• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Miami on the eve of the Boom:...
 The Pennsuco sugar experiment
 Random records of tropical...
 Across south central Florida in...
 Contributors
 Treasurer’s report
 Roster of members
 Back Cover






Title: Tequesta
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101446/00011
 Material Information
Title: Tequesta
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1951
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2096319
lccn - 42015131
issn - 0363-3705

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Miami on the eve of the Boom: 1923
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The Pennsuco sugar experiment
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Random records of tropical Florida
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Across south central Florida in 1882
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Contributors
        Page 93
    Treasurer’s report
        Page 94
    Roster of members
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Back Cover
        Page 103
        Page 104
Full Text






& 43 tA*


THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


Editor: Charlton W. Tebeau


CONTENTS


PAGE


Miami on the Eve of the Boom: 1923
Frank B. Sessa

The Pennsuco Sugar Experiment
William A. Graham

Random Records of Tropical Florida
Dr. Henry Perrine (Reprint)

Across South Central Florida in 1882
Reprint from New Orleans Times Democrat

Contributors

Treasurer's Report

Roster of Members


COPYRIGHTED 1951 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA



Le e t is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida
and the University of Miami as a bulletin of the University. Subscrip-
tion $2.00. Communications should be addressed to the Corresponding Secretary of the
Society, Post Office Box 537, Miami 4, Florida. Neither the Association nor the Uni-
versity assumes responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by the contributors.


NUMBER XI


1951







This Page Blank in Original
Source Document















MIAMI on the Eve of the Boom: 1925

By FRA'u B. SESSA
The year 1923 was an important one for Miami. The slight setback
of 1922 was soon forgotten as bank deposits increased and building permits
became more numerous and larger in amount, as real estate ventures became
more extensive and buyers more responsive. Florida might be the last great
"American Frontier," as one writer suggested, but Miami looked upon itself
as the coming American Riviera. The spirit of optimism became contagious;
few who remained long in greater Miami entertained the least doubt as to
the magnificence of the region's ultimate destiny. Physical growth, it is
true, remained haphazard except in special development areas, but had not
Miami's population shown an increase of 440 per cent in the last decennial
census? If law enforcement left something to be desired, there was plenty
of crime elsewhere as the featured crime stores on the front pages of
the Miami newspapers would testify. Whatever shortcomings might have
gone unrelieved, the year brought satisfaction to Miamians: a banner season
and a vital upward surge in real estate activity.
Miami was primarily a resort area. Its thinking, its business, its improve-
ments were all geared to the tourist season which began almost imperceptibly
in December, rose to its height in February and early March, and lingered
briefly past April first. In April and May, citizens took stock of the past
season, contemplated a chimerical summer season for June, July, and August,
and then began talking of preparations for next season. There was, never-
theless, an element in the city that envisioned a Miami grown strong through
trade and industry with an economy virtually independent of the whims of
a growing winter colony. To them, catering to the visitor emphasized the
ephemeral, or worse, the parasitic nature of the area and unconsciously
implied that the harvest should be reaped while there were still crops to
gather. Essentially, their problem lay in the fact that until trade and indus-
try grew, the resort business was all too necessary. Those who frankly
preferred the tourist trade enjoyed their neighbors' discomfiture.








TEQUESTA


Such was the dilemma of the Miami newspapers, particularly the
Miami Herald which extolled the beauties of the area, the evenness of the
climate, and the salutary effect of constant blue skies with their magnificent
banks of lazily drifting white clouds. But the Herald lost no opportunity
to publish any item, however brief or unimportant, that seemed to indicate
the city was developing on its own, independent of the visitor, who, in 1923
as later, really pointed out the direction Miami must travel for some time
to come. Miami was growing. It mattered little that the visitor caused the
growth. Service to him brought increasing numbers to the city and those
in turn needed services.
Perhaps the two pages of "Happy New Year" advertisements for "Miami's
Progressive Real Estate Dealers" were a prophecy of a major interest soon
to claim almost full attention of the newspapers. "Land at Retail--But at
Wholesale Prices," claimed the Montray Corporation, "A NEW YEAR'S
PROMISE." But at the moment one editorial masthead carried this platform
for Miami:
1. Secure pure water with municipal ownership of plant.
2. Provide for sewage disposal and necessary sewer extension.
3. Deepen the ship canal.
4. Build a railroad to the West Coast.
5. Complete the Tamiami Trail.
6. Inaugurate Greater Miami.
7. Abolish all grade crossings.
8. Early completion and beautification of the bayfront property.
Miami had much to do if the above program were to be realized. The city
budget, passed for 1923, contained little appropriation for the attainment
of those ideals. Its amount was $1,337,995.11 and estimates submitted to
the City Commission by City Manager Wharton a little more than seven
months later, approximated only $1,525,000 in expenditures for the next year.
As finally approved by the commissioners the amount was $1,574,354.62.
Improvements were planned for Miami. Early in January, the City of
Miami published in a legal notice City Resolution 605, signifying intent to
seek authorization from the state legislature to extend the city area to about
double its size. It would include the communities known as Silver Bluff,
Coconut Grove, and a part of Larkins (later South Miami) on the south,
Allapattah on the west, and Buena Vista, Lemon City, and Little River on
the north. The boundary would run on the north from the bay to a point
westward about four miles, thence southward about five miles, and turn








FRANK B. SESSA 5

east to the bay. The increased population would number 75,000 or more.
Presented to the voters at the same time would be a $2,730,000 improvement
bond issue. It was not planned to "railroad" other districts into the city
and no outstanding indebtedness of areas taken in would be added to the
city's indebtedness. Nor would any previous city debts be placed upon the
newcomers whose tax money would be exempted from servicing already exist-
ing Miami debts. The election was planned for March 20.
As in so many similar attempts to include suburbs within city limits
elsewhere, Miami's efforts met with a storm of protest from the communities
so affected. On January 23, representatives of Coconut Grove and of Alla-
pattah appeared before the City Commissioners to protest annexation. The
Coconut Grove committee agreed that eventually their community would
become a part of Miami, but felt that the present was not the time. They
were also interested in knowing what improvements the city intended to make
in Coconut Grove, a subject the commissioners were not prepared to discuss
at the moment. The arguments of the Allapattah delegation were in the
same vein. The Miami Daily Metropolis, while reporting some of the pro-
test meetings, observed that there was "no general agreement about annexa-
tion," but the Miami Herald recorded the controversy in detail. On Jan-
uary 18, a mass meeting was held in Allapattah to protest annexation.
Representatives from Coconut Grove, Larkins, and Silver Bluff were present
to state that their people were also opposed. The Federated Improvement
Association met Monday evening, January 30, to map a program to combat
annexation effectively. Twenty-nine delegates, representing Lemon City,
Allapattah, Everglades Avenue (Seventy-ninth Street), Little River, Old
Forty-second Street, and Rockmoor, proposed such devices as sending dele-
gates to the state legislature, employing legal talent, providing public speak-
ers to voice opposition, and on election day hiring autos to get voters to the
polls. Multigraphed letters also might be of assistance. As a matter of
protection in the event of annexation, however, the association went on record
as favoring an amendment to the city charter to divide the city into five
districts with one commissioner elected by each district. Coconut Grove
proposed through its council to canvass its citizens by sending each one a
printed return post card with the questions: Do you favor annexation to
Miami? Do you want the Council to request the state legislature to amend
the town charter so that the consent of a majority of town voters would be
necessary before annexation?
Favoring annexation was a formal resolution of the Miami Realty Board
which unanimously supported the actions of the city commissioners in the








TEQUESTA


proposed boundary extensions: "Whereas the wonderful city of Miami, the
fastest growing city in the United States, occupying as it does approximately
15 square miles, is unjustly handicapped by lack of proper territorial pos-
session" and since it furnished pleasure, accommodations, life and growth
to outlying districts, Miami should have a territorial extent of about sixty
square miles, like other cities of its size. The resolution also stated that
public benefits to be derived from a greater Miami were more extensive than
those to be obtained from individual communities. A spirit of full coopera-
tion was needed to push Miami ahead. According to the Miami Herald oppo-
sition came "almost entirely from the outside," engineered by a few persons
"whose interests in the matter are not at all considerable."
In the middle of the debate the city decided to withdraw its call for an
election to extend city limits; it also withheld submission for approval of the
public improvement bond issue. The decision seems to have been influenced
by legal complications in the city charter and the advice of a New York
bond attorney, Chester B. Masselich, who advised that sale of the bonds
would be difficult if a part of the city were exempted from servicing the
bonded indebtedness. The city attorney also submitted his opinion to the
commissioners. His advice was to submit only the bond issue to the voters
for approval. The matter would not then create confusion when annexation
came up. Accordingly, on March 15, the city commissioners, in a two-page
newspaper spread, proposed a $2,730,000 bond issue. One million dollars
were to be spent for acquiring and improving lands for public park pur-
poses. The city had bought two years before at a cost of $1,000,000 the
bay waterfront from Sixth Street north to Second Street south. The plan
was to fill in the bayfront one thousand feet from the shore line. A part
of the money would also go to improve, beautify, and buy parks elsewhere.
Seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars would be devoted to securing an
adequate, wholesome water supply, $400,000 to an extension of the street
railway system and new equipment, $100,000 to the city hospital and its
equipment, and the balance to projects for comfort stations, sewers (sani-
tary and storm), an incinerator, widening the turning basin at the city docks,
a fire alarm system and hydrants, and to acquire property for street widening
and extension. The issue was submitted to the voters on Tuesday, March 20
and was carried. A total of 560 property owners voted.
Since 1921, Miami had had a commission form of city government and
the five commissioners were the city's leading bankers. In May, nine aspir-
ants qualified for the run-off primary to be held on June 9, and the Miami








FRANK B. SESSA


Herald complained that less than half of the qualified voters went to vote,
a total of 1118. In June, the commission, James H. Gilman, Charles D.
Leffler, J. E. Lummus, James I. Wilson, and Edward C. Romfh, were re-
turned to office. While Mr. Romfh was out of the city, the question of
choosing the mayor came up. The position was largely honorary since
executive functions were carried out by a city manager, reappointed or newly
chosen by the commissioners after each biennial election. Charles Leffler
had been mayor, but Mr. Lummus decided to oppose him. As a result the
vote was split evenly. On the return of Mr. Romfh "harmony again reigned
among the commissioners," for they elected Edward Romfh unanimously.
The commissioners also reappointed City Manager Frank H. Wharton and
made Frank B. Stoneman, current managing editor and former owner of
the Miami Herald, municipal judge.
In an advertisement of the Winfield Investment Company, greater Miami's
population for 1923 was set at 50,000. The source of the estimate was not
given. The same company hazarded the prediction that by 1925, it would be
100,000; in 1927, 150,000; and in 1930, 250,000. More authoritative figures
from a local survey, taken to determine whether the Eleventh Judicial Dis-
trict (Dade, Broward, and Monroe counties) warranted an additional circuit
judge, showed a population of 72,481 for Dade County and 47,021 for Miami,
respective gains since 1920 of 69.6 and 55 per cent. At the close of the
year the Miami Herald announced that based on statistics from local sources,
Miami would enter 1924 with a population of 50,271.
There were evidences to support these estimates of growth. A. B. Greene,
telephone engineer for the State Railroad Commission, who had conducted
a survey from July 8 to October 18, 1922, predicted that the South Atlantic
Telephone and Telegraph Company would have to spend about a half
million dollars a year to keep up with Miami's expansion.
As a result of population growth the company was operating at a loss,
set at 8 per cent in 1922. The Rotary Club, Civitan, Advertising Club,
Realty Board of Miami, and forty subscribers, all but one of whom had
written favorable letters, advocated an increase in rates. The Metropolis,
opposed to an increase, quoted figures to show that if rates were changed
as desired, Miami would have the highest ones in the State of Florida. Com-
pany figures indicated an increase of 1,500 subscribers in six months, an
average of 55,000 calls daily, some 18,000 more than at the same time the
previous year. The increase was granted as requested. In August, the com-
pany announced it would spend $500,000 on expansion. By December, the








TEQUESTA


Commission had further granted permission to extend lines to Coral Gables
and to set up a separate exchange, an improvement calling for an expendi-
ture of $140,000 to $150,000.
The Miami Electric and Power Company, anticipating heavier demands,
doubled its capacity by adding a new $200,000 generator unit of 6,000
kilowatts, a steam driven turbine.
Transportation to and from Miami was supplied by the single-tracked
Florida East Coast Railway or by steamship. There was some talk that the
Seaboard Air Line Railway in its extension to the east coast of Florida would
run its lines on to Miami. While company officials would neither admit
nor deny, an Interstate Commerce Commission report indicated that the
southern terminus would be West Palm Beach. The Commission, however,
did give the Florida East Coast Railway, "F.E.C.," as it was known to
Miamians, permission to construct a line from Okeechobee, seventy-five
miles northwest, to Miami at an estimated cost of $4,839,500. The road, to
be completed January 1, 1928, would tap some 1,671,000 acres of land and
produce an anticipated revenue for the company of $1,956,000 annually.
Much of the area was suitable for sugar cane and would add to the sugar
refining business anticipated for the city.
Steamship traffic for Miami promised to increase, too. The Miami Herald
noted on January 11, that the Baltimore and Carolina Steamship Company
would equip two of its ships, the Esther Weems and the Mary Weems for
passenger service to Miami. The Peninsular and Occidental Steamship Com-
pany early in February announced that there would be three sailings weekly
instead of two for the trip to Nassau. The new schedule would be operative
February 19 through February 26, when the regular schedule would be
resumed. The last trip would sail on April 5. An addition to the Nassau
route was the Nassauvian, presently undergoing reconditioning in Key West.
The former two-masted schooner, owned by W. C. B. Albury would be in
year round service. The vessel had been caught in a hurricane in September,
1921, and everyone aboard was lost. The ship was salvaged by the Coast
Guard in the Gulf of Mexico and had subsequently been purchased by
Albury. Freight as well as passenger business came into the Miami port.
The S.S. Santurce brought 2,300 tons of building materials into Miami in
early May as did the four masted schooner Azua which brought 1,007 tons
of cement, the first of many such loads scheduled. The Miami Herald editor-
ially complained that up to the present prevailing opinion seemed to be that
the waters of Biscayne Bay must be preserved to create beauty spots.







FRANK B. SESSA


Could the city afford to devote harbor facilities to beauty alone, it asked.
That the city would not entirely ignore water borne freight was shown by
the announcement that work would soon begin on additional warehouses at
a cost of $75,000 to accommodate new steamship lines. In August, the
Miami Herald included an "Ocean Transportation Section" in honor of the
arrival of the S.S. Esther Weems, entering the Miami to Baltimore service.
In October, the journal passed on a waterfront rumor that the Clyde Line
might come from Jacksonville to Miami or perhaps directly from New York
to Miami.
Miami began to look skywards, too, in transportation. An additional
seaplane was added to the Miami-Nassau flight of the Aeromarine Airway
planes; the "Buckeye" joined the "Cordeaux" and the "Waldorf" and all
three were available for charter flights. The Ta-Miami Air Line was granted
a charter by the state (capital $100,000) and planned to begin carrying
passengers from Miami to Tampa in its four planes about March 1.
Although the Miami Herald recorded faithfully each item indicative of
Miami's progress, it gave considerable support to its contentions of news-
paper leadership by publishing daily its advertising records and rather fre-
quently its circulation statistics. By comparisons with statistics of previous
years, the expansion of metropolitan Miami was manifest in yet another way.
"Want ads" in the year 1922 totaled 187,504, a gain over the previous
year of 52,289. In March, 21,993 advertisements were printed as opposed
to the March, 1922, figure of 15,722. In April the figure was 18,561 (April,
1922, 13,847) and in June, 17,030 (June, 1922, 12,592). During the sum-
mer months, the monthly average figures remained slightly higher than
13,000 advertisements, indicative that the season was still a major factor in
Miami's economy. In October, the figure climbed sharply to 21,253 and
in November to 27,033. In the first eleven months of 1923, the previous
year's total had been passed by 19,166. Indicating its growth in circulation,
the paper pointed out that its increase in daily circulation in January, 1923,
over that of January, 1920, was 105 per cent (16,831 over 8,205, average daily
circulation). Corresponding figures for Sunday editions for the same per-
iods were a 110 per cent increase or 19,178 over 9,495 average Sunday circu-
lation. Certainly, it added, those figures would justify a twenty per cent
increase in advertising rates, the first in three years.
One complaint about Miami's planning or lack of planning was its
narrow streets and lack of sidewalks in areas immediately removed from
the center. Although the newspapers duly recorded new paving contracts








TEQUESTA


for asphalt streets and concrete sidewalks from time to time, they belabored
the narrow roadways, "the inadequacy of which its founders could not have
foreseen." A Miami Herald editorial, on May 26, pointed out that the time
to prepare for later population increases was then, not when the situation
had gotten out of hand. Proper zoning should be instituted, too, During
the season of 1923-24, the Miami Herald again stressed the need for wider
streets. Some public-spirited citizens, it indicated, were donating a few feet
of property to help. Such was Fred Rand, developer of Northeast Second
Avenue, who not only gave property but built a large apartment house in
such a way as to give an added ten feet.
Two days later the journal again hit upon the same theme and observed
that the main reason for such slender width was the selfish desire for a few
extra lots. Blocks should be longer, too. Thus stirred to action, the Miami
Realty Board decided to take up the fight to relieve congestion. As an
improvement on street lighting Miami began to plan for "White Ways."
The plan called for a complete loop along Flagler Street, Northeast Second
Avenue, Southeast Second Street, and Miami Avenue. It was estimated that
the cost would run one dollar a front foot to property owners along the loop.
To make the city more attractive to the visitor and to the citizen the city
commissioners decided to take advantage of the presence of Warren H.
Manning, landscape architect brought to Miami to consult on Bayfront
Park planning. Perhaps Manning's pronouncement that be believed Miami
was destined to become the "big city of the south," was an influence, but he
was commissioned to survey the city's parks, streets, harbors, and street
planning, and submit a report with recommendations. The Miami Herald
was delighted with the move. Everyone knows something should be done,
said the editorial writer, but what? "The city is outgrowing its clothes."
Not all civic improvements were initiated by the newspapers or the City
Commissioners. Frequently prominent citizens or the Chamber of Commerce
made suggestions and began movements. The Chamber, for instance, moved
to secure waterfront property for the city. It began agitating at Tallahassee,
the state capital, for giving Miami title to all submerged bay bottom land
in Biscayne Bay south of the county causeway and within the city limits.
The bill was defeated in the Senate. Marjory Stoneman Douglas spoke on
city planning to the Ad Club, but the first city planning conference had
already been held on May 8 in the First Presbyterian Church. The confer-
ence, described as "packed," was sponsored by the Miami Woman's Club.
It recommended the city charter be amended to include a planning commis-








FRANK B. SESSA


sion. Other ambitions for civic betterment turned toward establishing a
university. The Miami Herald suggested editorially that a Pan American
University be located in South Florida (with no suggestion as to how it
could be secured) and the long-time resident, merchant, and real estate
operator, Isidor Cohen, raised the question at a regular weekly luncheon of
the realtors. Mr. Cohen felt that a college or university for Miami would
give wealthy Cubans an opportunity of sending their children to Miami, a
bit closer home, rather than to the North.
Statistics indicative of steady economic growth for Miami were amassing.
Burdine's Sons Store, a leading department store, released figures through
its manager, George E. Whitten, that showed February, 1923, sales to be
34 per cent higher than those of the previous February; comparable figures
for March indicated a sales increase of 32.5 per cent. Miami hotels reported
a 50 per cent increase in summer business over the summer of 1922. The
inbound freight of the Baltimore and Carolina Steamship Company jumped
from 20,000 to 35,000 tons, a 75 per cent gain in one year. The telephone
company found that the continuous growth of Miami and Miami Beach forced
the adding of between $500,000 and $600,000 worth of equipment to provide
needed facilities; a like amount was estimated for 1924, and the company
planned to spend that sum. The total investment was in the neighborhood of
$2,000,000 with about 8,700 telephones in operation in Miami in December
1923, and with an added 1,500 scheduled for installation in the next sixty
days. Fruit and vegetable markets had their best year to date in 1923, 20-25
per cent above 1922 business levels. City payroll figures were averaging
$65,000 a month; the income of organized workers in Miami was set at
$6,000,000. The city tax roll for 1923 showed a total valuation of taxable
real estate and personal property to be $69,911,303, an increase of $4,943,579
over the previous year's figures.
Miami's rapid growth was most evident in requests for building and alter-
ation permits and in the increase of banking resources. For the first four
months of 1923, $1,763,200 in permits was issued, distributed as follows:
Permits Value
January 195 295,200
February 136 209,100
March 233 422,600
April 230 836,300

Totals 794 1,763,200








TEQUESTA


By the end of six months the total had reached $2,913,400 or more than one
million dollars greater than the entire previous year and a little more than
$175,000 in advance of the same period of the best year, 1921, when permits
issued totaled $2,735,500. Permits in July were $1,229,900, the highest
for a single month in the city's history. In percentage terms the gain in one
year from July, 1922, to July, 1923, was 234.8, according to the figures of
the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. By November 1, a total of $5,758,596
exceeded by $342,796, the banner year of 1921, which totalled $5,415,800.
On December 1, the figure for the eleven months was $6,232,034 and the
entire year equalled $7,201,267.
In January, construction was mostly residential, but as the year pro-
gressed larger buildings were more common which raised the aggregate value
of permits issued. In May, two arcades, the Loraine and the Halcyon were
planned, both on Flagler Street. Three new churches were erected, The Holy
Name Church, locally known as Gesu, the Reformed Jewish Temple Israel,
the Riverside Calvary Baptist Church. Several large hotels were projected,
too. R. Earle Smith, manager of the Smith Battery and Electric Company,
planned a year around, $200,000 hotel on the southeast corner of North-
east First Avenue and Tenth Street, then somewhat removed from the center
of activities. A half million dollar hotel, the nine-story Ponce de Leon was
to be built on the site of 227-235 East Flagler Street; it would have, when
completed, 126 apartments. S. W. Straus and Company, of New York and
Atlanta, offered a $500,000, 61/2 per cent, bond issue on the Ponce de Leon
Hotel. The bonds would constitute a closed first mortgage on the land and
on the building to be erected; they would also constitute a first lien on
annual earnings. The president and controlling stockholder was E. C.
McAllister, who erected during the summer a third wing to the McAllister
Hotel at the corner of East Flagler Street and North Bayshore Drive. The
hotel would then have 350 guest rooms and represent an investment of
$1,500,000. Work began on June 8 on the new building of the Bank of Bay
Biscayne, then Miami's largest and oldest bank. Although plans called for
fourteen floors only five were to be constructed then. The Miami Woman's
Club had plans for a $250,000 club house and library to be located on the
bayfront at Seventeenth Street; and Tatum Brothers were preparing to erect
a ten story building on the southeast corner of East Flagler and Second
Avenue, the site sold by the Womans' Club for $345,000. The lot had a
frontage of 152 feet on Flagler Street and was sixty-two feet deep. Even
gasoline filling stations underwent transformation, like the Bayshore Station








FRANK B. SESSA


at the end of the causeway which appeared so "unusual and picturesque" that
"if it had been intended for a private residence or a bungalow tea-room there
would not have been so much to wonder at." The architectural design was
Spanish mission style. Large buildings, however, were still enough of a nov-
elty to have the formal opening of the eight-story, $200,000 Professional
Building become an event of some consequence. The owners, the Realty
firm of Davenport and Rich, held open house from two to five o'clock in
the afternoon and supplied refreshments, souvenirs, and music.
THE SEASON, 1922-23
Whereas a member of our class, Mr. J. C. Williams, having
reported certain bootleggers to the county authorities for a certain
violation of the law, was assaulted on the streets of Miami by said
violators and his life seriously endangered, we desire
First, to commend and approve the action of Mr. Williams as
being that of a good citizen and worthy of emulation
Second, to commend the officers for their prompt action in
binding over said violators of the law to the criminal court.
Nor, said Reverend J. L. White in support of the resolution of the Fellow-
ship Class of the First Baptist Church Sabbath School of Miami, was Mr.
Williams, as charged, a "stool pigeon." If the Fellowship Class and its
pastor took a dark view of Miami's lawlessness, there was plenty of justifi-
cation for it. The Chicago Daily News described Miami as a
city where, if you feel the need of a drink and don't happen to have
your own flask with you, all you need to do is wait in the shade
of a palm tree until a resident comes along,ask him where you can
find a bootlegger, and if he is not one himself, he will tell you
where to go. You can buy all the whiskey you want in Miami at
$5 a quart.
The article went on to point out that at one time a revenue cutter and a
rum-runner were tied up at the same pier, nose-to-nose; the rum-runner
reputedly had 40,000 cases of whiskey aboard. "Tommy-rot," said the Miami
Herald. There are no boats of that capacity plying between Nassau and
Miami; as a matter of fact it was extremely difficult to obtain liquor because
of the vigilance of the officers. Kenneth L. Roberts, the novelist, who spent
considerable time in the area before the boom and during it, observed:
"Any prohibition enforcement agent that didn't have lead in his shoes and
a daub of mud in both eyes, however, could easily get the goods on twenty
or thirty Miami bootleggers in a day." Miami jewel thieves were also
accomplished. On February 1, David Joyce, "Chicago millionaire lumber-
man," reported $250,000 worth of jewels stolen from his home on Brickell







TEQUESTA


Avenue. For several days the robbery was a sensation. Almost immediately
the police picked up four suspects and then had to let them go for want
of sufficient evidence. The police remained "baffled by the disappearance
of the Diamonds and Pearls from the Mansion." The paper finally felt
constrained to observe editorially that Miami was no worse than any other
city of its size and that its most "startling" crimes occurred in the winter
when bad elements came to the city from elsewhere to prey on winter vis-
itors. The paper even inveighed against evangelists who preached on religion
and health and exhibited neither. They came merely for short periods in
the winter, condemned the inhabitants without knowing them, and then left.
The Metropolis was more outspoken in its condemnation of Miami's failings:
Oh, this Miami! It's getting so much advertising-of one kind
and another-bright crooks can come and make a perfectly good
clean-up. Sneak thieves and pick-pockets and big gentleman rob-
bers can do a quarter of a million dollars worth of stealing. How
they must enjoy a season here!
Activities of the John B. Gordon Klan No. 24 (Ku Klux Klan) went
unnoticed except for straight, factual news reporting. Due publicity was
given to preparations for the initiation of 150 candidates on Palm Island
where a twenty-foot, fiery cross would be burned. The general public was
invited to witness the ceremonies and the parade from Flagler Street along
North Bay Shore Drive to the county causeway and along the causeway to
Palm Island. Hundreds witnessed the parade and thousands the ceremonies
on the island. It was estimated that 2,500 automobiles were parked along
the causeway. The Miami Daily Metropolis carried a picture of the cere-
monies, "witnessed by 12,000 people." The season was in full swing.
The Miami Herald had, on January 1, looked about with evident satisfac-
tion, for 1923 promised "to be one of the most brilliant in the industrial
history of Miami." Business conditions were better, there had been an
early influx of winter visitors, a welcome portent of a successful season,
and Miami-made products (auto parts, mattresses, baked goods, paints, drugs,
hats, perfumes, to name a few) were enjoying a constantly increasing demand.
Despite the promising business outlook the season's social activities dom-
inated the news. Pictures of prominent visitors began to appear on the
front pages of the newspapers. William H. Luden who manufactured cough
drops in tremendous quantities had arrived to spend some time at his home
at 1430 South Bayshore Drive, in Millionaires' Row. William K. Vanderbilt
had arrived aboard his three million dollar yacht, Ara; General T. Coleman
DuPont. United States Senator from Delaware, was staying at the Royal Palm







