• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Colonel Thompson’s "Tour of tropical...
 The Indians and history of the...
 Army surgeon reports on Lower East...
 John Clayton Gifford: An appre...
 Across South-Central Florida in...
 Contributors
 Treasurer’s report
 Roster of members
 Back Cover






Title: Tequesta
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Title: Tequesta
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Language: English
Creator: Historical Association of Southern Florida
Publisher: (multiple)
Publication Date: 1950
Copyright Date: 2010
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Bibliographic ID: UF00101446
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: Historical Museum of Southern Florida
Holding Location: Florida International University: Florida History and Heritage
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Colonel Thompson’s "Tour of tropical Florida"
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Indians and history of the Matecumbe Region
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Army surgeon reports on Lower East Coast, 1838
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    John Clayton Gifford: An appreciation
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Across South-Central Florida in 1882
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Contributors
        Page 89
    Treasurer’s report
        Page 90
    Roster of members
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Back Cover
        Page 98
        Page 99
Full Text






IceIucsa:


THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


Editor: Charlton W. Tebeau


NUMBER TEN


CONTENTS


PAGE


Colonel Thompson's "Tour of Tropical Florida"
George R. Bentley

The Indians and History of the Matecumbe Region
John M. Goggin

Army Surgeon Reports on Lower East Coast, 1838
James F. Sunderman

John Clayton Gifford: An Appreciation
Henry Troetschel, Jr.

Across South-Central Florida in 1882

Contributors

Treasurer's Report

Roster of Members


COPYRIGHTED 1950 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA



et4estx:t is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida
and the University of Miami as a bulletin of the University. Subscrip-
tion $2.00. Communications should be addressed to the Corresponding Secretary of the
Society, Post Office Box 537, Miami 4, Florida, Neither the Association nor the Uni-
versity assumes responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by the contributors.


1 9 5 0






This Page Blank in Original
Source Document















Colonel Thompson's

'Tour of Tropical Florida"
By GEORGE R. BENTLEY
In the fall of 1865-as in most subsequent autumns-many Northerners
were eager to gain information about Florida. The New England Emigrant
Aid Company was trying to plant a colony there.1 Discharged soldiers of
the Union armies were already moving into the Peninsular State, and other
Yankee adventurers were with them., Harrison Reed, who would one day
be Florida's Governor, had newly arrived from Wisconsin and was opening
a newspaper at Jacksonville.- The man destined to be his Lieutenant-Gover-
nor, William H. Gleason, appeared in Tallahassee in the latter months of
1865 and sought an opportunity to inspect the state.4 In Virginia one W. H.
Hunt inquired if the Freedmen's Bureau would not build some mills-
probably cotton mills-on Government lands in Florida. He proposed to
operate them for the Bureau, and he would promise "to place one thousand
Freedmen and their families above requiring assistance from the Govern-
ment .... Provided: they are placed upon lands of my selection under the
Homestead Law in the State of Florida .. ." The Bureau did not give Hunt
either the mills or the contract he wanted, but some of its leaders became
greatly interested in Florida as a possible refuge for Negroes. Orlando
Brown, head of the federal agency in Virginia, submitted to Bureau Com-
missioner Oliver 0. Howard a plan to invite as many as 50,000 Virginia
Negroes to migrate to Florida.- Howard thought so well of this proposal
3 Robert L Clarke, "Northern Plans for the Economic Invasion of Florida, 1862-1865,"
in The Florida Historical Quarterly, 28:263-264 (April, 1950).
P General John G. Foster's report of July, n.d., 1866, in Freedmen's Bureau Records (in
the National Archives), Records for Florida, Letters Sent.
a L. J. Farwell and others to Oliver 0. Howard, May 26, 1865, in the Oliver 0. Howard
Papers, Bowdoin College Library, Letters Received.
Thompson's Report, in the Tallahassee Sentinel, April 19, 1867.
s W. H. Hunt to C. B. Wilder, September 28, 1865, in Freedmen's Bureau Records, Na-
tional Office, Adjutant General's Division, Letters Received (Hereinafter records of
this office will be cited simply as "Bureau Records."); Orlando Brown to Howard,
October 4, 1865, and December, n.d., 1865, both in ibid.








TEQUESTA


that he began drawing up a bill by which Congress might set aside public
lands in Florida, Mississippi, and Arkansas for Negro homesteaders. And
to facilitate matters he directed his Assistant Commissioner in Florida to
inspect and report upon the lands that might be made available.,
This officer, in fact, already had commenced such a survey. He was
Colonel Thomas W. Osborn, of New York state., Because of a railroad ac-
cident in which he had suffered a severe injury to his shoulder, Osborn had
not begun his duties in Florida until the first week in September. By then
the Bureau was organized and operating in the other ex-Confederate states.
To compensate for his late beginning-and for his complete unfamiliarity
with Florida-Osborn had decided to divide the state into five sections
and to send out parties to inspect and report what they found. They were
to be concerned especially with the needs of the Negroes but also with the
attitudes of the white people towards the Union, the products of the soil and
employment of the people, the economic opportunities and the lands avail-
able for homesteading or purchase, and any other matters that might be
helpful to the Bureau in its work or to Northerners seeking opportunities
for profitable investment of capital.8
For his inspection of the sparsely populated, wilderness-like southern
half of the peninsula, Osborn chose a thoroughly competent observer, George
F. Thompson, Commissary Captain and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel." Thomp-
son received his orders on December 4, and on the 6th he left Tallahassee to
visit the counties of Hillsboro, Manatee, Moore, Dade, Brevard, Polk, Orange,
and Volusia. Accompanying him was William H. Gleason, whom Osborn
had appointed a "special Agent" of the Freedmen's Bureau, and who could
hardly have found a better opportunity to inspect those parts of the state
most available for immigration and exploitation.lo
The first stage of Thompson's and Gleason's tour was by rail but was
neither direct or easy. They wanted to begin the inspection at Tampa, where
they believed they could both get the desired information about Hillsboro

o Howard to G. W. Nichols, December 29, 1865, in the Howard Papers, Letters Sent,
1861-1866:164; Howard to W. H. Hunt, December 18, 1865, in Bureau Records, Letters
Sent, 1:456.
7 For an interpretation of Osborn see my article "The Political Activity of the Freed-
men's Bureau in Florida," in The Florida Historical Quarterly, 28-28-37 (July, 1949).
I have not found any of the five reports except Thompson's. However, there is a
lengthy, composite synopsis of all of them in Bureau Records, Synopses of Re-
ports, 1:228.
Thompson's report was published in serial form in the Tallahassee Sentinel, April 19,
23, 26, 30 and May 3 and 7, 1867. An official copy is enclosed in Osborn to Howard,
May 8, 1866, in Bureau Records, Letters Received.
o0 Thompson's Report, Tallahassee Sentinel, April 19, 1867.








GEORGE R. BENTLEY


County and learn the most feasible way to make an examination of Manatee,
Monroe, and Dade Counties. To reach Tampa they went via the Jacksonville,
Pensacola and Mobile Railroad to Baldwin and thence on the Florida Rail-
road to Gainesville. Both railroad companies were reluctant to transport
Thompson's and Gleason's horses, which were delayed twenty-four hours at
Lake City. When an additional two days' delay was threatened at Baldwin,
Thompson had his orderly drive the horses to Gainesville. From that point,
on December 11, the inspection party went by horse to Tampa."x
There Thompson conferred with Captain 0. B. Ireland, of the 99th
United States Colored Troops, who was then the commanding officer at
Tampa. Ireland assured Thompson that the Negroes in the vicinity were
doing well, "even better than the whites," that they did not want for food
or clothing, and that they found plenty of labor at fair wages. However,
reported Ireland, white Unionists at Tampa and for miles around were less
fortunate. They formed a small minority ostracized and oppressed by the
"rebel" majority. Some were "pursued with murderous intent," and "there
was no safety for a Union man to walk the streets, or be found alone in
the highway . ." Deputy United States Marshal Jenks corroborated these
opinions and said that he himself was "hunted . day and night, and upon
more than one occasion had barely escaped the assassin's bullet."-2
As if in direct proof of these assertions, in the evening of December 19,
at about ten o'clock, three pistol shots rang out near Thompson's quarters.
Hardly had the reports sounded when Ireland and Jenks rushed in to report
a fresh attempt on Jenks' life. But Thompson felt that this was a trick, and
one "too patent to impose upon our credulity," for he reasoned that if there
had really been an attempted murder the officials would have hurried to
capture the would-be assassin rather than to inform the colonel of the alarm-
ing state of affairs.13 The next day Thompson talked with several of the
local citizens and deliberately made opportunities for them to express hatred
of the United States. "Yet," he reported to Osborn, "we failed to detect any
ground for those highly colored statements which had been made [by Ireland
and Jenks]. We neither saw nor heard of any murdered victims or rebel-
lious hate; no bands of roving desperados roaming through the country for
their prey . in fact, nothing to excite the fears or to discourage an honest
and courageous man." He concluded that there might be some danger of
"collisions" between Floridians who had supported the Confederacy and
n Ibid.
z Ibid.
3a Ibid.








TEQUESTA


those who had been Unionists-because of their war-born hatred for each
other-but that there was little likelihood that any class would attempt to
"subvert, or to resist the Government." At the end of his tour he felt that
"so far as the hostility of the people to Northern men is concerned, I would
as soon live in any part of Southern Florida as in the city of Washington
or Boston."'4
Thompson had thought he might cross Florida from Tampa and go down
the east coast to the Miami River. However, several men who knew the
country told him that the water was so high in the creeks and rivers of the
interior that it would be impracticable to cross the peninsula, and perhaps
very hazardous. Therefore he decided to charter a boat and sail down the
Gulf coast, occasionally stopping to go up a stream or to march into the
interior far enough to obtain a satisfactory knowledge of the country and
its condition. As a guide, he employed Mr. Louis Bell, a native of the re-
gion, whose experiences during the Seminole War, in 1857, as mail carrier
from Tampa to Fort Myers, gave him an intimate knowledge of the whole
coast.'5 Thompson would have liked also to hire a man to assist in sailing
the boat and to cook for the party but could find only two unemployed white
men in Tampa, and they both demanded $1.50 a day, a sum Thompson
deemed exorbitant. Suspecting that the men were simply avoiding labor by
setting their price so high, the colonel decided to do his own work, and
sailed without a cook..'

Between December 20, 1865, and January 5, 1866, Thompson and Gleason
visited several points on the Manatee River, some of the islands in Charlotte
Harbor, the Peace Creek country, Fort Myers, and Estero Bay. They spent
two or more days at a point ten miles up Peace Creek, where they found a
detachment of colored troops and a party of cattle herders. From the latter
they received much valuable information about the country, and from the
soldiers they borrowed horses to extend their explorations several miles
back from the river. This seemed to them a sufficient inspection of the area,
for most of the men living within fifty miles were in the party of cattle herd-
ers at Peace Creek.",
These men, Thompson discovered, were not at all true to the stereotyped
"lazy Southerner." "Action and physical exercises" were "the requirements of

14 Ibid., April 23.
is Ibid., April 19.
1o Ibid., April 30.
1. Ibid., April 19. Thompson used the spellings "Pease" Creek and "Ostero" Bay.








GEORGE R. BENTLEY


their vocation," and they were "as active, hardy [a] set of men as are found
in any northern latitude."1- One of the cattle owners told Thompson that he
had almost to live with his stock, and that he could be at home with his
family but little. Indeed, the care of the cattle was so exacting an employ-
ment that the people of the area had not even time to produce corn for their
own use. Several told Thompson that they brought the grain from sixty or
more miles away, after paying $2.25 or more per bushel. Their cattle were
small, the best "netting no more than five or six hundred pounds." They
would bring $6.00 a head for an "entire stock," or $14.00 to $18.00 for se-
lected animals. The principal market was Havana, but many cattle went also
to Savannah and Charleston. The drovers Thompson had met were employed
by Mr. Jacob Summerlin "(reported to be the largest stock raiser in the
country)." Thompson saw them load 250 head aboard a steamer bound for
Havana, and doubted that the cattle would average over 350 pounds. He
estimated that there were in the area, "both east and west of the Kissimmee
river" some 150,000 cattle worth perhaps $900,000.19
Homes in this part of Florida were generally log houses or huts, raised
two or three feet from the ground, and lacking both windows and chinking.
Thompson wondered "whether Adam and Eve had fewer comforts or con-
veniences for housekeeping" than the family of a "principal stdckraiser" he
visited.ao It seemed to him that the men of the region had "extremely limited
ideas as to providing" and the women no idea at all how to use the little that
was provided them. Their cooking was so repulsive to Thompson that he
averred that only "the direst necessity and a deep sense of moral obligation
to preserve his own life" could induce "a person of refined habits and taste"
to undergo such a diet. The principal articles of food, as Thompson de-
scribed them, were pork fried "to the consistency of a piece of dry hide,"
corn bread "about as delicious and gratifying to the taste as an equal quan-
tity of baked saw-dust," "Hayti potatoes" boiled "until the vegetable matter
leaves to the water a proportion of about 1 to 100," and hominy "prepared
by scalding with hot water." With everything else grease was used to the
greatest excess. On the Gulf Coast, said Thompson, women gave much more
attention to the culinary arts, and the articles of food were more numerous.2"
Thompson interrupted his journey from Peace Creek to Fort Myers by
visiting several fishing parties located on the islands in Charlotte Harbor.

is Ibid., April 30.
n9 Ibid., April 19 and 23.
2so Ibid., April 23.
2 lbid.








TEQUESTA


The largest was a group of eighteen men employed by "Messrs. Dewey,
Bennet & Co., from Conn." In five or six weeks they had taken and cured
more than 1800 quintals of fish worth $6.00 to $7.00 per quintal at Havana.
The waters seemed to Thompson to be "completely alive" with mullet, and
he was also impressed with the large numbers of tarpon, jewfish, redfish, and
oysters. An important sideline for the fishermen-who received for their
labors $25.00 to $30.00 per month and their found-was catching sharks
and extracting the oil. Thompson predicted that "at no distant day" the fish-
eries of South Florida would be the basis for an important industry.22
Another enterprise which appeared promising to Thompson was citrus
culture. He believed there were only three or four orange "orchards" on
the Gulf south of Tampa and only one on the Atlantic coast of the counties
he toured. The two groves he inspected were located at Sarasota Bay and
at Fort Myers. The former, owned by a Doctor Snell, contained about three
hundred orange trees and one hundred lemon trees, while the Fort Myers
grove was slightly larger. Both were badly neglected but produced the most
delicious oranges Thompson ever had tasted. He noted how easy it would
be to transport such fruit to New Orleans and St. Louis, and thought it could
not be many years before citrus culture would support a thriving popula-
tion all along the coast from Tampa Bay to Cape Romans. The banks of
the Caloosahatchee and Manatee Rivers seemed to Thompson especially well
adapted to the citrus business because of their fertility and ready access to
transportation.-3
After visiting briefly Fort Myers and Estero Bay, Thompson and his
party went on to Key West, the largest city in their tour of inspection. They
found there four churches for white people and one for Negroes. At Tampa
they had found three churches, though not all of them held regular services.
Tampa's two schools had accommodated about eighty pupils, in the primary
grades only; while Key West had schools for 160 scholars, two for white
children and one for Negroes.2* Thompson gathered the impression from
the local authorities that the younger Negroes learned as rapidly as whites,
but that Negroes from sixteen to twenty "do not seem to have that power of
application, and learn less rapidly." From his own observation he was "thor-
oughly convinced . that, compare the negro with the whites, in reference
to his desire for education, his respect for religion, or his disposition to

-z Ibid., April 30.
23 Ibid.
24 Ibid.








GEORGE R. BENTLEY


lead an industrious life, he is in none of these respects their inferior."2z This
opinion was not entirely complimentary to the Negro, for Thompson had
very little esteem for the Gulf Coast Floridian's industry. His experience
with the two unemployed white men at Tampa rankled Thompson, and one of
the most intelligent men of the area had informed him that the long summer
heat resulted inevitably in a "lassitude, an unavoidable indisposition to
physical exercise, which neither habit nor any amount of mental stimulant
or association could remove." That this was a "libel upon the climate"
seemed to Thompson to be proved by the great physical activity of the cow-
boys in their vocation. Thompson believed that the Negroes in the region
he inspected were no lazier than the white people, and that they had "a
higher regard for the law and civil authority than a majority of the whites."26
In all of Dade County Thompson found but three Negroes, and none of
them was in any need of Freedmen's Bureau aid.2" However, so enchanted
was the inspector by the area that he remained there from January 27 to
February 14, and gave the county much more than its proportional share of
his report. "Exhilirating" Biscayne Bay breezes, mid-winter flowers, singing
birds and verdant vegetation convinced him "beyond all question" that Dade
County's climate was "the most equable of any in the United States." His
guide, who for several years had lived at the "Hunting Grounds" beside the
Bay, testified (with some pre-Chamber-of-Commerce-ish exaggeration) that
he never had suffered in midsummer with the heat more than he did just then
-when the temperature was staying close to 740 !2s
In this inviting land Thompson said there lived only about 200 white
people, and most of them were on the keys to the south of Miami.2 There
were perhaps 600 Indians living in the Everglades at the rear of the county,
but they were friendly to the whites. They had a "passion for wrecking"
and they made their own decrees of salvage-division. Another passion was
for whiskey, which they could obtain at a dirty shanty store operated on the
Miami River by "French Mike" Sayers. Deer, bear, panther and other skins
were the Indians' chief stock in trade, and they lived principally on game,
fish, corn, and the indigenous, wide-spread kountee.o3
The latter vegetable provided a means of livelihood for some of the
white people also, for a fine starch could be made from kountee roots. At
25 Ibid.
2a Ibid.
2- Ibid., May 3.
28 Ibid.
an Ibid.
ao Ibid., May 7.








TEQUESTA


one of the "factories" on the Miami River three workers with very rude ma-
chinery were producing a thousand pounds of starch per week. It would
sell for from ten to twelve cents a pound in Key West, where kountee starch
was preferred to all others for laundering. Thompson thought the supply
of kountee was inexhaustible, and he reported that six barrels of the root
would make one barrel of starch.31
Other Dade County occupations noted by Thompson were wrecking, fish-
ing, sponging, and turtle hunting. There had been several attempts to manu-
facture lumber, but it seemed that most of the trees were too small for any
other uses than those of making turpentine or building cabins and fences.
The hammocks were thickly forested with such trees as red, white, and live
oaks, mastics, wild figs, and-thought Thompson-magnolias, but these small
islands of high ground comprised in all not one-tenth of the non-Everglades
part of the county. Six-tenths of the "available surface" was pine barrens,
whose small, scattered, gnarled trees and "honey-combed, rotten limerock
surface" presented a sight rather repulsive "at first." The most promising
parts of the county, Thompson judged, were the low prairies of 500 to 5000
acres in extent. Apparently formed by the washing of vegetable matter
from the Everglades, they had deep soil of great fertility. After making a
"somewhat careful examination of several of them," Thompson believed that
"a system of drainage and dyking [sic] would succeed in reclaiming some
of them for profitable cultivation."3'
The products of the soil of the county especially attracted the attention
of the inspecting party. Besides the plentiful kountee there were oranges,
lemons, limes, bananas, "cocoa nuts," grapes, "and all tropical fruits." The
easy growth of the castor bean, combined with an increasing demand for
castor oil and the government's liberal tariff protection, caused Thompson
to commend the cultivation of the bean "to the especial attention of those
who seek the settlement and development of this county."33 Sisal hemp also
stirred the colonel's imagination. It would grow "with astonishing rapidity,
even upon the poorest soil." If some feasible means could be found for sep-
arating the fibre from the rest of the plant, the hemp would "open this country
to rapid development even by the lowest class of labor."34 A former South
Carolinian told Thompson that Dade County yields of fine long-staple cotton
were much larger than those in the Palmetto State. The south Florida

a, Ibid., May 3.
3a Ibid.
as Ibid., May 7.
34 Ibid., May 3.








GEORGE R. BENTLEY


county, reported Thompson, would also produce excellent Cuba tobacco and
sugar cane of a "prodigious size."35
Not even Eden was perfect, and Thompson did find that Dade County
had some disadvantages for settlement. There were many moccasins and
rattle snakes in the hammocks, and wild cats, panthers, and bears. But worse
by far than these were the hordes of mosquitoes and flies which seemed to
"vie with each other in their efforts to torment humanity." Even in mid-
winter Thompson's party found the insects "almost intolerable." They were
informed that in April and May there would appear blue-head flies and grey
flies almost as large as honey bees, which would attack cattle and horses in
such painful numbers as to drive them mad and even to kill them.38
But on the whole both Thompson and Gleason were most favorably im-
pressed by Dade County. Its people had no educational institutions what-
ever, but their frequent contacts with seafarers and others from all parts of
the world made them more intelligently alert than Florida's inlanders.A
The county's comfortable climate and promising opportunities attracted the
official visitors. They liked also the springs of cool, clear water "boiling up
and rippling the waters of the bay" along the beach at the Hunting Grounds
-in the bed of the Miami River, about four miles from its mouth, they saw
a spring which had been enclosed so that its waters formed a fountain three
or four feet above the river's level.38 They concluded that Southern Florida
might some day become the "Garden of the United States."
For the realization of this possibility, however, Thompson believed that
one thing was essential-the lowering of the waters of Lake Okeechobee. He
believed if the lake level could be lowered by six feet nine inches, which he
understood to be the amount of fall from the Everglades to Biscayne Bay,
much of the wet lands of Dade County and the Kissimmee River Valley
could be opened for cultivation and settlement. Unless these areas could be
spared "annual inundations"-by a reduction of the Lake level-Thompson
believed the southern part of Florida could never be generally settled.-" He
recognized that the Hunting Grounds springs he so much admired must have
their sources in the Everglades, but apparently it did not occur to him that
a draining of those sources might work evil as well as good.-.
as Ibid., May 7.
as Ibid.
as Ibid., May 3.
as Ibid., May 7.
as Ibid.
40o Ibid. For an account of some of the damages implicit in Thompson's plan see Marjory
Stoneman Douglas, The Everglades, River of Grass, 314, 316, 246-350, 373-379.








TEQUESTA


In concluding his report Thompson said he thought the Negroes in the
southern half of Florida needed little aid from the Freedmen's Bureau. Per-
haps it should help them establish schools. And it might well encourage
their "universal desire to become land owners" by assisting them to settle
upon the public lands, under the conditions of the homestead law.4' The
Bureau did both of these things, but not to any great extent in the counties
where Thompson had travelled. Orlando Brown's plan to send Virginia's
surplus Negroes to Florida came almost to naught,42 and Oliver Howard's
bill to reserve Florida, Mississippi, and Arkansas lands for Negroes was
weakened in Congress and did not result in much Negro homesteading."4

A more important effect of Thompson's tour of inspection was one of
its by-products. A few months after the end of the tour William H. Gleason
brought his family from Virginia to the shores of Biscayne Bay." Colonel
Thompson had commended his "superior intelligence and enthusiastic devo-
tion" to the work of inspection, and had reported Gleason's services to have
been "indispensable to the measure of success" achieved by the tour.45 Now
Gleason was beginning a seventeen years' residence in Miami and its vicinity.
In those years he would grow tropical fruits, speculate in Dade County lands,
and play an important role in Florida's political history.A















o4 Thompson's Report, Tallahassee Sentinel, May 7, 1867.
42 Horace Neide to Orlando Brown, March 17, 1866, in Freedmen's Bureau Records for
Virginia, Letters Received.
48 United States Statutes at Large, 14:66-67; Bureau Records, Endorsement Books, 2:
231, 292,
44 W. H. H. Gleason to J. C. Yonge, May 22. 1947 (ms in the P. K. Yonge Library of
Florida History).
s4 Thompson to Osborn, April 30, 1866, in Freedmen's Bureau Records for Florida, Let-
ters Received.
4a The Tallahassee Floridian, March 10, 1868.












The Indians and

History of the Matecumbe Region*
By JOHN M. GOGGIN

Upper and Lower Matecumbe Keys and the nearby Tea Table, Indian,
and Lignumvitae Keys have been an important focal point of human activity
from very early times. Five archeological sites on these islands suggest that
prehistoric peoples found the region suitable for living.1 In addition a study
of historic source material on the Keys also shows the importance of the
region to the later Indians and contemporary Europeans. More data on the
early historic periods are available for here than for any other region of the
Keys-in itself indicative of the area's relative importance.
The very name of the region, Matecumbe, is itself of much interest, as it
is the only place name in South Florida which dates from the sixteenth
century and is still used to designate the same or approximate location as at
that time.0 On Spanish maps it is a name which frequently appears, as it did
in their records. The exact meaning of the name is unknown, but the
suggestion that it was derived from the Spanish mata hombre is a weak one.
When the term Matecumbe first appeared in use it was in a form very close
to its present spelling and pronunciation. As was often the case in Florida,
the name was applied interchangeably to the chief and to the tribe.
ETHNOLOGY
At the beginning of Spanish occupation in Florida there were two domi-
nant Indian groups in the southern part of the state. The most important
were the Calusa, otherwise known as the Calos or Carlos, who centered on
the lower Gulf Coast. On the east coast the Tekesta, located on Biscayne Bay,
were the most powerful.3 Both of these groups were political confederacies
* At the request of certain members of our society this paper is being presented in
Tequesta. With the addition of an introduction and slight textual modifications it is
essentially two sections, written by the present author, which appeared in Excavations on
Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida by John M. Goggin and Frank Sommer III (Yale Univer-
sity Publications in Anthropology, No. 41, New Haven, 1949).
1 A study of the archoeology of the region will be found in Goggin and Sommer (1949).
a Miami is another sixteenth century name but it was originally used to designate
the present Lake Okeechobee. The early Calusa is perpetuated in Calusahatchee
River, although that is an eighteenth century appellation of the Seminoles.
a A paper now in progress (Goggin, MS) will present detailed data on these groups.








TEQUESTA


rather than tribes, and the exact affiliations of some of the smaller groups
are unknown.
The political position and relationship of the Matecumbe Indians is
uncertain. Fontaneda (1944:12), describing the Keys, previous to the 1560's
says "Running from south to north between Habana and Florida, the distance
to the Tortugas and the Martires,4 is forty leagues; twenty leagues to the
Martires, and thence other twenty to Florida-to the territory of Carlos, a
province of Indians . It would appear from this that the Keys were
distinct from the territory of Carlos, yet we find further on in Fontaneda's
narrative (1944:17) that the two towns of Guarungunbe and Cuchiyaga on
on the Keys were subject to Carlos. L6pez de Velasco (1894:165), writing
in the period from 1571 to 1574, also reports the inhabitants of the Keys to
be subjects of the Cacique Carlos. Contemporary workers like Swanton
(1922:330) generally place the Keys in the territory of the Calusa, although
the evidence does not seem to be conclusive.
Later in 1573 we find several references to the "cabeza de los Martires."
One writer says that it is in the territory of the Cacique Tequesta (Connor,
1925:59), while another says it is in "the land of a cacique they call
matecumbe" (Connor, 1925:51). It seems probable that since the Matecumbe
and other people of the Keys were relatively 'small groups, they were subject
to either the Calusa or the Tekesta, who were much more powerful. But the
relative power of the two tribes apparently fluctuated so it is likely that
control over the Keys may have changed often.
Linguistically the Calusa and Tekesta were probably related, and the
Matecumbe language was very likely similar to one of them. Swanton
(1922:30) believes that there is a possible connection of the Calusa language
with some Muskhogean dialect.
There is only a small amount of ethnological data available for the
Indians of the Keys, and no specific data have been noted for the Matecumbe.
Much of what is available refers to the town of Guarungunbe and Cuchiyaga
and is given by Fontaneda (1944).
The individual groups were apparently small and ruled by a cacique or
chief. Besides the chieftanship there may have been other social or class
rankings, as Fontaneda (1944:12), says, "Some eat sea-wolves; not all of
them, for there is a distinction between the higher and lower clasess, but the
principal persons eat them."
4 Martires or Los Martires is the earliest name for the Florida Keys and was used
throughout the Spanish occupation.








