f THE JOURNAL OF THE HISTORICAL
C C S ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
Editor: Leonard R. Muller
Advisory Editorial Board
Dr. Harold E. Briggs David O. True Dr. H. Franklin Williams
Frank Bryant Stoneman 3
Marjory Stoneman Douglas
Archaeological Investigations on the Upper Florida 13
Keys, John M. Goggin
Five Plants Essential to the Indians and Early Settlers 36
of Florida, Dr. John C. Gifford
Recent Economic Trends in South Florida, 45
Dr. Reinhold P. Wolff
The Freducci Map of 1514-1515 50
David O. True
Editor's Notes and Communications 60
COPYRIGHTED 1944 BY THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
,e 7 *St, is published annually by the Historical Association of Southern Florida
1 and the University of Miami as a bulletin of the University. Subscrip-
tion, $1.00. Communications should be addressed to the editor at the University of Miami.
Neither the Association nor the University assumes responsibility for statements of fact
or of opinion made by the contributors.
This Page Blank in Original
Te I wstA
NOVEMBER, 1944 NUMBER FOUR
Frank Bryant Stoneman
by MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS*
WHO'S WHO IN AMERICA says: "Stoneman, Frank Bryant, editor,
born, Indianapolis, Ind., June 26, 1857, son of Mark D. (M.D.) and Ale-
thea White S. Educated, Carleton College, Northfield, Minn., and Univer-
sity of Minnesota: Married Lillian Trefethen of Taunton, Mass., June 12,
1889 (died, 1912) one daughter, Marjory. Married second, Lillias E. Shine
of Orlando, Fla., April 14, 1914. Admitted to Florida bar, 1896. In news-
paper business in Florida since 1901i vice-president Herald Publishing Com-
pany, Herald Holding Company, Democratic presidential elector for Florida,
1904, judge of Municipal court of Miami 10 years, member Dade County
Bar Association, Episcopalian, Mason5 past grand commander Knights
Templar of Florida, past grand high priest Royal Arch Masons of Florida.
Clubs, National Press, Washington, D. C.; Rotary club, Acacia club. Home,
701 N. W. 9th Avenue, Miami."
HOW CAN such dry details give the measure of a man? There is
nothing in them of the color and vigor of the times that he
has known, of nights, noons and mornings that have shaped
him subtly, nothing of the character by which he was recognized or
the influence which he carried with him, walking quietly and straightly
in these beloved streets.
He was known and unmistakable; the six feet of his height topped
by the crest of hair still gray in back, the craggy jut of his Roman
nose, the direct look of brown-hazel eyes, young live eyes, that watched
with humor and with tolerance the endless parade of human folly and
of human grief. Try lying to those eyes, however, and watch them
turn cold granite.
When I remember him first he wore one of those brown walrus mous-
taches much affected by young men from the West. But old photo-
graphs show the sensitive lips of a boy grown up early in a frontier
world. Like his ancestors, he was always to be a pioneer, like those
This article, revised by the author, is reprinted by permission of The Miami Herald.
early Stoneman scholars and doctors maintaining their own thoughts,
taking their own plain Quaker way, unaffected by the turmoil of new
cities boiling about them.
To trace that in him you have to go back to old James Stoneman,
living on the Thames river in England, after 1735, who found fellow-
ship for his own stiff back among the Society of Friends. England
had no place for men who chose to worship the God of Quietness di-
rectly, in their unheard-of way, so that James arrived in Virginia with
some batch of evicted Quakers, his Roman nose stiffly facing west.
There was starch in him also, for he carried a musket with the militia.
He married a Quaker woman, practiced medicine in one of those early
Quaker communities where the first schools in this country were main-
tained, and begat Joshua. Joshua was another doctor, married Eliza-
beth Davis of Montgomery county, Virginia "after the manner of
Friends." She was a daughter of another fighting Quaker, Mark D'avis,
a lieutenant in the Revolutionary war. Their son, Mark Davis Stone-
man, was to find the western urge too powerful to be resisted longer.
The country was too full. He took his diploma in medicine in the early
days in Cincinnati, Ohio, married a Quaker, had a second son, Frank
Bryant Stoneman, served as surgeon in the Civil war and after the
battle of Shiloh moved west, with his young family, to the new town
of St. Anthony, on the Mississippi, now Minneapolis.
So that our young Frank had as his earliest recollections the rumor, of:
the war, the long trek westward, the trip by slow-pushing flatboats up'
the Mississippi, the muddy streets of little St. Anthony and a great
flight of passenger pigeons, darkening the air. There were Indians .in
the dark forests beyond and famine possible in the 40 below zero
winters. But there were Friends in St. Anthony and his father could
settle down to his doctoring, rude enough in those rude days.
Our man was brought up like any Quaker boy of his time in spite
of the fact that he did not belong to meeting. It may have been a
'frontier town, but there was strict tradition to guide him, the tradi-
tion of "Yea and nay," the tradition of plain living and clear and inde-
pendent thinking, and there were family stories to point up the stiff-
backed breed. They may have been plain people but they were colorful.
There was Uncle Levi, for instance. Uncle Levi was a great old Quaker.
He had traveled widely in Europe, on some Quaker concern. Back in
Indiana he had maintained one of the stations of the Underground
railway, shipping hundreds of escaping slaves to Canada. One evening
MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS
he was standing at his gate when a young colored fugitive, ragged and
breathless, limped by. Uncle Levi with one jerk of his thumb motioned
him inside. A few minutes later a posse hunting him stopped at his
gate. "Did you see a fugitive slave around here?" they asked him.
"Yes," said Uncle Levi stoutly, "a young negro just passed this gate."
The posse went on, but Uncle Levi's wife, having settled the fugitive
in the clean room out back, heard her husband's reply. "Levi, thee has
told a lie," she said, very shocked. "He passed this gate," Uncle Levi
said calmly. "He passed it coming in."
But I like the one best about Uncle Levi's hat. You can imagine the
great grey Quaker brim, well worn and brushed. Uncle Levi had some
occasion to testify in a court trial. In the courtroom he wore his hat.
Uncle Levi paid no attention when the bailiff said, "Take off your hat."
The bailiff said again, "Take off your hat." "Friend," said Uncle Levi,
"I have worn this hat before kings and I intend to wear it here." The
bailiff snatched it off. Uncle Levi eyed him calmly. "Friend," he said,
"thee can put it on again." And the bailiff did.
There was always that Quaker touch about Frank B., the plainness
of his speech, his hatred of profanity and gaudy statements, his unpre-
tentiousness, even his grey suits. But another strain accounts for the
occasional mild red tie, a French strain, that came into the family
with the Bondurants, Huguenots, this time. There was a sword in that
tradition, and a long yarn of a Bondurant adventurer who fought with
the Swiss against the French kings and went to England before sailing,
in his turn, to America. If you watched the Stoneman hands you would
see that in moments of oratory they jerked in emphasis. He told it him-
self that once in making a speech to a congregation in Miami's colored
town he grew lavish with his gestures and a fat mammy on the front
seat began to roll and shout, "Hallelujah." The French strain may ac-
count also for the fact that as a young man he astonished the family
by joining the Episcopal Church. The color of the ritual, the nobility
of that service, second only to the King James version as fine English
evidently proved relief from plain Quaker ways and pioneer harshness.
The rites of the Ancient and Accepted Order of Masons must also
have offered much the same rich color and sense of formal tradition
in a pioneer world.
But within the family house itself there was no lack of the books
which were always to provide for him education, recreation, escape
and study. No Quaker family of that day would be without them.
TEQ U ESTA
Schools in the pioneer town of St. Anthony, with its three thousand
people, were plentiful, but there was no perceptible system. So that
the Stoneman boys and girls passed at will from school to school. The
family library and reading aloud in the evenings of the long winters
made up for everything. His love of history may have begun then,
listening to his mother reading aloud from the little red Abbott his-
tories of Marie Antoinette and Peter the Great. They read "The Prince
of the House of David" and Pope's Iliad and Odyssey and "The Report
of the English Commission of the White Slaves of England" and "In-
cidents of the French Revolution." He was supposed to have read
Josephus at the age of seven.
Hunting and fishing were all about the small town in abundance and
the Stoneman boys were early accustomed to the use of firearms. They
chopped wood and fought both the uptown boys and the downtown
boys. The older brother, Orville, was the aggressive one, fighting at
the drop of a hat, and it was long-legged Frankl who had to rally to
his defense, fight off the assailants and bring the wounded warrior
home. His nickname was always "Ben" because they said he always
had his nose in a book like Benjamin Franklin. It stayed there all
He went to the University of Minnesota in its infancy and then to
Carleton College in Northfield, where he was a classmate of Thorstein
Veblen. He had even then the idea of reading law.
But in the vacations the smell of printer's ink captured him for life.
He got a part-time job in a print shop and learned to hand-set type
with the best, among the shifting, rare population of old-fashioned
journeymen printers of that day. Always later, when he was in doubt
of the spelling of a word, he could think how it would feel to pick the
letters out of the case. He was for years in Miami very proud of being
an honorary member of the Typographical union. He began his jour-
nalistic career as a boy by printing his own newspaper, one of the
first junior papers in Minnesota. At the same time, he wanted to be
But his father died in 1875 and he went to work, school teaching
first in one of the earliest Swedish communities in Minnesota. After
that Uncle Luther Johnson sent him and young Fred Johnson out to the
new town of Billings, Montana, to open a grocery store. Billings was
then 1,000 miles ahead of the Northern Pacific railroad, a sure-enough
frontier town, Indians, emigrants, cowboys and all. Frank grew that
MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS
mustache, learned to wrap beans or brown sugar in a flat piece of
paper and dole out five dollars worth of flour, dollar by dollar, to some
befeathered Indian. But better than that, he had a lot of real hunting,
rode all over the Bad Lands, shot his bison and saw the town fill up.
He is still remembered in the Billings Lodge of Masons.
Then the boom in the northwest began rolling up, not unlike Miami
in '25. He went back to Minneapolis and into business, married, had
a daughter and very shortly saw the panic of '93, which upset all
that country and taught him lessons which were to be invaluable to
Florida later. It took a panic to shake him loose from those cold
winters. Then for the first time since 1750 a Stoneman set the prow
of his nose to the South.
Florida was being much spoken of, in those cold and shattered north-
ern lands. Cuba, restive under Spanish rule, might have possibilities.
He made a trip south to Tampa, Key West and Havana, where the
Spanish army strutted its colors along the Prado and for the first time
the tropic sun baked the long Stoneman bones. It was an unforgettable
impression. The grey and crowded East held nothing like that for him.
The cities were too finished. There was nothing there for a pioneer
So he came to Orlando in Florida in the old days when the great live
oaks shadowed quiet streets and in the country round about the orange
groves roofed the white sand roads with shadow. He saw the freeze
of '94 devastate the country, houses left standing unpeopled, food on
the tables, with the exodus of the ruined. There was talk of the rail-
road going farther south than Palm Beach and a frostless country
below there, where this town of Miami huddled, a few shacks among
the untrampled palmetto, where the river flashed lonely under passing
flocks of parakeets. He started raising chickens outside Orlando and
studying to pass the Florida bar exams. It is recorded that the chickens
died, but the exams were successful and he moved into town to prac-
tice law. Then printer's ink came into his life again. Some unfortunate
job printer in Avon Park could not pay a bill for legal. services. Lawyer
Stoneman took an ancient flatbed press for the debt, had it hauled to
Orlando by ox team and found his right hand moved readily between
upper and lower type cases and the printer's stick in his left. The
old press made a newspaper man of him, for life.
Now by this time the railroad had gone to Miami. The Florida East
Coast railway was dominating Dade county politics. It was real pioneer
country, in contrast to the leasured leafy streets of Orlando, within
sound of cathedral bells. So he and a man named LaSalle brought the
old press down to Miami, where surreys stood under fringed canopies
by John Seybold's bakery and the Sewell Brothers were going into
business and Isidor Cohen had dried out that first stock of goods he
had dumped into Miami river and was looking upon the new town
with brown and cheerful eyes. LaSalle and Stoneman set up a job
printing shop and a four-page, sticky little paper, first called the
Record, and then, taking over a dying and now forgotten sheet called
the News, named it "The News-Record." His purpose was to drive
the railroad out of politics
The old News-Record put up a stiff fight. The Florida East Coast
was less active in politics, but the paper almost died of it. Mean-
time, there was a lot of work not associated with a newspaper for an
Episcopalian and a Mason. At one time he was a lay reader for the
church and was the only man who could bury people with the Epis-
copal church service, up and down the coast. Another time he was
taking charge of Masonic funerals, and Masonic charities, walking
gravely and calmly, while the new town boiled with energy and the
Florida East Coast extension drove southward over the Keys.
The early News-Record was a slim and leisurely sheet, covering with
well turned periods the fact that wire service was non-existent and
news none too lavish. Father Friend, the beloved old priest of the
Catholic church, planting the first bucidas in the Catholic yard, which
he smuggled in from the Bahamas, gossiped with him of an evening
on his boarding house verandah. Mrs. Krome, a bright-eyed girl, then,
heard their slow voices arguing church history and who wrote Shake4
speare, while the saloons were being moved to North Miami and
someone argued that some day there would be houses on Miami Beach.
Our man gave the first dollar for the establishment of Jackson Me-
morial hospital, as a member of the first hospital committee. He visited
the sick. He served sometimes on the municipal bench, sentencing
drunks rolled across the Miami line from North Miami saloons back
on the job again. The small paper and job press business struggled
It was difficult to get from him any complete picture of those days.
In the courthouse there was a trial of a negro behind whom sat a man
with a drawn knife, prepared to slit the negro's throat, if the verdict
was "not guilty." There were parakeets still in the grapefruit trees in
MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS
Coconut Grove, then spelled "Cocoanut Grove," an almost unknown
village, a long buggy ride away. Collins bridge stretched across Bis-
cayne bay and frame buildings were thicker along Twelfth street.
People said some day there would be 10,000 people in Miami, believe
it or not.
