BULLETIN NO. 42.
A. L. QUAINTANCE.
The Bulletins of this Station will be sent Free to any address
in Florida upon application to the Director of the Ex-
periment Station, Lake City, Fla.
DE LAND, FLA.
E. O. PAINTER & CO.,
BOARD OF TRUSTEES.
HON. WALTER GWYNN, President... ......... ... Sanford
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee.....Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGEN, Secretary ...... ........... Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER . ..... ... .. .... .. .. ... Brooksville
HON. H. W. GELSTON... .............. .... ... .DeLand
HON. WM. FISHER... .................. ..... Pensacola
HON. F. L. REES... ... ......... .. ... ... ...Live Oak
O. CLUTE, M. S., LL. D..................... ....Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S .. ...... ... .Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S ......... ...... .. .. . Chemist
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S .............. Assistant in Biology
J. P. DAVIES, B. S ......... .. ....Assistant in Chemistry
J oiN F. MITCHELL. ..... ... ... Foreman of Lake City Farm
J. T. STUBS ..... ....Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARSH. ........... ...... ..Supt. Sub-Station, Myers
W. P. JERNIGAN,. ........... .... .. Auditor and Book-keeper
LI BR RIAN... .. .. ... ..... .. ... ... . ....Lake Citf
General remarks. .. ....... ..... .... .. ... . .551
Strawberry Thrips................... .... ........... ... 552
Strawberry Pamera........... ........ ................... 564
Tarnished Plant Bug.................. ..... .............. 577
Leaf-Footed Plant Bug. ...... ... ......... ........ .... 581
The Negro Bug .................... ... ................ ....583
Cut-Worms ... .. ....... ... ......... ..... ... ... ....585
White Grubs.. ............ ...... ...... ................... 589
Strawberry Flea Beetle.................. .......... ........ 592
Locusts, or Grasshoppers... ........ ...... ... ..... ... ....594
The Cricket .................. ..... .............. ........ 596
Strawberry Weevil.. ................. ... ... ........ ....597
Crown Borer ... ................ ... ...... ..... ... ....597
Strawberry Leaf-Roller.................... ..................598
Some Spraying Machinery .......... ...... ................. 599
Acknowledgments .......... ....... .. .............. .... 600
Some Strawberry Insects.
The cultivation of strawberries in Florida for Northern
markets has become an industry of no inconsiderable im-
portance. While the returns on the money invested in this in-
dustry have been in most cases good, it is believed that these
returns might be materially increased by the recognition and
proper treatment of the various insect pests that are known to
attack this plant.
The fungous and insect enemies of a plant seem to increase
in proportion to the extent of its cultivation. And there are
p s st pi r
Fhi. l-Strawherry blossom in section: p. petal: s. sepal: st. stamen: pi. pistil;
certain years in which these enemies become more abundant and
destructive than usual, and the loss of almost an entire crop may
The strawberry plant is no exception to this statement, and
it is essential that the grower should become acquainted with
the various enemies of the plant, to the cultivation of which he is
devoting his time and money. While the insect enemies of the
strawberry plant in Florida are probably not as many as in many
parts of the United States, yet they frequently occasion serious
The present paper deals with the more injurious insects of
the strawberry in Florida, with suggestions for treatment, which
it is hoped will be of value to the growers of the State.
The accompanying figure (Fig. i) illustrates, somewhat
diagramatically, a strawberry blossom in section, showing the
parts of the flower. By a study of this figure, the reader unfa-
miliar with the parts and structure of a strawberry blossom, will
be better able to understand the remarks which follow.
THE STRAWBERRY THRIPS.
(Thrips tritici, Osborn-Fitch.) Order Thysanoptera. Family
During the past spring thrips have been unusually abundant
in many parts of Florida, injuring the flowers of several different
plants. Early in the spring, the blossoms of plums and pears
were badly infested. Later, the blossoms of the strawberry plant
were attacked, and the damage to this crop throughout the State
has been quite heavy. The dry weather of the past spring was
quite favorable to the development of thrips, and at the same time
rendered infested plants less able to bear the effects of their
Thrips tritici, is an insect of rather wide distribution, and has
a great variety of food plants. The insect was described in 1856
by Dr. Asa Fitch, in his Reports on the Noxious Insects of New
York. He gave the insect the common name of wheat thrips, as
it was at that time very destructive to wheat. This species has
been frequently mentioned since Dr. Fitch's note, as causing con-
siderable damage in various parts of the eastern U. S. and
Canada. In the North, its injuries are confined principally to the
various cereals, and to apple, plum and strawberry blossoms.