JOHN M. GOGGIN


The natives are described as being large and the women well proportioned
with good countenances. The men wore breechclouts woven of palm while
the women cover themselves with Spanish moss.
Fish, turtle, molluscs, tunny, and whale were the common foods, and
sea-wolves, which were probably seals, were eaten by the principal persons.
The Florida lobster or crawfish was important in their diet as was the chapin
or trunk fish.5 Deer and bear were present and an un-named animal, which
was most likely the raccoon, was good to eat.
Fontaneda's reference to a palm fiber breechclout as being the usual
apparel of men is confirmed by Twitt who apparently stopped briefly some-
where in the Keys in 1591. The Indians he encountered wore "a platted mat
of greene straw about their waist, with the bush hanging down behind"
(Twitt, 1941:153).- Gold and silver ornaments were worn by the natives
who traded several to the English for old knives and a rusty hatchet. They
included "a piece of gold wound hollow, and about the bigness and value of
an English angell, which the Savage wore hanging about his knee," and two
silver ornaments "in forme like unto the bosse of a bridle" (Twitt, 1941
153) .
The Key Indians were said to be great archers and dart throwers (tira-
dares de dardos) and they traveled between the islands by means of shallops
(chalupas) and canoes (L6pez de Velasco, 1894:165). It is unfortunate that
the reference to dart throwing is not more detailed, but this may indicate the
use of the atlatl or spear thrower, of which archeological speciments have
been found at Key Marco. Shallops, of course, were introduced by Europeans
but the Chalupa is also used in reference to light canoes. It may have been
that in this instance the word shallop was used to indicate some kind of a
sailing vessel in contrast to a canoe which was paddled.
Apparently bodies of the dead were set out for the flesh to decay as in
other parts of Florida. At least a sixteenth century reference from Sparke
(1941:42) would suggest this, for he relates that Hawkins' men found dried
bodies and heads on a shore. He thought this indicated cannibalism but it
is more likely that the exposure of the bodies was in preparation for
secondary burial.
s The chapin is considered by Buckingham Smith to be the Lactophrys sexcornutus
Mitchel or Knuckle Fish (Fontaneda, 1944:40).
a Breechelouts of this form must have had a broad distribution in south Florida as
Dickinson (1945:28) reports similar ones with a brush hanging down behind from
the Jobe or Jeaga.
7 Specimens of the last form are found in certain archeological sites in the Glades
Area (Goggin, MS).








TEQUESTA


At a much later period (1743), we have more ethnographic data concern-
ing the inhabitants of the Keys (Alegre, 1842:277), although they were then
reduced to only a few families. These were migratory, have no permanent
homes, moving from island to island according to the abundance of wild
fruits and fish which composed their diet. Each group or rancheria had its
own cacique, and a second in command, the capitdn grande. The influence of
Spanish names had also spread to the priest -or shaman, who was known as
the obispo. His duties included control of the weather, for he summoned the
wind with whistles and broke squalls with various "noises" (chants?). He
also participated in certain rituals with incense which the Indians offered
to the cacique and his sons. Their ceremony of consecration (consagracion)
consisted of three days of continued races, in the meanwhile drinking (what?)
until falling senseless. The recumbent participants were considered dead
until revived after sanctification. A fish (picuda) painted on a small board
was worshipped. This was a very gross and badly formed representation
pierced by a harpoon. Surrounding the fish were several figures like tongues.
The attitude of the Indian towards death explains to some extent the
archeological problem of the isolation of the burial mound on Lignumvitae
Key. The Indians are reported to have had a great fear of bodies and to have
interred them in a constantly guarded place some distance from the village.
On the death of a cacique one or two children were killed to accompany him.
The grave was adorned with turtles, other animals, stones, tobacco, and
similar things.
HISTORY
The general historical background of southern Florida is too detailed to
be considered here so only the details directly concerning the Matecumbe
area and the Keys will be covered. Slave catchers from Hispanola probably
raided the Florida coast in the early years of the sixteenth century, but we
have no direct record of Spanish visits until Ponce de Leon's first voyage to
Florida in 1513. Neither this visit, nor the second of Ponce in 1522, were of
much significance as he did not stay long in the Keys.8
For a period of some years little attention was given to the Keys although
the west coast of Florida was well known from the trips of Narvaez, De Soto,
De Luna, and others. About 1545 Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda was
shipwrecked on the Florida coast and spent many years as an Indian captive,
a Recent attempts have been made to locate certain islands visited on Ponce de Leon's
first voyage. They are apparently in the Keys; however, the writer is of the opinion
that the available accounts are too vague to identify the islands with any reasonable
certainty.








JOHN M. GOGGIN


at Carlos the greater part of the time. He visited and described the Keys,
mentioning two villages by name, Guarungunbe and Cuchiyaga.
Pedro Menedez de Aviles founded St. Augustine in 1565, and was busied
for some time thereafter with the French to the north on the St. John's. When
they were finally disposed of, Men6dez turned his attention to the exploration
of Florida. The various tribes of South Florida were visited and missions
were established, those closest to the Keys being at Tekesta on Biscayne Bay,
and at Carlos on the southwest coast. Indian settlements on the Keys may
have been visited on this trip; at least the party must have passed close to
them going from the east to the west coast.
In the years closely following the initial trip of Menedez, there are
found a number of references to an Indian settlement at Los Martires, which
lay between the Calusa and Tekesta. Judging from its name, it was on the
Keys, but its exact location is unknown (Vargas Ugarte, 1935:88). It is
entirely possible that Los Martires and Matecumbe were the same village; in
fact the killing of the Spaniards later described is variously stated to have
happened at Los Martires and Matecumbe.
The first mention of the name Matecumbe was in 1573, in a petition from
Menendez to the Spanish Crown. Men6ndez stated that the Indians of South
Florida were very bloodthirsty and a menace to the Spanish, particularly
castaways, and requested permission to exterminate or enslave them. This
petition was accompanied by sworn affidavits of a number of Spaniards who
testified to various incidents of Indian cruelty, among which are several
accounts of an incident perpetrated by the Matecumbe Indians." It appears
that a shallop with nine Spaniards aboard was enroute from St. Augustine
to Havana. The men stopped to fish in the territory of the Cacique Matecumbe,
where the Indians first protested friendship but later attacked them. Eight of
the men were killed but one, a soldier named Andr6s Calder6n, was only
wounded. For some reason he was spared, kept as a slave, and fed by an
Indian friend. He was later ransomed by Men6ndez. Until the time of this
incident, the Cacique Matecumbe had been at peace with the Spanish and
his son was in Havana in care of the Theatines. The sending of relatives of
important Indians to Spain or Havana was a common practice, providing
hostages and interpreters, and serving to impress the natives with Spanish
power, although it did not seem to do so in this instance. The outcome of the
S This petition and affidavits in Spanish and English are in Connor (1925:30-82).
The above account of the incident has been compiled from several of the affidavits,
as none gave complete details.








TEQUESTA


Matecumbe incident is unknown, but the petition for the "giving up as
slaves the Indians of Florida" was rejected in 1574.
The next recorded contact of the Spanish in the area was in 1605, when
the frigate Nuestra Seiiora del Rosario, carrying a number of missionaries
to St. Augustine, ran aground off the coast of Matecumbe (Geiger, 1936:185).
These friars, however, had a more fortunate experience with the Indians.
The passengers were delayed several days while the ship was being freed,
and meanwhile the Indians came out in their canoes, declaring themselves
friends of the Spaniards and visitors of St. Augustine. They furnished the
stranded Spaniards with fresh water, fish, and wood, and aided in freeing
the vessel. The belongings of the travelers had been taken ashore to lighten
the ship, and these were returned aboard by the Indians. It is further stated
that nothing was lost by theft.
It is probable that there was much contact in this period, although little
information is available. The Florida Straits directly off the Keys was the
main route of vessels bound for Spain from most of Spanish America, and
probably as many ships were wrecked then as in later times. We have
Fontaneda's statement (1944:21) to the effect that the Indians of Guarun-
gunbe were rich because of wealth derived from wrecks. Matecumbe, which
was later famous as a watering place, was probably utilized for this purpose
from a very early time. The lack of information on the Keys may be the
result of a deliberate attempt to keep such information out of circulation
and away from the enemies of the Spanish King, as the area lay along one
of the main routes of their plate fleets.
Nevertheless some English did visit South Florida. Sir John Hawkins
aboard his famous vessel Jesus of Lubeck watered along the east coast near
the head of the Keys in 1565. Apparently he had no contacts with the Indians
although he feared them (Sparke, 1941:40). The fleet of Christopher New-
port some years later, in 1591, fruitlessly searched for water in the Keys,
where they encountered some Indians who were noted to be courteous and
far more civil than those of Dominica, a dubious compliment (Twitt, 1941:
152). The above mentioned visits probably represent only a small sample of
the many casual contacts which must have taken place.
Besides the Spaniards who came to the Keys, there were many Indians
who visited the Spanish in St. Augustine. We have the above mentioned case
where the Indians told of their visits to the capital. Two years later, in 1607,
Governor Ibarra received visits from a number of the Caciques of the south-
ern coast among whom were "... the principal lords of the mouth of Miguel








JOHN M. GOGGIN


Mora" (Swanton, 1922:342). This opening has been considered to be that
between the Keys and the mainland, or it may possibly be the present Black
Caesars Creek.10
The next mention of Matecumbe is in 1628, when it was listed by Visques
de Espinosa (1942:109) as one of the villages of the south towards Havana.
There appears to be the implication that the inhabitants were Christians.
The Matecumbe Indians drop into obscurity again until 1675, when
Bishop Calderon made a trip to Florida inspecting missions. He apparently
did not visit the southern part of the state, but listed a number of the groups
on the Keys, among them the "Matecumbeses." To the north of this group
were the "Viscaynos," probably located on or near the present Biscayne Key,
and to the South were the "Bayahondos" possibly located on the present
Bahai Honda Key or on Key Vaca, and the "Cuchiagaros," who may have
occupied Big Pine Key. Calderon refers to these tribes in general as "savage
heathen Carib [sic] Indians in camps, having no fixed abodes, living only
on fish and roots of trees" (Wenhold, 1936:12).
In 1697 the Catholic Indians of Matecumbe supplied refuge to five
Franciscans from the Calusa country. The Franciscans had been preaching
the faith at Cayo de Carlos, but the Indians attacked them, and drove them
naked from their region (Barcia, 1723:316). It is probable that the Mate-
cumbe Indians are the only ones in South Florida who could possibly be
considered as Christians at this period.
It is interesting to note the continued interest the Indians of the Keys
had in the Catholic Faith. For some years they sent petitions to Havana re-
questing missionaries and in 1743 two Jesuits, Fathers Monaco and Alafia,
went to Florida. However, they did not stay in the Keys but traveled further
north, landing near Miami.1 The strategic position of the Keys at this time
is well shown by the Governor of Havana's belief that sending missionaries
was important not only for the glory of God and the good of the Indians'
souls, but also as a service to the Crown for the safety of the coast and of
Spanish ships (Alegre, 1842:277-8). This last missionary attempt, like all

10 An early map shows "Abra de M. de Moure" between "Caio de Biscainhos" and "Caio
de dose leguas" or Key Largo (Jansson, 1650, P1. 35, "Insularum Hispaniolae et
Cuba").
11 Several unpublished documents exist concerning this missionary effort which might
contain interesting material. Two documents of 1737 and 1738 are to be found in the
Archives of Archibishopric of Havana (Anonymous, 1944: lxviii). A later document
of 1743, together with an excellent map of the Keys, is in the Archivo General de
Indias at Seville, Est. 58, Caj. 2, Leg. 10 (Lowery, 1912-299). A tracing of the
map is in the Library of Congress. It is of special interest to South Floridians be-
cause it is the first map to indicate the presence and nature of the Everglades.








TEQUESTA


previous ones was of short duration. Moving from Miami to the southern
Indian River, possibly close to the present Fort Pierce, the padres worked
with several tribes including the St. Lucies and Miamis. However, raids from
the north, carried out by Muskhogean peoples so disrupted their work that the
mission attempt was abandoned (Alegre, 1842:279).
From this time on we have little information about the Indians of the
Keys and none about the Matecumbe Indians as such. Roberts (1763:21),
refers to . Cayo Ratones about four miles in length, on which is an
Indian town called Pueblo Raton, which is the only settlement of Indians
that we have any account of on the Martyres." This Cayo Ratones may be the
modern Virginia Key, as Roberts located it north of Cayo Biscayno, although
Virginia Key is not that large. In any case this village is near the present
Miami and at some distance from Matecumbe. Roberts (1763:19), however,
does give evidence that Indians at least visited the Keys for fishing; he
describes the fisheries near the Tortugas, saying that . the Indians of
Ratones and the south parts of Florida cure great quantities of this fish,
which with the hats and mats they make of grass, and barks of trees in
perfect condition, they exchange in traffic with the Spaniards who come
here from the Havana with European goods for the use of the natives,"
Roberts (1763:21) also mentions the use of Indian divers by the Spanish
in salvaging a wrecked plate fleet in 1733. These may have been from one
of the other portions of the Spanish possessions but they were most likely
South Florida Indians for they had an excellent reputation as divers.
The population of South Florida was apparently dwindling rapidly by
the early part of the eighteenth century, and Pueblo Raton may have been a
focal point for the last remnants on the east coast. Even this group was not
secure for Father Monaco, a missionary on the southeastern coast in 1743,
reported that this region was raided by the Yuchi (Alegre, 1842:279). From
sources among the Creeks we find that they carried on warfare against the
Indians of Cape Florida, who were at length reduced to thirty men and
moved to Havana with the Spaniards (Adair, 1775:134). Romans (1775:
289), who apparently considered all of the South Florida Indians as Calusa,
says they were driven into the mangroves of the Ten Thousand Islands and
to the Keys, but that even then they were not safe. Apparently before Roman's
time most of the Indians had left the Keys, but were later forced back by
this pressure from northern Indians.
The removal of the Spanish above referred to took place in 1763, after
a treaty had been signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain in November,








JOHN M. GOGGIN


1762. By the terms of this treaty Florida was ceded to England in exchange
for Havana, which had fallen to the English earlier in that year, and all of
the Spanish residents of Florida were given an opportunity to evacuate if
they so wished. Many did, taking most of the South Florida Indians with them.
A few, however, remained and were known henceforth as "Spanish Indians."
Romans (1775:291), the best authority of the English Period, says that the
Calusa remnants on Key Vaca and Key West "... consisting of about eighty
families, left this last protection of their native land and went to Havannah"
in 1763. Apparently by this time there were no Indians left on the Keys,
although Romans himself used a Spanish Indian guide further up on the
coast.1= He does name Matecumbe (Lower Matecumbe) as being one of the
last refuges of the Calusa, and apparently various later writers make this
statement on his authority. The story of the first massacre on Indian Key must
have originated with him, as no earlier source is known. He says (Romans,
1775:292), "A little key lying before Matecomb6 is a dreadful monument of
this [the cruelty of the Calusa], it is called the Matanca, (i.e.) slaughter,
from the murder of near four hundred wretched Frenchmen, who being cast
away fell into the hands of these monsters; who after keeping them in the
adjacent island from some time carried them all to this little key, which now
serves them for one common grave."a3
The Spanish returned to Florida in 1784, but we have no good evidence
that any of the Indians accompanied them, although we find that . Cayo
Vaca or Cow Key is remarkable for having been inhabited by the Caloosa
Indians from Havana" (Forbes, 1821:109). This might indicate that some
did return, but if so they were gone from the Keys by the time the United
States took over Florida.
The modern occupation of the Keys apparently began just before
Romans' time, possibly around 1750, and was greatly accelerated by the
departure of the Spanish and the removal of the Indians. The forerunners in
this period were the men from New Providence and other Bahama islands
1= Manuscript of Romans quoted in Forbes (1821:97).
13 The above version is in the text. In the appendix, which is a pilot guide to the
coast, he gives another account. "This key is called Matanca, i.e. Murder, from the
catastrophe of a French crew said to have amounted to near three hundred men, who
were unfortunate enough to fall into the hands of the Caloosas, which savages
destroyed them on the spot." Note the discrepancy in the number of Frenchmen
slain. Many later writers have repeated this tale apparently on hJis authority and as
far as can be ascertained it began with him. (See Ellicott, 1803:247; Forbes, 1821:
108; Vignoles, 1823:120; Williams, 1837:36.) The Florida Guide places the time
of the incident as about 1755 but gives no authority (Federal Writers Project,
1939:331). If such an incident did give the key its name it must have taken place
somewhat earlier, for Matanzas is the name of this island on a map of 1742 (Liguera
Antayo, 1742).








TEQUESTA


who came to the Keys for turtles and mahogany. According to Romans
(1775:292), they always came armed and had frequent brushes with the
Indians. This enmity was apparently encouraged by the Spanish. With the
English occupation of Florida, many of the former visitors from the Bahamas
spent more time in the Keys, mainly fishing and wrecking, for by then most
of the valuable timber had been cut.
Tavernier Harbor off Key Largo became an important wrecking station
but the Matecumbe region was one of the main headquarters probably because
of its strategic location and the presence of fresh water. Even with the rever-
sion of Florida to the Spanish in 1784, there was little slackening in its use,
as privateers from the Bahamas patrolled the waters.-1
Florida was acquired by the United States in 1821 and the Matecumbe
region immediately grew in importance. Indian Key was one of the three
settlements in Monroe County in 1823, the others being Key Biscayne and
Key West. Indian Key early became a naval station, port of entry, and
admiralty court for adjudicating the claims of wreckers. When Dade County
was created in 1836, the county seat was established at Indian Key, and 50
voters cast their ballots at that precinct (Hudson, 1943:24).
In 1838 Dr. Henry Perrine, a botanist interested in tropical plant intro-
duction, settled with his family on Indian Key. He planned to establish a
nursery and to cultivate tropical plants suitable for introduction into the
United States. However, his plans were frustrated two years later when a
band of "Spanish Indians," headed by Chakika, attacked the little settlement.
Dr. Perrine attempted to parley with the Indians in Spanish, but was killed
along with several other inhabitants. His family, however, managed to
escape to Tea Table Key, then a small military or naval post.5
These "Spanish Indians" were probably Calusa, but some may have been
of Matecumbe ancestry. In any case this is the last time they attract notice,
as from this time on all trace of "Spanish Indians" is lost except for a few
scattered references to them in papers relating to the removal of the Seminoles
from Florida to the west. Some of the "Spanish Indians" were undoubtedly
incorporated with the Seminoles who remained, while others may have gone
west.
14 See Ellicott's experiences here in 1799 (Ellicott, 1893:251).
is Robinson (1942) gives a more complete account and bibliography. There is some
dispute about the date of this massacre; Robinson follows many others in citing
August 7, 1840, but Swanton (1922:344) says May 7, 1840. It appears that August
2 is the correct date. An account by Dr. Perrine's daughter may be seen in Walker
(1841). Most writers believe that Chakika was not present on this raid, as he is
considered to have been killed earlier. However, an anonymous account (1841)
gives a contemporary description of Chakika's death after the Indian Key raid.








JOHN M. GOGGIN


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adair, James-1775. The History of the American Indians (London; reprinted Johnson
City, Tennessee, 1930).
Alegre, Francisco Javier-1842. Historia de la Compania de Jesus en Neuva-Espaii (vol.
3, Mexico).
Anonymous-1841. Expedition through the Everglades (in "The Pathetic and Lament-
able Narative of Miss Perrine on the Massacre and Destruction of Indian Key" by
Hester Maria Smith (Perrine) Walker, Philadelphia).
1944. Catdlogo de los fondos de las Floridas (Publication no. 3, Archivo Nacional,
Havana).
Barcia Carballido y Zufiiga, Andres G.-1723. Ensayo cronoldgico para la historic
general de la Florida, 1512-1722 (Madrid).
Connor, Jeanette Thurber-1925. Colonial Records of Spanish Florida, Volume 1, 1570-
1577 (Publication no. 5, Florida State Historical Society, Deland).
Dickinson, Jonathan-1945. God's Protecting Providence . (edited by E. W. and C.
McL. Andrews, New Haven).
Ellicott, Andrew-1803. The Journal of Andrew Ellicott (Philadelphia).
Federal Writers Project-1939. The Florida Guide (New York).
Fontaneda, Do. de Escalante-1944. Memoir Do. de Escalante Fontaneda Respect-
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Forbes, J. G.-1821. Sketches, Historical and Topographical of the Floridas (New
York).
Geiger, Maynard-1937. The Franciscan Conquest of Florida (1573-1618) (Studies in
Hispanic American History, vol. I, Catholic University, Washington).
Goggin, John M. MS. The Archeology of the Glades Area, Southern Florida (manuscript
in progress).
Goggin, John M. and Frank H. Sommer III-1949. Excavations on Upper Matecombe
Key, Florida (Yale University Publications in Anthropology, No. 41, New Haven).
Hudson, F. M,-1943. Beginnings in Dade County (Tequesta, vol. I, no. 3, pp. 1-35, Coral
Gables, Florida).
Jansson, Jan-1650. Cinquieme parties du grand atlas contenant une parfait description
du monde maritime (Amsterdam).
Liguera, Antayo, Juan de-1742. Plano de los cayos de la Florida levantado y delineado
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Nacional, Madrid, No. 115, Karpinski Collection, Clements Library, Ann Arbor,
Michigan).
L6pez de Velasco, Juan-1894. Geografiay descripcidn universal de las Indies, recopilada
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(Boletin de la Sociedad Geografica de Madrid, Madrid).
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Phillips, Washington).
Roberts, William-1763. An Account of the First Discovery and Natural History of
Florida, With a Particular of the Several Expeditions and Descents Made on that
Coast (London).
Robinson, T. Ralph-1942. Henry Perrine, Pioneer Horticulturist of Florida (Tequesta,
vol. I, no. 2, pp. 16-24, Coral Gables, Florida).
Romans, Bernard-1775. A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida (vol. I,
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Sparke, John-1941. The Voyage Made by M. John Hawkins Esquire, . Begun in An.
Dom. 1564 (in Richard Hakluyt's "Voyages", Everyman's Library edition, vol. 7, pp.
6-53, London and New York).








24 TEQUESTA

Swanton, John R.-1922. Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors
(Bulletin 73, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington).
Twitt, John-1941. A True Report of a Voyage Undertaken For the West Indies by M.
Christopher Newport . (in Richard Hakluyt's "Voyages," Everyman's Library
edition, vol. 7, pp. 148-153, London and New York).
Vargas Ugarte, Rub6n-1935. The First Jesuit Mission in Florida (Historical Records
and Studies, vol. 25, pp. 59-148, United States Catholic Historical Society, New York).
Visques de Espinosa, Antonio-1942. Compendium and Description of the West Indies
(translated by Charles Upson Clark, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 102,
Washington).
Vignoles, Charles B.-1823. Observations on the Floridas (New York).
Walker, Hester Maria Smith (Perrine)-1841. The Pathetic and Lamentable Narative
of Miss Perine on the Massacre and Destruction of Indian Key Village in August,
1840 (Philadelphia).
Wenhold, Lucy C.-1936. A 17th Century Letter of Gabriel Diaz Vara Calderdn, Bishop
of Cuba, Describing the Indians and Indian Missions of Florida (Smithsonian Mis-
cellaneous Collections, vol. 95, no. 16, Washington).
Williams, John Lee-1837. The Territory of Florida, or Sketches of the Topography
Civil and Natural History of the Country (New York).