There were hurricanes, when the corrugated iron roofings spun along
Miami avenue and the young palms thrashed and pine trees went down
as far north as old Johnson street. The Presbyterian manse stood
white among these new young trees. Dr. Gifford had introduced the
quick growing Australians and there were revivals and prohibition cam-
paigns and Masonic ceremonies at Christmas. The long-legged Quaker
boy who had gone on studying history in 40 below zero winters in
Minnesota watched the pageant of the streets with a glance lifted from
more history books, reading Thackeray always when there was noth-
ing else to read, and going back to history, any kind of history, but
always American history, as if he found in that longer view meanings
making themselves plain in the new town here.
For the story of his days after the founding of The Miami Herald,
with Mr. Shutts at the business helm, one must go to the files of The
Herald. He worked late at night in all those early years and at last
walked home at 1 o'clock at night to the Sutclife apartments among
the scent of night-blooming jasmine and the pale blossoms of that
tremendous cereus vine, to his new wife, Miss Lillias Shine, of Orlando.
An old Florida gentleman, hearing they were to be married, offered
the last word on Miss Lilla. "Stoneman," he said, "you're marrying
the finest damn woman in Florida." He never contradicted it.
Nobody but a Mason could write the story of his work for Florida
Masonry. The very list of offices he has held one hesitates to copy for
fear of inaccuracy. But the fore-and-aft hat with the feather that made
him look like Admiral Farragut has covered a lot of secrets of good
works, as carefully hidden as Masonic secrets. Nobody, I suppose, really
will ever make a complete list of those quiet deeds. But every now and
then some oldtimer turns up with gratitude still in his eyes.
His record on the Miami municipal bench, where he took a fiendish
delight in fining his friends for speeding or passing lights, fought for
10 years a steady battle to clean up colored town, met with steady eyes
the whole petty and whining and seamy tale of a growing town's mis-
demeanors, and maintained justice and order with a dignity and sim-
plicity worthy of the highest courts of the land, stands fixed. Yankee
women, having heard wild tales of the South's injustice to negroes, came
into morning court often to witness horrors with their own eyes. They
never failed to speak to him afterward. "Why," one woman said, "you
treat negroes and white people with exactly the same justice, Judge
Stoneman." He said, "Madame, that is the purpose of this court."
Two stories, one a breach of confidence in the telling, point up that
10 years as well as anything else. He came back to Miami after a va-
cation one year, and drove blindly across a stop light. The officer,
after blowing his whistle shrilly, recognized him and apologized. "Make
me out a ticket," Stoneman said grimly, "I never noticed that light
at all." "Oh, that's all right, Judge," the officer said. "I wouldn't give
you a ticket." He insisted. The case vfas entered on the docket, called
next morning. He pleaded guilty, fined himself and paid the fine. They
do say it was a great help to the force after that, in the matter of other
Here comes the breach of confidence. The people who really were
terrorized by the presence of Judge Stoneman on the bench were em-
ployes of The Herald. He had issued orders that every one of them had
to be absolutely above suspicion. A Herald employee, arrested, was
a graver offender than anyone else. If that was unjust, they could make
the most of it. On one occasion a Herald boy was arrested driving on
the wrong side of the street taking another boy, seriously injured, to
the hospital. The boy, in the court next morning, pleaded guilty, but
told the story. The other boy had arrived safely at the hospital even
after the arrest. But the boy was guilty and Judge Stoneman fined him.
The secret leaked out around the Herald later. The Judge paid the
boy's fine himself.
When he retired from the bench, because of temporary illness, it
was with deep regret. The police force didn't like it either. They kept
his hospital filled with flowers and one of his most prized possessions
was a silver vase sent him by the wives of the policemen, the auxiliary
to the police department. Always thereafter when you saw an oldtime
member of the police force stiffen suddenly into a salute slightly modified
by a broad and affectionate grin, you could note a quiet gentleman
in a grey suit by the name of Stoneman, going down to buy his daily
cigars at the corner drugstore, with a bright eye still for the proper
conduct of the boys.
There are more stories than I can possibly tell. There are more than
I have even heard of. It is difficult for me to speak flatly of the things
MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS
I know about him. It is silly to remark, for instance, that he was the
most honest man I have ever heard of, because dishonesty was incon-
ceivable to him. You cannot say that justice was a passion with him,
because it was so much more than that. It was the breath of his way of
thinking and of the manner of his speech, as it was of those fighting
Quakers, who gave him the color of his eyes and his way of walking.
That he was alive to the real meaning of democracy and of the United
States of America, that its constitution, the forces and ideas which cre-
ated it, were living forces to him, is also an understatement. Few men
I have ever met saw so clearly what this country is all about and
feared so little that it should fail in its destiny, of liberty and justice
and democracy. It was to him a destiny always to be striven for, pos-
sible as a result only of eternal vigilance, and the best intelligence of
It is an almost impossible thing to present the character of a man
in the round, especially as the specimen presented had so rich and
mellow and well-stocked a mind, so clear and yet so subtle a person-
ality. As his sole descendant, it is doubly difficult. But there is one
tribute to his work which I should like to make as a follower of his
craft. In a pioneer town like Miami, when an editor writes what amounts
to miles of words every single year, what the town sees plainly is the
ideas presented, the thought which, day after day, is written. How it
was written not so many notice, yet few editors of his day owned such
a perfect fusion of matter and manner, which we call style. It would
seem at first that his writing had a total absence of manner. But when
you studied it day after day and year after year, you saw that he
wrote one of the most beautiful English prose styles possible. It owns
not a grain of affectation. There were no tricks, no elaborations, no
non-essentials in his sentences. It was prose as fine and crystal as
brook water, and as refreshing. It flowed daily in the columns of
The Herald, unfailingly easy, accomplished, diversified. But clear, clear,
always, with that quality of quiet luminescence that alone emerges from
such clarity. He had no idea that it had a manner in itself. It was only
the way he thought. But that is also the way of greatness.
Some years ago he was one of a group of 3Q editors from all over
the country to be sent to Europe by the Carnegie Foundation to make
a study of European conditions. I think that the high moment of the
trip for him came when he was to make a speech in Westminster Abbey,
on the presentation of a wreath at the grave of the Unknown Soldier.
I should like to have heard that speech. His forebears had been kicked
out of England as a penalty for thinking for themselves. He was not
unaware of that, standing with bared head before the great grey arches.
I think he knew quite a pleasure in finding himself a witness there,
for the country which that same toughness and wilfulness for freedom
had helped found. I think he was a pledge, and knew himself to be,
that in his country thought would maintain its own freedom, whatever
the difficulties of the years to come.
He wrote me a letter that night about the Abbey service, which I
shall always keep. He said nothing much about the speech itself. But
in a postscript Mrs. Stoneman wrote in her own comment. "P.S.", she
wrote, "Frank did very well." I think we'll let it go at that.
Archaeological Investigations On The
Upper Florida Keys
by JOHN M. GOGGIN
DURING THE SUMMER of 1940 an archaeological survey was made
of a portion of the Upper Florida Keys.' The area covered was
from Virginia and Biscayne Keys on the north to Lower Mate-
cumbe Key on the south, plus a portion of the west shore of.Biscayne
Bay. Summer is the least desirable time to attempt work in this area,
but circumstances offered no other choice.
The area in question was inhabited by the Tekesta* Indians.2 Ap-
parently this tribe, like various others in the state, was more or less a
political confederation of small local groups. There are many references
to the presence of Indians on the Keys or "Los Martires" as the Spanish
frequently called them, but few villages are named. Fontaneda does
mention some towns, but they appear to have been located on the Lower
Keys. In 1607 Governor Ibarra states that he received a visit from some
chiefs, among whom were ... principal lords of the mouth of Miguel
Mora." According to Swanton ". . this name was given to the opening
between the Florida Mainland and the Keys on the eastern side."3 This
may be the present Card Sound. The one tribe or village that is men-
tioned rather commonly is Matecumbe. This was probably located on
the present Lower Matecumbe Key, because on many early maps it is
called Old Matecumbe to differentiate it from Upper Matecumbe Key.
The earliest mention is in 1573, when the Matecumbe Indians attained
notice by killing a number of Spaniards.4 It was again mentioned about
1. The author wishes to thank Dr. J. W. Goggin, of Miami, and Charles Brook-
field, of Elliotts Key, Karl Squires and many others for the aid they have given
him. Dorothy F. Goggin aided in the field and made the accompanying plates.
2. Goggin (1940a), 274. (Bibliographical references in full will be found in the
bibliography at the end of the article. Ed.)
* Tequesta sometimes spelled Tekesta or Tegesta.-Ed.
3. Swanton (1922), 342.
4. Connor (1925), 51.
1628-1629.5 Bishop Calder6n, in 1675, mentions two groups in the area
covered by this survey. These, interestingly enough, are named after
the extreme Keys which were covered in this survey. These tribes he
calls the "Viscayfios" and "Matecumbeses".6 According to his account
they were very savage tribes, "having no fixed abodes, living on fish
and toots of trees." In 1697 it was reported that the Indians living on
Matecumbe were "Catholics."7 Romans states that Old Matecumbe
was one of the "last habitations of the savages of the Calusa nation."8
By 1800, or a little later, all the Indians had disappeared from this area.
It was probably even earlier, for by the last quarter of the 18th century
mahogany cutters from the Bahamas overran the Keys. They hadi vari-
ous skirmishes with the dwindling remnants of the aboriginal inhabitants.
Geographically, the Keys mentioned are quite uniform. Virginia and
Biscayne Keys, the northernmost, are the only Keys not similar to
the rest. Geologically, they are underlaid by the Miami Limestone for-
mation. The Keys, from Elliotts Key south are all of the Key Largo
Limestone formation, which is an elevated coral reef, while the Miami
Limestone is oilitic. In flora, Biscayne is again atypical. The other Keys
are clothed with a stunted "tropical hammock" vegetable complex.9 This
is stunted because of the prevailing winds, occasional hurricanes, and
-the lack of soil cover due to the closeness of the rock to the surface.
The trees are all broad-leaved, West Indian hardwoods, and many bear
Commonly, any typical Key may be divided into three physiographic
zones. The outermost is the beach complex (on the east or southeast
side). Here a narrow, coral-sanded beach comes down to the rock shore.
This wind-swept beach is often separated from the main ridge by a
narrow, shallow slough. The rocky ridge is covered with a stunted, though
luxuriant, hammock growth. The western side is bordered by a thick,
low mangrove swamp which covers the shallows up to the rocky ridge.
On the edge of the mangroves are found most of the sites.
The mammalian fauna is rather limited. Bears were formerly common
on Virginia and Biscayne Keys. As far as can be ascertained, deer were
not commonly found on many of the Upper Keys. Romans says deer
5. Espinosa (1942), 109.
6. Wenhold (1936), 12.
7. Swanton (1922), 343.
8. Romans (1775), xxxiv.
9. Harper (1927), 111.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
were found on Biscayne Key and "small deer" on Lower Matecumbe.'o
These small deer are probably the same species as those now found
on the group of Pine Keys to the east of Key West. The most common
animal in all the Keys under discussion was probably the raccoon.
Wading and sea birds of all kinds were found in great numbers.
There is (or was) no running water on any of these Keys. All fresh
water was obtained by digging wells in sandy beaches or from pot holes
and sloughs where rain water collected.
Previous archaeological work in this area has been very scant. A few
early anthropologists may have visited the Keys, but we have no pub-
lished data. Moore, despite his many travels, did not explore the Keys.
The botanist Small mentions a kitchen midden on Biscayne Key, which
is the only reference to that Key site." He later remarks that "as far
as we know the only evidences of aboriginal occupation on the Uppe,
Keys are two small Indian mounds near the middle of Key Largo.-
Stirling visited the Keys on various occasions between 1933 and 1935,
but as yet has not published his work.
The area investigated is the southernmost part of the Glades Ar-
chaeological area.'3 To be more specific, it is a portion of the Tekesta
sub-area. This is differentiated from the Calusa sub-area by a number
of traits ranging from pottery to mound forms.'1
This survey was started on Biscayne Key, which is physically the
beginning of the Florida Keys.'= Geographically, as has been pointed
out, it differs from the rest, but there is little possibility that its ar-
chaeology may differ. Until recently there was a midden about two-
thirds of the way down from the north end of the key. This probably
is the site to which Small referred.'" In 1926 certain parts of the Island
were filled with dirt dredged from the bay bottom; at this time the
mound was covered. The midden was about 75 feet long, of oval shape,
and stood 2 to 3 feet above high tide level in the mangrove swamp. It
was of typically black soil with few shells. This summer, thanks to
10. Romans (1775), x.
11. Small (1929), 96.
12. Small (1930), 41.
13. Stirling (1936), 355.
14. Goggin (1941), 25.
15. According to Small (1929), 96, there is a site on Virginia Key which is across
Bear's Cut to the north of Biscayne Key. However, this mound could not be
16. Small (1929), 96. Mention of a site on Biscayne Key.
Mr. Hugh Matheson, owner of that part of the Key, the midden was
'approximately located and a description of the site was obtained. De-
spite the fact that this mound is covered with from 2 to 5 feet of
fill, it might be one of the most valuable middens in the area that
has not been previously disturbed. This is Biscayne Key Site No. 1.
Site No. 2 on Biscayne Key is a sand burial mound situated behind
the beach ridge a short distance north of the old lighthouse.'1 It is quite
possible that there may have been a midden at the point of Cape
Florida. However, in the past 100 years it is known that the sea has cut
in some 200 feet or so at this point. Near here on the beach, below
high tide mark, one worn shard of Glades Gritty ware was found.
Sands Key, the next large island to the south, was not visited. Accord-
ing to reports there is a shell midden on the inside of the Key and a
small shell deposit on the beach side.'8 Romans, who visited here in
the 1760's, called this key Las Tetas because of two small hills.'9 There
are no natural hills on this key so he may have been referring to
Elliotts Key, directly to the south, although very large (nine miles
long) has no mounds discovered on it as yet. The southern end, how-
ever, is quite unknown. This end faces upon Black Caesar's Creek, a
natural channel leading out of the bay, and more than likely a midden is
somewhere near. From Elliotts Key south to Key Largo, there are a
number of smaller keys about which nothing is known archaeologically.