FRANK B. SESSA


Hotel, Harvey S. Firestone came to stay at the James H. Snowden estate on
Miami Beach, which he bought ultimately at a reputed price of $350,000.
Others to follow were Secretary of Labor James J. Davis, J. C. Penny,
"Merchant Prince," Elbert H. Baker, President and General Manager of the
Cleveland Plain Dealer, William H. Durant, automobile manufacturer, and
James M. Cox, unsuccessful candidate in the last presidential election. Cox
purchased the Metropolis and assumed control of the publication with the
issues of April 18, 1923.
Many of the visitors were prevailed upon to comment on Miami and its
future. Mercer P. Mosely, Vice President of the American Exchange Bank
of New York, observed that he had "no doubt at all about Miami's continued
progress . because this country's gifts are God-created and not man
created." Frank Hedges Butler of London, near the end of an 18,000
mile trip, told reporters that Miami's climate was superior to all, and "in
addition to having the natural facilities for the most beautiful city in the
world, Miami's development is marked especially by the efforts of the citizens
to use every possible means for adding to the natural gifts." Clarence
Darrow observed simply, "Chicago was never like this."
The high point in the round of visitors was the arrival of President and
Mrs. Harding. Joseph Kealing of Indiana, David Mulvane of Kansas,
national committeeman, and Attorney General Daugherty, recuperating from
a recent serious illness, were awaiting the president's arrival while his
houseboat Pioneer fought "another day's battle" with "the Florida East
Coast canal sandbars." Although Harvey S. Firestone had reserved the
Snowden estate for the President's use, the President preferred to stay at
Cottage 4 of the Flamingo Hotel.
For recreation other than golf, polo, and the beach, the visitor might
listen to Arthur Pryor's band which played daily in Royal Palm Park or
during the season he might hear visiting artists such as Rachmaninoff,
Madame Schumann-Heink, Jascha Heifetz, or Geraldine Farrar. As there
was no civic auditorium large enough to hold a sizeable gathering, the
artists appeared at the White Temple, a Methodist Church. Miami also had
a philharmonic orchestra that was then in its fifth concert season. Celeb-
rities other than musicians also visited Miami. Edward Markham, the poet,
spoke to the Monday Club that held its meeting on the lawn of Villa Serena,
the home of William Jennings Bryan, and later he addressed the Miami
League of Pen Women. Mrs. Bryan spoke before the Housekeepers' Club
of Coconut Grove, her talk "scintillating with brilliance and humor." The








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target of her wit was Albert Einstein "whose theory of relativity haunted
one's mental horizon." He had, she said, "succeeded in getting Euclid,
Newton, and Galileo on the run-I am not sure which way they are running
-but I am sure he is in hot pursuit." Mrs. Bryan also gave some "clever
descriptions" to topics under "serious discussion" such as how to lose weight
and how to look at one's back hair.
William Jennings Bryan began his annual tourist Bible Class, meeting
in Royal Palm Park, at 9:15 A. M. Sunday morning, with the text: "The
Prodigal Son." He also spoke to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union
at its "chowder party and general jollification."
The season of 1922-23 was a distinct success. As early as mid-February
the Chamber of Commerce was predicting that it would be the biggest Miami
had yet enjoyed. More than 30,000 visitors were already in the city, it was
estimated, and more would certainly come. To help tourists find rooms the
Chamber opened a bureau which served more than 100 persons the day it
began operations. Miamians who had rooms to rent were asked to list them
with the bureau.
One reason for the increasingly satisfactory seasons, in the eyes of many,
was the practice of advertising the city and its resort attractions in selected
northern newspapers and magazines. A practice that had been started in
1916, it had been expanded yearly. In 1923, the task of handling the adver-
tising was in the hands of the Chamber and there it remained for years to
come. Under the plan the Chamber made the contracts and then the bills
were audited and paid by the city. This advertising practice was the reason,
said the Miami Herald editor, why visitors were turned away last season
and why, even though 2,000 additional rooms were available this year,
visitors were again being turned away.

NEIGHBORING COMMUNITIES IN 1923
Clustered about the City of Miami were the development areas of Miami
Beach, Coral Gables, Hialeah, and Fulford. As Miami grew these com-
munities grew also. Their economic activity paralleled that of the larger
city and their real estate business and building were as active if not more
so. Of the four, Miami Beach, the oldest, showed the most advance. It
was the only one that was an incorporated city; the others were real estate
developments that had expanded rapidly but had not yet achieved autonomy.
Development for Miami Beach was of two kinds: that undertaken by the
city government and that of those interested in the improvement and sale of
real estate. Although each was pursuing its own interest, improvements







FRANK B. SESSA


made within subdivisions with a view to increasing profits redounded to
the city's benefit; and each step forward by municipal authorities tended to
increase the value of the subdivider's investment.
Early in February, the Miami Beach Chamber of Commerce held a
meeting at which President Thomas J. Pancoast outlined for the 200 persons
present a proposed program of civic improvement for the coming year. He
advocated wider streets, a widening of the causeway viaducts, more hotels
and apartment houses, and an increase in the advertising of the city. A
little less than a month later the city council members announced that shortly
there would be a bond election for city improvements and, on April 8,
published the legal public notice required:
$100,000 for water mains
20,000 for street lights
7,000 for a bridge to Belle Isle
65,000 for sanitary sewers
18,000 for storm sewers
10,000 for street paving.

$220,000
The property holders approved the issue as advertised and the city subse-
quently voted an additional $200,000 in bonds. By December, further ex-
pansion, with projects totaling $600,000, was planned, and a $300,000 bond
issue election set for January 21, 1924. Included were additional street
paving, bridges, and installation of bulkheads along the canals.
While the city engaged in its program, private developers, notably Carl
G. Fisher, pushed their programs. In April, it was reported that 100 men
were working on a development north of Dade Boulevard. In a matter of
a few weeks four or five miles of roadway and sidewalks had been laid,
mostly along the new Sunset Lake subdivision. A roadway had been built
around two new polo fields and pile drivers were hammering in steel bulk-
heads to form a new seawall. In the same subdivision a new $500,000 golf
course was under construction. As summer drew to a close developers were
filling in the northern part of the city. Tractors cut trees and pushed them
into piles to be burned; the area was then filled in and changed from "Man-
grove Swamp to a City Beautiful." Always alert for the unusual, Fisher
brought in two elephants, Rosie and Nero, who ploughed, hauled, and picked
up heavy material. Late in November, Fisher interests were reported as
planning to have in their developments fifteen miles of concrete bulkhead,







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twenty-seven miles of sidewalk, twenty-one miles of independent water
mains, forty miles of electric service extension, and two miles of telephone
extension. Of the above they had already built four miles of bulkhead,
eighteen of sidewalk and sixteen of watermains. The installations already
boasted of 28,000 trees and 6,000 flowering shrubs. An additional 2,500
acres of land would be created, too.
Miami Beach was exhibiting many other evidences of expansion. In
1921, for instance, water consumption was 95,000 gallons; by 1922, it had
increased 237 per cent, or 255,600 gallons. When installed in 1921, the 800
kilowatt hour electric plant was thought to be sufficient for three years; in
1922, capacity had to be increased to 1,500 killowatt hours, and before the
1922-1923 season ended, to 4,000 kilowatt hours. Other utilities also found
expansion of services essential. The street railway system went into an
extension program entailing expenditures of from $150,000 to $160,000.
The telephone company planned additional amounts for expansion totaling
$75,000. The coming winter, it estimated, would call for an increase of
from 900 to 1,600 new telephone installations. Growth was also evidenced
by the increase in the city's real estate valuation which rose from $224,000,
in 1915, to $6,235,539, in 1922. By years the valuations were:
1915 $ 224,000
1916 335,120
1917 647,500
1918 832,745
1919 2,579,600
1920 3,933,700
1921 5,540,112
1922 6,235,549
For 1923, the valuation was set at $8,222,485. Pointing to the above figures,
four leading real estate firms observed in a joint advertisement: "Nothing
can stop the increase of property values at Miami Beach." Early in the
year the state approved the charter of a second bank for Miami Beach, the
Miami Beach Bank and Trust Company. In the early summer, the Miami
Beach First National Bank advised that deposits were now over the million
dollar mark, $750,000 greater than they had been the previous summer.
One of the indices most frequently used to indicate progress, building
permits issued monthly, was continually emphasized. In February, the Miami
Herald indicated that more building had been started in January at Miami
Beach than at four much larger southern cities:








FRANK B. SESSA


Charleston $ 14,138
Savannah 86,370
Miami 315,600
Tampa 338,115
Miami Beach 341,950
And Miami Beach had yet to complete its eighth year of corporate existence.
By mid-year the total was $2,798,267. At the close of its fiscal year, October
31, Miami Beach showed the greatest percentage of building increase of
some twenty-three Florida cities; it had issued permits in the amount of
$3,869,950. In terms of types of buildings, the first eleven months of 1923
had permits issued for 125 dwellings at an average cost of $12,000, seven-
teen apartment houses at an average cost of $17,000, and sixteen hotels at
an average cost of $94,800. Two houses costing in excess of $100,000 were
built on Star Island by Locke T. Highleyman and by W. P. Adams at 120
Bay Road. Outstanding among the hotels constructed were the Nautilus,
so named by John Oliver LaGorce, and the Pancoast. The Nautilus Hotel
was listed as a $1,500,000 project involving a hotel and adjacent cottages.
The site would include two islands, one of six and one-half acres, the other
of one and one-half acres with bridges connecting the islands. The Pancoast
Hotel, first announced as a $750,000, 125 room hotel, was later estimated to
cost $375,000. It was to be located on the ocean front at Twenty-ninth
Street. To build it, a Pancoast Hotel Company applied for a state charter;
its $500,000 capital would be made up of $250,000 in preferred stock and
a like amount in common stock. Subsequently, a fifty-eight room lodge
was planned at a cost of $150,000 to care for the overflow from the main
building.
Although considerable building was in evidence, Miami Beach realtors
were anxious to attract additional capital to provide further expansions.
Four realty companies issued a call for:
Ten more hotels . guests are sleeping on emergency cots in the
four large hotels at Miami Beach. Reservations sufficient to fill
many hotels are being turned away daily . Miami Beach needs
five more hotels the size of the Flamingo and five more the size of
the Lincoln, Wofford, or Marlborough. We will cooperate with
responsible builders in erecting such needed accommodations.
The above statements were at variance with an early seasonal advertisement
of the Chamber of Commerce which boasted that Miami Beach had ample
accommodations for tourists and "the best hotels in the South; twenty-five
apartment houses, $350 to $1,200 for the season." Houses and cottages
might be obtained at prices ranging upwards from $700.








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To protect investors and insure an attractive community, building restric-
tions, based upon the cost of the house, were established; the following were
examples:
Subdivision Minimum Cost
Mid Golf $ 7,500
First Addition 7,500
Ocean Front 15,000
Ocean Front (north of city limits) 7,500
First Pine Tree Drive 15,000
Miami Ocean View 6,000
Sunset Lake 5,000
Nautilus 10,000
The above restrictions were set by the real estate companies, but in 1923 the
state legislature had authorized the city council to pass ordinances zoning
Miami Beach. Some of the realtors sharply attacked this legislation and
formed the Miami Beach Anti-Zoning Association; John J. Hayes, an active,
large-scale operator served as its president. The act was illegal, asserted
the association, because it had not been advertised sixty days before passage.
If permitted to stand it would take property without compensation and per-
mit the government to control, use and dispose of private property. It
would, moreover, demoralize the real estate market by deterring non-resident
buyers from investing. A few individuals in office could thereby inflict
damage on private property at a whim. The restrictions stood.
Like Miami, Miami Beach enjoyed a social season. In fact, its business
other than real estate was caring for the needs of the visitor. Golf, polo,
the beach, and fishing were its chief attractions, but others were offered. An
art show of 113 paintings of 27 artists at the Chamber of Commerce building
attracted 600 visitors on the first day, and the Carl G. Fishers gave a Sunday
musical at thier home, the Shadows. Among the more than 100 guests who
came to hear Reinald Werrenrath sing was Jascha Heifetz who was to play
later in the week in Miami. Like Miami's, too, the 1922-23 season on the
Beach was a thriving one. The Chamber of Commerce president, Charles
W. Chase, Sr. estimated that hotels and apartment houses had four times
as many people as last season. That indicated, he said, a need for moderate-
priced hotels for persons who wished to spend merely a few days. The
Flamingo Hotel had already spent more than $500 in sending messages to
say no space was available.
Miami Beach continued to develop as the year wore on. If there were
those business men and city fathers who looked on with satisfaction, there
were others who let their enthusiasm gain momentum. Two couples had







FRANK B. SESSA


returned from a vacation trip to Asheville, North Carolina, and reported
that they had advertised the community well. "In fiery red letters on several
of the biggest boulders at the base of Chimney Rock" they had written:
"Come to Miami Beach, Fla.," "Oh, you Miami Beach, we're waiting for
you," and "Miami Beach, the playground of the world."
Across the bay and to the southwest of Miami lay Coral Gables. It was,
in 1923, purely a real estate development subject to the political jurisdiction
of Dade County, yet it continued to get from its founder and developer,
George E. Merrick, more vital improvements than many autonomous
communities.
George Edgar Merrick, who came to Miami as a boy in 1895, was the
son of a Congregational minister who held a charge on Cape Cod. After the
blizzard of 1895, the Reverend Merrick moved his family to the 160 acres
that later became the center of the development. The name Coral Gables
seems to have come from a combination of the material used in constructing
the house, Coral Rock, (not a true coral, but rather a limestone resembling
coral) and the father's admiration for Grover Cleveland, whose home was
named Gray Gables. Merrick and his brothers worked together on the farm un-
til he went to Stetson University and subsequently to New York to fulfill his
father's wish that he become a lawyer. He seems to have studied law but
"practiced poetry," always a major interest with him. On his father's
death Merrick returned to Miami to run the farm. When Fisher began to
expand his real estate operations on the beach, Merrick's thoughts turned
toward having a development of his own, a suburb of Miami that would be
a model city "wherein nothing would be unlovely." He added to his hold-
ings as he could and, by 1921, he had 3,000 acres. In November, the first
sale was held with E. E. Dammers as auctioneer. Initial success was fol.
lowed by subsequent sales. As the development prospered, he called in
architects and landscape artists. The buildings were all to be of similar
style, a style Merrick called "Mediterranean," part Spanish and part Italian,
"a combination of what seemed best in each, with an added touch of gaiety
to suit Florida mood."
In 1923, sales were in the hands of the realty firm, Dammers and Gillette
and Harry A. Burnes, who advertised that they kept "constantly at your
command 40 private automobiles to take you to Coral Gables at any time
you desire to go." Large, comfortable busses left Miami daily except
Sunday at 9:30 A. M. and 2:30 P. M.








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Merrick was not content to permit his projects to grow slowly or perhaps
to grow stagnant because interest shifted elsewhere. The money he received
from sales in a large measure went back into the development in the form
of improvements. In January, 1923, a full page of the Sunday Miami Herald
was devoted to an advertisement announcing the opening of the Coral Gables
business section. It lay between Douglas and LeJeune Roads with Coral
Way the southern boundary. The main boulevard, parallel to Coral Way,
was named Alhambra Plaza, a 140 foot thoroughfare. Merrick had already
erected the Coral Gables Garage and the electric plant, "two fine structures
in the best Spanish design." A cement block plant, a tea room, a restaurant,
an eight-store structure, two filling stations, and a water tower were also
under construction .A little more than two months later the developer
announced a $5,000,000 development program for the year. Three million
dollars would be expended for homes (300 of them), $1,000,000 for busi-
ness, industrial and educational construction, and the balance for parks,
plazas, golf courses, club houses, streets, sidewalks, an electric lighting
system, a water system, and other improvements. As a news item the Miami
Herald carried the story that four new sections of the "big Suburb" would
soon be opened and that the move would involve the building of twenty
miles of streets and of sidewalks, and the extension of utilities. Later in the
year a Venetian Lake (the Venetian Pool) was announced. The plans in-
cluded a twenty foot diving rock with carved steps leading up to it, two
waterfalls cascading five feet into the lake, a pergola pavilion, and locker
rooms for men and women. As a sort of climax there would be a colorful
float to cruise around the lake.
In September, Merrick added a 180 acre tract on the east that included the
old John Douglas home and grove. This addition with 300 acres previously
acquired on the northwest gave the development almost two miles of front-
age along the Tamiami Trail and made the suburb a rough square running
about four miles to a side. The main entrance from Miami would be at the
corner of Douglas Road and the "Trail," or Southwest Eighth Street. To-
ward the end of the month, as preparation for the coming season, the
Granada tract of 450 acres was opened for sale, and thirty modest-priced
homes were planned for it.
As an example of the way in which Merrick provided facilities for his
investors, there was the Coral Gables Utilities Corporation of Miami, char-
tered by the state, with a capitalization of $500,000. Its stated purpose was
"owning, operating and maintaining factories, plants, and necessary machin-








FRANK B. SESSA


ery and equipment for the manufacture and distribution of electricity which
is to be used for power and lights." Merrick was president of the corpora-
tion, Harry A. Burnes, vice-president, and Edwin G. Bishop, secretary-treas-
urer. In less than eight months of operation the $100,000 equipment was
outgrown; it had been considered adequate for a three to five year period.
Additional equipment in the amount of $50,000 was being added.
Nor did Merrick forget the social and recreational needs of those he
would attract to "Miami's Master Suburb." In January, he opened a nine
hole golf course, for use of which a one dollar daily green fee was charged,
but a season membership might be obtained at a cost of twenty-five dollars.
Soon he erected an outdoor cement and tile tea room and dancing pavilion
between the club house and the professional's house. The club house
"scarcely completed" was deemed so inadequate that an additional $60,000
was to be spent erecting a second floor.
The Miami Herald accorded full recognition to the development's growth.
In the late summer it began a three column section devoted to Coral Gables
news items-on Mondays. The Miami Daily Metropolis had been carrying
a Coral Gables section at intervals since January.
Several miles north of Coral Gables lay Hialeah, in greater Miami's
northwest. In 1922, it, too, was just two years old and expanding rapidly.
The original development was cut out of the Curtiss-Bright Ranch Company
holdings. Hialeah was not only a subdivision it was also the catch-all for
most of the sporting events around Miami. The dog track was located there
as were eventually the major race track of the area and the Jai Alai fronton.
It was also the location of the movie studios which were the Florida hope of
a new and bigger Hollywood (California). It was also the home of a
famous prohibition drink in Miami, "Hialeah Rye."
In 1923, Hialeah was being pushed as a real estate development. With
$503,803.65 spent on building in Hialeah in 1922, advertisements were
pointing to the $100,000 worth of building being launched in the first ten
days of January of 1923. To demonstrate just how active the community
was, a man was stationed at the post office building on New Year's Day to
count traffic. He found that 1,257 vehicles had passed his post in one hour!
With building operations reaching a total over $200,000 in the month of
January real estate sales began to pick up. In Hialeah was located the
motion picture organization known as Miami Studios, Inc., capitalized at
$300,000 and founded in 1921. The studios with more land than needed








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decided to offer for sale 84 lots "immediately east of the huge studio build-
ings at Hialeah."
In February, D. W. Griffith came to Miami to begin work on the motion
picture the "White Rose." The event called forth a full page ad on the
back page of the Sunday Miami Herald. There was just a small card in the
center of an otherwise blank page:
DAVID WARK GRIFFITH
the eminent motion
picture director
has started production in
THE MIAMI STUDIOS
at Hialeah.
N. B. T. Roney, active in large scale operations in Miami Beach real
estate, bought heavily into Hialeah real estate. The result was a small flurry
in sales. It was reported that Agnes McGrath of Little River had bought
a lot at 6:00 P. M. Saturday evening for $1,000. On Monday she was offered
but refused $2,600. In the meantime notices of new construction continued
to appear in the newspapers along with the interesting note that Hialeah
found Seminole Indians "to be ideal golf caddies," for their "marvelous
eyesight trained for years in the impenetrable fastnesses of the Everglades"
enabled them to follow the ball.
North of Miami was the Florida Cities Finance Company's development,
Fulford-by-the-Sea, which offered lots on easy terms at prices ranging from
$700 to $1,500. They also advertised a stupendous improvement program
promised to be completed in three years," a scientific program of progressive
development." Of all of the developments of major consequence in greater
Miami, Fulford-by-the-Sea ran into the most difficulty. Its programs were
always just a little more ambitious than those of its competitors. When
Coral Gables announced a $15,000,000 university, Fulford planned one to
cost $30,000,000. Of the developments also it was Fulford that fell before
the charge of fraud.
Miami, in 1923, was on the threshold of its first great period of expan-
sion, its boom. In a large measure the stage was set and the characters
moved into place. The pattern of the boom was set, too, for Miami was a
curious combination of the serious, the artistic, and the bizarre. For every
conservative, well planned delevopment offering attractive home-sites and
improvements to its investors, like Coral Gables, for instance, there were








FRANK B. SESSA 25

many which traded upon barbecues, jazz bands, and car raffles to attract
buyers to lands of dubious value. Just so was the community with its estab-
lished businesses, its lectures and concerts, and its Seminole golf caddies,
beach honky-tonks, and fiery letters painted on North Carolina rocks.






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Document Source












The Pennsuco Sugar Experiment
By WILLIAM A. GRAHAM

Getting this company of sugar manufacturers [the Pennsyl-
vania Sugar Company] interested in the Everglades to the extent
of buying the necessary land and developing it has been character-
ized by one of the shrewdest dealers in big realty in Florida as
the 'best day's work ever done for the state.'
Immediately following World War I the world and the nation were
faced with a sugar shortage which drove the price of sugar up and focused
attention upon the possibilities of sugar production in new undeveloped
areas of the world. One such area was the Florida Everglades.
A number of persons toured the Everglades in that period and gave glow-
ing accounts of what they saw. For example, C. A. Burguieres, prominent
Louisiana sugar cane planter and sugar distributor, made an extensive trip
into the Everglades in 1920 and was enthusiastically optimistic about Flor-
ida's opportunities. According to a story in the Florida Times-Union,
"[Burguieres] . stated that the sugar producing possibilities in Florida
were truly wonderful and that he had seen cane there yielding over thirty
tons to the acre and testing from sixteen to eighteen per cent sucrose as a
usual thing. He had gone over that country a year or more ago and, where
at that time one would find only a few acres, he would now see seven or
eight thousand acres of the finest sugar cane to be seen anywhere on the
American continent."
Reports such as this gave increased impetus to the already growing
awareness of the potentialities of the Florida Everglades as a sugar produc-
ing area. These predictions were not totally without practical basis; for
results of previous experiments, such as the St. Cloud Sugar Plantation as
early as 1884, and the efforts of the Southern States Land and Timber Com-
pany in the Lake Okeechobee area beginning in 1915 offered hope for the
future of sugar cane cultivation in the Everglades.
Florida newspapers and leaders eagerly advanced the theory that the
Florida Everglades could and should become the sugar bowl of the nation,
even of the world. The Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville) undertook an








TEQUESTA


active campaign in 1920 to promote the production of sugar in Florida, and
the Miami Metropolis asked, in regard to an editorial of the Times-Union
predicting that Florida would soon be supplying a million tons of sugar a
year, "But isn't it exasperating to think that Florida could be acting as the
nation's sugar bowl right now if her people had not been so everlastingly
slow?"
It seemed that Florida could hardly wait to accept her position as a
leading sugar cane producer. There was little doubt concerning the success
of sugar production. The only uncertain factor was the matter of time
involved in getting large scale cultivation under way. In 1919 there were
a dozen sugar plantation projects scattered throughout the state.
This enthusiasm for the development of the Florida Everglades as a
major sugar cane producing area, coupled with the desire of South Florida
residents for the establishment of some stable type of industry and/or agri-
culture to bolster that area's economy, assured the hearty approval of the
development of the adjacent Everglades land by the Pennsylvania Sugar
Company.
Prior to 1919, B. B. Tatum, large Everglades landowner, devoted consid-
erable time in efforts to interest a substantial company in the Everglades as
a location for sugar cane production and refining. Finally, in the fall of
1919, after several trips to Philadelphia, he was successful in making an
agreement with the Pennsylvania Sugar Company whereby it was to have the
use of a large acreage of Everglades muck land northwest of Miami. For
this land the Pennsylvania Sugar Company was to pay rent, $1.85 an acre
for the larger portion and $3.50 an acre for the rest. The Tatum Brothers
Company, owner of the land, gave the sugar company the privilege of pur-
chasing the land for $12 an acre, with the rental to apply on the purchase
price, if the experiments in cane cultivation proved successful. The Tatum
Brothers Company was under bond to refund the rent if the experiments
failed.
About 70,000 acres of muck land were involved in this agreement. This
was the first Everglades land which the Tatum Brothers Company had been
able to sell or lease at any price. It was hoped that the Pennsylvania Sugar
Company project would raise the value of the other lands in the vicinity
which were owned by the Tatum Brothers Company, by other private inter-
ests and by the state.
In the spring of 1919, while negotiations were under way, General Jos6
Miguel Gomez, experienced sugar producer with financial interests in Cuban








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


sugar mills, inspected the land involved in the proposed development. Upon
completion of his tour of the area, Gomez stated that the soil was not suffi-
ciently fertile for the growth of sugar cane. He suggested that land experts,
after careful study, might be able to adapt the land to the requirements of
sugar cane cultivation. Unless such adjustments were made, he said, the
enterprise would be a failure.

Perhaps as a result of this opinion, work was postponed for a time, but
later it was resumed despite the warning because it was believed that Gomez
might have been prejudiced by his own sugar interests and his possible fear
of competition between Cuban and Florida sugar. Certainly Cuban interests
did not look with favor upon the development of Florida as a major sugar
producing area.
The Pennsylvania Sugar Company, with headquarters in Philadelphia,
was well established in the sugar refining industry before it embarked upon
its Florida venture. It handled the sugars of E. Atkins & Company, which
controlled the largest mills in Cuba, as well as the sugars of the Caledonia
Sugar Company, a cooperative association of independent Cuban mill owners.
Its refinery in Philadelphia, one of the largest in the country, had a daily
output of 7,000 barrels, with a yearly business exceeding $50,000,000.
While this was the company's first entry into the field of actual sugar cane
production, the economic stability and financial strength of the firm gave
confidence to persons interested in the development of the Everglades as a
sugar producing region. The company offered no stock or bonds for sale.
The entire project was self-financed. The importance attached to this fact
was indicated by the Tampa Tribune. Having learned of the early progress
made by the sugar company, the Tribune commented, "This story is inspiring
and encouraging for two reasons, one being that the Pennsylvania Sugar
Company is self-financed and abundantly capitaled and has not a dollar of
stock to sell. The second reason is, it has gone about this sugar making
business methodically, scientifically, and commonsense-like, from the
start . ." Furthermore, it was considered highly significant that the com-
pany asked no concessions from the county, the state or the city.

