover channel.
Bay Harbor Island is on Broad Causeway which opened in 1951 and which
connects Bay Harbor Island with the mainland at 123rd Street. This is a
toll causeway. More will be said about this "Golden Strip" and its hotel and
motel economy. The last two of these towns to develop had not appeared
when World War II brought something else that was unexpected to Miami
That "something else" was the Army. The men stationed at the beach
after the United States entered the World War in 1942 were referred to as
the Army Air Forces Technical Training Command. Hundreds of soldiers,
none above the rank of a non-commissioned officer, lived in the plush hotels
and drilled in the streets. The newspapers since have declared that the G.I.'s
who trained at the beach later returned with brides on post-war honeymoons,
RUBY LEACH CARSON
and stayed to become permanent citizens. They occupied 85% of the hotels
while in training.
Although the lights on Miami Beach were completely blacked out during
the war, no lights or traffic of any sort were allowed north of Baker's Haul-
over at night, where John M. Duff, Jr., had developed the Geen Heron Hotel.
As a retired marine captain after World War I, Duff had engaged in the hotel
business at the beach: first when he built the LeRoy Hotel and Villas in 1933;
and in 1938 when he leased N. B. T. Roney's Cromwell Hotel. When World
War II took the Cromwell, it also took Captain Duff. Currently Duff is
managing director of the Golden Gate Hotel.
That the Miami Beach story is basically "hotels" is the opinion of Leon
C. McAskill, executive director of the Miami Beach Hotel Association in 1955.
Because of McAskill's first-hand knowledge while working with the hotels, and
because he kept in intimate touch with the hotel development while publisher
of the Miami Beach Sun, this writer asked him for permission to include here
his own previously unpublished summary of the development of hotels at
MCASKILL'S REPORT ON HOTELS
The remarkable growth from a swampland to the world's most modern,
concentrated vacation playground, established an industry that boasts one-
fourth of the hotels in a state that is near the top in the nation for hotels.
Slowly through the depression years of the thirties the hotel industry in
Miami Beach changed from the hands of promoterss" to the more stable and
capable hands of experienced hotel men. By the end of the third decade of
the century, the Miami Beach hotel industry had become of age and was
becoming recognized as "big business". Growth and numbers and influence
was halted, temporarily, by World War II. 85% of Miami Beach's hotels
were taken over by the Air Force, and with the facilities provided, speeded
the war's end by many months.
At the end of hostilities, Miami Beach and its chief industry entered the
period of its greatest growth. After a gigantic reclamation project had
restored the hotels, the construction parade began. Each year during the past
decade has had a hotel building program that strove to outdo last year's final
word in elegance and perfection of appointments.
In 1946 six new hotels were built with a total of 366 rooms. The largest
of the six 1946 hotels was the Martinique with 137 rooms.
1947 saw the erection of the first postwar multi-million dollar glamor
hostelry. The Sherry Frontenac added 250 rooms to Miami Beach's total room
count. Six other new hotels that year brought 1947's added rooms to 785.
1947 also saw the first of the postwar additions built to existing hotels. Two
hotels added a total of 84 rooms.
As an example of the solid investors now becoming attracted to the Miami
Beach hotel industry, George Sax, Chicago banker, unveiled his glamorous
Saxony Hotel in 1948. That year set a record for Miami Beach's blooming
hotel industry. Seventeen new hotels with an amazing total of 1576 rooms
added their glitter to the Gold Coast skyline in 1948. Three existing hotels
added a total of 62 rooms.
Right next door to the Saxony, the competing-for-glamor Sans Souci led
the 1948 parade. The Sans Souci added 253 rooms and two other newcomers
added almost 200 more rooms to the now amazing total.
In 1950 the 250 room Casablanca headed the parade of new oceanfront
houses, and seven other fine hotels built in the half-century year added (with
the Casablanca) 1111 more rooms, and two major alteration jobs accounted
for almost 200 more rooms in that year.
The Algiers at 26th and Collins, with 258 rooms and the Biltmore
Terrace at the extreme edge of Miami Beach, were the leaders in size of the
new houses built in 1951 with 258 and 230 rooms respectively. Three other
new hotels brought the total of rooms added in '51 to 628.
In 1952 the beautiful Empress was that year's largest contribution to Col-
lins Avenue and the Ocean. Total new construction in 1952 was 284 rooms,
and 37 rooms in additions to existing hotels brought the year's total to 321.
1953 saw the largest hotel built since 1946, the DiLido with 329 rooms
at Lincoln Road, Collins Avenue and the Ocean. Two other new houses added
160 rooms more.
Hotel history in Miami Beach was made in 1954 with Ben Novack et al.,
crashing into the world's spotlight with the fabulous Fontainebleau on the
site of the old Firestone Estate, Collins Avenue and the Ocean. With 545
rooms and every imaginable facility- and Novack and Morris Lapidus, the
architect, are not lacking in imagination the Fontainebleau is already
world famous. Other new structures and additions added 135 rooms at a cost
of about one million dollars.
In the present year, building of newer and, if possible, finer hotels goes
merrily on. The Eden Roc, the Lucerne and the Seville will be ready for the
RUBY LEACH CARSON
1955-56 season. These three beauties will add 734 rooms to the ever increas-
ing total, with the Eden Roc contributing 304 rooms. Major additions are
being added this year, too. The Versailles, the Waldman (formerly Lord
Tarleton) and the Shore Club are adding a grand total of 318 rooms.
The ten year total of hotels built in Miami Beach is 55, and the total
increase in number of rooms 6988. The 14 major additions to existing hotels
added 831 rooms to the total, making a grand total of 7801 added rooms
for the period. Not included in the above totals, of course, are the many
beautiful hotels immediately adjacent to Miami Beach in Surfside and Bal
Harbour. Here, too, new hotels are building or are on the drawing boards,
not to mention those recently built which include the Sea View, Balmoral,
Bal Harbour, Emerald Isle, Arthur Godfrey's Kenilworth and the Golden
Gate, among the largest.
The number of hotels within the corporate limits of Miami Beach is
edging close to the 400 mark, and the number of hotel rooms now exceeds
30,000. The total valuation strains the imagination. It must be a half billion
dollars, and the end is not in sight. One problem may be noted; we are fast
running out of land. Remember, Miami Beach's land area is only eight miles
long and a mile or less wide. (A total of 7 square miles of land area.)
The construction of the new Seville and the Lucerne may be the begin-
ning of a trend. These two new beauties are being built on the sites of the
Grossinger Pancoast and the Good, respectively, two of the famous hotels of
Miami Beach's yesterdays.
No doubt others are doomed to the same fate. It pains those of us who
knew the glories of Miami Beach in the 20's and 30's to see the passing of old
friends and landmarks but the eyes of Miami Beach look ever ahead -
even when dimmed by a tear for departed glories.
Such is Miami Beach's hotel history, recorded by one who knows it.
Among those who remember the old days at the beach are the 250 members of
the Miami Beach Pioneers' Club, founded in 1949. Its president has always
been E. M. Hancock, the city's building inspector.
During the decade from 1945 to the present, during which time many
insisted that the beach had been over-developed, Editor Thomas W. Hagan's
conclusions of 1940 had continued to hold, "that the demand is still ahead of
the quantity and quality of supply". And no doubt larger and still lovelier
hotels will be marching in architectural grandeur against the sunrise of
When William Allen Chase became first president of the Miami Beach
Motel Association in 1953, there were 41 motels along the three-mile shore
which the Association calls the "Golden Strip". There are now 61 motels on
the strip from 158th to 191st Street, extending from Baker's Haulover to
Golden Beach. Tradition says that the Haulover sand strip got its name from
the days before the deep channel had been cut across it and a man named
Baker had been among those who dragged their boats across, from Biscayne
Bay to the Ocean. The County has developed Haulover Park, a beauty spot
just north of the channel.
What public relations men like Steve Hannigan, Joe Copps and Hank
Meyer have done for Miami Beach, Hal Bergida is doing for the golden, three-
mile long Motel Row. He gets to the public the story of the new de-luxe
motels with their luxurious vacation facilities. The general area boasts shop-
ping centers, fine restaurants, beauty parlors, fishing boats and pier fishing.
Local writers and radio programs have been a part of the great promo-
tional program. John D. Montgomery beginning in 1929 published a paper
for awhile at Miami Beach, and several other papers have come and gone.
The present daily paper, the Miami Beach Sun, is owned by George B. Storer
of the Storer Broadcasting Company, which owns WGBS. The Miami Beach
Times, founded as the Democrat by J. H. Wendler in 1927, is now published
by James Wendler.
The first radio station for the beach was installed at the Fleetwood in the
20's over the call letters WMBF-Wonderful Miami Beach, Florida. In 1926
WIOD Wonderful Isle of Dreams was installed on Collins Island, oppo-
site the Nautilus Hotel. It was bought by the Miami Daily News in 1935. The
present station at Miami Beach, WKAT, was started by Mr. and Mrs. Frank
Katzentine in 1937. Mr. Katzentine is an attorney and a former mayor of
Miami Beach, having been elected in 1932 for a two-year term.
As Associate Editor Ralph G. Martin of Newsweek wrote in his issue of
January 17, 1955, "It takes publicity to make this Miami Beach magic".
Newsweek then proceeded to pay tribute to Miami Beach's city manager,
Claude A. Renshaw, and to its public relations director, Hank Meyer, who
has held that position since 1949. Referring to Meyer, the Newsweek article
RUBY LEACH CARSON
More recently it was Renshaw who brought in one of the best pub-
lic-relations directors in the business. He is Hank Meyer, who just
won a travel writers' grand award for the best travel promotion in
the world. . It takes Miami Beach magic to fill these hotels, and
it takes Hank Meyer to make that magic. And yet Hank talks of
tomorrow and says: "Miami Beach isn't overbuilt; it's underpro-
The travel award to Hank Meyer, mentioned by Newsweek, was only one
of many this nationally known publicity expert has received. In 1953 he
was nationally "best" for photo coverage; in 1954 he was reelected by the
Miami Beach Junior Chamber of Commerce as the outstanding young man
of Miami Beach, and nominated to the selection as one of the ten outstanding
young men in the nation. His latest honor was a citation for outstanding
achievements in public relations in the field of government, awarded by the
American Public Relations Association.
Newsweek climaxes its Miami Beach and south Florida comments by
quoting Hank Meyer's comment about Miami Beach magic: "You can't bottle
it, or pack it, or ship it. If the American people want this, and I know they do,
then they will come down here to get it."
But to make the people "come down here and get it," Meyer says he tries
to reach 160 million people as often as he can.
All of which brings the reader right back to the question posed at the
beginning of this article. WHAT IS MIAMI BEACH?
Newsweek's story included this: ". . 4,000 acres of noise and wonder,
the garishness and fun of broadway, the nightly parade of mink coats, no
matter what the weather. Most of all, perhaps it's a sense of luxury." The
article had already mentioned the miles of ocean front and the tropical
beauty, but did the visiting editor see those thousands of pretty, modest homes,
those 58 schools and 22 churches and facilities for outdoor, healthful sports,
or attend the symphony orchestra concerts?
SO, WHAT IS MIAMI BEACH? Carl Fisher once told Steve Hannigan
"Steve, Miami Beach was the only natural we ever had. But, Boy, what a
natural it was!"
This Page Blank in Original
By ADAM G. ADAMS
The text of the plaque just unveiled is:*
JAMES DEERING 1859-1925
James Deering of Chicago, a founder of the International Harvester
Company, a pioneer developer of South Florida, noted connoisseur
of the fine arts and distinguished philanthropist, built Vizcaya and
lived there from 1916 until his death in 1925. In the buildings and
gardens of Vizcaya, an expression of the classic Mediterranean spirit
of Italy and France, unique in America, Mr. Deering brought to-
gether many rare European art treasures, and inspired the designs
which combine them so skillfully with local materials. Marion
Deering McCormick and Barbara Deering Danielson, his nieces,
made Vizcaya available to Dade County as a public art museum
The purpose of this plaque is to keep green the memory of the persons
and events which have made possible this magnificent heritage of Dade County.
The physical property is in wonderful condition. During the thirty
years since Mr. Deering's death his heirs have kept constant vigilance against
the ravages of time. And the Dade County Park Department continues careful
maintenance and operation as a public museum.
But it is now a public place! Let's put our fingers on the throbbing pulse
of a great private home of an artistic, perfectionist bachelor millionaire.
Mrs. C. J. Adair, for 35 years the housekeeper, arrived in February 1917, two
months after Mr. Deering. Her staff numbered thirty-two, among them two
French chefs, four butlers, four house men, and six house maids. All the maid's
uniforms were made in the house, as well as the men's summer whites. For
morning work the maids wore fine blue and white striped cotton; in the after-
noon black silk with white apron trimmed with lace and little bows in their
hair. This staff straightened and cleaned the house every day. By eleven in
the morning, floors had been vacuumed, (the handsome rugs were more
delicately and carefully cleaned), and waxed, flowers arranged. The luncheon
* Parts of this paper were read at the dedication of the marker at Vizcaya, December 1,
table was set at noon, Mrs. Adair having fixed the floral center piece which was
changed for dinner.
In 1917 Eustis Edgecombe, lately from Nassau, was employed in the
gardens at Vizcaya. In 1918 when the "draft" took some house men, he began
working in the house where he has worked ever since. Eustis remembers the
bustle and excitement of the great house in action: Mrs. Adair, up at six
thirty every morning feeding the wild birds at the entrance patio, Mr.
Deering's interest in small details, his orders issued in writing, his kindnesses
and fairness but always exacting.
Mr. Deering arrived at Vizcaya for Thanksgiving and stayed until June.
The house was usually full of company, mostly Chicago friends with a sprink-
ling of Easterners and foreigners, and, of course, the families of his brother
and sister were frequent visitors. There were usually extra guests for lunch,
local friends and distinguished visitors. Mr. Deering was abstemious in his
eating and drinking habits, but his table and cellar were famous for their
And, lying at the dock to be kept in order by Mrs. Adair, was the
"Nepenthe". It was equipped with the same monogrammed French linens
and beautiful china, food and drink, as were used in the house, and always
ready for a cruise, either for an afternoon or up to ten days which was Mr.
Sammy Sands who still works at Vizcaya was the flower boy. There were
five acres in Allapattah six miles away across town where the best soil was
found, devoted to growing annuals. In slat houses and glass houses on the
place were orchids and many other flowers. Five or six men were cutting
blooms regularly to keep the "cold room" sufficiently well supplied for a
complete change of flowers every day and on occasion twice a day. Cut
flowers were kept all over the place, in the halls, patios, on the terraces and
by the green house door. No rose bloom was cut in the rose garden. Roses,
required on eighteen inch stems, came from Allapattah. Constant budding of
roses on Texas stock, propagating and seeding were necessary to keep up with
the enoromus demand. A failure of supply was unthinkable. And then three
times a week Sammy mounted his bicycle and delivered large boxes of flowers
to Mr. Deering's friends, among them the Winstons, William Jennings Bryans,
and the John B. Reillys.
Milk, eggs, fowls and vegetables were produced on the place. There
were sweet corn, beans, peas, cucumbers, and cantaloupe. Seed were most
carefully selected, many being imported.
ADAM G. ADAMS
Water from an artesian well west of Miami Avenue was piped into a
basin at the north end of a ditch now dry and grown over. The porous walls
of the ditch were sealed with cement. A free flowing stream of beautiful water
flowed southward and down a cascade, then underground to the lagoon. This
water also supplied the fountains which ran continuously at the entrances.
There were seven islands, where Mercy Hospital now stands, all to be
kept spick and span. On Wednesdays and Sundays the public was invited to
drive through the grounds. Mr. Deering was much interested in how many cars
there were and had a careful count of visitors kept.
John J. Bennett, now a prominent engineer of Miami was employed to
make the original boundary survey, and except for service in the army, re-
mained until 1923. Altogether Mr. Bennett spent eight years with a crew of
men doing the engineering work required for house and grounds, at Vizcaya.
He laid out the beds in the formal gardens by Mr. Chalfin's design. 6,000 pins
were used to locate the border plants in one flower bed of intricate design.
William J. Broomfield was the head gardener. From a family of English
gardeners and trained in the best school of that country's fine gardens, he
found it difficult to apply knowledge of temperate zone horticulture to the
semi-tropics. Trial and error and learning from natives, however, brought
Boxwood was first tried for parterre borders. Other plants also failed.
Mr. Bloomfield at one time potted 30,000 seedling orange jasmin, Chalcas
exotica, from the Brickell Avenue Plant Introduction Garden. But this plant
was not satisfactory. Then by chance Jasimum simpliciflorum, a vine growing
in the nearby jungle was tried. It was found that it was easily propagated by
layering and then, although it was not known before, it responded beautifully
to severe pruning. This plant is still the parterre border.
James Deering, although not so much interested in horticulture as his
brother Charles, had a keen appreciation of the suitable. He imported from
the western end of Cuba a cycad, Microcycas calocoma, one for each side of
the main entrance. This plant is native to only one small area and is still
extremely rare. In the entrance patio were four buccaneer palms, Pseudo-
phoenix, a native of Elliott's Key and now rare on account of indiscriminate
exploitation in 1925. To insure agreeable growing conditions, these beauti-
ful little palms were planted in large cypress boxes. Mr. Broomfield says that
it took 16 men to move a boxed tree. The trees no longer survive at Vizcaya,
but specimens may be seen at Fairchild Tropical Garden.