Key Largo has a number of mounds upon it that are known and
probably others will be found from time to time, especially on the
northern end. This key is about 30 miles long, and not more than a
mile wide at its widest part. It was formerly covered with a dense
jungle of hardwoods. The beach on the Atlantic side is rocky, with a
reef some distance offshore. The west side of the key faces Florida Bay
and that shore is a muddy mangrove littoral.
Key Largo Site No. 1 is about 8 miles south of the entrance to the
present highway (U. S. No. 1) into the key and some 200 yards west
of the highway. It is situated on the edge of the rock ridge which drops
17. Cited on the authority of Wirth Munroe, Coconut Grove, who is well acquainted
with this part of the Key.
g1. Reported by Karl Squires of Miami, who found a shell celt and stone pendant
at the latter site.
19. Romans (1775), xxvii.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
abruptly into the mangroves. In aboriginal times the Indians could
have brought their canoes up to the site at high tide.
This mound is a midden composed almost entirely of black soil
and ashes with a mixture of shell and bones. In some parts there are
strata of fish bones over a foot thick. Some sections are also composed
of strata of pure ash from an inch to two feet thick. Only a small per-
centage of the total content of the midden is shell. There are mostly
large Fasciolaria, Strombus and Busycon shells. Bivalves are not common.
The midden has been mutilated to a great extent by the removal of
the rich soil for gardens. No excavation was attempted because of
mosquitoes, although this site was visited on several occasions. A large
number of artifacts, mostly shell picks and potshards, were collected
on the surface.
The greatest length of the midden (northeast-southwest) is probably
175 feet and the width about 75 feet. It is not much more than three
and one-half feet deep at the maximum.
Key Largo Site No. 2 is about 14.5 miles south of the highway (U.
S. No. 1) entrance. It is in the hammock, about 200 yards from the
closest water, on a small point of the high hammock that extends to
the bay side. No excavations were made. Fortunately, there has been
little disturbance. At its highest point the fill is only about 2 feet in
depth. Because of the heavy hammock cover it was difficult to deter-
mine the exact size of the midden area, but it is at least 200 by 300 feet
across. A few shell tools were found here, but potshards comprised the
major portion of the artifacts collected.
About 200 yards east of Key Largo Site No. 2, in the thick hammock,
is the famous rock mound, Key Largo Site No. 3. This is the best known
of all the Key sites, mainly because of Matthew Stirling's visits, and sub-
sequent newspaper publicity, in the early 1930's.
The most conspicuous section of this site is the rock mound itself.
However, it is apparently only a part of a large area which includes
a number of features. The heavy hammock cover makes it difficult to
get a true idea of the site, but there is no question that it is similar
to the intricate sites of the Ten Thousands Islands area. Here, however,
the material used is limestone fragments instead of shell.
The large mound is built of limestone rocks 10 to 12 inches in diam-
eter, laid in rough courses. The elevation of the mound is about 8 or
9 feet. A few holes have been dug into this mound by treasure seek-
ers, but the damage is slight. These do reveal the interior construction
of the mound and show that it was apparently all made of stone.
The outline is hard to determine on account of the heavy hammock
growth, but it appears, roughly, to be kidney shaped, about 100 feet
long by 55 feet at the widest. To the east there was apparently a slop-
ing ramp which led down to a stone causeway which was traceable for
at least 25 feet. This path is 1 foot high, about 14 feet wide, and made
of the same stone as is the mound.
Some 130 feet west of the north end of this mound is a wall or ridge
made of limestone. This is 2/2 feet high, 8 feet wide and 70 feet long.
The southern end is well defined, but the northern end loses itself in a
very rough part of the hammock. It is thus difficult to determine how
far the ridge extends.
It is quite possible that there are other structures in the immediate
vicinity, but the thick forest makes it difficult to find them. Some of
the trees on the large mound are almost 2 feet in diameter and 50 feet
No potshards were seen at this site and the only artifact collected
was a broken shell pick. The closeness of the midden (Key Largo Site No.
2) would make one suspect that they were contemporaneous, but there
is no ceramic or artifactual evidence to prove it.
Without doubt this site was primarily used for ceremonial purposes
and may have been of more importance than one would suspect at a
first glance. However, as far as is known at this time, there are no
similar sites on the upper Keys although there are rumors of one some-
where in the Everglades.20 The absence of potshards or other artifacts
also tends to indicate that it was of special importance.
The next large island south of Key Largo is Plantation Key. About
one-quarter of a mile from the south end of the key are mounds 1 and
2. These are situated on a bare, rocky flat behind the beach on the
southeast shore of the Key.
Whether these are artificial mounds is doubtful, but it is very diffi-
cult to explain their occurrence from natural causes. They do not
seem to be sand dunes because of the many large rocks and conch
shells (Strombus) that are intermixed with the sand that forms the
20. In 1943, a stone circle 45 feet in diameter and 3 to 4 feet wide was found on
Boca Chica Key, and Romans states that ". . remains of savage habitations
built, or rather piled up of stone" were to be seen on Key Vaca and Key West in
his time. Romans (1775), 291. These sites are all in the Lower Keys.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
mounds; nor do they appear to be former beaches, because they are
quite isolated on the flat rock, although their long axes are parallel to
the present beach a short distance away. Close by are some depressions
from which soil and rocks may have been taken to form the mounds.
Mound 1 is a low ridge, 20 feet wide, 65 feet long and 232 feet
high. It is largely composed of loose rock with some sand. The orien-
tation of the long axis is 10 degrees east of the south.
Ninety feet northward is Mound 2. This is an irregular rectangle,
75 by 105 feet in dimensions, and 4 to 5 feet high. Its composition is
similar to Mound I, but it is more sandy, and more Strombus shells
were noticed on the surface.
No pottery or cultural material was found at either mound. The ab-
sence of dark soil or bones would preclude the possibility of this being a
midden site, leaving the probability that they were ceremonial or burial
mounds. It could be possible that these are modern, but it is some-
what useless to speculate without excavation.
On the north end of the key is Site No. 3. This was a former; midden,
and is located .9 of a mile south of Tavernier Creek west of the high-
way and close to the mangrove lined shore.
There is no midden deposit of any extent remaining as the rich soil
has been removed for gardens. However, potshards were common and
several shell artifacts were found in crevices in the bed rock.
Site No. 4 is a large midden a short distance northwest of Site No. 3.
The mound is large, being approximately 200 by 300 feet and 6 to 7
feet high, with the long axis approximately north south. The pre-
dominant shells were Strombus gigas, Livonia pica and Nerita versi-
color. Very few Busycon perverse were seen and although there were
many bird and fish bones, artifacts were quite scarce. As a whole this
mound has been very little damaged.
No sites were located on Windleys Key although it has been reported
that a midden was formerly there which is now destroyed.2'
On the south end of Upper Matecumbe Key, west of the highway
is a sizable midden. It is situated on the slope of the rock ridge where
the latter meets the mangrove lined side of the key. At the deepest the
deposits are about 4 feet. A small boat harbor has been dredged through
the northeastern side and gives a good cross section. There does not
21. Reported by Irwin Winte of Miami.
appear to be any particular stratigraphy and the composition is the
usual mixture of soil and shells.
Potshards were common and a number of shell artifacts were found
on the surface. One interesting thing noticed while examining the cut
face was the occurrence of pockets containing large numbers of the
bleeding tooth shell (Nerita versicolor). These were all broken in the
same place for the extraction of the mollusk for use as food.
On the north end of Lower Matecumbe Key, behind the Matheson
Dock and west of the highway, are several sandy ridges. These are
covered to an unknown depth with midden material composed of shells
and black soil. This whole is covered with a very dense growth of small
Yucca plants, making surface collecting almost impossible. Some
shards were found, all of which were undecorated Glades Gritty ware.
These ridges may have been used for burial purposes. Considering the
attention this key drew in Spanish days, it is surprising that there is
not a larger site here. However, the Labor Day hurricane of 1935, which
killed so many people in this area, destroyed large parts of this key.
It would therefore not be surprising if earlier storms had destroyed a
large part of any site.
In May 1944, through the courtesy of Mr. Hugh Matheson, it was
possible to visit Lignumvitae Key and examine the reported site there.
This was found to be a coral sand burial mound about 50 feet in diam-
eter and 3y/ feet high. It is little damaged, although it was badly
washed over in the 1935 hurricane. The presence of small fragments
of human bones on the surface would indicate its use as a burial mound.
No shards or other artifacts were seen.
It has been reported that a shell mound has been found on Indian
Key but it was not visited. It was also impossible to visit the site on
Teatable Key, although specimens from there were examined in the
United States National Museum. These were a fragmentary shell pick,
a shell celt and three Glades Gritty ware shards."
Pottery, represented by shards, ranks first in whole numbers of
artifacts found. Following this come articles of shell and bone, with
occasional artifacts of stone. Wooden objects are rarely recovered from
muck deposits, none were found in this summer's work.
The most common ware encountered on the Upper Keys is Glades
22. USNM 373834, 373835, 373836.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
Gritty ware,2. with some Biscayne Chalky ware2' and a few shards of
unidentified wares. No stratigraphic excavations were made but collec-
tions made at sites which had exposed faces, due to cuts and pits,
showed no stratigraphy.
NUMERICAL OCCURRENCES OF POTTERY WARES COLLECTED
Glades Gritty Biscayne Chalky
P1. Inc. Pl. Stamped Misc. Total
Key Largo--Site No. 1 480 44 24 6 4 558
Key Largo-Site No. 2 313 27 1 0 2 343
Plantation Key-Site No. 3 22 3 6 0 0 31
Plantation Key-Site No. 4 85 3 4 3 2 97
Upper Matecumbe Key
Site No. 1 112 10 2 4 2 130
Lower Matecumbe Key
Site No. 1 28 0 0 0 0 28
However, certain Glades Gritty ware designs show a variation in dis-
tribution. The commonest design motif is two incised lines below the
rim, varied on occasions to either one or three lines. These motifs oc-
curred at all sites where incised shards were collected, with the excep-,
tion of Key Largo Site No. 2. Here a new motif appears, consisting of
pendant loops around the vessels under the rim26 (Fig. 1, a-f). Associ-
ated with this "pendant loop" design are "diagonal parallel lines" ajnd
cross hatched motifs (Fig. 1, g-i). These last mentioned motifs are repre-
sented by only a few examples.
At the time of the first draft of this paper, the only other occurrence
of this design was one shard from the Little River Midden. However,
recent work (1943) has disclosed a new site--Sour Orange Midden-
just west of Miami, where the "pendant loop" design is predominant.
Along with this are "diagonal parallel lines" shards. Also, new test pits
in the Mulberry Midden (west of Opa Locka) have disclosed "pendant
loop" shards. These had not been found previously. Neither of the
above sites produced any of the "line below the rim" design which is
so dominant in the Tekesta sub-area.
Plantation Key Site No. 4 produced a large number of shards which
23. Goggin (1939), 37.
24. Goggin (1940b), 30.
25. Shard collections of Karl Squires and Gaines and Peyton L. Wilson of Miami
were also examined. However, these are not included in this table.
26. Goggin (1939), 39.
Fic. 1. SHARDS FROM KEY LARGO NO. 2
a-f, examples of Pendant Loop Designs; g, i, Parallel Line Designs; h, Cross
JOHN M. GOGGIN
are the thin, hard type of Glades Gritty ware typical of the Coot Bay
Five shards showing evidences of lugs were collected; four from Key
Largo Site No. 1 and the other from Upper Matecumbe Key. These are
quite unusual and are not recorded from elsewhere in the area (Fig. 2,i
a, c). The lugs appear to be roughly triangular and attached at more or
less of a right angle to the rim. On all shards the outside incisions below"
the rim continue onto the lug and, in addition, two or four lines are in-
cised on the upper surface of the projection.
Biscayne Chalky ware occurs at most sites, but nowhere in any ;great
quantity. The majority of the shards found are typical soft ware, but a'
few are of the harder type which rings when struck. One difference from
the Miami district is that the shards are cream to buff, instead of
white to grey. The stamped shards are typical in all respects. One-
plain fragment with Biscayne Chalky ware paste had a dark red interior
slip similar to North Central Florida wares.
A few shards of miscellaneous plain wares occur at some sites. These
are usually shell tempered, plain ware, occasionally with an inside red
slip. One shard tempered fragment of pottery was collected at Key Largo
Site No. 1. Shard tempered wares are rare in any part of Florida. Onef
interesting decorated shard, which apparently is a trade ware from the
West Florida Coast, was found at Key Largo Site No. 1 (Fig. 2, g). The
decoration is a combination of incising and deep triangular punctations'
on a cream colored paste similar to Biscayne Chalky. Another shard,
apparently the bottom of a vessel, with a paste similar to Glades Gritty,
had a heavy red interior slip. The outside was marked with large crude
punctations. This was found at Plantation Key Site No. 4. (Fig. 2, h).
Another unusual shard from Upper Matecumbe bears a crudely worked
Shell Picks: Picks, or more likely adzes, made from the sinistral
Busycon perverse, are the most numerous artifacts, other than pottery,
found in Southern Florida. They are present in sites along the entire
coastline of the state, and to some extent in the interior. Various work-
ers have described them, particularly Moore, who has figured various
27. A collection made in May, 1944, at Upper Matecumbe Key revealed one shard
of the "pendant loop" design. This is the first site where it has been found asso-
ciated with the incised lines below the rim.
FIG. 2. SHARDS FROM KEY LARGO NO. I
a, c, Rim lug specimens (interior aspect) b, d, e,f, miscellaneous variant in-
cised examples g, probable trade shard from West Central Florida Coast; h, un-
usual punctate shard.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
types from the Florida West Coast.B6 In this paper, the shell picks
found will be analyzed with an effort to ascertain certain techniques
of their manufacture, and their use. Comparisons, as well, will be made
with specimens from other parts of the Glades area. Fifty-eight picks
were collected. Of these 50 came from Key Largo Site No. 1. Although
the others are typical in all respects, it has been thought best to con-
sider those from the one site for study as a group. All, however, cannot
be analyzed for every characteristic, as some have a broken blade, others
a broken spire or whorl.