Army Surgeon Reports on

Lower East Coast, 1838
By JAMES F. SUNDERMAN

Young Jacob Rhett Motte, descendant of two distinguished and colorful
South Carolinian families, graduated with an A .B. degree from Harvard
University in 1832. Disappointed at his failure to receive an appointment
to the United States Military Academy at West Point, he returned to his
home in Charleston. There he entered the Medical College of South Carolina
and served his apprenticeship under the direction of a Doctor J. E. Holbrook.1
Upon the completion of his medical studies he became a citizen M. D. at
the United States Government Arsenal in Augusta, Georgia.2 A yearning
for a military career finally led the young physician to Baltimore where in
March, 1836, he was examined by the Army Medical Board. His application
for a commission as Assistant Surgeon was approved on March 21, and
around the first of June he was ordered to active duty with the Army in the
Creek Nation.3
For seven months he participated in the so-called Second Creek War in
Georgia and Alabama-an action which was nothing more than the employ-
ment of about 10,000 regular and volunteer troops in a giant round-up of
the demoralized and dispossessed Creek Indians.4 Early in 1837 he was
transferred to the Army in Florida and for the next fourteen months took
part in the campaigns against the Seminole Indians.
During his period of service with the Army in Georgia, Alabama, and
Florida, Motte faithfully kept a journal in which he recorded, in a fascin-
ating style, his travels, experiences, activities, observations and impressions.
The bulk of Motte's Journal deals with Florida during the early years of
the Seminole War, 1837-38.
After participating in the campaigns in north and east Florida, Motte
was assigned to the east wing of the Army which, in 1837, was converging
on South Florida attempting to penetrate and capture or destroy the Seminole
and Mickasukie Indians who used its fastnesses as a haven of reguge.
To accomplish this objectgive the Army had proceeded south from St.
Augustine, establishing bases and supply depots at such places as New








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Smyrna, Fort Anne( at the Haulover), Fort Pierce, Fort Jupiter, Fort
Lauderdale, and Fort Bankhead (on Key Biscayne). Having established bases
of operation, General Thomas S. Jesup, Commanding General of the Army
in Florida, ordered Colonel William S. Harney, with fifty picked dragoons
(armed with the new Colt repeating rifles), to proceed south from Fort
Jupiter to find Sam Jones and his band of resolute and vindictive Mickasukie
Indians. Colonel Harney proceeded south to Fort Lauderdale where he was
reinforced by several companies of artillery. Continuing on his southward
trek, Colonel Harney established his encampment several miles south of
Fort Dallas. At this place Assistant Surgeon Motte rejoined Harney's small
command.
The following excerpt from the Motte Journal (chapter 34) is an account
of the subsequent expedition:

Col. Harney in pursuance of his intention to attempt a surprise upon
Abiaka (Sam Jones),5 in his Southern retreat, had ordered a part of the
detachment under his command to be in readyness for proceeding in small
boats along the coast towards the southern extremity of Florida. Accord-
ingly on the evening of the 21st April about 8 o'clock, the party selected for
this secret expedition embarked in fifteen canoes, and immediately got
under way, proceeding along the coast in the open sea; a rather hazardous
position for such small and frail boats; but from the character of this part
of Florida horses could not be used as means of transportation, and with
difficulty could the men get along even without any extra rations. The
party consisted of Col Harney with his fifty picked Dragoons armed with
Colts' rifles, and Lt. [Robert] Andersone of the 3d Artillery with part of
his company armed with muskets., Lt. A. Rutledge of the 1st Artillery and
myself comprised the Colonel's staff. We pursued our course all night, both
to avoid being seen by the enemy, and in hopes of detecting their position
by the light of their camp fires. At daylight the following morning we found
ourselves about twenty miles south of Cape Florida, without having seen
any signs of the foe during the night. With the view therefore of looking
for them on foot, we approached the shore for the purpose of landing; but
from the nature of this part of the Florida coast, we found it impracticable
to effect our object, the coast presenting as far as the eye could see, at low,
and at high water an inundated shore, protected from the sea by a natural
breakwater of tangled mangroves, their roots forming a perfect network
higher than the knee, and thereby rendering these swamps, even where acces-
sible, places of most laborious locomotion. The entire coast about there








JAMES F. SUNDERMAN


seemed to be formed of one mass of Mangrove islands packed in upon each
other, and separated from the water of the everglades by a lagoon, fresh
or salt, by turns it was said, according as the waters of the glades or the
tides of the ocean prevailed We succeeded in finding a narrow strip of
beach, it being low water, upon which we rested for awhile by stretching
our cramped legs, while the men endeavoured to make some coffee, which
was very much needed after the night's fatigue.- Near this spot we discov-
ered a freshly impressed mocassin track, and in hopes of catching the
individual who made it, we started off with the intention of following it up
to its termination. We continued our pursuit for a distance of several miles
through the mangrove swamp, constantly wading in water which was from
knee deep to waist deep, and occasionally stumbling over the network of
roots hid beneath its surface whenever we neglected to raise our feet to a
sufficient elevation in stepping .Such a fatiguing mode of locomation soon
exhausted us, and finding it a difficult task to keep the tracks which were
under water-in sight, we returned to our boats. Again embarking we
pushed off, and proceeding along the shore in search of a suitable landing
place, after going three miles northwards discovered a part of the coast free
from Mangrove, and where the country back off the beach appeared open
and having a growth of pine. We there landed and encamped, having
drawn our boats upon the beach for better security against the force of the
sea. We were fortunate in hitting upon this spot, for we there found a
remarkable spring of fresh water, of the coolest and most delicious flavour
I ever drank. This spring was remarkable from the circumstance of its
being upon the beach considerably below high-water mark, and conse-
quently covered by the salt-water twice every twenty-four hours."
On the 24th April, we started on foot for the interior in search of
Abiaka, with a part of our detachment, taking in our haversacks one days
rations, and leaving as guard for the boats and camp the rest of our force,
under charge of a sergeant. Our first six miles progress was through a
saw-grass prairie, when we struck a trail which led us to an Indian camp
that had not been long deserted.xo We were at first somewhat bothered by
the numerous trails leading from this place, and knew not which to take,
until after a careful examination we selected the one which presented signs
of being the most and the last trodden, when following it up, we pursued
our way through a pine-barren, the ground being formed of coral-rocks
jutting out in sharp points like oyster-beds, which caused us great suffering
by cutting through our boots and lacerating our feet at every step, as much
as if we were walking over a surface from which protruded a thick crop of








TEQUESTA


sharply pointed knives. The whole of this part of Florida seemed to
present this coral formation protruding through the surface of the earth,
and which rendered it impracticable for horses, and almost impracticable
for men unless well shod. We were puzzled in guessing how the mocasined
Indians got over such a rough surface, until we subsequently ascertained
that they protected their feet from the sharp rocks by making their mocasins
of alligator hide when in this part of Florida. We suffered also very much
for want of water, not a drop even of that which was stagnant to be met
with in this parched up region. We consequently suffered more under the
excessive heat of the sun's rays from this absence of everything like moisture.
It was certainly the most dreary and pandemonium-like region I ever visited;
nothing but barren wastes, where no grateful verdure quickened, and no
generous plant took root,-where the only herbage to be found was stinted,
and the shrubbery was bare, where the hot steaming atmosphere constantly
quivered over the parched and cracked land,-without shade,-without
water,-it was intolerable-excruciating. Oh! for the murmur of some
brook,-and the chirp of some solitary bird to break the stillness and dreary
aspect of the place! But there was neither brook, nor bird, nor any living
thing except snakes to be met with. About 1 o'clock P. M. we emerged
from this rocky pine-barren, and were doggedly following the Indian trail
across a prairie when a distant but loud and repeated shout struck upon our
ears.- It could be none but a hostile shout; and immediately after, while
we were rounding a small projecting point of woods, there arose to our view
from the edge of the prairie right before us, and a mile distant, the smoke
of an Indian camp. We could see that a terrible sensation prevaded the
camp, and considerable excitement prevailed there, caused by our sudden
and miraculous appearance in their vicinity, for the warriors appeared to be
seizing their arms for defense while the women were bundling up their packs
for flight. We lost no time in preparing for attack, and dividing our small
party into three divisions, we immediately charged forward at double quick,
one consisting of the Artillery under Lt. Anderson extending to the left to
intercept the Indians in flight, the second, of part of the dragoons, to the
right for the same purpose, while the third under Col. Harney accompanied
by this staff advanced directly for the enemy. As we approached near, we
found the Indian warriors with rifle in hand standing behind trees awaiting
us, and on getting within the open pine-forest, we followed their example,
and each of us taking to a tree immediately commenced our fire upon the
enemy. The Indian warriors held their ground for some time, but finally
began gradually to retreat from three to tree; as they fell back, we advanced








JAMES F. SUNDERMAN


in the same cautious manner, only leaving the shelter of one tree to seek
another nearer the enemy. In this way we followed them up some time,
until finding that we were pressing them too hard, they at last broke cover
and ran. We gave chase, and in the ardour of pursuit our men became
scattered in all directions, in small parties of two or three, and in the most
extended order. At one moment Col. Harney was left with only Rutledge
and myself, the Indians keeping up a brisk fire and yelling in every direction.
One of the warriors more courageous than the rest, stood out in open ground
before us, and throwing up his arms yelled out his defiance, until the
whistling of a ball from our Colonels repeating rifle, warned him off in a
most expeditious manner, for it told him that he was in dangerous proximity
to a good marksman. By the rapid firing and loud yelling of the Indians
heard in the direction in which Lt. Anderson with the few men of his company
had gone, and by their delay in joining us, the Colonel was apprehensive
they had encountered the enemy in greater force than themselves, and there-
fore ordered all hands to proceed to their assistance. On approaching the
spot it was found that the Indians having retreated in greater force in the
direction where Lt. Anderson was with his party of only ten men armed
with muskets had hemmed them in, and were keeping up a hot fire, and
would no doubt have soon destroyed the whole of them had they not received
timely assistance, for nearly all their ammunition was expended when rescued.
This desultory fight lasted two hours and a half, from the moment we dis-
covered the enemy, until we found ourselves in complete possession of their
camp. We captured one prisoner only, owing to the difficulties of making
rapid progress over the rocky ground with our lacerated feet; and not
possessing ths experience of the Indians in locomotion over such a surface,
they beat us in running. We left another Indian on the ground, shot
through the body.
The enemy being taken so much by surprise, had to decamp without
carrying off their chattels, which we found in their camp strewed about
everywhere, as they dropt them in their hurried flight. We found any
quantity of cooking utensils, coontee-graters, bows and arrows; also large
supplies of prepared coontee or arrow root, and some fresh venison, as well
as skins of cattle, bear, and deer, and of alligators; the latter for making
mocasins in which they traverse these rocky parts of the country. Among
other things we found a bag of gun-powder.
After the severe march of the morning, and the fatiguing exertions of
the fight, we found ourselves too wearied to return to our boats without
some previous repose; so after supping upon the enemy's coontee and








TEQUESTA


venison, our own scanty rations having given out, we built large fires, and
not having any blankets with us lay down upon the bare ground around
them, their genial warmth very necessary during the excessively cold nights,
which in temperature were diametrically the reverse of the days.
Upon questioning our prisoner, we ascertained that this was Abiaka's
encampment; and that he himself had been present when we first appeared,
but ran away from the prospect of being captured. We counted twenty-five
fires in their camp; and allowing three warriors,-which is the usual pro-
portion,-to each, the Indian force must have amounted to seventy-five
warriors, exclusive of women and children. Our captive gave this as the
number in camp at the time of our attack, consisting of Seminoles and
Micasukies. Although when first captured, our prisoner was very much
depressed at the loss of her liberty, she soon got over her distress, and
talked and laughed as freely as with her own people. She stated herself to
be a niece of my friend Blue-Snake,12 and from her having at least a pound
of silver ornaments on her person, I should have judged that she belonged
to the nobility. She told us that Abaika had upwards of a hundred war-
riors, altogether, and that this was the same party that Col. Bankhead had
attacked on Pine Island in the everglades. A short time before our arrival at
New River; and also informed us, that if he had continued the pursuit
one day longer, he would have come upon the whole tribe, without the
possibility of their escaping. We also learned from her, that Alek-Hadjo
the chief of the Indians whom we captured at Jupiter,13 and who afterwards
had been sent out from Fort Jupiter with five other Indians, to persuade
the rest of his people to come in, were met at the South Fork of the Coontee-
Hatchee or New River, and the whole of them shot dead by a party of their
own people, who accused them of being spies for the whites, and did not
therefore deserve to live.1" When asked if she knew where Abiaka would
retreat to with the party we had just routed, she gave it a sher opinion, that
they would take refuge on some island in the Oahatka, or ocean; evidently
meaning some of the numerous Southern Keys.
On the 25th April, the morning after the above skirmish, we returned
to our boats. In consequence of several of our men being taken sick, and
there being no means of carrying them over the sharp rocks, our progress
was very slow and tedious. The night had been very cold, and the men not
having their blankets with them, the contrast of temperature with the burn-
ing days, easily accounted for the sickness, which was much augmented in
suffering by the absence of water. When within a mile of our boats, I
found my strength fail me; and completely knocked, I was compelled to








JAMES F. SUNDERMAN


knock under, not being able to budge one step further, my boots being cut
like ribbons and my feet severely lacerated by the sharp rocks. I threw
myself on the ground, feeling perfectly indifferent at the time as to what
should become of me; but Lt. Arthur Rutledge who would not quit my
side, persuaded me after resting awhile, to make some exertion, and with
his friendly assistance I was enabled to regain our boats long after our
party had reached them.
On the 26th April, we remained quiet, to recruit ourselves after the
recent fatigue; and on the 27th, a part of us embarked in seven canoes to
proceed south on an exploring expedition among the islands or Keys. The
party consisted of Col. Harney, Lt. Rutledge and myself, with the Colt's-
rifle company. Lt. Anderson being left in command of the Artillery to
guard the other boats and camp. We commenced our voyage early in the
morning, and continued all day progressing in a Southerly direction. About
sun-set we attempted to land, but found it impracticable on account of the
dense mangrove swamps. Night overtook us in the canoes, not being able
to find a place to land; and long after dark while cruising about in search
of a landing, we discovered a small rock near Key Largo sufficient to hold
a part of our men. Making fast our canoes to the rock, as many as could
stretched themselves on its hard surface for repose; the rest spent the night
in the boats.'-
On the morning of the 28th observing a small schooner at anchor a few
miles off the Key, some of us were sent to board her to ascertain what she
was doing there, but she proved to be only a wrecker, of whom, so many
infest this dangerous coast, seeking a hardy livelihood from the misfortunes
of others. We also saw another schooner at anchor further out, engaged in
the same business; and still further off, near the distant horizon, appeared
a ship heading north in the gulf-stream. In returning to shore, or rather
to the rock, the Colonel amused himself in harpooning the denizens of
these waters, through whose clear depths they could be distinctly perceived,
slowly moving about. Among others he succeeded in securing an immense
Sting-ray and Whip-ray, the latter so called from the length and appearance
of its tail. On regaining the rest of our fleet at the rock, the whole command
was got under way, and we took up the line of sail for our encampment,
without being able to see or hear anything of the enemy. Having fine
fair-wind, we dispensed with our oars and raising sail, made such rapid
progress, that we reached camp a little after sunset of the same day.
On the morning of the 29th April, our whole detachment embarked in
the canoes, and in consequence of our rations being expended, returned to









TEQUESTA


Camp Center at Lewis' settlement near Key Biscayne, which we reached a
little after sun-set of the same day.1'

3 The Christian Register, July 24, 1869; South Carolina Historical and Genealogical
Magazine, IV, 1903; and the introductory remarks in Arthur H. Cole (ed.), Charleston
Goes to Harvard, Diary of a Harvard Student of 1831 (Cambridge, 1940).
Jacob Rhett Motte, "Life in Camp and Field," manuscript in the Florida Historical
Society Library, 106 (cited hereafter as Motte, MS).
a Army and Navy Chronicle, May 5, 1836.
For an account of the causes and prosecution of the Second Creek War see: "The
Report of Thomas H. Crawford and Alfred A. Balch, appointed to investigate the
causes of the Creek Indian Hostilities under a resolution passed by the House of
Representatives on July 1, 1836," Executive Document 154, 24th Congress, 2nd
Session (Washington, 1837) ; Angie Debo, The Road to Disappearance (Norman,
1941), 72-107; and James F. Sunderman, "Life in Camp and Field, The Journal of an
Army Surgeon, 1936-38," unpublished Masters Thesis, 1949, University of Florida,
xvii.xlvii.
s Abiaka or Sam Jones was the head chief of the Mickasukie Indians. He was an
old man, near seventy years and a self-declared prophet and medicine man. Violently
opposed to emigration, his advice and opinions were highly regarded due in great
measure to the Indian regard for age. His territory was in the neighbourhood of
Lake Okeechobee, The active war chiefs in the Big Cypress Swamps, along with
the sub-chiefs and the warriors religiously abided by his decisions believing that
he . could make known the approach of troops, find game, and control the
seasons, heal the sick, or inflict disease upon any one-even death." Declaring
eternal hostility and cruelty to the whites, he planned many of the Indian attacks,
fired the first gun, and then retired. After the capture of Osceola, King Philip,
Euchee Billy, Micanopy, Toskegee, Hallec-Hadjo, and many other warrior chiefs
in late 1837, Sam Jones became the head and front of the hostile Seminoles. Much
importance was therefore placed upon his capture or destruction. John T. Sprague,
The Origin, Progress, and Conclusions of the Florida War (New York, 1848), 99, 252,
318-319; Motte, MS, 140.
s First Lieutenant Robert Anderson, a graduate of the Military Academy in 1825, was
promoted to Brevet Captain in April, 1838, for gallantry and successful conduct in
the Florida War. He was cited for meritorious conduct in the battle of Molino del
Rey, during the Mexican War, and promoted to Major. For his gallant defense of
Ft. Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, in 1861 (the action which precip-
itated the Civil War), Major Anderson received a promotion to Major General.
Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army,
from its Organization, September 29, 1789 to March 2, 1903, House Document 446,
57th Congress, 2nd Session (Washington, 1903), I, 164.
A few weeks prior to the departure of Colonel Harney and the dragoons, Samuel
Colt, the inventor of the repeating rifle, arrived at Fort Jupiter with a number of his
new rifles. He submitted them for examination and testing to a Board of Army
Officers appointed by General Jesup for that purpose. The Board reported favorably
upon the performance of the weapon which was described by a group of Indians,
who witnessed the testing of the gun, as "great medicine". The Army immediately
purchased fifty of the new rifles and placed them in the hands of fifty picked dragoons.
Motte, MS, 231-232, original "Order Book of General Thomas S. Jesup," manuscript
in P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida, 12.
The troops undoubtedly landed at a small beach about two miles north of Black
Point. See Soil Conservation Map 35, Everglades Drainage District, Washington,
1946.
Many springs in this section of Florida, including various bayside springs are no
longer flowing due to the lowered water tables. An example of this is Mangrove









JAMES F. SUNDERMAN 33

Springs at Coconut Grove which . supplied water for the United States Fleet
at Havana in 1898 . flowing at 100 gallons per minute." Today it no longer
exists. C. W. Lingham, and others, "Springs of Florida," Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin Thirty-One (Tallahassee, 1947), 65.
The troops landed in the present Cutler Hammock, a large part of which is encom-
passed in the Deering estate, directly east of Perrine, Florida. This is the only spot
on the coastline of Biscayne Bay where pine-land approaches to the waters edge.
Before the water table in the Everglades was lowered there were many springs
located in this vicinity. The location is easily found on the Soil Conservation Map 35,
1o Leaving their bayshore camp, the troops ascended the transverse glade which today
crosses highway No. 1 immediately south of Howard and one mile north of Rockdale.
These transverse glades were strips of low lying productive soil stretching like fingers
through the rocky pine land from the coastal area into the Everglades. In wet
weather they were inundated and the Seminoles used them as canoe trails, and in
dry weather as foot trails. Today the transverse glades are productive tomato growing
areas. See Soil Conservation Map 35.
"1 After proceeding for over six miles the troops left the transverse glade and struck
out across the rocky pine land to the edge of the Everglades. The rim of the Ever-
glades was the favorite camping spot of the South Florida Indians. This specific
location was undoubtedly a few miles south-west of the present Dade County Hospital.
The information concerning the transverse glades area and the probable route of this
expedition was furnished by Dr. John M. Goggin, a native of Miami and a professor
in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of Florida.
12 Blue Snake was a chief of the warlike Tolofa tribe of Seminoles. In September, 1837,
while acting as a courier from the hostile Coa Hadjo to the captured King Philip,
who was imprisoned in St. Augustine, Blue Snake was seized by the Army. He
promptly volunteered his services as a guide and scout for the troops. While serving
in this capacity he and Assistant Surgeon Motte became good friends. American
State Papers, Military Affairs (Washington, 1861), VII, 848; Motte, MS, 130.
xa About five hundred prisoners, including Indians and Indian negroes, were seized on the
21st, 22nd, and 23rd of March. They had been camping near Fort Jupiter under the
flag of truce awaiting word on a petition they had sent to Washington requesting they
be permitted to retain a small part of the Everglades and remain in Florida. Twice
before General Jesup had violated the flag of truce, justifying his action on the
grounds of military expediency and the ever present Indian characteristic of deception
and trickery. Jesup to Poinsett, July 6, 1838, in Sprague, op. cit., 195; Niles
National Register, September 8, 1838, and Motte, MS, 230.
14 The Seminoles claimed the murder of their chieftain was a Mickasukie plot and
offered their assistance in finding Sam Jones and his Mickasukies. Savannah Repub-
lican as quoted in the Apalachicola Gazette, May 17, 1838.
is In the days of the Spanish galleons and privateering, according to tradition, the rock
was used by pirates as an anchor for their ships. An iron pin, driven into the rock,
served to hold fast the anchor ropes.
06 Camp Center was undoubtedly located near the spring known as the Devils Punch
Bowl, a few hundred yards south of the present Rickenbacker causeway in Miami.
This was a spring flowing out of a round pot hole in the rocks at the base of the
cliffs near the south end of Brickell Hammock-between the present S. W. 25th Road
and the north end of the Deering estate.







This Page Blank in Original
Source Document












John Clayton Gifford: An Appreciation
By HENRY TROETSCHEL, JR.

To many Dr. Gifford's chief claim to fame was his ability to tell a story;
a very valid claim to those who heard him; any kind of a story, be it a
broken down joke that expired before the Doctor's birth, or a sparkling tale
of early Miami, or even of events that most people spoke of with reverence
but he told with unhidden contempt.
To this writer, one of a younger generation, who had never met the man
until his last years, there seemed to be in Dr. Gifford's telling of a tale an
indication of an older generation that had possessed more spirit than the
present one. His skeptical attitude created by his scientific background or
perhaps by reasons previous to that training was ever present.
He would sit with his pipe clenched in his mouth, usually holding the
bowl, as he talked, the words and smoke drifting from his mouth. Whether
the story be one of domestic affairs, our troubles with Russia (Dr. Gifford
did not care for Russia at all. Even in the days of American friendship
for the Soviet he violently protested against the Soviet. It seems that he
had bought several thousand dollars worth of Russian Imperial war bonds
during the first World War only to have them repudiated within the next
few months. These bonds were found in his deposit box after his death.),
or of his life he spoke in what we called his "classroom voice." A strong
natural voice, shaped by years of classroom lecturing and thousands of
luncheon club engagements it never once faltered. Try to interrupt. Im-
possible. The voice had a purpose and knew where it was going. A Florida
hurricane. And as fascinating and as interesting as one. And, incidentally,
as destructive to young egos who foolishly stepped in the way.
And then usually there would be a loud, booming laugh as if what he
had said had been a surprise to even himself. The listener might say a few
words and again the Doctor would be away with his reminiscences and tales.
No person could claim that he stuck to a subject. His books as well as
his vocal achievements were rambling, disjointed works that often left the
reader or listener who had been trained or hoaxed into believing that orga-
nization was king in writing or speaking agog, impatient, or frankly mar-







TEQUESTA


veiling. He had tremendous ability at shifting subjects, but even more at
holding the interest of his audience.
His writing and speaking were akin to the house in which he lived and
to the man himself. Mere rules meant nothing. Late in 1946 he showed
members of the family a review of his latest book, Living By the Land. The
review was from one of the scholarly botannical journals and though it
praised the spirit of the work was critical of its style. "I just can't under-
stand it," were his words, "they like what you write but they're mad because
you didn't write it exactly like they wanted you to." Dr. Gifford was not in
the habit of doing things exactly as "they" wanted him to.
Yet his rambling was like that of a river; it may cover half a continent,
crisscrossing every which way, turn around and come back again, but even-
tually it reaches the sea. Spotted throughout Dr. Gifford's writings are a
few great ideas. He had an intense interest in South Florida and the Carib-
bean area. His writings are filled with ideas as to how this area could best
be developed. Another main thread was his Tropical Homestead. And a
third, and perhaps the greatest, was the soil and soil products. "Remember
this," he would say, "everything comes from the soil. You lose it and all
your machines aren't worth anything."
These ideas were his work. It would be a fair appraisal to say that all
of his written work could be compressed in one small book, simply outlines
of his major ideas.
But such a book would interest no one except perhaps scholars. This
writer once asked him why he didn't use outlines in his classroom lectures
and draw up complete outlines before he started to put together a book. "I
know what I want to say," he answered, "I've said it enough before. And
I'll tell you, you just can't get most people to understand what you're talking
about unless you tell them again and again. Now you know that nobody
will read a book if every chapter is word for word the same as the last one.
But lots of people will read it and enjoy it if you tell them some stories
along the way and just keep slipping in what you really want to say."
Dr. Gifford himself had done a lot of rambling during his 79 years of
life and like his books he always managed to slip back to the subject no
matter how far he had wandered. He was born in 1870, the son of Emily
Gifford and Daniel Gifford, a sea captain. He often mentioned that his two
earliest memories had been of ships and forests. Much of his early life
had been spent on his father's ship, but every possible moment was spent
in the woods around Mays Landing, New Jersey, the place of his birth.








HENRY TROETSCHEL, IR.


Much of his spare time during his school years was spent on the ship
and by the age of twelve he had done more sailing than most do in their
lifetime. He graduated from the public school in the village. While a
student there he had discovered a new variety of oak tree, Quericus Giffordii.
He often said later that he had seen but two or three of them all of his life
and that he was sure the tree was not actually a distinct variety. But, as he
pointed out, he thought that it was when he found it and his feeling was
backed by scientific authority of the times.
He next attended Swarthmore College from which he received a B. S.
degree in 1890. He often told the story of his entrance into Swarthmore. It
seemed that his youth and the size of the small public school from which he
had graduated had effectively kept him from entering the college that year.
Finally, however, the college authorities decided that they would allow him
to take a special test in identification of plants. If he passed he would be
allowed to enter. The botany professor to whom he was directed took a
leaf specimen from their collection and asked him the scientific name of the
plant. Dr. Gifford answered immediately and even pointed out its habitat.
The same scene was repeated three times. Finally he said to the professor,
"I don't know if this test is quite fair, for, you see, I gathered these plants
that you showed me." And, sure enough, he had in his hunts around Mays
Landing He had given them to the local minister who was collecting for
the professor now conducting the examination.
He was admitted and made a student assistant to the professor.
At Swarthmore where he taught Economic Botany in 1894, he developed
the belief in Quakerism which he held till his death. His early religious
training had been in the Presbyterian faith, but the Society of Friends with
its quiet inward faith had greater appeal.
He did not believe in miracles. The writer remembers well his story of
how one time when his sister was visiting him, she expressed a desire for
fish for dinner. At the same moment a small fish dropped outside the win.
dow near which she sat. As he explained it, "They all said it was just like
a miracle. But I'll tell you that fish dropped from the mouth of a bird that
caught the fish in the bay down there. If she'd sit there for another fifty
years and keep saying that she'd like to have fish for dinner, not another fish
would drop. And if that's anything like they call miracles, then there isn't
any such thing." And that was that, no miracles.
After Swarthmore the rambling began again. At his Mother's insistence
he attended the University of Michigan and Johns Hopkins in search of a








TEQUESTA


medical degree. (And incidentally studied some architecture at the Uni-
versity of Michigan.)
One of his favorite stories (and one must remember that these are Gifford
stories from the doctor's mouth and may contain some if not much poetry.
Flavoring sharpens the listener's interest. Dr. Gifford knew that rule well
and religiously practiced it,) was of his break from a medical career.
During one summer toward the end of his medical studies, he was study-
ing in Tulane University and working in the hospital there. "Now they had
a carbuncle and boil ward there at the hospital, and that's where they put
me. I must have fixed 500 of the things, and was beginning to feel that if
the practice of medicine was like this, I didn't want it. I never had really
cared to practice medicine anyway. Well, one night I left the hospital early
and went down to the docks and walked around wondering what to do. Who
should I see but an old sea captain, one of my Father's best friends. I told
him all of my troubles and he said that he was leaving for South America
in the morning, and if I wanted to go he'd find a place for me on his ship.
I told him I couldn't, that I'd gotten too far along on my medical degree,
but I wanted to go.
"Well, come the next morning, I was on board his ship and never studied
medicine again, for when I came back after six months I decided to go to
Germany to get my degree in forestry." And then came the laugh, the smoke
from the pipe, and the twinkle in his eyes.
In the 1890's there were no universities in the United States that offered
the work in forestry that he desired, and like many others in search of grad-
uate work in their fields he turned to Germany. In 1899 he was awarded
the D. Oec. degree (Doctor of Economics) by Munich University.
Munich, Dr. Gifford would explain, was a predominantly Catholic city
and many resented Americans because of their participation in the Spanish-
American war opposed to Catholic Spain. Thus, when he came forward for
his oral exam prior to the awarding of the degree, he was bombarded with
questions that had little bearing on the subject matter of his degree but had
great emphasis on the foreign policy of the United States. Soon, however,
everyone was appeased and with much handshaking and celebration he was
awarded the freedom of the city for a week, an honor customarily bestowed
on successful candidates. He often remarked that that week was a glorious
memory. The Germans respected the higher degree and opened their stores,
heart, and beer mugs to the successful candidates.








HENRY TROETSCHEL, IR.