Mr. Deering was keenly interested in varieties and correct information
and what he was told he remembered. Once he called "Billy" Broomfield
to identify a cut rose. Billy identified it by "growth habit" as a William R.
Smith but had never seen a bloom of that color. These roses had come from
a florist who confirmed the identification and said that the color had been
changed with dye. This outraged Mr. Deering. The roses were thrown out.
Events leading to the development of Vizcaya of course began with the
natural endowments of the sub-tropical shores of Biscayne Bay. Then followed
the discovery of those endowments and '' w but ever gathering interest in
them by persons who had lived and thr many generations in temperate
It may be interesting to recall some facts about the economy of the
United States at the beginning of the 20th Century that produced men like
Deering and places like Vizcaya. There was no income tax, no inheritance
tax, no Securities and Exchange Commission. An individual's accumulation
of wealth was his own. And, burgeoning industry was providing ample means
for the money makers to accumulate in enormous amounts.
Frederick Lewis Allen says that Andrew Carnegie's personal gain in the
year 1900 was over 23 million dollars. There were others rising in the world,
still others enjoying their inheritances. It is reported that the Vanderbilt
family spent (in today's money) the rough equivalent of 36 millions on
seven residences on Fifth Avenue in New York in the middle eighties. And
furthermore, this same family was building other great houses at Newport
We are not forgetting the Goulds, the Astors, the Carnegies, the Morgans,
the Goelets, the Belmonts, the Wideners, and others who had vast and princely
residences. In those days, some fun was poked at the rich, not much, for being
rich was a serious business. Anna Robeson Burr describes Henry C. Frick,
the steel millionaire, "in his place, seated on a Renaissance throne under a
boldacchine, and holding in his little hand a copy of the Saturday Evening
But, with all of their foibles, most of the great business men and indus-
trialists have perpetually enriched their country. The Henry Frick home on
Fifth Avenue is a wonderful art gallery. John D. Rockefeller practically
established the University of Chicago single-handed, and contributed to count-
less other humanitarian causes; Andrew Carnegie gave library buildings to
all who asked and made marvelous contributions to education; and Marshall
ADAM G. ADAMS
Field and his associates were wonderfully generous in public works in Chi-
cago. This is but a scanty list of public benefactors. All of the Deerings
have made generous contributions to humanitarian and cultural organizations.
In this connection, no Floridian should forget the great boon of Henry
M. Flagler, his pioneering spirit, his courage, his vision, without which our
State might have been dormant much beyond its awakening about 1900.
It was about the time that Henry M. Flagler and John D. Rockefeller
were setting up The Standard Oil Company. So fast did Flagler make money
that he was active in the Company for only 13 years. He, Rockefeller, and
others had done well for a few years prior to incorporation in 1870. But, by
1883, Flagler had 10 million dollars and an ill wife, so he decided to retire
from business. During the next 29 years, that is until his death, it is variously
estimated that he spent in the development of his railroad and hotel proper-
ties in Florida, 50 million dollars, including a home at Palm Beach which
cost $2,500,000 in that day's money. His estate was appraised at 100 million
dollars, and, since 1883, he had apparently done nothing but spend money.
And, at this time of ostentation by the very rich, the working man had
not yet begun to share in the benefits of the Industrial Revolution. Let us
look at the other side of the picture. About the turn of the century, the "aver-
age" annual earnings of American workers was about $500 a year. The
work week was 60 hours. Many children had to work for their daily bread,
industrial accidents were very common, and unemployment was fearful.
Labor unions were hardly known. The President of the A. F. of L. was a
cigar maker. And, in 1907, 1,250,000 immigrants arrived in the United
States to compete for work.
It was felt by most that one could expect a depression and consequent
added burdens every ten years. There were depressions 1887, 1897, 1907,
1914, 1920; you know the rest. Times were different then.
Let us have a quick look at 1912. The most important event of that year
in Dade County was that Mary Brickell sold 130 acres to James Deering,
where he proposed to build a grand dwelling.
Early that year the Key West Extension of the FEC, a wonder of the
world, had been completed by Henry M. Flagler.
In April of 1912 the unsinkable Titanic went down, shocking the world.
In June, Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey was nominated for
President of the United States in a long bitter fight with Champ Clark. I was
a spectator at the 1912 Democratic Convention. A political convention is one
thing that has not changed.
Theodore Roosevelt formed the Bull Moose Party, which defeated the
The Income Tax Amendment having been initiated under William How-
ard Taft was ratified by the states. It is said that a proposal was made to limit
any income tax to 10%. But the suggestion was "pooh-poohed". "No such
enormous rate would ever be levied any way. Why bother with a ridiculous
Woodrow Wilson was elected in November, a liberal Democrat.
In 1913, the first income tax was levied as a part of the tariff bill; 1%
on income up to $20,000, with a personal exemption of $4,000: tax $160.00.
Recently, LIFE magazine reported that Lou Wolfson turned down a $60,000
bonus. He would have netted only $6,000 after taxes anyway. Times were
different in 1912.
A personal experience will further point up the tempo of the times.
After Governor Wilson's nomination, I had lunch with him in New York
City. There were three of us wishing to talk of politics in Tennessee. Gov.
Wilson was noncommittal on that subject, but a charming conversationalist on
other topics. Now, one marvels at the simplicity of that lunch, in a midtown
hotel dining room where no one stared, and no one asked for autographs.
There were no "assistants", no "secretaries", no reporters, no photographers,
just a governor of a neighbor state, running for the Presidency, who was able
to lunch quietly with friends. Times were different then.
Government was only beginning to take an interest in business. On one
occasion when William Rockefeller was being questioned by Government
Counsel, it is said he replied all afternoon to a long series of questions, "I
decline to answer, on the advice of counsel". It is further reported that no
one took the matter very seriously. In fact, the session was considered rather
amusing by everyone present. But, by 1912, the Federal Government had
begun suit against the Sugar Trust; the "Bath Tub" trust was dissolved and
the Supreme Court Board of Arbitration awarded locomotive engineers a min-
imum wage and general wage increase. Theodore Roosevelt's anger at the
"Malefactors of great wealth" and his "Big Stick" philosophy were taking
effect in Government.
But, the world was peaceful, outwardly at least. In 1912 we had not
heard the cry of "Hun", no plaint, "I did not raise my boy to be a soldier",
ADAM G. ADAMS
no "Over There". But, world shaking events were not far off. It is amazing
to consider how naive, how simple we were. Few suspected we were sitting on
a "powder keg". Yet in 1908, Cecil Spring-Rice, a British diplomat, was
writing, "Our philanthropists have again appealed to the Kaiser to stop
arming! As if they had any chance of succeeding except by arming them-
selves. The new German forces by the end of 1911 will be so great by land
and sea that there will have been nothing like it since the time of Napoleon.
The nations of Europe are in a quiver of anxiety. In fact, peace depends on
the will of one man."
It makes me wonder, if in this peaceful setting, this contentment which
most of us enjoy, there may be other cataclysmic events not far off. We pray
for great leadership and intelligent understanding.
It was in such times that James Deering announced his intention of
building a great house in Brickell Hammock. A contemporary says: "One
must remember that, at the time, Miami's population was only about 10,000.
There were over 1,000 people employed on the job, 10% of the population.
It can readily be seen that the building of the Deering Estate was a major
factor in the economy of the community during those early days of its history
(Miami was 16 years old).
Now, what about the Deerings? William Deering of Portland, Maine
was a millionaire dealer in woolen cloth. He became interested in harvesting
machinery through a friend to whom he loaned money. After having loaned
at different times, 30 or $40,000.00, he decided to go to Illinois to investigate
what was becoming of his money. There he became so interested in the new
business that he gave up his interests in Maine and moved to Illinois.
Mr. Deering began the manufacture of harvesting machinery in 1873.
In the early '80s he had with him in the business his two sons, Charles and
James and a little later his son-in-law, Richard Howe. All of the boys worked
at times in all departments.
James Deering was a man of brilliant mind. He had a fine engineering
education, having been graduated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technol-
ogy. He worked many years for Deering Harvester Company and for Interna-
tional Harvester Company. He was particularly a technical man, a "trouble
shooter" and conducted trials of new machinery. It is said that he never
really liked this work, and that he did it as a matter of duty. It is plain to see
that his real love was art, and it is for this interest that we have most to thank
In 1901, William Deering retired and in 1902 the Deering Harvester
Company was combined with McCormick Harvesting Machine Company to
form International Harvester Company.
William Deering came to Miami about 1903. He resided at 3621 Main
Highway where his grand-daughters still maintain a residence.
Mary Brickell's first deed to James Deering bears the date 31st day of
December 1912 -it was about 130 acres of the Polly Lewis Donation,
described by metes and bounds, and also by lot and block of a certain un-
recorded plat . "now in the possession of the grantor". There is no indi-
cation of the amount paid for the property. There were no revenue stamps
required at that time.
But Henry Talley of Miami was present on the occasion of a transfer of
deed by Mrs. Brickell in 1916 to Mr. Deering for another piece of land,
being 1200 feet, starting at what is now the north boundary of the Ricken-
backer Causeway Entrance, and extending south. The deed recites that Mrs.
Brickell, "For and in consideration of the sum of Twenty-five Thousand Dol-
lars and other valuable considerations, to her in hand paid", etc., but the
deed also carries a notation that $139.00 in Internal Revenue Stamps were
attached. This would indicate that Mr. Deering paid about $115.00 a front
foot for this property. The interesting part of Mr. Talley's connection with
this transaction, was that he called on Mrs. Brickell by invitation. Mr. Deer-
ing came in and Mrs. Brickell handed him the deed whereupon Mr. Deering
proffered a check. Mrs. Brickell, however, asked Mr. Talley to take the check.
After Mr. Deering's departure, Edith Brickell, a daughter, and Mr. Talley took
the check to the Bank of Bay Biscayne, where Mr. J. E. Lummus and Mr. James
Gilman were waiting at the door. Edith then took the check and presently
came back with a paper sack containing the money. Mrs. Brickell did not like
checks any way, and certainly did not want to keep a check overnight.
Mr. F. L. McGinnis who was Mr. Deering's secretary says that Mr.
Deering sold to his friend Winston the southerly two of the above lots at the
price he paid for them. That deed, dated 13th day of December 1919, carries
$23 in stamps indicating $115 a front foot, which verifies the preceding price.
From the beginning Mr. Deering was fussy about destroying any plants.
It is still evident that no "bull dozers" were used to "clean up". After the
boundary survey and before any plans were made for building, engineers
made a topographical survey and located every tree of over 6 inches in diam-
eter. There was no hacking through the woods with a machete to carry a line
or sight a transit. If a bush or tree was in the way, it was tied back with ropes.
Trees were located by coordinates from 100' squares bounded by cords
stretched as well as possible without disturbing the trees and bushes. Mr.
Deering even required that mules employed throughout the grounds be muz-
zled to prevent browsing on leaves as they passed.
As a final tribute to Mr. Deering's order not to cut a tree, the gate to the
residence was located and a tree just had to be cut. It was a large tree. Mr.
Chalfin, the architect, assembled a crew to wait until Mr. Deering left for
the night. Then the tree was cut down, (it was too large to move) and taken
out root and branch. The hole was filled and the place covered with leaves
so that no sign was left of the depredation.
The Hammock did not quite reach Miami Avenue after passing the gate-
ways. Many oaks were planted to give the effect of continuing woods around
the entrance and this plaza and quite a large area east of Miami Avenue had
to be planted to complete the present Hammock.
Miami Avenue had not been opened beyond Broadway (15th Street).
One crossed the River on the turning Miami Avenue Bridge, then turned east
to Brickell Avenue. There, barely wide enough for one Model "T", was a
tunnel through the hammock on the site of the east lane of present Brickell
Avenue. This track through the woods in 1912 extended through the present
Vizcaya grounds, on the location of the lagoon which one sees between Miami
Avenue and the house. The road continued south and came out to the present
Bayshore Drive at the south entrance to Mercy Hospital and thence under the
"bluff" to Coconut Grove.
This road was closed by agreement with the County Commissioners when
Mr. Deering dedicated and built Miami Avenue between his walls as you now
The dwelling was finished late in 1916. Mr. Deering was of rather a
retiring nature. In many conversations, persons who knew Mr. Deering in
his home, without direct questioning have expressed themselves as wanting it
recorded that Mr. Deering was not of "wild" habits, that he had no "wild"
parties, and that the reports that he did were pure gossip and do him a grave
Although the dwelling was finished by Christmas 1916, the gardens and
the southern part of the property were not completed until some years later.
All work ceased in April 1917 because of the war and very little was done
until the early part of 1919.
Joseph J. Orr, a building contractor of Miami, was engaged on the con-
struction of Vizcaya. Joe was a plaster's apprentice in 1913, and worked with
his brother, John B. Orr, on the plastering and stucco work. The firm of John
B. Orr, Inc., was the only contracting organization to serve from the inception
of the work until completion. Joe Orr's first assignment was to work on the
construction of the concrete and stucco wall which still surrounds the property.
Mr. Orr says that the mechanics working on the fence wall, having been
schooled in strict mechanical discipline, were using the finest of engineers'
levels and other modern tools to do a perfect job. Mr. Paul Chalfin, the
architect designer, upon observing the methods being used by a group of
workmen, ordered the modern tools discarded, his idea being that the results
would much better simulate the work of artisans who belonged to that archi-
tectural period upon which the planning and designing of the Deering Estate
Mr. Orr says: "It was necessary to recruit artisans from all over the
United States. Eventually, we had working on the job, (and I must say har-
moniously) Americans, Scotch, English, Irish, Italians, French, Germans,
Spanish, natives of British West Indies in fact, from practically every
nation under the sun. We had athletic clubs, soccer football teams, cricket
and basketball teams, and many other social activities. Needless to say, Mr.
Deering took a great interest in all of these programs, and, in many cases,
Roger L. Sullivan, now of the Insurance Department of the State of
New York, writes that he was employed in New York by the electrical engin-
eers when he was 19. He came to Miami on the Clyde Line. His first-class
fare for the three-day trip including meals was $24.75. He got a room at
the Lenox Hotel on 10th Street near Avenue "C" (near Gesu Church). Mrs.
Sturgis, the landlady, gave him a room and three meals a day for $7.00 a
week. One of the meals was a lunch packed for him to take to the job.
Mr. Sullivan rode to work with Eddie DeBrauwere, a plasterer, who had
a Model "T". The fare was 10c each way. He had so many customers, Mr.
Sullivan says, that it became necessary to reinforce the fenders and running
boards so that the riders could stand, sit or hang on. It is also remembered
by many that there were hundreds of bicycles belonging to the workmen on
the grounds each day. Mr. Sullivan also remembers that he worked alongside
Dan Moody, who afterwards became Governor of Texas. Mr. Sullivan makes
a significant remark. He recalls that "Moody spent his spare time in study."
ADAM G. ADAMS 39
Thus from almost an entirely different world, comes to the people of
Dade County, this property, the dream of a rich man of taste. His dream is
executed in the grand manner, spacious, beautiful and inspiring. One may
easily assume that Mr. Deering had in mind that the day would come when
the public, the people, would have full enjoyment of these grandeurs. In
no other way than through Mr. Deering's great fortune, and industry in
artistic pursuits, and through the generosity of his heirs, could the people of
Dade County have Vizcaya.
There are many persons living in Miami now who were employed in
the construction of Vizcaya. Among them is the Chairman of the Dade County
Commission, Mr. I. Douglas MacVicar. Mr. MacVicar, the Historical Asso-
ciation of Southern Florida takes great pleasure in dedicating this plaque and
now commends it to your care.
This Page Blank in Original
Florida Keys: English or Spanish in 1765?
By CHARLES W. ARNADE
For the first time since the lands of Florida had been brought under the
Spanish banner by Ponce de Le6n in 1513, the soldiers of the great King
had to bring down Spain's flag in 1763 and depart from La Florida. On
July 20, 1763 the troops of the King of England took possession of their
victorious spoils of the late war with their archenemy, Catholic Spain. Florida
had become English. Captain Hedges (or Hodges) with his Royal Scots led
the vanguard of the English forces to East Florida. But Hedges soon was
recalled from St. Augustine and a new commander for East Florida, by the
name of Francis Ogilvie, took his place. For nearly one year Major Ogilvie
was the "virtual governor'" of East Florida. Apparently this English officer
was not a too pleasant man and the retiring Spanish commander was somewhat
annoyed at Ogilvie and thought that Hedges had behaved more properly.-
The Spaniards who had remained at St. Augustine after the English arrival
hoped that Ogilvie would soon be replaced. Yet the over-all English com-
mander in North America, General Thomas Gage, had seemingly no real
complaints about Major Ogilvie, and John Stuart, superintendent of Indian
affairs, thought that his "conduct had been extremely proper and not
The shift from Spanish to English hands, although it proved to be an
amiable one, could not pass without some minor problems. The Spaniards
had little love for the English, both because they were citizens of a rival
sea-going nation, and because the English had scorned the sacred Catholic
religion. In the peace treaty England promised to respect the free exercise
of the Catholic cult by those Spaniards who wished to remain in Florida.
Yet naturally the Catholic hierarchy behind the scenes did everything in its
power to persuade all citizens to leave Florida because those who remained
would be "exposed to the errors of the various sects which will probably be
introduced there by the new owners of that country."4 Therefore almost all
the Spaniards left St. Augustine for Havana. The great exodus began on
April 12, 1763 and lasted until January 23 of the following year.5 On Jan-
uary 21 the last Spanish governor of Florida, Melchor Felid, and his admin-
istrative staff departed from St. Augustine. England was now the complete
owner of this great province.