The shell was utilized by cutting a notch in the lip a short distance
below the shoulder. On the other side of the shell, opposite this notch,
a hole was made by pecking. The haft was fitted into the notch, forced
past the columella and into the opposite hole.
The average size (39 specimens) is 5V/ inches. Twenty-two of the
specimens range from 5 to 64 inches, while the total range is 43, ,to
Although the haft is set at a right angle to the blade on most picks,
a few have blades that slope in towards the wielder. These must have
been used like an adze. The tools as a whole seem to be well adapted
for the cultivation of the soil, digging roots, and breaking open shells.
As weapons they would be excellent. Specimens that have been hafted
experimentally have a fine balance.
Variation in the type of supplementary lashing used to secure the
haft on these tools appears to be original. This is indicated by the
presence or absence of holes in the whorls on the top of the shell. A
series of 43 picks showed 33 with one hole, 4 with 2 holes and 6 with
a solid top.30 The presence of lashing holes in the top probably indi-
cates some influence from the Ten Thousand Islands section, where
such a practice is common, rather than from the North, where it is not
As would be expected in a primitive group as poor as this, very few
tools were discarded until they were absolutely useless. Almost all of
28. See Moore (1900), (1905a), (1907a), (1921), Harrington (1924).
29. The average of a series of 17 picks from Surfside is 4.6 inches. The range being
3% to 6 inches, 4 specimens under 4 inches and 12 specimens between 4 tq 5
inches. This is the smallest series of picks seei. Contemporary shell collectors
report that specimens of Busycon from this area average smaller than those from
the West Coast and the Keys.
30. In contrast, out of 14 Surfside specimens, 13 had a solid top and I had two
holes in the top.
the specimens found show evidences of breakage and reworking to form
another suitable implement. The most usual breakage was the blade.
This was remedied by grinding the columella and channel to a new
edge. As a result of this reworking the used tools have a wider blade,
while the newer ones have a narrow and pointed one. The next most
common point of breakage was probably the lip, where pressure of
the haft split off the bottom of the notch. Frequently the hole on the
back of the pick, into which the end of the haft is inserted, is also broken
The remedy for both of these types of breakage was a new hole an
inch or so to the right of the first one, and the lip trimmed back and a
new notch cut opposite the new hole. Another method used when the
lip was broken, but the hole intact, was to make another hole in the
body of the shell to the right of the lip so that the shaft was passed
through two holes to the right of the columella.
One result of the reworking was the turning of the cutting edge of
the blade so that it was no longer at a right angle to the stroke or swing
of the implement.
Rarely, other shells are pierced for hafting as crude picks, but they
never have a sharp blade like the Busycon. A specimen made of a Fasci-
olaria gigantes shell, from Key Largo Site No. 1, was hafted by means of
two holes made through the whorls next to the columella. A' Styrorbus
gigas pick from Plantation Key Site No. 3 was hafted exactly like those
made of Busycon shells, with the notched lip. The haft was on the op-4
posite side of the columella, of course, as the Strombus shells are dextral.
Shell Dippers: These are Busycon perverse shells whose columella
are removed, leaving the basin-like outer whorl with the channel as a
handle. Fourteen dippers were collected,3'which are in every way typical
of those found throughout the Southeast. None of them, however, were
engraved. It does not appear that much care was taken in their manu-
facture, as none of the edges were ground or smoothed. In size they
ranged from 5~2 to 12%/ inches, with 11 falling between 6/4 to 82
inches. The capacity of an 8% inch specimen is 18 fluid ounces,
that of a 6 inch specimen is only 5/2 fluid ounces.
Shell Dishes: These, too, are made from the shell of the Busycon
perverse in a manner similar to the shell dippers, but the channel is
also removed and the sides trimmed down to make a shallow basin. Only
31. 8 from Key Largo 1, 5 from Upper Matecumbe Key and 1 from Plantation Key 4.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
four specimens were collected. Two from Key Largo Site No. 1 were
64 by 64 inches and 55 by 4; inches. Two from Upper Matecumbe
Key were 52 by 5 inches and 3 by 3Y inches, respectively.
Shell Celts: These were not plentiful, as only 18 broken and whole
specimens were collected from Key Largo Site No. 1, Upper Matecumbe
Key, and Plantation Key Site No. 4. In size they ranged from 3/s to 6Ys
inches. With one exception they were all of the roughly! parallel sided
form. The exception was a 6'4 inch specimen from Plantation Key] Site
No. 4, which had a rounded blade and a roughly triangular shape..32
Most of the parallel sided specimens have rounded blades. Although
these implements have been called celts in the literature for many
years, it is more likely that they were used as adzes.
The blades of all specimens have been ground on one side only, as
is the common case with adzes. Unfortunately, the tools show no indi-
cation of the angle at which they were hafted.
The distribution of the various shapes of celts is not well known,
although they are many times more abundant on the East Coast than
on the West. Material from Surfside shows a proportion of 11 parallel-
sided celts to 3 roughly triangular-sided specimens. Large numbers of
celts taken from the Ralph M. Munroe site at Coconut Grove, on Bis-
cayne Bay, were all of the roughly triangular shape.
Net Weights: Two different types of sinkers or net weights were
collected at Key Largo. Neither type are plummets, which are con-
sidered to be ornaments and are described under that category.
The more sophisticated type of weight that was used on nets or lines
is an oblong limestone tablet with a perforation near the top. Two speci-
mens found are 3% by 3 inches and 4 by 35g inches, with a thickness
that varies from 4 to 1 inch.33 The holes are drilled from both sides,
Y2 inch in diameter, and show wear. They were shaped by pecking and
grinding. A similar specimen of fossil coral, 3 by 3Y inches, came from
Upper Matecumbe Key. It had a /2 inch central perforationh.
Only two specimens of the other type of net weight were brought in
from the field. These are single valves of a clam, Lucina tigrina. They
are very thin and light, although 24 inches across, which would in-
32. This somewhat approximated the petaloid shape of the West Indian stone celts.
33. Gaines Wilson has collected a weight of this type from Key Largo 1. It is cir-
cular, 4% inches in diameter and % inch thick, and is pierced in the center
by a hole % inch in diameter.
dicate their use in clusters. Area ponderosa shells are most commonly
used for weights in other sites, but none were seen here.A4
Bone Artifacts: Bone artifacts as a whole are rare in surface col-
lections but common from excavations in Southern Florida, so the ma-
terial which comes from pits in Key Largo Site No. 1 is perhaps not
truly representative. Nothing was found at the other sites.
An unusual object from Key Largo Site No. 1 appears to be a bone
foreshaft for a composite arrow or dart. (Fig. 3, e). It is made of a dense
bone (probably deer), is 32 inches long and Y4 inch wide. One end tapers
to what was once a sharp point, while the other has been cut to fit into
a socket. It shows evidences of a high polish and was probably straight,
although now it is quite warped. Only a few other references to this
type of artifact can be found. There is a specimen reported by Wyman
from St. John's River,S3 and three fragmentary specimens in the Squires
collection. One of these is from Surfside and the others from Belle
Glade. Two shanked bone points were found at the Vero site.3
The Key Largo specimen appears more like a foreshaft'7 than' any
of the others. They appear to be too slim. Also an incised bone pin in
the Squires collection from Belle Glade has a shank. Moore found, on
the Upper St. John's River, shanked pins which showed traces of bi-
tumin.38 Those found by him appear to have been ornamental hair-
pins. Larger ornamental objects carved in wood were undoubtedly
affixed to the shank of the bone pins. So it is more than likely that all of
the specimens found in Southern Florida were composite ornamental
pins, yet there is a possibility that composite arrow points may have
The tip of a sting ray spine, 1 4 inches long, may have been a pro-
jectile point, although it shows no evidence of working. Similar points
showing notches made for hafting were found at Surfside. They are also
reported from the Florida West Coast at Crystal River.- This culture
item is one of the few traits that finds counterparts in Central and
South America. They are found in Maya Area at Piedras Negras,40 and
34. Goggin (1939), 40.
35. Wyman (1875), 40.
36. Sellards (1916), P1. 23.
37. It is almost identical with wooden specimens from the Southwestern Caves.
38. Moore (1895), 21.
39. Moore (1907b), 21.
40. Lothrop (1937), 423.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
at Holmul,41 where they are described as awls. In Panama they are
abundant at Cocl6,42 and Mason found them in the Santa Marta dis-
trict of Colombia.43 He also notes their use as arrow points among the
present day Goajiro Indians. It is quite likely that this distribution is
merely a coincidence due to the availability of identical resources in
a similar tropical environment.
One small perforated shark's tooth, Y inch long, was collected. (Fig.
3, d). It is uncertain whether this was worked for an ornament or to be
set in a club, as Cushing found a club studded with shark's teeth at
Key Marco.A4 Other specimens of single perforated teeth have been
found at Surfside and with a burial at Pine Island, on the West Coast.-4
The ever present bone pin is represented by two small fragments. One
section of a point is 1% inches long and Y4 inch wide. This still retains
a high degree of polish. The point is neatly shaped and polished, but
is not sharp enough for an awl. This fragment appears to be a section
of one of the long pins (7 to 9 inches), which were probably worn in
the hair. The other is 24 inches long, and though it is badly eroded,
there is little doubt as to its former identity.
Ornaments: The only ornaments collected were two whole and one
broken pendants from Key Largo Site No. 1. These pendants, often
called plummets or plumb bobs, are very characteristic of Floridd
archaeology. Various uses, other than ornamentation, have been postu-
lated, such as net weights and sinkers, but whenever specimens are
found with burials their positions are such as to indicate that they
were used for adornment. All found here were with midden material.
The finest example is a pear-shaped specimen made from pumice.46
It is 2 inches long, 1 inch in diameter, with a net incision arorj-d
the small end. It is naturally very light and has a very rough surface.
(Fig. 3, b).
41. Merwin and Vaillant (1932), 90.
42. Lothrop (1937), 97.
43. Mason (1936), 232.
44. Cushing (1895).
45. Moore (1905), 305.
46, Pumice is found on the beaches of Southern Florida where it has drifted from
the volcanic islands of the Lesser Antilles. Fragments occur in most middens
which show its use as an abrasive. It might be noted that there was found at Key
Largo 1, a small pebble of a green serpentine-like material.
FIc. 3. ARTIFACTS FROM KEY LARGO NO. I
a-c, Pendants; d, perforated shark tooth; e, shanked bone point.
Another pendant, a long narrow triangle, made of limestone, is 17
inches long and Y2 inch wide at the bottom. The surface is poorly fin-
ished. (Fig. 3, c).
A broken specimen made from the lip of a Strombus gigas shell is
2Y4 inches long and 5 inch wide at the widest part. Instead of an en-
circling incision it has two opposite notches offset in such manner as to
JOHN M. GOGGIN
give the impression that some effigy was attempted. The surface is
fairly well finished. (Fig. 3, a).
Subsistence: The extension of this work to the Keys has shown the
utilization in large quantities of shell fish not used in the near-by Flor-
ida areas. These are the Nerita versicolor and the Livonia pica. Large
pockets of broken Nerita shells were found in the Upper Matecumbe
Key midden and at Plantation Key Site No. 4, They were all cracked
in a similar manner to extract the snail. At the present time the snails are
not eaten in Florida, although they are great favorites of the Greek
people and the Polynesians."
Of the three large conchs found in the mounds, the Strambus gigas
is the only one popular for food at the present time. The Busycon
perverse and the Fasciolaria gigantia are considered too tough, although
the latter is still occasionally ground and used.
The Livonia pica, which is found in such quantities at Plantation Key
Sites Nos. 3 and 4, is rather rare nowadays in the Keys, but is considered
to be a great delicacy in the Bahamas.
The presence of great quantities of fish bones would indicate a, large
utilization of such food.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The sites and material examined seem to belong to the Glades area
beyond question, and in particular the Key materials falls into the
Tekesta sub-area. There is no evidence of contact with the Antillean
area despite the close proximity of the Keys to Cuba and the Bahamas.
Various writers have postulated Mayan connections with Southern
Florida and in particular Key Largo Site No. 3. There is absolutely no
concrete evidence of such relationships. The stone mound on Key Largo
Site No. 3 does not resemble any Mayan structure and the pottery in
the area is in no way similar to Mayan ceramics as has been claimed.
It was further reported that obsidian knives were found near the stone
mound."s If such were true, trade relationships with Mexico would be
established, however, none were found during the period of work die-
scribed in this paper.4"
There is not enough space available in this short paper to discuss all
47. Thanks are due to Henry Frampton of Miami for material on the modern utiliza-
tion of marine mollusks.
48. Gifford and Gilbert (1932).
49. In conversations with Dr. Gifford (Spring, 1943), he says there was some mis-
take about the report of the obsidian knives.
the ramifications of Antillean and Southeastern cultures. Certain isolated
traits which appear to be common to both the islands and mainlands are
repeatedly pointed out by careless, or romantic, writers and offered as
proof of important cultural affiliations of the two areas. Complete cul-
tural connections must be based on high percentile similarity of ex-
haustive cultural trait lists comprising subsistence, religion, social and
linguistic, and artifactual material. So far, we have certain similarities
and a few common traits of material culture and little else. As for sub-
sistence in the Antilles, the cassava, or manioc, is the basis of the entire
food complex, and in this respect shows the basic food derivation from
the Amazon and Guiana regions of South America.