The company's directorate was composed of wealthy men who were influ-
ential in various businesses in Philadelphia and other cities of Pennsylvania.
George H. Earle, Jr., was president of the company, and William H. Hoodless
was general manager.








TEQUESTA


Van Alen Harris had been instrumental, along with B. B. Tatum, in
securing the company's favorable attention toward the Everglades. Harris
was a graduate of Princeton and was an experienced cane grower and sugar
manufacturer in the tropics. He had been constructing civil engineer for
the Guanica Central Sugar Company of Guanica, Puerto Rico in 1901; super-
intendent of El Ejemplo Sugar Factory at Humacao, Puerto Rico; general
manager of the Central Romana Sugar Company at La Roma, Santo Do-
mingo; and vice-president and general manager of the Haytian-American
Sugar Company of Port Au-Prince, Haiti. Harris became the first resident
manager of the Pennsylvania Sugar Company in Florida.
Shortly after land arrangements had been made with the Tatum Brothers
Company, the Pennsylvania Sugar Company began clearing the land in pre-
paration for actual cane planting. The company was registered to do busi-
ness in Broward County on November 12, 1919. By May, 1920, approxi-
mately 360 acres of Everglades muck land had been plowed and was ready
for cane. Between 200 and 300 acres of cane were planted that spring and
summer. The labor force of the plantation in 1920 consisted of about 100
men. These men were housed in temporary buildings and were served theii
meals on a houseboat. Holt, Indiana and Cletrac tractors were used to
provide power for preparing the land and cultivating the cane. Also in use
on the plantation were twenty mules which were equipped with special muck
shoes.
Thus it was that in December of 1920, with almost 300 acres of cane
standing high in the fields and all Miami looking forward to the first harvest
of sugar, a killing frost struck the area, and the entire planting was lost. The
first misfortune had befallen the Pennsylvania Sugar Company's enterprise
in the Florida Everglades.
The frost of December, 1920, aroused some doubt in the minds of the
management of the Pennsylvania Sugar Compnay as to the feasibility of
growing sugar cane in Florida. It had been the understanding of the com-
pany's officials that the weather in South Florida would not become cold
enough to damage the cane plantings. The killing frost was completely
unexpected and dealt a severe blow to their confidence in the success of the
South Florida project.
Consequently, W. H. Hoodless, general manager, sent Ernest R. Graham
to Florida to assume the resident managerial duties and to investigate the
advisability of continuing cane cultivation. Should he find it unwise to








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


continue the growth of sugar cane, he was instructed to explore the possibil-
ities of an alternative use for the land held by the company in the Florida
Everglades. Graham was a graduate of the Michigan School of Mines. He
had had experience as a mining and civil engineer prior to the World War,
had served as a captain in the army engineers during the war, had been
active in agriculture in Michigan since the war, and had been associated
with Hoodless in the beet sugar mill in his home town of Croswell, Michigan.
Immediately upon arrival in Florida, Graham conferred with the weather
bureau regarding the possibilities of future frosts in South Florida. R. A.
Gray, Miami weatherman, told Graham that frosts would occur everywhere
in the state except on the islands in Lake Okeechobee. However, he assured
Graham that it would be possible to eliminate the frost danger on the sugar
company's land by the use of pumps. Gray said that by pumping water over
the fields in time of frost danger, thus blanketing the tender cane, the crops
would be afforded ample protection as the periods of frost danger would be
brief.
Graham took over as resident manager on March 1, 1921. At that time
there were only fourteen employees on the plantation, and all work had
come to a halt. The sugar company owned approximately 89,000 acres of
land at this time since additional purchases had been made after the original
land purchase from the Tatum Brothers Company. This figure included
land owned by the company itself and land owned by the executives of the
company. The company also possessed a one third interest in about 120,000
acres which extended north to Lake Okeechobee. This interest was later sold.
Of this land between 200 and 300 acres had been plowed and planted in
cane. As mentioned previously, virtually all of the original planting had
been killed by frost. There were also two experimental plots on which
several varieties of cane were being tested for their adaptation to Everglades
soil and climate.
It would be well to point out that throughout the entire period of opera-
tions it was necessary for the Pennsylvania Sugar Company to conduct con-
tinuous and extensive research of a pioneering type. There were few or
no textbooks or other authentic printed data concerning the soil and culti-
vation potentialities of Everglades land. Thus, it was necessary for the
inception of the project to employ competent chemists, agriculturists, engi-
neers and soil analysts. Because conditions were unlike any known to sugar
production, the methods, processes and tools had to be specifically adapted








TEQUESTA


to meet the requirements of the unique situation. To conduct this research
a tremendous expenditure in both time and money was necessary. The
company's tenacity and thoroughness in executing these experiments aroused
the interest and admiration of the community. On March 22, 1925, in his
feature article on the sugar company, Gerald Brandon, staff writer of the
Miami Daily News, concluded that, "Pioneering work such as is being done
by this corporation entails much vision, faith, patience and expenditure
of capital."
Several hundred varieties of cane were experimented with on the planta-
tion. The variations in tonnage per acre and sucrose content were great.
An Otahiti variety produced the greatest amount of success of all the types
tested. This cane had not been successful in the Hawaiian Islands because
of the scarcity of organic matter in the soil. The Everglades soil, with its
high organic content, did not suffer from this deficiency. A Japanese cane
which thrived in the area also offered possibilities.

Along with the problem of discovering varieties of cane which produced
the greatest yields under Everglades climatic and soil conditions was that
of combatting diseases and insects. In particular, the sugar company was
plagued by mosaic disease and cane borers. An expert, who had had much
experience with similar problems in Java, was brought to the plantation.
This man devoted his entire time to an attempt to develop varieties of cane
which were resistent to the mosaic disease. This is a virus disease of plants
characterized by a mottling of the foliage.

The preparation of Everglades soil for the growth of sugar cane was a
problem with many facets. In the first place, experience in the cultivation of
Everglades muck land had proved that it needed to stand clear of surface
water for a period of time if best results were to be obtained. Bacteriological
action necessary for the sustenance of plant life is checked by an excess of
water. Thus, there was the problem of drainage.

In the second place, there are several recognized stages of development
in which Everglades land is found. They are colloquially called the saw
grass period, the careless weed period, the elderberry period and the custard
apple period because of the type of vegetation found growing. Cane will
grow best on the custard apple land which is the highest stage of develop-
ment. Since most of the land belonging to the sugar company was of the
saw grass stage, the operators of the plantation sought ways to develop it.







WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


In the third place, although the soil was rich in nitrogen, it was found to be
lacking in phosphoric acid and potash. This problem was easily solved by
A. E. Maier, agriculturist in charge of that phase of work. He used a mixture
of twelve parts of phosphoric acid and eight parts of potash to fertilize the
sugar cane fields. From 500 to 2,000 pounds of fertilizer were used on an
acre of land. All of these soil problems had to be met if the company's
operations in Florida were to be a success.

The mechanical problems presented by the necessity of plowing, plant.
ing cane, and harvesting cane on muck land that was frequently wet and
soft called forth a good deal of ingenuity and inventiveness on the part of
the operators. Ordinary equipment could not operate in these conditions
which meant that specially adapted farm machinery and equipment had to
be designed.
C. Clinton Page, in the Miami Herald on January 1, 1925, describes some
of the new machines and methods used, "Among the special tools used has
been an immense gasoline motor propelled plow equipped with three bot-
toms, each turning a furrow twenty-two inches wide and from twelve to
fourteen inches deep. This machine was used for the first plowing of the
virgin saw grass land after it had been cleared of the grass, weeds, and minor
brush and small trees by burning and dragging. Tractor-drawn disc har-
rows, drags, and floats were subsequently used to work up and smooth the
soil for planting. Tractors by the dozen; in the neighborhood of twenty
Fordsons, besides fifteen or more of various other types, including the
caterpillars; and dozens of Ford cars and trucks, are a part of the Pennsyl-
vania Sugar Plantation. In order to get over the vast fields quickly when
necessary and where there are no hard surfaced roads, Ford cars and trucks
have been equipped with special rims and flat steel-faced tires, ten to twelve
inches wide, making it possible to traverse, when emergency requires, any
part of the plantation, even when the soil is wet and otherwise impassable."

These Fords were stripped down to the chassis and were characterized
in another newspaper story as "rough-riding artificial donkeys" which, their
comfort notwithstanding, "covered the ground quickly."

Caterpillar tractors were practically necessities because wheel tractors
bogged down too easily and became stuck in the moist muck land. Mules
and work horses were largely unsatisfactory because the footing was too
soft for them to be of much value as a source of power.







TEQUESTA


Because of higher labor costs per man hour in Florida as contrasted with
Cuba and the West Indies, it was necessary for the Pennsylvania Sugar Com-
pany to mechanize as much of the planting and harvesting as was possible
to compete economically with sugar produced in those areas with cheap labor.

Cutting cane at harvest time entailed much hard work. To eliminate as
much hand labor as possible, the company expended large sums of money
in an effort to perfect a mechanical cane cutter. To this end engineers who
were experienced in the invention of large farm machinery specially designed
to meet unusual problems were brought to the plantation. Unfortunately,
these efforts were never entirely successful, and it was necessary to continue
to cut all of the cane by hand. Negro laborers performed this operation
using large cane knives. However, from this point on, getting the cane from
the fields to the sugar mill was completely mechanized.

After the cane had been cut, it was loaded on carts or wagons which were
drawn by tractors to the railroad which ran through the cane fields. This
railroad started at the mill and ran five miles into the cane fields. The com-
pany utilized eighty cane cars which were pulled along the rails by Fordson
tractor engines mounted on railroad wheels and axles. Mechanical loaders
transferred the cane from the field wagons to the railroad cars. These loaders
were steel towers about thirty feet high and wide enough to span both the
railroad cars and the field wagons. Hoists powered by gasoline engines
lifted the cane from the wagons into the railroad cars. Trains of cars were
then pulled to the mill where they were unloaded by a mechanical device
which tipped them so as to deposit the cane in an automatic feeding trough
which carried the cane into the mill.

Despite all attempts to mechanize the production of sugar, the cultivation
and harvesting processes, by the very nature of the crop, made a large labor
force necessary.
The number of workers employed varied from 100 to 1,000 depending
upon the season, the maximum naturally being during the harvest season
when all cane was cut by hand. The wage scale for white workers varied
from $100 to $200 per month plus living quarters. Negro laborers were
paid by the hour. According to T. N. Toms, former bookkeeper for the
Pennsylvania Sugar Company, the hourly rate increased from 20c in 1923
to 40c in 1925. The employees normally worked a ten hour day, six days
a week, or a total of sixty hours a week.







WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


The gross payroll figures for three years were made available to the
writer. They are as follows:
1924- ..------$206,000.00
1925__________ 173,000.00
1926 --------- 134,000.00
About one third of each of these figures represented wages paid to Negro
labor.
These figures are significant. The downward trend of the payroll indi-
cates the reduction of operations which accompanied the transition from the
cultivation of sugar cane to truck farming which will be discussed later. In
1924, sugar cane was the principal crop. The flood in the summer of 1925
killed the cane and led to the cultivation of truck crops. By 1926, the
change to truck crops had been completed.
The employees of the plantation and their families comprised a self-
sufficient community. Equipped with a store, a church, a dance hall, a post
office and a doctor, the community was known as Pennsuco.
The employees were housed in frame buildings constructed on stilts as
a protection against high water. Separate units housed the Negroes and the
whites. Single men lived in bunk houses and were fed in the company mess
hall, while the families were housed in individual units. The living quarters
and other buildings were divided among three separate camps.
There were two problems involved in the maintenance of an adequate
labor force. First, there was the difficulty of finding and hiring laborers.
The Miami area, undergoing boom time development, did not contain per-
sons looking for the type of work to be found at the sugar company's plan-
tation. Therefore, it was necessary to recruit workers from such areas as
North Florida and Georgia. The company paid recruiters at a stipulated
price per worker.
It was the second problem, however, which created the most headaches
for the sugar company officials. The workers from southern rural areas
were extremely susceptible to the lure of the high wages and glamour which
typified boom time Miami. According to T. N. Toms, "Much recruited labor
was brought in one day and left immediately for Miami."
Thus, the maintenance of an adequate labor force constituted an ever-
present irritant in the operation of the sugar plantation.








TEQUESTA


In the spring of 1921, after Ernest R. Graham took charge as resident
manager, cane planting was begun again. The officials of the company had
decided that the continued cultivation of sugar cane offered the best oppor-
tunity for the utiliztion of their Everglades land. With some 200 men who
were brought in from Jacksonville the planting of about 1,000 acres of cane
was started.
The first job was that of preparing the land for the planting of the cane.
As the land was covered with saw grass, brush and small trees, it was neces-
sary to burn off the native vegetation before attempting to plow the land. At
times the saw grass was mowed first to allow it to dry thoroughly before
burning. Once the wild plant growth had been removed, the actual plowing
of the virgin muck soil could begin.
For this purpose plows such as the three bottom self-propelled plow,
described earlier in this paper, and other large plows drawn by large Holt
caterpillar type tractors were used. The fields were then disced, harrowed
and dragged so as to smooth and level them for planting.
A big, stocky Florida Green cane was the main variety planted. The first
cane stands lacked uniformity. There were spots where the cane grew vig-
orously and rapidly, but in the same fields were spots where the cane was
small and stunted. In an effort to determine the reason for the irregular
growth, A. E. Maier, soil analyst, sampled the soils of the Exerglades from
the sugar plantation north to Lake Okeechobee. He discovered that the
humus or vegetable matter in the soil was decomposed to a depth of only
about six inches in most places. As an experiment Maier dug holes down to
the limestone, which was about five or six feet beneath the muck and filled
these holes with layers of decomposed top soil and fertilizer. The growth of
cane which resulted from a planting in these holes was truly remarkable.
An attempt was then made to determine a practical method by which this
could be done universally. A plan was devised whereby holes would be
dug at eight foot intervals. The topsoil between the holes would be
combined with fertilizer and used as filler. The holes were dug by Negro
workers who were paid by the hole. As the only requirement was that the
holes must be dug to the rock base, the diggers soon developed a fine tech-
nique whereby they could skillfully and quickly dig a very narrow hole no
bigger than the shovel itself. These, of course, were completed in a very
short space of time, but they were worthless insofar as the purpose for
which they were designed was concerned. Needless to say, the operators
quickly stipulated that the holes be large enough to allow a barrel hoop to








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


pass down them. The land which was prepared in this way produced large
yields of cane.
Some of the land had to be aerated before it could be planted. This was
particularly true of land on which little shells were found. These were low
forms of sea life which it was necessary to destroy. Muck containing these
shells had to be turned up continuously. Fertilizer consisting of twelve parts
phosphoric acid and eight parts potash was applied at a rate of about 1,000
pounds to the acre. This fertilizer was used on all the land, and in some
sections as much as 2,000 pounds to the acre was spread.
In 1922 Ernest Graham went to St. Louis where he purchased about 200
Angus, Hereford and Durham steers and heifers and two carloads of western
broncos. The theory behind the purchase of this stock was that the manure
from livestock would benefit the soil. However, rains in 1922 flooded the
fields, and it was necessary to dispose of the cattle and horses before their
value could be determined.
Still another attempt was made to improve the soil by the planting of
leguminous truck crops between the rows of cane. It was hoped that this
would both enrich the fields and return a profit. About 100 acres of land
were leased to farmers for the growth of truck crops on a 50-50 basis. The
company realized a profit of something over $100 per acre. Thus, it might
be called a successful venture in truck farming.
By 1922, about 1500 acres had been planted, but a flood that year pre-
vented the harvesting of the crop. The high water also damaged and des-
troyed much of the cane. As soon as the high water receded, rehabilitation
of the cane fields was begun, with the result that about 1500 acres of cane
were available for cutting that winter. During this period the company
attained a yield of twenty tons per acre with a ten per cent sugar content.
In the summer of 1925, a flood completely covered the fields of the plan-
tation and killed all of the cane. With this new disaster the Pennsylvania
Sugar Company brought to an end its attempts to cultivate sugar cane and
turned to the full scale production of truck crops.
Early in 1922, after three years of experience in the Everglades and the
expenditure of nearly $300,000, the officials of the company had been fully
convinced of the potentialities of the Florida Everglades as a sugar produc-
ing area. Thus, they were willing and determined to construct a sugar mill
costing another million and a half dollars. Despite the doubt expressed by
some lay critics, construction of the mill was inaugurated in May 1922. By
fall, excavations had been completed and most of the concrete foundation








TEQUESTA


had been laid. At this point heavy rains flooded the area and made contin-
uation of the work difficult. In spite of the handicap, work was pushed on,
and the mill was completed in May of 1923.
Prospects of growing sugar cane had not been the sole factor in the
decision to construct the mill in the Florida Everglades. In the first place,
the site was near enough to Cuba to suggest the possibility of transporting
Cuban raw sugar by boat to Miami and by barge up the Miami Canal to the
mill to be refined, thus enabling the company to operate the mill throughout
most of the year. Cuban sugar laws later prevented this from being at-
tempted. In the second place, Mr. Earle, president of the company, foresaw
the future growth of the southeast Florida coast and visualized that area as a
large market for refined sugar. A third important factor was the availability
of large quantities of limestone which could be used in the manufacture of
lime and carbon dioxide which were needed in the refining process.
The mill was constructed of corrugated steel. It was 352 feet long, 192
feet wide and 90 feet high, with a maximum daily capacity of 1500 tons of
cane. Reported to have been the finest plant of its kind in the United States
and one of the most thoroughly equipped in the world, it included a lime
kiln, a refinery, and experimental paper plant.
It was located ten miles west of Hialeah on the southwest bank of the
Miami Canal.
Gerald Brandon, staff writer of the Miami Daily News, gave the follow-
ing vivid description of the processing of cane in the mill: "The cane goes
through a crusher, thence through the shredder and between three sets of
rollers that extract the juice. The fiber or 'bagasse' is then carried to the
western end of the mill where it is fed to the furnaces as fuel. This bagasse
will be the basis of the paper industry that is planned as a by-product.
"From the rollers, the cane juice passes to storage tanks in the basement
and is pumped through filter presses to remove the mud and other foreign
solids. It is then treated with lime in a carbonation process that replaces
the 'defacation' process commonly used in other mills. From the carbona-
tion tanks it again goes through filter presses and thence to the vacuum pans
where it is boiled until crystalization has occurred to a sufficient degree.
It is then dropped into the crystalizer where it is kept in motion until the
crystals have grown to the desired size. From the crystalizer the sugar,
which by this time is in a pasty form, goes to the battery of centrifugals,
where the molasses is extracted by the gravity process. After washing and
drying, the sugar is sacked. It is then what is now called a high grade raw








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


sugar. The refining process is practically a repetition of the previous pro-
cess, the raw sugar being melted in water and the carbonation, boiling, filter-
ing, crystalization and other steps being gone through again. In addition,
there is the granulating machine that is used after refining."
A plant crew of one hundred skilled sugar factory men was brought to
the plantation in December, 1923, to prepare for the operation of the mill.
On January 17, 1924, the engines were started, and the mill was in opera-
tion. Because of the limited amount of cane available, the mill operated at
a reduced rate for only thirty days. The total production for the season was
2,500 bags of refined sugar and 1,500 bags of raw sugar. President Earle,
Secretary-Treasurer J. A. McCarthy and General Manager Hoodless of the
Pennsylvania Sugar Company were all present to observe the mill in opera-
tion as the first refined sugar manufactured in Florida was produced. That
year's operation of the mill was considered by the company's officials as
a "tune-up", so they were not overly concerned with the amount of sugar
manufactured.
Heavy rains throughout the summer and fall of 1924 meant that little
cane was available for grinding during the 1924-25 season of the mill. How-
ever, it was reported in the Miami Daily News of March 22, 1925, that
"depsite the fact that the mill is being run at a small percentage of capacity
and that the cane had had its sugar content considerably reduced by standing
in water over a period of several weeks, the output had paid for the mill
operation this season." One of the primary purposes in the operation of
the mill was to try out improved machinery which had been installed in the
plant, including a number of features which had been designed by the com-
pany's own experts.
The mill which represented a mammoth investment in capital and labor
operated only two years. May of 1925 brought deluging rains to the
Everglades. The resulting high water killed the cane and silenced the
engines of the mill.
Prior to the flood of 1925, the main interest and purpose of the Penn-
sylvania Sugar Company had been the cultivation of sugar cane. However,
even before that catastrophe there had been some experimentation with and
actual cultivation of other crops. It has already been mentioned that certain
truck crops were grown between the rows of cane by independent farmers
on a share basis. In addition, from the very beginning of the project,
individual employees and the company itself planted and tended vegetable
gardens. The produce from these gardens supplied the families' tables and








TEQUESTA


the company's mess hall. By the winter of 1924-25-the last season of cane
production-almost 1,000 acres were devoted to crops other than sugar cane.
While going through the files of the Pennsylvania Sugar Company, it
was interesting to note the number of articles and news reports referring
to the potentialities of orchids, mangos, mushrooms, pineapples, avocados,
tomatoes and other plants which could be grown in South Florida. Appar-
ently the company's officers were considering the possibilities of crops other
than sugar as early as 1922. Thus, the change-over from the cultivation of
sugar cane to the cultivation of truck crops was more a gradual and premed.
itated transition to crops which had been successfully grown than a sudden
change to the growing of untried crops.
There were two main reasons for the change. In the first place, truck
crops require a much shorter growing season than cane. Thus, it was pos-
sible to plant the vegetables in the fall, after the flood dangers had passed,
and to harvest during the winter and early spring, before the heavy summer
rains had begun. The problem of high water which had so hindered the
growth of cane was, for this reason, substantially reduced. Secondly, vege-
tables do not require as fertile soil as sugar cane. It was much less difficult
to grow vegetables on the saw grass land than it had been to grow cane.
Other reasons, of course, played a part in the plans which were made for
the future of the plantation. To have replaced the cane plantings would have
meant the expenditure of a great deal of money without any assurance of a
profitable return. By contrast, vegetable crops would cost less to plant and
would bring in at least some revenue within a relatively short period of time.
During the winter of 1925-26, approximately 2300 acres of potatoes were
grown. From this acreage 14,000 barrels were shipped north in addition
to the large amount which was sold on the Miami market. These potatoes
brought a higher price than did northern grown potatoes. Between 1925
and 1931, the area devoted to truck crops varied from 500 to 2,000 acres.
The variety of vegetables grown was increased in order that the season's
success should not hinge upon the fate of a single crop. In 1927, the Miami
Daily News published the following estimate of crops to be harvested weekly
throughout the season:
Potatoes ----------------- ---------12,000 crates
Beans -------------------.--.-----_ 500 hampers
Carrots ----------------------- 20,000 bunches
Spinach -------------------------- 500 hampers
Turnips ------------------------ 6,000 bunches








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


Beets ----------------------- 12,000 bunches
Celery ---------.------- -------- 4,000 bunches
Onions ----------------------10,000 bunches
Eggplant ------------------------- 100 crates
Radishes --------------------__25,000 bunches
Squash ---------------------- 100 hampers
Peppers ----------------------- 250 hampers
Tomatoes-------------------------- 400 crates
Cabbage --------------------------- 200 crates
The harvest season was expected to last from about January 1 to May 1,
1928. Many of these vegetables were sold in the Miami area, but large
amounts were also shipped to northern markets.
To handle local sales, a warehouse was located in Miami. Benjamin
Hunter, experienced wholesale groceryman, was put in charge of this phase
of the business. He handled distribution to retail outlets, restaurants and
hotels. Every effort was made to assure delivery of high quality, fresh
vegetables to these buyers.
The marketing of vegetables shipped north was handled by a northern
division of the company. These vegetables were transported by barge down
the Miami Canal to refrigerated steamships which carried them to northern
ports. Some potatoes were also shipped by rail in carload lots from Miami.
The greatest hazard to the production of these crops was the danger of
damage from frost. In order to protect the plants from this natural danger,
three large pumps, each with a capacity of 66,000 gallons of water a minute
were installed on the plantation. These pumps were used to pump water
from the Miami Canal back into the drainage canals and ditches of the
plantation until the fields of growing vegetables were covered with water.
This blanket of water protected the green plants from the extreme cold.
When the frost danger had passed, the pumps were reversed, and the water
was drawn back into the Miami Canal. These pumps were also used to help
control the water level so that possibilities of floods were somewhat reduced.
From 1928 to 1931, the plantation was operated as the Pennsuco Farm-
ing Company. The losses of this company were guaranteed by the Penn-
sylvania Sugar Company, and Ernest R. Graham remained as manger.
In 1930 a canning factory was put into operation for the purpose of
canning surplus potatoes and beans. The canned goods were sold under
the trade name of the Pennsuco Farming Company. In 1931, when the low








TEQUESTA


prices caused by the general farm depression of the late 1920's and early
1930's made it impossible to operate the plantation profitably, the Pennsyl-
vania Sugar Company withdrew from the Everglades.
The real estate boom of the early 1920's in the Miami area caused land
values in Dade County to rise so rapidly that 33 of 96 dairies operating in
the county in 1924 were forced to go out of business. The resultant decrease
in the fresh milk supply alarmed J. S. Rainey, county agent, and others in-
terested in the dairy industry. As a consequence, these indidivuals sought
the provision of additional land for dairy purposes.
With this in mind, the Dade County Dairy Association, at their meeting
on May 16, 1925, invited Ernest R. Graham to discuss the possibility of
utilizing Everglades land for pasturing dairy cows. In his discussion,
Graham said that the Everglades could become a dairy section if roads were
provided and if some system of drainage were worked out. Graham fur-
ther stated, "The Pennsylvania Sugar Company is going to dike off a 425.
acre tract and use pumps to drain it during the wet season. If this works
out satisfactorily, there is no reason why this method cannot be applied to
the drainage of pasture land."
From this meeting came a plan whereby the Pennsylvania Sugar Com-
pany would sell five sections of Everglades land, at a price below the market
value, to a syndicate, composed of Dade County residents and headed by
Marcus Milam, with the understanding that the land was to be used for the
establishment of dairy farms. The county was to implement the plan by
constructing roads into the proposed area.
This project was received with great enthusiasm. The Miami Herald
reported that "to Mr. Rainey [county agent], that the portion of the Ever-
glades extending north and south and on westward from Hialeah, by adopt-
ing the Hollander's method of keeping back the water, will be a most beau.
tiful section of Florida. He pictures beautiful farm houses surrounded by
tropical fruit trees which he declares will grow rapidly with profitable re-
sults. The diking system with roads and grass plots would be a most pic-
turesque scene to travellers and sightseers and would prove to be Miami's
wonderful back country attraction." An editorial in the Miami Daily News
commended both the sugar company and the leaders of the project for their
initiative and community spirit.
Heavy rains in the late summer of 1925 plus the sudden "bust" of the
real estate boom prevented this project from advancing beyond the planning