Upon his return to the United States he was appointed Assistant Professor
of Economic Forestry at Cornell University. The forestry school there,
authorized by a state act of March 26, 1898, was the first of its kind in the
United States.
While in service at Cornell he suggested the degree of Forest Engineer
which is now used in Italy, Spain, and Canada.
Perhaps his first important published paper was a geological survey of
New Jersey, published in 1896 while he was engaged in public service work
there. Shortly thereafter he founded the New Jersey Forester which was pur-
chased by the American Forestry Association in 1898 to be used as its offi-
cial organ. Dr. Gifford was retained as editor and the magazine published
as The Forester.
He had first come to Florida in 1892. Just two years after his gradua-
tion from Swarthmore he had voyaged to the Bahamas in an effort to find
a site for a tropical forestry laboratory. This trip had carried him. from
Tampa, and thence by steamship toward Nassau. When the boat passed
offshore of Miami, the captain remarked that there was good water there
and that he thought the village would grow.
In 1902 he stopped at Peacock's Inn in Coconut Grove. He wrote at
this time of Indians loafing around the porches of homes. By this time he
had decided to settle here and insured his residence by a purchase of a home
in 1905.
Coconut Grove is dotted with houses that he built. The one in which he
lived most of his years at 2937 S. W. 27th Avenue is a good illustration of
what he thought a house should be in this sub-tropical climate.
Basic to his theory was the notion that homes of a given area should
reflect the resources of the area, this to be accomplished by a judicious use
of the available products of the region in the construction of the home. Thus
Dr. Gifford's homes were constructed primarily of coral rock and Dade
County pine.
From 1905 until 1931 Dr. Gifford was in one way or another involved
in the purchase and sale of real estate. This activity was not by far the only
one in which he was engaged during these years. As a matter of fact, he
later claimed that he was retired when he moved to Florida and had hoped
just to work around a little on tropical forestry. He became interested in
real estate, however, especially as the problem of Everglades drainage be-
came an issue in South Florida. During this early period he wrote many








TEQUESTA


articles, some later collected in book form, urging the immediate drainage
of the Everglades. He spoke of American Venices springing up on the
canals which would be arteries leading to a super rich farmland in the heart
of the Everglades. The sum total of these writings is that he believed that
drainage of the Everglades would be an act similar to the Dutch's building
of dams to reclaim lost land from the sea.
In later years he infrequently referred to these writings. He then said
that the Everglades should have been drained by a plan he ascribed to Na-
poleon Broward; the canals should have followed the natural drainage flow
and carried the water out into the Gulf of Mexico.
His dealings in real estate were for the most part of a private nature.
He was associated with various companies usually in the capacity of an
adviser. Among these were the Sunshine Real Estate Company and the
. Everglades Land Sales Company.' Later he was included in the Elliott Key
Lime Company and the Triangle Corporation.
He gave his time willingly to the writing of real estate promotional litera-
ture, for he was firmly convinced that everyone should live in Florida. He
was directly influential in bringing some ninety settlers to Florida.
Of his private real estate dealings he said that he followed but one rule:
buy a piece of land, split it in half, and then hold off selling until you can
get back your original investment from one of the halves. This formula
seems to have worked successfully for him.
On the birth certificate of Emily Jane, his second daughter, born in 1925,
Dr. Gifford's occupation was listed by the attending physician as "Capitalist."
Unquestionably he was a man of considerable wealth at that time. He at
one time told this writer that he had had a fortune of over one million
dollars, not in paper holdings but in cash. He said that he went to the
wisest investment men he could find and was told to invest in two items:
small first mortgages on good property and bank stock. This he did. But
with the real estate collapse in South Florida the mortgages were practically
valueless and shortly banks were failing quickly.
He was Vice-President of both the Miami Bank and Trust Company and
the Morris Plan Bank. The collapse of the latter was a source of great
sorrow to Dr. Gifford. In later years he spoke but little of the incident
and once mentioned that this had been his biggest failure.
Dean Russell Rasco of the University of Miami Law School, tells that
he had done legal work for Dr. Gifford in connection with the collapse, and
that they had always been warm friends. One day, coming across the dean








HENRY TROETSCHEL, IR.


in his office, Dr. Gifford had said, "How's the old shyster these days?"
Rasco, answering in the same vein, had inquired, "How's the old broken
down banker?" Dr. Gifford became very angry about the exchange. His
reaction reached the Dean by means of a letter in which Dr. Gifford made
it clear that he felt Rasco had not spoken with proper respect. Rasco tele-
phoned him immediately and smoothed his feelings.
Dr. Gifford was a director of the Coconut Grove Exchange Bank until
his death.
In 1923 he married Martha Wilson. At this time he had extensive real
estate holdings throughout South and Central Florida, and for the next few
years the couple spent their time in Stuart, Orlando, De Soto City and Miami.
Two girls were born within the next few years. Dr. Gifford's first marriage
to Edith Wright had been childless.
Before his marriage in 1923 he had worn a beard, knee boots, and gen-
erally affected a colorful manner of dress. As was to be expected marriage
ended this whim. Except for such clothes (he looks quite dapper in old
photographs), he did not ever purchase personal articles that ran to great
expense. Clothes during his last years meant nothing to him; they were
either purchased for him by his wife or ordered from a mail order catalogue.
Perhaps his prize possessions were his pipes. To even these he paid little
attention, and all of his grandchildren have to some extent been reared on
dirty pipestems.
When questioned by this writer on his attitude toward losing such a for-
tune, he replied, "Well, I don't have as many worries without it. And I
don't really need much. We've got the house here and I've got my job at the
University."
Dr. Gifford had taught evening classes for the University before 1931,
but it was in that year that he accepted a post as Professor of Tropical For-
estry. He taught from that chair until his death.
He was easily one of the most popular teachers at the school. And why
not? Not more than four or five people failed his courses during his full
tenure. But many people looking for an easy mark usually found to their
surprise that they were enjoying the course, and often before the end of the
semester, Dr. Gifford would have made more converts to his ideas.
He lectured not to the class but to the window. Frequently when he had
made a point he would turn from the window and laugh. The Universtiy
officials, because of the magnitude of his voice, aimed out the window as it
was, usually found it expedient to put his classes as far as possible from








TEQUESTA


any others. In spite of such precautions occasionally an instructor would
complain that his class was learning Tropical Forestry rather than the mathe-
matics it should have been listening to.
Visitors were frequent. He told the story of how one day, he glanced
at the class and noticed that an older man was sitting reading a newspaper.
This Dr. Gifford could not tolerate. Students could miss class as often as
they wished but once there were expected to listen. "Get out, get out. Young
man, I'm telling you that they need men in the outdoors. Go there, don't
come to this classroom." The fellow left attempting to sputter an explana-
tion that was lost in a gale of laughter as the class began to laugh. When
he asked why, they answered that the fellow now departed was not a member
of the class but a mere visitor. "Well, let it be understood that even visitors
shouldn't read newspapers in classrooms."
One of his courses became required for students who wished to teach in
secondary schools. It was with these students that he made his most lasting
impression on South Florida. During the last years of his life literally hun-
dreds of his former students would stop by his home. Many of them are
now teaching and making the ideas acquired by them from him known to a
new generation.
As a scientist Dr. Gifford was an enigma. This writer has heard one
highly noted scientist comment that if Dr. Gifford had backed his theories
with more experimentation he would unquestionably have been one of the
century's greatest scientists.
The statement indicates a concise analysis. Perhaps because he was a
forester and often close to nature in its more poetic phases, he carried to his
science a spirit that seemingly rebelled at the close, hard, often boring work
of experiment, experiment, experiment. In fact, he often made fun of ap-
propriations made for research and considered such conduct a waste of time.
Ironically enough, he constantly experimented in an offhand manner with
the plants that grew in his yard.
Actually in this writer's opinion Dr. Gifford served his science best by
the role he had assumed. He made articulate for many people the whole
vast potential, scientific or otherwise, of this Caribbean area. In these days
of public relations men under each lamppost, we know the importance of
getting the problem or answer before the public. This he did-though he
may have added a little Giffordia along the way.
Strangely enough, in spite of all his platform lecturing wherein he per-
formed the function of teaching the public about South Florida, he belonged








HENRY TROETSCHEL, JR.


to but few of the clubs or societies he addressed. He was, however, president
of the Florida Botanical Garden and Arboretum Association in 1934 and
of the Historical Association of South Florida in 1942. The honor that he
most prized was election as a fellow in the Society of American Foresters.
During these years his life achieved a routine. He normally was teach-
ing an hour or two a day, usually in the late morning, had one to five invi-
tations a week to speak, and spent the rest of his time writing or sitting in
the large living room entertaining guests. His children were growing to
maturity and having children of their own.
The side of the man I like most to remember is his relations with chil-
dren. Though sometimes as stubborn as a mule when dealing with older
folk, he was completely generous and forgiving with a child. His daughters
tell of one time that a visitor was bewildered by the scene of complete chaos
that existed as he spoke to Dr. Gifford. The children were beating with a
hammer on an antique chair, shouting and occasionally engaging in free-for-
alls. "Dr. Gifford," he said, "do you see what they are doing to that chair?"
Dr. Gifford smiled, withdrew his pipe, and answered, "Well, they're only
children."
In July, 1946, he made a misstep from a lecture platform at the end of
one of his classes and fell and broke his hip. This injury was soon healed
but caused him to declare that with all the time he was spending in hospital
beds because of the hip injury, he did not believe he would ever have any
other work done on him.
The hip injury, though it healed perfectly, effectively cut him out of
speaking and social engagements. Now in response to invitations to speak
he would declare that he hadn't been feeling well since the hip injury.
He continued to instruct his classes, however, until the early part of May,
1949, at which time he was taken to the hospital because of a kidney ailment.
Complications developed and he died on June 25, 1949, two weeks after he
had been returned from the hospital.
Interment was at Elliott's Key on land he had known and loved for
many years.
That fall the University of Miami established the Gifford Arboretum in
his honor, commemorating his long devoted service to the university and to
the cause of forestry.
An editorial in the Miami Herald on the occasion of his death paid
tribute to his services and summed up the nature and importance of his
life work:








TEQUESTA


"Not only this community, but all Florida as well, has lost one of its
most distinguished citizens in the death of Dr. John C. Gifford.
.. Dr. Gifford was a giant of a man. The years made no appreciable
inroads on his seemingly inexhaustible store of energy. His booming voice
. . never ceased to tell the story of the forest, man's abuse of them, and the
need for conserving the trees that a bountiful nature has given us in our
scheme of using. . He has left a notable impression on its (Miami's)
structure and its progress."
American Forests in its August, 1949, issue noted his passing as follows:
"The nation lost an eminent citizen and the world one of its most dis-
tinguished foresters in the death on June 25 of Dr. John C. Gifford . .in-
ternationally known forester, scholar and scientist . .
"Closely associated at the turn of the century with Dr. B. E. Fernow, Dr.
J. T. Rothrock, Gifford Pinchot and other far-sighted men in pioneering the
forest conservation movement in this country, Dr. Gifford has left a notable
impression on its progress.
. recognized as an outstanding authority on tropical forestry . (his)
work with tropical forests and fruits brought him worldwide recognition ....
But of even greater satisfaction to him, it resulted in closer educational and
social association between the peoples of the American tropics."
Mr. F. Page Wilson, a long-time resident of the community, in a letter
dated October 20, 1949, suggests that since Dr. Gifford's death much had
been said about his use of trees and conservation, etc., but that the broader
aspects of his teaching had been ignored. He suggests that his interpretation
of the Bay Biscayne-Keys-Caribbean country, his pointing out of the many
subtle differences of this area, and their relationship to human living were
his chief teachings.
Mr. Wilson suggests that if a short inclusive name be selected for Dr.
Gifford that it might well be "This region's great interpreter." This writer
tends to agree. One of the main threads running through his books is a
constant attempt to get the residents of the area to recognize the differences
in this area as compared to the Northern climes from whence they came.
In the Tropical Subsistence Homestead, published by the Colonial Press,
Clinton, Mass., 1934, he says:
"There is one thing certain, that the settler from the north in order to
succeed must leave his northern notions up north where they belong and
adopt a system fitted to the place, the plant and the people. The natives
have been at it in their special land hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years








HENRY TROETSCHEL, JR.


before America was ever discovered. Much that we have was given us by
the Indian. I once saw a high school student in the West Indies struggling
through a bulletin on how to preserve fruits for winter use. I have seen them
wondering about planting in the fall or spring. . On the other hand I
have seen northerners dig cellars under their houses for cool storage, put
steep roofs on their houses as if to shed snow, in short try out everything in
the catalog just as though their neighbors had never tried it before. When
northern experts unfamiliar with the tropics prescribe confidentially for
tropical conditions it is well to be beware."
In his Living by the Land, Glade House, Coral Gables, 1945, he indicated
the result of a failure to make the necessary adjustments to this or any other
newly used area:
"Lands, plants, and people must work together, wherever they are; else
disaster comes soon or late. The simple unsophisticated native may be un-
tutored in book-learning but he can show the new settler a thing or two
about living by the land."
In a conversation shortly before his death, Dr. Gifford remarked: "About
the silliest thing you ever see in these parts is someone from the north who
is determined to plant the same trees in his yard here that he had in New
Jersey. I knew a fellow one time who brought seed and sprouts from the
north and sat up nights with them for over a year before he realized that
they just weren't going to work. I could have told him all of the time."
(He used to say that nobody would ever catch him sitting up nights with
plants. If they couldn't grow without that kind of attention they weren't
worth growing.)
The aim of his pleading for adjustments to the area to be settled was the
creation of a more abundant life, which to him meant a return to the farm
which varied, of course, from area to area, but in all regions meant a strong,
basic economic unit that would serve as a wall against future economic unrest.
Dr. Gifford conceived conservation to be a series of subjects touching all
facets of human affairs. He argued that a man's concept of any one phase
of conservation was usually determined by his point of view and his occupa-
tion. There was nothing new in conservation, it was age old, usually prac-
ticed by a nation after it was too late. A mere saving or hoarding of things
was not conservation. Basically it was an intelligent use of all of a nation's
resources. Only through this use would a nation learn the importance of
the subject and appreciate its necessity.







TEQUESTA


His life was in many respects a projection of this intelligent use theory.
His thoughts as applied to the conservation of forests and other natural re-
sources were equally applied to the facts of day by day living. To him in-
telligent use meant more than the mere replenishment of forests.
In Living by the Land, page 24, he wrote:
"Movement back to the land is altogether a practical scheme, since de-
spite our growth in population we still have sufficient space for the purpose.
In places where good agricultural land is scarce and population dense, homes
and sustenance can be won from forest lands so rugged that they are classed
by some agriculturists as marginal .... Often it is the man who is marginal,
and not the land."
Living by the Land was his last published book and contains in full scope
the man and his ideas. The book contains all of the technical faults that
were an almost essential part of his writing. To read it, however, is a warm
experience, for the reader knows not when he will suddenly, perhaps in the
midst of a description of a tree, be faced with a sentence or paragraph of
great writing.
Included in his writings you will come across such words as these: "Con-
servation is a kind of philosophy of living . not so much a study of any
thing in itself as it is a study of man's relation to things."
"Most primitive peoples kill to live and not live to kill."
"A covey of quail is often of more value to the community than the man
who kills them."
"Real experts are usually men who have not lost their sense of relativity."
"A weed is merely a plant out of place."
"The smartest man in the world is helpless without opportunity."
And thus the man, John C. Gifford. The only tangible things left behind
are some books, all out of print, and the number constantly dwindling as
attics are cleaned; numerous magazine articles, all but disappeared; and
certain trees.
The trees; the ficus altissima, the lofty fig, brought here by him in 1902,
now lines our streets. He brought the coral tree from Jamaica, the bay rum,
Thespesia grandiflora, from the West Indies, the cajeput brought in 1906
from Australia, tender barked and beautiful. Here certainly are memorials
that shall not dwindle though forgotten be their origin.
But even more important is the intangible heritage, the thoughts, the ideas
and impressions many, perhaps almost all, not original with the man as he








HENRY TROETSCHEL, JR. 47

easily admitted, but this articulate man for many years in front of the garden
clubs, luncheon clubs, historical society meetings and, most important, col-
lege classrooms, gave meaning to these ideas. So that now there is not a
part of this wide Florida landscape that does not contain at least one man
who has learned from him and remembered.
Perhaps there is a Dr. Gifford among them.






This Page Blank in Original
Source Document












Across South Central Florida in 1882;
THE ACCOUNT OF THE FIRST NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT
EXPLORING EXPEDITION

Edited by
MORGAN DEWEY PEOPLES
and
EDWIN ADAMS DAVIS

The development of modern Florida may be said to have begun in 1876
when the Federal military control which followed the War for Southern
Independence ended. But the financial heritage of that conflict and of the
reconstruction years was near bankruptcy, and after struggling against almost
insurmountable odds for five years, in 1881 the state sold 4,000,000 acres
of undeveloped lands in the south-central portion of the peninsula for
$1,000,000 to Hamilton Disston and his associates. Other extensive land
sales followed and the intensive development of the state through private
capital began. By 1890 Florida's population had reached nearly 400,000,
having tripled since 1860.'
When these land companies began to plan drainage projects to prepare
their holdings for cultivation and for sale to small investors they found that
little was known of this section of the state. In 1882 one southern editor
wrote that the area was "a region mysterious, unknown, beautiful-a terra
incognita-of which as little is known as of the centre of 'the dark conti-
nent'."2 The statement was practically true although from the 1840's onward
many individuals had become acquainted with various portions of the region:
soldiers, sailors, and marines engaged in the Seminole Wars; the members
of the Federal-sponsored Buckingham Smith expedition of 1847; numerous
scientists, sportsmen, and men of letters; and those who had accompanied
the naturalist, Frederick A. Ober, during his excursions of 1872 and 1874.
The decades of the 1880's and 1890's, then, was a period of intense investi-
gation and exploration of the central and southern sections of Florida.
x See Florida, A Guide to the Southernmost State (American Guide Series, New York,
1939), 59-60.
2 New Orleans Times-Democrat, December 3, 1882; also quoted in Alfred Jackson Hanna
and Kathryn Abbey Hanna, Lake Okeechobee, Wellspring ol the Everglades (Indian-
apolis, 1948), 108.








TEQUESTA


Interest in unexploited Florida lands was but one phase of the active
post-reconstruction development of the South and it was natural that southern
newspapers began to devote considerable attention to these potentially pro-
ductive agricultural and timber areas, and to encourage their exploration.
Frequently they added a touch of glamour and mystery to the region, some
of which has carried over to the present day, for only recently the Everglades
have been described as an area "thickly overgrown with marsh sawgrass,
tough as bamboo, its edges razor-sharp. Out of this drowned plain thrust
rounded hammocks, overgrown with scrub oak, willow, cypress, cabbage
palm, and palmetto. No visible life stirs across these broad reaches of
marsh except that on the road and canal."s
The New Orleans Times-Democrat was one of the most vocal of the
Southern newspapers in heralding the potentialities of south and central
Florida.4 The Times had been founded in 1863 as a Union paper in the
hope of mending the political division of the city's population, while the
Democrat had come into existence in 1875 and had been ably edited by
Richard Tyler of Virginia, who was the son of the former president, and
Major H. J. Hearsey. The two sheets merged in December, 1881, dedicating
the new publication to the upbuilding of the South. Before the end of the
century it had published more than three score special editions describing
the resources and singing the economic possibilities of the southern states,
urging the development of timber and agricultural lands, propagandizing
for Federal aid during flood years, and, not the least important of these ac-
tivities, urging the feasibility of draining the Florida Everglades.5
In keeping with this policy of aiding Southern development, and also
perhaps to aid in enlarging its circulation through news stories regarding
the area, the Times-Democrat announced that it would sponsor an expedi-
tion to investigate the Everglades region. "The country generally is very
anxious just now to get information about this new territory which will soon
be thrown open to settlement and cultivation,"a it editorialized, anticipating
the optimism of the correspondent of the Hartford (Conn.) Times who six
months later wrote glowingly of the three Florida seasons-"the orange, vege-

3 Florida, A Guide to the Southernmost State, 407.
* The owner and editor of the New Orleans Times-Democrat was Edward A. Burke, at
that time state treasurer of Louisiana. Later, Burke was indicted for fraud and fled
to Spanish Honduras. For a brief account of his life see Alcee Fortier, Louisiana,
3 vols. (Atlanta, 1909), I, 134.
For a brief sketch of the early history of the Times and the Democrat and their merger
see Thomas Ewing Dabney, One Hundred Great Years; The Story of the Times-
Picayune from its Founding to 1940 (Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1944), 378-79.
New Orleans Times-Democrat, December 3, 1882.








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


table, and invalid" and that 30,000 Northern people had recently moved
to the state.7
The exploring expedition was to be headed by Major Archie P. Williams,
a former Confederate Army officer and the representative of the Times-Demo-
crat. He arrived in Jacksonville on November 7, 1882, made the preliminary
arrangements for the trip, and then suffered an attack of dengue fever.*
After recovering, he proceeded to Palatka, where he inspected Hart's orange
grove,9 then boarded one of the St. John's River steamers10 for passage to
Kissimmee, at which point the expedition was to rendezvous.
On December 3, the editor of the newspaper wrote that the "Times-Demo-
crat exploring party" into "the celebrated Everglades of Florida, famous in
poetry and almost equally famous in history," had started, and gave its gen-
eral itinerary. "Starting from the source of the Kissimmee River, it will
descend that stream into the celebrated Lake Okeechobee, lying in the center
of the Peninsula. After thoroughly investigating this lake and the character
of the lands surrounding it, the expedition will proceed on its way to the
Gulf, through the Caloosahatchie and other rivers, and canals of the Disston
Company, reaching the Gulf at Punta Rasa."
The expedition left Kissimmee on November 28. Its equipment consisted
of two sailboats, the Daisie and the Crescent, a considerable quantity of bag-
gage, including fire arms, fishing tackle, a medicine chest, and complete
camping paraphernalia, supplies for thirty days (including "a few gallons
of newly invented antidote for snake bites"), and "last but not least, a
first class cook." The Daisie was a whitehall boat twenty-two feet in length,
with a five and one-fourth foot beam, carried a single sail, and was fitted for
two sets of oars. The Crescent was a somewhat smaller vessel.
The party's personnel included Williams, who captained the Daisie,
Colonel C. F. Hopkins, a Jacksonville engineer and a former United States
y Quoted in Harper's Weekly, January 6, 1883.
* A febrile epidemic disease, which used to occur in the southern part of the United
States and which occurs in the West Indies, was characterized by severe pain, particu-
larly in the joints, and was sometimes accompanied by an eruption somewhat resem-
bling that of measles. The attack was sometimes violent but brief, although seldom
fatal. It first appeared in the British West Indies, where it was called dandy-fever.
The Spaniards of the neighboring islands mistook the term for their word dengue,
denoting prudery (which might also express stiffness) and eventually gave their name
to the disease. It is also called dandy, and break-bone fever.
This was one of the oldest and most famous groves in the state. It was budded from
wild stock during the early 1830s, was badly damaged by the frost of 1835, and began
bearing about 1845. See Charles Ledyard Norton, A Handbook of Florida (New
York, 1892), 190.
1o For a brief account of the "St. John's River Fleet" about this time see George M.
Barbour, Florida for Tourists, Invalids, and Settlers (New York, 1887, first edition
published in 1881), 123-24.








TEQUESTA


naval officer, who captained the Crescent, Captain Greenleaf Andrews, former
president of the New Orleans Wrecking Company, and Will Wallace Harney,
called the "professor", who acted as the artist of the expedition and who
was a correspondent of Harper's Magazine. Sam Maxwell was the crewman
of the Daisie, while Fred Humphreys handled the Crescent. Caesar Weeks
was the colored cook.
The party accompanied Captain Rufus E. Rose," who at that time was
engaged in dredging a canal between Lake Tohopekaligo and Lake Cypress,
in his small steamboat, the Okeechobee, as far as Lake Kissimmee. The two
sailboats followed, the Daisie in the lead, "flying at her peak the flag of the
TIMES-DEMOCRAT."
A Mr. Cowden, who was the correspondent of the Jacksonville Union, ac-
companied the expedition in a small boat of his own, the Cary, until Lake
Kissimmee was reached, from which point he returned to Jacksonville. Here
also Captain Rose left the party to make a surveying trip to Lake Rosalie
and Lake Walking Water. From this point the "Times-Democrat Exploring
Expedition" plunged toward that "mysterious and unknown region hitherto
concealed from the white man."'1
The party continued without mishap down the Kissimmee River to Lake
Okeechobee, camping along the stream, fishing and hunting, and visiting the
few scattered settlers who inhabited the area. After exploring a consider-
able portion of the coast line of Lake Okeechobee it reached the dredge of
the Atlantic, Gulf Coast and Okeechobee Land Company, then engaged in
cutting a canal between Lake Okeechobee and Lake Hicpochee, where their
boats were hauled overland to the dredge boat on the canal. Then it con-
tinued along the canal to Lake Hicpochee, through Lettuce Lake and Flirt
Lake to the Caloosahatchee River, and down that stream to Fort Myers,
which was reached on the night of December 14. The explorers had traveled
approximately 500 miles in a little over two weeks. Three days later the
Times-Democrat proudly announced that they were "the first white men who
ever succeeded in making the journey" through the "unknown" Everglades
region.
At Fort Myers the Crescent was abandoned and the crew discharged, while
Williams, Andrews and Hopkins continued up the Gulf Coast in the Daisie,
touching at Charlotte Harbor, Tampa and Cedar Keys, from which point
Williams returned by railroad to New Orleans.
= For information of Rose's dredging and planting activities in Florida see Hanna and
Hanna, Lake Okeechobee, 102, 178, 305.
i" New Orleans Times-Democrat, December 26, 1882.








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


The account of the expedition, which hereinafter follows, was written by
Williams and was published in the Times-Democrat in seven installments
during the interim from December 26, 1882, to March 16, 1883.13 Accord-
ing to the newspaper's editorial of December 17, the expedition had "been
very generally discussed by the press of the North as well as the South,"
and the opinion had "been expressed that it would result in material advan-
tages to the country by making known a rich and promising section, hitherto
closed to settlement."
That the New Orleans newspaper took considerable pride in its sponsor-
ship of the expedition is obvious, for in an editorial, published March 16,
1883, it bragged: "Florida is now one of the most promising portions of the
South. Much of it has hitherto been unknown wilderness to the rest of the
world, but is now being opened up, redeemed and rendered habitable. Immi-
grants of the best kind are pouring in from all directions and helping to
build up the State, and everything is promising there. THE TIMES-DEMO-
CRAT claims some of the credit for this Florida 'boom'. Its articles, which
were copied by the northern and western papers, have done much toward
creating this 'boom'." Without doubt it had rendered Florida a noteworthy
service by directing public interest to the Everglades-Lake Okeechobee region
which was soon to be opened to settlement.
In the account of the expedition which follows the articles have been
continued without a break for the sake of continuity. Rivers, lakes and other
geographic sites have not been located as in practically all cases the readers
of Tequesta will be familiar with them. Persons have not been identified
for, with the exception of a few well-known individuals, they would be almost
impossible of identification. Incorrect and variant spellings, inaccuracies,
and inconsistencies have been left untouched. The only liberty taken by
the editors has been to capitalize such titles as "Captain," "Major," and
Colonel."


[DECEMBER 26, 1882] After leaving Orange lake, from which place my
last communication was dated, it was my intention to proceed to Jacksonville,
fit out an expedition to visit Lake Okeechobee, in the Everglades, and from
there try to work our way through to some point on the Gulf of Mexico,
something not at that time done by any party of white men. I arrived in
Jacksonville on the morning of November 7, and after calling upon several
'3 See issues of December 26, 1882; January 21, 1883; February 5, 1883; February 10,
1883; February 23, 1883; March 15, 1883; March 16, 1883.