In the southeast, generally, the agricultural complex is basically maize,
with beans and squash. In Southern Florida, the nearest area to the
Antilles, all Spanish reports emphasize the fact that agriculture of any
type was entirely lacking. The religious and social systems are not
thoroughly known as yet in the Antilles, but at the present time there
appears to be little similarity to the Southeastern United States. Lan-
guage appears to have no similarity at all. The Calusa, who may have
had the majority of contacts with the Antilles, speak a little known
language which appears to be related to the Choctaw.60 The most im-
portant item of material culture-pottery-refutes by direct evidence
the possibility of important connections.5' No example of West Indian
pottery is known to have been found in south Florida, although slightly
similar pieces are found in West Florida and in Georgia.
Although no stratigraphy was seen, a carefully planned excavation
may reveal some chronology in pottery designs. No European material
was seen, perhaps indicating that most of the sites were not occupied
in Post-Columbian times, although aborigines are referred to by Spanish
writers. Even though the Indians had little direct trade*5 with the
Spanish they must have procured large quantities of plunder from the
many ships wrecked on the Florida reefs.
The absence of more burial sites is quite puzzling, especially as no
evidence has been found as yet of burials in the middens. It is impos-
sible to excavate a grave on the keys except on the beaches, because of
the rock, and the beaches are constantly shifted and destroyed by the
50. Swanton (1922), 30.
51. Goggin (1940b), 27, 29.
52. They had practically nothing to offer to the Spanish.
JOHN M. GOGGIN
sea. It is possible the Plantation Key Sites Nos. 1 and 2 and the sand
ridges at Lower Matecumbe Site No. 1 may prove to contain burials.
Towards Cape Sable, to the west of the main chain of Keys, there
are a few small keys, but they do not appear to have been occupied in
The remarkable discovery by Cushing of finely carved and painted
wooden objects at Key Marco" is well known to archaeologists. How-
ever, little has been found on the East Coast."4 Considering the recent
findings of Stirling" at a canoe landing near mounds close to Belle
Glade, there is still hope that similar finds may be produced from the
Keys. Some possibilities are offered here. Considering the topography,
it would appear that the best chances would be at'Key Largo Sites Nos.
1 and 2 and on Upper Matecumbe. These sites abut upon the thick man-
grove swamp which lines the inner side of the Key, and undoubtedly
canoe trails were kept open from these sites to the Bay of, Florida. It is
quite possible that in the muck areas at the foot of these sites the
perishable material may be found buried. The situation is somewhat like
that which Stirling found at Democrat Creek, near Belle Glade.
However, any excavation endeavoring to recover this material would
be quite costly, necessitating great care, as the area considered is a
tidewater, mangrove swamp.
53. Cushing (1896).
54. Goggin (1942).
55. Stirling (1935).
CUSHING, FRANK H.
1897-"Exploration of Ancient Key-Dwellers Remains on the Gulf Coast of
Florida", Proceedings, American Philosophical Society, Vol. 35, pp. 329-448.
ESPANOSA, ANTONIO VASQUEZ (Charles Upson Clark, Trans.)
1942-"Compendium and Description of the West Indies", Smithsonian Miscel-
laneous Collections, Vol. 102, Washington.
CONNOR, JEANETTE THURBER
1925-Colonial Records of Spanish Florida, Vol. I, 1570-1577, Publications, Flor-
ida State Historical Society No. 5, Deland.
GIFFORD, JOHN C. and A. H. GILBERT
1932-"Prehistoric Mounds in South Florida", Science, Vol. 75, No. 1942, p. 313,
March 18, 1932.
GocGGN, JOHN M.
1939-"A Ceramic Sequence in South Florida", New Mexico Anthropolgist, Vol.
3, p. 35-40.
1940a-"The Tekesta Indians of Southern Florida", The Florida Historical Quar-
terly, Vol. 28, pp. 274-284.
1940b-"The Distribution of Pottery Wares in the Glades Archaeological Area of
South Florida", New Mexico Anthropologist, Vol. 4, pp. 22-33.
1941-"Some Problems of the Glades Archaeological Area," News Letter, South-
eastern Archaeological Conference, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 24-26.
1942-"A Prehistoric Wooden Club from Southern Florida", American Anthro-
pologist, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 327-328.
1927-"Natural Resources of Southern Florida", 18th Annual Report, Florida
State Geological Survey, pp. 27-192, Tallahassee.
HARRINGTON, M. R.
1924--"Shell Implements From Florida", Indian Notes, Vol. 1, pp. 218-221,
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York.
LOTHROP, SAMUEL KIRKLAND
1937-"Cocl, an Archaeological Study of Central Panama, Part 1", Peabody
Museum, Memoir 7, Cambridge.
MASON, J. ALDEN
1936-"Archaeology of Santa Marta, Colombia, The Tairona Culture, Part 2,
Section 1", Anthropological Series, Field Museum of Natural History Vol.
2, No. 2.
MERWIN, RAYMOND and GEORGE C. VAILLANT
1932-"The Ruins of Holmul, Guatemala", Peabody Museum, Memoirs, Vol. 3,
No. 2, Cambridge.
MOORE, CLARENCE B.
1895-"Certain River Mounds of Duval County, Florida", Journal Acad. Nat. Sci.,
Philadelphia, Vol. 10, p. 1-59.
1900--"Certain Antiquities of the Florida West Coast", Journal, Acad. Nat. Sci.,
Philadelphia, Vol. 9, Part 2.
1905-"Miscellaneous Investigations in Florida", Journal, Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila-
delphia, Vol. 13.
1907a-"Notes on the Ten Thousand Islands, Florida", Journal, Acad. Nat. Sci.,
Philadelphia, Vol. 13.
1907b-"Crystal River Revisited", Journal, Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Vol. 13.
1921-"Notes on Shell Implements From Florida", American Anthropologist, Vol.
23, pp. 12-19.
JOHN M. GOGGIN 35
1775-A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, Vol. I, New York.
SMALL, JOHN K.
1929--From Eden to Sahara, Florida's Tragedy, Lancaster, Pa.
1930-"Vegetation and Erosion on the Everglades Keys", Scientific Monthly, Vol.
30, pp. 33-49.
SELLARDS, E. H.
1916-"Human Remains and Associated Fossils From the Pleistocene of Florida",
8th Annual Report, Florida State Geological Survey, pp. 121-160, Talla-
STIRLING, M. W.
1935-"Smithsonian Archaelogical Projects Conducted Under the Federal Em-
ployment Relief Administration, 1933-1934," Smithsonian Annual Report,
1936-"Florida Cultural Affiliations in Relation to Adjacent Areas", in Essays in
Anthropology, in honor of Alfred Louis Kroeber (Robert Lowie, ed.),
SWANTON, JOHN R.
1922-"Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors", Bulletin 73,
Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington.
WENHOLD, LUCY C.
1936-"A 17th Century Letter of Gabriel Diaz Vara Calder6n, Bishop of Cuba,
Describing the Indians and Indian Missions of Florida", Smithsonian Mis-
cellaneous Collections, Vol. 95, No. 16, Washington.
1875-"Freshwater Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida", Fourth Memoir,
Peabody Academy of Science, Salem.
Five Plants Essential to the Indians
and Early Settlers of Florida
by JOHN C. GIFFORD
T HE following five plants served the Indian and early settler well.
Although they may have been superseded, I doubt if they have
ever been excelled: Koonti, a starch; Black-drink or Florida-mati,
a beverage; Seminole-pumpkin, a vegetable; Guava, a fruit; Getorgia-
fever-bark or Florida-quinine, a medicine. All five of these plants have
held an important place in the lives of the people of the Sou.heastern
United States. All are apparently native to Florida or the near-by West
Koonti or comptie is a cycad of the genus Zamia with four species in
Florida, according to Small. The common kind, in the southern end of
the state is Zamia Floridana. According to Professor Charles Joseph
Chamberlain of the University of Chicago in his book on "The Living
Cycads," "starch is very abundant in the underground portions of the
plant, and it is often used for food. The stem is pounded to a pulp and
washed in a straining-cloth to remove a poison which is found in most
cycads. During the Civil War several soldiers died from eating the root
before the poison had been washed out; but the meal, when properly
prepared, makes a fairly palatable cake or pudding. Some species in
Cuba are being used for the manufacture of starch, but Zamia does not
grow fast enough to give it much commercial importance."
Whenever an old settler needed cash he would manufacture a barrel
of koonti starch. It was shipped by way of Key West and was finally
converted into arrow-root biscuits. The pine trees were blazed for koonti
tasks and it was common to see Negroes, Indians and Whites all busy
together digging koonti. Here and there koonti mills developed in the
pine woods. The red water from the washings is poisonous to domestic
animals and the refuse, when it commences to decay, contaminates the
air with a genuine stink. It is a very valuable fertilizer. Just as pioneers
in other sections depended on palm-cabbage and alligators' tails, the
pine woods settler, while clearing his land, fed on koonti starch and
JOHN C. GIFFORD
gopher turtles. The seeds resemble large grains of corn and are called
"koonti-corn." When eaten by turkeys or other animals, they are said to
cause death, although some say the crow is an exception. The leaves,
resembling miniature palm fronds, were shipped north for decoration on
Palm Sundays. Specimens of the cones of this plant are in demand in
northern institutions for study because the pollen grains develop sper-
matozoa which wiggle about at a lively rate.'
Among the piles of koonti roots I once found what I thought were
bacterioidal nodules. This may account for the richness in nitrogen of
the refuse and is probably one of the reasons why the plant never grows
in low or damp places. It is never seriously injured by forest fires,
sprouting quickly from the root if the leaves are killed. It is bothered
only by the koonti-fly which seems immune to the poison in its leaves.
It is one of the left-overs of past ages, living only in small patches here
and there throughout the world. As with several things in common use
today, some Indians were probably poisoned before a safe process of
manufacture, was developed; however, this knowledge was absorbed by
the early settler. When we plant any common cultivated thing we are
profiting by the work of many people through many years.
Koonti starch was the basis of sofki-pot, which was usually kept
constantly simmering, until superseded by grits. Corn-grits replaced
koonti and corn liquor the black-drink or Florida mat6, called yaupon
by the Indians.
Florida mati: In an old book on the "Trees of America" by D. J.
Browne, published in 1857, there is an interesting description of yaupon,
Ilex vomitoria, the emetic-holly. He relates that in Italy the tree is
known as "Appalachina" and to the French as "Houx apalachine." In
northeastern America it is referred to as cassene, cassena and cassioberry-
bush, but among the southern Indians as yaupon or yapon.
In the "Traits of the Aborigines" is the following:
"The firm cassene endures the wrecking storm
And changeful season,-by tradition styl'd-
The boon of heaven, and around Hygeia's fane
Wreaths a bright garland, when her priestesses,
Clad in their meek and unpretending skill,
It's aid demand."
1. This subject was studied by Dr. H. J. Webber in Bul. No. 2, 1901, U.S., Dept. of
Agriculture, entitled "Spermatogenesis and Fecundation of Zamia."
The Ilex vomitoria is an elegant evergreen tree or shrub, usually
growing to a height of twelve or fifteen feet in its natural habitat, and
somewhat higher in a state of cultivation. The flowers which put forth
in June, are whitish, and are succeeded by smooth, red berries, ripe in
October, they, like most of the common-holly, remain upon the branches
during the winter. The emetic-holly is found in moist shady places, from
Virginia to the Floridas, and was introduced into Britain in 1770.
It is said that the yaupon was regarded by many of the southern tribes
of the American Indians as a holy plant, being used by them during
their religious rites and solemn councils, to clear the stomach and the
head. It was an annual custom for a chief to give notice to the inhabi-
tants of a town, in the spring, to assemble at the public house, which was
previously purified by fire. After they had convened, the chief was first
served with a bowl of conch-shell-never before used-of their emetic
broth, and next to him were served each individual until at last the
women and children. They had a belief that this beverage restored lost
appetite, strengthened the stomach and gave them agility and courage
Among some of the tribes it was held in such high esteem that the
decoction of its toasted leaves called "black-drink" was forbidden to
their women. In North Carolina the inhabitants of the seaside swamps,
having no good water to drink, disguise its taste by boiling in it a little
yaupon and use it constantly warm as the Chinese do their daily tea.
The U. S. Dept. of Agriculture has experimented with yaupon in both
South Carolina and Florida for some time past. This tea has been used
by the natives for many years and during the Civil War replaced oriental
tea. I understand that Dr. Crawford C. Wilson at Auburndale, Florida,
on his "Yaupon Farms" has developed a superior grade of native tea.
Like the Paraguay-tea, to which it is very similar, it must be boiled
and not steeped. It is more than likely that in many parts of this world
without these various teas, irrespective of their exhilarating effects, many
would have died of epidemics. Unboiled water is suspicious everywhere
in the tropics. It is always best to rely on teas and fruit juices.
Early travellers tell how eagerly the southern Indians in Florida
waited for the arrival of the tea leaves from the northern part of the
state. In fact, the word "Osceola" is from "asi-yahola." Asi, the plant,
and yahola, the long drawn out cry when all were ready to drink.
Osceola was the leader of these ceremonies, thence the name. They say
that Osceola's real grievance against the whites was due to the fact that
JOHN C. GIFFORD
they captured his wife, claiming that she was a run away slave, though
she was only part Negro, and they had three children.
Seminole-pumpkin: The seminole word, "chassa-howitska," according
to Dr. William A. Read of the University of Louisiana, means "hanging
pumpkin," chassi, pumpkins, and witski, hanging loose. This is the name
of a river, Chassa-howitska, shown on the Taylor map (1839) and on
the Davis map (1856). It is the old Indian name of a river in Citrus
County and of a swamp in Hernando County.
The Indians raised this pumpkin by planting it at the butt of a tree
which had been deadened. The vines climbed up the tree and onto the
branches. It was a curious sight to see an old oak tree laden with hanging
pumpkin. The Indian may have had two or three things in mind when
he planted his pumpkins this way. It was a sort of vertical rather than
horizontal agriculture. The fruit was out of the way of the pigs and
cattle. It was a saving in ground space. Being a vine anxious to climb,
the fruit would be of better quality away from the dampness of the
From the fact that this pumpkin is very different from the ordinary
pumpkin, it would seem to me that it has been cultivated for a long
time in one place, away from the chance of crossing with other pumpkins.