But there remained some problems which needed further negotiations
between these two powers. Most of the Spanish inhabitants had held land
and property. Much had been disposed of during the evacuation, yet other
property had not found buyers. When the last Spanish contingents departed
in the week of January 21, 1764, its members voted that seven Spanish army
officials and one woman, plus their translator, Joseph Del Olmo, should stay
behind and take custody of the undisposed Spanish property until a suitable
arrangement had been settled with the English."
On May 7, 1764 a Spanish agent by the name of Juan Joseph Elixio de la
Puente returned to St. Augustine to negotiate a definite agreement about the
remaining Spanish property.7 Sefior Elixio was a native Floridian, therefore
in the Spanish sociological terms, a criollo. He had been a member of the
complex Spanish bureaucracy at St. Augustine and held the title of Oficial
Mayor de ta Real Contaduria-, which could be translated as Chief Official of
the Royal Accountancy. He had apparently departed for Havana with Gov-
ernor Feliui on January 21. Elixio was an illustrious man and this author
believes that this criollo from Florida was one more figure of the great period
of enlightenment that extended to the whole Spanish empire by the end of
the eighteenth century. If Florida, truly a poor colony compared to the other
lands of Spain, shared the enlightenment, it was in the person of the little
known Juan Joseph Elixio de la Puente. He was a nationalist, and according
to Mark F. Boyd and Jose Navarro Latorre, well versed in all phases of Span-
ish Florida and "a prominent advocate of the recovery of the lost province."
This can be confirmed by the translated memorandum of Elixio which con-
stitutes the basis of this essay. Dr. Boyd, who is thoroughly interested in
this versatile figure believes that Elixio was "the most outstanding Creole
produced in Florida and it is probable that Spanish participation in the war
[of Independence] against England came through the weight of his argu-
ments."1o Elixio knew Florida thoroughly and furthermore he was well
acquainted with its Indians who respected him with reverence. It was this
charming, cunning and apparently highly cultured man who had to share
the negotiation table with the rough English soldier, Ogilvie.
As soon as Elixio reached St. Augustine he presented his credentials to
Governor Ogilvie. But to the surprise of the Spanish commissioner the
English major insisted on knowing if Elixio had come from Havana via the
Keys, or Cayos in Spanish. Elixio, well versed in diplomatic subtleties, of
CHARLES W. ARNADE
which the Spaniards were especially fond, showed complete ignorance and
stated that he had no knowledge of the Cayos. Elixio wrote to the governor of
Havana later, "I answered [Ogilvie] without delay, saying that I did not know
what the said Keys were, for I had never heard mention of them, nor even
imagined that any existed, for being a native of this country and being well
acquainted with the jurisdiction of its territory, it was necessary that I would
have information concerning them."11
Naturally Elixio was lying. The Spaniards knew the Keys; since this
commissioner was the best Spanish authority on Florida, well known among
its Indians, he probably knew the Keys better than anyone else. At one time
or another he had been on these islands. But Elixio in his negotiations was
only engaging in the art of crafty diplomacy. When Ogilvie heard that the
Spanish commissioner professed even not to know the Keys, he became quite
upset. In unpolished words, quite in contrast to the refined manner of the
Spaniards, he told Elixio that the Keys lay between the island of Cuba and
the southern tip of the peninsula of Florida and formed the eastern shores
of the Bahama Channel. Elixio listened politely, and when the English gov-
ernor had finished his explanation the Spaniard pulled out his trump card.
Well, naturally he had heard of these islands, who had not? But these were
not the Keys or Cayos for he knew them as Martires or Norte de Havana and
they belonged, and had always belonged, toj the captaincy-general of Cuba.
Elixio said that he was sorry that the English governor was so misinformed
about them and thought that they were part of Florida. And since under the
peace treaty of 1763 Cuba was recognized as Spanish territory, the Martires
belonged unquestionably to Spain.12 An international incident was again in
the making. Did these islands, known to us as the Keys, belong to Florida or
Cuba? At least at the bargaining table Elixio thought he had made a shrewd
move and outwitted Ogilvie.
Now two men, indeed insignificant in the hierarchy of their countries'
bureaucracies had suddenly lifted these islands out of oblivion and made them
part of a great international rivalry of the century. Had Ogilvie acted under
instructions or on his own? This author has found no documentary evidence
that the English acting governor was instructed to bring up this issue. In a
letter from Ogilvie to General Gage dated May 13, six days after the arrival
of Elixio in St. Augustine, Ogilvie did not mention one single word about
Elixio's presence or his dispute with this Spanish commissioner."3 Yet it is
quite possible that Ogilvie acted under instructions, and maybe a document
that proves this assumption rests in some archive.
The Keys, Cayos, Martires, or Norte de Havana were not unknown. As
a matter of fact the visit of Ponce de Le6n to these islands is well cited, and
it was he who gave them the name Martires, which means Martyrs.14 As the
lands of southern Florida were hardly civilized by their Spanish masters, so
the Cayos were abandoned and remained an unintegrated territory at the
mercy of its wild inhabitants, pirates, buccaneers, hunters, beachcombers
and survivors of the many shipwrecks of the channel. On the islands lived
uncivilized Indians, either Calusas or Tequestas. Elixio called them Costas,1'
which Swanton identifies as Ais.1o The Cayanos, or inhabitants of the Keys,
are well studied, even in view of the scarcity of material available, by John
M. Goggin.'" These Indians of the Cayos had come to the islands in order
to escape the pressure of the oncoming Creeks, to whom Elixio refers as
Uchizes."l And as stated by some historians, the immigrant Indians of the
Keys were again defeated by the Creeks and their remnants, a very small
number, escaped to Havana.- Little exact data is known about this last
defeat and sad exodus by the surviving Costas. The commissioner Elixio, in
his report of the Keys which is published in this essay, gives us somewhat
more precise information when he writes, "At the end of 1761, by virtue of
the Uchizes Indians having persecuted the said Costas and having destroyed
their towns, so they found it necessary to live in the said Cayo Hueso, the
Costas resolved to abandon that place and retire to this city [Havana], where
most of them have perished because of their hunger and their misery."2'
Indeed these islands were rough, and rough was survival for their persecuted
inhabitants. Nature's wonders of sea, land and sky, with all the potential
of prodigious greatness and immense miseries were at their summit in the
Martyrs islands. Men had to fight against men and against nature. The
Spanish banner and the Spanish cross were hardly noticeable in the Cayos.
Was Ogilvie right in saying that the Keys belonged to Florida, as indeed
we accept today without ever thinking that at one time this fact was in dispute,
or was commissioner Elixio telling the truth when he insisted that the Keys
had always been a part of Cuba? The rich records in the photostat collection
of the University of Florida, which are copies from the Indian Archive in
Seville, Spain, do not give any conclusive answer. There is practically
nothing about the Cayos as they rested in oblivion and an occasion never
arose that brought the exact jurisdiction of the Keys under discussion. Yet
in Seville is an interesting report by some missionaries who had visited the
Keys, dated in Havana, September 28, 1743. The report is written by the
missionaries to the governor of Cuba, rather than to the governor of Florida,
CHARLES W. ARNADE
which would indicate that these islands were strictly under the jurisdiction of
Havana and would therefore justify Elixio's claim. But the memorandum is
titled "Testimony . about the . Indians of the Cayos of Florida
. ."2, whereby one could deduce that these islands were recognized as ter-
ritory belonging to Florida. Therefore it is practically impossible to solve
the problem, and both Elixio and Ogilvie, if they so desired, could have
searched in archives and probably found material to support their cases.
The Keys was one more territory in the great Spanish empire with a variable
jurisdiction which unfortunately later resulted in so many Latin American
nations having continual disputes with their neighbors. More than one war
was fought by these nations over undetermined colonial boundaries. For-
tunately the matter of the Keys was only a minor incident which soon was
Was Elixio right when he categorically stated that the peace treaty of
1763 exempted the Keys from English occupation? This treaty was wide in
scope and European problems were the main concern of the two rival nations.
Florida, not even a prize colony to Spain, was a relatively unimportant land.
As the English army had taken Havana and therefore, for all practical pur-
poses, Cuba, Spain was only too happy to exchange the peninsula for the
more valued island. If the Spanish commissioner's assertion was correct,
then one would have to say that England really should have ceded the Keys
to Spain, as article nineteen of the peace treaty reads that the "King of
Great Britain shall restore to Spain . the island of Cuba." Article twenty
says that Spain will give England Florida.2*
But the treaty did not state the boundaries of the province of Florida
or what were the shores of the island of Cuba. In the preliminary articles
signed between the two contending powers on November 3, 1762 in Fontaine-
bleau, the matter of the evacuation of Florida by Spain was stipulated in
article nineteen, which simply reads that Spain "cedes to Great Britain all
territories in North America east and southeast of the Mississippi."-3 This
was certainly no clear elaboration of boundaries. In the final treaty which
was signed in Paris on February 10, 1783, the Florida case was spelled out in
article twenty, which says that "his Catholic majesty cedes and guaranties, in
full right, to his Britannick majesty, Florida with the fort of St. Augustine,
and the bay of Pensacola, as well as all that Spain possesses on the contin-
ent of North America to the east, or southeast, of the river Mississippi. And
in general, everything that depends on the said countries and lands."2* Even
if one gives careful consideration to this article one could hardly determine
if the Keys were meant to be part of England's share.
Although Elixio had used a shrewd political technique, adequate for the
negotiating table, there was nothing he could do to stop the English governor
from occupying the Keys, and Elixio knew this very well. Therefore, as
Ogilvie wanted to pursue the matter further, the Spanish commissioner simply
informed the English governor that he had come to St. Augustine not to talk
about the Keys but rather to settle the matter of Spanish property that belonged
to Spain's evacuated citizens. Elixio, in his report to the governor in Havana
wrote that he then "considered it proper to keep still, saying finally that I
desired nothing more than to please him [Ogilvie] and that what had occurred
he should consider as conversation, since these were matters that pertain
only to the cortes for their defense and definition."a5 This terminated the
incident of the Keys, except that Elixio became more aware that those islands
were quite important. He was now determined to make a study of them, hop-
ing to convince the Spanish authorities of their strategic position. The English
authorities in St. Augustine under Ogilvie and later under Governor Grant
took the necessary steps to assure safe control of the Keys. Grant, on April
26, 1766, wrote to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations2e of
"the advantage which would attend the having a post or settlement at Key
West."2 Lord Shelbourne was well in accord with the idea.28 England was
ready to do as much as possible with those far, isolated islands and make
them a part of Florida and her empire.
In the meanwhile commissioner Elixio had returned to Havana and one
of the first things he did was to send the governor of Cuba a memorandum
about the Cayos, stating their advantages to Spain. As the report of Elixio is
an interesting document for the history of the Keys it is hereby translated
and reproduced in its totality. It proves Elixio's interest, preparation and
thorough nationalism. This royal official, with a minor position, was a
powerful advisor behind the scenes. To him the Keys were Spanish and
Spanish they had to remain. About the Keys he wrote:
[Fol. 9] Instruction of the composition and boundaries of the Martyrs
Cayos, or by their other name North of Havana, to whose captaincy-
general their jurisdiction and control must belong, according to the
enclosed paper, no. 1. [This tells] what took place with the provisional
English governor of the presidio of Saint Augustine de la Florida, Don
Francisco Ogelvie [sic] (when I went there recently by order of His
Excellency Count of Ricla, to expedite the sales of the launches, piraguas,
CHARLES W. ARNADE
timber, and other materials belonging to His Majesty [such as] churches,
houses and [also other] property of the Spanish inhabitants who came
from there). I also obtained information, which I will tell, from a
vessel which came to this port from that of the said Florida, on February
23 of the present year. It went to the aforesaid keys by order of the
proprietary governor, Colonel Diego Grant, with the commission set
forth in the enclosed copy no. 2, given to the captain of the aforesaid
vessel, Benjamin Barton. From this [order it appears] that the court in
London is claiming or has already ordered possession of them [the
Keys], which it can under no pretext or reason claim lawfully. I base
myself on the following reasons:
The said Martyrs Cayos or Cayos of the North have never been
included in the jurisdiction of command of the captaincy-general of
Florida, for the boundaries of the latter only reached on the south the
place named Voca de Ratones, which is the end of the mainland of those
provinces, which I understand our court has ceded to England. This is
in accordance with the transfer which Governor Don Melchor Felid made
of the aforesaid provinces [Florida] in my presence to the person com-
missioned to receive them on the part of England, namely Don Juan
Two leagues away from the above mentioned Voca de Ratones is
Cayo Viscayno, which is the first Key to the north of the Martyrs. Going
thence south and west, one comes to that of Hueso which is the last
one, among them being included Cayo Largo, Matacumbe el Viexo, el
Moso, Cayo de Bacas, and Baya Honda. Besides there are many Cayuelos
[little keys], which extend for forty leagues.
In Cayo Largo, which covers 14 leagues, no farm land is found, as
the Cayo is liable to floods. But there is plenty of acana wood, mahog-
any, and other kinds of trees which this island produces, but no cedars.
Cayo Viscayno, Cayo Bacas and Cayo Hueso, the first being two
leagues long, the second, six, and the third, four, have some land fit for
cultivation, together with fresh water, and they never suffer inundations
by the sea.
[Fol. 10] Cayo de Bacas runs north and south at a distance of
twenty-five leagues from the port of Matazanas [Cuba], and Cayo Hueso
a like number of leagues from the latter. Both have excellently sheltered
anchorages with good foundations for frigates carrying forty cannons
as does also Baya Honda.
All mentioned Keys were always inhabited by the Costas Indians,
who were considered faithful subjects of the King our master, from the
time of the [islands'] discovery. Without doubt they so proved it at
all times since they admitted into their towns Spaniards and maintained
their friendship. They had friendly relations with this city [Havana]
whence they are provided with their necessities.
At the end of 1761, by virtue of the Uchises Indians having perse-
cuted the said Costas and having destroyed their towns, so they found
it necessary to live in the said Cayo Hueso, the Costas resolved to aban-
don that place and retire to this city [Havana], where most of them
have perished because of the severity of their hunger and their misery.
The few Costas who are left are in various districts of this island and in
those keys which have none of their old-time natives, and really have
been almost inhabited from that time up to the present by the English
of Providence who are the ones who have profited by their' timber and
their turtle fishing.
During the winter various small Spanish vessels also go to catch
fish and turtles, as this region abounds in them, and whence the city is
provided during Lent. This has been proven this year when ten or twelve
boats came laden with one or the other, and with which the inhabitants,
troops, and engineers of the royal fortifications were entirely provided.
According to my information, it was the sovereign intention in former
years that the aforesaid Costas should be favored by this captaincy-
general [Cuba] until a garrison and missionaries were placed among
them to teach them the doctrine and administer the Holy Sacraments to
them. From this it came about that two fathers of the Society of Jesus
went there for the aforesaid purpose. [They went] only on one occa-
sion and I do not know why they were hastily withdrawn.
[Fol. 11] What is apparent to me, and I speak with sufficient
experience, is that if firearms, powder and munitions had been supplied
to them [the Costas], with which to defend themselves, I am convinced
they would have immediately fought the Uchizes and would still be
living in the Keys. Even if they were again settled on them they would
appreciate greatly [the arms] because the Uchizes, confident that [the
Costas] were coming unarmed, would decide to fight them in small
canoes [with the intention of] seizing and killing them. I am convinced
of this since on February 28, 1762, when making a voyage to this city
CHARLES W. ARNADE
I was attacked by them [the Uchizes], in the very Cayo Hueso. Only
after having talked to them and after they recognized me, they let me go
with my life as well as five other Spaniards and two servants who were
accompanying me. Only Don Francisco Escovedo perished. In all we
numbered nine persons and the band of Uchizes [were] forty-eight.
The advantages and losses that can result to our crown, if the said
Keys are inhabited by their natives or the English can well be considered
from what has been said, but in order to give better information concern-
ing the second [the English] I shall state them as follows:
First. If Cayo Bacas and Cayo Hueso were settled by the English,
as they have made up their minds to do, they will station armed frigates
there in case of war, sufficient enough, in their estimation, to capture
all the Spanish vessels coming down through the channel. No one can
pass the new channel or that of Bahama, which is the same, without being
seen by them, because necessarily this is the landmark [the vessels] take
in order to assure their voyage.
Second. If they succeed in attracting the Uchizes Indians to their
friendship and alliance, who are now opposed to them, they will main.
tain themselves in said Keys, and when it seems best to them, they will
transport them to this island [Cuba], where they will cause great hostil-
ities in its estates, and will always withdraw without receiving any harm,
for besides that the passage is short, as can be seen, the inhabitants
here live carelessly in the open country, and the Indians are an invisible
Third. If warehouses of goods and effects are established there,
which is their main concern, and for which I am certain since various
traders from the north already solicited them, and even have come to
investigate them, one will not be able to restrain the Spaniards from
trading illicitly with the English. If they [the English], are so near, it
will be easy to go in a short time from any port of the Gulf of Mexico
and from this city [Havana] or from the city of Matanzas [Cuba] in
one night and return the next night. This voyage can be undertaken
without any danger even by the boats of the wood cutters. Also those
boats [fol. 12], who legally go to engage in catching fish or turtles, will
be injured by the English who will deprive them of what they catch.
