• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Most profitable directions of dairy...
 Experiment I
 Experiment II
 Milking records
 Comparative returns from milk,...
 Returns from individual cows
 Summary














Group Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Title: Milk production II /
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101442/00001
 Material Information
Title: Milk production II /
Series Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description: p. 61-76 : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla
Gainesville, Fla
Publication Date: 1913
Copyright Date: 1913
 Subjects
Subject: Milk yield -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dairying -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101442
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 18161016

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 61
    Table of Contents
        Page 62
    Introduction
        Page 63
    Most profitable directions of dairy work
        Page 64
    Experiment I
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Experiment II
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Milking records
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Comparative returns from milk, cream, and butter
        Page 73
    Returns from individual cows
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Summary
        Page 76
Full Text


BULLETIN 114


JUNE, 1913


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station



MILK PRODUCTION II.

BY

JOHN M. SCOTT


Fig. 25.-Cow No. Io. (See Tables XXI, XXII and XXIII.)

The Station Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment
Station, Gainesville. Florida.


THE E. O. PAINTER PRINTING CO.,
DE LAND. FLORIDA


I-. k.. A r.*7--






















IMPORTANT FACTS

i. Florida supplies but a small percentage of the dairy products consumed in
the State.
2. The cheapness of out-of-State products and the difficulties of dairying in
the State are deterring factors.
3. The dairyman who depends on commercial feeds must be satisfied with a
small profit, or charge an exorbitant price for his products.
4. In the second experiment, milk was produced at 22.8 per cent. less cost
per gallon with velvet beans than with cottonseed meal.
5. A considerably larger profit can be obtained at the present prices from
the sale of whole milk than from any other dairy product.




CONTENTS
Page
Introduction _----____--_-----------------_---------- 63
Market Demand ____---_--- -------_-----_------_------_ 63
Most Profitable Directions of Dairy Work -----------------------------_ 64
Factors Influenc:ng Cost of Production-------_________----------____ _64
Experiment 1 ___------------------------_------------- 65
Experiment II ___------ -------_--------_------------- 68
Milking Records ______------------------------------------- 71
Comparative Returns from Milk, Cream and Butter _____________________ 73
Returns from Individual Cows __--_________________________________ 74
Summary ___________----------------------______________ 76










MILK PRODUCTION
BY
JOHN M. SCOTT


The work reported in this bulletin is a continuation of the
experiments reported in bulletin 99.
The dairy industry of Florida is in the pioneer stage. A large
number of cows are indeed being milked, but a dairy industry
in any country or state consists in more than the milking of so
many cows twice a day. If there is no steady demand for the
product, the industry will fail. If the product does not yield
a fair profit, the production will cease. The question of markets
must be considered. If there is no demand for a product it
will have little or no market value, and if it costs more than the
market will pay, there is no incentive to offer the article. The
profits of the dairy industry in Florida depend largely upon the
lowering of the cost of production.
The question asked is "What phase of the dairy business is
most profitable?" The answer to this will depend on the market
value of the product, and the cost of production. The yield of
milk from each and every cow in the herd will, to a large extent,
govern the profits to be obtained. The cost of labor has also to
bf considered.

MARKET DEMAND

The market for home dairy products in Florida is nearly un-
limited at the present time. It is difficult to get exact data as to
the amount or value of the dairy products shipped into Florida
each year. A conservative estimate would place it at from 60 to
75 per cent. of the products consumed. The dairy products ship-
ped in in largest quantities are: butter, condensed milk, cheese,
and cream, with a limited quantity of whole milk. It is doubt-
ful if there is produced in the State IO per cent. of the butter
that is consumed. Very little or no cheese is made in Florida.
The amount of condensed milk brought into the State each month
is enormous. At times there is much fresh cream shipped in from





64 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

various places, some of it coming from as far away as New York.
As long as we have such large importations of outside dairy
products, it is evident that there is a good market here for home
products.