No doubt, the Indian intuitively selected the type best suited to his
needs. It has, I think, never been found in the wild state or even running
wild in places where it is grown. I have seen pumpkins very much like
this growing in the Bahamas and I suspect that it was brought to Florida
from the West Indies long ago. The method of growing them on trees
is, I think, a Seminole invention.
Now this pumpkin is small, hard, greenish and in general does not
look very promising, but it really has the best flavored flesh of any
pumpkin I have ever tasted. It is so far superior in flavor to the common
run of pumpkins that it should be cultivated and sold, or canned with
About forty years ago I visited an island in the southern part of the
Everglades. The Indians there at that time did not appear to be Sem-
inoles. They were more like the descriptions I had read of the aboriginal
Calusas. They might have been a remnant of the old Calusas, gradually
merging with the Seminoles from the north. The center of this little
island was covered with live oaks which had been girdled. The ground
underneath was very fertile. Large numbers of pumpkins were hanging
from the branches. They had also a kind of dasheen, cassava were
growing under the oak trees and they had a patch of bananas. This led
me to believe that they had been in communication with the West Indies,
since South Florida at that time was well separated from the rest of the
state by miles of mud and unbridged rivers.
Unlike the majority of Seminoles, the group of Indians we visited
were inclined to be unfriendly and very difficult to approach. We finally
won over the women by giving them some big black cigars. They let us
look around and when we were leaving gave each of us a pumpkin. I
planted the seeds in my garden and raised fine pumpkins for several
years and everybody who ate of these in pies or cooked in various ways,
remarked about the fine flavor. This pumpkin was a very important part
of the Indian diet, they cut it in strips and dried it to serve in times
The scientific name of this Indian pumpkin is probably "Cucurbita
moschata," sometimes called the cushaw squash. The word cushaww" or
"cashaw" is of interest. According to Dr. Wm. Jones, "kasha" is an old
Chippewa term for "hard shell." "Ecushaw" or "escushaw" is in the
Algonquin language a pumpkin without a neck. The word "squash" is
Indian from "askuta-squash," meaning vine-fruit. The word pumpkin,
no doubt, comes from the Greek, meaning "melon." This species
(C. moschata), called the cushaw, is undoubtedly of American origin-
probably tropical-and was gradually carried north by the Indians, as
were corn, cotton and tobacco.
Billy Bowlegs was mad when surveyors trampled his bananas but he
was fighting mad when they shot down his pumpkins. This was the
favorite vegetable, always hanging from the tree limbs protected by its
hard shell and height above ground. It is often necessary to cut these
open with an axe and shell out the inside as we do the coconut.
The Guava: Old writers refer to the guava as the Florida-guava, with
fruit comparable in flavor to strawberries. They also say that they can
be easily propagated from cuttings, which has not been my experience I
When Canova visited Miami in 1858 he found the guava bushes full of
delicious fruit, excellent in quality and similar to the most delicious
peaches, Guavas and cream, peaches and cream, seem to match in the
minds of these early writers. I have wondered if the quality of the
guava has actually deteriorated, or if the improvement in other fruits
has left it far in the background.
Many people dislike the seeds, but they can be roasted, ground and
mixed with the pulp for the manufacture of guava cheese. Guava cheese,
JOHN C. GIFFORD
cassava, tortillas, bananas, and coffee is a common breakfast or lunch in
Most people dislike the smell of the ripe guavas, but nevertheless
many old crackers prefer them to peaches. I doubt if there is a finer
jelly fruit in all the world. Fresh fruit will often yield over three times
its weight in jelly. I know a northern man who sends to Florida for
guavas, not because they are better than apples, but because they pro-
duce so much more fine jelly than any other fruit. Many years ago a
Captain Simmons and his wife, a physician, came to settle in South
Florida. The country was sparsely inhabited and peaceful, and there was
practically no sickness. The doctor told me that transportation was so
difficult that her patients were dead or well by the time she got to them.
There was little doing in real estate, so about the only occupation that
they could think of was the manufacture of guava jelly. For years they
shipped this jelly to all parts of the world, and people came from miles
around to get his guava wine.
This guava factory was located on David Fairchild's place in Coconut
Grove.2 At times there was a big pile of seeds and refuse by the roadside,
and paths led to this factory through the woods from every direction.
The jelly was shipped away, but the wine was for local use. I still have
some of the jugs made in the mountains of North Carolina and shipped
south to hold this guava wine. This is how many of us got our much-
needed vitamins. Today guava jelly and guava paste are on sale in the
stores of Miami from Hawaii, Mexico and Cuba, and the jelly factories
in Florida send away to the West Indies and Mexico for fruit. I have
noticed more guava trees around Lake Okeechobee than elsewhere and,
although wild, they have excellent fruits for jelly production. Guavas
were delivered in those days for between a cent and two cents a pound.
Cattle love guavas. Two young students in the University of Miami
who were working their way through college with the help of two cows,
soon discovered that they could feed their charges to best advantage on
guavas. When the seeds pass through the stomachs of cattle they sprout;
and here and there throughout Cuba there are bosquets, or clumps of
guavas called guayavables. The pigs also rush for the fruits when they
fall, but cattle have the advantage because they can reach higher. I have
noticed in Cuba that a cow can hear a guava drop a long ways off.
2. Foundation of the jellly factory, destroyed by the 1926 hurricane, can still be seen
on Dr. David Fairchild's place in Coconut Grove.
Many object to the guava tree because they say it harbors bugs. In
fact, some of our scientists have dug it up to protect other trees. It is
bad when you have to kill the patient to cure the disease. Bugs will move
to some other trees when the guavas are all killed. To protect other trees
from fruit flies they have cut down many guava trees in spite of the
protests of the natives. If grown in clumps in close formation so that
lizards and birds and other insect-eating creatures can find a safe home
they are no worse than other kinds of trees. That they have spread
naturally and have become naturalized throughout Florida and the
whole of the West Indies is evidence enough that they can hold their
own, and more too, with half a chance. An old sugar plantationf is in
time abandoned to grass. Soon the guava appears and is spread by
cattle. In time it becomes a thicket and finally, a forest. If, as some say,
the guava can be reproduced from cuttings, it would be easy to produce
improved varieties. It can, I know, be easily done from root suckers.
As with the lime, the tendency seems to be to go back to the standard
wild fruit. In the West Indies the tree is in such demand for charcoal
that it is usually cut before it reaches maturity. It sprouts quickly from
the stump, so that when cut it grows in a close, low bush-like form which
protects it from the wind, and is in itself an excellent windbreak. The
sprouts bear while very young.
When a guava gets badly infested with bugs I cut it down even with
the ground. It quickly produces vigorous shoots and root suckers which
soon yield fine fruits again. The guava is one of those fruits, semi-wild,
dear to the heart of the native and, like the lime, preferring to grow in
thickets rather than in orchard formation.
And now comes the latest and greatest discovery relative to the guava
fruit. It is one of the richest of all fruits in vitamins, and in South Africa
they gather the fruit, scrape out the seeds, dry it in the sun, then grind
it into powder and use it for medicine. The lesson of all this is that we
had better stick to the time-tried things. Things that are here, are here
because they are fit.
Florida-quinine. Bitter barks have been used for many years in all
parts of the tropics for the control of intermittent fevers. For this pur-
pose the plants belonging to the madder family have long been famous.
Various forms of malaria constitute our worst tropical diseases, and
according to recent reports are actually on the increase. There is general
agreement as to the efficiency of quinine, but we must bear in mind that
manufacturers will insist that there is no substitute for it, although in
JOHN C. GIFFORD
time past it was criminally adulterated by many dealers. Some doctors
in self-defense used the crude powdered Peruvian bark. The first powdered
quinine was introduced into this country from France about a century
ago by Dr. Henry Perrine of Florida fame. In fact, it was poor quinine
that had much to do with the passage of the Pure Drugs Law. Quinine
has always been scarce in wartime. This same feeling existed during the
Civil War in this country when importations from foreign parts were
seriously curtailed. My old friend Dr. Charles Mohr, a druggist in
Mobile, worked for a long time for suitable native substitutes for im-
ported drugs during the Civil War and for quinine he used the bark
of the Georgia-fever-tree. The tree long famous for this purpose was
Pinckneya pubens, Georgia-bark, fever-bark, maiden's-blushes, or Flor-
ida-quinine. The tree was named for Charles C. Pinckney, the revolution-
ary patriot of South Carolina. Pubens means hairy and it is sometimes
referred to as the pubescent Pinckneya. It has showy flowers, white,
tinted with red. It is a little tree growing in the swamps, but now very
scarce. Professors Coker and Totten in their excellent book on the trees
of the Southeastern United States say that "Pinckneya is a close relative
of the cinchona tree of South America that furnishes the quinine of
commerce and probably contains the same curative element, as its
effectiveness in curing malaria has been repeatedly proved."
Years ago at regular intervals the slaves on the plantation were lined
up and required to take their dose of fever-bark soaked in rum.
The writer is certain from experience that not only quinine but several
other bitter barks are excellent preventatives of malarias of various kinds.
The amoebae that cause them do not flourish in the body of a person
saturated with these bitter drugs. I remember in Panama when workers
were given tablets of quinine, some of the pills were thrown out of the
window where a turkey gobbler picked them up. In time he began to
show quinine blindness and was killed and cooked, but his meat was so
bitter that no one could eat it. The Dutch have perfected the cultivation
of the cinchona tree in the East Indies, and although the tree is of
American origin and still plentiful in South America, they have main-
tained a monopoly of the world's trade in quinine, and have led all of
us to believe that their product is the only efficient quinine. Somebody
might discover that the Georgia-fever-bark is quite as good, perhaps
even better than the South American cinchona.
There is another tree on the Florida Keys belonging to the madder
family called princewood (Exostema caribsum). The bark of this tree
contains active tonic properties and has been used as a fever fighter by
the natives of the Florida Keys for many years. There are several tropical
plants which have the specific name "febrifuga," which means fever-
chaser. I remember reading in an old book on Africa that the natives
would carry a paresis patient into the low lands to contract the fever,
then cure the fever with bitter barks. Many things, especially drugs, are
not new. They simply masquerade under copyrighted names.
I have seen the natives on the Florida Keys drink the water in which
princewood bark has been soaked for a time. Soaked in rum, the bark
would be much more efficient. It might be possible to manufacture a
famous bitters from this tree. In fact, both the Georgia-fever-bark and
princewood should be carefully tested and if of high class as a fever
preventer the trees should be cultivated, since the time is coming when
they will be exceedingly rare. They are both scarce and very local now.
They will completely disappear from Florida unless carefully protected.
They have already played an important role in the early history of the
Southeastern United States. In fact, everywhere throughout the world
there are favorite bitter barks which not only stimulate stomachic
activity and pep-up the system in general but apparently produce such
a bitterness to human blood that it forms poor pasturage for the low
animal forms that cause malarias of various kinds. Mahogany bark tea
is often used also.
The Indian has lived on the Western Hemisphere a very long time and
must have learned a lot from experience, and experience and experiment
come from the same root meaning to "try out." They unquestionably
"tried out" many things through the ages, the results of which they
passed on either willingly, unwillingly or unknowingly to us newcomers.
in South Florida
by REINHOLD P. WOLFF*
F OR THE LAST FIFTY YEARS the history of South Florida has been
closely connected with the history of transportation in the United
States. The region's economic development started with the laying
of the first railroad into South Florida by Henry M. Flagler in 1894.
Its first phase came to a conclusion and a new phase was opened when,
by the time of the first World War, popular motor transportation de-
veloped. We are now entering a third phase of our economic growth
which is marked by the institution of large-scale air transportation.
During this fifty-year period, South Florida has grown from a sparsely
populated area with less than two persons per square mile, into a large
metropolitan district with a wide, though still thinly populated "hinter-
land". While the census of 1895 registered only 3,322 inhabitants in
Dade County, the census of 1940 noted a population of 267,000 in the
county, and a population of over 500,000 in the 19 counties which now
form South Florida. Wealth and incomes have grown correspondingly,
or even in excess of the population increase. For Dade County alone,
property valuations before the war were over $500,000,000; and the in-
come produced in the metropolitan area of Miami has been conserva-
tively estimated at $170,000,000.
The beginning of South Florida's economic development was agricul-
tural, with a very modest share of resort trade sprinkled in. The life-
blood of economic growth, however, was supplied by the transportation
element. Henry Bradley Plant, the first of the two noted railroad
builders, came to Florida in 1853 because of his wife's illness. An
executive of the Southern Express, he recognized the possibilities which
the undeveloped country offered and gradually developed the Westt
Coast system, which started in 1879 .and grew into a complex of 14
Henry M. Flagler had already made a fortune in the Standard Oil
Company when he devoted his energies to railroad development in Flor-
ida. He obtained his first railroad in 1886, buying old properties and
*A paper read before the Historical Association of Southern Florida at its meeting of
March 30, 1944.
not building his own railroad before 1892. When Flagler's line entered
South Florida at West Palm Beach in 1894, and reached Miami in 1896,
the northern part of the state was already criss-crossed by hundreds of
miles of railroad tracks. It is interesting to note that Flagler made his
large investments in Florida railroad construction, in hotel building and
in ship lines with a very long-range viewpoint of economic development
rather than with the intention of getting quick profits. From a.broader
economic viewpoint, his enterprises have proved to be even more profit-
able than he could have dreamed of at the time that he started his
gigantic plan. If it is true that Flagler invested altogether $75,000,000
in Florida properties and enterprises, this money has paid generous
dividends to the people of Florida, whose yearly income is now ten
times Flagler's investment.
On the other hand, it cannot be denied that Flagler's investments in
South Florida were very slow to show returns to the investor himself.
In the first phase of our economic development, South Florida was a
region with a pronounced agricultural pattern. Flagler's railroad work
had linked Miami with northern markets and had created an outlet for
the fruit and vegetable crops that were grown in the region. At the
same time, the trend had been started which made Miami and Palm
Beach a big attraction for winter visitors, but this development was
slow, despite the grandiose hotel structures which Flagler erected all
along the East Coast. Until 1920, not a single city over 50,000 had de-
veloped in South Florida. Miami at that time had 29,500 inhabitants,
West Palm Beach had 1,100 residents.