A serious loss will result, not only to the duties which accrue to his
Majesty from such commerce and to his subjects who make a living by
this commerce, but also to the supply of so important revenue to this
Lastly, I add that I learned for certain from the above mentioned
Benjamin Barton, captain of the aforesaid English vessel, that next sum-
mer several families or traders are to go from Bermuda to settle on the
Keys. Also [I heard] that some people from the American north,
who requested settlement on [the Keys] and who were first refused, have
just received letters from their attorneys or agents at the court of Lon-
don, advising them that they had already obtained permission, although
on condition that they were to be assessed taxes in accordance with the
will and order of the above mentioned governor of East Florida, Don
Captain Benjamin Barton also informed me that on sounding the
entrances of the ports of the Keys, he found the entrance to the port of
Hueso (distant, as I already said, twenty-five leagues in a north and
south direction from this port) five fathoms of water at the very least.
[This is] a sufficient depth for any frigate of fifty cannons to navigate.
It is to be noted that the difference in size of these boats and those which
I mentioned above passing through Cayo Bacas and Baya Honda is not
much. It is true that I never had any special order to study those [boats]
since such investigation does not pertain to my profession. [Therefore]
I have never taken the greatest care to measure the depth of the water in
all those regions [of the Keys] whenever I sailed through them.
Havana, April 12, 1766.
Juan Joseph Elixio de Ia Puente
Strangely enough, this report by Elixio was worked out with aid and
information provided by the sea captain, Benjamin Barton, from Providence
in the Bahamas. As a matter of fact, as Elixio had stated, the people of
Providence used the Keys freely to cut wood and fish for turtles. Seemingly,
previous to 1763, when the Keys were nominally under Spanish tutelage, the
boatsmen from the Bahamas had not to worry about interference from the
Spanish authorities. When, in the spring of 1764, Elixio was on his way to
see Ogilvie, he counted fourteen boats from Providence at the Keys.5, During
his dispute with Ogilvie about the Cayos in May of the same year, the Spanish
commissioner told the acting governor about the English people of Providence
having quite free access to the Keys. As Ogilvie had become angry about
CHARLES W. ARNADE
Elixio's assumption that the Keys were Spanish, so he also became incensed
with the islanders of the Bahamas for intruding upon territory of East Florida
without his permission. Ogilvie told Elixio "that the people from Providence
were certain unruly rascals, and that an order would soon have to be sent . .
to seize and punish them."'3 It is hardly possible to say whether Ogilvie was
more angry with the Spaniards or with the inhabitants of the Bahamas.
From now on the English authorities at St. Augustine were determined
not only to prevent Spanish hegemony over the Keys but also to stop the
incursions of the Bahama islanders. Yet Providence in the Bahamas was the
closest English settlement to the Keys and therefore the authorities in East
Florida had to ask the help of the authorities in Providence to guard the
Keys from Spanish threats and request them to see to it that their own sea-
going islanders would not make the Keys a free public hunting ground. It
can be assumed that the inhabitants of Providence were not enthusiastic about
these restrictions and the authorities not too well disposed to assume their
new duties. The boatsmen might have wished back the good old days when
the Keys were Spanish. Governor Grant even warned the people of Provi-
dence that if anyone would hunt and cut at the Keys, they ". . will be
prosecuted to the utmost rigor of the law, for committing such trespasses
against the Crown."sz Grant commissioned Captain Benjamin Barton from
Providence to go with the boat Dependence to the Keys and enforce the laws
of England. Barton was requested to return then to St. Augustine and give
Grant "a very particular account and description of the Keys."'3
Going to the Keys in late February of 1766 in order to comply with
Grant's order, Barton slipped to Havana for a couple of days34 where he had
an interview with Elixio and where apparently he gave the Spanish nationalist
a description of the Cayos. Elixio, who had previously visited the Keys,
probably more than once, used his and Barton's new information to write his
memorandum. That Barton had freely given information to the Spaniards
was understandable since as a citizen from Providence he was anxious to
see the Spaniards return to the Keys. It was only natural that Barton saw
Elixio because this criollo was the great propagandist and lobbyist for the
return of the Spanish flag to the lands of La Florida. Did Barton give later
the same report to Governor Grant?
The matter of the Keys simply faded into a status quo. England, by
virtue of the treaty of Paris, occupied them with the forced help of the author-
ities from the Bahamas and maybe some settlers from Bermuda. But the
boatsmen from the Bahamas tried to circumvent the new English restrictions
and kept good relations with the nearby Spaniards, hoping that the day would
return when the Spanish banner would again fly over Florida and they could
fish at their leisure again. The Spanish governor in Havana simply ignored
the assertion of the English that article twenty of the treaty of Paris gave
them the Keys, and insisted that the Cayos were under his jurisdiction. Gov-
ernor Grant complained to the home agencies that an agent of his from
Havana "assures me that the Spanish governor of the Havanah looks upon
the Keys of Florida to be the property of Spain, that as such he gives pass-
ports to vessels to go to those Keys, not as formerly under the name of
Florida Keys, but to the Northern Keys."- And truly Spanish boats from
nearby Havana and Matanzas in Cuba continued to go fishing in the Cayos
as if nothing had changed. Besides this the Spanish Crown did nothing dras-
tic to materialize Spain's claim, and most likely Elixio's concise report
gathered dust in some filing shelf. England, too, did nothing energetic to
avoid Spanish infiltration.
The Keys, Cayos, Martires, Martyrs, Norte de Havana, or Northern Keys
continued their isolated, leisurely life in the midst of nature's wonders.
Many years had yet to pass until civilization, detrimental or beneficial, would
reach their shores.
iCharles Loch Mowat, East Florida as a British Province, 1763-1784 (Berkeley and Los
Angeles, 1943), 9.
SMelchor Felii to Julian de Arriaga, Havana, April 16, 1764 in Photostat Collection of
Spanish Florida Manuscripts from the Archivo General de Indias at the P. K. Yonge
Library of Florida History, University of Florida (hereafter cited as PC-AGI), 86-6-6,
St. D. 2542, no. 43, fols. 4-5.
a John Stuart to Thomas Gage, St. Augustine, July 19, 1764, in the Gage Collection at the
William Clements Library, University of Michigan.
Archbishop De Lepante to Julian de Arriaga, Madrid, December 23, 1763, PC-AGI,
86-7-22, St. D., no. 18, fol. 6.
SWilbur H. Siebert, "The Departure of the Spaniards and Other Groups from East
Florida, 1763-1765," Florida Historical Quarterly, XIX (1940-41), 145-54.
6 "Raz6n de las families . [que] se transportaron del presidio de Sn. Augusin de la
Florida a esta ciudad . .," signed by Juan Joseph Elixio de la Puente, Havana,
February 20, 1764, PC-AGI, 86-6-6, St. D. 2542, no. 43, fol. 17.
Juan Joseph Elixio de la Puente to the Governor of Cuba, Havana, February 26, 1766,
in PC-AGI, 87-1-5, St. D. 2595, no. 2, letter no. 1, fol. 1.
"Las personas que salieron desde la Florida con motive de su entrega a Inglaterra,"
by Juan Joseph Elixio de la Puente, Havana, May 8, 1770, in PC-AGI, 87-1-5, St. D.
2595, no. 4, fol. 5.
"Spanish Interest in British Florida," Fla. Hist. Quart., XXXII (1953-54), 92.
lo Personal communication, Tallahassee, June 6, 1955.
Supra, n. 7, foL 1.
CHARLES W. ARNADE
La Loc. cit.
is Gage Collection, William Clements Library, University of Michigan.
1* Woodbury Lowery, The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of the United
States, 1513-1561 (New York, London, 1901), 141; see Memoir of Do. d'Escalente
Fontaneda respecting Florida (Miami, 1944), passim.
is "Ynstrucci6n . de los Cayos de Martires, por otro nombre del Norte de la Havana,"
signed by Juan Joseph Elixio de la Puente, Havana, April 12, 1766, in PC-AGI, 87-1-5,
St. D., no. 2, letter no. 3, passim (hereafter cited as Ynstrucci6n).
t6 John R. Swanton, The Indians of the Southeastern United States (Washington, 1948),
1i "Archaeological Investigations on the Upper Florida Keys," Tequesta, no. 4 (1944),
13-35; "The Indians and History of the Matecumb6 Region," Tequesta, no. 10 (1950),
13-241; "The Tekesta Indians in South Florida," Fla. Hist. Quart., XVIII (1940),
274-84; cf. Robert E. McNicoll, "The Caloosa Village Tequesta," Tequesta, no. 1
Is Ynstrucci6n, fol. 10.
re See Swanton, op. cit., 192; Goggin, . Matecumbn," op. cit, 20-21.
so Ynstrucci6n, fol. 10.
1 Havana, September 28, 1743, PC-AGI, 58-2-10, no. 15, 41 folks.
22 "The Definitive Treaty," The London Magazine, or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer
(March, 1763), 152.
as Tratado definitive de paz . .(Madrid, Imprenta Real de la Gaceta, 1763), 37.
24 London Magazine, op. cit., 153.
2a Supra, n. 7, fol. 2.
s6 Lords Commissioners of Trade to the Earl of Shelbourne, Whitehall, August 1, 1766,
in Transcriptions of the British Colonial Records (mimeographed by WPA), II, 611.
a7 In ibid., II, 605.
az Earl of Shelbourne to James Grant, Whitehall, December 11, 1766, in ibid., II, 623.
as Ynstrutccion, fols. 9-12.
so Supra, n. 7, fol. 1.
a3 Loc. cit.
32 James Grant to Benjamin Barton, East Florida [St. Augustine], February 4, 1766, in
Transcriptions, op. cit., II, 609; also in PC-AGI, 87-1-5, St. D. 2595, no. 2, letter no. 2,
fols. 5-6 (translation in Spanish).
a3 Loc. cit.
as Ynstruccidn, fol. 9; cf. James Grant to Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, St.
Augustine, April 26, 1766, in Transcriptions, op. cit., II, 606.
as Ibid, II, 607.
This Page Blank in Original
On Blockade Duty in Florida Waters
EXCERPTS FROM A UNION NAVAL OFFICER'S DIARY
Edited by WILLIAM J. SCHELLINGS
When the United States Gunboat "Sagamore" was commissioned on
November 23, 1861 a young Connecticut doctor, Walter Keeler Scofield, was
assigned to her as medical officer with the rank of assistant surgeon. On the
first day of this duty he began to keep a diary, or, as he called it, a daily
journal. He faithfully made entries almost daily until April 9, 1864.
During mast of that time the "Sagamore" was on blockade duty in Florida
waters. At times the gunboat was also sent on raids such as those on Tampa,
Symrna, and the salt works at St. Andrews Bay. The accounts cover two
distinct subjects. The young doctor made good use of his time to continue his
medical studies in preparation for an examination he was to take. He filled
his notebooks with comments on his studies and thereby revealed quite a bit
of the medical lore of the day. About one half of the content describes life
in a blockading squadron with numerous references to places, events and
people along the Florida coast that came under his observation.
The diary is written in long hand, mostly with pencil. It is in the form
of brief notes rather than a complete account. The short statements are
usually not punctuated, but are separated by a longer space. He evidently
intended to use the notes for a fuller account of the experiences and obser-
Dr. Scofield's account of his Florida experiences is contained in ten
small notebooks. It was until recently in possession of his son, Edward C.
Scofield of Stamford, Connecticut. Miss Mary Higgins, a retired school
teacher and a friend of Mr. Scofield, winters in Miami. Miss Higgins brought
the diary to the attention of Dr. Charlton W. Tebeau of the History Depart-
ment of the University of Miami and secured from Mr. Scofield permission
to make a copy of those portions relating to Florida. The excerpts here
printed are taken from that typescript also prepared by the editor. A copy of
the typescript is deposited in the library of the University of Miami. Mr.
Scofield also authorized the printing of any material relating to Florida. The
original notes have since been given by Mr. Scofield to the Library of Yale
University. The Yale Library has also graciously approved the use of the
material for this printing.
This, then, is not a complete reproduction of Assistant Surgeon Scofield's
notes. It consists rather of those items which refer to Florida. These selections
are printed without alteration. For the sake of clarity a dash (-) has been
inserted to indicate definite breaks that might have been marked with periods.
Deletions are indicated by the usual three periods . when they occur
within a sentence or four periods . . when they come at the end of the
sentence. Scarcely any footnotes seem necessary as all of the pertinent names
and places will be sufficiently familiar to students of Florida history.
Sunday Dec 29 . Pilot comes out 5 miles to take over reefs and
sand Banks into Key West Odd [old] Light House on screws bored in
quicksand Sunday on island ringing of bells beautiful view coco-
nut trees ships at anchor, 6 gunboats Mail yacht fr Havana with
Oranges Watched with glasses for hours at persons on island dreped
[dressed] for summer & negroes & slaves -
Monday Dec 30. Went on shore first time from "Sagamore" at coal
dock [of] Capt. Giger Appearance of town . thin, sallow men and
women, jolly fat slaves post office, Drug store, stores, Billiards, Hotel -
Teusday Dec 31. Walk all over island to Light House on shore . -
railroad 200 negroes at work Custom House by Sen. Mallory not finished
- low wide house hurricanes Verdue [verdure] astonished a North-
erner in mid-winter Afraid of gale Advice of pilot not go out in Gulf
this day . .
Jan 2d 1862. Under weigh by pilot . over sand bar 21 fathoms
(15[feet]) draw 10 feet water buoys too many prevent pilots from
making too much money. No wrecks now not make any money 1/ inhabi-
tants left town some to confed army & others to Bahama islands . .
Jany 4th 1862. Sighted Santa Rosa Island at 12 M. Immense sand banks
& brush 40 miles in length . . Light House to right of Fort McRay -
Fort Pickens to right of lighthouse which is fronted by a land battery. Stars
and Stripes on Fort Pickens Fort Barrancas opposite Billy Welson's
Zouaves encampment on Santa Rosa ....
Friday Jan'y 10th 1862. Made land at 10 A. M. Cape St Bias & light-
house thereon reached the blockading vessels in sight at 12M. .
intention of going next day up the bay. . 15 ft or more of water and
several thousand bales of cotton at Apalachicola Plenty of oysters and
game farther up the bay . .
Thursday Jan 16/62. . Mr Fales & Lt Bigelow went ashore on the
island near the planter's or the pilot's house . not a sign of a human
WILLIAM I. SCHELLINGS
Friday Jan 17/62. Went a mile and a half farther up the harbor oppo-
site the planter's house . Rebel steamers (two) seen in the distance by
the black smoke also two sails probably small sloops on the lookout The
"Sagamore" controls three of the passages to the town of Apalachicola
the fourth pass is rather shoal water . Animals seen on St. Vincent's
island all the windows broken out of the planter's house abandoned
sand battery and earthwork . .
Saturday Jan 18/62. . . Boat ashore . 17 in all in 2d cutter
- Extensive sand beach hard near waters edge & deep soft farther up fort
made in the sand supported by wooden fence inside where several guns might
have been placed also several remains of barracks that had been burned,
probably when the enemy retreated. Also four embrasures of sand & sod
& dirt to the left . . Went thru the garden into the house & found it all
deserted apparently in great haste, water remaining in pans went up
stairs in right hand chamber & sought for books papers tools & whatever of
value- Medical stores in reception room of right side of the house -
trophies of saws nails cooking utensils & mirror Wrung a hens
neck and brought her away from the henpen The rooster escaped into
the woods in the rear it being dusk stream of water in the rear of consid-
erable length running along by the house . [Found] Letter of Captain
of 4th Regt of Volunteers of Florida . .
Saturday Jan 25/62. . Oystering in the afternoon on the bar about
two miles away from the "Sagamore" & same distance from Apalachicola.
Small sloop watching operations. Oysters plentiful Immense bed of them
.. .Got a launch load 10 or 15 bushels in three hours . .
Sunday Jan 26/62 . Dislike of officers and crew to leaving
the oyster grounds of Apalachicola & the island with its game & plenty of
fresh Beef, Veal, Mutton, fowls etc Sent to Commodore saying it was not
necessary to supply us with fresh meats from the supply ships if we only had
free permission to take-food by foraging on St. Vincents Island . .
Teusday Jan 28/62. Went farther up the channel at East Pass . .
Regret the exchange of St Vincent's island for this place. No oyster bed
found as yet ...
Saturday Feb 1/62. . Visited the Light house and the habitation
for man on poles entrance to Light House 4 feet above level of ground -
perhaps high tides prevalent The lens and lamp taken away and several
of the 16 large plate glass lights smashed . Human skeleton found
nearly perfect underneath the house . .
Teusday Feb 4/62. Ashore at crooked river mouth . deep water -
four or five feet Appearance of many deserted small negro quarters a
little back from the shore light seen on this shore two nights before . .
Thursday Feb 6/62. Chase of a rebel sloop from Apalachicola fired
two shells from the Parrott gun ... Chase continued to the anchorage ground
- . The 1st cutter went ashore on the mainland at 2 PM . Found
several small houses which were probably deserted this morning. Found a
large herd of cattle and gained knowledge of several sloops in course of con-
struction. Proposals for an expedition at 3 A M to-morrow to destroy the
sloops by fire . .
Friday Feb 7/62. Expedition of launch 1st & 2d cutters & crews to the
house destroyed a capsized boat foraged 5 or 6 bushels of good sweet
potatoes killed 3 fowls one for Cap & other two for ward room . .