MOST PROFITABLE DIRECTIONS OF DAIRY WORK

The profits to be derived from dairying in Florida will de-
pend upon what phase of the work we take up. So long as Florida
dairymen can dispose of their milk at thirty cents or more per gal-
lon, they will get nearly twice as much for their milk and labor
as by selling butter at 40 cents per pound, and with much less
work. If the dairyman is not situated so that he can dispose of
his whole milk, the next best proposition will be to sell his product
as cream. If he can obtain $I.oo to $1.25 per gallon for 20 to
25 per cent. cream, there will be considerably more gross profit
than in making butter and selling it at 40 cents per pound.
Suppose the dairyman is selling 75 gallons of milk per day.
His gross income at 30 cents per gallon would be $22.50 per
day. Seventy-five gallons of milk will weigh 645 pounds; and,
if it tested 4 per cent. butter fat, it would make about 30 pounds
of butter. Selling the butter at 40 cents per pound would give
a gross income of $12 per day. This would show a loss on gross
income of $1o.50 per day, as compared with the sale of whole
milk.
If he should convert his seventy-five gallons of milk into
20 per cent. cream, he would then have 15 gallons of cream. Sell-
ing the cream at $i.oo per gallon would give a gross income of
$15. Thus selling the product as cream would give a gross profit
of 'three dollars a day over the butter, but a gross loss of $7.50
a day as compared with the sale of the product as whole milk.
In disposing of the product as cream the dairyman would still
have left fifty-five to sixty gallons of skim milk or buttermilk
that would be of some value in the feeding of hogs or poultry.

FACTORS INFLUENCING COST OF PRODUCTION

One reason Florida is not a great dairy State is because there
are too many so-called dairy cows that do not produce enough
milk to pay for the feed they consume. According to our best
statistics the average annual production for Florida dairy cows






BULLETIN 114


is about 1500 pounds (175 gallons) of milk. This would mean
apparently that the average cow produces about enough milk to
pay for only one half of its purchased feed. With such small
yields is it any wonder that dairying is not profitable? The dairy
cow that does not produce 4,000 pounds (465 gallons) of milk or
more per year is hardly worthy of the name. The dairyman
should not be satisfied with less than 6000 pounds (697 gallons)
of milk per year from each and every cow in his herd.
Every cow in the herd will need enough feed to maintain
herself. This is approximately the same for different animals
of the same weight. The feed consumed above this amount goes
to putting on body fat or producing milk. Therefore, to make
a profit from each dairy cow, she must produce enough milk to
more than pay, not only for the feed she consumes, but also for
the other expenses incident to dairying.
One other factor that affects the cost of production is the
cost of the feed. Where the dairyman is so situated that he can
produce a large portion or all of the feed required for the dairy,
the cost of producing a gallon of milk will be much less than
when all feeds are purchased on the market.
The following experiments were conducted with a view of
giving us exact data as to the values of different home-raised
feeds for milk production.

EXPERIMENT I

This experiment was a comparison of a ration of wheat bran,
velvet beans in the pod, and sorghum silage, with a ration of
wheat bran, cottonseed meal, and sorghum silage, for milk pro-
duction. Six cows were used in the test. The cows were divided
into two lots of three each so that the periods of lactation in each
lot would be as nearly comparable as possible. The feeding
time was divided into three equal periods of twenty-one days
each, with seven days' preliminary feeding before each of the
three periods, so as to change the feeding gradually. Each lot
received the same amount of bran. The cottonseed meal and
velvet beans were not fed in equal amounts, but in quantities
which contained approximately equivalent amounts of nutrients.
This experiment shows clearly that velvet beans in the pod,
when fed with wheat bran and sorghum silage, will produce milk at
less cost than will cottonseed meal when fed with bran and sor-