The real beginning of South Florida's growth into a major resort
area did not come until the time when the popular-priced automobile
made motoring the most widespread and popular of all recreation ac-
tivities. It can be estimated that three-quarters of all tourists entering
the state of Florida before the war came here by motor car. Not only
was motoring the major means of reaching the state from out of state
locations, it was also the very transportation agent which made the
growth of Miami possible. Miami was visited each year by hundreds
of thousands of transient tourists who would otherwise have stayed at
resort places further north. Even at the present time the importance of
the transient motorist is not fully evaluated. On the basis of a tourist
survey made some years ago, we may assume with reasonable safety
that the transient motorist who stays a week or less in the community,
contributes a major part of total tourist spending. Tourists collectively
REINHOLD P. WOLFF
account for about one-third of Dade County's total consumer spending.
Twelve million dollars annually was spent in hotels. The tourist crowd
has increased our restaurant business to a point where it outranks ;the
business done in Minneapolis, a city with twice the population of Dade
County. Altogether some $60,000,000 a year may be estimated as being
expended by visitors in Dade County alone, this figure based on pre-
war monetary values.
The tourist business is a rather incongruous term for a series of
operations which include not only hotel and residential rentals, spend-
ing in restaurants and drinking places, spending at horse tracks, and'
other places of amusement; but also such expenditures as gasoline,
food purchased in stores, dry goods, gifts and even furniture for tourist
homes and hotels. The resort trade, in other words, is not a single in-
dustry, but an agglomeration of various industries and trades.
As compared to the tourist industry, agriculture, manufacturing and
other productive activities have made less progress during this second
phase of our development. Farming, once a major source of South
Florida's industrial pursuits, now holds low rank in the scale of income-)
producing industries. It has grown to a $10,000,000 business, but it
produces comparatively less income than even personal and business
services, not to mention the trades. First rank among the productive
industries is now claimed by the construction business, which before
the war grossed about $30,000,000 annually. Manufacturing has never
amounted to a major industry in South Florida and probably will not
grow into a major complex in the near future. True enough, even before
the war Dade County alone had a manufacturing industry with a
value of $22,000,000 worth of products annually. But the major part of
this industry was devoted to the production of local consumer goods
such a printing, bottled beverages, ice, bread, ice cream, furniture and
woodwork. Little of it had importance nationally, and few were !the
products exported from the state. The war has greatly increased manu-'
facturing activity in the county and strenuous efforts are being made,
to preserve at least some of the gains for the future.
The initiation of long-range air transportation has opened a new
phase in the history of South Florida. The development has been much
too recent to allow any evaluation of what air transportation will finally
mean for the destiny of South Florida. From all the evidence it may
be assumed, however, that the effects of air transportation will be not
less revolutionary than was the development of popular motoring. Lo-
cated at the tip of the Florida peninsula, South Florida in the past was
handicapped by long distances more than by any other economic factor.
This region still is one of the least developed and most sparsely popu-
lated districts of the state and is capable of harboring a population
double or treble the present size. In all probability air transportation
will have three major influences. For one thing, it will make Miami
one of the greatest transportation cross-roads of the nation, if not the
world. We hope that in the post-war period Miami will preserve some
of its war gains as a point of exit to the Caribbean, to South America,
Central Africa, and South Asiatic countries. This includes sea lane
traffic and railroad communications which cannot be dissected from
an air transportation center of growing importance. To what extent
this development will immediately influence economic activities inside
the area cannot be predicted now. A great deal depends on the speed
and intensity of Latin American growth. Although it would be wise
to plan for future expansion, it cannot be denied that past history
points to slow growth rather than to a sudden upsurge of foreign trade.
The second most important influence of air transportation will be the.
stimulation which air travel will give the tourist trade. Undoubtedly
the time element has been the major handicap for many people who
wanted to visit Miami, but who were not able to bridge the long dis-
tance during a short vacation. Long-range flying has now placed Miami
within six hours of the major centers of United States populations.
Unless all signs fail, the tourist stream, within ten years after the end
of hostilities, will be greatly intensified. Figures on traveling in Cali-
fornia suggest that we are far from reaching the point of saturation,
Although slightly over 2,000,000 tourists visited Florida annually, ap-
proximately six times as many tourists traveled to California. Post-t
war transportation may well make us reach California's record.
A third influence which air transportation exerts on the economic
life of an area, is to be found in the shift that it produces in manu-
facturing and wholesaling industries. Air express and freight by air will
make it possible to ship many products of the area direct to urbanr
markets. Goods which formerly had to be placed in cold storage or
refrigeration may thus be shipped directly north. It also will be possible
to ship into the area advantageously raw materials and supplies fpt
our growing industries.
It would be utopian to assume that, through air transportation, man-
ufacturing and other heavy industries could be located in South FlV'rida
DAVID O. TRUE 49
on a large scale. We have neither the labor sources, nor the raw ma-
terials, nor the energy resources required to make the area a center
of large-scale manufacturing or processing. It can be hoped, however,
that many small-scale industries, many wholesaling and exporting ac-
tivities, warehousing and storing, conversion and assembly plants, tan
be developed in the area. Through such encouragement of industries,
we may hope that the air-age will produce a better balanced economy
for South Florida.
The Freducci Map of 1514-1515
lWhat it Discloses of Early Florida History
by DAVID O. TRUE
AT FIRST GLANCE, the old map partially reproduced in this issue
of Tequesta, would not excite the average reader very much. I
first read of it in an article by Dr. Cisco in the Bulletin of the
American Geographical Society, 1913, in his version of the Ponce de
Le6n landings and route. The fact that this map was issued at such
an early date, according to Eugenio Canova, and that it was based in
part on data obtained from the Ponce expedition, made me most anx-
ious to see a copy.
Fortunately, full information is available at the Library of Con-
gress. The original map is located in the Royal Archives at Florence,
Italy, and is called the "Carta Nautica di Conte Ottomnanno Freducci
d'Ancona". In 1894 a brochure was issued by this institution, describ-
ing the map and containing a reproduction of the original at about
half scale. One of these brochures is owned by the Library of Congress,
and they made the photostatic copy accompanying this article. A
reproduction is also contained in Konrad Kretschmer's Die Entdeck-
ung Amerika's in ihrer Bedeutung fiir die Gesckichte des Weltbildes,
Berlin, 1892. Dr. Cisco states that the outlines of Florida in Kretsch-
mer's reproduction are so conventionalized that their historical sig-
nificance is destroyed. There is also a tracing in Harrisse's Dkcou-
verte et Evolution Cartographique de Terre Neuve, p. 81.
From this remarkable map, assuming that the estimated date is
approximately correct, one finds four major contributions to Florida
history. It is probably the first map to bear the name Florida. Here
also is the earliest appearance of any city of North America on a
map, the present city of Miami. It also shows that the Herrera desig-
nations of latitude readings in connection with landings at various
places by Ponce de Le6n were interpolated from much later sources.
Furthermore, it helps to verify Sebastian Cabot's statement that he
rounded the Cape of Florida.
Erraftum: The top two and one-half lines of page 51 should read as follows:
"On the Freducci map of Florida I Florda is the top name, where Florida is
designated as an island, as was done by some other cartographers also in those
early days." The only explorer fully authenticated to have cruised the Florida
shores before Ponce was Sebastian, and possibly John Cabot. Their evidence seem-
ingly is of coasting some thousand miles of continuous shoreline. Relatively few
map-makers portrayed Florida as an island.-D.O.T.
DAVID 0. TRUE
On the Freducci map of Florida, I. Florda (sic) is the top name, here
Florida is designated as an island, for this was the belief of the early
explorers. The Rio de Canoas is identified by Dr. Cisco as Indian
River. The next place, on the map, reading down, is Chantio, which
is Cautio in Kretschmer, the name that Herrera said was given to Flor-
ida by the Lucayan Indians. Ponta d'Arcifes is Point of Reefs, spelled
Arracifes by Herrera. Herrera mentions the Rio de la Cruz, River
of the Cross, designated by its cruciform shape on the Freducci map,
stated to be Jupiter Inlet by Dr. Cisco: "No other inlet on; the coast
has three branching streams at its head." One could almost believe
that it means Lake Okeechobee. The Cabo de Corrientes of Herrera
is the Cabo de Setos, Cape of Pales, in Freducci. Abacoa was Abai6a.*
in Herrera, an Indian town near Lake Worth Inlet, according to Dr.
Cisco. He identifies the Rio Salado, Salty River, with New River
Inlet. Herrera in his account mentions two keys that are not on Fre-
ducci, Santa Marta and Pola. On the Freducci map are El Nirda and
Canbei. Canbei becomes Camboie in Kretschmer, and is probably Her-
rera's Achecambei. One of the two Indian towns on the Keys, accord-
ing to Fontaneda, was named Guaragunbe or Guaragumbe; perhaps
all of these were what is now known as Matecunbe. Los Martires of
both Herrera and Freducci, is a translation of the word Cuchiyaga of
the Indians, as shown in Fontaneda's Memoir; it thus alludes to In-
dian tribulations, not those of Spaniards, who had not yet discovered
the New World when the name was first used. Ponce merely trans-
lated the name already found in use on the Keys, though Herrera
said it was bestowed upon them by Ponce. Matanqa is in both Herrera
and Freducci, it alludes to the killing of some Indians by Ponce on his
first journey and contributes to the evidence that this Freducci map
was compiled from Ponce de Le6n sources to some extent. The two
West Coast names, Guchi and Stababa, are not identifiable from the
Chequiche is spelled Chequescha by Herrera, and this is the well-
known Indian town Tequesta, generally stated to have been situated
on the Miami River, where it empties into the bay. Ponce may have
stopped off to visit it on his way to the West Coast, as some authors
report, but Herrera definitely stated that he arrived at this place on
Sunday, July 2, 1513. This is the earliest mention of Miami, by its
ancient Indian name. Miami thus becomes the first city on the con-
tinent of North America to have been definitely visited by Ponce, or
"' *P 445
PORTION OF FREDUCCI'S MAP showing
Florida, the Bahamas and Cuba. Scale
approximately 9/10 of original map.
DAVID O. TRUE
by any other discoverer of note, and to have been identified by a
substantiating map. The name Miami came from Mayaimi, equally
as old at the name Tequesta. It was the Calusa name for Lake Okee-
chobee, meaning "big water."
Dr. Cisco states that the Freducci map did not show "any indicated
latitudes", but it can be readily seen that the line that Freducci
drew, cutting through the Strait of Gibraltar, represents 350 north,
while the same position on a modern map is 360. Following this line
westward, one notes that it runs about half way between Cuba and
Florida. On this map the tip of Florida below Chequiche, is at 39
north and this is an error of more than 13 degrees! On a modern
map 390 is off the coast of Delaware. Most of the other early maps
and charts contain similar errors; rarely was one drawn which did
not have the Tropic of Cancer south of Cuba, instead of north where
it belongs. The Freducci map was based to some extent on Ponce's
data, and if Ponce had a map or chart on which latitudes were as
relatively exact as they are given in Herrera, it seems strange that
no cartographer knew about it for many years afterward. If Ponce
had decided to go ashore and dig a well at 280 8' north, it would have
been located on the very southernmost tip of the Island of Cuba,
according to this contemporary map of Freducci.
To me there seems to be but one conclusion: Herrera interpolated
all these locations very much later from what, in his day, were mod-
ern charts. As far as they are used by themselves to verify Ponce's
landings, they are without value. They express Herrera's opinion writ-
ten nearly a century later. Anyone interested in tracing Ponce's jour-
ney will find the writings of Charles B. Reynoldsi in accord with the
opinions advanced by Dr. Cisco. The reasons for believing that a
landfall was made in the vicinity of St. Augustine, are presented by
Mr. T. Frederick Davis in the Ponce de Le6n number of the Florida
Historical Quarterly for July, 1935. Some investigators are interested
in the theory that he sailed far to the north on the west coast of Flor-
ida; the Freducci map with its two additional names should interest
One must admit that Herrera was an indefatigable worker, for we
have Mufioz' testimony that he probably took his data about the
fabulous River of Youth from Fontaneda. One of his other interpola-
tions is shown in his use of the name Carlos for the chief of the Calusas
in the time of Ponce de Le6n. The second chief to assume this name
was about 25 years of age in 1566; his father Senquene had been
the first to take it, because he had been told that it was the name of
the greatest King of the Christians (Charles V). Charles V did not
come to the throne until after Ponce's first voyage, and it is unlikely
that Senquene heard of him until after 1545, the date of the Fontaneda
wreck, when some 200 Spaniards were taken captive by the Indians.*
This question of latitude has a bearing on the testimony of Sebas-
tian Cabot. Peter Martyr, reporting a conversation with Cabot in
1512, wrote of it in the 3rd decade of his history:
"Thus seeing such heapes of yce before him, he was enforced
to turne his sales and follow the West, so coasting still by the
shore, that he was thereby brought so farre into the South, by
reason of the land bending so much Southwards, that it was there
almost eqyal in latitude, with the sea Fretum Herculeum, having
the Northpole elevate in manner in the same degree. He sailed
likewise in this tract so farre towards the West, that he had the
Island of Cuba on his left hand, in manner in the same degree
of longitude. As hee traveled by the coastes of this great land
(which he named Baccalaos) he said that hee found the like
course of the waters toward the West, but the same to runne
more softly and gently than the swift waters which the Span-
iards found in their navigations Southward. . Cabot is my
friend, whom I use familiarly, and delight to have him some-
times keepe me company in mine own house."