Paper from Tallahassee Floridian & Sentinel dated Jan 25/62 Account
of Cedar Keys capture burning of vessels cargoes depot & capture 16 pris-
oners & Lieut Meeks Use of salt in Apalachicola . Hopes of the
Confederates the great debt of Florida . .
Saturday Feb 8/62. . The "Marion" received 3 runaway negroes &
one negress who gave information of value regarding the defenses of Apa-
lachicola Schooner "Phoenix" ready to start destined to go out of East
Pass determination to catch her . .
Monday Feb 10/62. . plenty of beef for foraging parties -
Teusday Feb 11/62. Meat proved unsavory not fattened & run wild no
chance of being in any other condition than tough . .
Saturday Feb 15/62. . large numbers of cattle deer wild turkey &c
[etc.] according to the pilot who willingly surrendered himself to the
"Mohawk" By trade a fisherman along these shores Contrabands two
in number one escaped from centre of Georgia & travelled here on foot
Monday Feb 24/62. Mr Fales & Williams ashore two miles up Crooked
River found and visited two plantations. one belongs to J G Gontz.
Captured one hive of honey and the bees also . -
Friday Feb 28/62. A number of armed men seen on the Florida shore -
light of last evening meant for a decoy. fired a shell nearly to the shore which
was answered by three rifle shots . .
Monday March 10/62. Launch 1st & 2d cutters gone on shore to try
the effects of the howitzer upon the houses 1st time firing no effect -
second time made several holes with canister -
WILLIAM I. SCHELLINGS
Teusday March 11/62. Launch 1st & 2d cutters on an expedition. Went
14 miles towards Apalachicola, within about a mile of the town during a
fog in hopes of securing a schooner. The fog lifted showing the town of
Apalachicola and four steamers, two of them having steam up ready for
chase probably Saw light House at West Pass also St George's island -
Quickly put about when the situation was discovered. Only trophies obtained
was a steer and several bushels of oysters . .
Monday Mch 31. . Had three contrabands on board who made their
escape down Apalachicola river 150 miles in a small boat. They report the
evacuation of the town consequent upon our reconnoitring expedition two
weeks since. Vertification by the negroes that a trap was laid for us by the
rebels kindling a fire on the Florida shore opposite the anchorage of the
"Sagamore" hoping to catch some of our boats on shore Their great
fright of our shells when exploding near them Apalachicolians have fled
up to Richo's bluff 90 miles up the river, taking all their effects . .
Wednesday Apr 2/62. . .Preparations for a night expedition up the
Apalachicola river, composed of the "Sagamore's" launch and two cutters,
also the "Mercidita's" launch and two cutters Signal for starting at
9 P M . . Stillness reigns aboard the "Sag" -
Thursday Apr 3/62. Departure of Capt Drake & Commander Steelwagon
to take possession of Apalachicola in the two gigs Hoist the Stars and
Stripes and demand an unconditional surrender . arrival of one
sloop in charge of Mast. mate of "Mercidita" No people at town
excepting a few slaves Several more sloops & schooners supposed to be
coming No steamer within fourteen miles of the mouth of the river . .
Friday Apr 4/62. . Capture of several vessels brought one
schooner down with forty bales of cotton ... .Burnt four vessels schooners
sloops after many ineffectual attempts to get them out of the river . .
Consternation of the inhabitants steam mill whistle large town wide
streets stores warehouses . .
Wednesday Apr 16/62. Expedition launch & 1st cutter up to Eastern
plantation & found it a mere sham a few negro huts Found the six
hives of honey at Ghent's plantation removed and the following inscription
written upon the door of the house with a coal. "I hope to God you will get
yanked for Trespassing on an honest man's property" Then just below was
written "The battle is not always to the strong nor the race to the swift"-
Found four bales of cotton floated up on shore worth 100 dollars each . .
Wednesday Apr 23/62. . Expedition on shore at 9 P M to discover
the meaning of a light on shore Found the fire a mile back from the shore
after wading thru swamps and moras[s] nearly up to the neck Found a
man named "Yenks" [Jenks ?] a Swiss by birth and his son Rufus nine
years of age Williams . aimed a pistol at his head . and requested
his presence on board the "Sagamore" He told a long story of the times
about his part of the country Owns 300 cattle and the plantation opposite
our anchorage. Explanation of fire to be to call his cattle together by
making new pasture to spring up on the burnt spaces. The father & son slept
on the berth deck during the night Our movements watched by men on
Thursday Apr 24/62. Father & son returned ashore at 51/2 A M today.
Promises to be down next Thursday and bring some papers . .
Teusday Apr 29/62. Two boats after a sloop of 17 tons ashore four
miles up the bay. . Trapped five men and a boy by getting between them
and their boat on St George's Island-a portuguese Italian and Irishmen -
guarded in expression of their sentiments Election at Apalachicola next
Monday Let them go again Thousands of pigs and one bear on St
George's Island . .
Sunday May 4/61 . . Arrival of two men one woman and her
five small children from Apalachicola Received permission to proceed up
Crooked River in search of a doctor as the woman needed one. No Physician
at present in Apalachicola Great destitution prevails in that town. Inhab-
itants live on oysters and fish. No accommodations on board the "Sagamore"
for the woman First sight of a woman since the first of January ..
No guns, ammunition or cotton in the wharhouses. [warehouses] . .
May 6/62. . Desertion to the enemy of Leonard an Englishman
and a disrated boatswains mate of the "Sagamore". Took a revolver with six
charges but no sustenance. Wretched exchange of the good rations and ease
of ship life for ekeing out a living among the rebels- . Living on
mainland infested with mosquitos vermin reptiles &c. Homeless and starving
course before him now. . May be taken as a spy by the rebels as he is
dressed in sailor's clothing.
Wednesday May 7/62. . Remarkably genial salubrity of the Florida
climate. 2d cutter Mr Fales ashore at Cat Point Found David Leonard
waiting for the boat at Yents [?] plantation. He was soaked in mud in water
as if wading through quagmire trying to desert. . Communications with
WILLIAM I. SCHELLINGS
Italian refugees at Cat Point Some say a sufficiency to eat and some say
not Eat pickled oysters no salted fish because no trade and salt is $5.00
by the bushel. Two refugees came . to get permission to proceed up
Crooked river after something to eat Condemns the secession ordinance
in toto. Reports also that New Orleans is taken and a great fight has taken
place in Virginia. . .
Monday May 19/62. Five months out of Boston. Made four mince pies-
.. Party ashore cleaning out the Light keeper's house for a smoking and
lounging saloon Expedients of unemployed minds and bodies to kill
Teusday May 20/62. 2nd cutter ashore . with a crew of men, prob-
ably ten men Went inside Crooked river and Mr Lewis fired at a duck
when in an instant a whole volley from a company of rebels in ambush was
fired at our men in the boat. The bullets whistled by the heads and bodies
of every man the officers and four of the men jumped swum to the opposite
side of the river and run for the woods, the balls all the time whistling
around them. Six of the crew remained by the boat but jumped out and
seizing the boat by the keel swum out with the cutter being protected by
cutter's sides from the balls of the enemy The rebels cursed our men
calling them yankees &c -- Cutter came off with six men in rowing as fast
as they were able to with the flag union down. Our 1st cutter was sent to aid
them and launch also, found all the lost ones on shore -the "Sagamore"
fired constant volleys of shot and shell from her armament. Eben Ames . .
was shot through the arm. . A sail appeared at the mouth of Crooked
river and was fired at by our cannon. It proved to be the sloop with the two
Italians who were on board a short time since- . They had Barret
Gunners mate lying on his back in the sloop shot thru the lower third of
the thigh. . Mr Fleming received a ball through the seat of his pants
between his legs without injuring him . .
Thursday June 5th/62. . Left the inner anchorage at daylight.
Rusticating at Light House and in the Light keeper's house Written account
of the Crooked river affair to Jennie Caught only a hundred mullet -
Friday June 6/62. . Arrival of the Portuguese with his sister-in-law
and her three children from Crooked river they report the rebels preparing
two iron clad gunboats to come down and attack us some dark night. . .
Iron on side of the two steamers reported to be two inches in thickness -
Gave the fugitives tea, sugar, cakes and ship's bread to take to Apalachicola
with them . . The Portuguese had been in Tallahassee jail for a week
or two. The rebels threaten to hang the friendly Portuguese who brought the
wounded man Barrett off to the ship on the 20th of May last, if they can
catch him . .
Monday June 9/62. . sighted the "Connecticutt" on her homeward
trip. . Sent off twenty bales of cotton care of McBride to be sold in New
York . .- We are to proceed to Key West as soon as the "Young Rover"
is supplied with coal. . .
Thursday June 12/62. . About 50 steamers schooners and prizes in
this port. . [Key West]
June 16/62. . Went ashore at 3 P M for a stroll till six . No
fruit on island after June 20 . Long walk No pilot permitted after
June 15 without a license.
June 21/62. . . Diarrhoea cured among us by Key West rain water -
June 27/62. Off Havana at 7 A M Watching the ships coming out of
the harbor. Boarded two American vessels and one Spanish schooner from
whom was learned that no Confederate flag was flying in Havana. . .
Started at about 9 A M for Tampa via Tortugas. . .
June 29/62. Arrived at Egmont Key . Went ashore with Drs Lewis
and Flint to see a girl six years of age with dysentery at the Light Keeper's
house. . Not very encouraging prospect. Alligator five feet in length
tied by neck to a tree. . .
June 30/62. Under way at 5 A M to run 20 miles from Egmont Key to
town of Tampa. . proceeded to three miles or less of the town. Departure
of a flag of truce Unconditional surrender to be demanded of the
citizens. Men to be seen occasionally at the town. Returning the 2d cutter
threw up one oar as a signal the rebels would not surrender Lieut Bigelow
raising his hat, 'Good day sir' to officer in rebel boat . no reply by the
rebels Lieut Bigelow 'I am sent by the Commander of the "Sagamore" and
"Ethan Allan" to demand surrender of town unconditionally and all the
ammunition' Rebel replied "Have you any written communication We
have no such thing in the book as surrender", and turned away for the shore.
They were given time to leave the town until 6 P M when the "Sagamore"
opened on the town with the 11 inch and the rifle. After the third shot from
us they replied from one of their three batteries firing solid shot which fell
short two hundred yards or more. Fired twenty shots this P M. They fired
nineteen shots from three guns They are believed to have seven or more
cannon. Firing stopped on both sides at sunset. .
WILLIAM J. SCHELLINGS
July 1st 1862. Steamed in two hundred yards nearer and opened fire from
the Parrott and the XI inch Fired every fifteen minutes for two hours and
rapid firing after until twenty shots were fired in all. Charges worth from
$10 to $15 each One went in the fort one or two away back in the woods,
most of them falling short. No reply elicited from the battery silenced. ...
Stopped before 12 M. Made preparations to return when a large new seces-
sion flag was hoisted which was aggravating. Fired four shots at that one
of which went in the rear we know not where as it did not explode as the
others did, and threw up no dirt. Sketch of Tampa. Pretty, quiet place . .
July 7th 1862. Musquitos very thick great pests ...
July 8/62. . Excursion ashore to helpless refugees, half starving -
. . Return of Mr Fales from Coos' house up Manatee river, two quarts
honey and some milk. . Taking refugees to Key West proposed by Act.
July 11/62. . Boat decoyed ashore between here and Cedar Keys,
officer shot and three men killed. 50 men at Tampa when we bombarded,
now there are 200. . .
July 14, 1862. . Arrival of "Rhode Island" at 5 P M . No stores
to be had-. .. Received a small mail from headquarters at Pensacola -
some of the men received letters dated February . .
July 16/62. Gophers five in number brought on board by the negroes
for gopher soup . . Sent for by the negroes to go ashore and "see dem
women. Some of dem am sick." Sometime today. . Went ashore at 4
P M . View from top of light house extensive Men on shore setting
out green potato tops near light house expecting them to sprout & grow.
Dread of Negroes and white refugees of an attack by the rebels. Return of the
boat that started for Point Harrison saying that rebels were concealed &
watching us on Mullet Key . .
July 17/62. White refugee came on board at 3 A M saying they thought
a force of rebels was watching them. Sent 2d cutter ashore immediately with
an armed crew but finding nothing they proceeded to find the launch and
both boats went up to Koon's plantation near Point Harrison Arrived at
2 P M today finding nothing brought us a watermelon and 2 qts. Milk. ...
July 28/62. Musquitos last night were excessively troublesome, oblig-
ing most of us to go without sleep during the night-Supposed to have been
brought off by the bathers last evening . Contrabands came off with fish
and to get stores for the week, supplied by the government. All hands turned
out of berths by misquitos & slept on deck -Breeze sprung up at 2 A M and
stiffened the limbs of the sleepers, forcing them to go below.
July 30th/62. Misquitos abundant. Arrival of Mr Clay from the main-
land. 3 gophers & nothing else.
Friday August 1st 1862. Contrabands six in number arrived this morn-
ing in the boat that "Charles" went to the mainland with, having gone there
to forage Got 200 Ibs sugar but no fruit or provisions &c . . schooner
ran the blockade night before last laden with sugar bound to Nassau. Arrival
of a schooner from Key West to take all the white folks on Egmont Key to
Key West. Charted [chartered] by the husbands at Key West who are work-
ing on the coal depot. . .
Saturday August 2d. Contrabands off with fish White refugees brought
beef fresh and sweet potatoes from the mainland. Arrival of the "Tahoma"
bringing us a large mail and come to relieve us . .
Aug. 3d. .. White refugee "Clay" off this morning for pay for beef,
though he is furnished with a ration or a part of it. . .
Aug 18/62. [St Andrews Bay] . 2 male 2 female & one child contra-
band came off to us this morning in a boat they had stolen at St Andrews.
Their owners came down this P M to claim them under a flag of truce but did
not succeed. Tent built for the contrabands on Hurricane Island More
contrabands in the woods on their way to us. Rebel salt works in full opera-
tion. . .
August 19th, 1862. Rec'd Tuscaloosa Ala. papers of July 20th with
report of commencement of bombardment of Tampa. White man, Mr White
came down to communicate with Mast. Mate Moore. ...
August 20/62 ... Mrs King came on board after one of her slaves
but did not get him. Professes to be union now but threatened to boil the
Yankees in the salt kettle a few days ago . .
Aug 22/62. . Shipped "Jack" and "Ananias" 2 contrabands in the
naval service . .
Aug 26/62. Expedition to within three miles of St Andrews
alarmed the citizens of that town Saw the large salt works.
Sept 4/62. Laying outside all day Quiet contrabands troublesome
mess arrangements -
WILLIAM I. SCHELLINGS
Sept 11/62. Started at 7 A M for St Andrews arrived there at 9:30
A.M. Sent a flag of truce ashore to say to the authorities -"We mean to
destroy all your salt works but will not enter your homes or molest any other
property." Work of demolishing kettles commenced at 10 A.M. Launch
with the howitzer 2d cutter 1st cutter and gig ashore Rebounding of the
sledge hammers in the attempts to destroy the kettles of cast iron turned upside
down. . Salt nicely crystallized in cubical crystals. Destroyed 30 salt
kettles during the day. Insulting remarks of some of the secesh bystanders.
Went up into East Bay and anchored in there at night Caught one sailing
yacht. Light seen burning further up the bay, the people busy probably in
carrying off the salt pans.
Sept 12/62. Work of destroying wrought iron boilers commenced -
Much hard labor performed during the morning Came off at 2 P.M. Many
pans had been removed during the night. Spoils brought off of hammers axes
spades old iron and a young pig. . Anchored off St. Andrews town at
3 P.M. Sent a boat ashore to communicate with the authorities- . Gave
up the sail boat to Judge Mim. The rebels promise to erect no more salt
works. Rec'd a letter unsealed to transmit by mail to N. Jersey . .
Sept 18/62. Enroute to West Pass Apalachicola to assist in preventing a
rebel ram from coming down Apalachicola river and escaping . .
Sept 19/62. . Steamer "Conn." on her homeward trip. The "Conn"
will not stop at Key West where the Yellow Fever prevails with much
Sept 24/62. Steamed up to buoy two miles nearer Apalachicola -
Loading with sand to protect the boilers Lumber from Floyd's house . .
- 36 cows killed during the stay of the "J L Davis" at this place . .
Oct 14/62. . Contraband arrived. Reports 86 bales cotton on
schooner four miles up the river, also that the rebels were fortifying
Apalachicola . .
Oct 16/62. Flag of truce from town after surgeons to dress stump of
man who had his arm blown off at Apalachicola. Drs Stevens & Draper went
up under flag of truce. Started at sundown for Key West . .
Oct 22/62. En route to Indian River on East Coast of Florida -
Oct 23/62. Steamed until noon when a sail was seen bearing S. E.
Chase put to her. Sloop with cargo of salt, calico gunpowder taken as a
prize Anchored at night in near a Florida Key in 12 ft water. Wrecker
inside waiting for prey. ..
Oct 26/62. Started at daylight for Jupiter Inlet. Arrived there at sun-
down. Sent launch & 2d cutter but they could not be got across the bar. ..
Oct 27/62. Went ashore and up through Jupiter Inlet but found no
vessels Obtained 50 pumpkins 1 chicken 4 bushels salt 2 muskets & 1
chair. . .