66 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

ghum silage. Pound for pound, velvet beans in the pod and cot-
tonseed meal are not equal in feeding value. But the results of
this test indicate that one pound of cottonseed meal (7.5 per cent.
ammonia) is equal in feeding value to about 2.63 pounds of vel-
vet beans in the pod. One pound of cottonseed meal will cost
nearly five times as much as does one pound of velvet beans in
the pod. The velvet bean is not only a valuable forage crop,
but it is also one of the best soil improvers that we can grow.
Therefore, in growing and feeding the velvet bean we get a
triple value from it: first its value as a soil improver, second
its value as a feed and forage crop, and third the valuable manure
produced by feeding it to live stock on the farm.
Table XV shows the amount of feed given to each lot of
cows in each period. It also shows the pounds of milk produced
in each period by each lot of cows.
Each pound of velvet beans in the pod, when fed with wheat
bran and silage, produced 3.58 pounds of milk. Each pound of
cottonseed meal when fed with wheat bran and silage, produced
9.42 pounds of milk. To put it another way, one pound of cot-
tonseed Imeal produced as much milk as did 2.63 pounds of vel-
vet beans in the pod.
Table XVI gives the weights of the cows at different periods
during the test. These weights show that the rations fed were
given in just about the proper amounts, as the cows made but
little gain in body weight during the test. The cows used the
feed to a large extent in the production of milk, and not for the
purpose of laying on body fat.
Table XVII gives in detail the cost of feed per gallon of milk.
In this experiment milk was produced at 13.3 cents per gallon
when velvet beans were used, and at 13.7 cents per gallon when
cottonseed meal was fed.

TABLE XV

FEEDS AND MILK PRODUCED

FIRST PERIOD-JANUARY 20, TO FEBRUARY 9, 1909
Lot 1 Pounds Lot 2 Pounds
Velvet beans in pod........... 267.75 Cottonseed meal............. 94.5
Wheat bran ................ 630 Wheat bran ................ 630
Sorghum silage.............. 2142 Sorghum silage...............1543.5
Milk produced.............. 1069.3 Milk produced............... 879.2







BULLETIN 114

SECOND PERIOD-FEBRUARY 17, TO MARCH 9, 1909


Lot 1
Cottonseed meal............. 94.5
Wheat bran ................ 630
Sorghum silage ..............1543.5
Milk produced ..............1077.3


Lot 2
Velvet beans in pod......... 267.75
W heat bran ................. 630
Sorghum silage............ 2142
Milk produced.............. 858.3


THIRD PERIOD-MARCH 17, TO APRIL 6, 1909
Lot 1 I Lot 2
Velvet beans in pod......... 267.75 Cottonseed meal............. 94.5
Wheat bran................. 630 Wheat bran................. 630
Sorghum silage ..............2142 Sorghum silage..............1543.5
Milk produced ............... 952.5 Milk produced............... 714.7
On the average, 267.75 pounds of velvet beans in pod, fed
with b-an and silage, produced..................... 934.6 pounds of milk
And 94.5 pounds of cottonseed meal, fed with bran and less
silage, produced .................. ...... .... ...... 937.1 pounds of milk


DAILY RATIONS PER HEAD FOR EACH LOT


Pounds
W heat bran ................... 10
Velvet beans in pod ...........4.25
Sorghum silage................34


Pounds
W heat bran ................... 10
Cottonseed meal............... 1.5
Sorghum silage...............24.5


TABLE XVI

WEIGHTS OF COWS

JANUARY 20, I909--BEGINNING OF FIRST PERIOD

Lot 1 Pounds Lot 2 Pounds
Cow No. 6.......................675 Cow No. 2.................... 797
Cow No. 8 ...................... 717 Cow No. 5....................... 704
Cow No. 10................... .797 Cow No. 13...................... 788

FEBRUARY 9, 1909-END OF FIRST PERIOD
Cow No. 6....................... 650 Cow No. 2 ...................... 844
Cow. No. 8 ......................727 Cow No. 5...................... 692
Cow No. 10 ......................753 Cow No. 13 ...................... 784

MARCH 9, I909-END OF SECOND PERIOD
Cow No. 6.......................680 Cow No. 2......................... 839
Cow No. 8 ...................... 740 Cow No. 5 ...................... 701
Cow No. 10 ................... 771 Cow No. 13... ... .............806

APRIL 6, 1909--END OF THIRD PERIOD
Cow No. 6 ...................... 694 Cow No. 2...................... 852
Cow No. 8 .......................765 Cow No. 5 ..................... 734
Cow No. 10......................778 Cow No. 13...................... 844
The weights at the end of the first period and the end of the second period
were taken as equal to the weights at the beginning of the following period.