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


stage. All the money which the sugar company had received from the land
buyers was refunded.
The foregoing discussion of the unfulfilled dairy plan is included here
to indicate the way in which the sugar company, through its representatives,
entered into the community projects for the development of South Florida.
Throughout the entire period of its operation in the Florida Everglades
the Pennsylvania Sugar Company was harassed by the problem of adequate
drainage. From the beginning, crops were damaged-and often destroyed-
and work was hindered by the heavy summer and fall rains which are so
common in that section of the state. Thus, the success of the Pennsylvania
Sugar Company's plantation was, to a great extent, dependent upon a satis-
factory solution of the drainage problem. As the company's land was a part
of the Everglades, so their drainage problem was a part of Everglades drain-
age.
The Everglades is a broad, flat plain-lying south of Lake Okeechobee
for the most part-which covers an area of approximately 4,000 square
miles. In this area the average mean rainfall ranges from approximately 60
inches at Miami to 50 inches at Lake Okeechobee. The yearly distribution
is uneven so that most of this rain comes in the summer and early fall.
Therefore, the problem of Everglades drainage was to devise a system
which would provide for the removal of the great amount of excess water
caused by the heavy seasonal rains. As the topography of the Everglades is
so flat, with the highest elevation reaching only a few feet above sea level,
there was not a great deal of natural drainage. Furthermore, on both sides
of the Everglades are ridges which, except for a few natural outlets, did not
allow the drainage of flood waters to either the east or west. Most of the
natural drainage, consequently, had been southward along the middle of the
peninsula emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. Many men dreamed of drain-
ing this vast area of land so as to make its fertile soil available for produc-
tive purposes.
Since the interests of the Pennsylvania Sugar Company were vitally con-
cerned with the drainage of the Everglades, the executives of the company
took an active and vociferous part in all actions undertaken by state and
local agencies which affected drainage.
State action toward the reclamation of the Everglades was instigated by
Governor N. B. Broward during his administration (1905-9). In 1905 the
Everglades Drainage Board was created. In 1913 a graduated system of
acreage taxes was provided for the district. Also in 1913, the Florida Ever-








TEQUESTA


glades Engineering Commission made an investigation culminating in the
Randolph report which became the basis of Everglades drainage. The Ran-
dolph Plan, which was in effect when the Pennsylvania Sugar Company came
to Florida, incorporated a system of diagonal drainage canals from Lake
Okeechobee to the Eastern Atlantic seacoast. The Miami Canal, near which
the sugar plantation was located, was one of the main canals in the drainage
plan.
The officials of the sugar company had been convinced that the comple-
tion of these canals would provide adequate drainage for their land. Their
first disappointment came when President Earle and General Manager
Hoodless visited the plantation in June, 1920. They found that the dredge
which was constructing the Miami Canal was not operating. They were also
concerned over the water level of the canal and the possible danger of
flooding the cane fields. Consequently, they instructed Van Alen Harris,
resident manager, to investigate the possibility of damning the canal behind
the dredge so that the completed portion of the canal could effectively lower
the water level of the area through which it ran.
On June 29, 1920, F. C. Elliot, Chief Drainage Engineer, telegraphed
Harris authority to construct the dam in the Miami Canal. This dam was
placed near the Dade-Broward county line and aided in protecting the cane
fields from floods in the fall of 1920.
In an effort to make more of their land available for use, on January 5,
1921, the company applied to the Chief Drainage Engineer for permission
to dig a canal which was to extend from the Miami Canal through their lands
to a point approximately six miles west of the Miami Canal. This lateral
canal was dug in 1921 and 1922.
Under the authority of F. C. Elliot, a secondary dam was placed in the
Miami Canal by the sugar company in early 1923. As a result of rains in
October, 1924, a section of land owned by F. M. Brown located on the
South New River Canal in Broward County and a second half section, also
in Broward County and owned by Brown, were covered by high water.
Brown claimed that this flood was caused by the construction and mainten-
ance of the dam in the Miami Canal. Brown brought suit for $200,000
damages against the Pennsylvania Sugar Company and Ernest Graham. He
also brought suit against the Board of Commissioners of the Everglades
Drainage District, the Dade Drainage District, the Everglades Construction
Company and F. C. Elliot. The suit against the sugar company which was
in litigation for several years, was finally settled in favor of the sugar com-








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


pany on the grounds that the dam had been placed in the canal by the author-
ity of the Everglades Drainage District and that the dam had had little or
no effect upon the water on Brown's land.
Despite the favorable verdict, this suit greatly affected the policies of the
Pennsylvania Sugar Company. In a letter to F. C. Eliot, H. Edgar Barnes,
attorney for the sugar company, stated that the Brown suits, because of their
"vast possibilities of hampering vital enterprises by the terrors that they may
inspire," should be disposed of so as to permanently determine the authority
of the Everglades Drainage District.
The sugar company's officials believed that their difficulties were largely
the result of a reluctance on the part of the Drainage Board to assume respon-
sibility for their actions and promises. They hoped that this suit would
permanently establish the fact that the Everglades Drainage District had
supreme authority in all drainage matters. This hope was not realized.
Because of the Brown suit, the sugar company's plantation henceforth
was operated as The Pennsuco Farming Company. This new corporation
was formed because of the executives' fear that they might endanger all of
the assets of the Pennsylvania Sugar Company by their activities in the
Everglades. The officials felt that the actions of the Drainage Board were
characterized by indecisiveness and that the responsibility for drainage activ-
ities was too vague for any development to be made with assurance and
confidence.
Another matter which concerned the Pennsylvania Sugar Company during
this period was the construction of the Tamiami Trail. During 1923 and
1924 the construction of the Trail was being pushed westward from Miami.
On June 23, 1923, Chief Engineer Elliot stated in a letter to Ernest Graham
that the "road acts as a continuous dam across the Everglades preventing the
natural flow of water and jeopardizing the lands to the East and Northwest
along the Tamiami Trail and Miami Canal." With this observation Graham
was in complete agreement.
The tortuous struggle which ensued over the construction of adequate
openings in the Tamiami Trail caused the executives of the Pennsylvania
Sugar Company to believe that the Everglades Drainage District did not
have the necessary authority with regard to drainage matters. They could
not understand how any person or governmental unit could be allowed to
construct a road which was considered to be an obstruction to natural drain-
age by the Board of Directors of the Everglades Drainage District.








TEQUESTA


On the other hand, many persons in Miami believed that the sugar com-
pany was attempting to stifle progress in the county. One important fact,
however, becomes evident to one who peruses the advertisements and editor-
ials of that period. This is that, regardless of the disagreement about the
Tamiami Trail, almost everybody continued to look upon the Pennsylvania
Sugar Company as an asset to the community and hoped for its success.
In 1923 the legislature passed a law creating the Dade Drainage District.
This new district was formed to provide better drainage of the lands belong-
ing to the Pennsylvania Sugar Company. The flood of 1922 had discouraged
the company and had brought about the realization that the drainage was far
from adequate. The district included 317 sections or 202,880 acres in Dade
and Broward Counties. The Pennsylvania Sugar Company owned approxi-
mately 87,640 acres in this drainage district.
For the purposes of taxation the district was zoned according to the ben-
efits received. In 1924 a $2,756,042.71 project of canals and dikes was
undertaken. In 1927 the Dayton Morgan Company made a study of the
project and approved the plans as adequate for successful drainage. How-
ever the survey report pointed out that the Everglades Drainage laws were
so defective that reclamation work would be impossible. The report stated,
"They are about the most primitive, unfair and inadequate of all the reclam-
ation laws now in use in America."
Eventually much of the Dade Drainage District project was carried out.
The Biscayne and Little River Canals were dug, thus providing two addi-
tional outlets. Lateral canals and ditches were dug and levees were con-
structed.
Obviously, the Pennsylvania Sugar Company carried a large part of the
tax burden because of the extent of their holdings in the Dade Drainage
District.
Because of the difficulties and obstructions it had encountered, the Penn-
sylvania Sugar Company, in 1925, inaugurated its own system of dikes and
pumps in hope of protecting at least a small portion of its holdings from
future flood damage. Dikes were built around 4500 acres, and pumps were
installed to control the water level within that area. The larger portion of
the company's holdings was temporarily abandoned in an effort to adequately
protect a small area.
By this action the sugar company hoped to demonstrate the effectiveness
of dikes and pumps and thus prove the economic value of the land.








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM


In 1927 the Pennsylvania Sugar Company sold its sugar mill to the Sou-
thern Sugar Company which moved the mill to Clewiston where it is now part
of the United States Sugar Company's mill. This was the beginning of the
end of the company's operation in South Florida.
By 1927 the Pennsylvania Sugar Company had come to the conclusion
that the production of sugar cane was not practical under the existing condi-
tions. There were two main reasons for this decision-inadequate drainage
and soil deficiency.
Unquestionably the most important of these was inadequate drainage.
From the very beginning, high water had damaged and destroyed the cane
crops. The problem of drainage had involved the operators as defendants
in a $200,000 damage suit; it had forced them into the struggle with the
county government resulting in litigation over a bond issue; and it had
caused them to lose faith in the state officials in charge of Everglades
drainage.
Thus it was that on October 21, 1926, President Earle, in a letter to
Governor Martin, asked, "Who in the Everglades knows what his rights are?
Who knows how to conduct himself to avoid vexatious suits?" He urged,
"What you need above all things is a clear definition of rights, that will let
us go ahead without fear of consequences. Enterprise cannot exist under a
system of gruelling uncertainty." President Earle pointed out the inadequacy
of placing the control of drainage matters under an ex-officio board com-
posed of the governor and four cabinet members. As he stated, the public
had not merely given these men to the great drainage problem to cope with
". .. it has burdened these five gentlemen with more duties, and difficult
duties, than any human beings can perform."
Later, in a letter to Governor Martin and the members of the Board of
Commissioners of the Everglades Drainage District on November 15, 1926,
President Earle complained of the promises which had been made to the
company. He stated that ". . when we were told that you not only could
but were promised that you would give us a sufficient depth of drainage for
agriculture, and upon this promise were induced to abandon our plan to
leave the Everglades and spent these enormous sums of money, we were told
what, if I understand the matter, was an impossibility."
In 1925 the Everglades Drainage District taxes of the Pennsylvania Sugar
Company were raised from about $30,000 a year to about $120,000 a year in
spite of a promise that they would not be raised. This tax load plus the
Dade Drainage taxes was too much for the plantation to carry.








TEQUESTA


With the passage of Governor Martin's Everglades Drainage District
Bill in the 1927 legislature most hope for a change of policy was lost. The
sugar company believed that the future drainage outlook was dim.
The second cause for the abandonment of the growth of sugar cane was
the deficiency of the soil. It took a great deal of effort and expense to pre-
pare the land, and once the land was in cultivation there was considerable
shrinkage. This deficiency of the soil, together with inadequate drainage,
compelled the officials of the company to abandon sugar cane cultivation.
Actually, the truck farming done by the Pennsylvania Sugar Company
was fairly successful. The company, however, was not particularly interested
in operating a truck farm since sugar was its main business. Furthermore,
the executives did not consider the truck farming project to be large enough
to be worthy of the time and energy which would have had to have been
devoted to it. Also, the prices received for vegetables in the early 1930's was
so low that the vast overhead of the plantation could not be carried.
In 1931 the Pennsylvania Sugar Company withdrew completely from
the Florida Everglades.
Graham negotiated with the company for a portion of their land and
buildings. He remained to develop a dairy and beef cattle farm on the
original Miami Canal site. Many of the sugar company's housing units, the
office and the commissary are still used. The old warehouse for the sugar
mill is now used to store feed and farm machinery. The frames of the
cane cars are hay racks. The lime kiln and pump house are still standing
but are not used.
Despite the apparent lack of success of the Pennsylvania Sugar Company
in Florida, it was a pioneer in the large scale cultivation of sugar cane in
the Everglades. Their experiences contributed to the future successes of
sugar cane production in the Florida Everglades.








WILLIAM A. GRAHAM 49

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

BILLS
Digest and Analysis of Senate Bill introduced in the State Senate by J. W. Watson,
in 1927.
BOOKS
Hanna, A. J. and Hanna, K. A., Lake Okeechobee.
FILES OF THE PENNSYLVANIA SUGAR COMPANY
Photostatic file of wires and letters between F. C. Elliot and officials of the Penn-
sylvania Sugar Company concerning drainage. 1920-1926.
Correspondence between Ernest R. Graham and the Pennsylvania Sugar Company
executives.
Photographic File of sugar plantation.
Clipping File-newspaper clippings from Florida newspapers containing articles
which concerned, directly or indirectly, the Penn. Sugar Co. Also advertise-
ments. Maintained from 1922-1930.
Miami Metropolis File, 1920.
F. M. Brown Damage Suit File.
Correspondence between E. R. Graham and C. A. Walsh, 1924-1926, relating to
dam in Miami Canal.
Correspondence between Glen Terrell, counsel for Everglades Drainage District and
E. R. Graham, referring to creation of Dade Draininge District, February-
April, 1923.
INTERVIEWS
Ernest R. Graham, former resident manager.
Thomas N. Toms, former bookkeeper.
LETTERS (MIsc.)
Louis J. de CarbolIo to Penn. Sugar Co., Mar. 1, 1924.
George H. Earle, Jr. to Gov. John Martin, Oct. 21, 1926 and Nov. 15, 1926.
Charles H. Ruggles to E. R. Graham, referring to Tamiami Trail, Nov. 28, 1924.
M. B. Garris, Hydrographic Engineer, to Board of Directors of Rotary Club of
Miami, August 16, 1924.
E. R. Graham to Glenn H. Curtiss, referring to proposed drainage plan, 1926.
MAPS
Map of Dade Drainage District, 1923, prepared by Daniel Clune.
Map of Dade Drainage District, 1924, prepared by Daniel Clune.
Map of Everglades Drainage District, 1924, prepared under direction of F. C. Elliot.
PAMPHLETS
Report of Dayton Morgan Engineering Co., Dayton, Ohio, Oct. 1927.
D. W. Mead, A. Hazen & L. Metcalf, Report on the Drainage of the Everglades,
Nov. 12, 1912.
Report of the Everglades Engineering Commission, 1913, U. S. Senate Document 379.
Proceedings of Soil Science Society of Florida, Vol. IV-A, 1942:
Dovell, J. E., "A Brief History of the Florida Everglades."
Stephens, J. C., "The Principal Characteristics of the Kissimmee-Everglades
Watershed."
Wallis, W. Turner, "The History of Everglades Drainage and its Present Status."







This Page Blank in Original
Source Document











Random Records of Tropical Florida
By HENRY PERRINE

Reprinted from the Magazine of Horticulture, edited by C. M. Hovey, September, 1840.
Dr. Perrine identifies himself as "Superintendent of the Tropical Plant Company,
Indian Key, Fla." Dr. Mark F. Boyd of Tallahassee called this item to our atten-
tion and supplied the copy from his collection.
1840-JULY 4. Thermometer 83. Ye northerners, who have not ever
resided in tropical climates, cannot realize the delightful reality of the
delicious temperature of the summer season. You readily conceive the
comforts of exemption from cold, during the months equivalent to your
winter season, but you cannot readily conceive the comforts of exemption
from heat, during the months equivalent to your summer season. I am now
writing in the cupola of my dwelling, which is erected over the sea. The
constant trade wind is blowing its ever grateful sea breeze; and the temper-
ature of 83" will show you what a cooling luxury the constant wind must be.
In Boston, the thermometer may likely indicate ten degrees more of scorch-
ing heat, at this very hour. By the bye, I have selected from Mr. Howe's
tables the temperature of several notable days in December and January last.
Thus;-1839; December 22, 710,720:-December 25, 710, 760.-1840;
January 1, 700, 720:-January 8, 640, 520. You perceive that these are
the dates of the landing of the pilgrims at Plymouth; of Christmas; of New
Year; and of the victory over the British, at New Orleans. Recollect the
weather, at the same dates, in Boston, or refer to your own meteorological
registers, and you will then more fully feel the delightful difference of the
weather of South Florida. To assist your conceptions of our climate, I
subjoin an abstract of our weather, for four years, from January 1, 1836, to
January 4, 1940.
Annual Clear days, 289 to 314. Widest annual extremes of Fahren-
Annual cloudy days, 15 to 36. heit's thermom. 500 to 900.
Annual rainy days, 36 to 60. Greatest monthly changes, 310 to
Rainy days in rainy season, from 34.
June 1, to October 1; 14 in 1837, Least monthly changes, 60 to 80.
and 26 in 1839-the least and Least daily changes, 0 to 10.
greatest numbers. Greatest daily changes, 110 to 140.







TEQUESTA


With an average of three hundred sunny days every year, and only 400
of annual range of the thermometer; with a greatest monthly change of 340,
and a greatest daily change of 140, you will readily conceive the superlative
superiority of the tropical climate of South Florida.
Mr. Howe and myself have experienced the great pleasure, to-day, of
making another remittance of valuable plants and seeds to the native Baha-
mians at Key Vacas. The poor people of that rocky island do not appear to
appreciate the importance of propagating the Manilla mulberry trees, and
Sea Island cotton shrubs: and as their civil magistrates, Temple Rut and
William Whitehead, Esqrs., have commenced the culture of both, we indulge
the hope that their example will be imitated by their fellow citizens. Indeed,
my intimate acquaintance with the native Bahamians has dispelled the pre-
judices naturally created among strangers, by the speculating monopolists
of Key West, who commonly designate these amiable people by the insulting
nickname of "lazy conks." But, by personal observations, I am now fully
satisfied that our agricultural statesmen would promptly pronounce that the
humblest grower of sweet potatoes at Key Vacas is an infinitely more useful
citizen of South Florida, than the haughtiest office-holder of Key West.
The first settlers at Key Vacas in 1831-2, located under the leases
from Mr. Howe, who, with his brother, then held the title to the group of
islands called Cayos Vacas, or the Key of Cows. Having subsequently dis-
posed of all the islands, (save Duck Key,) to a Mr. Edmonston, in Charles-
ton, S. C., and the distant proprietor having been disinclined to encourage
any permanent settlement, the actual inhabitants are merely tenants at will,
and are hence without adequate excitements to make permanent improvements.
Nevertheless, the commencement of the savage war induced the later emi-
grants from the Bahamas to cluster round their countrymen at Key Vacas,
until the population now amounts to about two hundred persons. As soon,
however, as hostilities shall cease, or as soon as Government shall guarantee
only forty acres of public lands to each settler during the war, they will
occupy the unsurveyed islands along the reef, and especially the preferable
soils and sites of the chain called Key Largo. These temporary tenants of
Key Vacas, nevertheless, have erected about fifty dwellings, half of them the
very humble habitations of palmetto thatch alone, while others are comfort-
able frame buildings, of which some have neat palmetto roofs. After
ineffectual endeavors to obtain a public school frum the territorial govern-
ment, they have recently established themselves a private school; and a few
philanthropists are now endeavoring to encourage their progress in the








DR. HENRY PERRINE


means of literary and religious instruction. They now perceive that the pro-
duction of raw silk and of Sea Island cotton can be easily accomplished by
the feeblest hands of their women and children alone; and that these two
precious staples will afford ample funds for schools and churches. The
multiplication of these valuable plants which can be effected this very sum-
mer, will supply them sufficient stock in the fall or winter, to transfer with
them to their permanent settlements on the unsurveyed public islands.
JULY 8.-By my first communication, you were apprized of the facts of
the only mail packet facilities from Charleston, S. C., viz. that the only
monthly mail was suspended during the first six months of 1839; and that
the mail packet itself was wrecked on the third trip, in September. A new
vessel was subsequently employed in the service, and continued to make
monthly trips until last April. During the month of May, the contractor
failed to send any mail. They however had a new schooner constructed,
which commenced its first monthly voyage last June. She is called the
"Hayne-_" extended her last trip beyond Key West to Havana, in Cuba, the
15th of every month. Should this arrangement continue, the people of
Indian Key can procure fruit monthly from Havana, and thus far become
partially independent of the inimical population of Key West.*
JULY 9,-I observe that you consider the subjects of my communications
are more important to the agricultural than to the horticultural portion of the
community. In writing, however, for your journal, I do not consider it to be
merely a horticultural periodical. On the contrary, it embraces more im-
portant topics on the culture of plants in green-houses, hothouses, and family
apartments. It therefore contains more notices of tropical plants than of
extra-tropical plants: it should therefore be christened with the comprehen-
sive title of Magazine of Vegeculture. During many years, I have been
obliged to use the terms of vegeculture and vegecultural, to indicate the
objects of my own pursuits. Any care of any plant is a culture of that plant.
The human labor employed in the propagation of all vegetables constitutes
the human culture of those vegetables. The culture of vegetables is naturally
expressed by the combination of words-vegeculture. Vegeculture is there-
fore the most comprehensive classifying term: agriculture, horticulture, ar-
boriculture, floriculture, &c. are subdivisions of vegeculture. Look, then,
at your articles which contain notices of the exhibitions of the Horticultural
Societies of the United States. They are mostly plants in pots, from green-
houses and hot-houses; they are mostly tropical plants.
Nevertheless, her shortened stay in Charleston, S. C. will seldom leave time for
northern answers to letters by the return mail.








TEQUESTA


I see, with regret, your notice of the death of the Hon. John Lowell. In
August, 1838, I passed an hour with him, in his hot-house, at Roxbury. As
he had recently returned from Cuba, he was entirely competent to appreciate
the importance of accumulating tropical plants in tropical Florida. He was
aware of the fact, that the poorest propagator of perennial plants, on the
Florida Keys, can easily surround his humble habitation with a much more
magnificent collection of tropical plants, than the proudest possessor of mil-
lions of dollars, in wintry Massachusetts, can ever accumulate in the costly
hot-houses of monied ostentation.
I also observe, that seeds from the Southern Exploring Expedition were
presented to the Horticultural Society of Pennsylvania, by John McArran, of
Philadelphia, to whom they were sent by the Secretary of the Navy. In
July, 1838, I was indebted to the politeness of Mr. McArran for my visits to
some collections of tropical plants; and I therefore, in repayment, now sug-
gest to him the profitable propriety of abandoning his endeavors to have his
own collections transferred to the city of Washington, and of turning his
energies to the accumulation of valuable plants in a supply nursery on the
Florida Keys. Among the collections of tropical plants seen by me in
Philadelphia, in July, 1838, I was most pleased with the splendid specimens
of Mr. John B. Smith. With his taste and talents, one tenth of the capital in
South Florida would create tenfold supplies of similar plants for the green-
houses and hot-houses of the northern states. Indeed, I cannot conceive a
more profitable employment of capital than could be made in South Florida,
by raising plants to supply the green-houses and hot-houses of the northern
states, at one half the usual prices. What a great pity it is, however, that all
the philo-vegeculturists of tropical plants, in the hot-houses of the United
States, are almost utterly ignorant of the delightful district of tropical Flor-
ida!
JULY 10.-Notwithstanding your readers have not transmitted a single
seed of the tropics through the patent office for the preparatory nursery at
West Matacumba, I shall continue my endeavors to supply the northern
hot-houses through that only channel, the agricultural department of the
enlightened commissioner, H. L. Ellsworth, in Washington. By the copy of
one letter from him, in reply to one remittance from me, you will perceive
that he is duly sensible fo the national importance of my individual services.
I have now well founded hopes that the poor people of Key Vacas will col-
lect the tropical seeds of the indigenous plants of those rocky Keys. I
have found it, however, extremely difficult to make them conceive that I








DR. HENRY PERRINE


prefer a handful of wild seeds to a bushel of cultivated beans-one wild
fruit of custard apple, for its seeds, to ten cultivated fruits of water-melons
for their flesh-or one wild root of the indigenous coontee (ZAmia inegri-
f6lia,) to one hundred cultivated shoots of the sweet potato (Convolvulus
batatas.) They are very grateful for my gratuitous services in curing dis-
eases and encouraging education among them, but they cannot readily con-
ceive that the greatest manifestations of their gratitude, in my estimation,
will consist in the simple collection of spontaneous seeds and products of the
Florida Keys. I wrote to you the failure of my attempts to induce them last
summer to propagate the sixty-three varieties of cultivable seeds, gratuitously
presented to them by me. Nevertheless, as I have excited their civil magis-
trates to commence the propagation of the Manilla silk mulberry trees, and
the Sea Island cotton shrubs, I am again confiding to other inhabitants
superior varieties, especially of their favorite curbitaceous productions.
Squashes, pumpkins, musk-melons, water-melons, &c, are all products of
patches in their common field of perennial sweet potatoes. Now I wish you
and your readers to understand distinctly, that I do not want a single seed
or plant exclusively for my own use, or for the exclusive use of any tropical
plant company which Mr. Howe and myself may be compelled to organize,
to overcome the obstacles to individual industry, interposed by the exclu-
sive monopoly of Key West.
I have shown you that Mr. Howe and Capt. Houseman are the only old
residents who have the taste and means to propagate and preserve precious
plants. But I do not want any person in the northern states to transmit any
seeds or plants to any person or place in South Florida, unless he be a phil-
anthropic philo-vegeculturist, who makes the transmission for the public
benefit of South Florida, and for the general advantage of the whole United
States. The transmitter should consider it a great honor to be the first intro-
ducer of any valuable plant into South Florida. One plant of a hot-house in
Massachusetts, transmitted by the proprietor to South Florida, would entitle
him to greater honor than his whole collection in his own possession. The
first person who transmits a single Manilla hemp banana to South Florida
will enjoy as enviable a celebrity as the first introducer of the Manilla silk
mulberry into the United States. Mons. Perrotet introduced both the M6rus
Multicafilis and the Mfsa abaca from the Phillipine Islands to the Garden
of Plants in Paris, and to the French colonies in the East and West Indies,
to Guadaloupe and Cayenne. Mrs. Parmentier, of Brooklyn, L. I., transmit-
ted to Cape Florida the first M6rus multicafilis introduced by me, on the