Oct 28/62. Captured a schooner from Nassau running for Indian River
- took her in tow. Sent our launch & Lt Lawrence's launch & 2d cutter up
Indian River eight miles. Inhabitants deserted their houses before our
arrival. Shot a hog a pig 2 chickens, secured some oranges but no prize
sloops. Under way at sundown for Key West with schooner in tow -
Monday Nov 24. Expedition up Indian River gone all day and not yet
returned this 10 P.M.
Teusday Nov 25/62. Whaleboat returned at 9 AM bringing off some
captured ammunition some trifles, one sloop & one schooner captured, no
cargo in them, provisions sent up to officers & men of the launch & those
towing down the vessels . Went down inside through a creek twenty
miles to Jupiter Inlet . .
Nov 27/62. Schooner arrived at noon after much hardship & difficulty
in towing forty miles through the Everglades . .
Nov 28/62 Sloop arrived at noon and with the schooner was towed
behind the "Sagamore" to Cape Florida . .
Dec 1st 1862. Chased a schooner that came near us to enter Indian
River. Prize caught by firing two shells at her . 'Where from'-
'Nassau' 'Ship Ahoy what ship is that'- "By George" of Nassau' 'Where
bound' 'Key West' answered the conch captain with perfect sang froid manner
- Took them back to Indian River. Cargo 10 bags coffee 150 lbs each 40c
per pound 47 gross matches 20 sacks salt Fishing from ship & on shore.
One cow & one steer shot by Mr Fales belonging to secesh judge Russell -
Dec 4th 1862. Left the "By George" at Cape Florida starting for Key
West. We then steamed up to Cape Florida and went ashore after cocoanuts
- obtained about a hundred. . .
Jan. 2d 1863. . Left Key West at 2 P.M. . . 8 union refugees
on board expecting to go on an expedition on Indian River -
Jan 5 1863. . Jupiter Inlet . Captured the sloop "Avenger"
inside loaded with gin dry goods soap and coffee. Gin received on board
for safe keeping . .
WILLIAM 1. SCHELLINGS
Jan 8'63. . Captured the prize sloop "Julia" six miles north of Jupiter
Inlet Captain of her one Cummings or Matthews half drunk Insulting
language to our captain by this secessionist He formerly owned land at
Jupiter with one Smith but was ruined by a freshet forming new inlet and
thus flooding his corn and potatoes six months ago. . .
Jan 9th 1863. Started the "Avenger" & "Julia" for Key West inside the
reefs. Then we went outside to the ship "Lucinda" of Bath ashore near Ajax
Reef. . After getting the "Lucinda" out of danger we went inside the
reefs to go to the relief of another ship ashore. Steamed up within a few
rods and found wreckers taking off the ships tackle, the ship having bilged.
Jan. 13th 1863. Steamed up to Indian Key having left Key West at
daylight Boarded a fishing schooner- . .
Jan 14th 1863. . Lay at anchor all day near Indian Key--Capt.
English & Mr Richardson ashore at the wreckers houses. . Purchased
sponges as large as a half bushel for 50 cents also some 3 dozen eggs. . .
Jan 21 1863. Bark "Gem of the Sea" at Indian River Found refugees
on shore at the sand point. Lieut. of "Gem of the Sea" Baxter went on expe-
dition up the river absent ten days. 4 bales cotton. ..
Jan 24/63. Boat 2d cutter went inside also the gig-Nearly swamped
coming out in the breakers. One more sea would have filled the boat & would
have disposed of its contents to the sharks. No desire to go ashore in any
part of Florida held by the rebels -
Jan 25/63. . 2d cutter & gig gone inside this afternoon with Col
Crane & the man who brought Mrs Hall & children down to the tent or en-
campment on shore at the entrance of the inlet Living on pork and fish.
When they could get no venison. . .
Jan. 28th 1863. Sloop discovered in Jupiter Inlet at daylight. -
Cargo of gin coffee flour and salt. Captain of the prize "Elisabeth" or "Eliza"
escaped in the night up the river in a small boat with a case of gin, bag of
coffee Boat sent after him to capture the captain Sweeden a man we
had caught once before while attempting to run a blockade. He made a
boast at that time saying the "Sagamore" never would catch him again.
Feb 8th 1863. . Boat sent in at 2 P.M. for refugees . Under
weigh at 4 P M for Key West- . Sea sickness of the refugees Wife
daughter Mr Hall & sons. Contribution by the "Sagamore" to Mr Hall and
family $50. . .
Feb 18 1863. Steamed four miles to the mouth of Miami river- Sent
gig 1st & 2d cutters Capt English in to explore the river. Anchored on
grouper fishing ground Boats went up six miles saw three men & two
women living in the wilderness. Got sugar cane cocoanuts, lemons limes,
potatoes & fish . .
Feb 19th 1863. Found ourselves two miles above Indian River when
the fog cleared up Sent a boat in & brought out Col Crane Col Crane and
party had found and destroyed 158 bags of salt and found four bales of
cotton a tierce of sperm oil and light house apparatus . .
Feb 20 1863. Brought off five bales of sea island cotton 250 lbs each -
$1250.00 Secured the two light house lamps pumps four or five lamps
with concentric tubes two copper pails and one hundred gallons of sperm
oil . .
March 8th 1863. At daylight saw a small sloop's mast close to shore
several miles below Jupiter Sent a boat in and captured a small sloop
with four bales of cotton Brought the Captain Patterson & one man on
board Hitched the sloop behind the schooner and proceeded on our way.
. . Boats went in to Miami Dutchman came out after old newspapers
having seen none in a long time. Mr Wood, Babson went inside see the
young damsels Brought off cocoanuts and pigs . .
April 2d 1863. Started at 11 A.M. for Bayport Arrived off the town
or hamlet but not in sight of land at 4 P.M. . . Six boats started at 71/2
P.M. for Bayport -. . Long talked of expedition will not find much so
pilot Mr Ashley says -
April 4th 1863. The "Acilda" was signalled to come to the ship. Capt
Lenas came on board and was ordered to proceed to Crystal River immed-
iately. No intelligence from the expedition. . .
April 5th. . Under way standing up to Crystal River where was
the "Acilda". She had communicated with the expedition this morning -
The boats attempting to enter at Bayport were fired upon from a battery and
two rifle pits Set a sloop load of corn on fire and made the crew pris-
oners . Rebels set one schooner load of cotton on fire and removed
the rest up the river. Our boats were forced to retire with two wounded
slightly. . The expedition when last seen this morning was in battle
array just ready to enter Crystal River. . The "Sagamore" under way
and proceeded to Cedar Keys. . .
WILLIAM J. SCHELLINGS
April 6th. "Fort Henry" signalled the arrival of contraband at 3 P.M.
and at 6 P M signalled the arrival of the boats. Mr Fleming & Mr Slamm
came alongside at 10l/2PM. Mr Babson & crew came at 11 PM the other boats
remaining with the "Fort Henry". Went into Bayport. . Went in sight
of the port before entering the harbor for six miles. When the boats reached
the fort the rebels opened fire from one rifled 12 pounder and threw a shell
a mile astern of all the boats. They fired a shell which splashed in the water
just astern of the "St. Lawrence's" launch throwing the water in the boat -
Rebel riflemen also opened on the boats from behind cabbage trees and out
of rifle pits About 60 rebel riflemen One of our shells exploded on the
breastworks of the fort killing two rebels . . Had the rebels waited a
little longer before they opened fire our boats could never have got out of the
scrape. Rebels set fire to a large schooner loaded with cotton turpentine &
rosin 150 bales of cotton Boats received charges of canister grape &
balls . . Wonderful providential escape of the men and boats on backing
out of the scrape. They went up to Crystal River entrance where Acting
Master Stearns was killed . . Went up to Macassa Bay captured a
sloop load of corn threw over the corn cutting the bags and set the sloop
on fire and burned her. Captured two prisoners on her and then shortly
after let them go again. Yulee & Chamberlain keep soldiers one hundred
of them -
April 9th 1863. Went ashore at Sea Horse Key. Saw Rebel battery rifle
pits and magazine deserted. Went into Light House . .
April 16th 1863. [In Key West] . Arrival of "Matanzas" with a
Brigadier General on board. . .
April 17th. "Matanzas" had 200 officers for negro regiments in New
April 26. Captured the schooner "New Year" with 56 bales cotton and
9 barrels of turpentine We flew the British ensign though the captain of
"New Year" was well aware that we were an Amer. gunboat. . .
May 23d. . Sighted the familiar land of Florida viz a long sand
bank and a few scraggy trees in the rear. . .
June 1st 1863. . Anchored down between the two keys at the mouth
of Charlotte Harbor. At sundown musquitos began to come off from the shore
in great numbers. At 8 P.M. it become intolerable below deck and almost
so on deck Turned in at 12 midnight Put close head net over and laid
in one position and perspiring with sheet and comforter on which were to
keep off the musquitoes. None got through the head net though troublesome
to lay in one position Did not get to sleep until 3 A.M. Officers slapping
and drawing corks and annoying with lights. Alcohol musquito bars of no
avail. . Dilapidated looking officers & men next morning. The pests
were equal in number to those in Tampa Bay last July.
June 22d. . Misquitos very plentiful in the evening, not a moment's
peace on deck or below. Slapping & killing them and finally retreating under
the mosquito bars. Got under head net and sweat it out with a sheet & cover-
lid over me. Preferable to musquito bites, sweating is.
June 25th, 1863. . Steamed on . course south for another sail
.... Fired a parrott shell and also a second one . The stranger hoisted
the English colors and hove to . Proved to be a prize a large schooner
of forty tons containing 150 bales of cotton, 50 of which was sea island also
forty barrels of turpentine Worth probably $50,000. Brought the seven
prisoners on board the "Sagamore" . "Frolic" had started from Crystal
River for Havana and was trying to make her way back when captured. .
June 26th. Searching the prize crew's clothes Found a thousand dol-
lars worth of gold doubloons spanish . .
July 18th. At sunrise at Cape Florida found the ship "Joseph Meigs"
ashore on the reef near the Beacon letter P. Sent 2d cutter to her . .
Ship on her beam ends slooping masts angle of 45 degrees loaded
with army stores ice hay &c. Got a barrel of potatoes & ice. Wreckers at
work on her. Went ashore day before yesterday. Capt says if another ship
nearby had not seen him strike he would also have been on the reef. . .
2 boats went ashore and up the river to Miami Fletchers home -
Burned a starch mill belonging to a rebel Lewis Brought off cocoanuts
-about a cart load also squashes 1/ barrel of starch resembling
arrowroot; . also side saddle crockery, books lead pipe &c &c &c . .
Pleasant weather mild equable climate and good health. Who wouldn't be
content here ?
July 22d 1863. . Found three women three children and seven men
all refugees on board the "Pursuit" Good looking women and children
something uncommon in the state of Florida so far as we have seen it. .
July 24, 1863. Sighted Cape Canaveral Light House at daylight . .
Steamed ten miles off to the 'Haulover' went within three hundred yards of
shore, Sent 2d cutter in. . searched along shore and found eleven barrels
WILLIAM I. SCHELLINGS
of turpentine ready to be shipped. Barrels of 40 gallons each worth four
dollars each 40 X 11 = 440 gallons X $4 = $1760.00 . . Better than
getting fired on and run the risk of finding empty schooners. . .
July 25th. . Mr. Carlisle & Capt Burgess on Board. Said the steamer
"Oleander" 306 tons . would participate in the attack on Smyrna if Capt
English said so. Captain English agreed. All hands up anchor at midnight.
Under way for Mosquito Inlet.
July 26th. No service today. Preparations being made on the "Saga-
more", side wheel steamer "Oleander", Mortar schooner "Para" and schooner
"Beauregard" for a Sunday expedition up to Smyrna. Boats all called away
at 10 A.M. in order to be prepared. I was appointed to go on the "Beaure-
gard." Only doctor down here If I am wounded we will be a helpless
party. . Five boats in tow os steamer "Oleander" also the schooner
"Beauregard". Went over bar and thumped heavily almost stuck. .
Went up a little beyond the first houses on the outside bluff about a mile and
a half in when the "Beauregard" finally grounded and it was concluded to
leave her. Surrounded by marsh and bluffs. Steamer went up 800 yards
farther to the large white hotel house and began to shell rapidly. .
"Oleander" shelling all day Mosquitos numerous and towards night be-
came with the sand flies exceedingly troublesome Firing into the houses,
woods, swamps and everywhere. Wasteful use of ammunition -. . Shells
fired during the evening flash-smoke-whining noise and explosion. Pacing
deck tormented by mosquitos till 111/2 P M Handkerchief over face. Ought
to have a wire mask and leather gloves. . Laid down in cabin by candle
light and wrapped overcoat over head but no go but for a short time. Wrapped
navy blankets around head but did not succeed in keeping off pests. Went
on deck but did not sleep in a chair or in any other way-. ..
July 27th. . Glad to see the break of morning and be relieved of our
tormentors. Arrival of steamer from the "Sagamore" with two guns and
ammunition. . Shot a horse and set fire to the thatched buildings on the
bluff. burned great black smoke and was soon consumed. Roast pig from
shore Boats left "Oleander" at 21/2 AM and went up the river. Got a sloop
which got aground and had to wait for the afternoon tide. . Saw the gig
fired on by the three or four rebels near the three stone pillars. Immediately
came back when we recommended shelling. Long House gutted 30 or 40 shots.
Expended 280 shells wastefully. Volunteer party to set fire to the houses.
Set the houses on fire after shelling to cover the advance and the twenty sailors
got parts of the piano, chairs, mirrors, tables, hens, pigs, papers &c when
they were fired upon by two or three rebels just as they were crossing the
creek. Sailors down went everything and run. No man hunt in this expe-
dition. Sloop got down at high tide, "Beauregard" got off, schooner prize
got under way and with the boats proceeded down the river, the expedition
being completed without a man being injured so no need of a doctor. ...
Arrived aboard ship at sundown felt refreshed to sniff the ocean air fresh and
pure. Don't wonder men have fevers in such a comfortless place as this.
Enough to make anyone sick. Greatest punishment for a blockade runner is
to take his vessel and put him ashore in the state of Florida Swamps mos-
quitos and sand fleas. . .
August 9th. . Our five prizes in tow on our way for Cape Florida
August 10th. Arrived at entrance to river leading to Miami at 10 A.M.
Capt English and Richardson went in and got two barrels of limes, 2 bushel
of alligator pears Mr Richardson bought one barrel and half a dozen
boxes of coonte at 6 cents the pound for a speculation in Key West where it
will sell for 15 cents. . .
Following the entry of August 10, Dr. Scofield was detached from duty and returned to
his Connecticut home for a time. He later rejoined the East Coast Blockading
Squadron. But on his second tour of duty in Florida he was assigned to one of the
supply ships. He continued to add a few notes to his journal each day, but few of
these entries are pertinent to the purposes of this paper and none have been included.
Contents of Tequesta
Numbers I through XIV*
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER ONE, 1941
"Pre-Flagler Influences on the Lower Florida East Coast."
by George E. Merrick
"The Caloosa Village Tequesta: A Miami of the Sixteenth Century."
by Robert E. McNicoll
"Bradish W. Johnson, Master Wrecker, 1846-1914." by Vincent Gilpin
"General Problems of Florida Archaeology." by Doris Stone
"Pre-Columbian Man in Southern Florida." by Karl Squires
"The Episcopal Church in South Florida, 1764-1892."
by Edgar LeGare Pennington
"To Miami, 1890 Style." by Mrs. John R. Gilpin
"The History of Air Transportation in Florida." by Thoms P. Caldwell
"An Annotated Check List of Florida Maps." by John Matthews Baxter
Notes and Queries.
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER TWO, AUGUST 1942
"George Edgar Merrick." by Helen C. Freeland
"Some Plant Reminiscences of Southern Florida." by David Fairchild
"Henry Perrine, Pioneer Horticulturist of Florida." by T. Ralph Robinson
"Ceremonial Practices of the Modern Seminoles." by Robert F. Greenlee
"Food Plants of the DeSoto Expedition." by Adin Baber
"The Administrative System in the Florida, 1791-1821."
by Duvon Clough Corbitt
"Florida in History and Literature." by Watt Marchan
Constitution of the Historical Association of Southern Florida.
Communication from Spassard Holland.
List of Members.
The manner of numbering the successive issues has been changed
several times. In each case the designation used at the time is
VOLUME ONE, NUMBER THREE, 1943
"Beginnings in Dade County." by F. M. Hudson
"The Florida Indians in the Seventeenth Century." by Charles M. Andrews
"Pioneer Women of Dade County." by Mary Barr Monroe
"The Administrative System in the Floridas, 1783-1821, II."
by Duvon Clough Corbitt
NUMBER FOUR, 1944
"Frank Bryant Stoneman." by Marjory Stoneman Douglas
"Archaeological Investigations on the Upper Florida Keys."
by John M. Goggin
"Five Plants Essential to Indians and Early Settlers of Florida."
by John C. Gifford
"Recent Economic Trends in South Florida." by Reinhold P. Wolff
"The Freducci Map of 1514-1515." by David O. True
Editors Notes and Communications
1945 (NO OTHER DESIGNATION)
"Flagler Before Florida." by Sidney Walter Martin
"Blockade Running in the Bahamas During the Civil War."
by Thelma Peters
"A Canoe Expedition into the Everglades in 1842."
by George Henry Preble (reprint)
"Three Florida Episodes." by John James Audubon (reprint)
List of Members
1946 (no other designation)
"Pirate Lore and Treasure Trove." by David O. True
"Medical Events in the History of Key West." by Albert W. Diddle
"Some Reflections on the Florida of Long Ago." by John C. Gifford
"The Adjudication of Shipwrecking in Florida in 1831." by Albert W. Diddle
"Population Growth in Miami and Dade County, Florida."
by James J. Carney
"Select Bibliography for History of South Florida."
by the Publications Committee
NUMBER SEVEN, 1947
"The Ingraham Everglades Exploring Expedition, 1892."