In Florida the insect may be found in various sweet-scented
flowers, during almost the entire spring and summer. Usually
they are not sufficiently abundant to occasion much damage.
But conditions favorable for the development of thrips seem to
have prevailed in the State during the past spring, and they have
been with us in myriads.
The bloom of the strawberry plant seems to be a favorite
food for this insect, and unfortunately, its effects upon these
particular flowers are much more severe than on many others
which it infests.
The food of thrips as an order is rather varied. Some
species are recorded as carnivorous, others entirely vegetable
eaters; but as a whole, the species probably feed upon vegetable
substances. Many vegetable feeders live in the blossoms of
plants; others live under bark, turf, and similar places.
Many flower-inhabiting species vary considerable in the
parts of the flower which they attack, for there seems to be some-
what of a preference to some particular part, as the pistil, the
stamens, or petals. The injury that these insects occasion is,
therefore, dependent somewhat upon the particular part of the
flower attacked, and the structure of the flower in question.
If the petals are attacked in the roses, the resulting blackening,
would be a serious drawback.
In the case of many other blossoms, if the petals were
attacked, but little damage would result. As a rule no serious
harm occurs from the stamens being attacked, as there is usually
sufficient pollen produced to fertilize the pistils, and the fertiliza-
tion is, if anything, assured by these active little creatures run-
ning over the pistil with pollen sticking to them. If the pistil is
attacked, the result may be more serious, as is the case in the
The same species of thrips may attack different flowers dif-
ferently; as an example we may cite the insect under considera-
tion. In orange blossoms, the petals and stamens seem to be
most subject to attack. In the blossom of the strawberry, the
pistil is evidently preferred. The resulting effect is widely dif-
ferent. In the case of the orange blossom no harm of conse-
quence is done. In the strawberry, however, the attack on the
pistil, if severe, will result in the destruction of the bloom.
The thrips ivere observed to be injuring strawberry blos-
soms March Ioth, here at Lake City. They seem to have been
present in injurious numbers somewhat earlier than this in other
parts of the State, as the following editorial on "Strawberries and
Pears" from the Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower, of March
27th, will indicate:
"To add to the trouble-though it may prove to have been
a benefit in the end-the drouth, and thrips stepped in to curtail
the output. A mysterious shadow crept over the bloom; the
plants are unusually fine this spring, free from rust, large, vigor-
ous, of high color and glossy; yet the millions of blossoms were
observed to fade away like candles going out. Most growers
thought it was a blight, caused by cold, dry winds, but this 'cause
was totally inadequate to account for the effect, as these winds
have prevailed but little, hardly at all, and the strawberry crop is
hardy. A careful examination revealed that the blossoms were
swarming with the thrips (Thrips tritici) a lively little worm, one
twenty-fifth of an inch long, of a clear honey-yellow color with
rudimentary wings. These eat the stamens, the petals, and
apparently the pips of the little berry. Some are apparently
sucked dry; though they remain green on the inside, they are al-
most as hard and dry as wood, do not expand any, become black
on the outside and finally die. Others escape with a part of their
pips eaten off, and they grow out disfigured, pips scattered here
and there with spaces of naked core between them. The growers
who have 'Clouds' state that they are less liable to the attack of
thrips, than are the 'Newnans.' "
To definitely prove that the thrips were the cause of the
blackening and wilting of infested blooms, several Newnan
plants were brought to the laboratory, and all blooms but un-
opened buds were removed. A number of these buds were then
inclosed in large glass tubes, plugged loosely on either end with
cotton. As soon as these buds had opened, some were supplied
with thrips, others were kept uninfested, as checks.
The thrips at once attacked the stigmas and distal portion of
the styles, chafing and apparently puncturing then. In the
course of ten or twelve hours many of the stigmas began to
blacken, and twenty-four hours from this time, nearly all of the
stigmas had blackened, and the styles were blackening half way
down to the ovaries, and wilting perceptibly. In the course of
another day, the styles had blackened to the ovaries and were
plainly drying up. (See Fig. 2.) The ovaries also were attacked
and blackened considerably from the chafing of the thrips.
Fig. 2-Pistil dissected from strawberry flower showing the blackening and
withering of stigma and style, due to thrips. a. stigma; b. style; c. ovary. Much
By another day the entire young fruit, receptacle, and ovaries
were black and dead, and the blackening in some cases had ex-
tended some ways down the fruit stalk.