68 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

TABLE XVII

COST OF FEEDS PER GALLON OF MILK
WITH VELVET BEANS
803.25 pounds velvet beans in pod, at $6 per ton.....................$ 2.41
1890 pounds wheat bran, at $31 per ton ............................. 29.30
6427 pounds sorghum silage, at $4 per ton ........................... 12.85
Total cost of feed......................................... 44.56
Milk produced, 334.9 gallons.
Cost per gallon ............................. .............. 0.133

WITH COTTONSEED MEAL
283.5 pounds cottonseed meal, at $30 per ton ........................$ 4.25
1890 pounds bran, at $31 per ton. ................................. 29.30
4630 pounds sorghum silage, at $4 per ton .......................... 9.26
Total cost of feed. ................... ................ ... 42.81
Milk produced, 310.6 gallons.
Cost per gallon ................ .... ....... ........... 0.137

EXPERIMENT II

Experiment II was conducted during the winter of 1910. The
feeding test began January II, and closed March 30, 1910. The
test was divided into four periods of sixteen days each, with a
space of five days between each period for the purpose of chang-
ing feeds.
This test was a comparison of cottonseed meal, wheat bran,
and Japanese cane silage, with velvet beans in the pod, wheat
bran, and Japanese cane silage. For this test six cows were
selected from the herd and divided into two lots of three cows
each. Due consideration was given to the lactation period of
each cow, so that the two lots were equal in this respect.
From an examination of the tables it will be seen that this
experiment is a duplication of Experiment I, so far as the feeds
used are concerned. However, the feeds were not fed in exactly
the same proportions. There was no difference in the amounts
of bran and velvet beans in the pod, but the lot fed velvet beans
in the pod were not given as much Japanese cane silage as the
lot fed cottonseed meal. The amount of cottonseed meal fed was
increased to three pounds per head per day.
From a study of the following tables it will be seen that there
is but little difference in the two rations in regard to the amount
of milk produced. There is, however, considerable difference
in the cost of producing a gallon of milk with the different rations.







BULLETIN 114


The cost of producing a gallon of milk with the cottonseed meal
ration was 22.8 per cent. more than with the velvet-bean ration.
In this test, as in the preceding one, velvet beans in the pod
were not equal to cottonseed meal pound for pound, but 816 pounds
of velvet beans in the pod produced almost as many gallons of
milk as did 576 pounds of cottonseed meal when fed with wheat
bran and a little more Japanese cane silage.
The cost per gallon of milk was, with the velvet bean ration,
12.7 cents, and with the cottonseed meal ration, 15.6 cents; there
being a difference of 2.9 cents per gallon in favor of the velvet
beans in the pod. This makes, as already stated, a difference in
cost of production of 22.8 per cent. in favor of the velvet beans in
the pod.
The results of this test indicate that if cottonseed meal (7.5
per cent. ammonia) is worth $1.55 per hundred, velvet beans in
the pod are worth $I.o9 per hundred. One hundred pounds of
velvet beans in the pod will shell out about one bushel, or 60
pounds, of clean seed.


TABLE XVIII.
FEEDS FOR EACH PERIOD AND MIILK PRODUCED.
FIRST PERIOD-JANUARY I I, TO JANUARY 26, 1910.
Lot 1 Pounds Lot 2 Pounds
W heat bran ................. 480 Wheat bran ................. 480
Velvet beans in pod.......... 204 Cottonseed meal ............. 144
Japanese cane silage.........1176 Japanese cane silage..........1632
Milk produced ............. 766.4 Milk produced ............. 707.8

SECOND PERIOD--FEBRUARY I, TO 16, 1910.
Lot 1 Lot 2
Wheat bran ................. 480 Wheat bran .................. 480
Cottonseed meal ............. 144 Velvet beans in pod........... 204
Japanese cane silage..........1632 Japanese cane s lage..........1176
Milk produced ............. 724.1 Milk produced ............. 658.1


THIRD PERIOD-FEBRUAF
Lot 1
Wheat bran ................. 480
Velvet beans in pod........... 204
Japanese cane silage .........1176
Milk produced ............ 698.7