Edited by Watt P. Marchman
"Diary of a West Coast Sailing Expedition, 1885." by Mrs. John R. Gilpin
"Perrine and Florida Tree Cotton." by T. Ralph Robinson
"The Perrines at Indian Key, Florida, 1838-1840." by Hester Perrine Walker
List of Members
NUMBER EIGHT, 1948
"Jacob Housman of Indian Key." by Dorothy Dodd
"Thomas Elmer Will, Twentieth Century Pioneer." by J. E. Dovell
"The Lower East Coast, 1870-1890." by W. T. Cash
"Miami: A Study in Urban Geography." by Millicent Todd Bingham
"Discovery of the Bahama Channel." by Robert S. Chamberlain
NUMBER NINE, 1949
"Cape Florida Light." by Charles M. Brookfield
"A Dash Through the Everglades." by Alonzo Church
"Recollections of Early Miami." by J. K. Dorn
"Early Pioneers of South Florida." by Henry J. Wagner
"William Selby Harney: Indian Fighter." by Oliver Griswold
Roster of Members
NUMBER TEN, 1950
"Colonel Thompson's Tour of Tropical Florida." by George R. Bentley
"The Indians and History of the Matecumbe Region." by John M. Goggin
"Army Surgeon Reports on Lower East Coast, 1938." by James F. Sunderman
"John Clayton Gifford: An Appreciation." by Henry Troetschel, Jr.
"Across South Central Florida in 1882."
Reprint from New Orleans Times Democrat
Roster of Members
NUMBER XI, 1951
"Miami on the Eve of the Boom: 1923." by Frank B. Sessa
"The Pennsuco Sugar Experiment." by William A. Graham
"Random Recollections of Tropical Florida." by Dr. Henry Perrine (reprint)
"Across South Central Florida in 1882."
Reprint from New Orleans Times Democrat
Roster of Members
NUMBER XII, 1952
"Newspapers of America's Last Frontier." by Jeanne Bellamy
"We Chose the Sub-Tropics." by F. Page Wilson
"Starch-making; A Pioneer Florida Industry." by Mrs. Henry J. Burkhardt
"South Florida's First Industry." by Earnest G. Gearhart, Jr.
An Early Map of Key West
"William Adee Whitehead's Description of Key West."
edited by Rembert W. Patrick
The Association's Historical Marker Program
The Treasurer's Report
List of Members
NUMBER XIII, 1953
"Building the Overseas Railway to Key West." by Carlton J. Corliss
"John Loomis Blodgett (1809-1853)." by R. Bruce Ledin
"Chakaika and the "Spanish Indians"." by William C. Sturtevant
The Association's Historical Marker Program
The Treasurer's Report
List of Officers
List of Members
NUMBER XIV, 1954
"Stronghold of the Straits: Fort Zachary Taylor." by Ames W. Williams
"Miami; From Frontier to Metropolis; An Appraisal." by F. Page Wilson
"The South Florida Baptist Association."
by George C. Osborn and Jack P. Dalton
"A Petition from Some Latin American Fishermen, 1838."
Edited by James W. Covington
"Volunteers Report on the Destruction of Lighthouses."
Edited by Dorothy Dodd
The Treasurer's Report
List of Members
List of Officers
ADAM G. ADAMS is a past president of the Historical Association of
Southern Florida, and now heads the Acquisitions Committee of its Board
of Directors. He has added a deep interest in the History of South Florida
to an already well developed interest in the history of his native state of
Tennessee where his family have lived for several generations.-
CHARLES W. ARNADE is a member of the History Department of the
University of Tampa. While he was a doctoral candidate in history at the
University of Florida he worked extensively in the famous Stetson Collection
of documents from the Spanish Archives relating to Florida. He held the
coveted Doherty Fellowship for study in Hispanic American History.
RuvB LEACH CARSON came to Miami in 1916 to be a reporter on the
Miami Metropolis, now the Miami Daily News. She has been an interested
observer of the growth of Miami Beach and has known personally most of its
pioneers. The Historical Association of Southern Florida was born at a
meeting in the Carson home in 1940. She holds an M. A. degree in history
from the University of Florida, and is the author, among other things, of
the book, Fabulous Florida, soon to be reprinted.
WILLIAM J. SCHELLINGS is a doctoral candidate in history at the Univer-
sity of Florida. He did an M. A. thesis on the History of Tampa in the Span-
ish American War, and continues his studies in Florida History working in
the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History. He transcribed the Scofield
diary and edited the portion here presented while a student at the University
HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
FISCAL YEAR ENDING AUGUST 31. 1955
On hand Sept. 1, 1954
Building Fund -------------------------... $ 8,577.71
Marker Fund ---------------------------- 224.22
General Fund -------------------------- 1,444.46 $10,246.39
Contributions to Building Fund __------------ 1,030.40
Increase in valuation 6 shares Standard Oil N. J.--_- 268.80
Dues collected------------------------ 4,126.00
Sale of prior issues of Tequesta --------I-------- 112.00
Profit on books sold--------------------------- 72.43
Interest and dividends----------------------- 230.13
Publication cost of Tequesta ------- ------ 704.30
Program meetings (to offset this, $137.50
contributed last year) ------------------ 393.36
Treasurer -------------------------------- 115.54
6 News Letters --------------------------- 351.09
Miscellaneous ---------------------------- 425.13
The difference transferred to Building Fund ----- 2,550.54
On hand Aug. 31, 1955
Building Fund-------------------- 12,427.45
Marker Fund --------------------- 224.22
General Fund--------------------------- 1,444.46 14,096.13
This is represented by:
Securities -------------------------------- 811.20
Interest-bearing bank deposits -----___--_- 11,902.89
Non interest-bearing bank deposits __------ 1,382.04 14,096.13
Number of Members by Years Total Total
$2 $3 $5 $10 $25 $50 $100 $250 $350 Hon. bears elected
1952 33 329 190 29 7 2 1 591 $2,918
1953 333 205 50 12 5 1 606 3,574
1954 315 198 66 18 1 6 1 3 608 4,045
1955 (to date) 270 196 63 21 1 6 1 4 562 3,945
We appreciate the generosity of Withers Transfer & Storage Co., 357
Avenue Almeria, Coral Gables, in providing fireproof protection for our
archives, and of Jack Callahan, C.P.A., duPont Building, Miami, in auditing
EDWIN G. BISHop, Treasurer.
This Page Blank in Original
LIST OF MEMBERS
EXPLANATORY NOTE: The Society provides several classes of membership.
Regular or "Annual" members at three dollars a year make up the great major-
ity of the list. For those who wish to contribute more for the promotion of the
Association's work, the other classes of membership provide the opportunity,
and the publication of their names in the proper category of membership is a
means of recognition. "Sustaining" members pay five dollars a year, "Patrons"
pay ten dollars a year, "Donors" pay twenty-five dollars a year, "Contributors"
pay fifty dollars a year, "Sponsors" pay one hundred dollars a year, and "Bene-
factors" contribute two hundred and fifty dollars or more a year.
This printed roster is made up of the names of those persons and institutions
that have paid dues in 1954 or in 1955 before September first, when this material
must go to press. Those joining after this date in 1955 will have their names
included in the 1956 roster. The symbol ** indicates founding member and the
symbol indicates charter member.
Ada Merritt Jr. High School, Miami
Adams, Elliot, Jacksonville
Adkins, A. Z., Jr., Gainesville
Albertson Memorial Library, Orlando
Aldridge, Miss Daisy, Miami
Allardt, Mrs. Frederick, Pacific Palisades,
American Museum of Natural History
Anthony, Roscoe T., Miami Beach
Ashby, Richard, Miami
Ayars, Erling B., South Miami
Baker, Therese C., Stuart
Barker, Virgil, Miami
Baxter, John M., Miami*
Beal, K. Malcolm, Miami*
Beck, Mrs. Alfred J., Ft. Lauderdale*
Benson, John L., Coral Gables
Beyer, R. C., Miami
Bingham, Mrs. Millicent T., Washington,
Bishop, Edwin G., Miami*
Black, Mrs. Charles E., Miami*
Black, Dr. Linnie, Miami
Black, W. L., Jr., Coral Gables
Bliss, H. Bond, Miami*
Bowden, Beryl, Clewiston
Bowen, Crate D., Miami*
Boyd, Mark F., Tallahassee*
Bradfield, E. S., Miami Beach*
Bozeman, R. E., Madison, Wis.
Brady, Mrs. H. R., Key Biscayne
Brickell, Miss Maude E., Miami
Briggs, H. E., Carbondale, Ill.*
Brinson, J. Hardee, Miami
Brook, John, Jr., Coral Gables
Brooks, Marvin J., Miami
Brown University Library
Bullen, Ripley P., Gainesville
Burton, Mrs. Robert A., Miami*
Busse, Raymond J., Miami
Byrd, Mrs. Wade, Miami
Capron, Louis B., West Palm Beach
Carnine, Mrs. Helen M., Miami
Carson, Mrs. Ruby Leach, Miami Springs**
Cartee, Mrs. Horace L., Coral Gables
Catlow, Mrs. Wm. R., Bloomfield, N. J.*
Christiansen, Edward S., Coral Gables
Clarke, Mary Helm, Coral Gables*
Close, Kenneth, Miami
Coconut Grove Library
Cole, R. B., Miami
Combs, Walter H., Jr., Miami*
Combs, Mrs. Walter H., Sr., Miami*
Connor, Mrs. June, Tampa
Cook, John B., Miami
Cooney, Mrs. Robert E., Miami
Coral Gables Public Library*
Coral Gables Senior High School
Covington, James F., Tampa
Cox, Mrs. Jessamine S., Miami
Cromartie, DeWitt, Ft. Lauderdale
Curtis, Mrs. Arthur E., Coral Gables
Cushman School, Coral Gables*
Dade County Teachers Professional Library
Daniels, Clyde, Jacksonville
Davies, Edward G., Miami
Davis, Katherine Fite, Coral Gables
Dee, William V., Miami*
deLamorton, Fred, Tampa
Dismukes, William P., Coral Gables*
Dodd, Dr. Dorothy, Tallahassee
Dunaway, Mrs. Carl E., Miami*
DuVal, Mrs. Hugh F., Miami
Eckhouse, J. L., Gimbel's Store, N. Y.
Eckel, Mrs. Frederick L., Ft. Lauderdale
Edwards, Mrs. Howard K., Miami
Elder, Mrs. Leola A., Miami*
Elder, Dr. S. F., Miami*
Emerson, William C., Rome, N. Y.
England, Mrs. P. H., Coral Gables
Evans, Don G., Miami
Fairchild, Mrs. David, Miami*
Ferendino, A. J., Miami Beach
Fisher, Mrs. Clyde W., Palm Beach
Fisher, Mrs. Jane, Miami Beach
Fite, Robert H., Miami
Florida Southern College
Florida State Library
Fontaine, Eugene, Homestead
Forman, Mrs. J. B., Ft. Lauderdale
Foster, Athene S., Miami*
Freeland, Mrs. Wm. L., Coral Gables**
Freeling, J. S., Miami
Feeling, Mrs. J. S., Miami
Frohock, Mrs. Jack, Miami
Fuzzard, Miss Jessie M., Miami*
Gates, Harley D., Boca Raton
Gellrich, Mrs. Ida W., Key West
Giblin, Vincent C., Miami
Gilbert, Bertha K., Hollywood
Gillespie, John D., Miami
Gillette, George Wauchula
Ginn, Walter S., Miami
Givens, Robert H., Jr., Miami
Goggin, John M., Gainesville
Goldweber, S., Miami
Graham, William A., Miami Springs
Greene, Miss Clarissa, Miami
Greene, Mrs. Frances E., Key Largo
Gregor, Henry, Coral Gables
Griffen, F. S., Miami
Griffin, John W., St. Augustine
Griffith, Arthur, Miami
Griley, Victor P., Miami
Griswold, Oliver, Miami
Grose, Mrs. Esther N., Miami
Hagan, Thomas W., Miami
Haggard, Mrs. W. A., Miami*
Hall, Willis E., Coral Gables
Hallstead, P. Frederick, Ft. Lauderdale
Halstead, W. L., Miami
Hampton, Mrs. John, Sparks, Md.*
Hancock, Mrs. J. T., Okeechobee
Haney, J. Rodney, Coral Gables
Hanna, A. J., Winter Park*
Harlow, Rev. Frank E., Coral Gables
Harlow, Mrs. Frank E., Coral Gables
Hart, Mrs. Reginald, Coral Gables
Harvey, J. H., Miami
Heinlein, Mrs. Mary C., Homestead
Herin, Thomas D., Miami
Hering, Mrs. Julia, Tallahassee
Hodsden, Mrs. Harry, Miami
Holland, Judge John W., Miami*
Holland, Hon. Spessard L, Washington,
Hollister, Mrs. Louise C., Miami
Holmdale, Mrs. A. G., Miami
Holmes, Jeanne, Coral Gables
Hooker, Roland M., Miami
Hortt, M. A., Ft. Lauderdale
Huggins, Mrs. Lulu C., Miami
Humes, Mrs. Ralph H., Miami*
Irwin, F. H., Miami
[schinger, Robert H., St. Augustine
Jacksonville Free Public Library
Jahn, LeRoy S., Miami
James, Ernest W., Miami
Jenkins, Leon R., Miami
Jones, Col. A. B., Miami
Jones, L A., Miami*
Jones, Mrs. L. A., Miami*
Jones, Mrs. Macklin, Miami*
Junior Museum of Miami
Kaplan, Dr. Jacob H., Miami Beach*
Karpinski, Louis C., Winter Haven
Keenan, Edward T., Frostproof
Kernacher, Mrs. Willie V., Miami
Kiem, Stanley, Miami
King, C. Harold, Miami
Knowles, Mrs. T. H., Miami
Kohl, Mrs. Lavinia B., Palm Beach
Lake Worth Public Library
Larson, Elizabeth W., Coral Gables
Latimer, Mrs. John L, Coral Gables
Lawrence, Mrs. W. A., Miami*
Laxon, Dan D., Hialeah
Lewis, Miss Carlotta, Miami
Lewis, Miss Mary D., Tallahassee
Leyden, Mrs. Charles S., Coral Gables
Lindabury, Mrs. E. R., Miami Beach
Lindsey Hopkins Vocational School
Lipp, Morris N., Miami Beach
Longshore, Frank, Miami
Lyell, Robert 0., Miami
SLyell, Mrs. Robert O., Miami
Lyman, Jack B., Miami
Lynch, Sylvester John, Homestead*
MacDonald, Miss Barbara, Miami
MacDonald, Miss Betty, Miami
Manly, Charles W., Miami
Manning, Mrs. Wm. S., Jacksonville
Marchman, Watt P., Fremont, Ohio*
Marsh, Fred Dana, Ormond Beach
Martin, John K., Tampa
Mason, Mrs. Joe J., Miami
Mason, W. Scott, Jr., Miami*
Matteson, Miss Eleanor E., Miami*
May, Philip S., Jacksonville
McGahey, Miss Lillian, Miami
McKee, Arthur, Jr., Plantation Key
McKim, Mrs. L. H., Montreal, Canada
Merrick, Miss Ethel F., Coral Gables
Merritt, Robert M., Miami Beach
Merritt, Dr. Webster, Jacksonville
Miami Edison Senior High School
Miami Memorial Public Library*
Miami Public Library, Allapattah
Miami Public Library, Shenandoah
Miami Springs Memorial Public Library
Michel, Miss Hedwig, Estero
Mikesell, Ernest E., Miami
Miller, Benjamin, Miami
Monk, James F., Miami
Moore, Mrs. T. V., Miami*
Morris, Miss Zula, Miami*
Moulds, Andrew J., Miami
Mudd, Dr. Richard D., Saginaw, Mich.
Muir, William W., Miami
Muller, Leonard R., Miami
Nelson, Mrs. Winifred H., Miami
Newberry Library, Chicago
Newell, Miss Natalie, Miami*
Newman, Mrs. Anna P., Vero Beach
North Miami High School
Nugent, Patrick B., Swananoa, N. C.*
Nugent, Mrs. Patrick B., Swananoa, N. C.*
Otis, Robert R., Jacksonville
Owre, J. Riis, Coral Gables
Pace, Mrs. Johnson H., Miami*
Pace, Rev. J. H., Jr., Ft. Walton Beach
Palm Beach Art League
Parker, Mrs. D. Larsen, Miami
Parsons, Mrs. Frances G., Miami
Partak, Albert W., Miami
Patrick, R. W., Gainesville
Peabody Museum Library
Pearce, Mrs. Dixon, Miami
Peggs, Dr. A. Deans, Nassau, Bahamas
Pemberton, P. G., Miami
Pemberton, Mrs. P. G., Miami
Pendergast, Mrs. Eleanor L., Miami*
Pierce, Ruby Edna, Palm Beach
Piggott, E. St. Clair, Miami
Platt, Mrs. Ronald C., Miami
Platt, T. Beach, Miami
Plowden, Gene, Miami
Prahl, William, Miami
Prince, J. W., Naples
Prunty, John W., Miami
Renick, Ralph, Miami
Robbins, Leon A., Boynton Beach
Rollins College, Winter Park
Rosner, Geo. W., Coral Gables*
Ross, Malcolm, Miami
Rowell, Edward P., Miami
Rowley, Mrs. J. R., Coral Gables
Royce, Gardner, Miami
Russell, Edmund L, Warrington
Sadlier, Rt. Rev. Francis, St. Leo Abbey
Saunders, Lewis M., Miami
Savage, Franchot C., Miami Beach
Sawyer, Clifton A., Miami
Sessa, Frank B., Miami
Shappee, Nathan D., Miami
Shaw, Henry 0., Miami
Shaw, Martha L, Miami
Simpson, Richard H., Monticello
Sleight, Frederick W., Orlando
Smathers, George, Washington, D. C.