It should be noted that other parts of the flower were
attacked besides the pistil. The petals were sparingly attacked,
particularly at their bases; also the stamens, principally the fila-
ments. But as a whole, the preference was decidedly for the
stigmas and styles, probably on account of the sweetish sub-
stance secreted by the stigmas, to aid in the germination of the
The blossoms in tubes not inoculated with thrips, did not
show this blackening and drying up. In several instances where
the stigmas were pollinated, fruit set normally.
The results seemed conclusive, yet the same experiment was
made again in the laboratory, and also in the field. In the field,
after all opened and infested flowers had been removed from a
plant, it was covered with a lantern globe, by pressing bottom
end into the soil, and fastening a strip of cheese cloth over the
top. Ten plants were thus prepared. After several buds had
opened into flowers, five plants were supplied with thrips, and
five were kept as checks. This experiment confirmed the exper-
iments made in the laboratory, and left no doubt that the thrips
were responsible for the blackening and wilting of the fruit.
The injurious effect of these insects seems to be to a consid-
erable extent in preventing the fertilization of the ovules. Since
the stigmas are attacked, and decay soon sets in, the normal fer-
Fig. 3-Illustrating on the right, a healthy flower cluster; on the left, one that
has been destroyed by thrips. From a photograph.
utilizationn of the ovules is greatly retarded, if not entirely pre-
vented. But there seems to be an unusually rapid blackening
:and drying up of the injured tissue. This occurs more rapidly
than would be expected, if due to the non-fertilization of the
ovules, and it seems that the immediate effect of thle insects on
the tissue itself should be taken into consideration. See figure 3,
illustrating on the left, an infested flower cluster; on the right, a
healthy normal cluster.
The exact manner of feeding on the blossoms was not
accurately determined. The mouth parts of the Thysanoptera,
represent an intermediate stage between biting and sucking
mouth parts. The labrum, mandibles, maxillae and labium, al-
though present are somewhat modified, particularly the mand-
ibles and maxillae. These parts last mentioned are pointed, and
plainly not adapted to chewing, nor are they well adapted to
sucking. They seem to be used in a pricking or rasping way.
There is probably no poisonous effect produced by the
punctures of these insects, as has been suggested at times of
LIFE HISTORY NOTES.
There are probably but few species of Thysanoptera whose
life histories have been completely worked out, and probably no
American species in which the life history has been carefully de-
termined. Probably the most complete account of the life his-
tory of an American species is to be found in Bulletin No. 27, of
the Iowa Agricultural College, p. 139, referring to the Western
onion thrips (Thrips alii, Gillette).
Prof. Osborn here gives some observations, with those of
Miss Alice M. Beach. The eggs of Thrips alii are said to be "de-
posited slightly beneath the surface of the leaf, and imbedded in
the cell structure. The larvae hatch from the eggs, work their
way through the surface of the leaf, issue, and very soon begin to
feed upon the plant tissue. They evidently grow quite rapidly,
and there is in all probability a number of generations each year,
but just how many is not known."
With regard to Thrips tritici, not much can be said. Eggs
are probably placed beneath the surface of the tissue, judging
from the habits of its near relative, and from the fact that the
female possesses a saw-like ovipositor. The egg state probably
lasts about five days. The young when first hatched are exceed-
ingly small, and quite colorless. They measure about .8 mm.;
growth is rapid and by the end of the sixth day they are about
one-half the size of an adult, and the body is distinctly yellowish.
The pupae are less active than the adults or larvae. Adults of
both sexes are very active, and fly readily. They have a curious
habit in common with other species, of curling up the abdomen
in a very threatening manner. When observed under a hand
lense this appears very ludicrous. But this curling up of the
abdomen seems to be necessary, for them to spread their heavily
fringed wings, as Prof. Gillette has pointed.out. I have never
observed their doing this except to aid in spreading their wings
preparatory to taking flight. As has been said before, dry
weather seems to be favorable for the development of this
species, but there are probably other causes also that have a
marked influence on their abundance. During April and May
thrips were quite abundant at Lake City. By June 3rd nearly all
had disappeared from strawberry blooms and other flowers. At
this date, August Ist, they are somewhat more abundant and are
to be found sparingly in roses and other flowers. Probably these
insects pass the winter both as adults and nymphs.
The length of time required for the destruction of a straw-
berry bloom will vary of course in proportion to the number of
thrips infesting it. In some blooms as many as sixty-five insects
were counted, but this is an unusually large number. Probably
one-half that number would represent approximately the number
more usually present.