TEQUESTA


parties who were acquainted with a portion of the route through which I
intended proceeding, and making other necessary arrangements for the trip,
I was warned by certain premonitory symptoms that I was soon to become
a victim to the prevailing disease of Florida, viz: the dengue fever. Not
wishing to lay up among strangers in a strange city, I decided to visit some
relatives living in Rosewood, near Cedar Keys, and with that intention board-
ed a train running to that place, and soon found myself under kind hands,
where I remained for two weeks. I was made painfully aware, during my
suffering, of the number of bones in my body by the aches and pains which
always accompany the disease.
Well, all good things have an ending, and thank Heaven the bad ones
follow the same course, so on the morning of November 22, considerably
lighter in weight, a change of clothing in my valise, a pair of heavy blankets,
shotgun, and 500 rounds of ammunition, I find myself on the transit road
on my way to join my party, which has been waiting for me 10 days at Kis-
simmee City, on Lake Tohopokaliga.
Leaving Gainesville at 5 o'clock that evening (having left the transit road
at that place), I take the Florida Southern, a narrow-gauge road, and reach
Palatka, its present terminus. Palatka is a town fast growing into the pro-
portions of a city, situated on the banks of the far-famed river St. John.
After a good supper at Graham's Hotel, I retired to bed, and woke up in
the morning with the disagreeable feeling that I had been awfully fooled in
imagining I had bid an eternal farewell to the dengue fever, for it had fol-
lowed me, and I was once more in its grip. Determined not to give way to
it I am soon dressed and sauntering around the town, taking in the sights of
the place. Palatka is one of the most beautifully situated and laid off towns
in Florida, consisting of many fine buildings, and many more in process of
erection. The sound of nailing and sawing is heard on every side, and I
was informed by a gentleman that 50 new buildings were then going up.
Of course, as in every town and hamlet in either North or Middle Florida,
there is not only one fine hotel, but several, notably the St. John's Hotel,
considered one of the finest in the state. One peculiarity of Florida is that
the first building erected when the site for a town is selected is a fine hotel,
and if the hotel succeeds, other buildings soon follow.
The St. John's River at this point is a little over half a mile in width,
and in many respects resembles the Mississippi river in appearance. Oppo-
site to this town is the celebrated Hart's orange grove, considered by all the
finest in Florida, both as to variety of fruit, size and cultivation. It is one








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


of the first points that the Northern tourists visit when they come to Florida,
consequently Palatka is a lively place during the winter months. The streets
of the town are wide, and everything has been done to make the sidewalks
as beautiful and attractive as possible. Orange trees are planted every 15
or 20 feet on every street, and when walking down the streets they resemble
wide avenues fringed on each side by the orange tree; not only the main
streets being so arranged, but every side street in the town. Every tree is
loaded with the golden fruit, which, strange to say, is undisturbed, even by
the street boys. As every yard in the town is an orange grove in itself, and
every one has plenty at home, it may account for the fruit being undisturbed
upon the sidewalk, and the branches of private trees which hang over the
streets from the different yards.
Palatka, like every other town in the State that I have visited lately, is
filled with Northern visitors. There are a few Southerners also here looking
for lands, but they do not tarry long in any one place, continuing to travel
around until they find a location suited to their taste. They are considered
better judges of soil than their Northern cousins, and almost invariably make
good selections. Before finishing my walk around the town I inspected sev-
eral Artesian wells which are placed at several points where the streets inter-
sect with each other, for the use of the public. They furnish ample water
for the use of the whole town and are an ornament in the appearance of the
place. I can't say I have accustomed myself to the taste of the well water of
Florida, which is limestone of the greater or less strength. I notice through-
out the whole State that those families who use cistern water are free from
chills, fevers and other ailments, while with those who drink the well water
it is exactly the reverse. Cisterns are coming into very general use, as the
people are beginning to realize the importance of having them.
At 8 o'clock that night I was joined by my old friend, Capt. Greenleaf
Andrews, a resident of New Orleans and formerly connected with the New
Orleans Wrecking Company, who, by invitation, is to join our party. His
smiling and jolly face, his loud and cherry voice, issuing his orders to every
one in the hotel from the bootblack to the headwaiter, in a tone well-suited
to the quarter-deck of a man-of-war in a storm, makes me for awhile forget
I am a sick man, and I soon found myself joining in the general laugh as he
related some of his Florida experiences since his first arrival in the State.
He was a great addition to our party, and from my knowledge of the old
gentleman, I was certain he would make things lively for every man in the
party. At 1 o'clock a.m. we boarded one of the St. John river steamers








TEQUESTA


bound South, and found, after getting on board, that every stateroom was
occupied, half the floor of the cabin, and not a bare mattress or blanket.
All the gentle whispering of the captain in the ears of both steward and
chambermaid with the exhibition of a silver dollar failed to get even a
pillow to put under our heads. "What can't be cured must be endured,,' so
tired out with waiting for the boat, burning up with fever, and in no enviable
state of mind, we unrolled our camp blankets, found a soft plank on the
floor of the cabin, put our overcoats under our heads for a pillow, and with
a gentle blessing from the lips of the captain upon Florida steamboats in
general, and this one in particular, we dropped off into a troubled sleep.
We were awakened at sun-rise next morning by the sound of female
voices, and it did not take us long to find out that both the captain and myself
were becoming objects of attention to several ladies on board, who had risen
early to view scenery on the river and had crowded to the forward part of
the boat for that purpose. We both consoled ourselves with the idea that
we looked very handsome as we lay, but the Captain said he heard one of
the girls say: "If I was ugly as those two men I'd drown myself." But he
said she had a red head and was crosseyed, so we did not think she was a
good judge. We arose, and after washing our faces and making the ac-
quaintance of the man who mixes the "pizen", we took our seats among the
crowd, all of whom seemed to be strangers to Southern scenes, and were
amused for some time by the remarks around us. The sight of a huge alli-
gator lying lazily upon the banks of the river caused quite a commotion
among the ladies, except our red-headed girl, who remarked after bestowing
a casual glance at the captain and myself, that "The alligator wasn't half as
ugly as she had expected". We passed large numbers of large and flourish-
ing orange groves, but saw few fine residences, most of the highly improved
places being below (north) of Palatka, where we embarked. Of this fact
we were informed by others.
The great peculiarity of the St. John river is that it is one of the only
two rivers in the United States that run North. The water of the river is of
an inky hue, being almost black. It is a chain of lakes for many miles, at
least it so appeared, for at times we found ourselves passing through sheets
of water four or five miles wide, and again we were steaming between the
banks of a stream no larger than our Louisiana bayous, with hardly room
for our boat to pass without touching. We were a little disappointed, having
formed quite a different idea from all we had heard and read of the great
beauty of the scenery which would meet our eyes at every turn. Perhaps my
companion and myself were too much inclined to draw a comparison be-








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


tween the rivers of our own State and that of the black stream over which
we were passing. We were summoned by the breakfast bell to go below and
get our morning meal, and in obedience thereto we took that direction at the
tail end of the crowd, who were hurrying toward the dining room. Suddenly
the stream of human beings who were crowding the doorway turned back
with disappointed face, and we were informed that we would have to take
the second table. A second time we made the same attempt, and were turned
back to wait for a third table. The captain remarks that "this thing is a
little monotonous", and so when the third table is ready we head the column
in gallant style and secure a seat. It is about all we do secure for a while,
for the waiters are rather exhausted, but after a few nautical phrases from
my companions we are served with the whole bill of fare. As a cup of
coffee was all I required, I was soon satisfied, and in fact I shall remain
satisfied all my life that a meaner resemblance to a genuine cup of coffee
never was invented in any land. I believe the remainder of the breakfast
was better. I certainly hope so for the benefit of those who partook of it.

After breakfast, one of the state-rooms becoming vacant, the Captain
and myself took possession, and were soon trying to catch up with our lost
sleep of the night before. The balmy breezes which fanned the cheek of the
Northern tourist upon the promenade deck of the steamer, the beautiful,
grand and magnificent scenery of the St. John, through which we passed while
in our unconscious state, we take for granted, and are willing to believe what
we heard concerning it when we arose at 3 o'clock that evening, but of our
own knowledge we were unable to say a word, but that the sleeping accom-
modations were good, the berths being clean and airy, we do say, and cer-
tify to it. When we arrived on deck we found that we were in sight of San-
ford, where we intended disembarking and taking rail to Kissimmee City,
where the expedition will start. We arrived about 4 o'clock, and at 5 o'clock
took the South Florida road, and in a short time were in the heart of Orange
county, a county on which more printer's ink has been used in advertising
its beauty and attractions as an orange-growing section of the State than
any other portion of Florida. It has certainly succeeded in settling almost
every acre of the soil, the land being sold at almost fabulous prices. It is
settled with many Northerners who do not hesitate to spend any amount of
money in improving and fertilizing their groves. Consequently the county,
which is nothing more or less than poor pine woods, sandy soil in the ma-
jority of cases, teems with fine residences, groves in the highest state of cul-
tivation, brought to their present perfection by the profuse use of fertilizers,








TEQUESTA


which have cost perhaps double the original price of the whole place. Money
has been spent with a lavish hand, but whether in the far future the money
so spent will ever be returned to the pockets of the owner we are unable to
prognosticate. The citizens claim to be beyond the frost line (every county
in Florida claims the same thing with but few exceptions); but alas! ere I
got beyond the borders old Jack Frost made his appearance, and waked them
up from their fancied security in rather rough style. Not only once did he
make his appearance, but he continued to come for several days. I think
that the subject of "frost line" is a sore subject today, and the stranger seek-
ing an investment will not be regaled with the tale of "no frost", "only
place in Florida for raising tropical fruits," etc. We must give Orange county
its due, and when we say that her citizens have shown more pluck and perse-
verance, expended more money, and are today enjoying more of the comforts
of home-life than any other county in the State, we speak the truth. We pass
on our journey a starch manufactory, and see acres of the cassana growing
from which they manufacture the starch, which is of a very superior quality.
At 7 o'clock we had reached Kissimmee City, situated on Lake Tohopoka-
ligo. I was met at the cars by Col. C. F. Hopkins of Jacksonville, and Capt.
R. E. Rose, of New Orleans, now in command of the dredge on the canal be-
tween Lakes Tohopokaligo and Cypress. Col. Hopkins is one of the most
prominent civil engineers in this State, who, being well acquainted with the
topography of the country through which we intend traveling, has kindly con-
sented to direct everything. The Colonel served for several years before the
war, with distinction, in the U. S. Navy, and is a graduate of the Naval
Academy at Annapolis, Md. He is a thorough gentleman, full of humor, and
looked forward to our coming expedition with the eagerness of a school boy.
We wended our way from the cars to the Kissimmee Hotel, an unfinished
building, and being still with fever on me, I retired to a very airy chamber,
which I do not leave for three days. Every kindness and attention were
shown to me by my future companions, and to their efforts and the skillful
treatment of Col. Hopkins, who acted in the capacity of physician, there be-
ing none within twenty miles, I owe my speedy recovery. Feeling that life in
a comfortable tent was far preferable to lying in bed with the wind whistling
through the unfinished walls of my abode, I announced myself ready to start.
Our party received an addition in the person of Prof. W. W. Harney, a resi-
dent of Orange county, who accompanies the expedition as an invited guest,
acting in the capacity as artist and correspondent of Harper's Magazine, and
on the trip sketched all the most important points. Mr. Cowden, son of Capt.
Cowden, of Mississippi river fame, also joined us, acting as correspondent








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


of the Jacksonville Union. He accompanied us a portion of the way and then
returned.
Everything being ready for the start on the morning of November 28, our
little party, with bag and baggage, fire arms, and fishing tackle, wended our
way toward the wharf, where our two sail boats, the Daisie and Crescent,
were riding at anchor in the lake. The Daisic is a whitehall boat 22 feet
long, 51/4 feet beam, carrying single sail, and fitted for two sets of oars, well
provided with comfortable seats and good "lockers" fore and aft. Her crew
consisted of Sam Maxwell and Caesar Weeks (cook) in command of your
correspondent. The Crescent is a smaller boat, fitted with mainsail and jib,
her crew consisting of Fred Humphreys, the professor acting as volunteer, in
command of Capt. Andrews. The Daisie is loaded with the tents, baggage,
ammunition and medicine chest; the Crescent with cooking utensils, provi-
sions, axes, etc. Col. Hopkins accompanied your correspondent in the Daisie,
both boats being under his supervision, as well as every member in the party.
When we arrived at the wharf we were met by Capt. Rose who tendered us
the use of his steamboat, the Okeechobee, to go as far as the dredge now
working in the canal, a distance of about twenty miles from Kissimmee. We
accepted the invitation, and followed in the rear by our boats, everybody in
good spirits, provisions in abundance, a few gallons of newly invented anti-
dote for snake bites, and last but not least, a first class cook in attendance, we
bid adieu to Kissimmee City, and steamed across the lake, followed closely
by our two little sail boats, the Daisie in the lead with all her canvas set,
flying at her peak the flag of the TIMES-DEMOCRAT, and followed closely
by the Crescent. An invitation from Capt. Rose brought us all together in
his private room, and we there found a delicious cold lunch set forth, and
were soon busily engaged in tasting the delicacies set before us and listening
to the very musical sound of popping corks. Capt. Rose rose and proposed
the health of the TIMES-DEMOCRAT, and predicted success to the enterprise.
At his close every man in the party, considering himself interested in THE
TIMES-DEMOCRAT, rose from his seat to respond. Who made the most
eloquent response, future posterity will never know, for all spoke at once.
Suffice to say, our first day's journey toward that almost unknown region of
a thickly populated Southern State, the Everglades, had begun, and as we
were leaving behind us the last postoffice we should see until we reached the
shores of the Gulf of Mexico, no more would be heard of or from us until
our journey of 500 miles had been completed.
[JANUARY 21, 1883] The whistle of the steamer warns our party that we
have finished our journey across Lake Tohopotaliga, and are nearing the en-








TEQUESTA


trance to the canal of the Florida Land and Improvement Company, which is
under the process of construction by our genial host and fellow-Louisianian,
Capt. Rose. All of us soon find ourselves on the hurricane roof listening to
Capt. R., who explains to us the work already done and to still be accomplish-
ed by the company. Several beautiful islands on the lake are in sight, which we
are told but a short time before, were subject to inundation at a high stage
of water, but that now, owing to the level of the water having been lowered
about three feet by the canal not yet finished, and to be still lowered about
two feet more when finished, were now being planted in orange groves, and
although originally bought for a trifle could not now be purchased for $100
an acre. The islands are owned by private parties, and the great work now
going on in the interest of the company and State in this instance, as in many
more, are of incalculable benefit to those who own lands in the neighborhood
of the State lands being drained. There is not one of our little party that does
not envy the possessors of the beautiful islands, and especially as we are
aware that there is not a pocket-book in the crowd that does not contain cash
enough to have paid the original purchase price of that, which, if we owned
now, would be a competence for the remainder of our days, the magical work
of turning cents into dollars having been but the labor of months.
We are now within a few hundred yards of the entrance of the canal which
is plainly marked by the jetties which Capt. Rose has caused to be constructed
for several hundred feet into the lake, to prevent a bar from forming while
the canal is being dug, and to wash and deepen the channel, as the lake is
lowered, a wise piece of engineering, as his experience has proved, for, with-
out it, the dredge would, ere this, have had to return and recut and deepen
the channel, as the work of lowering the water went on. The steamer, as she
reaches the entrance, turns and backs down between the lines of jetties into
the canal. This is done, we are informed by Capt. Rose, on account of the
swiftness of the current in the canal, it being almost impossible to stem the
same on his return by backing his boat, as it runs at the rate of about four
miles an hour, and the boat being almost as wide as the canal, a mile or two
after leaving the entrance, makes it a difficult feat. The canal is dug directly
across the mouth of the Kissimmee River, leaving the river, and running due
south across the marsh to Lake Cypress, a distance of three and one-half
miles. After getting into the canal, the boat is landed, and we all go on shore
to examine the work accomplished. Eight months ago, the ground upon
which we stand was covered by surface water to a depth of from one to two
feet; today it stands, high and dry, two feet above the level of the lake and
the canal, the great instrument of the reclamation not yet cut through. As








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


we walk across the land, we crush beneath our feet the dried and dead water
lilies, cresses and lettuce, which a few months ago grew, bloomed and flour-
ished in their natural element (the water), and in their place the familiar
switch cane of Louisiana, the sure indication of rich alluvial land, is fast
taking possession of the soil. It, too, may grow and flourish for a few
months longer, but as Louisianian's hand directed the great work which
wrested and reclaimed this, the richest land in the South, from the water,
so will a Louisianian's hand perfect what has already been done, by show-
ing how sugar cane can be made to grow and yield by Louisiana cultivation
upon Florida soil. The land for about one-half mile from the lake, has
more sand intermixed with the soil than the remainder of land in the direc-
tion of Lake Cypress. The whole body of land lying between the two above
named lakes, containing five or six thousand acres is nothing more or less
than decayed vegetable matter, to a depth of from six to eight feet, resting
on a subsoil or pan of hard clay, except about two hundred yards border-
ing on or near Lake Cypress, and in that case, the clay comes to within two
feet of the surface. We have no difficulty in determining the depth of the
soil, for the dirt thrown up in digging the canal to a depth of eight feet,
shows for itself. How much greater the depth of soil such as I have men-
tioned is than eight feet, as regards about two miles of the land through
which the canal has been dug, I do not know, the dredge not having reached
the hard clay on that portion in dredging. Although for several months the
land has been exposed to the hot sun, it has neither baked nor become hard.
The soil which I see before me is that which, in my journeying through
Florida I have seen hauled for miles in carts, after having been dug from
the bottom of ponds, and used as a fertilizer for orange groves. Its rich-
ness is unsurpassed in Florida, and I doubt if its equal can be found in
any State. Having secured a specimen of the soil for future analyzation,
we wend our way back to the steamer, and are soon backing down the canal
in the direction of the dredge, whose bulky proportions and black smoke-
stacks, is seen at a distance of about three miles.
"You'll soon see plenty of alligators," remarked Capt. Rose, as he glanced
at the array of shotguns, rifles and ammunition we had brought on board.
We look around the cabin for the familiar notice which has always here-
tofore greeted our eyes upon every steamer we have traveled on in Florida,
to wit: "No one allowed to discharge fire-arms on this boat," and not seeing
it, we ask Capt. Rose if he has any objection to our indulging in the sport
of shooting at the reptiles. The captain says that it is not pleasant to have
dead alligators floating down the canal and lodging against the dredge; still,








TEQUESTA


as he knows Col. Hopkins could not hit an alligator if he tried to, and your
correspondent does not.look dangerous, he is perfectly willing we should
try our hand. At first we were inclined not to take advantage of the per-
mission, but when a reflection was thrown upon our proficiency in the use
of a rifle, our pride was roused, and the Colonel and myself after remarking
in our most sarcastic tones that "appearances were sometimes deceptive,"
picked up our rifles and took our seats on the hurricane deck, determined to
have no mercy on any alligator that might appear. We were hardly seated,
after the Colonel and myself had made an agreement to shoot together, he
selecting the head and I the tail, as our mark, when we saw, a few yards
ahead, a huge monster lying quietly sunning himself on the bank. Two shots
fired simultaneously bring the remainder of the crowd upon deck.
"Shot right through the head," yells the Colonel! "Through the tail,
too," I remarked as I slip another cartridge in the rifle, and prepare for the
next. "Shot no where," says Capt. Rose, as he throws a billet of wood over
the side of the boat at the alligator, which, quick as lightning, slips into
and under the water. I looked at the Colonel, the Colonel looked at me,
and we both looked at each other, and I am certain each look reflected a
doubt of each other's skill as a marksman. It was rather hard on us, and
we felt considerably mortified, as at a meeting held the night previous, we
had elected ourselves the huntsmen, and Capt. Andrews and Prof. Harney
the fishermen of the party. Capt. Rose tried to console us by promising as
soon as we arrived at the dredge, to make one of his men rope an alligator
and tie him up for us to shoot at the balance of the evening, as he says, he
knows from experience that the motion of the boat, and Capt. Andrews bel-
lowing in such a loud voice to the steward "to put plenty of sugar in his,
with a squeeze of lemon", is enough to destroy the aim of the best marks-
man alive. He even indulged in a little flattery by remarking upon the
beautiful style in which I closed my left eye when I took aim, and how
gracefully the Colonel bent his right knee as he pulled the trigger, all of
which had the desired effect, and being once more happy and contented that
it was not our fault that we missed our alligator, we went below, determined
to do no more shooting before company, for the present at least. By the
time we had interviewed the steward upon what he had learned in his long
experience of the best and most profitable means of utilizing corn, and what
his opinion was as to the size of the lemon drop, we were landed at the dredge.
As we step from our boat to the deck of the dredge, we notice how
swiftly the waters are rushing by the sides, with seemingly enough force to
prevent the workings of the huge machine, but the steady thud of the engine








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


tells us the work is going on. Moving to the front of the boat, we watch with
interest the perfect work being done by this machine, which is an improve-
ment on the Menge dredge in several respects. The improvements were
thoroughly explained to your correspondent in plain words and good Eng-
lish, and I felt that, if necessary, I could construct one myself; but alas,
when I pulled out my notebook that night to put down the little occurrences
of the day, and got to that portion relating to the new mechanical devices,
which had been added to the original machine, I felt that my education had
been sadly neglected in that respect, and was as much bothered as I was
years ago as a school boy, when I wrote my first composition on "the dog";
so all I can say is that everything seemed to work like clockwork. The
dredge was within a quarter of a mile of Lake Cypress, and had struck the
clay subsoil, which at this point comes to within two feet of the surface, and
consequently was experiencing great difficulty in cutting through. Capt Rose
informed us that in ten days they would be into Lake Cypress, at which point
they turn back and recut the canal, widening it 20 feet, and at the same time
deepening the channel. There about 15 men regularly engaged and at work
in and around the dredge. Noticing how healthy and well looking they all
appeared, we asked Capt. Rose how often he had been compelled to change
his crew, how many had died, the number of cases of malarial fever, etc.,
for of course I felt certain that, working as they did, from sunrise until dark
in rain and the sun, water and mud, drinking the water, and sleeping every
night beside a bank of freshly turned up earth, that necessarily there must
be a large amount of sickness. Capt. Rose kindly allowed me to look over
the books of the boat for the information I wanted, and strange to say, but
one single case of sickness was reported in eight months. In conversation
with the men, who represented both Northern and Southern States, they con-
firmed what I had already learned.
We took supper that night on the dredge and cannot compliment too
highly the "cuisine" of Pat, the chief cook, who spread himself for the oc-
casion. Capt. R., in the kindness of his heart, tells Pat, who acts as waiter
as well as cook to "see that the Major is well helped as he has been under
the weather", etc., and so I am brought prominently under his notice. There
is nothing mean about Pat, and he certainly had most winning ways about
him, perhaps too winning for what with his good cooking and careful at-
tention to every man at the table we feel as we rise that we can with little
difficulty get along comfortably for the next week without much trouble as
regards eating.








TEQUESTA


Returning to the steamer, every man pulls out his pipe, gets a chair,
fixes himself comfortably, and prepares for a pleasant evening. The Pro-
fessor busies himself arranging his sketching materials for our journey next
day. Capt. Andrews goes to work on his fishing lines, hooks, etc. Col.
Hopkins files and remodels the sights of his rifle, and your correspondent
and Capt. Rose hold a conversation on the subject of draining. By 10
o'clock everybody is sleepy, and we retire to our different berths. In 10
minutes thereafter, every man is snoring to suit himself, and with as much
independence as if the boat belonged to him alone.
At daylight the next morning everybody is awake and listening to the
pattering of rain upon the roof. In looking out we are greeted by a gloomy
prospect. The sky is black and lowering, and the rain comes down as it
only can in Florida. As we all meet together in the saloon of the boat there
is nothing but disappointed and gloomy faces. We all agree that it would be
madness to attempt to start on our journey on such a day, so determine to
remain where we are until the weather clears off. We feel better after the
determination, still better after a cup of coffee, considerably better after
taking a dose of malarial medicine, and by the time Pat has informed us
that breakfast is ready we feel as if a week spent with such genial host as
Capt. Rose would certainly be to our advantage. After breakfast some of
the party watch the working of the dredge, the Professor makes a sketch,
the Colonel and myself amuse ourselves shooting at a mark to get accus-
tomed to our rifles, and in fact everybody does as he pleases, even to our
cook Caesar, who gets royally drunk. By 12 o'clock the weather begins
clearing, and procuring a pair of field glasses, I mount to the top of the
dredge, to view the surrounding country. On both the east and west side
of the land now in process of being drained, is a thick and heavily timbered
pine woods, a prairie of about one-half mile intervening between the woods
and this land. In the distance in the woods, I see a field planted in cane.
Without glasses I should say it was corn, for the cane, which is in full
bloom, and tasselling, certainly to one like myself, unaccustomed to seeing
cane in bloom, resembles at a distance a field of corn. This is the only
cane field in sight, although I am told that there are several small fields a
short distance in the interior. I obtain a stalk of the cane, which would cut
for the mill about eight feet.
This cane has been growing about 12 months, and the proprietor would
not begin grinding until the latter part of December when I see cane grow-
ing upon pine woods land, of the size which obtain, and on soil, if fertilized
at all, is with the very soil on which I stand, I can hardly realize what the








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


difference will be when all the vast area of land I see before me, under
proper hands, is put in the same product. I have neglected to say, in speak-
ing of the lands just drained and being drained, that the future settler will
have no difficulty in clearing, as there is not a tree to remove, and only such
brush as may spring up in the next few months. From $25 to $50 per acre
will be saved in that respect.
Suddenly the sun bursts from the clouds and the whole scene is trans-
formed. All is soon hurry and bustle. Capt. Rose orders steam raised on
the steamer as he intends taking us back to the mouth of the Kissimmee
river, from which point we leave in our boats tomorrow morning. Capt.
Andrews goes below to superintend the ducking of our cook, Caesar, who is
still drunk, and the remainder of the crowd begin putting our traps in order.
On arriving at the mouth of the river a camp ground is selected, tents are
pitched, fires lighted, and Caesar, looking piously inclined and very damp,
goes to work to give us our first taste of his skill as a cook. Capt. Andrews,
wishing to try the excellence of a new "spinner", among the fish, we get in
one of the boats and row down the river, with the "spinner" glistening in
the water, which is as clear as crystal, about 10 yards from the stern of our
boat. "Stand from under", yells Capt. Andrews, and looking behind, I wit-
ness for the first time in my life, the fight for his life, of the games fish
which swims to-wit: The black bass. Darting from side to side, the line
cutting through the water like a knife, never allowing it to slacken for a
second, he is hauled to the side of the boat, and the captain his face red
from the exertion, and his fingers tingling from the cutting of the line, lands
safely in the bottom of the boat our first fish of the expedition, which we
find, upon putting him in the scales, weighs just 101/4 pounds. Our oars-
men send the boat skimming through the water, and ere a quarter of a mile
has been passed over a dozen fine bass lay in the boat, and we begin our
return to camp. Another and another is hauled over our gunwale, until we
begin to feel the fish must be a foot thick at the bottom of the river. As I
step from the boat to the shore, I feel for the first time in my life, I have
have had half an hour of such fishing as I have often heard, and read of,
but never seen or experienced. In one short half hour, by actual weight,
with one single line, we had caught 108 pounds of fish. Caesar is an im-
portant personage tonight, to judge from the numerous private interviews
held with him by the members of the party, every one of whom thinks he
alone knows the most artistic and delicate mode of cooking bass. He cer-
tainly tries to please everybody, for when supper is announced the delicious
flavor of fried, broiled, baked and stewed fish brings a heavenly smile upon