TEQUESTA


20th of May, 1833, for which my profound gratitude was manifested in the
Farmer's Register. Madame Parmentier also transmitted, at the same period,
the first New Zealand flax lily, or Ph6rmium tinax, which however, perished
by neglect. Indeed, all plants transmitted by me, or for me, to Cape Flor-
ida, necessarily perished from gross neglect, except those plants which prop-
agate themselves, and which hence have continued to spread themselves, in
spite of the inundations of the ocean and the incursions of the Indians. In-
deed, the great difficulties of obtaining the indigenous plants which are
propagated by their suckers alone, are the great motives for the powerful
interposition of governmental assistance. The indigenous plant, called rice,
is easily obtained and introduced and propagated, because it is propagated
by prolific seeds. The indigenous plants called sugar cane, are also obtained,
introduced and propagated with comparative ease, because they are propa-
gated by prolific cuttings. The exogenous plants, called grape vine and
silk mulberries, are also introduced and extended with comparative facilities,
because they are also propagated by prolific cuttings. But the Manilla
hemp bananas, the New Zealand flax lilies, and the Sisal hemp agaves, can-
not be easily obtained in their native countries, cannot be easily imported
into South Florida, and cannot be prolifically propagated in South, because
they are propagated by bulky unprolific suckers. Yet, when once introduced,
they are superior to all other profitable plants in the admirable fact, that
they continue to propagate themselves.
In Mexico, in the Phillipines, and in New Zealand, governmental vessels
are requisite to obtain the plants, on account of the opposition of the bar-
barous natives. If the species of Musa Phormium, Agave, Bromelia, and
other fibrous leaved plants, were as easily obtainable and propagable, as are
the species of Morus, Gossypium, and other fibrous barked plants, the com-
mercial cupidity of native Americans would have sufficed to introduce and
diffuse them many years ago. Nevertheless, so highly do I appreciate the
importance of associating my name with the introduction of a single plant
of the Manilla hemp banana into South Florida, that I have tempted our
plant traders (the Thorburns, &c) by proffering two hundred per cent. net
profits on the first Musa abaca that shall arrive in safety at Indian Key. As
it is said that the Phormium tenax has matured its seeds in the south of
France, it is to be hoped that some seeds may be thence obtained for South
Florida through the patent office at Washington. I naturally wish to retain
life long enough to see the most precious plants of the tropics actually
spreading in South Florida, but I am not anxious to be the first introducer








DR. HENRY PERRINE


of all precious plants. The Sisal hemp agaves, the Yucatan cotton shrubs,
and the Manilla silk mulberries, are sufficient monuments of my ambitious
perseverance.
By the last of March I obtained the first tea plant from Charleston, S. C.,
for the special care of my younger daughter; and by the next mail I shall
endeavor to obtain the first olive tree for my elder daughter; and a New
Zealand flax lily for my only son. My children are destined to be residents
for life of South Florida, and I therefore fix their permanent affections in
its slandered soils by the deep tap-roots of valuable perennial plants, to be
grown by their own hands, in their own lands.
At pages 29 to 31 of the Farmer's Register for January 31, 1840, under
the heading of "Governmental Obstacles to the Propagation of Tropical
Plants in South Florida," you will see a sketch of the origin and objects of
the two acts of incorporation of the Tropical Plant Company. During my
first visit to Key West, from the 17th of June to the 17th of July, 1837, I
ascertained that James Webb, then Judge of the District, was the only reput-
able resident, whose character and condition combined the circumstances
essential for a co-trustee of any tropical plant company. Judge Webb also
corroborated my own opinion, that Charles Howe, Esq., inspector of the cus-
toms at Indian Key, was the only other person, on the Florida Keys, entirely
suitable to be our official assoicate; and therefore volunteered to draft the
new charter of incorporation, and obtain its passage by the legislative coun-
cil of the territory, during the next ensuing session.
The new act, then, approved the 8th of February, 1838, was the voluntary
work of James Webb, at Tallahassee, while I was pursuing my own labors
at Washington, to obtain a congressional grant of a township of land. To
fulfil the objects of that congressional act, my principal plans embraced the
primary gift of a sufficient quantity of land to the Tropical Plant Company,
for the purpose of establishing a nursery of supply, and a model of cultiva-
tion of tropical plants. Judge Webb well knew the indispensable necessity
of the intermediate measure of an additional port of entry, for the requisite
removal of governmental obstacles to individual industry; and therefore,
unknown to Mr. Howe or myself, he addressed an official letter to the Hon.
Secretary of the Treasury, warmly recommending that Mr. Howe should be
appointed first collector of the new port of entry. The long session of Con-
gress closed the 7th July, 1838, with the usual neglect of necessary bills; and,
under these circumstances, at New York, Oct. 15, 1838, I addressed a circu-
lar "To the Friends of the Enterprise," announcing that "the trustees will de-








TEQUESTA


lay the organization of the company; and will apply their personal resources
to the formation of a preparatory nursery at Indian Key, and the adjacent
islets."
On the 8th January, 1839, the preparatory nursery for tropical plants
was established by Mr. Howe and myself on West Matacumba, one mile west
of Indian Key; but the insuperable obstacles to introducing into it the
tropical plants of the Bahama Islands, &c., induced me, on the 22d October,
1839, to address to you the communication of that date which appeared in
the Dec. number of your Magazine. Unfortunately for the company, the
emigration of James Webb to Texas, (where he became secretary of state,)
has deprived the remaining trustees of their only legal associate; and there
has not yet arrived in South Florida any suitable personage to supply the
vacancy of presiding trustee The Hon. A. W. Snyder, M. C. of Illinois, was
confidently expected at Indian Key, during the last autumn, to become a
citizen for life of South Florida; but up to the present July we have not any
news of him, and fear that he is dead. Our next hopes were directed towards
E. A. Williams, Esq., of your city of Boston, but months have elapsed with-
out a line from him to Mr. Howe. But, under all events, Mr. Howe and
myself are absolutely determined to remain without another associate trustee,
until some person shall arrive much more suitable than any actual resident
of the Florida Keys, including the sine qua non circumstance of citizenship
for life of South Florida. Nevertheless, if Congress shall adjourn without
opening an additional port of entry this session, we shall be compelled to
endeavor to organize the Company prior to the next session of Congress,
for the special purpose of enlisting the influence requisite to excite congres-
sional action towards the bare restoration of desert freedom to individual
industry in the desert district of South Florida. If Congress merely grant
the humble prayers of the numerous memorials of the poor people of the
Florida Keys, during the months of February, March and April, the actual
residents alone will suffice to expel the murderous savages from the delight-
ful everglades, and thus soon terminate the nominal warfare in South Florida.
JULY 12-The mail schooner Hayne has arrived with your June number
of the Magazine. I had hoped to see in it some extracts from my manuscript*
in your hands, especially under the headings of "Tropical Products of South
Florida," where everything is tropical: not merely its botany, but its zo-
ology, is exclusively tropical phytology. Conchology, icthyology, ornithology
are tropical subdivisions of its tropical zoology. I renew and extend my
proffers of gratuituous collections at Indian Key, as long as I remain there.
* This has never been received.-Ed.








DR. HENRY PERRINE


Mr. Howe writes to his nephew at Lowell, Mass., that he will supply barrels
of products to his order, in Charleston or New York. He will also send
to you by the present packet, on her return, some ripe fruit of the Manilla
mulberries, of the second crop this year.* You have already some berries
of the first crop, in February, and you will soon have some berries of the
second crop in June or July. The fig trees do bear two full crops on this
coral rock; but the present crop of Manilla mulberries is our first evidence
that they may also bear two annual crops. You will perceive that the sum
and substance of his desires, and of my desires, embrace the speedy emigra-
tion of agricultural settlers of virtuous habits. We mutually wish to
exhibit solely the facts, which should excite immediate emigration of sober
cultivators of profitable plants. The preemption laws of the United States
have sufficed for the settlement of all our other new territories, and would
have sufficed for the settlement of South Florida, had it not been subjected
to the exclusive monopoly at Key West, ever since the exchange of national
flags in 1822. Nevertheless, the first emigrants next autumn from October
to December, can profitably employ themselves in the propogation of the
Manilla silk mulberries and the Sea Island cotton shrubs, because the cut-
tings of the former and the seeds of the latter can be obtained cheaply and
abundantly. I have obtained, expressly for gratuitous distribution, six
bushels of select seeds, of the finest Sea Island cotton, and they will be
planted at intervals this summer, to create an ample supply for all emigrants
in the autumn or winter ensuing. I have to use the words of the north,
called autumn and winter, although we have not the seasons of the north.
To illustrate how little our national senators are acquainted with the
climate and soil of South Florida, I refer you to the opposition of Hon.
C. Clay, of Alabama, to the congressional act for the introduction and
propagation of tropical plants:-"For aught he knew, the grantees might
select a township valuable enough for the cultivation of Sea Island cotton."
Indeed! He was not aware that every acre of the calcareous earth of South
Florida is the most valuable in the world, both in soil and climate, for the
cultivation of Sea Island cotton. He was not aware that the grantees could
not select a single acre which was NOT valuable enough for the cultivation
of Sea Island cotton. He did not know that Sea Island cotton was introduced
into the southern states from the neighboring Bahama Islands. He does not
know that on the Florida Keys it is a perennial plant of many years' dura-
tion-that Mr. Howe has plants at Duck Key from seed sown eight or nine
* These were received.








TEQUESTA


years ago-that at Key Vacas there is a shrub of Sea Island cotton in bear-
ing ever since 1823. He does not know, and cannot conceive, that, for this
very reason, it cannot be profitably cultivated by large planters with num-
erous slaves; and that, vice versa, it can be most profitably propagated by
small cultivators with feeble families. Indeed, it will be a more profitable
business for family occupation than even the silk mulberry, in South Florida.
The principal recommendation for the production of silk in South Florida is
the fact, that it can be produced at any hour when the person or his family
has not any thing better to do. But silly must he be who shall pluck leaves,
to feed silk-worms, during the same days that he can pluck pods of Sea
Island cotton.
I observe that a Mr. Beath, of Boston, has invented an improvement of
the Sea Island cotton machine, (gin,) more important to poor propagators
of Sea Island cotton shrubs in the Florida Keys, than any modifications of
raw silk reels are to the propagators of Morus multicaulis trees. The ad-
vantages, however, of the propagation of both the cotton shrubs and silk
trees, on the Florida Keys, will extend to the poorest people of the remotest
northern states. The dry season of South Florida extends from November
to May, and silk can be spun and cotton can be plucked every intervening
day. Invalids, if poor, have hitherto been debarred of the benefits of spend-
ing the wintry seasons of the northern states amid the delightful weather of
tropical climates. But, hereafter, consumptive invalids may sail from New
England to South Florida in October, and maintain themselves by light
healthy labor on the Florida Keys, until the ensuing June. Even the Yankee
girls, who annually visit our southern cities for winter employment, may
hereafter spend the same months in South Florida, in the more profitable and
pleasant pursuits afforded by the cotton shrubs and silk trees of the Florida
Keys. Very few, however, will ever think of returning to settle for life again
in the northern states, after six months' stay in South Florida, including
either the wintry or summer seasons of their native countries.

JULY 16.-Mr. Howe has sent you some naked seed of the Morus multi-
caulis, because the ripe fruit, plucked the earlier days of this month, being
left in an open glass, the fleshy portions have been eaten by cockroaches.
Dr. Stebbins, of Northampton, Mass., has raised seedling plants of those
sent him in the spring of last year, 1839, and will probably grow the seeds
of the two crops sent him this year. It seems to me that your interest and
duty, as editor of your peculiar journal, should combine to excite you to
promulgate every fact connected with tropical Florida. Your journal can








DR. HENRY PERRINE


be absolutely filled, every month, for many years, with the materials of these
Florida Keys alone. If Prof. Rafinesque, of Philadelphia, or Prof. Torrey,
of New York, should spend a single day on a single Key of South Florida,
they would find materials for your pages during several months. Dr.
Torrey must send his colleague, Dr. Gray, to the Florida Keys, if they really
desire to make their great work a complete Flora of North America, or even
the United States. My time is necessarily devoted to the immediate means
of expelling the savage Seminoles, and other objects connected with the
Company.
You should know that, in Europe, the countries of the fig, grape and
olive, are calcareous countries; and you should also know, that, both in
climate and soil, South Florida is superlatively superior to southern Europe
for the propagation of olive and fig trees and grape vines. As, however,
these are not exclusively tropical fruits, I have not excited any attention
towards their production in South Florida, by public communications in the
agricultural periodicals. To personal acquaintances, however, I have sug-
gested that the great profit of the speedy propagation of these celebrated
plants, by the first cultivators on the Florida Keys. The New Englanders,
however, who have already commenced their improvements in West Mata-
cumba, are not well adapted to form a nursery of select grape vines or fig
trees. They have received seven varieties of grape vines for summer trial;
but the best period to import such plants from the northern states is in the
autumn. Messrs. Goodyear & Co. report, that they have planted two patches,
each of five thousand trees, of the Manilla mulberries imported by them
from the northern states, by the previous monthly mail, and they declare
they shall make large importations of valuable plants, next autumn, to be
brought by their colleagues, who have gone for their families. But none
of them have the practical knowledge of an experienced nurseryman or old
gardener, and I wish to impress on your mind, that the first cultivators of
nurseries of supply of all useful plants will be the most profitably employed
for their own peculiar gain, and for the good of the public in general.
Respecfully, &c,
Indian Key, Fla H. PERRINE.
The above desultory remarks by Dr. Perrine, upon the climate of South
Florida, and the establishment of the Tropical Plant Company, will, we
believe, be read with considerable interest. The preparatory nursery for
tropical plants has already been commenced by Dr. Perrine, in connection
with his co-trustee, Mr. Howe, and the Morus multicaulis, with some tropical







62 TEQUESTA

plants, has already been extensively planted. We hope Dr. Perrine's efforts
to establish an additional port of entry at Indian Key may prove successful,
and that Congress, another session, will grant what the inhabitants of the
Key so much require. When that shall be effected, we may look to the
speedy formation of the Company for all the objects which Dr. Perrine has
in view. In the mean time, we would urge cultivators and possessors of
tropical fruits to forward to Dr. Perrine any seeds which they may think
useful. We have, ourselves, a few seeds of the Phormium tenax, which we
shall take the first opportunity to send to Indian Key. The only object of
Dr. Perrine is, to introduce every useful plant into South Florida, with the
sole hope of rendering the establishment of the Company a benefit to the
whole country.-Ed.












Across South Central Florida in 1882;*

THE ACCOUNT OF THE FIRST NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT
EXPLORING EXPEDITION
Edited by
MORGAN DEWEY PEOPLES
and
EDWIN ADAMS DAVIS
On Lake Okeechobee, Fla.
Dec. 1882
The sun had almost entirely disappeared beneath the waters of Lake
Okeechobee as the Crescent, with its weary and tired crew, row alongside our
boat. Tired as all are, everybody is in good spirits, nevertheless, and
excited over their arrival. We have no time for talking, for the night is fast
approaching, a dark cloud rising in the south tells the approach of a storm,
and as yet there is no dry land on which to pitch our tents. A small clump
of trees separated from the main shore attracts our attention, so heading
our boats for it, we soon pass over the intervening half mile, and to our
delight and satisfaction, we find that we have struck quite a bonanza in
the shape of an island above water.
It matters little to us that it is not more than 25 feet square, six inches
above the level of the water, and composed of white sand. It is a place to
pitch our tents, cook supper, and with room to move about and stretch our
cramped limbs. Axes are soon busy clearing a spot for the tents, which
in a twinkling are stretched, Caesar has a roaring-fire, and every cooking
utensil we have is in use, and our hungry, tired, but merry crowd sit around
the fire, smoke pipes, and discuss the little incidents of the day. To be
sure, we are far enough yet from our journey's end, but at the first stage,
and as to what lies beyond we do not bother ourselves. The air is warm and
sultry as an August night, with not a breath of wind to cool the atmosphere,
and situated as we are on our little sandy island, only six inches above the
level of the water, we feel a little uneasiness at the various signs which tell
of an approaching storm, for we know that the least wind from the south,
* Continued from the 1950 TEQUESTA in which there is an introduction written by the
editors.







TEQUESTA


east or west, will wash the waters of the lake over our temporary refuge,
compelling us to take to our boats, make for the marsh, and remain until
the storm is over. An hour passes, and at last comes the welcome summons
to supper. Our cook has done his best and we certainly do ours. Supper
finished, everybody arranges as comfortable a seat as circumstances will
permit, seats himself, lights his pipe or cigar, and prepares for an evening's
enjoyment. It is too warm and sultry to think of sleeping, and somehow or
other the bellowing of the alligators all around us, and the sight of a black
object every once and a while coming in range of our camp light, makes us
feel less and less like sleeping. Everything has been repacked in the boats
that we are not compelled to keep with us for fear of the water coming over
us suddenly, and as we would have but little time to spare in such an event,
we have made all needed arrangements for a hasty departure.
About 12 o'clock we lay down in our tents, the Colonel, the Captain,
Professor and myself in one tent, and the men in the other. Previous to
lying down the Professor mildly suggests an idea, that in case of the waters
coming over us very suddenly, had we better not select a tree to climb, where
we could remain until daylight, and thereby be able to see better where to
turn for a harbor; so, adopting the idea, every man selects a tree. As we
lay on our beds of green moss, the Colonel, who is a great comforter, goes
to telling some of his experiences among the alligators while on his numer-
ous surveying expeditions throughout the State, and finally closes by relating
an incident which happened on the St. Lucie river, which was as follows:
Camping one night on that river a few years ago, three men and himself were
occupying a tent on its banks. After having slept for several hours they
were all awakened by screams of agony from the man who slept next to the
wall of the tent, (a groan from the Professor, who occupies that position
in our tent). They rushed from the tent just in time to grasp their compan-
ion, who was half way in the water in the mouth of an alligator. After a
desperate fight, they succeeded in making him lose his grip but not until
the man had been terribly lacerated and maimed for life.
The Captain says something about his ability to tell a better alligator
story, but he don't feel like lying, and etc. We all join in asking questions
of the Colonel concerning the incident; even Casar wants to know "If dat
man's blanket was torn by dat alligator." The Professor asks in a very
serious tone if he (the Colonel) was positive and certain that the man
occupied the outside place, which being answered in the affirmative, he (the
Professor) cautions Caesar not to go to sleep but to keep the campfire








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


burning all night. Caesar promises, as he would promise anything else, and
with about as much intention of fulfilling it as if he had never heard a word.
We cease to pay attention to the bellowing of the alligators, the scream of
a night bird in the marsh, or, in fact, anything else, for the gentle rippling
of the water as it rolls in tiny waves to within a yard of our feet seems to
have a soothing effect upon each occupant of the tent, and we are soon sound
asleep. How long we had slept I know not, but what I do know, was that
I was half awakened by the most unearthly yells from the Professor, fol-
lowed by a terrific squall from Casar. I have made it one of the principles
of my life never to spend precious moments in asking useless questions, and
the Colonel and the Captain seem to agree with me, for three objects robed
in spotless white skipped through the back of the tent, and before our eyes
are well opened, we find ourselves in the top most branches of a tree gazing
at the seven different flags of truce, which are fluttering to the early morning
breeze from seven different trees. "What's the matter," we hear echoed
from all sides. "Alligators," shouted the Professor from an adjacent tree.
"Alligators, sartin' fore God, dey was after de outside man, what was me an'
de Perfesser," comes from Caeesar, who has climbed as far as he can up a
smooth palm tree, and is holding on for dear life. Our campfire has been
allowed to go out, but by the overturning of pots, and the peculiar hissing
noise we hear below us, we know that our little island is in the hands of an
enemy.
"Shoot 'em Colonel, in de head, in de tail, on de wings; shoot 'em
anywhar," yells Caesar in an excited tone. "Shoot the devil, you infernal
black imp; didn't you pack all the guns in the boats last night? Jump down
out of that tree, and bring the Major and myself our rifles," explained the
Colonel from his seat on a projecting limb. "Yes, Caesar, hurry up and get
those rifles. Alligators don't eat niggers," says the Captain. "Caesar," says
the Professor, "if you have ever read Professor treatise
on alligators habits, etc., you will know an alligator is cowardly by nature,
and will always run from man if he only has a chance, so get down out of
that tree, Casar, and give the alligators a chance to run, and then bring the
firearms to the Colonel and the Major."
"Hurry up, Caesar," "Get down, Caesar," we hear on every side, but Caesar
remains stationary. "Gemmen," says CEesar, "I know my duty, and I knows
by rights I ought to git down and bring dem double brested shot-guns from
de boats for de Major and de Colonel, but dar are resins I can't. In de
fust place, I'se a married man, and de last time I counted my children der








TEQUESTA


wus eben 16. In de second place, my right leg done got cotched around' de
tree and it won't let lose."
In the meantime things were getting lively on the ground. A peculiar
snarling, snapping and grunting is going on, together with a general over-
turning of everything. We have certainly, camping on the island, taken
possession of a regular "alligator roost," and they in turn have routed us.
As to how we are going to get possession of our guns, safely stowed away
in the boats, we are busy in our minds conjecturing. We are willing to sac.
rifice Caesar, but Caesar won't be sacrificed. The breeze freshens while we are
trying to solve the problem, and as it blows along the coals of our campfire
an unconsumed piece of pine bursts into a brilliant blaze, illuminating the
scene below.
The whole surface of the ground below us is one moving mass of reptiles
hurrying and scurrying toward the water on each side, frightened by the
blaze which had sprung up so suddenly among them. There is a terrific
splashing as they plunge in the water on every side. The last alligator had
hardly disappeared, ere we slid down from our lofty perches, and after
getting possession of shotguns and rifles, putting on enough garments to
make a decent appearance, we open a perfect fusilade upon the black objects,
which just in line with our reflecting lamps which have been lighted, are
swimming around our little island.
After about fifty rounds of ammunition have been exhausted, and seeing
no further signs of the enemy, we go to work to examine the damage done,
which we find but slight, consisting of the loss of a portion of a box of
crackers overturned and demolished, or partly so, a bag of dried venison
gone, and sundry small articles scattered around generally. Every man
swears he didn't know all the row was about alligators, or he certainly would
not have taken a tree, but would have run for the guns and stood his ground
-thought it was the water coming over them, etc. The more we talk it over
the more excited we become. We are not afraid of alligators. Oh, no.
"Hand around the tin cups, you black imp," yells the Colonel looking at
Casar, "and then stand up here and let us know what you mean by-by-
by-causing this little excitement in camp?"
Caesar hands around the cups and then taking his position on the outside
of the crowd, he gives one glance in the direction of the position of the
Professor, a broad grin overspreads his face, he closes one eye, and he
gently rubs that one leg that "wouldn't let lose," he tells us his little tale:
"Genmen 'cordin' to de orders from de Perfesser, I kep de fire burning 'til







NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


I git sorter tired, an' laid down outside de tent, just next to de Perfesser, an'
fore I knowed anything I didn't know nuthin' an' was fast asleep. De fust
thing I knowed wus something movin' sorter promiscus like across dis
nigger's feet in de direchum of de Perfesser's feet, which was stickin' outside
de tent. De fire was done gone out an' I could' see nuthin', but befo' God
I smelt that alligator. When I smelt alligator for de fust time de hind end
of dat alligator was just getting' over my feet and de front had about reached
de Perfesser's, from de little 'citement dat was raised. I axed de perfesser
if it wasn't jess so, so help me Bob."
"Gentlemen," replies the Professor, "so far as I am personally acquainted
with the circumstances which have caused the little excitement in our camp
tonight, I think Cesar is correct. Whether it was 'hind end' of the alligator
which reached me first, or as Caesar says, the 'front end,' I am unable to
state, but I was waked on 'one end' with a claw attached to it passing over
my feet there is not a question of doubt. Thank you, Major, I believe I
will: just a little sugar, if you please. Before closing, gentlemen, I will
make one statement, and that is, when I started for my tree I did not ask
anyone to follow me, and if you out of politeness, insisted on keeping me
company, I am certainly not to blame."
While we are yet talking over the little incident light begins to dawn in
the East. The contrast is great between the half dressed shivering men which
were seated but a half an hour before in the top most branches of the trees,
and the uproariously happy, laughing, merry crowd who watched the rising
of the sun over the waters of Lake Okeechobee.
Coffee is made and drunk, and after refreshing ourselves by a bath in the
lake, with sharpened appetites we gather around our campfire and watch
Caesar prepare breakfast. As we arise from our morning meal each one
acknowledges that Caesar has done credit to himself and his interesting
family of 16 children in the preparation of the same. After breakfast the
"Daisy" is unpacked and the Colonel, Professor, myself and two oarsmen
get in her, and start on an exploring expedition on the northern shore of the
lake. The waters of the lake are as smooth as glass today, with not a single
ripple upon its surface. As we leave camp and head our boats toward the
east we see far in front of us the dim outline of points of woods coming out
of the lake, but the east, south and western shores are invisible, and nothing
meets the eye but one vast sea of water shining in the sunlight. Nearing the
shore, which is fringed by a thick growth of cypress trees, we find that there
is a beach of white sand at the foot of the trees, but only a few yards in







TEQUESTA


width, and in many places not more than a foot above the level of the water.
There is quite a thick undergrowth of scrub trees which are thickly covered
from bottom to top with vines, and these vines in profusion are blooming
with the loveliest flowers of the most brilliant hues we have yet seen on our
journey. Even the leaves of these small scrub trees are colored yellow, brown
or crimson. Landing at one point on the beach we force our way through
the tangled underbrush and find that the belt of timber which marks the
shores of the lake is not more than a hundred yards in width, and in many
places not that much. Beyond we look over that vast marsh, through which
we have been journeying for so many days. And in numerous places the
marsh comes to the edge of the lake, but in almost every case that occurs
where lagoons and bayous find an entrance. On every side we see hundreds
of water fowl of every kind and description, either circling around or fear-
lessly swimming in the water ahead of us. After rowing about 10 miles
our attention is attracted by the trees on a point of timber which comes out
into the lake, which appears at a distance of a mile to be covered with
white sheets, with not a vestige of foliage to be seen. On a nearer approach
we discover that what resembled the white sheets is nothing mote or less
than white cranes, which have selected the spot as a rookery, and are quietly
occupying every limb and branch seemingly watching our approach. When
within a few hundred yards we discharged a gun, and then for the first time
we realized their number. Like a white cloud they rise, and after flying a
short distance light again, either on water or around our boats, or upon some
tree nearby. Our ears are deafened by their screams, and we are not dis-
appointed when we discover that the water is too shallow to approach nearer
than two hundred yards, so we head our boats in the opposite direction and
it is with a feeling of relief that we once more find ourselves out of the
very unmusical sound. As our boat glides along the shore, from the marsh,
through the reeds, and from among the trees on the beach is seen that ever-
lasting alligator, from ten inches to ten feet, crawling toward the water
preparatory to taking a plunge to the same to rise again as we pass, and float
lazily on the surface as if in defiance. If he is a large one, we open fire
upon him with our rifles, and it is always with satisfaction we see him
struggling in and lashing the water into a foam with their tails, float for a
second on their backs and sink without a struggle to the bottom.