Smith, Mrs. Edna H., Miami
Snodgrass, Miss Dena, Jacksonville
State Historical Society of Wisconsin
State University of Iowa
Stetson University, DeLand
Stevens, Mrs. T. T., Miami
Stevens, Wallace, Ft. Lauderdale
Straight, William M., Coral Gables
Strickland, Mrs. C. E., Astor
Strong, Clarence E., S. Miami
Swalm, Neal C., Sarasota
Sydow, William, Miami
Talley, Howard J., Miami
Talley, J. H., Miami Shores
Tampa Public Library
Taylor, Paul C., Miami
Taylor, Robert R., Coral Gables*
Tebeau, Mrs. Violet H., Coral Gables
temple, Miss Elsa, Miami
Tennessee State Library and Archives
Tharp, C. Doren, S. Miami*
Thompson, Carey R., Miami
Thrift, Charles T., Jr., Lakeland
Tonkin, Mrs. Mary E., Coral Gables
Toombs, Betty Louise, Miami
Trader, R. V., Coral Gables
Trice, Mrs. H. H., Coral Gables
True, David O., Miami*
Turner, Vernon W., Homestead
Tussey, Mrs. Ethyl Wayt, Miami
Tuten, Mrs. Tommy, Madison, Wis.
Ulman, John, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
University of Miami Library
University of Virginia Library
Vance, Mrs. Herbert O., Coral Gables
Van Orsdel, C. D., Coral Gables
Verdoorn, Frans, Waltham, Mass.
Vining, E. Clyde, Miami
Vosburgh, John R., Miami
Warner, Miss Elmina, Miami
Warner, William C., Miami
Warner, Mrs. William C., Miami
Watson, J. W., Jr., Miami
Watson, Miss Nan, Miami
Weaver, Mrs. Francis B., Ft. Lauderdale
Wenner, Henry S., Jr., Miami
Wentworth, T. T., Jr., Pensacola
West India Reference Library, Kingston,
White, Mrs. Louise V., Key West
Whitney, James H., Miami
Wight, William S., Coral Gables
Williams, H. Franklin, Coral Gables*
Williams, Russell A., Miami
Willing, R. B., Miami
Wilson, Albert B., Miami
Wilson, Miss Emily L., St. Augustine
Wilson, Gaines R., Miami* *
Wilson, Mrs. Gaines R., Miami
Withers, Charles E., Coral Gables
Withers, Wayne E., Coral Gables
Wolfe, Miss Rosalie L., Miami
Wood, Mrs. Agnes Faris, Miami
Wright, Mrs. Victor A., Miami
Wynn, John C., Miami
P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History,
Younkins, F. R., Miami
Zenker, Raymond S., Miami
Abercrombie, John S., Miami
Adams, Adam G., Coral Gables*
Aldrich, Richard, Coral Gables
Alligood, Mrs. Katherine P., N. Miami
Anderson, Robert H., Miami
Andrews, Melvin D., Miami
Archer, Ben, Homestead
Arnold, Mrs. Roger W., Miami
Avery, George N., Marathon
Baber, Adin, Kansas, Ill.
Bailey, Ernest H., Miami Beach
Bailey, Mrs. Ernest H., Miami Beach
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Miami*
Balkin, Gilbert J., Miami
Bartz, Edward, Miami
Bassett, Rex, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Baum, Earl L., Naples
Beardsley, Jim E., Clewiston
Benedetti, M. A., Miami
Bickel, Karl A., Sarasota*
Bills, Jeanne Bellamy, Miami
Blakey, B. H., Coral Gables
Blocker, John C., St. Petersburg
Bloomberg, Robert L., Miami
Blouvelt, Arthur M., Coral Gables
Brookfield, Charles M., Miami*
Brooks, J. R., Homestead
Brown, William J., Miami
Brunsttetter, Roscoe, Coral Gables
Burghard, August, Ft. Lauderdale
Bush, Mrs. Franklin C., Coral Gables*
Bush, R. S., Miami
Caldwell, Thomas P., Coral Gables**
Caldwell, Mrs. Thomas P., Coral Gables**
Campbell, Park H., S. Miami*
Campbell, Mrs. Park H., S. Miami*
Campbell, Mrs. Susie C., Miami
Chance, Miachael, Naples
Chandesh, Leslie, Jackson Hts., N. Y.
Chase, Randall, II, Sanford
Cheetham, Joseph M., Miami
Clark, Mrs. Flournoy B., Coral Gables
Clarke, Jerry C., Miami
Comerford, Miss Nora A., Coral Gables
Cooper, Mrs. Helen L., Miami
Corley, Pauline, Miami**
Corson, Alien, Miami
Coslow, George R., Miami
Crandon, C. H., Miami
Crane, Francis V., Marathon
Crow, Mrs. Lon Worth, Miami*
Crow, Lon Worth, Miami*
Dacy, John A., Miami
Dade County Florida, Publicity
Dalenberg, George R., Miami
David, Joffre C., Orlando
Davis, Mrs. Christine, Miami
DeBoe, Mrs. Mizpah Otto, Coral Gables
Deedmeyer, George J., Miami*
Deen, James L., Coral Gables
Dixon, James A., Miami
Dorn, H. Lewis, S. Miami
Dorn, Harold W., S. Miami
Dorn, Mrs. Harold W., S. Miami
Dorothy, Mrs. Caroline, Miami*
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman, Miami**
Downer, Miss Lisa de F., Miami**
Dykes, Robert J., Miami
Eason, Mrs. Helga H., Miami
Ellison, Martin L., Miami
Everglades Natural History Association
Falkenberg, John, New York
Fascell, Dante B., Coral Gables
Fee, W. I., Fort Pierce
Feibelman, Herbert U., Miami
Fitzgerald, Joe H., Miami
Florida Geological Survey
Freeman, Edison S., Miami
Freeman, Ethel C., Morristown, N. J.
Freeman, Harle L., Ormond Beach
Frierson, Mrs. Pearl, S. Miami*
Frutkoff, Theodore, Coral Gables
Fuller, Walter P., St. Petersburg
Fultz, Herman B., Coral Gables
Ganaway, Mrs. K. C., Miami
Gardner, Jack R., Miami
Gardner, R. C., Miami*
Gardner, Mrs. R. C., Miami*
Garrigan, Mrs. Jane, Miami
Gaunt, E. C., Miami
Giersch, Mrs. Richard F., Jr., Miami
Graham, Jas. L., Ft. Lauderdale
Griggs, Mrs. Nelson W., Miami Shores
Griggs, Nelson W., Miami Shores
Gross, John, Miami Beach
Hall, A. Y., Miami
Hamilton, Thomas B., Miami
Hancock, E. M., Miami Beach
Hanks, Bryan, Ft. Worth, Texas*
Harllee, William J., Miami
Harris, Walter L., Miami
Hartnett, Fred B., Coral Gables
Harvard College Library
Havee, Justin P., Miami*
Havee, Mrs. Kathryn
Hendry, Judge Norman, Miami
Herin, William A., Miami*
Hess, Mrs. E. L., Miami
Hill, Edward T., Miami
Hill, Mrs. A. Judson, Miami
Hills, Lee, Miami
Holcombe, Lyle D., Miami
Holmer, Carl, Jr., Miami
Hopkins, Oliver B., Miami
Houghton, Mrs. A. S., Miami
Howard, Lee, Miami Beach
Hubbell, Willard, Miami
Hudson, Mrs. F. M., Miami**
Hughes, Mrs. Fleda V., Miami
Hume, Mrs. Edward C., Miami*
Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Jones, Mrs. Mary, Miami
Jones, Mrs. Mary Douglas, Miami
Kent, Arnold H., Miami
Kerr, James B., Hollywood*
Key West Historical Society
Kistler, The C. W. Co., Miami
Kofoed, Jack, Miami
Krome, Mrs. William J., Homestead*
Lemon City Library and Improvement
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E., Miami
Lindsley, A. R., Miami Beach
Littlefield, Mrs. Helen, Miami
Lummus, J. N., Jr., Miami
Lummus, Tom J., Miami
Lunsford, E. C., Miami
MacVicar, I. D., Miami
Mahony, John, Miami
Malik, Mrs. Elizabeth, Hialeah
Manley, Miss Marion I., Miami
Mansfield, Wm. N., Miami Beach
Mayes, Mrs. C. R., Jr., Pompano Beach
McCaskill, J. M., Miami
McCune, Adrian, Miami Beach
McDonald, Mrs. John Martyn, Miami Beach
McKay, Col. D. B., Miami
McKibben, Dr. Wm. W., Coral Gables
McSwain, Gordon H., Arcadia
Meisel, Max, Miami Beach
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P., Coral Gables*
Mershon, M. L., Miami
Meyers, Mrs. Ethel H., Hialeah
Miami Senior High School Library
Miller, Raymond M., Miami*
Mitchell, Harry James, Key West
Moore, Castles W., Ft. Lauderdale
Moulds, Mrs. Andrew J., Coral Gables
Munroe, Wirth M., Miami*
Oglesby, R. M., Bartow
Pancoast, J. Arthur, Uleta*
Pancoast, Lester C., F. P. O.
Pardo, Mrs. Ramiro V., Miami
Parker, Alfred B., Miami
Parker, O. B., Homestead
Pedersen, George C., Perrine
Peters, Mrs. Thelma, Miami*
Prevatt, Preston G., Miami
Price, Gaylord L., Miami
Rader, Earle M., Miami
Rahn, William B., Miami
Railey, F. G., Miami*
Railey, Mrs. F. G., Miami*
Rainey, J. S., Miami
Rainey, Mrs. J. S., Miami
Rasmussen, Edwin L., Miami**
Reese, Mrs. J. H., Miami
Reynolds, Mrs. H. Jarvis, Coral Gables
Roberts, R. B., Jr., Miami
Rose, Harvey K., Miami
St. Augustine Historical Society
Schuberth, Andrew F., Jr., Miami
Shank, H. W., Coral Gables
Shaw, G. N., Miami
Shepard, L. C., Coral Gables
Sherritt, Charles L., Miami
Sisters of St. Joseph, St. Augustine
Slaughter, Frank G., Jacksonville
Smith, Avery C., Miami
Smith, McGregor, Miami
Southgate, Howard, Winter Park
Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J., Miami*
Sterling, Ray T., Miami
Stern, David S., Coral Gables
Stiles, Wade, Ft. Lauderdale**
Stranahan, Mrs. Frank T., Ft. Lauderdale*
Stripling Insurance Agency, Hialeah
Sullivan, Mrs. Howard W., Haverhill,
Sullivan, John W., Jr., Miami
Tebeau, C. W., Coral Gables
Ten Eick, Mrs. M. Nunez, Tampa*
Town, Miss Eleanor F., Coral Gables
Trice, H. H., Coral Gables
University of Pennsylvania
Walters, Mae L. M., Miami
Walters, Walter M., Miami
Wellenkamp, Donald J., Miami
West, Emily Louise, Miami Beach
Wheeler, B. B., Miami
Whitehouse, Robert S., Coral Gables
Whitten, George E., Miami
Williams, Glenn P., Miami
Williams, Russell A., Miami
Wilson, F. Page, Miami
Wilson, Miss Virginia, Miami
Wirth, Miss Josephine, Miami*
Wittichen, Mrs. Murray F., Coral Gables
Woore, A. Meredith, Miami*
Wylie, W. Gill, Jr., Miami
Yonge, Julien C., Gainesville
Younghans, S. W., Miami
Adams, Mrs. Ada M., Miami
Adams, Wilton L., Coral Gables
Ashe, Mrs. Bowman F., Coral Gables
Balfe, Alex, Miami
Barge, Hubert A., Miami
Benson, Clifton D., Coral Gables
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Brickell, Mrs. Charles, Miami* *
Burdine, William M., Miami
Corliss, C. J., Washington, D. C.
Crowninshield, Mrs. Francis B., Boca
Davis, Hal D., Coral Gables
Dickey, Robert F., Coral Gables
Dorn, J. K., Sr., Miami
Dorn, Mrs. J. K., Sr., Miami
Duffy, E. V., Coral Gables
Duley, Almas Leroy, Miami
Emerson, Hugh P., Miami
Field, Henry, Miami
Florence, Robert S., Miami
Gibson, Henry C., Jenkintown, Pa.
Graham, Ernest R., Hialeah
Griffin, L J., Miami
Grosvenor, Gilbert, Washington, D. C.
Hackett, Col. Wallace E., Coral Gables
Haider, Mrs. Michael L, Coral Cables
Harris, Miss Julia Fillmore, Miami*
Houser, Roosevelt C., Miami
Hudson, F. M., Miami**
Hughes, Mrs. Helene, Miami
Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Jamaica Inn, Key Biscayne
Keyes, Kenneth S., Miami*
Knight, John S., Miami
LaGorce, Dr. John O., Washington, D. C.
Ledbetter, Charles B., Miami
Lochrie, Robert B., Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Lummus, J. N., Miami
Mallory, Philip R., Miami Beach
Mallory, Mrs. Philip R., Miami Beach
Malone, E. B., Miami
Manly, Albert B., Homestead
McCarthy, Don L., Nassau
McKey, Robert M., Miami
McMackin, Dr. John V., Miami
McNair, Angus N., South Miami
Miami Beach Public Library
Miami Daily News
Mills, Charles A., Miami Beach
Modisette, Col. Welton M., Coral Gables
Montgomery, Mrs. Robert H., Miami**
Orr, Alexander, Jr., Miami
Orr, John B., Jr., Miami
Pitt, Gerard, Miami
Race, Frank B., Coral Gables
Rainey, J. S., Miami
Rapp, Dr. Gerard, Miami
Ring, R. Warner, Miami
Scott, Paul R., Miami
Shewmake, Mrs. C. E., Coral Gables
Sokola, Anton, Miami
Thomas, Arden H., South Miami
Thomas, Wayne, Plant City
Thompson, John G., Coral Gables
Thomson, Leonard K., Miami
Tilghman, J. Q., Miami
Vanderpool, Fred W., Miami*
Van Valkenburgh, Morgan, Miami
Watson, W. Cecil, Coral Gables
Werner, Alfred C., Miami
West, William M., Geneseo, Ill.
Wilson, D. Earl, Miami**
Bowers, Bland, Coral Gables*
Cooper, George H., Princeton
Coral Castle of Florida, Homestead
Dohrman, Howard I., Miami
Dolan, Francis M., Coral Gables
DuPree, Tom & Sons, Inc., Miami Beach
DuPuis, Dr. J. G., Miami
Fuchs Baking Co., South Miami
Gardner, Dick B., Miami
Gearhart, Ernest G., Jr., Miami
Giffin, John S., Miami
Leffler, Miss Cornelia, Miami**
Lloyd, J. Harlan, Miami
MacDonald, Duncan, Miami*
Markel Industries, Inc., Miami
Pancoast, Russell T., Miami Beach
Pearse, Mrs. Langdon, Winnetka, Ill.
Pollard, Marshall S. P., Miami
Preston, J. E., Miami
Ross, Donald, Benton Harbor, Mich,
Shipe, Paul E., Miami
Thord-Gray, General I., Coral Gables
Foremost Dairies, Inc., Miami Mike Gordon Sea Food Restaurant, Miami
Florida Power and Light Co., Miami Link, Edwin A., Binghamton, N. Y.
Geiger, Mrs. August, Miami Beach* Pan American World Airways, Miami
Gondas Corporation, Miami Peninsular Armature Works, Miami
University of Miami, Coral Gables
HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
FOUNDED 1940--INCORPORATED 1941
Thomas W. Hagan
Ernest G. Gearhart, Jr.
Robert M. McKey
Justin P. Havee
Miss Virginia Wilson
Mrs. Andrew J. Moulds
Charlton W. Tebeau
Editor of Tequesta
Donald J. Wellenkamp
Karl A. Bickel
John C. Blocker
West Palm Beach
W. I. Fee
Adam G. Adams
Mrs. Ruby Leach Carson
George H. Cooper
George J. Deedmeyer
J. K. Dorn
Hugh P. Emerson
Mrs. William L. Freeland
E. M. Hancock
Mrs. James T. Hancock
Charles T. Thrift, Jr.
Norman A. Herren
Mrs. Louise V. White
Kenneth S. Keyes
Wirth M. Munroe
John B .Orr, Jr.
Jay F. W. Pearson
Mrs. Frank Stranahan
Mrs. Herbert O. Vance
W. Cecil Watson
F. Page Wilson
Gaines R. Wilson
Wayne E. Withers
LLOYb pNaITINI CORP.-MZAMI