TEQUESTA


the face of each and every one. Bottles of different sauces are opened,
every man receives his tin plate, cup, knife and fork, and beneath the spread-
ing branches of a large oak we sit down, a merry and happy party, to par-
take of our first supper in camp. Capt. Rose had insisted on our remaining
that night on the boat, which was moved to the bank in front of us, but we
had concluded to "break everything in" as soon as possible, and no better
opportunity could have been offered to find out what, if anything, had been
overlooked or forgotten for our voyage. Sam Maxwell, better known as
"Mac", our head man, an old campaigner, has everything in charge, and
knowing that on his devoted head will fall most of the blame if anything is
missing or wanting, he stirs things around lively looking for the different
articles required. By 10 o'clock Mac reports everything is all right, and if
Capt. R. in the future, when taking an inventory of the furniture, etc., of his
steamer should find it minus a few articles, I hope he won't lay it on Mac.
Caesar also reports his department correct, with nothing lacking. Pipes are
filled for the last time, and ere another hour is passed all are sleeping
soundly upon our beds of green moss, dreaming of tomorrow's journey.
Everybody is awake at 4 O'clock, and, after getting our morning coffee,
the men begin packing the boats; Capt. Andrews arranges fishing tackle, the
Professor sharpens his pencils and prepares his paper for sketching, while
the Colonel and myself clean our guns and load cartridges for a day's shoot-
ing. Capt. Rose, accompanied by Mr. Cowden, reporter for the Jacksonville
Union, will sail with us for a day or two, so his men, too, are busy packing
his little yacht, the "Cary", with a week's provisions. At daylight Caesar
announces breakfast, and, with appetites sharpened by our early rising, we
soon demolish what is set before us. As the last blanket is rolled up and
strapped, and the last box stowed away in the boats, the two oarsmen in
each boat take their places and announce all ready. We take a last fare-
well of the steward of the steamer Okeechobee, and we somehow feel as if
it was bidding farewell to civilization, step on board of our different boats,
and as the captain cries in stentorian tones, "All aboard for the Gulf of
Mexico", our boats are shoved off, the oarsmen bend to their work, and we
go whirling down the swift-running Kissimmee, and with as much excite-
ment and pleasure depicted in our faces as if we were a parcel of school-
boys turned loose, instead of four men with faces upon which old Father
Time has already begun to put his mark, and whose heads are fast becoming
like old Uncle Ned's--barefooted on top.
The Kissimmee, from where it leaves Lake Tohopotaliga until it enters
at the same point as the canal and comes into Lake Cypress within a few








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


hundred yards of where the canal comes into said lake. The canal will be
31/2 miles, and the river is 15, so one may judge of the crookedness of the
stream. The river, previous to the dredging of the canal, was navigable,
so far as depth of water was concerned, for small steamers about 4 feet,
but since the canal has lowered the waters of the lake the river is hardly
navigable for small boats, and ere many months go by, the Kissimmee river,
between Lakes Cypress and Tohopotaliga, will be a thing of the past, leav-
ing naught behind to remind one of the past existence except the line of
willows and oaks, which fringe its banks, and a dry bed of white sand which
once was its bottom.
The Kissimmee river at this point is hardly thirty feet wide, but crooked
and narrow as it is, still it is a beautiful little stream, with its clear and
sparkling water, soft and sweet to the taste--so different from some of the
other rivers of this State, whose waters are so impregnated with lime that
it reminds one more of some nauseaous dose of medicine than anything else.
The trees upon the banks are small and stunted, but if any deformity or
ugliness exists in their construction it is hid by the mass of flowering vines
which have twined themselves around their trunks, crept from branch to
branch, until from top to bottom it is clothed in a lining green, with here
and there a white, purple or crimson flower, peeping forth between the
leaves, which add an additional beauty to the scene. Large white water
lilies upon their slender green stems line the shores, and it seems almost a
sacrilege as the oars of the boatmen in their swift strokes crush and bury
them beneath the water, and we see them rise to the surface in our wake,
crushed and disfigured beyond recognition.
"Here comes a flock of ducks", says the Colonel, in an excited tone, and
in a second both he and myself, with guns in hand, the men resting on their
oars, are gazing at a large flock of mallards coming right toward us. Nearer
and nearer they come, and when within 20 yards we fire together, both of
us emptying both barrels of our guns ere we cease. The splashing in the
water of the wounded ducks in the marsh tell us we have bagged some. The
Colonel says he is certain we have killed at least 20, and I am more certain
we have killed 30. The high marsh grass covered with water "hide our
game" from view. We have no water dog to bring it to us, so we give
Caesar, our cook a dose of "antidote for snake bite", and tumble him over-
board. We hear him splashing around in the marsh and in about 10 min-
utes he reappears with one duck. He says it is all he can find, and we begin
using some very polite language to him. In fact, we insinuated that he never
descended from any of George Washington's old family servants, etc. We








TEQUESTA


give him another drink, as his teeth are chattering like castanets, and send
him back. Another 10 minutes pass, and back he comes with two more,
which he swears are all. We don't believe him, haul out the bottle, and send
him back grinning again. Five minutes more, and two more ducks are added
to the pile. Caesar looks serious, as we again haul out the bottle and insist
on one more search. Once more he primes himself against snake bites, and
is rewarded by a single duck. Either Caesar has had enough to drink, there
are no more ducks, or he don't want the bother of cooking and cleaning any
more, for no persuasion can induce him to try it again, so we haul him
aboard and continue our course.
By 10 o'clock we find ourselves on the border of Lake Cypress, quite a
pretty sheet of water, about seven or eight miles long, and five or six miles
in breadth. Here we join the other boats which are waiting for us, and as
there is a stiff breeze blowing across the lake, we lay aside our oars and at
once begin getting ready sails for a small size regatta of our own. At the
word, all the sails are hoisted, and off we go together. Before a mile is
passed, Capt. Rose in his yacht draws ahead, and we are compelled to ac-
knowledge defeat in that quarter, but there is one consolation-we forge
ahead of the Crescent and dance merrily over the waves in the direction of
the Kissimmee river, which resumes its course on the South shore of Cypress
Lake. A cool north wind is blowing, the sun shining brightly, the atmo-
sphere clear, cool and exhilirating, and with the incitement of our impromptu
boat race, there is not a man in the party that does not feel the pleasurable
excitement, caused by his surroundings. After a delightful sail of three-
quarters of an hour we find ourselves once more in the Kissimmee river.
Lowering sails, for it is impossible to sail in this crooked river, oars are
resumed, and, with a swift current to aid us, we are soon floating ddwn
stream at the rate of about seven miles an hour. The river is somewhat
similar in appearance to that portion we have just left, except that no trees
are growing upon the borders, and all the land is covered with water to a
depth of from one to two feet, with marsh weeds growing to a height of six
or eight feet. Capt. Andrews once more unwinds his "spinner" and gets
ready for slaughter among the finny tribe. The fish are so plentiful we
do not begin fishing until evening, as we wish them to be alive and fresh
when we arrive in camp.
Before the fishing commences we anchor one boat and wait for the others
to come alongside that we may eat our noonday lunch. The others fall into
line with alacrity, and after passing around the tin cups together with "a








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


five-gallon keg of nails", we soon discuss the merits of canned corn beef,
boiled ham and crackers. We miss our coffee, but there is no dry land to
build a fire on, so we do without. Lunch finished, we are once more off,
with the captain watching his spinner, which is trolling behind the boat.
He does not watch long ere his labors are rewarded by a fine bass. He con-
tinues to pull them out until we arrive on the borders of Lake Hachinaha,
when finding that there are enough fish for a regiment we throw about half
of them back into the water, hoist our sails, and are once more enjoying a
sail over the waters of Lake Hachinaha, about the size and similar in ap-
pearance to Lake Cypress. The marsh extends to the waters of the lake as
far as the eye can reach, with a few trees to mark the borders. Both Lakes
Cypress and Hachinaha are quite shallow, and it is the intention of the
Drainage Company to drain the first-named lake perfectly dry, and to do the
same to the second named lake as far as practicable. The lands between
and around these lakes are identical with those of Lake Tohopotaliga.
We once more enter the Kissimmee river on the southern shore of Lake
Hachinaha, about 2 o'clock p.m., and after a pull of a few miles we reach
our camp ground for the night, which is a high hummock, situated upon
the banks of the river, owned by a Mr. McQuade. On landing we walk up
the banks, and find ourselves in a thick woods of oak, ash, gum, interspersed
with cabbage palm. This piece of land is considered one of the most valu-
able tracts within many miles. No one is living here, but I understand that
the owner, who is a western man, is soon to begin clearing, and planting an
orange grove. While Caesar is building his fire, and the men cleaning fish
and picking the ducks, rifles and guns are taken from the boats, and we will
start off into the woods to try and kill a turkey or deer. Capt. Andrews ac-
companies your correspondent to assist in bring home his game. After
walking about one-quarter of a mile in the woods, we come upon an old
Indian camp, consisting of seven or eight palmetto shanties. This is one
of their summer camps. During the winter they go further South, in and
around the Everglades, for the purpose of hunting. The bones and antlers
of deer which lay scattered around attest the excellence of the surrounding
country as a hunting ground. The captain and myself feeling very tired
from our great exertion of walking a quarter of a mile, conclude it is a
bad day for hunting and return to camp to see how supper is coming on.
The first to come in from the hunt, as night approaches, is the reporter of
the Jacksonville Union, who has killed nothing, but has found a large high-
land terrapin, which is turned over to Caesar to be transformed into a turtle








TEQUESTA


stew. A little later Col. Hopkins returns with a fine gobbler, and congratu-
lations have hardly ceased, when Capt. Rose appears, and suspended be-
tween him and one of his men, on a pole, is as fine a buck as we ever saw.
Words are inadequate to express our feelings of satisfaction, so we haul out
the tin cup, and the keg of nails, and all smile sweetly. The turkey is picked,
the deer skinned and cut up, fresh logs thrown on the fire, and we prepare to
watch the busy fingers of Caesar prepare our supper. The ducks are already
roasted, the fish cooking and soon Mac has rigged a spit and before a hot
wood-fire is turning a haunch of venison, while on the other side is the
turkey keeping it company. We are all hungry, but such a supper is worth
waiting for, andT so to pass off the time pipes are lighted and I wager that
a happier or merrier party the Florida oaks beneath which we sit never saw
before.
At 10 o'clock Caesar announces the first course on the table, and twelve
hungry men set to work in earnest. We drop the curtain, and when we
raise it again two hours later all is quiet in camp except Caesar, who is
washing dishes, and an occasional snore from the Professor's side of the
tent. Twelve pairs of eyes are closed in sleep, and so they will remain until
daylight, unless the Captain wakes up and catches the Professor snoring,
and then we are certain to have our usual row, and the whole camp waked
in consequence.
[FEBRUARY 5, 1883] We are a lazy crowd on the morning of 30th No-
vember, and the sun is shining brightly as we open our eyes, and meet the
smiling face of Caesar with the coffee pot in one hand, and a tin cup in the
other, and I admonish it is time to get up. We take our coffee, make our
toilet (which means putting on our hats, and sauntering toward the river
tin basin in hand, and towell and soap in the other), and join the group
who are waiting around the campfire for Caesar to dish up the breakfast.
The remains of our sumptuous repast of the night before await us, and when
we finish that morning meal, I guarantee to say Caesar will have but few
remnants to gather up to add to our lunch basket for that day.
When we start from Lake Tohopotiliga, it was understood we are to
branch off from Lake Kissimmee and visit Lake Rosalie and Walking Water,
which are connected with Lake Kissimmnee or a small river or creek, but
finding it would cause a delay of at least six days, we determined to keep on
our course; so, with a great deal of reluctance, we informed Capt. Rose of
our determination. In so doing, we will be compelled to part company with
him and Mr. Cowden, reporter for the Jacksonville Union, the Captain being








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


compelled to visit those two lakes on business connected with the Drainage
Company.
By 9 o'clock tents are struck, blankets packed up, and everybody is stir-
ring around to assist in getting the boats loaded. We are not exactly "in
harness" yet, for things do not work smoothly, the men do not yet under-
stand their different duties, etc., but when Capt. Andrews has finished his
fatherly talk to Caesar, turned the white of his eyes in the direction of Mac.,
picked up the "keg of nails" and stepped on board the Crescent, we feel that
all is serene, and that little trouble will be experienced in the future. As each
boat is loaded the oarsmen push off from shore, and the voyage is resumed.
From the time we leave McQuiag's hummock until we reach Lake Kis-
simmee, we find no difficulty of navigation, the river being over 100 feet
wide, deep and not quite so crooked as yesterday. Still we are unable to
sail and depend upon our oars. The morning is quite cool and overcoats
are brought into requisition for the first two hours of our journey, but be-
fore eleven o'clock the sun is pouring down upon us, coats and overcoats are
thrown aside and the boat's awning stretched to shield us from its rays. By
12 o'clock we reach the border of Lake Kissimmee, one of the largest lakes
in Florida. The banks of this lake on the northern shore were low and
marshy, with some little high land above the water. On the west and east
shores there are a number of valuable tracts of land high above overflow.
Of the east shore I speak from information received, as I did not visit it.
As far as the eye can reach in a southerly direction, even with glasses, we
are unable to discern any land, nothing meeting the view but a wide expanse
of water. A stiff norther is blowing, and the whitecaps of the waves remind
us more of salt water than that of an inland lake.
As we leave the river Capt. Rose lowers the sails of his yacht, casts anchor,
and we come along side for the purpose of two things-taking our last lunch
together and bidding farewell to pleasant and genial companions, who have
been a great addition to our party, and with whom we loath to part. The
best of friends must part, for after we have broken bread together, passed
around the "keg of nails" and received the wishes of our friends for our
success on our present undertaking, the sails of our little boats are hoisted,
headed to the south, and ere an hour passed the little yacht, sailing in a
westerly direction, is but a speck upon the water.
We have no pilot to guide us, and are dependent entirely upon maps
drawn, (as we find out by experience) more from imagination than from any
real knowledge of actual surveys, and are therefore compelled to head closely








TEQUESTA


to the shore, for fear of passing the point at which the Kissimmee river re-
sumes its course. At 3 o'clock, finding ourselves opposite a point of land
which is covered with cabbage-palm trees, we land our boats for the purpose
of having a cup of coffee made. We find ourselves on a narrow strip of land
running right through the marsh to the pine-woods in the distance. After
the fire is extinguished, Capt. Andrews brings from his boat a half dozen
fine bass, which he suggests should be cooked. A haunch of venison from
the buck killed the night before is exposed to our view by Mac and visions
of broiled bass and juicy steaks compel us to give additional orders to
Caesar, and, instead of the hot cup of coffee, bread and butter, which we
intended to take and then resume our journey, we sit down to a dinner fit
for the gods. The 15 minutes that we had allotted to the making of our
coffee have been extended to two hours, as we once more hoist sail and con-
tinue our search for the river. As the sun is sinking, we find ourselves once
more floating down the Kissimmee, peering anxiously across the marsh, which,
covered by water from a depth from two to three feet, is the only marsh to
show us the channel of the river. We look in vain for some friendly clump
of trees in the distance, under which we may pitch our tents for the night.
Nothing meets the eye but sky, marsh and water, without a foot of dry land
in sight. Night comes upon us, and we feel that our chances are slim of
discovering the few feet of dry land that we require, in the almost Egyptian
darkness which surrounds us, even though it might be near. We cannot
sleep in our boats, and the oarsmen prefer pulling to sitting up all night in
the boat, so we row ahead, hoping each minute to discover dry land. Every
once in a while our boat crushes in among the tall cane, which, as far as we
can discern in the darkness, covers the shores and fills the marsh grass, and
we experience a great deal of difficulty in keeping the channel.
About 12 o'clock we are aroused from our sleepy state by a noise a few
yards ahead of us, which in our half unconscious condition we think is the
paddlewheels of some large steamer beating toward us and bearing swiftly
down upon us. We do not stop to argue the question with ourselves or any-
body else, but head our boat for the shore and are soon stuck fast in the
canes, and with a long breath of relief of having escaped impending danger
we wait for the supposed steamer to pass. The noise of churning and splash-
ing water continues, but we see no lights, and as we gathered together our
scattered senses, the absurdity of a steamer being on those waters strikes us,
and if a light could have been flashed upon the faces in our boat, I am afraid
a sheepish looking crowd would have appeared. In our rest on the shore,








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


we had not neglected to give the command to the Crescent which is in our
rear to pull for the shore also, and we soon hear above the terrific noise in
our front the voice of Capt. Andrews quoting scriptural phrases with vehem-
ence worthy of the call, as he calls for our boat and wants to know "What
in the thunder is the matter" with us. We explain the matter as well as we
are able, which is no sooner done than a lantern is lighted from atop the
Crescent and flashed across the water ahead, and we find out the cause of
our alarm. We have struck a rookery of water-fowl, and the water ahead is
a moving mass of the feathered tribe, flapping their wings and beating the
water, without giving forth a single sound from their throats. They do not
attempt to fly until our boats are among them, and then it seems as if pan-
demonium had broken loose. As they rise they strike against the boatsmen's
oars, and the mast of our boat, and we actually feel the touch of their wings
as they bring their upward flight toward the banks, and then light among the
reed and cane, to resume their perches in the water after we pass. By the
light which streams across the river from our bow we are able to discern a
dozen different varieties of the crane specie. The common white and blue
cranes, the eagrets with their long beautiful white plumes, flamingoes, cur-
lews, and the water turkey, are among the varieties we note in their hurried
flight. A few hundred are passed, and by the noise we hear in our rear we
know that they have once more settled down in security upon their watery
beds, and are making night hideous.

The little adventure has chased all inclination of sleep from our eyes,
and our oarsmen strike out with new vigor, hoping each moment to find dry
land. At 2 o'clock the moon rises, as it lights its shed over the surrounding
country we see, to our joy, three palm trees, a few hundred yards ahead,
which to us is a sure indication of dry land. Landing our boats is but the
work of a few seconds and we find ourselves on a high bluff bank, and our
feet once more touched terra firma. We are too wearied and tired to do
aught but lay ourselves on our blankets and go to sleep and when the sun
rose next morning it found a quiet camp. At eight o'clock everybody is
awake and hurrying up the cook for breakfast. After taking a survey of
our night's camp ground, we came to the conclusion that there is certainly
a better one somewhere ahead, and so conclude to take a hurried breakfast,
push on to some more desirable place and there camp until the following
morning, hoping by the worst to recover from our 75-mile journey of the
night and day just passed. So off we start, after a cup of coffee, and we are
once more floating down between marshy banks, the Captain amusing him-








TEQUESTA


self with pulling out black bass, while Col. Hopkins and myself are using
our guns to some effect on the ducks, which at almost every turn of the river
allow us to approach without fear until we get to within shooting distance.
Many are wounded, and once they get in among the tall marsh grass we give
them up, but many more we safely housed in the bottom of our boat. At 9
o'clock we land at the most beautiful high hummock we have yet seen on
our journey. Tying our boats to the trunk of a tree on the water's edge we
go to the bank, when to our amazement we find ourselves on the borders of
a most beautiful, highly cultivated and at the same time extensive orange and
lemon grove. A small house was in process of construction in the middle
of the grove, the carpenter's tools lying scattered about, and everything look-
ing as if the women must be somewhere near, but all our calling and noise
failed to unearth a living soul. Needing some lemons, to be used for Capt.
Andrews' sore throat, and the Professor, who will get dry in spite of the
soft, sweet and delightfully tasting water of the Kissimmee river, we gather
about a bushel of lemons having the card of "Prof. H., correspondent Har-
per's Magazine," stuck to a tree, take to our boats, and continue our voyage,
as the owner on his return might object to so large a party camping in his
orange grove. We learn afterward that the owner had gone out on a hunt-
ing expedition down the river, to kill pink curley, which sell to a taxidermist,
in Jacksonville, for $5 a piece.
A five-mile row brings us to another "hummock," high above the river,
heavily wooded, with the exception of a small clearing of a few acres, which
some enterprising settler has already cleared, and where, from the young
orange trees being set out, we will expect in a few years to see a flourishing
orange grove instead of the present wilderness. Determining to go no further
for that day, the tents are pitched under the trees, and our dinner, as well
as breakfast, is in process of preparation. While waiting, the Colonel, Pro-
fessor and myself take our guns and go on an exploring expedition through
the adjoining woods. The Professor may not be either a good fisherman
or a hunter after game, but there is one thing sure-when he puts his spec-
tacles high on his nose and takes a bee-line through the woods, he will be
certain to discover some Indian mound, unearth some relic of a past age, or
find some tree or flower of surprising beauty in his eyes. At first, in the be-
ginning of our journey, we referred to the Professor for information as to
the main species, etc., of the different beautiful flowers we saw on every side,
with Latin phrases and names which would have dislocated our jaws to pro-
nounce, the Colonel and myself decided to ask no more questions, for fear








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


of displaying our ignorance on such matters, and thereby gaining the pity,
if not the contempt of the Professor. We mutually agreed to swallow every-
thing the Professor says and never to ask questions. On this particular
day we do not go far, ere the Professor spies a slight elevation of the ground,
and with the explanation that he was sure it was an Indian mound, he rushes
in the direction of his beloved object while we continue our work. Coming
to the edge of the woods we see a short distance ahead of us quite a neat and
comfortable residence, situated on the edge of the prairie intervening between
the "hummock" and pine woods in the distance. On arriving at the house
we find not a living soul in sight, but the chickens and the ducks in the yard
tell us quite plainly that the absence of the owner is only temporary. We
return to our camp by a different route, and in passing through a small clear-
ing we see a man at work, and make towards him. Strangers must be an
unusual sight, for he continues to stare at us until we arrive in speaking dis-
tance. We are informed that the owner and family left for church that
morning, and will be back home some time during the following week. We
conclude that going to church in that country must mean something.
After making a few inquiries about the backcountry, which we are in-
formed is pine-woods for hundreds of miles, and "mighty pore lands for
craps," we continue our course toward the camp. We are hardly 20 yards
from the scene of our conversation, on our way across the open field, when
we notice a tremendous gobbler running in front of us. I pull my gun up
to shoot, but the Colonel interfered with my aim by yelling, "Don't shoot,
it is a tame turkey" and although I miss, that turkey rises in the air and flies
away, despite the fact that the Colonel takes a shot at him with his rifle and
I get another one in. We find utter relief by giving vent to our feelings in
language remarkably mild but very plain. It is my first chance for a wild
turkey since our journey began, and I feel very sore over my failure. The
Colonel consoles me by telling of the number we will see ere our journey
is completed. It is poor consolation, and although before we reached our
destination I see many a one fall before my gun, still, to this day I remember
with anything but pleasure the terrible failure of that day.
On returning to camp we find Caesar smiling and ready to dish up din-
ner. Our morning's row down the river has given us all an appetite, and we
sit down to our dinner of fish, dried venison and cold ham, and eat with a
relish only acquired after a few days' camping in the open air. After din-
ner the Professor exhibits his specimens, found in his search through the
woods, which consists of bones and various specimens of rocks, flowers, etc.