It is the intention of the Drainage Company to lower the lake five feet
by canals cut from the same to the Atlantic ocean and Gulf of Mexico, which
will not only reclaim thousands of acres on the shores of Lake Okeechobee







NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


but the Kissimmee Valley of this operation from Lake Tohopotaliga to
this point where the thoroughly drained and millions of acres of the richest
soil in the United States will be opened to the agriculturalists. No one who
has not seen with his own eyes, can realize the magnitude of the work already
done and still to be accomplished. Thousands of dollars have already been
spent and millions of dollars are yet to be expended before the task is accom-
plished. The directors of the company allow five years of steady work to
the lowering of Lake Okeechobee four or five feet. It is a herculean task,
and many might feel inclined to doubt its accomplishment, but after viewing
what has already been done in the Upper Kissimmee Valley, in the small
space of eight months, I am ready to believe that with the millions of money
lying in the treasury, the best engineering skill that the country can produce,
and with the cool practical heads that are directing the work, that short as
the time allowed themselves, still it is practicable, and its accomplishment
I, in my humble opinion, have not the shadow of a doubt. Every inch of
Lake Okeechobee is lowered, drains and renders fertile and susceptible of
cultivation hundreds of acres lying in the Kissimmee Valley. As their dredge
boat comes down from the Kissimmee Valley, the river will be straightened,
shoal places deepened, and the great volume of water which this operation
will pour into Lake Okeechobee, will for a while keep its waters at a stand,
perhaps raise them higher than their present level, but that will be but
for a short time, while the outlets which they will cut to the Gulf and ocean
as fast as human skill and labor can do it, will soon take off this additional
volume of water, and as the canals are deepened and widened, the lowering
of this great body of water will commence.
At present it is the intention of the company to cut four canals, one from
the eastern shore of Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic ocean through the St.
Lucie river; one from the southern shore to the Miami river, which also
flows to the Atlantic; the third from the western shore, which will enter the
Caloosahatchee river, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico, and the fourth
has not yet been determined on. It is by way of the canal that enters the
Caloosahatchee that we expect to make our way to the Gulf.

Having rowed about 15 miles along the shore, and seeing no change
in the nature of the country, we start on our return trip to camp. The sun
is scorching hot, and its reflection upon the water is almost blinding. We
have left our awning in camp, so this bright December day, in our shirt
sleeves, the perspiration oozing from every pore and noses being peeled, we
sit in our boat and pray for a breeze fresh from the Rocky mountains. As







TEQUESTA


we row lazily along the shore, the Professor, pencil in hand, and sketch
before him, not withstanding difficulties, takes a good sketch of the sur-
rounding scenery. At 3 o'clock we arrive at camp, and instead of finding
the Captain holding an inquest over the remains of Caesar, we find that
distinguished ebony-hued individual, the bough of a tree in his hand, keeping
the flies off the Captain, who has succumbed to the weather, and is sleeping
at the rate of about 10 miles an hour. The Captain has not allowed Caesar
to forget us in our absence for every available pot is on the fire, and from
the savory smell which greets our nostrils, we rather guess we are going to
have a good time.
It being against our will to allow anyone to sleep during the day time,
we rouse the Captain, and insist on feeling his pulse. We find his pulse a
little excited; in fact, he seems considerably excited all over from being
so suddenly awakened, at least so we think from some remarks of his in a
very emphatic style, about being kept awake half the night, listening to a
lot of alligator stories (and he looks at the Colonel), and then sitting the
balance of the night in a treetop (a look at the Professor), and now, when
he is doing his best to catch up with his lost sleep, some fellow, to find out
where he has hid the "keg of nails," disturbs his rest, and THE TIMES-
DEMOCRAT man gets his share of looks. Nobody ever gets mad in our
camp; and the man who is in the least danger of "falling from grace" is
the Captain-the merriest, jolliest, that ever walked in shoe leather.
Caesar has cooked dinner today under his special surveillance, and that
meal is certainly going to be a success, from the significant smile which the
Captain once in a while bestows upon Caesar, and by the important manner in
which Caesar is rushing around, looking into the different pots and rattling the
tinware. At last that important event is ready to take place. There are no
snowy tableclothes or napkins to adorn the table; no cut-glass goblets or
finger bowls at each man's plate; no silver forks and spoons with which
to eat the dainty meal steaming before us, and no man finds it necessary
to take a little absinthe as an appetizer. No, sir; none of that nonsense in
this crowd. We intend putting on a little style today; so all hands haul
out the "Crescent", turn it bottom side up, and before us we have a table
twenty feet long and five feet wide; the tent fly is drawn over her, we have
a table and cloth good enough for anybody; every place is supplied with
a shiny tin cup and plate, and as for an appetizer we take "a shake" at that
delapidated "keg of nails", after which we feel able to eat thirty quail in
thirty minutes, and glad of the chance to do it. Our dinner is served in








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


course in the following style: Lifting pot No. 1 from the fire, Casar sets
it in front of the Colonel, and in stentorian tones yells, "Soup a la Tohopol-
iga," which generally means bean soup or any other kind; it don't make any
difference to him, or to us either, and the plates are passed. Pot No. 1
is removed and Pot No. 2 takes its place, and "Black bass a la Istopoga,"
next claims our attention, and it is followed in quick succession by "Ducks
a la Kissimmee," "Venison of Hachinaka," etc. As we begin to observe
that dinner is nearly over, this fact we are made aware of by observing that
only one more pot remains on the fire, Caesar approaches and announces that
the "big dish" of the day is about to be placed before us. And simultan-
eously with this announcement, the last pot is lifted from the fire, and put
gently down before the Captain. "Fish stew a la Okeechobee," yelled
Caesar we all thought it was the wrong time to begin on fish, but the Profes-
sor suggests an idea that we can start over again with the "stew," and go
through the bill of fare once more, which happy thought we put to the
company in the form of a motion, which was carried with only one dissent-
ing voice (Casar's). As the Captain with a look of pride, lifts the lid from
the pot, a savory odor reaches the nostrils of all, and each man is trying
to pass his plate first. As soon as we are helped, and a spoonful has passed
our lips, we realize the fact that none but an artist's hand could have directed
the preparation or prepared that "dish," and Capt. Andrews blushingly
acknowledges that his hand was the humble instrument that did the business,
but that he claimed no honor or praise for his work, the recipe having been
in his family for generations, our admiration is unbounded, and nothing is
heard for a while, but "Caesar pass my plate;" "A little more gravy;" "A
small piece of that fish;" until our appetites are satisfied, and then in words
do we shower our compliments on the Captain, who is just finishing the
third plate. "Captain," says the Professor, "that dish was a 'poem' within
itself; Cleopatra, when she dined with Mark Antony, never had such a
seat when we hear the Professor whisper in his ear that he intends dedicating
the Great Spirit who watches over the waters of the Okeechobee must have
guided your hand in this mighty work." "Captain," says your correspondent,
"Shake-bring us the 'keg of nails', Casar."
The Captain is the hero of the evening, and we all vie with each other
in seeing who can pay him the most attention, but we have to take a back
seat when we hear the Professor whisper in his ear that he intends dedicating
his next poem to him. Pipes and cigars are lighted, and after arranging our
seats comfortably for the evening's conversation, the Professor pulls out his







TEQUESTA


notebook, sharpens a pencil, arranges his spectacles on his nose, and in
his softest tone of voice requests the Captain to dictate to him the "family
recipe" for preparing "fish stew a la Okeechobee." "Certainly," answers
the Captain, and immediately two other note-books are pulled out, and
two additional pair of eyes are eagerly turned in the direction of our hero
of the day. "Gentlemen," continues the Captain, "before giving you the
modus operandi, I will state that it is imperatively necessary that your alli-
gator should not be over four or five feet, as an old one-" "Alligator,"
we exclaim in one voice, "what has alligator got to do with your stew?"
"Do with my stew," roared the Captain, "why everything; and I was about
to remark, an alligator about the size of one of the ones you killed before
leaving this morning, Colnoel, and which Caesar fished out of the water
immediately after being shot, is just the size, and-" "Stop, Captain,"
whispers the Professor; "Do you mean to say that your stew was made of
alligator?" "I do," says the Captain, "out of the tail, and a more delicate
morsel never was eaten by anybody, and-" "Surely you are joking,"
interrupts the Professor. "No joke," remarks the Captain as he lights a
cigar, and orders Casar to bring the head and skin and show the Professor,
which is done in the twinkling of an eye. I take a look at the Colonel, he
looks at me, and we both look at the Professor, who with a pale and agitated
face gazes at the remains of the alligator. "Gemmen," says Casar as we
silently assist the Professor in gazing and feeling a peculiar sensation steal-
ing over us, "dars lots mor uv de 'gator left, and if de Perfesser, de Colonel,
or de Major wants a little more of de stew-" "Excuse me a second," comes
in a low voice from the Professor, and he walks with quick steps toward the
south shore of the island, about 20 feet from us. The Colonel about the
same time starts for the eastern shore to see if the water is rising, and I
start west to see if the water is falling. "Did you say it was a poem in
itself?" calls out the Captain to the Professor. "Oh Lordy," sighs the
Professor in the south. "What about the Great Spirit, Colonel?" "Go to
thunder," gasps the Colonel. "Want the keg of nails, Major?" continues
that evil genius of our once peaceful island, now a scene of turmoil. "Do
you think our lives, Cesar?" says the Professor, in a very weak voice, to
that distinguished gentleman who is holding his head. "Nebber known a
man to die yet, but I specs dat 'gator must have eat something' dat disagreed
wid him to make you'll act dis away," grinned the imp of darkness. None
of us died, but it took 30 minutes for us to feel perfectly satisfied that the
alligator and ourselves had parted company, and if that parting had not








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


been a peaceful one, still our conscious was at rest, as with pale faces and a
subdued look, one by one, we stole into the tent, and lay down upon our
mossy beds. More than one look from three pairs of eyes are directed from
that tent in the direction of the Captain, who sits calmly in front of us
smoking his cigar, humming to himself [a parody on the theme-song of the
New Orleans Mardi Gras, If I Ever Cease to Love]
"May black-eyed cats
Go back on rats
If ever I cease to love."
We intend he should "cease to love" to make "fish stew a la Okeechobee"
if ever 'our' turn comes.
Our campfire is kept during brightly all night, and every available
lantern is lighted and hung to the boughs of the trees. We have had enough
of alligators, alive or dead, for one day at least, and so we have taken all
necessary precautions to keep them at a distance.
On the morning of the 8th of December we are aroused from our slum-
bers by the whistling of the wind through the trees and the roaring of the
waters in the distance. Hastily donning our clothes, we walked outside and
found a stiff norther blowing, which makes us feel secure from an inunda-
tion; but as the wind is blowing the water from us, our island is increasing
every minute in size and our boats are being left high and dry. Wishing
to continue our voyage around the western shore that day, everything is
hurriedly packed, tents are struck, and while we yet have enough water to
get away from the island and reach deep water we shove off from shore,
and the Daisy, with closed-reef sails, is soon riding the waves with her
prow turned westward. Yesterday we were sweltering in the hot sun, today
the air is cool enough for an overcoat, and as the wind whistles through
the rigging of our little boat, every once in a while dashing the spray from
some huge wave in our faces, it is a new sensation to us, and quite a con-
trast to the smooth rowing down the swift current of the Kissimmee.
During our leisure moments yesterday, with the combined assistance of
the whole crew, we made a flag, on which the Professor in quite an artistic
style wrote the words "NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT, DECEMBER
7, 1882." That flag, attached to a pole, was nailed to the top of the highest
palm on our little island (which we christened "Hopkins Island" in honor
of the Colonel), and is the one guide at present to the mouth of the Kissim-
mee river, of parties navigating Lake Okeechobee. As we take a last look
at the island we see the flag fluttering in the breeze.







TEQUESTA


On leaving the island we recommended Captain Andrews to reef his
sail, as we were fearful that the "Crescent" could not stand up under the
canvas she usually carries, in such a gale as was then blowing, but no sooner
does the Captain see the "Daisy" outsailing him, than prudence is thrown
to the winds, and as we look behind us, we see the Crescent with every reef
shaken out and every stitch of canvas he has on board stretched to the
breeze, plowing through the water, the huge waves that almost at every
plunge sweeping into or over her. Fearing for the safety of those on board,
we "lay to" and wait for her to come up, which she does in double quick
time with the water foaming at her prow, and the Captain at the helm wet as
a rat from the spray which is thrown over him. His crew, including the
Professor, consists of three men, and as they pass within 10 feet of us a
more bedraggled looking set of men I never saw, as, with buckets in hand,
I see them bailing out water for their life, which is thrown back again
almost as soon as thrown out. "Captain," we cry, "reef your sail or you all
will sink or be capsized, certain." "Attend to your own old 'smoothing
iron'." roars the Captain; "I command this craft, and by the eternal gods
I am going to outsail you or drown every man on board!" "Oh, lordy,"
cries the Professor; "This is worse than eating alligator." "Bale, you lub-
bers," roars the Captain, "or I'll be hanged if every mother's son of you
don't drown sure enough."
We know the Captain too well to expostulate, so the only thing we can
do is to crowd more sail on our boat and follow in his wake, for the purpose
of picking them up when their boat goes under or capsizes.
For hours that mad race goes on, we expecting every minute to see the
Crescent keel over, but she does not do anything of the kind, and being
satisfied she has a fine sailor at the helm that has forgotten more about
sailing than we ever knew, we change our course and steer for the shore,
about three miles from us, for the purpose of noting the topography of the
country, and at the same time watch for a flag, which the officer in charge
of the dredge boat working between the Caloosahatchee river and Lake Okee-
chobee, has been instructed to put up at the nearest point on the lake to
which he is at work, that we may be enabled to guide ourselves in getting
to him through the saw grass in case he is not in sight of the lake. These
instructions were sent to Captain Menge, the officer in charge of the dredge-
boat, over three weeks ago via Fort Myers, through the courtesy and kind-
ness of the officers of the Drainage Company, who when they learned that
THE TIMES-DEMOCRAT was organizing an expedition to visit the scenes








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


of their future labors, forwarded instructions immediately to all the officers
in charge of their different works to render every assistance in their power
to aid us in getting through to the Gulf.
As we near the land I notice that the banks of the lake are much higher,
but the land, as that which we examined yesterday, is but a narrow strip a
few yards in width. The aspect of the country remains unchanged, except
that groves of palm trees become more frequent, and occasionally we come
to small islands, which have originally been points of the mainland, running
out into the lake, and cut off by the action of the water. This we know, as
in many cases cypress trees are yet growing in the middle of the channel,
between island and mainland. Beyond the fringe of woodland which marks
the banks, nothing meets the eye but one vast marsh of saw grass, which
has to this time guarded like a faithful sentinel the entrance of the Ever-
glades of Florida. The soldiers of France, Spain and the United States have
each in turn followed the dusky Indian warrior to the borders of this, his
lair. Each in turn have seen their foe disappear from view in their light
canoes, winding like snakes through the tall grass, and when they attempted
to follow, have met naught but defeat and suffering. It was not, in the
majority of cases the Indian that compelled them to retreat, but the utter
inability to get through the saw grass marshes.
This grass grows to a height of from eight to ten feet, the roots firmly
embedded in the earth. Grasp it in your hands and like a penknife it cuts
through the flesh; attempt to push through it, and if one of the needle-like
points, which tip the end of each blade, does not stop your course, you
will soon find, that if nothing worse happens to you your clothing is slashed
and cut into ribbons, as if you had just had an encounter with someone who
used a razor as a weapon. There are certain seasons of the year when the
Indians meet in and around Lake Okeechobee, and in their canoes sweep
across the southern shore of the lake, disappear from sight in the tall grass,
and are seen no more for months. As the woodsman knows each bridle path
in the vast forest, and is never lost, so do these Indians know each lagoon and
bayou which penetrates the Everglades, and where they take their canoes
upon their backs, trudge to the next lagoon and launch them once more, until
their journey is ended, and they find themselves safe from the prying eyes of
the white man, in their palmetto huts, upon some of the beautiful islands,
which the imagination of the outside world has vested the Everglades.
Threats, promises, tortures, and offers of reward, with even the half-civilized
remnant of the Indian tribe that still inhabit Florida, have failed to induce








TEQUESTA


them to act as guides through what is to the white man an unknown and
unexplored country.
The waters are comparative smooth near to the shore, and our little
boat glides swiftly on her way. Off to the left, in the distance, the white
sails of the Crescent are glittering in the sunlight, as she pitches and tosses
in her attempt to ride the waves, which seem to be rolling mountains high.
The Colonel and myself have a hearty laugh as we picture to ourselves the
condition of the Captain's crew, especially that of the poor Professor, as
we recall our last sight of him, with spectacles high on his nose, wet to the
skin, baling for dear life, looking as if the last trumpet was sounding, and
he didn't want to go.
It being 12 o'clock, the Colonel proposes that we take our "latitude or
longitude," I forget which, but I know we always took it in a tin cup with
a lump of sugar, after which we take our lunch of cold venison and duck,
and renew our gaze along the shore for the signal which is to tell us of our
proximity to the canal, which we intend to attempt to reach.
At 2 o'clock, comes the glad announcement from Mac, who is on the
lookout, that about ten miles on our front he sees the smoke of a steamer
about half a mile from shore in the saw grass. It is welcome news, and
every eye is strained to catch a glimpse. We crowd on all sail, as we wish
to camp as near as possible to the dredge, and have time to select our camp.
We soon find ourselves sailing along a shore destitute of trees, the saw grass
marsh reaching to the waters edge, and the unpleasant feeling comes over
us that, perhaps, we will see no more dry land on which to pitch our tents,
and be compelled to sleep all night in our boats--ut we do not let such
unpleasant thoughts occupy our minds very long. The Captain has also
seen the smoke of the dredge boat and the Crescent is headed for the same
point as our boat, but the smooth water we are sailing over near the shore
gives us little advantage, and when we arrive opposite the dredge, which
lies a little over a quarter of a mile from the shore, we are ahead. Waiting
for the Crescent to come up, we spend the time in scanning the adjacent
country, hoping to get a sight of a piece of dry land large enough to camp
on, but no such good luck seems to be in store for us, for nothing meets the
eye but the tall marsh, except an island of trees about two miles farther.
Signaling to the Crescent to follow, we sail by the flag which marks our
course, and go toward the only spot which promises us a refuge for the night.
When we arrive at the island we find it submerged with water at a depth of








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


from one to two feet, and although Mac wades into the woods in search of
dry land he finds none, and we realize that we are in a quandary.
About that time the Crescent comes up and anchors alongside us. All
hands are still baling, and we are informed by the Captain that "Give him
six more sails for his boat, eight more men like the Professor to bale, and
by the eternal gods he can beat the world." Every thing is dripping wet,
and rice, beans, potatoes and other articles are mixed in hopeless ruins in
the bottom of the boat. We furnish all hands with lunch, and give the Pro-
fessor a dose of the only medicine we have on hand, which we hope will
prevent him from catching cold. There is no use in sleeping in our boats
where we are, so we conclude to return opposite the dredge and see how
near we can get to her by forcing our boats through the marsh. We find
on arriving there, that we have sufficient water to pull within about a
thousand feet of the dredge, from which distance we are observed by Capt.
Menge, who kindly sends one of his men, who hails us and invites the whole
party to wade to the boat, where they have ample accommodations for all. The
Colonel, the Captain and myself take a look at the tall grass marsh in front
of us, and cramped as our accommodations are we prefer them, and decline
the invitation with thanks and decide to sleep in the "Daisy". Not so the
Professor, who, in "Georgia uniform," minus the shirt collar and spurs, gal-
lantly places himself at the head of the men, and off they start in quest of a
hot supper and hospitable bed. As usual misfortune follows in the steps of
the Professor for he does not go ten yards before he tumbles in an alligator
hole, and thereby loses his spectacles, his only article of attire on this auspi-
cious occasion. Cesar rescues him, and the last glimpse we catch of him he
is leaning upon his rescuer's arm, gingerly pushing his way through the tall
grass, as if he feared to tear his clothes, safe in a bundle on his back.
As the last man disappears from view we arrange our beds for the night.
A lighted lantern is placed on both bow and stern and a red light run up
to the masthead, a danger signal to any prowling alligator. Our boat is
only 41/ feet wide at the stern, so our accommodations are rather narrow.
The Colonel lies on one side, the Captain on the other, and I force my way
into the- middle place. We are packed like sardines, and during the night
when a man wants to turn over the middle man has to get up and give him
a chance; consequently I spent my night getting up, and getting back again.
But whats the odds so we are happy?
[MARCH 15, 1883.] During the night of 8th December, that we spent
in the saw-grass marsh opposite the dredge boat, we are aroused from our








TEQUESTA


uncomfortable bed by a shower of rain, the first since we began the voyage,
but with plenty of India-rubber clothes we keep dry. The morning breaks
beautiful and clear, and the first sight which greets our eyes as we gaze in
the direction of the dredge boat is Caesar, who is bravely struggling through
saw-grass and mud, with a large pot of hot coffee in his hand, sent by Capt.
Menge. Being unable to cook breakfast on board of our boat, we have to
depend on crackers and canned meats for that meal, but which, nevertheless,
we enjoy. Cesar brings word from Capt. Menge that as soon as possible a
sufficient force will be sent to drag our boats across the marsh to the canal
and launched. About 9 o'clock our crew returned bringing with them several
cables belonging to the dredge, which are passed around each boat, a rope
is attached of about 200 yards in length, the end carried to the men, about
15 in number, who are waiting on the land, or at least where the water is
not more than a few inches deep, and the work of hauling us over begins.
Each boat is pulled and turned to within 300 yards of the dredge, a hawser
is attached to us, connected to the powerful engine on the boat, and at a
signal the rope tightens and the boats are quickly pulled across the interven-
ing space. Stepping on board of the dredge, we are grasped warmly by
the hand and given a cordial welcome by our fellow-Louisianian, Capt.
Menge, who in the kindest manner tenders us the hospitality of his boat.
We accept an invitation to dine with him, and the use of a stateroom on
board, in which to take a few hours of rest and sleep, for our last night's
experience in the "sleeping line" was not a success. A good sleep a, good
bath, and feeling like new men, we leave our rooms, join our host, who
introduces us to Capt. McIntyre, the chief engineer of the boat, and all
hands sit down to a sumptuous repast prepared in honor of the occasion.
We received a very pressing invitation from our host to remain several days
and witness the working of his boat, but as we have learned that we have as
yet to encounter difficulty of navigation before reaching the Caloosahatchee
river, which will likely detain us several days, we decide, very much against
our inclination, to resume our journey that evening.
After dinner we climb to the highest perch on the dredge and with the
aid of a field-glass, get a splendid view of the surrounding country, including
Lake Okeechobee. A vast level plain, unrelieved by woods, except on the
borders of the lake, stretches for miles to the right and left of the canal. To
us from our lofty perch, it resembles a vast plain, but we know in reality,
that we are gazing across saw-grass marsh, and do not wonder that the
attempt to penetrate from the Caloosahatchee river to this point has invar-
iably been a failure. In front we gaze across the largest body of fresh water








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


in the South, and very properly named Okeechobee (Big water) by the
Indians. But our island is in sight, and that we know by the experience of
yesterday, is covered with water. In our rear or to the west, we see the canal,
the work of months, with all appliances that money could obtain or skill
devise, which, running straight as an arrow, is lost as it ends in the waters
of Lake Hickpochee, at a distance of about three and one-half miles. Look-
ing at the land lying immediately below us, we are informed by Capt. Menge
that six months ago, when the canal was begun from Lake Hickpochee, from
four to six feet of water covered the ground, which now in many places is
perfectly dry; and in others not more than six inches of water can be seen,
and yet the canal is not completed or the water draining out of Lake Okee-
chobee. On examining the soil through which the dredge is now cutting,
we find it the same as around Lake Tohopotaliga, a decayed vegetable mould,
resting upon a subsoil or pan of hard clay, reaching to a depth of from
six to eight feet.
As 3 o'clock arrives, we get ready to resume our journey, accompanied
by Capt. McIntyre in his steam launch, who will guide us as far as the
entrance to the Caloosahatchee river. As I will have a better opportunity
of examining the nature of the soil, and of seeing the surrounding country
I accept the invitation of Capt. McIntyre to accompany him in the launch;
and so after being joined by Capt. Andrews, we step on board; the "Daisy"
and "Crescent," with their sails unfurled, push off from shore, and as our
boat gives us our first "puff," the dredge boat and tender whistling in salute,
which is answered by the launch, and our party is once more en route to
the Gulf of Mexico.
As we leave the dredge we find but little current in the canal, but after
going about a mile it becomes swifter. Half way the land becomes higher,
and more is to be seen high and dry above the water, but the same rich
soil remains unchanged, with no perceptible diminution in depth. Weeds
from eighteen to twenty inches in circumference, reaching to a height of
ten feet, have sprung up on the banks of the canal, where the earth has been
thrown out in digging, and on every side the saw-grass is wilting and dying
as its natural elements, the water, is being drained off. Take the water from
the saw-grass, and when it becomes dead and dry, put fire to it, and the soil
is rid of it, and the land is ready for the plow. The canal we are now float-
ing down is just the beginning of the work of the drainage of thousands
of acres in our immediate vicinity, for the company, as soon as the three
or four great outlets are dug, which will take off the waters of Lake Okee-
chobee to the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic ocean, will begin cutting a








TEQUESTA


series of small canals diagonally across the present one, which are to answer
a threefold purpose to the planter, viz: First, an additional means of drain-
age during the rainy season; second, a means of transportation for their
crops, which can be shipped from their very doors; and thirdly, a saving
of fencing to keep out stock. From what I understood in conversation with
members of the company, one canal to every thousand acres will about be
the proportion. Peculiarly adapted to the cultivation of cane, rice and corn,
I have no hesitation in saying, that from six to eight hogsheads of sugar can
be made to the acre, with one-half the labor and teams it requires to culti-
vate an acre in any other Southern State in the Union. The soil neither
cakes nor bakes when exposed to the sun, but crumbles and pulverizes easily,
reminding one very much of an ash heap, and instead of from two to four
mules to a plow as in Louisiana, to cultivate the ground, after the first year
one mule will do the cultivation, which no where else can be done with less
than two. Cane has been known to rattoon for 12 years, and yield well
(about 30 miles from this point) even when cultivated in the most primitive
manner. I believe that on such soil, and with the climate it possesses, that to
replant every fifteen years will be amply sufficient. Cane in this country
has been known to grow untouched and uncultivated after the first year, for
seven years, was then cut, ground and yielded well. Frosts are almost un-
known, and when they do come, they are so slight as not to injure the most
delicate tropical plants.
Concerning the richness of the soil I make the broad assertion that its
equal is not within the boundary of the United States, and its superior no
where in the world in such a large body. Instead of having the rows seven
or eight feet apart in planting, four or five is ample in this soil and climate.
In Louisiana, in the beginning of October, whether the cane is ripe or green,
the mills are started, the cane manufactured into syrup or sugar, and the
chances are it is not ripe, thereby losing a large percentage of what other-
wise would yield if thoroughly matured. Frost and freezes wait for no man,
and so, nolens volens, when the last hour arrives which the prudence of the
planter tells him he can wait, cane is cut, and the work of sugar-making
begins. Break a piece of machinery, and while the slow work of repairing
it is going on at some foundry, freezes come, and the labor of a year, the
savings of years are swept away; while here how different will soon be the
picture. If your cane is not ripe in 8, you will wait 18 months, or as long
as you find it necessary for the perfect maturity of the same. Crops can
be taken off in July or August as well as in October, and many small planters
prefer this month, as they are able to put fresh syrup on the market when