LY 22, TO MARCH 9, 1910.
Lot 2
Wheat bran .................. 480
Cottonseed meal.............. 144
Japanese cane silage.......... 1632
Milk produced ............. 599.6


FOURTH PERIOD-MARCH 15, TO 30, 1910.
Lot 1 Lot 2
Wheat bran .................. 480 Wheat bran ................. 480
Cottonseed meal ............. 144 Velvet beans in pod........... 204
Japanese cane silage .........1632 Japanese cane silage .......... 1176
Milk produced ............. 788.8 Milk produced ............ 676.5







70 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

DAIRY RATIONS PER HEAD FOR EACH LOT.

Wheat bran ..................10 Wheat bran ..................10
Velvet beans in pod........... 4.25 Cottonseed meal............... 3
Japanese cane silage...........24.50 Japanese cane silage...........34


TABLE XIX

WEIGHTS OF COWS

JANUARY II, 1910-BEGINNING OF FIRST PERIOD

Lot 1 (Velvet beans in pod) Lot 2 (Cottonseed meal)
Pounds Pounds
Cow No. 6 ......................685 Cow No. 2.......................830
Cow No. 8......................695 vow No. 5 ......................703
Cow No. 11 .....................655 Cow No. 13.. ..................720

JANUARY. 26, 19IO-END OF FIRST PERIOD
Cow No. 6 ......................660 Cow No. 2 ......................830
Cow No. 8................. ... 708 Cow No. 5......................702
Cow No. 11............ .......668 Cow No. 13 .....................759

FEBRUARY 16, 9I0--END OF SECOND PERIOD
Lot 1 (Cottonseed meal) Lot 2 (Velvet beans in pod)
Cow No. 6 .................. ....644 Cow No. 2. .....................804
Cow No. 8.....................686 Cow No. 5......................684
Cow No. 11....... .............643 Cow No. 13 .....................713

MARCH 9, 9I0--END OF THIRD PERIOD


Lot 1 (Velvet beans in pod)
Cow No. 6 .......................629
Cow No. 8 .......................669
Cow No. 11......................621


Lot 2 (Cottonseed meal)
Cow No. 2 .......................783
Cow No. 5 .......................666
Cow No. 13................... .729


MARCH 30, I9I---END OF FOURTH PERIOD
Lot 1 (Cottonseed meal) Lot 2 (Velvet beans in pod)
Cow No. 6 .......................682 Cow No. 2 ......................853
Cow No. 8......................719 Cow No. 5 ......................693
Cow No. 11 ............. ..... 681 Cow No. 13... .................730


TABLE XX

COST OF FEED PER GALLON OF MILK

WITH VELVET BEANS

1920 pounds of wheat bran, at $31 per ton.............................$29.76
816 pounds of velvet beans in pod, at $6 per ton..................... 2.45
4704 pounds of Japanese cane silage, at $4 per ton..................... 9.41

Total cost of feed.................................................$41.62
Milk produced, 325.54 gallons.
Cost per gallon......... .............................. $0.127






BULLETIN 114


WITH COTTONSEED MEAL
1920 pounds of wheat bran, at $31 per ton.............................. $29.76
576 pounds of cottonseed meal, at $30 per ton ......................... 8.64
6528 pounds of Japanese cane silage, at $4 per ton ..................... 13.06
Total cost of feed..........................................$51.46
Milk produced, 327.94 gallons.
Cost per gallon..................... ...........................$0.156

MILKING RECORDS

Table XXI shows the age; breed; date at which the cows be-
came fresh; number of days they gave milk from July I, 191o,
to June 30, 1911; amount of milk produced from July I, 1910,
till June 30, 1911; percentage of butter fat; and date when each
cow dried up.
The best yield of milk for the year was 4683.3 pounds, by
cow No. o1. The smallest yield was produced by cow No. 13,
namely 938.9 pounds. It will be noticed that cow No. 13 freshen-
ed on August 19, 1909, and dried up on December 12, 1910; which
accounts for the small yield of milk during the time of the record.
Cow No. 8 is a native Florida cow. The yield of milk produced
by her is good, when we take her breeding into consideration.
Cow No. 14 gave only a light yield. She is a calf from Cow No.
8, by a pure-bred Shorthorn bull. She was 28 months old when
she freshened. Her yield of 1876.3 pounds of milk in 184 days is
not a heavy yield, but when we take her ancestry into consideration
it makes a fairly good showing.