TEQUESTA


We leave him in his glory, and Col. H., Capt. A., and myself take refuge
from the hot sun under an adjacent tree, to discuss the programme for the
next day's journey. Unintentionally the Colonel, in his remarks, casts a
reflection upon the speed of the "Crescent," under the command of Capt.
Andrews. Immediately the Captain is up in arms, and the storm of words
which ensues bring all the men around us. The matter is compromised by
a race the following day, to last for twelve hours, a "go-as-you-please" af-
fair. The men seem to partake of the excitement, and the Captain, assisted
by his crew, has his boat pulled on shore, turned over, and all go to work to
soak her bottom, and in various other ways get her ready for the race. Our
boat is all right, so we amuse ourselves offering suggestions to the Captain
and the Professor in the arrangement of their boat, which the Professor treats
with contempt, and the Captain answers in language only seen occasionally
in scripture. Night soon comes upon us, and every man arranges his seat
around our brightly burning campfire, and prepares for the evening talk.
It was a pleasant camp, and the sharp contrast between the dark background
of the forest in our rear and the river at our feet, shining brightly in the
starlight as it glides swiftly on its course to the great Okeechobee, add an
additional charm to the scene. Pipes are lighted, anecdotes related and by
12 o'clock Caesar passes around the sugar dish and the tin cups; each man
selects a lemon and for a few minutes the clinking of the metal spoons
against the cups as the sugar and lemon are mixed, is all the sound heard.
One by one we all pay a visit to the roots of a large oak in our rear, where
the medicine chest is lying, and return with smiling faces to lie down upon
our mossy beds.
Before the sun rises upon the horizon next morning, we are moving swiftly
down the Kissimmee, the Captain who has got the start of us, is a short dis-
tance in front. The clear, cool, morning air is very refreshing, and we note
with interest the beauty of the scenery, changing at every turn of the river.
As we leave our camp of the night before, our course lies between high banks
covered with a thick forest of oak, which only lasts for a mile or two, when
we are again passing between marshy banks, which at first glance remind
us more of high green walls, with the different flowering vines having inter-
woven themselves so thickly among the reeds, and scrub trees that it is im-
possible for the eye to penetrate the thickness. The morning sun has not
yet withered or marred the freshness of the beautiful tropical flowers of
every imaginable hue and beauty of form, which peeked forth through this
living wall. Once in a while we see an opening about two feet high, look-








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


ing as if cut by the hand of man, and it takes but little imagination to fancy
it the entrance to the bower of some water sprite, but we on our journey have
learned a different lesson, and as we approach this sylvan bower our men
rest on their oars, and we glide silently down the river until opposite, when
the changes are 99 out of 100 that the two bullets from our rifles leaves one
less alligator to answer to his name at roll-call. On all sides of us at times
these huge monsters are to be seen floating on the water, or lying quietly on
the banks sunning themselves. During the early morning we leave them
unmolested, unless one is particularly bold, and use our shotguns among
the ducks and jacksnipe; at about 11 or 12 o'clock shotguns are laid aside
and with rifles we play havoc among the alligators. They are bold and fear-
less, and in several instances have been known to attack a single man. They
are so seldom molested and shot that the crack of our rifles do not disturb
them, unless a bullet takes effect, and then if not killed dead make things
lively around them for awhile.
At 10 o'clock we overhaul the Crescent, which is moored to the bank of
quite a pretty little island covered with a growth of palm and oak trees, the
Captain and crew lying exhausted from their morning's work under the
shade of a tree. We hear, as we land beside them, murmurs, both loud and
weak, about somebody having stolen the lunch they had prepared the night
before, and something about having a cup of coffee. Everyone in our boat
is quite willing to lose the time necessary to make a cup of coffee, so we also
land, and Caesar soon has spread before us the missing lunch belonging to
the Crescent, as well as our own. We smile as we notice the peculiar look
Captain Andrews gives Caesar as he recognizes his missing lunch. He asks
for no explanation from Caesar, but about 10 minutes afterwards, we heard
a splashing in the water, and upon looking in the direction of the river we
see the Captain standing on the bank, shaking his fist and quoting Scripture
to a black and befoggled object just emerging from the water, whom we rec-
ognize as Colonel Caesar Weeks (colored). A few minutes afterwards we
are once more pulling down the stream, the Crescent far in the rear, and
Caesar grinning as he remarked: "I made dat captain stop and wait fo us,
when he found dat somebody done stole his lunch." He also remarked that
"He was sorter careless in goin' so near de ribber dis morning specially as
de captain was so near behind him."
At 2 o'clock, after passing numerous small hummocks bordering on the
river, we come to one containing about fifty acres, with high bluff banks and
covered with large and majestic oaks. It is the highest point of ground we








TEQUESTA


have yet seen, and we have little difficulty in recognizing it, upon reference
to our maps, as one of the most celebrated spots of ground during the Indian
War of Florida.
Here it is that Micco, an Indian chief, celebrated in his tribe for his
great bravery and strategy in war, assembled his warriors, determined to
make his last stand against the soldiers before taking to the impenetrable
fastness of the Everglades. From this point we find, after climbing up the
banks, that a perfect view is attained of all the surrounding country. A huge
oak stands upon the bank, towering high above all the others. We can see
where, many years ago, the limbs were cut off to give an unimpeded view
of the surrounding country, and in the body of the tree are the remains of
steps cut in the wood to place the feet in when climbing. Taking a field-
glass, I climb to the top of the tree, and obtain a perfect view of the whole
country through which we have passed that day. The fire we lighted to cook
our breakfast was plainly seen in the distance about five or six miles, al-
though we have come at least twenty-five miles by the river. No wonder
Micco selected this spot for a lookout, for anyone approaching by water,
coming either from the north or south, could be seen plainly for 12 hours
before they arrive. Looking south we see the Kissimmee river, winding like
a snake between its marshy banks, until our view is obstructed by a hummock
through which it passes and is lost to sight. We select this distant hummock
as our camp ground for the night, get down with some difficulty from our
lofty perch, take a shotgun and wander into the woods in search of game.
We do not go far before we come upon an abandoned Indian camp, which
from evidence around it has been occupied in the last few days. We con-
tinue our walk until we come to the edge of the woods and find ourselves
gazing across an open prairie four or five miles wide on which numerous
herds of cattle are grazing. We also see a herd of deer about half a mile
from us, but we have not time to spend a couple of hours in an attempt to
call within a shooting distance. A shot from Col. Hopkin's gun in the woods
tells us that he has found some game, and when, a few moments afterward,
we find him, a couple of wild turkeys lying dead at his feet attest his skill
as a marksman.
We return to the camp fire where we find Caesar with dinner ready, and
the crew of the Crescent, which has just arrived, lying under the shade of a
tree, resting from their morning's work. The Captain gives up the wager,
and as there is nothing mean about the Col. and myself we call on Caesar
for the "keg of nails", wish the Captain better luck next time, and then hide








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


our blushing faces behind our shiny tin cups. The captain will always
imagine that he would have won the race if Caesar had not stolen his lunch,
for compelling him to wait for us or travel all day without anything to eat.
Caesar always smiles, and looks innocent when anything is said about the
race, but for several days thereafter, he keeps out of the way of the Captain.
Dinner is soon disposed of, and our journey resumed. Two hours row-
ing brings us to the mouth of Istoktoga creek, which is the only outlet to
Pokpoga lake, for a large sheet of water, lying twelve to fifteen miles west-
ward of us. We are very successful on this day in shooting ducks and snipe,
and when we go into camp, about an hour before dark, we are proud of the
array of game lying in front of our campfire. According to our own cal-
culation and the maps, we have traveled over 80 miles,. the greatest distance
traveled in one day since we began our journey.
As we land we are met by a man on horseback, who, having seen our
boats approaching, waits for us to come up. A house in the distance, he
tells us, belongs to a Mr. Daugherty, quite a large stock owner; in fact, all
the workmen in this country attempt to do nothing else except raise cattle
and hogs.
After supper we are visited by several of the residents. We received
pressing invitations to visit their houses, and remain several days, which we
are reluctantly compelled to decline, except as regards Mr. Daugherty, we
have an engagement to visit him next morning for the purpose of inspecting
one of the largest Indian mounds in south Florida. We gather from our
visitors a great deal of valuable information as to the surrounding country,
and the journey that lies before us.
A good supper, followed by a good nights rest, and we rise at daylight
feeling perfectly refreshed and ready for our day's journey. After break-
fast we visit Mr. Daugherty and are introduced to his family. Mr. D. is busy
killing hogs, and on inspecting the lot in the pen waiting their turn to be
transferred into bacon, I noticed they were all jet black in color. To my
surprise, Mr. Daugherty informed me that no other species could be raised
in that section on account of the paint root or warm pea, which is shaped
similar to a carrot, both ten times hotter than tap water, and any person
coming into contact with bare feet, is affected with a burning sensation,
worse than itch, for which there is no relief. White or spotted hogs lose
their hoofs, whether from eating or coming in contact with it I was unable
to learn. The black hogs keep fat upon it and are not affected at all by
contact.








TEQUESTA


The Indian mound that we have come to visit, we find about 200 yards
from the house. It is about 40 feet high and about 80 feet at its base, built
of white sand, and covered with a stunted growth of trees. Some gentlemen
from the Smithsonian Institute visited this mound last year, and dug into it
for about eight feet, their search being rewarded by quite a number of relics.
I obtained several relics myself, consisting of beads, three pieces of silver,
and a small ornament, round in shape, about the size of an acorn, and hol-
low, so coroded with rust and age that the species of metal it is made of I
have as yet been unable to determine. To tell the truth, not being much of
an antiquarian, I have taken very little interest in the relics, and they still
lie at the bottom of my trunk. Numbers of skulls and bones lie scattered
around in the sand. The remains of a canal, running in the direction of the
river, is plainly to be seen, and I suppose that the land of which this mound
is built is the same which was dug up in its construction. Whether in dig-
ging the canal they had any other object than to obtain the material for the
mound I know not, and leaving the problem to be solved by some more sci-
entific mortal than your correspondent.
Before leaving we are presented with a basket of fresh eggs and several
chickens, which we accept with many thanks. We return to our boats, find
tents struck and everything ready for departure; so bidding farewell to our
new friends, we pass around the tin cups, smile at Caesar as he solemnly
pauses before each individual with the "keg of nails" under his arm, his
polite invitation of "Drive a nail in yer coffin, sar," causing a look of sur-
prise to show itself upon the face of our new friends, step on board our
boats, push off from shore, and are soon rowing swiftly down the river, our
oarsmen keeping time with their oars to the singing of the Professor in our
rear, the only words of his song distinguishable being something about
"Johnny fill up the bowl."
We are now about 125 miles from Lake Okeechobee, and ere two more
suns shall set we hope to be sailing over its surface.
[FEBRUARY 10, 1883] A run of 10 miles on the morning of December
3 brings us to Fort Bassinger, so named from it having been used during the
Indian War as a depot of supplies for the army. For a long time after it
was abandoned by the government the surrounding country was without a
single inhabitant, but such a magnificent grazing country could not remain
forever without an occupant, and so one by one the stockmen were attracted,
and moved in the neighborhood, until the space of six or seven miles there
are at least a dozen families now residing. We were in hopes of finding a








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


postoffice here, or some means of communicating with family and friends,
but there was none and no chance of getting a letter to the nearest post-
office under two weeks, so half-dozen letters were torn up and thrown aside,
and we were all soon seated in the little country grocery which this place
boasts, listening to the proprietor, who gives us some valuable information
about our route. The proprietor is a gentleman by the name of Pierce about
59 or 60 years of age, who is an old settler, and has seen a great deal of
frontier life. Being a man of intelligence and education we listen to him
with interest and attention. We visit his garden, which is quite an expensive
one, and in it we find ripe tomatoes, beans, peas, watermelons, green
corn, Irish and sweet potatoes, and other varieties of vegetables, growing
luxuriantly and bearing in profusion. All this we see on the 3rd. day of
December, when in the northern portion of the State frost and ice are the
order of the day. We have not yet passed the frost line, for our entertainer
says he has seen vegetation killed many times since he came here to live.
We accept with thanks, a large basket of vegetables for the use of our party.
We see no fruit trees planted, but Mr. Pierce informed us that now that
there were in a short time being opened a communication from the Gulf to
Kissimmee City, that he intends planting quite a large grove of orange,
lemon and pineapple on his land, which is high hummock, the soil very rich.
Being anxious to push on, we are compelled to decline Mr. P.'s invitation to
spend the night with him, and wend our way to our boats. As we reach
them we find Caesar with true hospitality has forestalled us by making prep-
arations to offer Mr. P. hospitality by placing upon the bow of the boat that
delapidated "keg of nails," surrounded by his attendant tin cup. With
many kind wishes for a successful voyage, and admonition from Mr. P. to
beware of sleeping too near the waters edge when in the vicinity of alli-
gators, we push off from shore, and are once more riding down the river.
For the first five miles we note a great deal of high hummock land but
a short distance from the bank of the river on the west side. Pine woods
extend backward as far as the eye can reach. After traveling about 10 miles
we come to a beautiful camp ground, high hummock composed of large oaks
and tall palms, and a good landing for our boats, and as we have adopted
a rule never to pass a good camp ground after 1 o'clock in the evening, our
boats are headed for the shore and all the men are soon busy arranging camp
for the night.
An open field lies on our left of about 40 acres, and about a quarter of
a mile distance we see quite a neat house and outbuildings. Taking our








TEQUESTA


guns, we saunter across the field in the direction of the house. We have not
gone many yards before we come upon a flock of partridges feeding in front
of us, seemingly undisturbed by our approach. I take the first shot at the
birds on the ground, and the Colonel stands ready with cocked gun to shoot
them as they fly. Although I kill several at the first fire, the rest remain
huddled up together, and I take a second shot with the remaining charge in
my gun with some effect, they still remained huddled together attempting
neither to fly nor run. The Colonel steps in my place and opens fire on them
with both barrels of his guns, the few remaining birds, instead of flying,
begin running across the corn rows in the direction of the woods. We kill
several more as they run in front of us, we count our game and find that we
have killed twenty-three birds. I will state here, that after passing Fort
Bassinger, although we fired into numerous flocks of partridges, and killed
many before our journey ended yet in not one single instance would they
fly or attempt to move until after the third or fourth shot. We come across
one more flock before we reach the house, and fifteen more birds are added
to our bag. On arriving at the house we are received in a very hostile man-
ner by a big bobtailed crop-eared "yaller dog," who, after a few preliminary
barks, drops in our rear, and while we are opening conversation with a man
seated on the fence, he (the "yaller dorg") tests the thickness of the Colonel's
unmentionabless," and being a dog of noble birth, he bites high. We have
always heard that when a man receives a bullet through his heart, he leaps
in the air before he falls; but we saw a man on that occasion who wasn't
shot through the heart or anywhere else, and instead of falling to the ground,
he stayed on top of the fence. I am not fond of climbing fences myself, but
when I do climb, I always do it quickly. We are not afraid the dog will hurt
us, but we are very much afraid we will hurt the dog, as he is made to retire
before we come down.

In our conversation with the man, we learn that the owner is absent. He
also informs us that there are fifteen of twenty flocks of partridges that stay
in the field through which we have come; that they never before bad been
shot at until that evening, and were so tame that they frequently fed in the
yard with the chickens."
Seeing twenty or thirty milch cows around the pen, waiting to be milked,
we engage some sweet milk for supper, and start on our return to camp. On
our way we came across one or two more flocks of partridges, and as a result
of an hours shooting we count forty-three birds. Perhaps, as Colonel H.
said, "It was unsportsmanlike to shoot birds on the ground," but as far as








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


I myself are concerned, I much prefer picturing myself seated before our
campfire, watching Caesar broiling the same upon the coals, than banging
away at a lot of flying birds, killing none, and coming to camp demoralized
with an empty game bag. In fact, I, as a boy took my first lessons in shoot-
ing from an "old darkey" whose whole and only advice was to "shoot 'em
in de head, shoot 'em in de tail, shoot 'em in de wing, shoot 'em anywhar, so
you kill 'em," and I have never gone back on my teaching.
When we arrive at camp Colonel H. goes to work with needle and thread
to repair the damages caused by the contact with the "yaller dorg," and all
prepare for supper.
Moss we find in abundance, and after the tents are stretched, the interior
is filled to a depth of three feet which makes a soft and comfortable bed.
After our supper of ducks, fish and partridges, not forgetting a cup of rich
sweet milk which is sent from the house, we all retire to our soft beds and
sleep soundly until sunrise next morning.
We learn from the man we met the evening before, that this is the last
house we will see on the rest of our journey until we reach civilization on
the Caloosahatchee, a distance of about 225 or 250 miles. A point of timber
is shown us about five miles off, which we are told is the last timber we will
see and the only dry land we can camp on before reaching Lake Okeechobee.
We cannot tell how far it is to Lake Okeechobee, never having been there,
but think it is 100 or 125 miles.
The Colonel and myself, while the men are packing the boats, take one
more turn among the partridges, and when we step on board to resume our
journey half an hour afterwards, we feel that we have enough birds on hand
to last for a day or two. We take our last look at civilization as we glide
down the river, and our sensation is not a pleasant one in some respects. No
one makes any remarks except Caesar, who in a most serious manner, sug-
gests he "Hopes Capt. Andrews goin' to stop dat way he got of pushin' dis
nigger in de ribber every chance he gits, fur fust thing he know I sure to
cotch cold, and den whar is de doctor to come from?"
Our course down the river lines through the same marshy banks and the
only different scene is in the increase in the number of alligators and ducks.
Today we killed a large number of species of ducks quite new to me. It is
a small teal, gray in color, and as fat as a butterball. Like the teal of
Louisiana, they go in large flocks. They are so tame that our boat is often
in the midst of a flock before they attempt to fly. We have seen but few
large mallards on our journey, as we understand they prefer feeding in the








TEQUESTA


rivers near the gulf coast. We see numerous flocks of sandhill cranes but
so far we have been unable to kill a single one. Nor have we been able to
get a shot at a pink curlew. The common white crane, eagrets and ibis we
see in numbers, and could kill at any hour of the day but we do not waste
ammunition in useless slaughter. The eagret when in full plumage in the
month of August, is hunted and killed for their plumes, which rivals the
ostrich in beauty, are much sought after by our northern belles, during their
winter sojourn in the Land of Flowers, and used to adorn hats and bonnets.

At 10 o'clock we arrive at the point of timber seen in the morning, and
conclude to pitch our tents and remain there until next morning. Orders
are given for unpacking both boats, which are to undergo a thorough wash-
ing and cleaning; valises are opened and contents put in the sun; provisions
are inspected, in fact a general overhauling takes place and every man is
soon busy at work. The Professor selects a good point for a sketch of the
camp, and is soon oblivious to all surroundings; Capt. Andrews sits com-
placently upon a fallen tree, smoking a cigar and sewing on a missing but-
ton. So, while everybody is preoccupied, the Col. and myself, after a part-
ing conjunction to Caesar to wash, clean and dry everything before we get
back, we take our guns and start through the woods, hoping to knock over
a duck or turkey. We separate after getting a short distance in the woods
and each take an opposite route. After traveling a short distance the
"gobbling" of a turkey puts me on my guard, and I lie down behind a tree
to wait quietly until I can locate my game. As the sound comes nearer and
nearer I lie quietly and await his approach. In a few minutes I see ap-
proaching a fine specimen of a gobbler, followed by two hens. Nearer and
nearer they come, unconscious of danger, the male leading the way, the
dark purple plumage on his breast fairly glittering in the sunlight, until
they are within close shooting distance, when, after taking deliberate aim
across the tree I fire at his majesty with deadly effect, and as the hens rise
in the air I empty my remaining barrel and bring one of them down. I
think I have done my duty for one day, so tying my two turkeys together, I
take my seat on the fallen tree, light my pipe, and wait to hear the sound of
the Colonel's rifle, that I may know where he is and join him, we having
agreed on parting that after hunting an hour, to return to the spot at which
we parted, the first to arrive to fire off his gun. Now, to tell the truth, in
wandering around I have not exactly lost myself in the woods, but I cer-
tainly don't know in what direction to go to reach the rendezvous agreed on.
Over an hour has passed, when the stillness of the woods is awakened by the








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


crack of a rifle within 50 yards of me. There is a cracking of dried twigs, a
rushing of some object through the bushes, and, as I reach for my gun, a
huge buck bounds within 30 feet of me, drops to the ground, attempts to rise
again, and then falls back struggling. I give a whoop to notify the Colonel
of his proximity to me, and he, having answered, soon joins me, and with
cocked guns we approach the stricken animal, which is still struggling on the
ground. We are both aware of the danger in "tackling" a wounded buck,
so when we get within a few yards, we do not hesitate to give him a second
bullet, which ends his career. The Colonel draws his hunting knife across
the bucks throat and while we wait for him to quit bleeding, pipes are lighted,
and we sit on a log and discuss the "ways and means" of getting our game
to camp. Our discussion ends in cutting a short sapling, tying the bucks
feet together, passing the sapling between his legs, and, with the turkeys
across also, each puts an end upon his shoulder, and we trudge in the direc-
tion of camp, which we soon reach.
On our approach to camp it certainly looks like "washing day," for every
bush and bunch of grass is covered with some article drying in the sun. I
remark to the Colonel that Caesar is obeying to the letter instructions to
wash everything in camp, from the looks of things; and it would not have
surprised us to have seen the Professor and Capt. Andrews well washed and
stretched out on a limb to dry. On getting into camp we hand over our game
and inquire for the Captain. We are informed he is asleep in the tent, after
having been fishing all the morning. We next look for the "keg of nails,"
which we do not find in its accustomed place in the tent, so we wake the
Captain up to assist us in searching for it. He joins us in the search, but
we search in vain. The Captain inquires as to the whereabouts of Caesar,
and on being informed that he is on the river bank obeying our instructions
of washing everything in the camp, he suggests the idea that perhaps he
(Caesar) thought the "keg of nails" needed washing, and had put it among
the soiled clothes. Acting upon his suggestion we start to look for Caesar.
We have no difficulty in detecting his whereabouts, for from the river bank
in anything but a musical voice, we hear him singing in stentorian tones the
following refrain: "When de rocks begin to tumble and de elements to
fall oh, sinner where will you stand!"
As we near him we take a look at the result of his labors, and oh, hor-
rors! On every side each one of us recognizes some familiar garment we
thought safely housed in our valise, that that morning nicely starched and
clean we had looked at with pride, and fancied with much pleasure to don







TEQUESTA


them when we reached civilization, while now wet and steaming in the sun
they lie wet and spread out before us. On one side lies the Colonel's blue
cloth coat, the pride of his heart, and keeping it company is a pair of laven-
der colored pants belonging to the Captain. Words give but a poor expres-
sion of our feelings. The Captain's face turns red, the Colonel's pale, and
both make some remark about mill-dams, etc. A few steps farther we come
upon Caesar. Behind him, in reach of his hand, sits the "keg of nails," a
tin cup by its side, while he, drunk as a lord, sits upon the Captain's fine
ulster, the sleeves of which he is lathering with soap. We do our best to
look dignified, speak calmly, but I am afraid it was a failure. He says he
is obeying orders, and as we left our valises wide open he supposed we
wanted the contents washed; as for the "keg of nails," he carried it with him
for safe keeping during our absence, and on his word of honor as a gentle-
man he has not touched a drop that day. We see he is too far gone to argue
with, so we gather up our delapidated effects with the remains of the "keg
of nails," and sorrowfully return to the camp to get a courtmartial to try
Caesar as soon as sober enough. Mac takes charge of the cooking, while
Caesar rolls up in his blanket, and is innocently snoring a short distance off.
Caesar's little mistake does not prevent us from enjoying our supper, and
we sit around our campfire that night, the remembrance of each others face
causes many a hearty laugh. Capt. Andrews describes, most graphically,
how I looked and acted, which complement our return, and then we join
forces, and go for the Colonel. It is 12 o'clock before we retire to our tents,
and we are not long in searching for the "land of Nod."
At 4 o'clock the camp is aroused, tents struck and boats packed, while
Caesar, looking as innocent as a lamb, is preparing breakfast. We all un-
derstand that if we do not reach Lake Okeechobee before dark, that we will
be compelled to sleep all night in our boats, as we know it would not be
too prudent to travel after dark through the country which we expect to find
difficult enough by daylight. Pine wood is cut, split, and thrown in the bot-
tom of the boat, for making torches in case of need, and after a hearty
breakfast, just as the first streak of dawn appears, we push off from shore,
and our men with a determination to reach Okeechobee before dark, pro-
vided it is not more than a hundred miles, turn to their oars and send our
boats spinning down the swift current of the Kissimmee. We feel certain of
making a hundred miles that day, if necessary, at the rate we start off; and
we know our men will work as they have never worked before, rather than
spend a sleepless night in our little boats, anchored in the middle of the river.








NEW ORLEANS TIMES-DEMOCRAT


After traveling about 25 miles between marshy banks, covered by a depth
of water from two to three feet, the river gets wider, and the current becomes
stronger. No dry land as yet meet our eyes. A few miles further on we come
to a place where the river divides itself. Which branch to take we are unable
to decide, as they are equally wide and the current flows swiftly down both.
Not wishing to blame ourselves in case we make a mistake, we allow Caesar
to suggest which we shall take. Without hesitation he says the left hand
stream is the genuine river, and to the left we go. For four or five miles we
are of Caesar's opinion concerning the right course; but, alas, we are doomed
to disappointment, as we suddenly come to where the stream is obstructed by
lettuce, saw grass and marsh weeds, and after a few. vain attempts to get
through, we conclude that it is a useless waste of time, and so, with disap-
pointed faces, we begin our toilsome row against the swift current toward
the point at which the river had divided itself, for the purpose of taking the
other prong. We arrive there after a while; but the men are worn out with
their heavy pull against the current, so we anchor, rest, and take lunch, which
consumes an hour of precious time to us.
By 1 o'clock in the afternoon we resume our voyage, the men refreshed
and rested, and as we have had an opportunity of venting our ill-humor on
Caesar for his mistake in taking the wrong course, we feel in much better
spirits. We do not use our shotguns to-day on ducks, as we have no time to
stop and pick them up; but our rifles are kept warm all day, and many an
alligator's spirit winged its flight toward the "haven" from which no good
alligator ever returns. Mile after mile is passed and the same vast area of
marsh and water meets the eye on every side, with not a foot of dry land,
and not a tree in sight to relieve the monotony of the scene around us. Hour
after hour passes, and our eyes are not gladdened by a sight of the waters
of the lake.
At 4 o'clock Mac volunteers to climb the mast of our boat and attempt to
get a view over the tall grass, hoping to cheer us with good news, but he
comes down and reports that the view is so obstructed that he can only see
about a mile ahead. But one short hour lies before us for work, so calling
to Capt. Andrews to come on at his leisure, as we intended pulling rapidly
until sundown, hoping to either find a small spot of dry ground or reach
the lake, and the men knowing what a short time lies before them, pull with
renewed vigor and we shoot ahead of the Crescent, losing sight of her at the
first bend in the river. Six or seven miles are passed over; the sun will in a
few minutes set and we see no other fate in store for us but a miserable night








88 TEQUESTA

in our open boats, without even the consolation of a cup of coffee, when our
boat glides around a bend of the river and hearts are gladdened and eyes
greeted with our first sight of the far-famed Lake Okeechobee, the sun, like
a ball of fire, resting upon its surface as if ready to sink beneath the waters,
which, in our eyes and imagination, it certainly does a very few minutes
afterward.
Editor's Note: The description of the remainder of this journey around the lake shore
to the Caloosahatchee river and thence to Fort Myers will be printed in the 1951
Tequesta.







TEQUESTA 89


Contributors


GEORGE R. BENTLEY is Associate Professor of Social Sciences at the
University of Florida.

EDWIN A. DAVIS is Professor of History at Louisiana State University.

JOHN M. GOGGIN is Associate Professor of Sociology and Anthropology
at the University of Florida.

MoRGAN DEWEY PEOPLES was a graduate student in history at Louisiana
State University where he worked with Professor Davis in editing the Times-
Democrat Everglades Expedition article.

JAMES F. SUNDERMAN is a graduate student in history at the University
of Florida. The University of Florida Press will publish Dr. Motte's
Seminole War Diary of which this article is a part. Mr. Sunderman edited
the diary as an M. A. thesis.

HENRY T. TROETSCHEL, JR., is assistant registrar at the University of
Miami, and is a son-in-law of Dr. Gifford.








90 TEQUESTA


HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
TREASURER'S REPORT
FISCAL YEAR ENDING AUGUST 31. 1950


RECEIPTS
On hand September 1, 1949
Building Fund.-------------$ 15.00
General Fund----------------- 771.73
Dues Collected ------------------ 1,577.00
Contributions to Building Fund ------ 58.27
Miscellaneous Income ------------- 103.63
DISBURSEMENTS
Printing & mailing Tequesta -------$ 676.67
Corresponding Secretary ------------364.49
Treasurer ------------------------ 146.64
Program Meetings ---------------- 244.18
Miscellaneous Expenses ------------- 34.15
On hand August 31, 1950
Building Fund --------------$ 73.27
General Fund -----------------966.23


$ 786.73



1,718.90


1,466.13


1,039.50
$2,505.63


$2,505.63


Dues Membership for Annual Sustaining Total
1948 433 70 504
1949 430 120 550
1950* 328 113 441
*1949 dues collected to 9/1/49 317 102 419
Building Fund. The Association solicited contributions in an endeavor to
have the Cape Florida Lighthouse declared a National Monument. $33.27
was not used and was added to the Building Fund, together with individual
contributions of $25. Further additions to this fund should be encouraged.
Miscellaneous Income. Of this, $40 was derived from the sale of former
issues of Tequesta and $63.63 from profit on the sale of other publications.
Publication of Tequesta. The 1949 Tequesta was somewhat reduced in num-
ber of pages, with consequent savings. 1949-$676.67. 1948-$910.75.
The corresponding secretary is charged with stationery, stamps, P. O. box
rent, and expenses for circularization for new members; the treasurer with
bank service charges and expense of sending notices of dues; and the program
meetings with notices of meetings, lights and janitor service.
EDWIN G. BISHOP, Treasurer.