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


it commands a high price. Mr. Hough, living on the Caloosahatchee, had
his mill burned while grinding his cane, and was of course compelled to
stop. His new mill being rebuilt and refiniished in June, he resumed his
work of taking off his crop, and found the yield greater than when he first
began. Until cane is in full blossom, no one thinks of grinding, that event
depending upon the month in which you plant, as regards "plant cane," and
the month in which you cut, as regards rattoon or stubble. Almost all the
cane seen so far (December) is in full bloom.
One of the greatest advantages of the large body of land lying on each
side of the canal, between Lake Okeechobee and Lake Hickpochee, is the
water protection which these lakes will afford in case of a heretofore un-
known spell of cold weather. The question of transportation has already
been solved, for, as I write, by telegraph comes the news that by the route
we already traversed, and will pass over in the next few days, a large steamer
has made the trip, and a line of boats have already been put on to ply be-
tween the Gulf and Kissimmee City.
Swifter and swifter flows the water through the canal, as we near Lake
Hickpochee, and not many minutes elapse are we are riding the waves of
one of the most beautiful sheets of water in Florida. This lake is from four
and one-half to five miles wide, and six or seven miles long. The lands on
the banks of this lake are low and covered with saw-grass; the woods on the
western shore coming down almost to the water's edge, and when the drain-
age is perfected on the lands in the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee, high banks
will take the place of the present low lands.
Our boat is headed for the northwest shore, at which point we once more
find ourselves, after steaming for about five miles, at the entrance to the
canal, which is a continuation of the drainage system which connects Lakes
Hickpochee and Okeechobee with the Caloosahatchee river.
The Colonel, who is sailing the "Daisie", has completely outstripped us,
and as we turn into the Canal the white sails of that craft are seen about
three miles from us, sailing swiftly down the current, which at this point
is running at the rate of about six miles an hour, showing plainly the great
fall there is between Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee river. The
swift current is widening and deepening the channel every day, and when
the dredge returns to this point for the purpose of perfecting its work, the
crew will find its work done for them. This canal is about five miles long,
straight as an arrow, and hundreds of acres, which a few months ago were
covered with water from two to four feet are now high and dry. As the








TEQUESTA


saw-grass has already been burned off from a great deal of this land, we
have a better opportunity of seeing how perfectly the company are succeed-
ing in this, the grandest undertaking of the present century in the United
States. There is no change in the soil from that already described, except
that in several places the clay sub-soil has been reached at a depth of about
six feet from the surface. On seeing the traces of where dams had been
built across the canal, we are informed by Capt. McIntyre that when the
boat had dredged the canal about a mile from the river the water drained
off so rapidly that in several places before reaching Lake Hickpochee they
were compelled to build these dams in their rear to keep their boat afloat.
We indulge in alligator shooting this evening on a grand scale. On
every side as we steam down the canal, we see effects of the Colonel's rifle,
and a number of dead alligators lying on the bank. He has had the cream
of the shooting, but we decide to knocking over a few. Our boat soon
enters the Caloosahatchee river which at this point is no wider than the
canal. We land here for the purpose of camping all night on a high hum-
mock a few hundred yards from the river, but as the "Daisie" and steam
launch draw too much water to approach near to the shore, we are compelled
to anchor them in the river, and after getting as near as possible in the
"Crescent" we wade ashore.
We are visited by a shower during the night, and everything gets wet in
camp. Not liking our camp grounds, we pack up everything wet and resume
our journey the next morning, intending to camp and dry everything at the
first good camping ground. A run of seven or eight miles brings us to a
beautiful grove of palm trees, situated on the banks of the river, with good
landing for our boats, so boats are headed for the shore, and ere long tents
are up and everything spread out in the hot sun to dry. Capt. McIntyre
being unable to come any further in the steam-launch, on account of the
river being choked up with wild lettuce, has left his boat about three miles
above, and has accompanied us in a skiff to our present camp. We spend
this day (Sunday) in washing out the boats, drying our wet baggage, and
in repacking provisions, which, as our voyage is drawing to a close, are
gradually growing less. The "keg of nails" gives an ominous rattle when
shaken, and on close inspection we realize the fact that one more day will
see the last of it.
After taking dinner with us Capt. McIntyre returns to the dredge, and
we, by his advice make our preparations for a hard day's work ahead
through Lake Lettuce, which lies about one-half a mile from us, and covered








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


with wild lettuce so thickly that it is almost impossible for a boat to get
through.
Before daylight the next morning everybody is astir, boats are packed,
and at the first streaks of dawn we push off from shore, and are soon floating
down the river. Our progress is soon impeded by the thick lettuce, which
stretches out before us for a mile like a green field, with not a foot of clear
water in sight, although we know by measurement that there are some seven
or eight feet of water beneath the green covering. We have been told by
Capt. Menge that it would likely take us two days to go the mile and one-
half through this lake, and after our first vain attempt to force our way
through it we are inclined to believe him, and for the first time during our
voyage, we realize that we may be compelled to abandon our boats and
walk to the nearest settlement on the Caloosahatchee.
Written directions have been given us by Capt. Menge as to how we are
to go by land, should we be compelled to abandon our boats. We find after
an hour's hard work we have gone about ten yards, so we hold a consulta-
tion to devise some means of getting through. While we are consulting,
Caesar is busy on his own hook, pulling up the lettuce with his hands and
throwing it aside, and by the time our consultation is ended, we find the
way cleared for several feet in front. A new idea enters our heads; we all
go to work pulling up lettuce, and as a space is cleared, the boats are
pushed forward. Our progress is much faster, and although the hot sun
is pouring down upon us, everybody works with a will, as we see a prospect
of getting through. One little incident happens to enliven us. Caesar, in
putting his hand in the water to pull up the lettuce grasps hold of and brings
to the surface a huge water moccasin, the first we have seen on our trip.
Luckily for Casar, he has grasped the snake next to his head, a worse
scared nigger never was seen before in Florida, and the snake is dropped
much quicker than he was picked up, not withstanding the entreaties of the
Professor to get Caesar to hold on to him until he could determine his species.
Caesar don't take the same interest in science that the Professor does, and is
satisfied with his short inspection of his snake.
We see clear water ahead at 2 o'clock, and feel so much elated that we
stop working and take a cold dinner sitting in our boats. A half-hour's labor
and thoroughly exhausted, we take our seats and our boats are allowed to
float down the current while everybody takes a rest, so much needed after
our four hours' toil in the wild lettuce of Florida, the difficulty of getting
through which can only be appreciated by experience.







TEQUESTA


An hour's row and we enter Lake Flirt, which is but an enlargement of
the river, being about two miles wide, and so shallow that any deviation from
the main chanel of the river finds us stuck fast in the mud. Here seems to
be the home of the water fowl. The shores are white with cranes, among
which we see numbers of pink curlew, and the waters are black with every
species of duck. We enjoy the best days sport we have yet had on our
voyage, we notice several flocks of wild turkeys feeding on the edge of the
lake, but are unable to get in shooting distance, owing to the shallowness of
the water. The huge hummucks surrounding this lake are noted throughout
the State as being the finest wild turkey and deer ground there is in the
South. Two or three weeks before our arrival a band of Indians camped on
these grounds and went deliberately to work slaughtering the turkeys, leaving
hundreds on the ground dead, not even picking them up. No other reason
could be given for such wanton destruction, except to keep away the white
hunters they wished to destroy the game.
The sun is but half an hour high as we leave the lake and find ourselves
floating down the high banks of the Caloosahatchee river .
A few hundred yards from the point at which we enter, the banks are of
solid rock, and almost before we know it our boats are shooting over what
is known as the "rapids." The water being quite low we are able to see
and avoid the rocks which jet out from the surface of the water, and soon find
ourselves in safe harbor opposite Fort Thompson, our camp ground for the
night. Fort Thompson takes its name from having been used by the United
States troops during the Indian war, as a supply depot, but was abandoned
at the close of the war, and today nothing remains to mark the spot.
Our tents are pitched beneath a large oak tree, which furnishes an ample
supply of moss for our beds, fires are lighted and every man is soon busy
picking ducks and snipe or cleaning fish. Our appetites are sharpened by
our day's work, certainly the hardest we have had since our voyage began,
and the sumptuous repast that we sit down to at 9 o'clock puts everybody in
good spirits. Pipes and cigars are lit, and tired as we are, it is 11 o'clock
ere we hear the last story, hold an inquest over the last remains of the
"keg of nails," (the verdict rendered being too much attention on the part
of Casar) and all tumble into bed.
It is 9 o'clock next morning, and the sun is high in the heavens ere we
are ready for our days journey. We feel rather sore from yesterday's work,
and do not move quite as sprightly as usual. Capt. Andrews puts the Cres-
cent in command of the Professor and joins the Colonel and myself in the








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


Daisy. Our awning is stretched over the boat to shield us from the hot sun,
and after telling the men to take their time we light our pipes and prepare
to enjoy the row down the Caloosahatchee. We were too completely "done
up" to notice the beauties of this new country last evening, as our boats,
almost before it, were born swiftly from the lake and into the river and then
to our last night's camp, about a quarter of a mile from the lake; and now
we quietly note and enjoy and feel for the first time since we landed in Flor-
ida that we are really and truly journeying through the "Land of Flowers."
High banks, a rich soil reaching to a depth of from three to four feet, a
strata of shells embedded in limestone, commonly called "coquina," coming
next, resting upon a solid foundation of rock, is what first meets our gaze
on each side of the river, which at this point is not more than forty or fifty
feet in width. Clear as crystal, sweet and delightful to the taste, are the
waters of the river, and we spend hours of this days journey in looking over
the gunwale of our boat at the numbers and the varieties of fish we see darting
and swimming around us. Large wide spreading live oaks fringe the banks,
throwing out their huge limbs half way across the river, and growing side by
side is the palm tree reaching to a height of fifty or sixty feet. After rowing
a few miles we land, climb up the steep bank, and it needs no imagination to
convince us that we are in the tropics. The woods are densely thick, so
thick that but a few straggling rays of sunlight seem to penetrate to relieve
the intense shade which shade greets the eye on every side. Vines covered
with flowers of the most brilliant hue, have twined themselves around the
trunks of each and every tree, and growing upon the branches, instead of
mistletoe is the "airplant" sometimes a brilliant green, and at others a dark
purple color. Branches of different varieties of trees have met together
overhead, or if they do not meet, the vines which encircle their body and
limbs, have grown across to the intervening space, and have twined around
each other. Over the carpet of green grass we tread, unimpeded by scrub
or weed, as we walk through the woods gazing in wonder and admiration at
the maginficent live oaks, magnolia and palm trees, which have grown to such
extraordinary heights and size. Here for the first time we see the cork tree,
which grows in profusion, and why some enterprising manufacturer has
never attempted to utilize the wood, is an enigma to us. Even in its green
state, it is but little heavier than cork, and when dried equally as light. We
also see the india-rubber tree, at least it is so called here, but whether that
species can be utilized or not, I am unable to state. Numerous other trees,
which we have never seen before, meet our eyes at every turn. It is so cool








TEQUESTA


and pleasant under the dense shade of the trees, that it is with reluctance we
retrace our steps to the boats, which on reaching, we step on board, shove
off from shore, and our more than pleasant voyage is resumed.
At 10:30 we pass Fort Denaud, formerly used as a garrison by the United
States troops during the Indian war. No vestige now remains of its former
occupancy. We do not land and examine the spot for a hundred reasons.
The first is that there are two cross-eared, bobtailed "yellar dorgs" standing
on the bank, and when Caesar attempts to jump on shore with a rope to tie
the boat they each make a break for his legs, and as Caesar assures us that
"he ain't got no more clothes nearer dan Jacksonville," we do not insist on
him making an attempt a second time. As one reason of the one hundred is
sufficient we won't give the other 99 for shoving off from shore and continu-
ing our voyage.
[MARCH 16, 1883.] On every side, as we proceed down the Caloosahat-
chee, we see the marks of the great flood of 1874, when the whole of the
lands adjacent to the river were covered with water to a depth of from eight
to nine feet. Previous to that year, within the memory of the oldest inhabi-
tant or the oldest Indian living in Florida, the waters were never known to
overflow the banks of that river, and no marks were to be seen upon trees
over one hundred years old. For over thirty days storms raged on the
Atlantic ocean and Gulf of Mexico, preventing the waters of the Everglades
from flowing out, and Lake Okeechobee having no other outlet through
which to drain off, the vast volume of water which the Kissimmee river,
also higher than ever known before, swept down the Caloosahatchee covering
the banks from its sources to its mouth and spreading destruction on every
side. Luckily for the few settlers who then occupied this portion of the
country the water rose slowly, and they had ample opportunity of moving
back to the pine woods, which at some points are not more than a few
hundred yards from the river and above any high water. Many who moved
to the pine woods remained there, and although they cultivate the rich soil
of the river bottom their residences are back among the pine trees.
When the drainage company having finished outlets of the waters of
Lake Okeechobee, and it will no longer be compelled to depend upon the
slow process of seeping through the Everglades, during the rainy season,
pour into it, then all danger of the occurance of such an overflow as that
of 1874 will be prevented. Many trees have fallen into the water, and
would to a certain extent obstruct the free navigation of it by any large craft,
but a few thousand dollars judiciously expended would make it perfectly








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


navigable and to large steamers from Fort Myers to the canal. It has been
estimated that five or six thousand dollars would be amply sufficient in
proper hands.
At 1 o'clock we pass Fort Simmons, another old fort used by United
States troops during the Indian war. As for the others (Forts Thompson
and Denaud) no trace remains except the clearing, to denote its former
occupancy. We begin to pass numerous places being cleared and buildings
being erected, which tell us plainer than words that this, the garden spot of
Florida, will in a few years show the balance of the State its superiority
as regards climate and soil for producing everything that is now grown
in Florida, and a hundred other tropical products that they cannot grow for
want of soil or climate.
After an hour's rowing the familiar odor of a sugar mill during grinding
season greets our nostrils. It is a familiar odor indeed, and two, at least, of
our little party who begin to look anxiously for a first sight of a Florida
sugar mill.
A flatboat loaded with sugar cane, tied to the bank, tells us the mill will
be somewhere in the neighborhood, so we land, and as we step on shore
we are met by the gentlemanly proprietor, Col. Jas. McKinley, and after
introducing myself and party, we are cordially invited to walk over his
Florida farm. As we reach the top of the bank we find ourselves in the
midst of sugar making. The kettles are two in number, set in the open air,
and the coolers consist of a large cypress log which has been hewn out,
holding about ten or twelve barrels of syrup. The kettles are nearly the
same size, but little larger than a large-sized wash-pot. The mill is run by
one horse, and a boy of 10 or 12 years of age feeds the same with cane,
which crushes one stalk at a time, and if that cane gets crooked as it is going
through, the horse is backed, the cane is straightened, and everything is
lovely once more. Col. McKinley is not making sugar, although the juice is
cooked to a sugar point, but by adding pure lemon juice, it is prevented
from granulating and when cooled is a clear and thick syrup equal to any
Louisiana syrup in flavor or sweetness. We watch the process of boiling and
are surprised at the short time it requires to cook, but are informed that it
requires five gallons of juice to make one of syrup, cooked to a sugar point,
the cane being thoroughly matured, and is therefore, perfectly sweet. I
have, in describing the mill, neglected to state that the cane juice is caught
in buckets as it comes from the mill and transferred by hand, in buckets, to
the kettles. We visit the cane field, containing about eight or ten acres, and








TEQUESTA


are surprised at the size and thickness of the cane, which is fourth year's
rattoon. It is so thick and matted; that no man can, without cutting his
way, get through. In this case, where the cane was ten feet high, it was
blown to the ground by the winds, where it took a fresh start and continued
to grow until it reached a height of six feet, when it was again blown to the
ground and compelled to start upward again. From this statement our
readers can form an idea of the appearance that cane field presented to us.
Cutting one of the stalks, we pulled it out with difficulty from among the
others, for it is as crooked as a ram's horn, and we find that by actual meas-
urement it will cut 18 feet for the mill, and this is neither the largest nor
tallest we find in our examination. The rows are four and five feet apart.
Colonel McKinley also exhibited to us cotton which had been growing in
the open air for four years. We measure one of the stalks and find it eight-
een inches in circumference six inches above the ground and nine feet in
height. The plant, or perhaps I had better say tree is covered with green
leaves, blossoms, forms, bolls, and open cotton. Colonel McKinley informs
us that there is no day in the year that open cotton can not be found on the
stalk, and that it has never been cultivated since the first year. The reader
will recollect that on the 15th day of December when in Northern Florida
frost and even ice are the order of the day. Leaving the field we accompany
the Colonel to his residence, where we visit his garden and fruit orchard.
The following vegetables we find in full bearing, viz: Tomatoes, egg-
plants, beans, peas, watermelons and both sweet and Irish potatoes. Of
fruits we note the following varieties: Oranges, limes, lemons, cocoanuts,
pine-apples, tamarinds, alligator pears, mangoes and mazapotas. The Col-
onel also points out his rice field pinewoodd land), on which he gathered
this year seventy-five bushels of rough rice to the acre. He is experimenting
in raising tobacco, which will be equal to the Havana in quality.
How the cane is cultivated.
On returning to the mill our conversation on the cultivation of sugar is
resumed, and in a few words I give the results. Cane is planted about four
feet apart, plowed three times a year with a single horse, is cut and ground
any time after it matures; his meanest cane which he is not grinding, although
at least 30 per cent is left in bagasse from inability with his present mill to
properly crush the same, has yielded 350 gallons of syrup to the acre, already
sold at 50c a gallon; cost per acre to cultivate this crop is $7. Cane will
rattoon indefinitely if properly cultivated, and can be planted or ground any
month in the year. Colonel McKinley showed us a very fair specimen of







NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


sugar made for his own use, but considers syrup with his present means of
manufacturing as the most paying crop. He expects to make a specialty of
pineapples and will plant it largely. Colonel McKinley who was for years
a mate on the Mississippi river, but has been living for six or seven years in
Florida, is happy, contented and prosperous.
While we are indulging in a glass of sugar-house beer, Dr. James Kellum,
accompanied by his charming lady and his nephew, Mr. Higby, of St. Louis,
arrive in their boat from their place about two miles below. He has his
little daughter Sallie with him-about five or six years of age-whose ex-
quisitely beautiful face, charming and winning little ways, soon has three
devoted admirers in the persons of Col H., Capt. A., and myself. Dr. Kellum
was for years a surgeon in the United States Navy before the war, was Chief
Medical Director on the staff of Gen. Walker in his Nicarauguan expedition,
and during our civil war was chief medical purveyor and inspector on the
staff of Gen. Longstreet. He needs no introduction to any of the old Confed-
erates of the Virginia army. He is a Virginian by birth, and left a princely
home and a large practice to come to Florida about nine years go to settle
(as he says, and we agree with him), in God's country, the Caloosahatchee
Valley. We receive a warm invitation from the Dr. and his lady to accept
the hospitality of his roof, but we are compelled to decline. We do accept
an invitation to camp on his place, and bid adieu to Col. McKinley, after
thanking him for his offer of hospitality and courtesies, we, in company with
the Doctor, resume our voyage down the river, arriving at our camp-ground
after dark. Tents are pitched and supper cooked, after which we turn in
and sleep until sunrise next morning. After breakfast having attempted
to make ourselves presentable, we all go out to the Doctor's residence, about
half a mile from the river, to call upon him. His residence is built upon
the edge of a pine woods, he having removed from the river bank after the
flood of 1874. His house and outbuildings are built of pine are large and
commodious. We do not find the Doctor at home on our arrival at the house,
but are kindly received by Mrs. Kellum and Miss Sallie. Her variety of
flowers and plants in the parterre are the most rare collection in the State
of Florida. Previous to the flood of 1874, a large horticulturist from New
York attempted to propagate and grow all the different varieties of tropical
plants in the open air about half a mile from the place. His success was
perfect, but unfortunately the water flooded him, and over $5,000 worth of
valuable plants were killed and swept away, just as he was beginning to
realize from his venture. Previous to that time, Mrs. Kellum had obtained







TEQUESTA


roots and cuttings from him of his rarest shrubs and flowers, which she
saved, and all of which have grown and flourished under her personal care.
It would take too much space to attempt an enumeration of all the different
species, or describe in words the loveliness of this perfect wilderness of
flowers presented to our view, or the rare and exquisite perfumes which are
wafted to our nostrils in this beautiful garden in South Florida.
After bidding farewell to Mrs. Kellum and the charming little Miss
Sallie, who is perfectly willing to join our party, we wend our way to the
cane field of the Doctor, and if we were surprised yesterday by size and
luxuriant growth of Colonel McKinley's cane, we are doubly so today, when
we view that of the Doctor's, which is growing on some of the richest low
lands of the Caloosahatchee Valley, in full blossom, superior in size and
height to any we have ever heard or dreamed of in our lives. We attempt
to find a fair sample for the purpose of shipment to the office of THE
TIMES-DEMOCRAT, but the largest is so crooked that it would be impos-
sible to ship them, so we have to content ourselves with smaller sizes, which
will give an idea of the size and type of cane in South Florida.
The Doctor having returned joins us and we soon engage in a conversa-
tion on the culture of cane. As in the case of Col. McKinley, I have a synop-
sis of the information furnished me upon the subject, which was as follows:
Dr. Kellum has lived in Florida for nine years, and planted cane for four
years. The land he has in cultivation is high hummock, with a top soil of
decayed vegetable matter mixed with sand, reaching a depth of from two
and a half to three feet; then comes a strata of marl about two feet, the
subsoil being clay, reaching to an unknown depth. He has not devoted much
attention to cane, but will plant 35 or 40 acres this year-not for the purpose
of grinding, but for seed for those immigrating to that section-for the pur-
pose of planting cane. Such cane as I see growing is worth for plant cane
$300 per acre, and even that price could not buy it now. One acre of such
cane, by planting a single cane, which is amply sufficient, will plant 15
acres. It begins to yield its best and will rattoon indefinitely, increasing every
year its yield, with proper cultivation. The Doctor plows his cane three
times a year with a single plow, and plants and grinds any month in the
year. He has never ground but one year, and his means of taking off his
crop were so primitive (wooden rollers and boiling in kettles in the open
air) that his crop yielded him $100 an acre, net. He considers that cane
will yield best after being allowed to tassel for four months.








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


In further conversation with the Doctor I learned that there is yet a large
amount of government land open for entry to actual settlers, back from the
river, although but little on the river bank remains unentered. He also shows
me two mango trees, which will bear this year, which are about 12 or 15
feet in height, and resemble slightly the Japan plum in foliage and appear-
ance. This is considered one of the most delicate tropical trees, and easily
killed by cold. The Doctor seems perfectly in love with his Florida home,
and says that money would not induce him either to sell or abandon it. He
is anxious to see immigration set in the direction of the Caloosahatchee,
provided it is of that class, which could be considered an addition to the
society and intelligence of the community.
The inhabitants of Caloosahatchee are all from Southern States, notably
Alabamians, Virginians, Mississippians, and Texans. I met no Louisianians,
although I understood there were several.
We are introduced by the Doctor to Wm. E. Loper, his nearest neighbor.
Mr. Loper is a highly educated and intelligent gentleman, a native of Mobile,
but for several years after the war was occupying the position of bookkeeper
in a large mercantile house in New Orleans. His failing health compelled
him to seek Florida nine years ago and here he still remains and hopes to
remain the balance of his days. He is the owner of one of the finest lemon
groves on Charlotte harbor, which he has abandoned for the purpose of
planting cane on the Caloosahatchee. He will have about 30 acres in this
year. We cross the river and examine his field of cane, which, although very
fine, is much younger and inferior in size to Dr. Kellum's, it being plant cane
and the Doctor's fourth year rattoon.

The Doctor and Mr. Loper have made an engagement to meet us in three
days at Fort Myers, and join our party in a cruise around the Gulf coast, we
say au revoir, and our little boat, the Daisy is soon skimming over the water
and our party is jubilant over the idea of reaching Fort Myers that night, it
being only thirty-five miles from this point by water. The Crescent was sent
ahead early in the morning, and has about five hours the start of us. The
river at this point is quite wide, and continues to widen as our voyage pro-
gresses. After going about ten miles the high banks disappear and the
marshes come down to the water's edge. Occasionally a high ridge of land
comes down to the river, but that does not happen often. We pass innumer-
able small islands, but they are low and often covered with nothing but
mangrove trees. But few settlers are seen below Dr. KeIlum's, the land not








92 TEQUESTA

being considered of the best quality for cane but is the very best in the State
for pine-apples and cocoanuts.
Dark finds us still rowing down the river, with Fort Myers not yet in
sight, a strong headwind, and the river a mile in width. About 9 o'clock we
begin to think we will be compelled to anchor and spend the night in our
boat, when ahead we see a light flame up and are made happy, for we know
it is a signal to guide us into port, made by the Professor and the crew of
the Crescent, who have arrived at their destination. We taste the water which
is flowing by the side of the boat, and find that we have reached salt water,
and our journey of over five hundred miles has been accomplished. We are
soon moored to the wharf at Fort Myers, which for the first time has the
honor of holding the first boats that ever made the through trip from Lake
Tohopotaliga to the Gulf of Mexico, via the Everglades, and at the masthead
of those two little boats floats the flag of THE TIMES-DEMOCRAT.








TEQUESTA


Contributors

EDWIN ADAMS DAVIS is Professor of History at Louisiana State University.

WILLIAM A. GRAHAM is associated with Ernest R. Graham in the beef and
dairy cattle industry at Pennsuco, site of the sugar growing and making
experiment described in the article. Parts of this paper were prepared when
the author was a student at the University of Florida.

MORGAN DEWEY PEOPLES was a student in history at Louisiana State
University when he worked with Professor Davis editing the Times-Democrat
Expedition account.

HENRY PERRINE prepared the article here reprinted in 1840 at the very
end of his life. The same number of the Magazine of Horticulture carried
an account of the Indian Key Massacre in which Perrine lost his life and
brought to an end whatever chance there was that his dreams might some
day be realized.

FRANK B. SESSA, Director of Libraries for the City of Miami, was a
member of the history faculty at the University of Miami when his account
of Miami in 1923 was written as one chapter in a doctoral dissertation for
his Ph. D. degree in history at the University of Pittsburgh.








TEQUESTA


HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA

TREASURER'S REPORT
FISCAL YEAR ENDING AUGUST 31. 1951

On hand Sept. 1, 1950
Building Fund -- ---------- $ 73.27
General Fund ------------ 966.23 $1,039.50

Dues collected --- -------------- 1,977.00
Contributions to Building Fund ------ 70.50
Contributions to Marker Fund -------- 200.00
Miscellaneous Income --------------- 146.42 2,393.92

Tequesta ------------------------ $ 793.10
Program meetings------------------ 289.20
Treasurer-------------------------- 142.74
Corresponding Secretary-------------- 126.65
Erection of Marker------------------ 107.70
Archives --------------------------- 28.92
Miscellaneous Expense--------- 45.24 1,533.55

On hand August 31, 1951
Building Fund ------------ $ 143.77
Marker Fund__------------ 200.00
General Fund----------------- 1,556.10 1,899.87

$3,433.42 $3,433.42
Number of Members for Class of Membership Total Amount
$2 $5 $10 $25
1948 433 71 504 $1,221
1949 432 119 551 1,459
1950 423 134 557 1,516
1951 344 147 19 2 512 1,661
Cost per member of:-Publishing Tequesta--.--.---------$1.42
Meetings ---- -------------- .52
Treasurer ----------------------- .26
Corresponding Secretary -- ------.23
Msc. activities, less msc. income----- .06

$2.49
EDWIN G. BISHOP, Treasurer.