Three compelling reasons for believing that Sebastian Cabot re-
ported in 1512 of having rounded the Cape of Florida, either with
his father on one of his two trips, or on an expedition of his own
in 1508, as advanced by Williamson in his Voyages of the Cabots, are
contained in this account by Peter Martyr. If Cabot had not known
of Florida, he would not have been able to state that by following
the coastline he "had the Island of Cuba on his left hand." To know
of currents counter to the Gulf Stream off the' South Florida shores
before Ponce ever saw the country, took competent first hand in-
formation. This is a remarkable detail that too many Cabot historians
The third reason is the one to which the Freducci map makes another
contribution. Cabot said that he sailed as far south as to be parallel
with Fretum Herculeum (Strait of Gibraltar) and of returning from
*See Connor's trardslation of de Merns' Pedro Menindes de Avills.
DAVID O. TRUE 55
that latitude to England. On a modern map, this would be from the
coast of North Carolina. So the Cabot experts state that Cabot sailed
south to Carolina and returned from there, instead of realizing that
360 at his time was, on the charts and maps, in the Straits of Florida.
Other readers will probably find more interesting facts from the
Freducci map. To me it has been thoroughly exciting, even to see
the East Coast line veering so far westward as it leaves Miami
and swings toward Jacksonville. Freducci knew his Florida and con-
tributed more to our knowledge than we might expect from any such
DR. EDMUND LEROY Dow, a director of the Historical Association of Southern
Florida, a director of the Florida Historical Society and President of the Palm Beach
County Historical Society, died at his home in Palm Beach, December 1, 1943, aged
73. Dr. Dow was a powerful force in vitalizing interest in the rich historical back-
ground of the state. His influence was naturally most strongly felt in his home or-
ganization, the Palm Beach Historical Society. Elected president of that body in De-
cember, 1941, he served continuously in that office until his death.
A joint meeting of the Palm Beach County Historical Society and the Florida His-
torical Society in January, 1940, was one of the most successful in the history of both
organizations, due largely to the efforts of Dr. Dow. The meeting was held in Palm
Beach, with the Palm Beach County Society as host. For weeks, Dr. Dow travelled
over the state assembling material of historic interest, and the result was a carefully
selected exhibit, covering Florida history from the beginning, that has probably
never been surpassed.
Dr. Dow's energy and stimulus made the Historical Society a vital part of Palm
Beach life. By personal contributions and solicitation, he provided the funds for the
purchase of books that are the nucleus of a library for the organization. He was ac-
tive in securing for the society all sorts of items of historical interest. Through his
influence the library and the collections were housed, and a meeting place arranged, in
the building of the Society of the Four Arts.
Dr. Dow's significance to the society did not end with his death. His generous be-
quest will be the foundation for a considerable enlargement of the buildings and facilities
of the Society of the Fou; Arts in Palm Beach. The plans call for permanent exclu-
sive quarters for the Palm Beach County Historical Society, its library and collections.
Dr. Edmund LeRoy Dow was born January 22, 1870, in Baldwinsville, N. Y. He
held the degrees of B.S. and M.S. from Syracuse University, and M.O. from the Col-
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He held several teaching
positions in the College of Physicians and Surgeons and was connected with the staffs
of Minturn Hospital, the Vanderbilt Clinic, Bellevue Hospital and others. He was
interested in many civic activities besides the historical organizations,, notably Bethesda-
by-the-Sea, the Society of the Four Arts, the Palm Beach Garden Club and the Good
Samaritan Hospital. His summers were spent in New York City and at Watch Hill, R. I.
MRS. ROBERT MOKRIS SEYMOUR, a director of the Historical Association of Southern
Florida, and a well known figure in Miami, passed away on February 19, 1944.
She had been educated in St. Paul, Minnesota, and in California. She studied art at
Columbia and later in Edinburgh, Scotland. This aesthetic training combined with a
love of nature and a great appreciation of the beautiful made her the ideal person to
draw the Florida Plan for landscape art and landscape gardening. Garden clubs in
other states later adopted this Plan in its entirety. She did this work in 1932 while
holding the position of Chairman of the State Beautification Committee. Among other
official positions held by Mrs. Seymour were that of Research Member of the Civic
Planning board of St. PaulI of President of the South Florida Garden Club and mem-
bership in other important garden clubs of Miami.
Mrs. Seymour's energies were directed toward the job of educating Miamians to a
better knowledge of the names and uses of native plant life, its romance and history.
This she did through talks to clubs and articles in horticultural and garden clubs'
publications. She always looked upon landscape design as a part of the American
cultural tradition and jealously guarded Miami's city parks from commercial en-
With the death of CLAUDE C. MATLACK the Association has lost, not only an able
and interested Director, but also a witness to the phenomenal growth of Greater Miami;
a witness who, unlike many others, was not satisfied merely to watch this growth but
who did something about keeping a record of what was happening in front of him.
We are referring to Matlack's collection of photographs covering the development of
Miami, Miami Beach and Coral Gables. Some of his pictures played a truly important
role in the classification of Fort Jefferson, on Dry Tortugas, as a National Monument,
and in promoting the proposed Everglades National Park.
Claude C. Matlack came to Miami from Louisville, Kentucky in 1916. He was by
profession an electrical engineer, and was commissioned to lay out the water and
electrical plants for the first hangars built by Pan American at Dinner Key. While
doing this job he took snapshots for his own amusement, and became more and more
engrossed in his hobby. He eventually abandoned engineering and became a professional
In 1918 three partners, F. A. Robinson, C. C. Matlack and Manly Brower opened
a photographic Studio in the Southwest corner of the Halcyon Hotel on Flagler Street.
A few months later Brower, for reasons of health, sold his interests to his two partners.
Robinson in turn sold his to Matlack who remained sole owner of the studio. Due to
the raise in rents, which eventually led to the "Boom," Matlack moved his finishing
plant to Miami Beach to make room for sub-tenants; one of these was George Merrick
who opened there his first real estate office. In 1923 the rents on Flagler Street having
become prohibitive, Matlack moved his entire business to Miami Beach.. He served
with a committee of the Chamber of Commerce handling all of Miami Beach publicity
and advertisement, and many of his pictures were used for this purpose. During his
stay on Miami Beach Matlack was also instrumental in the founding and early organ-
ization of the Committee of One Hundred, in collaboration with Carl Fisher, James
Allison and Charles W. Chase. Matlack later returned to Miami proper to live and
died there on January 11, 1944.
MARJORY STONEMAN DOUGLAS, Coconut Grove, Florida, needs no
introduction to the Historical Association of South Florida, of which
she is a Founding Member. Her deep love of Florida and boundless
enthusiasm are evident to anyone who has ever read any of the short
stories she contributed to The Saturday Evening Post, or to anyone
who has ever had the good luck of talking to her for any length of
time. She is currently doing a vast amount of research in preparation
for a book on the Everglades, to be published in the Rivers of America
Series. She also holds the job of book reviewer and literary critic on
the staff of the Miami Herald.
JOHN M. GOGGIN of Miami discovered the fascination of archaeology
while still in High School. At that time he used to collect snakes and
sell them to Ross Allen, the profits thereof to be spent in gasoline for
the "Glades' buggy" and on expeditions to Seminole inhabited hum-
mocks. He attended the University of Florida, going from there to the
University of New Mexico, where he did graduate work in anthropol-
ogy on the Southwestern and Mexican Indians. He has had articles
accepted by the following journals: American Antiquity, New Mexico
Anthropologist, American Anthropologist, El Palacio, and The Florida
Historical Quarterly. He holds an Assistantship in Research in the De-
partment of Anthropology at the Peabody Museum of Natural Sciences
at Yale, and also received a Field Grant for this past summer. This
summer's work included a survey of Indian sites from Lake Okeecho-
bee southward and also work on a site at Upper Matecumbe Key,
where abundant and interesting material was found permitting the es-
tablishment of a chronology for pottery wares.
JOHN C. GIFFORD, Professor of Tropical Forestry and Conservation of
Natural Resources at the University of Miami, is so well known to the
public of Miami and South Florida, that the Editor feels almost
embarrassed and decidedly presumptuous in trying to write of him in
this issue of Tequesta. Born in New Jersey and having studied Forestry
at the University of Munich, Dr. Gifford came to Miami in the early
days. He has contributed to scientific journals and publications, as well
as to newspapers throughout the country. His latest articles on the
"Trees of South Florida" were published in the Scientific Monthly for
July and August, 1944. He was President of the Historical Association
of Southern Florida in 1943.
REINHOLD P. WOLFF, Assistant Professor of Economics, is another
member of the faculty of the University of Miami to contribute to this
issue of the Journal. A specialist of industrial economics, Dr. Wolff came
from Germany with his family in the early 1930's. He taught first at
New York University, then came to Miami where, in addition to his
academic duties, he has served as consultant with the OPA, and on
several post-war planning organizations.
DAVID O. TRUE, past president of the University Club of Miami and
of the Miami Stamp Club . His interest, at first confined mainly to
pirate lore and treasure trove has been extended to include the history of
early Florida, on which subject he has done extensive research. He is
editing the reprint of Fontaneda's Memoir.
EDITOR'S NOTES AND COMMUNICATIONS
CORRECTION: In the 1943 issue of Tequesta, pp. 49 and following,
for Mary Barr Monroe, read Mary Barr Munroe.
In the same issue, same article, the name Coconut Grove is spelled
Coconut Grove and Cocoanut Grove. In 1909, time at which Mrs. Mun-
roe wrote the article for the Miami Metropolis, Cocoanut Grove was
the accepted spelling; it was later changed to Coconut Grove.
The editorial board has agreed that starting with this year's pub-
lication we shall drop the designation of volume for our journal and
simply number the issues consecutively. This year's issue will there-
fore be designated as NUMBER FOUR.
The editor wants here and now to repeat a plea, expressed many
times before, but with no great results. There is a great deal of inter-
esting local and historical material in South Florida; letters, diaries,
reminiscences of early settlers, etc. If you own any such documents, or
know of someone who owns them, drop us a note, or, better still, call
up the University of Miami, 4-0801, and ask for the Librarian. We
would like in the next issue to begin a department of Documents, in
which we would print interesting material called to our attention.
Due credit would, of course, be given to the owner of such contribu-
tions. Photostatic copies could be made of all documents submitted.
On November 23rd, The Nassau Guardian will celebrate its one
hundredth anniversary of publication. The Editor thinks it fitting for
our Association through Tequesta to congratulate The Nassau Guardian,
its owner, editors, and staff on this most propitious occasion. Published
daily in Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas, the Guardian is the oldest
newspaper with a continuous publication in our immediate geographical
neighborhood. The present owner and editor in chief, Miss Mary Moseley,
daughter of the Guardian's founder, is well known to many of our
members; those of us who have had occasion to do research in the
Bahamas have always found her ready to put at our disposal her
valuable time, her wide knowledge of the history and traditions of the
islands, and any documents needed for our work. Miss Moseley will
publish shortly a book with numerous illustrations depicting the growth
of Nassau from its early beginnings to today. It promises to be a
fascinating and valuable item for anyone interested in the history of
A REPRINT OF
ISSUED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
and the HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA
ONE of the most important sources on early Florida, it contains much
information not to be found elsewhere. Fontaneda was wrecked
on the Florida Keys in 1545, lived with the Indians for 17 years, is
said to have been rescued by the first French expedition under Ribaut
in 1562, made his way to Spain and returned with the Spanish ex-
peditionary forces under Men6ndez in 1565.
He wrote about geography, plants, animals, Indians, and wrecks.
During much of the time he was a captive of the Calusas, and for
two years he lived with the Abalachis. The historian Mufioz gave
him the name "Hernando" by mistake. Men6ndez cheated him out of
his pay. In 1854 Buckingham Smith translated his account into Eng-
lish, translation that has been criticized ever since. The Memoir has
been subjected to considerable criticism because of its many errors.
This new reprint has extensive revisions and corrections. As a study,
the Memoir is thoroughly interesting, a credit to our Association.
A book that should be in all Florida collections. Contains in addi-
tion to the translation, extensive notes by Buckingham Smith, John
R. Swanton and the editors. Also a map of Florida at that time.
Buckingham Smith's edition of 100 copies is both rare and expensive.
This edition is of only 500 copies. Copies are expected to be ready
before the holidays, making it valuable as a gift. The advance price
for board binding will be $1.00. A more expensive binding will be
available, on order.
Subscriptions or payments should be sent to Miss Cornelia Leffler,
618 Biscayne Blvd., in Miami.
THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH FLORIDA
FOUNDED 1940-INCORPORATED 1941
J. K. Dorn
Mrs. William L. Freeland
William R. Porter, Key West
Justin P. Havee
Gaines R. Wilson
Thomas P. Caldwell
Leonard R. Muller
K. Malcolm Beal
A. H. Andrews, Estero
Margaret M. Beaton
Dr. Harold E. Briggs
William Mark Brown
Mrs. James M. Carson
Marjory Stoneman Douglas
*Dr. Edmund LeRoy Dow,
George C. Estill
Dr. John C. Gifford
Mrs. Florence P. Haderl
Frederick M. Hudson
*Claude C. Matlack
Mrs. George E. Merrick
Wirth M. Munroe
Mrs. William J. Krome,
Edward C. Romfh
*Mrs. Robert Morris Seymour
Mrs. Frank Stranahan,
THE PURPOSES OF THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 0;? SOUTHERN FLORIDA ARE
(1) to collect, arrange and preserve all material pertaining to the history
of, or in any manner illustrative of Southern Florida and related areas,
including books, pamphlets, documents, archives, manuscripts, news-
papers, diaries, notes, letters, speeches, maps, plats, surveys, portraits,
photographs or other likenesses of men and women prominent in the
history of Southern Florida, pictorial illustrations of the scenery of
Southern Florida, relics and products; (2) to prepare, edit and publish
articles, sketches, biographies, pamphlets, books and documents, descrip-
tive or illustrative of Southern Florida; (3) to promote and stimulate
public interest in the history of Southern Florida and such related areas
as the Keys, Bahamas, Yucatan, Cuba, and the West Indies generally by
(a) the publication of an annual journal and (b) quarterly programs of
historical papers; (4) to preserve and perpetuate historic spots and
places and to further in every way knowledge of Southern Florida's