TEQUESTA 91



LIST OF MEMBERS



Founding Members
Bradfield, E. S., Barnesville, Ohio Freeland, Mrs. William L., Coral Gables
Brickell. Mrs. Charles, Miami Hudson, Senator F. M., Miami
Caldwell, Thomas P., Coral Gables Leffler, Miss Cornelia, Miami
Carson, James M., Miami Matheson, Hugh M., Miami
Carson, Mrs. Ruby Leach, Coral Gables McKay, John G., Miami
Corley, Miss Pauline, Miami Montgomery, Col. Robert H., Miami
Crowninshield, Mrs. Frances B., Boca GrandePorter, William R., Key West
Culbertson, Mrs. Thomas Means, Miami Rasmussen, Dr. Edwin L., Miami
Douglas, Mrs. Marjory Stoneman, Miami Stiles, Wade, Miami
Downer, Miss Lisa de F., Miami Wilson, D. Earl, Miami
Downer, Miss Sophie W., Miami Wilson, Gaines R., Miami
Egger, Mrs. Henry J., Live Oak

Charter Members


Adams, Adam G., Coral Gables
Ashe, B. F., Miami
Ayer, Mrs. Malcolm Hall, Miami
Baber, Adin, Kansas, Ill.
Baxter, John M., Miami
Beal, K. Malcolm, Miami
Beaton, Margaret M., Coral Gables
Beck, Mrs. Alfred John, Ft. Lauderdale
Bickel. Karl A., Sarasota
Bishop, Edwin G., Miami
Black, Mrs. Charles E., Miami
Bliss, H. Bond, Miami
Bowen, Crate D., Miami
Bowers, Bland, Coral Gables
Boyd, Dr. Mark F., Tallahassee
Brookfield, Charles M., Miami
Brown, William Mark, Miami
Brownell, Thomas C., Coral Gables
Burton, Mrs. Robert A., Jr., Miami
Bush, Mrs. Franklin Coleman, Miami
Caldwell, Mrs. Thomas P., Coral Gables
Campbell, Park H., Miami
Campbell, Mrs. Park H., Miami
Catlow, Mrs. Wm. R., Bloomfield, N. J.
Clarke, Mary Helen, Coral Gables
Combs, Mrs. Walter H., Sr., Miami
Combs, Walter H., Jr., Miami
Coral Gables Public Library
Crow, Lon Worth, Miami
Crow, Mrs. Lon Worth, Miami
Cushman, The School, Miami
Dee, William V., Miami
Deedmeyer, George J., Miami
Dismukes, William P., Coral Gables


Dodd, Miss Dorothy, Tallahassee
Dorthy, Mrs. Caroline, Miami
Earman, Joe S., Vero Beach
Elder, Dr. S. F., Miami
Elder, Mrs. Leola Adams, Miami
Fairchild, Mrs. David, Miami
Foster, Athene S., Miami
Freeland, Win. L., Coral Gables
Frierson, William T., Miami
Fritz, Miss Florence, Ft. Myers
Fuzzard, Miss Jessie M., Miami
Gardner, R. C., Miami
Gardner, Mrs. R. C., Miami
Geiger, Mrs. August, Miami Beach
Gibson, Mrs. Walter C., Miami
Gifford, Mrs. John C., Miami
Hampton, Mrs. John, Sparks, Md.
Hanks, Bryan, Fort Worth, Texas
Hanna, A. J., Winter Park
Harris, Miss Julia Fillmore, Miami
Hartnett, Fred B., Coral Gables
Hartnett, Mrs. Fred B., Coral Gables
Havee, Justin P., Miami
Herin, William A., Miami
Higgs, Chas. D., Fontana, Wisconsin
Holland, Judge John W., Miami
Holland. Hon. Spessard L., Bartow
Hollywood (Fla.) Public Library
Hudson, Mrs. F. M., Miami
Hume, Mrs. Edward C., Miami
Humes, Mrs. Ralph H., Miami
Jones, L. A., Miami
Jones, Mrs. L. A., Miami
Jones, Mrs. Macklin, Coral Gables









TEQUESTA


Kaplan, Dr. Jacob H., Miami Beach Peters, Mrs. Thelma, Miami
Keyes, Kenneth S., Miami Pitt, Gerard, Miami
Kilvert, Maxwell A., Winter Park Railey, F. G., Miami
Lawrence, Mrs. W. A., Miami Ritter, Judge Halstead L., Miami
Lynch, Sylvester J., Homestead Rosner, George W., Coral Gables
MacDonald, Duncan, Miami Shaw, Miss Martha Luelle, Miami
MacDonald, Mrs. Duncan, Miami Singleton, Stephen C., Miami
Marchman, Watt P., Fremont, Ohio Spencer, George S., Miami
Mason, Walter Scott, Coral Gables Spinks, Mrs. Elizabeth J., Miami
Matteson, Miss Eleanor E.. Miami Stranahan, Mrs. Frank, Ft. Lauderdale
Miami Public Library Strong, Clarence E., Miami
Miami Public Library, Flagler MemorialSullivan, Mrs. Howard W., Haverhill, New
Branch Hampshire
Miller, Raymond M., Miami Taylor, Robert R., Miami
Moore, Mrs. T. V., Miami Tebeau, C. W., Coral Gables
Morales, Wmin. H., Sr., Miami Ten Eich, Mrs. Mary Nunez, Tampa
Morris, Zula, Miami Tharp, Charles Doren, Coral Gables
Muller, Leonard R., Miami True, David 0., Miami
Munroe, Wirth M., Miami Vance, Mrs. Herbert 0., Coral Gables
Newell, Miss Natalie, Miami Vanderpool, Fred W., Miami Beach
Nugent, Patrick B., Fort Meade Welsh, Agnew, Miami
Nugent, Mrs. Patrick B., Fort Meade Williams, H. Franklin, Coral Gables
Pace, Mrs. Johnson H., Miami Wilson, Peyton L., Miami
Pancoast, J. Arthur, Miami Beach Wirth, Miss Josephine, Miami
Parsons, Mrs. Frances G., Miami Woore, A. Meredith, Miami
Pennington, Rev. Edgar L., Mobile, Ala.

Sustaining Members


Allen, Mrs. Hervey, Miami
Anderson, Robert H., Miami
Ashe, Dr. B. F., Miami
Bailey, Ernest H., Miami Beach
Bailey, Mrs. Ernest H., Miami Beach
Baker, Charles H., Jr., Miami
Balfe, Alex, Miami
Barge, Dr. Hubert A., Miami
Barge, Mrs. Hubert A., Miami
Bartz, Edward, Miami
Bassett, Rex, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Benson, Clifton D., Coral Gables
Blackburn, Elmer E., Miami
Bliss, Alonzo 0., Jr., Miami
Bowen, Crate D., Miami
Brickell, Mrs. Charles, Miami
Brookfield, Chas. M., Miami
Brunstetter, Roscoe, Coral Gables
Butts, Mrs. Harold T., Ormond Beach
Campbell, Mrs. Susie C., Miami
Chase, Randall, Sanford
Cheetham, Joseph M., Miami
Crowinshield, F. B., Boca Grande
Crowinshield, Mrs. F. B., Boca Grande
Cushman, The School, Miami
Deedmeyer, George J., Miami
Dolan, Francis M., Coral Gables
Dorn, J. K., Miami
Douglas, Marjorie S., Miami


Downer, Miss Lisa de F., Miami
Eichleay, William A., Hialeah
Elliston, Charles A., Hallandale
Espenlaub, George L, Clewiston
Fee, W. I., Fort Pierce
Feibelman, Herbert U., Miami
Frederick, Bill., Miami
Freeman, Edison S., Miami
Fuller, Walter P., St. Petersburg
Gannaway, Mrs. K. C., Miami
Gardner, Dick B., Miami
Gardner, Jack R., Benton Harbor, Michigan
Geiger, Mrs. August, Miami Beach
Gibson, Henry C., Jenkinton, Pa.
Graham, Ernest R., Hialeah
Graw, LaMonte, Orlando
Grismer, Karl H., Sarasota
Grosvenor, Gilbert H., Washington, D. C.
Hallstead, Fred., Fort Lauderdale
Hamilton, Thomas B., Miami
Hard, William, Miami
Hardie, Richard M., Miami
Harris, Walter L., Miami
Hills, Lee, Miami
Holcomb, Lyl Miami
Hollowell, R. D. T., Fort Myers
Hughes, Mrs. FIeda V., Miami
Hume, Mrs. Edward C., Miami
Jackson, Melvin H., Miami Beach









TEQUESTA 93


Johnson, Mrs. Alberta M., St. Augustine
Kent, Arnold H., Miami
Kerr, James Benjamin, Hollywood
Kirtland, Mrs. F. W., Jacksonville
Knight, John S., Miami
Krome, Mrs. William J., Homestead
LaGorce, John 0., Washington, D. C.
Leffler, Miss Cornelia, Miami
Lewis, Miss Carlotta, Coral Gables
Lindsey, John J., Miami
Lindsley, A. R., Miami Beach
Littlefield, Mrs. Winifred E., Coral Gables
Lunsford, Dr. E. C., Miami
MacDonald, Duncan, Miami
MacDonald, Mrs. Duncan, Miami
Mallory, Philip R., Miami Beach
Mallory, Mrs. Philip R., Miami Beach
Manley, Miss Marion I., Miami
Mansfield, William N., Miami Beach
Master, Mrs. H., Miami
Matheson, Hugh M., Miami
McCarthy, Don L., Miami Beach
McDonald, Mrs. John Martyn, Miami
McKay, John G., Miami
Meisel, Max, Miami Beach
Merson, M. L., Miami
Modisette, Col. Welton M., Coral Gables
Montgomery, Col. Robert H., Miami
Munroe, Wirth M., Miami
Oglesby, R. M., Bartow
Pancoast, Russell T., Miami Beach
Pardo, Mrs. Ramiro V., Miami
Parker, 0. B., Homestead
Pearse, Mrs. Langdon, Winnetka, Illinois
Pollard, Marshall S. P., Miami
Porter, William R., Key West
Prevatt, Prestan G., Miami
Procter, William, Palm Beach
Railey, F. G., Miami
Railey, Mrs. F. G., Miami


Robertson, Miss Edna H., Ormond Beach
Robinson, F. A., Miami
Rosen, Ira, Miami Beach
Ryan, Miss Anna A., Miami
St. Augustine Historical Society
Schooler, C. Dan, Miami
Seybold, W. C., Miami
Shaffer, E. H., Miami
Shank, H. W., Coral Gables
Shaw, Miss Martha L., Miami
Shipe, Paul E., Miami
Sisters of St. Joseph, St. Augustine
Smith, McGregor, Miami
Spellman, Rev. Chas. W., St. Augustine
The Stanford University Libaries,
Stanford, California
Tebeau, C. W., Coral Gables
Thomas, Wayne, Plant City
Thompson, John G., Miami
Thomson, Leonard K., Miami
Thord-Gray, General L, Homestead
Thrice, H. H., Coral Gables
Urmey, William N., Miami
Usina, Leonard A., Miami
Walters, Mae L. M., Miami
Walters, Walter M., Miami
West, William M., Genesee, III.
Whitten, George E., Miami
Wiler, Mrs. A. H., Jr., Miami Beach
Williams, C. J., Jacksonville
Wilson, D. Earl, Miami
Wilson, F. Page, Miami
Winters, Jonathan H., Miami
Wirth, Miss Josephine, Miami
Witmer, Mrs. Lorin J., Miami
Wolf, Fred, Sr., Hallandale
Wood, Mr. and Mrs. Willis D., Miami
Woore, A. Meredith, Miami
Yonge, Julien C., Gainesville
Zabriskie, George A., New York City


Annual Members


Adams, A. H., Miami
Adams, Mrs. A. H., Miami
Adams, Mrs. A. M., Miami
Albertson Memorial Library, Orlando
Alexander, Eleanor P., Homestead
Allardt, Mrs. Frederick, Los Angeles, Calif.
Allen, Robert L., Deland
American Georgraphic Society, New York
American Museum of Natural History,
New York
Anderson, Mrs. Myra Burr, Miami
Andrews, Win. H., Miami
Angle, A. J., Tampa
Anthony, Roscoe T., Palm Beach


Appel, Mrs. Doris L., Miami
Arthur, Mrs. P. H., Miami
Arthur, Miss Phyllis H., Miami
Ayars, Erling E., South Miami
Baker, Therese C., Stuart
Balkin, Gilbert J., Miami
Barker, Virgil, Miami
Barr, J. Houston, Delray Beach
Bartow Public Libarry, Bartow
Baughman, Miss Leona, Miami
Baum, Earl L., Miami
Beardsley, Jim E., Clewiston
Bell, Jack, Miami
Benbett, Lucius L., Miami









94 TEQUESTA


Bills, Jeanne Bellamy, Miami Davison, Chester M., Miami
Bingham, Mrs. Millicent Todd, Davison, Mrs. Esther W., Miami
Washington, D. C. Daytona Park and Library Association,
Bird, Mary G., Coral Gables Daytona Beach
Black, W. L., Jr., Miami Dorn, H. Lewis, South Miami
Blocker, John C., St. Petersburg Dorn, J. K., Jr., Miami
Bloomberg, George W., Miami Dovell, J. E., Jr., Gainesville
Blouvelt, Mrs. Arthur M., Coral Gables Downes, Miss Patricia, Coral Gables
Bohne, Grace Wing, Miami Duff, Elizabeth B., Clewiston
Board, Mrs. Walter, Ormond Beach Duley, Almas Leroy. Miami
Brickell, James B., Miami DuPree, Thomas O'Hagan, Miami Beach
Brickell, Mrs. James B., Miami DuVal, Mrs. Hugh F., Miami
Brinson, J. Hardie, Miami Dykes, Robert J., Miami
Brook, John, Jr., Coral Gables Earle, Walter F., Ormond Beach
Brooks, Mrs. Charles I., Miami Eason, Mrs. Helga H., Miami
Brown, Judge Armistead, Tallahassee Eckel, Mrs. Frederick L., Ft. Lauderdale
Brown, Edgar, Coconut Grove Edwards, Mrs. Howard K., Miami
Brown University Library, Providence, R. I. Elliott, Mrs. Robert C., Ft. Lauderdale
Budd, Garland M., Jr., Miami Ellis, Irving M., Jr., Miami Beach
Budd, Mrs. Garland M., Jr., Miami Epting, Lulu, Miami
Bush, R. S., Miami Fagan, Mrs. W. H., Ormond Beach
Byrd, Mrs. J. Wade, Miami Fennell, Thomas A., Jr., Homestead
Capron, Louis, West Palm Beach Ferendino, Andrew J., Miami Beach
Carnine, Miss Helen M., Miami Fisher, Mrs. Jane, Miami
Cash, William T., Tallahassee Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee
Cass, Mrs. Glen B., Miami Florida State Library, Tallahassee
Castillo, Miss Angela del, Arlington, Va. Florida State University, Tallahassee
Chamberlain, Robert S., Alexandria, Va. Floyd, Robert L., Miami
Chapman, Mrs. Emily, Miami Foster, Mrs. Lawrence M., Tuscaloosa, Ala.
Chase, H. R., Miami Fox, Leonard B., Camaguey, Cuba
Christian, Mrs. Mary Poole, Clewiston Francois, Florence M., Miami
Close, Kenneth, Miami Freeling, J. S., Miami
Coconut Grove Library Freeling, Mrs. J. S., Miami
Cohen, Isidor, Miami Freeman, Mrs. Ethel Cutler,
Cole, R. B., Miami Morristown, N. J.
Collier, Miles, Everglades French, Mrs. Marian M., Miami
Collins, Mrs. Eva 0., Bartow Frohock, Mrs. Jack, Miami
Columbia University, New York Frutkoff, Theodore, Coral Gables
Comerford, Miss Nora A., Coral Gables Fultz, H. B., Coral Gables
Connor, Mrs. June, Tampa Gaillard, Margaret, Miami Beach
Conover, Paul H., Miami Gates, Harley D., Boca Raton
Cook, John B., Miami Gaunt, E. C., Miami
Cooney, Robert E., Miami Gerberer, Murray, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Cooney, Mrs. Robert E., Miami Gellrich, Mrs. Ida W., Key West
Copeland, Mrs. D. Graham, New Orleans, La.Gilbert, Bertha K., North Miami Beach
Corse. Mrs. Carita D., Jacksonville Gillett, George, Wauchula
Coslow, George S., Miami Givens, Robert H., Jr., Miami
Cox, Mrs. Jessamine, Miami Goggin, John M., Gainesville
Craig, J. L., Miami Goggin, Mrs. John M., Gainesville
Crane, Francis Y., Marathon Greene, Miss Clarissa, Miami
Crane, Mrs. Francis Y., Marathon Gregor, Henry, Miami
Cullen, Ralph 0., Coral Gables Griffith, Arthur, Miami
Curry, Allison B., Jr., Coral Gables Griffith, Mrs. Arthur, Miami
Curtis, Kent, Grand Rapids, Minn. Griswold, Oliver, Miami
Dade County Teachers' Professional LibraryGrose, Mrs. Esther N., Miami
Davis, Mrs. Christine, Miami Hack, Ernest, Miami
Davis, Mrs. Jefferson, Miami Hack, Jocab, Jr., Miami
Davis, Katherine Fite, Miami Hack, William, Miami









TEQUESTA


Hagan, Thomas W., Miami
Hagan, Mrs. Thomas W., Miami
Hall, Willis E., Coral Gables
Halstead, Wm., L., Miami
Hamel, Claude C., Amherst, Ohio
Hancock, Mrs. J. T. Okeechobee
Hanna, Mrs. Scott Clay, Miami
Hanson, Mrs. W. Stanley, Ft. Myers
Harllee, J. William, Miami
Harper, Mrs. Raymond, Princeton, N.
Hart, Mrs. Reginald, Coral Gables
Harvard College Library, Cambridge,
Harvey, J. H., Miami Springs
Havee, Mrs. Kathryn, Miami
Hayes, Mrs. Emmie S., Miami
Henderson, Daniel M., Hampton, N. J.
Hendry, Norman, Miami
Heinlein, Mrs. Mary C., Homestead
Henry, Miss Marcia, Hiram, Ohio
Herin, Thomas Davenport, Miami
Hetherington, Mrs. Alma, St. Cloud
Hill, Mrs. A. Judson, Miami
Hilsbeck, W. D., Miami
Hollingsworth, Tracy, Coral Gables
Hooker, Roland M., Miami Beach
Houghton, Mrs. A. S., Miami
Hubbell, Willard, Coral Gables
Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.
Jacksonville Public Library
Jahn, LeRoy S., Miami
Jammer, Louis A., Jr., Morrisville, Pa.
Jeffrey, Dr. S. L., Miami
Jenkins, Leon R., Miami
Jones, Col. A. B., Miami
Jones, Mrs. Mary, Miami
Jones, Mrs. Mary Douglas, Coral Gables
Karpinski, Louis C., Winter Haven
Keefe, Harley, Miami
Kemp, W. C., Miami
Kiem, Stanley C., Miami
King, C. Harold, Miami
Kistler, The C. W. Company, Miami
Klingler, Mrs. Isabella 0., Coral Gables
Kniffen, Claude L., Miami
Kofoed, Jack, Miami
Kohl, Mrs. Henry, Palm Beach
Kreske, Richard D., Coral Gables
Kronenfeld, Mrs. John, Miami
Kussrow, Van C., Miami Beach
Lackey, Mrs. John D., Miami Beach
Lans, Louis Jr., Tavenier, Fla.
Lawrence, Mrs. Iva H., Miami
Lee, David, C., Jr., Miami
Lewin, Miss Mary D., Tallahassee
Lewis, Mrs. L G., Miami
Lindaley, Will S., Miami
Lipp, Morris N., Miami Beach
Littlefield, Miss Helena, Coral Gables


Lloyd, J. Harlan, Miami
Loftin, Scott M., Jacksonville
Longshore, Frank, Miami
Longshore, Mrs. Marianne, Miami
Lummus, J. N., Jr., Miami
Leyell, Dr. Robert 0., Miami
Lyman, Mr. Jack B., Lantana
Lyons, James, Miami
MacArthur, W. E., Miami
J. MacArthur, Mrs. W. E., Miami
MacDonald, Miss Barbara, Miami
Mass.MacDonald, Miss Betty, Miami
MacVicar, I. D., Miami
Manly, Charles W., Miami
Manning, Mrs. William S., Jacksonville
Marsh, Fred Dana, Ormond Beach
Marsh, Mrs. Mabel V. A., Ormond Bead
Martin, Mrs. Mary C., Miami Springs
Martin, S. Walter, Athens, Ga.
Mason, Mrs. Joe, Miami
Mauldin, Mrs. Mary C., Miami
May, Philip S., Jacksonville
McCaskill, J. M., Miami
McCaughan, George C., Miami
McCollum, John L, Jr., Miami
McGahey, Miss Lillian, Miami
McKay, D. B., Tampa
McKee, Arthur Jr., Homestead
McKey, Robert M., Miami
McKim, Mrs. L. H., Montreal
McLinden, H. Ladd, Miami
McNair, Angus, South Miami
McQuilkin, Amelia, Miami
Mead, Edwin, Miami Beach
Memorial Library of the Palm Beaches,
West Palm Beach
Meredith, Mrs. Evelyn T., Miami
Merrick, Mrs. Ethel F., Coral Gables
Merrick, Mrs. Eunice P., Coral Gables
Merritt, Dr. Webster, Jacksonville
Meyers, Miss Ethel H., Hialeah
Miami Beach Public Library
Miami Daily News
Miami Public Library
Miami Public Library, Riverside Branch
Miami Public Library,
Flagler Memorial Branch
Miami Senior High School Library
Miami Springs Memorial Public Library
Milam, Robert R., Jacksonville
Michel, Miss Hedwig, Estero
Milberg, Edmund J., Miami Beach
Milledge, Judge Stanley, Miami
Miller, Mrs. F. C., Mulberry
Minich, John M., Clewiston
Moffat, George D., Miami
Monroe, William W., Miami
Montgomery, Dr. C. C., Coral Gables








96 TEQUESTA


Montgomery, Earl T., Miami Sewell, John J., Miami Beach
Morgan, C. L., Coral Gables Shappee, Nathan D., Miami
Mudd, Dr. Richard D., Saginaw, Mich. Shaw, G. N., Miami
Munson, Wm. B., Miami Shaw, Henry Overstreet, Miami
Myers, Gen. John Twiggs, Miami Shaw, Martin L., Miami
Nelson, Winifred Hendricks, Miami Beach Shepard, L. C., Coral Gables
Newberry Library, Chicago, IlI. Sherouse, Ken, Miami
Nichols, Dr. Madaline W., Tallahassee Sherritt, Charles L., Miami
Odum, Ralph E., Lakeland Shewmake, Mrs. C. E., Miami
Oglesby, Charles B., Miami Simmons, J. P., Miami
Oglesby, W. Dickey, Coral Gables Singer, Paul, Miami Beach
O'meara, Vincent K., Hialeah Singleton, Mrs. E. M., Miami
Orlando Senior High School Library Sistrunk, Mrs. S. T., Ocala
Orr, Grant, Miami Slaughter, Dr. Frank G., Jacksonville
Otis, Robert R., Atlanta, Ga. Smith, Mrs. Edna H., Miami
Ott, Mrs. Roy V., Coral Gables Snodgrass, Miss Dena, Jacksonville
Owre, J. Riis, Coral Gables Sokol, Anton, Miami
Pancoast, Lester C., Bucks County, Pa. State Historical Society of Wisconsin,
Peabody Museum Library, Cambridge, Mass. Madison, Wis.
Peacock, Mrs. Coral, Miami John B. Stetson University, Deland
Pemberton, P. G., Miami Stephens, E. E., Miami
Pemberton, Mrs. P. G., Miami Stevens, Mrs. T. T., Miami
Pennekamp, John D., Miami Stilwell, Mrs. C. D., Miami
Perry, Burroughs F., Miami Stitt, J. W., Miami Springs
Philhour, Charles, Jr., South Miami Summers, Harold L., Honolulu, Hawaii
Pierce, Miss Ruby Edna, Palm Beach Sunderman, James F., Gainesville
Pizie, Stuart G., Miami Sydow, William, Miami
Pond, James B., New York City Talley, Howard J., Miami
Power, Mrs. Frances M., Miami Taylor, Paul C., Miami
Platt, T. Beach, Miami Tebeau, Mrs. Violet H., Coral Gables
Plowden, Gene, Miami Therkildson, Mrs. Helen, Miami
Prince, J. W., Naples Thompson, Carey R., Miami
Railey, Lilburn R., Miami Tompkins, H. Herbert, Miami
Rainey, J. S., Miami Thrift, Charles T., Jr., Lakeland
Rainey, Mrs. J. S., Miami Tierney, Jos. J., Coral Gables
Redden, Mrs. Beryl, Miami Tompkins, H. Herbert, Miami
Redfearn, Mrs. Susan Fort, Coral Gables Tompkins, Josine N., Miami
Reich, Mrs. Molka, Miami Trice, Essie Hall, Coral Gables
Reynolds, Mrs. H. Jarvis, Coral Gables Troetschel, Henry T., Jr., Coral Gables
Rheney, W. E., Miami Turnbull, Daniel F., Sarasota
Robbins, Leon A., Boynton Beach Tussey, Mrs. Ethel Wayt, Miami
Robertson, Mrs. Paul H., Miami Tuttle, Mrs. Stella Weston, Jr., Miami
Rogers, Miss Flora, Miami University of Florida, Gainesville
Rollins College Library, Winter Park University of Pennsylvania, Phildelphia
Rose, Harvey, K., Miami Alderman Library, University of Virginia,
Ross, Malcolm, Miami Charlottesville, Va.
Rossman, Bert, Miami Van D'Elden, Mrs. Frank, Miami
Russell, Edmond L., State College, Pa. Van Landingham, Mrs. Walter F., Miami
Sabini, Miss Miriam, Washington, D. C. Verdoorn, Frans, Waltham, Mass.
Sadlier, Rt. Rev. Francis, St. Leo Vosburgh, John R., Miami
Sanders, Mrs. W. R., Miami Voss, Gilbert L., Hypoluxo
Saunders, Dr. Lewis M., Miami Waldin, Anton H., Jr., Homestead
Schuberth, Andrew F., Jr., Miami Walker, Marvin H., Lakeland
Schwab, Lawrence, Miami Beach Wall, Ed., Albany, N. Y.
State University of Iowa Library, Walsh, George C., Miami
Iowa City, Iowa Ward, Mrs. Charles E., Miami
Sessa, Frank B., Miami Warner, Miss Elmina, Miami
Severud, Mrs. Gordon, Miami Warner, William C., Miami








TEQUESTA


Warner, Mrs. William C., Miami
Warren, Mrs. Dora M., Oakland Park
Watson, J., Tom, Tampa
Wellington, Miss Elizabeth E.,
Daytona Beach
Wenner, Henry S., Jr., Miami
West, Mrs. Roger H., Daytona Beach
Wheeler, B. B., Miami Beach
Whittlesey, Mrs. Ollie Robinson, Miami
Wieseman, William, Miami
Wight, William S., Miami
Williams, Allen, Miami


Wilson, Ben E., Miami
Wilson, Miss Emily L., St. Augustine
Wilson, Mrs. Gaines R., Miami
Wilson, Miss Virginia, Miami
Wolin, S. Roger, Miami
Woman's Club Library, Crescent City
Wood, Mrs. Agnes Faris, Miami
Wright, Mrs. Victor A., Miami
Young, John G., Coral Gables
Younghams, S. W., Miami
Zenker, Raymond, Miami








TEQUESTA


THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
FOUNDED 1940-INCORPORATED 1941


Charles M. Brookfield
President

Mrs. Herbert 0. Vance
First Vice-President
Adam G. Adams
Second Vice-President
Justin- P. Havee
Recording Secretary


David 0. True
Corresponding Secretary

Edwin G. Bishop
Treasurer
Mrs. Lulu C. Epting
Librarian
Charlton W. Tebeau
Editor


DIRECTORS


Bowman F. Ashe
Lucius L. Bennett
Thomas P. Caldwell
Ruby Leach Carson
Joseph M. Cheetham
Joseph G. Deedmeyer
J. K. Dorn
Marjory Stoneman Douglas
Mrs. Henry J. Egger
Mrs. Wm. L. Freeland
Arthur Griffith


Thomas W. Hagan
Wm. J. Harllee
Fred B. Hartnett
F. M. Hudson
Duncan McDonald
Wirth M. Munroe
Mrs. Frances G. Parsons
Mrs. Frank Stranahan
F. Page Wilson
Gaines R. Wilson





























































































































































I




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