TEQUESTA


LIST OF MEMBERS
EXPLANATORY NOTE: The Society has recently provided for several
new classes of membership. Regular members at two dollars a year dues
make up the great majority of the active list. For those who wish to contrib-
ute more to the promotion of the Association's work the new classes of
member provide the opportunity, and the publication of their names is a
means of recognition. In addition to the existing "Sustaining" member with
dues of five dollars a year there have been added "Patron" at ten dollars
a year, "Donor" at twenty-five dollars a year, and "Benefactor" at two
hundred and fifty or more dollars a year. The printed roster is made up
of the names of those persons and institutions which have paid dues in
1950 or in 1951 before September first.

Annual


Adams, A. H., Miami
Adams, Elliot, Jacksonville
Adams, William H., Miami
Albertson Public Library, Orlando
Aldrich, Richard, Coral Gables
Allardt, Mrs. Frederick, Los Angeles
Allen, Robert L., Deland
American Museum of Natural History,
New York
Anderson, Mrs. Myra Burr, Miami
Ansbaugh, Mrs. Katheryn M., Miami
Anthony, Roscoe T., Palm Beach
Arnold, Mrs.. Roger Williams, Miami
Arthur, Miss Phyllis H., Miami
Ayars, Erling E., South Miami
Ayars, Mrs. Earling E., South Miami
Ayer, Mrs. Malcolm Hall, Miami*
Baber, Adin, Kansas, Illinois*
Baker, Mrs. Therese C., Stuart
Balkin, Gilbert J., Miami
Barker, Virgil, Miami
Bartow (FIa.) Public Library
Baughman, Miss Leona, Miami
Baum, Earl L., Naples
Baxter, John M., Miami*
Beal, K. Malcolm, Miami*
Beardsley, Jim E., Clewiston
Beaton, Margaret M., Coral Gables*
Beck, Mrs. Alfred John, Ft, Lauderdale
Bell, Jack, Miami
Bellous, C. M. Sr., Miami
Bennett, Lucius L., Miami
Berst, Francolia, Miami
Bingham, Mrs. Millicent Todd, Washington,
D. C.
Bird, Mary G., Miami*
Bishop, Edwin G., Miami
Black, Mrs. Charles E., Miami*
Black, W. L. Jr., Miami
** Indicates Founding Member.
* Indicates Charter Member.


Bliss, H. Bond, Miami*
Bloomherg, George W., Miami
Blonvelt, Mrs. Arthur M., Coral Gabels
Botts, Mr. G. W., Jacksonville
Board, Mrs. Walter, Ormond Beach
Bowen, Crate D., Miami*
Boyd, Mark F., Tallahassee*
Bradfield, E. S., Miami Beach**
Brickell, James B., Miami
Brickell, Mrs. James B., Miami
Briggs, Harold E., Carbondale, III.
Brinson, J. Hardie, Miami
Brook, John, Jr., Coral Gabesl
Brooks, Mrs. Charles I., Miami
Brown, Judge Armistead, Tallahassee
Brown, University, Providence, R. I.
Brown, William Mark, Miami*
Brownell, Thomas C., South Miami*
Brunstetter, Roscoe, Coral Gables
Budd, Garland M., Jr., Coral Gables
Budd, Mrs. Garland M., Jr., Coral Gables
Buderus, Ernest, Miami
Bullen, Ripley P., Gainesville
Burdine, William M., Miami
Burton, Mrs. Robert A., Jr., Miami*
Bush, R. S., Miami
Byrd, Mrs, J. Wade, Miami
Caldwell, Thomas P., Coral Gables**
Caldwell, Mrs. Thomas P., Coral Gables*
Campbell, Park H., Miami*
Campbell, Mrs. Park H., Miami*
Capron, Louis B., West Palm Beach
Carnine, Miss Helen M., Miami
Carson, Mrs. Ruby Leach, Miami Springs**
Cash, W. T., Tallahassee (Deceased)
Cass, Mrs. Glen B., Miami
Castillo, Miss Angela del, Washington, D. C.
Catlow, Mrs, William R., Jr., Bloomfield,
N. J.*









TEQUESTA


Chamberlain, Robert S., Alexandria, Va.
Chase, H. R., Miami
Christian, Mrs. Mary Poole, Clewiston
Clarke, Mary Helm, Coral Gables*
Close, Kenneth, Miami
Coconut Grove Library
Cole, R. B., Miami
Collier, Miles, Everglades
Collins, Mrs. Eva 0., Bartow
Columbia University Library
Combs, Walter H., Jr., Miami*
Combs, Mrs. Walter H., Sr., Miami*
Comefrod, Miss Nora A., Coral Gables
Connor, Mrs. June, Tampa
Cook, John B., Miami
Cooney,' Mrs. Robert E., Miami
Cooney, Robert E., Miami
Copeland, Mrs. D. Graham, New Orleans
Coral Gables Public Library
Corley, Pauline, Marietta, Ga.**
Coslow, George R., Miami
Cox, Mrs. Jessamine S, Miami
Crane, Francis Y., Marathon
Crane, Mrs. Francis Y., Marathon
Crow, Mrs. Lon Worth, Miami*
Crow, Lon Worth, Miami
Culbertson, Mrs. Thomas M., Miami**
Cullen, Ralph 0., Coral Gables
Curtis, Kent, Grand Rapids, Minn.
Dade County Teachers' Professional
Library
Davis, Mrs. Christine, Miami
Davis, Katherine Fite, Miami
DeBoe, Mrs. Mizpah Otto, Coral Gables
Dismukes, Wm. P., Coral Gables*
Dodd, Miss Dorothy, Tallahassee*
Dorn, J. K., Miami
Dorn, J, K., Jr., Miami
Dorothy, Mrs. Caroline, Miami*
Dovell, J. E., Gainesville
Downes, Patricia, Coral Gables
Duff, Elizabeth B., Clewiston
Duley, Almas Leroy, Miami
DuPree, Thos. O'Hagan, Coral Gables
DuVal, Mrs. Hugh F., Miami
Dykes, Robert J., Miami
Earle, Walter F., Ormond Beach
Earman, Joe S., Vero Beach*
Eason, Mrs.. Helga H., Miami
Eckel, Mrs. Frederick L., Ft. Lauderdale
Edwards, Mrs, Howard K, Miami
Egger, Mrs. Henry J., Live Oak**
Elder, S. F., Miami*
Elder, Mrs. Leola Adams, Miami*
Elliot, Mrs. Robert C., Ft. Lauderdale
England, Mrs. P. H., Coral Gables
English, Colin, Tallahassee
English, Mrs. Ruth, Talahassee


Epting, Mrs. Lulu C., Miami
Etzwiler, Mrs. Eidth M, Miami
Eustis High School Library
Fairchild, Mrs. David, Miami*
Fisher, Mrs. Jane, Miami
Fite, Robert H., Miami
Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee
Florida State Library, Tallahassee
Florida State University Library,
Tallahassee
Foster, Athene S., Miami*
Fox, Leonard B., Camaguey, Cuba
Francois, Miss Florence M., Miami
Free Public Library, Jacksonville, Fla.
Freeland, William L., Coral Gables*
(Deceased)
Freeland, Mrs. William L., Coral Gables**
Feeling, Mrs. J. S., Miami
Freeling, J. S., Miami
Freeman, Mrs. Ethel C., Morristown, N. J.
French, Mrs. Marian M., Miami
Frierson, Mrs. William T., Miami*
Frisbee, Mrs. Allan, Miami
Fritz, Miss Florence, Fort Myers*
Frohock, Mrs. Jack, Miami
Frutkoff, Theodore, Coral Gables
Fuzzard, Miss Jessie M., Miami
Gaillard, Margaret Combs, Macon, Ga.
Gardner, R. C., Miami*
Gardner, Mrs. R. C., Miami*
Gates, Harley D., Boca Raton
Gellrich, Mrs. Ida W., Key West
Geberer, Murray, Kew Gardens, N. Y.
Gibson, Mrs. Walter C., Miami*
Gifford, Mrs. John C., Miami*
Gilbert, Bertha K., No. Miami Beach
Gilkey, Margaret J., Miami
Gillette, George, Wauchula
Givens, Robert H., Jr., Miami
Goggin, John M., Gainesville
Greene, Miss Clarissa, Miami
Gregor, Henry, Coral Gables
Griffin, John W., Gainesville
Griffith, Arthur, Miami
Griffith, Mrs. Arthur, Miami
Griswold, Oliver, Miami
Hack, Ernest, Miami
Hack, Jacob, Jr., Miami
Hagan, Mrs. Thomas W., Miami
Hagan, Thomas W., Miami
Haggard, Mrs. W. A., Miami*
Hall, Willis E., Coral Gables
Hallstead, Fred, Ft. Lauderdale
Halstead, Wm. L., Miami
Hamel, Claude C., Amherst, Ohio
Hampton, Mrs. John, Sparks, Md.*
Hancock, Mrs. J. T., Okeechobee
Hancock, Susan, Decatur, Ga.









TEQUESTA 97


Hanna, A. J., Winter Park*
Harper, Mrs. Raymond, Princeton, N. J.
Harris, Miss Julia Fillmore, Miami*
Hart, Mrs. Reginald, Coral Gables
Hartnett, Mrs. Fred B., Coral Gables*
Hartnett, Fred B., Coral Gables*
Harvard College Library
Harvey, J, H., Miami
Havee, Mrs. Kathryn, Miami
Hayes, Mrs. Emmie S., Miami
Heinlein, Mrs. Mary Calkins, Homestead
Hendry, Judge Norman, Miami
Henry, Mrs. Erma P., Coral Gables
Herin, Thomas D., Miami
Hetherington, Mrs. Alma, St. Cloud
Higgs, Charles D., Fontant, Wis.*
Hill, Mrs. A. Judson, Miami
Hilsabeck, W. D., Miami
Holland, Judge John W., Miami*
Holland, Spessard L, Washington, D. C.*
Hollingsworth, Tracy, Coral Gables
Hollywood (Fla.) Public Library*
Holmdale, Mrs. A. G., Miami
Hooker, Roland M., Miami Beach
Houghton, Mrs. A. S., Miami
Hovsepian, Lawrence Wm., Miami
Hudson, Mrs. F. M., Miami*
Humes, Mrs.. Ralph H., Miami*
Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Jahn, LeRoy S., Miami
Jammer, Louis A., Jr., Morrisville, Pa.
Jeffrey, Dr. S. L, Miami
Jenkins, Leon R., Miami
Jones, CoL A. B., Miami
Jones, Mrs. L A., Miami*
Jones, L. A., Miami*
Jones, Mrs. Mary, Miami
Jones, Mrs. Mary Douglas, Coral Gables
Kaplan, Dr. Jacob H., Miami Beach*
Karpinski, Louis C., Winter Haven
Keefe, Harley, Miami
Kiem, Stanley, Miami
Kilvert, Maxwell A., Winter Park*
King, C. Harold, Miami
Kistler, The C. W. Company, Miami
Kniffen, Claude L., Coral Gables
Koefoed, Jack, Miami
Kohl, Mrs. Lavenia B., Palm Beach, Fla.
Kussrow, Van C., Miami Beach
Lake Worth Public Library
Lamorton, Fred de, Tampa
Lans, Louis, Jr., Tavernier
Lawrence, Mrs. W. A., Miami*
Lee, David C., Jr., Chicago
Lewis, Miss Carlotta, Coral Gables
Lewis, Mrs. L. T., Miami
Lewis, Miss Mary D., Tallahassee
Leyden, Mrs. Louise, Coral Gables


Lipp, Morris N., Miami Beach
Littlefield, Miss Helena, Coral Gables
Loftin, Scott M., Jacksonville
Longshore, Frank, Miami
Lummus, J. N., Jr., Miami
Lyell, Mrs. Robert O., Miami
Lyell, Robert O., Miami
Lyman, Jack B., Miami
Lynch, Sylesvter John, Homestead*
Lyons, James, Miami
MacArthur, W. E., Miami
MacArthur, Mrs. W. E., Miami
MacDonald, Miss Barbara, Miami
MacDonald, Miss Betty, Miami
MacDonald, Mrs. Duncan, Miami*
MacVicar, I. D., Miami
Manly, Charles W., Miami
Manning, Mrs. Wm. S., Jacksonville
Marchman, Watt P., Fremont, Ohio*
Marsh, Fred Dana, Ormond Beach
Marsh, Mrs. Fred Dana, Ormond Beach
Martin, S. Walter, Athens, Ga.
Mason, Mrs. Joe J., Miami
Mason, Walter Scott, Jr., So.. Miami*
Massey, Mis Ethelyn, Miami
Matteson, Miss Eleanor E., Miami*
May, Philip S., Jacksonville
McCaskill, J .M., Miami
McCollum, John I., Jr., Miami
McCune, Adrian, Miami
McGahey, Miss Lillian, Miami
McKay, D. B., Tampa
McKee, Arthur, Jr., Homestead
McKim, Mrs. L. H., Montreal, Canada
McLinden, H. Ladd, Miami
McManus, Mrs. Merry R, Miami
Memorial Library of the Palm Beaches
Meredith, Mrs. Evelyn T., Miami
Merrick, Miss Ethel F., Coral Gables
Merritt, Dr. Webster, Jacksonville
Mershon, M. L, Miami
Meyers, Miss Ethel H., Hialeah
Miami Public Library*
Flagler Memorial Library, Miami*
Miami Public Library (Riverside Branch)
Miami Senior High School Library
Miami Springs Memorial Library
Michel, Mis Hedwig, Estero
Milam, Robert R., Jacksonville
Milberg, Edmund J., Miami Beach
Miller, Benjamin, Miami
Miller, Mrs. F. G., Mulberry
Miller, Raymond M., Miami*
Minich, John M., Clewiston
Moffat, George D., Miami
Monroe, William W., Miami
Montgomery, C. C., Coral Gables
Moore, Mrs. T. V., Miami*









98 TEQUESTA


Morales, William H., Jr., Miami*
Morgan, C. L., Jr., Coral Gables
Morris, Zula, Miami*
Mounts, Mrs. Marvin, West Palm Beach
Mull, Dr. Richard D., Saginaw, Mich.
Muller, Leonard R, Miami*
Myers, Gen. John Twiggs, Miami
Nelson, Winifred H., Miami
Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill.
Newell, Miss Natalie, Miami*
Newton, Dawson L., Lakeland
Nugent, Patrick B., Swananoa, N. C.*
Nugent, Mrs. Patrick B., Swananoa, N. C.*
Odum, Ralph E., Lakeland
Oglesby, W. Dickey, Coral Gables
O'Meara, Vincent K., Hialeah
Orlando Senior High School Library
Orr, Alexander, Jr, Miami
Otis, Robert R., Jacksonville
Ott, Mrs. Roy V., Miami
Owre, J. Riis, Coral Gables
Pace, Mrs. Johnson H., Miami*
Parsons, Mrs. Frances G., Miami*
Partak,'Albert W., Miami
Patrick, Rembert W., Gainesville
Peobody Museum Library, Harvard
University
Peacock, Mrs. Coral, Miami
Pearce, Mrs. Dixon, Miami
Pearson, Mrs. David J., Lundhurst, N. J.
Pemberton, P. G., Miami
Pemberton, Mrs. P. G., Miami
Pendergast, Mrs. Eleanor L., Miami*
Pennekamp, John D., Miami
Pennington, Rev. Edgar L., Mobile, Ala.*
Perry, Burrough F., Miami
Perry, Isaac Madison, Miami
Phelps, James A., Miami
Philhour, Charles, Jr., So. Miami
Phillips, A. V., Homestead
Pierce, Miss Ruby Edna, Palm Beach
Pizie, Stuart G., Miami
Platt, Mrs. Ronald C., Miami
Platt, T. Beach, Miami
PIowden, Gene, Miami
Pond, James B., New York, N. Y.
Porter, William R., Miami Shores**
Power, Mrs. Frances M., Miami
Prince, J. W., Naples
Railey, Lilburn R., Miami
Rainey, Mrs, J. S., Miami
Rainey, J. S., Miami
Redden, Mrs. Beryl, Miami
Redfearn, Mrs. Susan F., Coral Gables
Reich, Mrs. Molka, Chicago, Ill.
Reynolds, Mrs. H. Jarvis, Coral Gables
Ritter, Judge Halsted L., Miami*
Bobbins, Leon A., Boynton Beach


Rollins College Library, Winter Park
Rollins, Mildred, Miami
Rome, Mrs. H. J, Worcester, Mass.
Roof, James H., Miami
Rose, Harvey K., Miami
Rosner, George W., Coral Gables*
Ross, Malcolm, Coral Gables
Royce, Gardner, Coral Gables
Ruettger, Mrs. Ruby, Miami
Sadlier, Rt. Rev. Francis, St. Leo
Sanders, Mrs. W. R., Miami
Sands, Angelo, Miami
Saunders, Lewis M., Miami
Schaefer; A, H., Miami
Scheminger, John, Jr., Providence, R. I
Schuberth, Andrew F., Jr., Miami
Schwab, Laurence, Miami Beach
(Deceased)
Senior High School Library ,DeLand
Sessa, Frank B., Miami
Sessler, Robert G., Melbourne
Sewell, John J., Miami Beach
Shappee, Nathan D., Miami
Shaw, G. N., Miami
Shaw, Henry Overstreet, Miami
Shaw, J. W. B., Tampa
Shaw, Martin L., Miami
Shepard, L. C., Coral Gables
Shewmake, Mrs. C. E., Miami
Simons, Allan, Miami Beach
Simmons, J. P., Miami Beach
Singer, Paul, Miami Beach
Singleton, Mrs. E. M., Miami
Singleton, Stephen C, Miami*
Singleton, W. L., Miami
Smith, Mrs. Edna H., Miami
Smith, Lorrain, Miami
Snodgrass, Miss Dena, Jacksonville
Spencer, George S., Miami*
Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J., Miami*
State University of Iowa Library
State Historical Society of Wisconsin
Stetson University Library, DeLand
Stevens, Mrs. T. T., Miami
Stilwell, Mrs. C. D., Miami
Stranahan, Mrs, Frank, Ft. Lauderdale*
Strong, Clarence E., Miami*
Sullivan, Mrs. Howard W., Haverhill, N. H.*
Summers, Harold L., Waikiki Beach, Hawaii
Sunderman, James F., Gainesville
Sydow, William, Miami
Talley, Howard J. M,iami
Taylor, Paul C., Miami
Taylor, Robert R., Miami*
Tebean, Mrs. Violet H., Coral Gables
Technical High School Library, Miami
Ten Eick, Mrs. M, Nunez, Tampa*
Tharp, Charles Doren, Coral Gables*









TEQUESTA 99


Therkildson, Mrs. Helen, Miami
Thompson, Carey R., Miami
Thrift, Charles T., Jr., Lakeland
Tierney, Jos. J., Coral Gables
Tompkins, H .Herbert, Miami
Tonkin, Mrs. Mary E., Coral Gables
Trader, R. V., Miami
Trammell, Wilson, Miami
Trice E,ssie Hall, Coral Gables
Trice, H. H, Coral Gables
True, David O., Miami*
Turnbull, Daniel F., Sarasota
Tussey, Mrs. Ethel Wayt, Miami
P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History,
Gainesville
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Vanderpool, Fred W., Miami Beach*
Van Landingham, Mrs. Walter, Miami
Verdoorn, Dr. Frans, Waltham, Mass.
Vosburgh, John R., Miami
Waldin, Anton H., Jr., Homestead


Warner, Miss Elmina, Miami
Warner, William C.. Miami
Warner, Mrs. William C., Miami
Washington, James G., Miami
Wellington, Miss Elizabeth E., Daytona
Beach
Welsh, Agnew, Miami*
Wenner, Henry S., Jr., Miami
West, Mrs. Roger H., Daytona Beach
Wiesemann, William, Miami
Wight, William S., Miami
Williams, H. Franklin, Coral Gables*
Wilson, Miss Emily L., St. Augustine
Wilson, Gaines R., Miami**
Wilson, Mrs. Gaines R., Miami
Wilson, Peyton L., Miami*
Wilson, Miss Virginia, Miami
Wood, Mrs. Agnes Faris, Miami
Wright, Mrs. lone Steussey, Miami Shores
Young, John G., Coral Gables
Zenker, Ramond, Miami


Sustaining


Anderson, Robert H., Miami
Ashe, Bowman F., Coral Gables*
Bailey, Ernest H., Miami Beach
Bailey, Mrs. Ernest H., Miami Beach
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Miami*
Barge, Mrs. Hubert A., Miami
Barge, Hubert A., Miami
Bartnett, Mrs. Jessie, Miami
Bartz, Edward, Miami
Bassett, Rex., Jr, Ft. Lauderdale
Benson, Clifton D., Coral Gables
Bickel, Karl A., Sarasota*
Bills, Mrs. Jeanne Bellamy, Miami
Black, Dr. Linnie, Miami
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Bliss, Alonzo O., Jr., Miami
Blocker, John C., St. Petersburg
Brickell, Mrs. Charles, Miami**
Brookfield, Charles M., Miami*
Bush, Mrs. Franklin Coleman, Miami*
Campbell, Mrs. Susie C., Miami
Carlson, J. E., Miami
Chase, Randall, II, Sanford
Cheetham, Joseph M., Miami
Corson, Allen, Miami


Crowninshield, Mrs. Francis B., Boca
Grande*
Curry, Allison B., Jr., Coral Gables
The Cushman School, Miami*
Davison, Mrs. Chester M., Miami
Dee, William V., Miami*
Deedmeyer, George J., Miami*
Dorn, H. Lewis, So. Miami
Dorn, Harold W., So. Miami
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman, Miami**
Downer, Miss Lisa de F., Miami**
Eichleay, William W., So, Miami
Elliston, Charles A., Hallandale
Fee, W. I., Fort Pierce
Fiebelman, Herbert U., Miami
Fernandez, Jose M., Miami Beach
Ferendino, Andrew J., Miami Beach
Frederick, Bill, Miami
Freeman, Edison S., Miami
Fuller, Walter P. St. Petersburg
Fultz, Herman B., Coral Gables
Gannaway, Mrs. K. C., Miami
Gardner, Dick BK Miami
Gardner, Jack R., Benton Harbor, Mich.
Garrigan, Mrs. Jane, Miami








100 TEQUESTA


Gaunt, E. C., Miami
Gearhart, Ernest C., Jr., Miami
Gibson, Henry C., Jenkintown, Pa.
Giersch, Richard F., Jr., Miami
Graham, Ernest R., Hialeah
Graw, LaMonte, Orlando
Grismer, Karl H., Sarasota
Grosvenor, Gilbert H., Washington, D, C.
Hamilton, Thomas B., Miami
Hanks, Bryan, Ft. Worth, Texas*
Hardie, Richard M., Miami
Harllee, J. Win., Miami
Harris, Walter L., Miami
Havee, Justin P., Miami
Herin, William A., Miami*
Hills, Lee, Miami
Holcomb, Lyle D., Miami
Hollowell, R. D. T., Fort Myers
Hubbell, Willard, So. Miami
Hudson, F. M., Miami**
Hughes, Mrs. Fleda V., Miami
Hume, Mrs. Fdward C., Miami*
Jackson, Melvin H., Cambridge, Mass.
Johns, Frank G., Jr., Coral Gables
Johnson, Mrs. Alberta M., Gainesville
Kent, Arnold H., Miami
Kerr, James Benjamin, Hollywood*
King, M. Luther, Milton
Kinlaw, David Eugene, San Francisco, Calif.
Knight, Howard B., Coral Gables
Krome, Mrs. William J., Homestead*
LaGorce, Dr, John O., Washington, D. C.
Lauther, Clarence F., Miami
Lauther, Mrs. Olive Chapman, Miami
Lesley, T. L, Tampa
Lindgren, Mrs. M. E.. Miami
Lindsley, A. R., Miami Beach
Lunsford, E. C., Miami
Manley, Miss Marion I., Miami
Mansfield, Wm. N., Miami Beach
Matheson, Hugh M., Miami**
McCarthy, Don L, Miami
McKey, Robert M., Miami
McNair, Angus K., So, Miami
Mead, Edwin, Miami Beach
Meisel, Max, Miami Beach
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P., Coral Gables
Miami Beach Public Library
Miami Daily News
Mitchell, James B., Hobe Sound
Modisette, Col. Welton M., Coral Gables
Montgomery, Mrs. Robert H., Miami**
Montgomery, Col. Robert H., Miami**
Munroe, Wirth M., Miami*
Oglesby, R. M., Bartow
Pancoast, J. Arthur, UIeta*
Pancoast, Lester C., Ithaca. N, Y.
Pardo, Mrs. Ramiro V., Miami


Parker, O. B., Homestead
Pearse, Mrs. Langdon, Winnetka, Ill.
Peters, Mrs. Thelma, Miami*
Pitt, Gerard, Miami*
Pollard, Marshall S. P., Miami
Pratt, Theodore, Boca Raton
Prevatt, Preston G., Miami
Procter, William, Palm Beach
Rahn, William B., Miami
Railey, F. G., Miami*
Railey, Mrs. F. G., Miami*
Rasmussen, Edwin L., Miami**
Reese, Mrs. J. H., Miami
Roberts, R. B., Jr., Miami
Robertson, Miss Edna H., Ormond Beach
Robinson, F. A, Miami
Rosen, Ira, Miami Beach
Ryan, Miss Anna A., Miami
St. Augustine Historical Society
Schooler, C. Dan, Miami
Schwartz, Mrs. Charles R., Miami
Seybold, W. C., Miami
Shaffer, E. H., Miami
Shank, H. W., Coral Gables
Shaw, Miss Martha Luelle, Miami*
Shipe, Paul E., Miami
Slaughter, Frank G., Jacksonville
Smith, McGregor, Miami
Sokola, Anton, Miami
Stewart, Vernon B., Miami
Stiles, Wade, Ft. Lauderdale**
Stitt, J. W., Miami Springs
Tebeau, C. W., Coral Gables
Thomas, Wayne, Plant City
Urmey, Mrs. William, N. Miami
Vance, Mrs. Herbert O., Coral Gables*
Walker, Marvin H., Lake Wales
Walters, Mrs. Mae L. M., Miami
Walters, Walter M., Miami
West, William M., Genesco, Ill.
Wheeler, B. B., Miami Beach
Whitehurst, Mrs. Charles E., Ft. Lauderdale
Whitten, George E., Miami
Wiler, Mrs. A. H., Jr., Miami Beach
Williams, C. J., Jacksonville
Williams, Mrs. Guy V.. Miami*
Wilson, Ben E., Miami
Wilson, F. Page, Miami
Winters, Jonathan H., Miami
Wirth, Miss Josephine, Miami*
Witmer, Mrs. Lorin J., Miami
Wittichen, Mrs. Murray Forbes, Coral
Gables
Wood, Willis D., Miami
Woore, A. Meredith, Miami*
Yonge, Julien C., Gainesville
Younghams, S. W., Miami
Zabriskie, George A., Ormond Beach




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