TABLE XXI
MILKING RECORD FROM JULY I, 1910 TO JUNE 30, 1911


'-





Grade Jersey .... Purchased June 18, 1910.........
Jersey .......... Freshened Sept. 14, 1910........
Grade Jersey .... Purchased June 18, 1910.........
Grade Jersey .... Freshened October 28, 1910......
Grade Jersey .... Freshened Jan. 2, 1910...........
Grade Jersey .... Purchased Feb. 24, 1911..........
Native .......... Freshened Aug. 31, 1910.........
Grade Jersey .... Fresh. Jun. 18, 1910; Mar. 29, 1911
Grade Jersey .... Freshened Feb. 19, 1911..........
Grade Jersey .... Freshened Sep. 6, 1909..........
Grade Jersey .... Freshened Aug. 19, 1909........
Grade Shorthorn Freshened Dec. 28, 1910.........


0


a








1468.0
3565.7
3714.2
2123.8
3376.4
2563.8
4683.3
1309.5
938.9
1876.3
1876.3


Apr. 8, 1911
Jan. 7, 1911.


July 13, 1910.

Dec. 3, 1910.
Dec. 3, 1910.
Dec. 17, 1910.
Dec. 12, 1910.


years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years








years





BULLETIN 114


COMPARATIVE RETURNS FROM MILK, CREAM AND
BUTTER

Table XXII shows the comparative return from the dairy
herd when the product is sold as milk, cream or butter. Unless
a cow gives very rich milk, with above 5.5 per cent. of fat, it will
be found more profitable to sell the product as whole milk when
thirty cents per gallon or more can be got for the milk. This,
of course, will depend somewhat on the price of the cream. If
$1.25 a gallon can be obtained for the cream, the money received
will be nearly equal to that obtained for the whole milk. There
will be a much smaller cash return from the sale of butter, though
considerably more labor is required.
Only one cow in the herd gave a larger return from the sale
of cream than from the sale of whole milk. That was cow No. I,
whose milk tested 6.1 per cent. fat.
These twelve cows gave an average gross return per cow
(milk at thirty cents per gallon) of $90.50. The average return
per 'cow when the product was sold as cream at $i per gallon
for 20 per cent. cream was $74.15. Had the product been con-
verted into butter and sold at 40 cents per pound, the average
return per cow would have only been $57.43. Had the milk been
converted into 20 per cent. cream and sold at $i per gallon in-
stead of selling as whole milk, there would have been a gross loss
of $16.35 per cow. Or if instead of selling whole milk at 30
cents per gallon, the product had been converted into butter and
sold at 40 cents per pound, there would have been a loss of $33.08
per cow, or a gross loss during the year of $396.96 for the herd
of twelve cows, to say nothing about the extra labor necessary
in making butter.
No account has been taken of the buttermilk or skim milk,
which in some localities is quite valuable, and in others valuable
only as feed for hogs and poultry. The amount of these by-pro-
ducts would be nearly the same whether cream or butter was made.






74 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

TABLE XXII
COMPARATIVE VALUE OF MILK, CREAM AND BUTTER

(July I, 1910, to June 30, 1911)

Pounds of Percent- Value of Milk Value of Cream
Cow No- Milk age of at 30 cents at $1 per gal. Value Butter, at 40
Produced Fat per gal. (20 per cent fat.) cents per pound.
1 3106.2 6.1 $108.33 $114.10 1 $88.42
2 2410.2 3.8 84.07 55.17 42.74
4 1468.0 5.5 51.20 48.63 37.68
5 3565.7 4.9 124.38 105.25 I 81.54
6 3714.2 4.3 129.54 94.40 73.13
7 2123.8 5.1 74.07 65.24 50.54
8 3376.4 3.9 117.78 79.32 61.45
9 2563.8 4.3 89.43 66.41 51.44
10 4683.3 4.7 163.35 132.60 102.72
11 1309.5 5.4 45.66 42.60 33.00
13 938.9 5.4 32.73 30.54 23.66
14 1 1876.3 4.9 65.43 55.58 42.90
Av'ragej 2594.7 | 4.85 $ 90.50 $ 74.15 $57.43

RETURNS FROM INDIVIDUAL COWS

The following table gives in detail the actual return from
eight of the dairy cows in the herd. These eight cows were not
selected because they were the best, but because they were good
representatives of the herd. The table shows the returns from cows
freshening at different seasons of the year, and from cows of
different ages. The milk yields of cows No. 15 and No. 16 are
very low compared with those of some of the other cows. These
two cows were only three years old, with their first calves, and
could not be expected to produce the maximum flow of milk.
From July I, to October io, the cows were given a light feed
of bran and cottonseed meal. From 'October IO, to March 25, they
were given a full feed of bran and cottonseed meal. From March
25, to May 4, the feed was gradually reduced, and after May 4,
no bran or cottonseed meal was given.
In figuring the cost of the feed and the cost of the milk per
gallon, the cows were only charged with the feed consumed dur-
ing the six months' test. No charges were made for labor or for
feed consumed during the remaining six months of the year. The
cost of labor varies in different parts of the State, and also the
cost of summer pasture. Therefore, to get the actual cost of pro-
ducing milk, each dairyman must take these items of expense
into consideration.













TABLE XXIII.
RESULTS or Six MONTHS' TEST.


a









Grade Jersey e... (ct. 28,
Grade Jersey .... Nov. 9.,
Native .......... Aug. 23,
Grade Jersey .... Jan. 3,
Grade Jersey .... Nov. 2,
Shorthorn ....... Jan. 1,
Grade Jersey .... Sept. 5,
Grade Jersey .... Dec. 19,
4-^














Grade Jersey .. Dec. 19,


0
.0
a








1911..180

1912.. 180
1911..180
1912..180
1911..180
1911..180
1911..180
1911. .180


02

*0








2(144.7
3216.2
2596.0
3219.0
2338.2
3003.6
1975.0
2050.3


POUNDS OF FEEDl
CONSUMED


Ce

901.4
881
906
577
892
588
928
668


0
0





a
3

$26.59
26.08
26.68
17.13
26.33
16.65
27.24
19.35


0



$ 92.25
113.24
00.56
112.29
81.56
104.77
68.89
71.51


o
0
C4)


0
0
0

$65.66(
87.16
63.87
95.16
55.23
88.12
41.65
52.16


41









0.069
0.088
0.045
0.096
0.047
0.118
0.081


*The only charge made for feed is for that actually consumed during the six months' test, and there is no charge made for labor or
pasturage.





76 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

The feeds used were charged at the following prices: bran,
$1.70; cottonseed meal, $1.50; and silage, 20 cents per hundred.
From the table it will be seen that the rations fed were com-
posed of bran, two parts, and cottonseed meal, one part by weight.
The amount of silage fed averaged close to 25 pounds per day.
In estimating the milk, it was given a value of thirty cents
per gallon. One gallon of ordinary whole milk weighs 8.6 pounds.



SUMMARY

(1) The experiments reported in this bulletin were conducted
with a view of giving us further exact data as to the cost of
milk production with home-grown feeds.
(2) The cost of feed for producing a gallon of milk in Ex-
periment I was 13.3 cents when velvet beans were fed, and 13.7
cents when cottonseed meal was fed.
(3) The cost of feed for producing a gallon of milk in Ex-
periment II was 12.7 cents when velvet beans were fed, and 15.6
cents when cottonseed meal was fed.
(4) Selling of whole milk is generally the most profitable;
selling cream is next; and selling of butter, least profitable.
(5) There is a great variation in cost of producing milk, due
to individuality of cows. Cow No. io produced a gallon of milk
on 4.5 cents' worth of feed, while cow No. 15 required 11.8 cents'
worth of feed to give a gallon of milk.




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