"Male. length .75-.8o mm. (.029-.031 of an inch); width .20
mm. (.007 of an inch). Female, length, 1.10-1.20 mm. (.042-.046
of an inch); width, .25 mm. (.oo9 of an inch). Color, yellow,
thorax tinted with orange; antennae with dusky annulations.
Head from above nearly square, eyes occupying anterior angles.
Antennae approximate at base, joint two, apical half of four, and
six, dusky; joints three and five dusky at apex, the antennae
appearing annulated under low power of microscope. Head,
thorax and abdomen with a few stiff hairs. Legs concolorous
with body, all the tibiae with two spines at the distal end, distal
joints of tarsi a little dusky, proximal joints of tarsi with two
spines. Wings narrow, hyaline, fringes whitish; anterior wings
have a costal fringe of shorter ciliae than posterior ones, and the
ciliae are intermixed with shorter, stiffer, spiny hairs, which at
base replace the fringe: two rows of blackish spines on the upper
surface of wing corresponding with subcostal and median veins.
Posterior wings with no fiscal spines, ciliae of anterior edge
shorter and more spiny than those of posterior. Both wings
have rows of very minute hairs on the surface. The males are
Fig. 4-Tkrifs trlitii. from a photomicrograpih, greatly enlarged.
shorter and smaller than the females, with wings reaching be-
yond the tip of the abdomen."-*H. Osborn. See figure 4 from a
photomicrograph, greatly enlarged.
Nymph, or Larva.-Length of body .75 mm. (.029 of an
inch; width .20 mm. (.007 of an inch). Shape oblong, tapering
caudad from about sixth abdominal segment, and cephalad from
posterior corners of prothorax. Color yellow, antennae, lighter.
*The Canadian Entomologist, p. 15,. Aug. 1883.
Eyes reddish. Antennae short, joints shorter and broaded than in
adults; fourth and succeeding joints not well separated. Body
sparsely haired; under high power of microscope, body is seen to
be covered with short, pointed processes. Head about one-half
as wide as prothorax; rounded in front.
Eggs.-Bodies were frequently pressed from abdomens of
females which are probably to be regarded as eggs. Size
.6x.lmm. (.o23x.oo3 of an inch); curved, oblong in shape. The
number of these bodies observed in females varied from two to
five. More usually three.
Dr. Fitch describes* what he regarded as eggs of this species,
as very minute, oval, almost globular bodies, bright red in color,
and attached to a leaf by a short, thick, crinkled stalk or stem,
which is dull white in color. It seems probable that these bodies
were not eggs of Thrips tritici as Dr. Fitch supposed.
Several different insecticides were tried against this insect,
the results of which are herewith given:
Sulphur Spray.-Eight rows of badly infested plants were
sprayed with sulphur spray. Three rows were left unsprayed as
checks. Formula of sulphur spray used is as follows:
Flowers of Sulphur ... ........ ........ .. .3 pounds
Caustic Soda. .................. ... ... ... 2 pounds
Water ................ .................. 1-3 gallon
To this was added two gallons of water, the whole making a
stock solution. The stock solution was used at the rate of one and
one-half pints to twelve gallons of water, and applied to all parts
of the plant with a barrel pump sprayer.
Immediately after spraying the bloom was carefully ex-
amined. A few thrips were observed to have been killed. Many
seemed distressed, but the majority were not so severely injured
but that by the time the insecticide had dried from the blooms,
they were to all appearances about as lively as ever. The sprayed
*Noxious Insects of New York. Reports I and II, p. 307.
rows were examined again the next morning when the thrips
were found as abundant as in the untreated check rows.
Flowers of Sulphur.-Four rows were thoroughly dusted
with flowers of sulphur to determine itsvalue as a repellant. Two
rows were left as checks. No difference could be detected in the
abundance of thrips in the treated and untreated rows.
Pyrethrum Powder.-Pure pyrethrum powder was dusted
thoroughly on three rows, with a Leggett powder gun. Two
rows were left as checks. The pyrethrum seemed to be of no ap-
preciable value against the thrips. They were observed to feed
readily amongst the powder adhering to the bloom.
Pyrethrum in Water.-Pyrethrum powder suspended in
water was tried at the rate of one-fourth pound pyrethrum to six
gallons of water. This proved to be of but little if any value.
Pyrethrum Decoction.-One-fourth pound of pyrethrum
powder was steeped for an hour, the water breaking into a boil a
few times. This was diluted with eleven gallons of water and ap-
plied with a knapsack pump. Two rows were sprayed, one kept
as a check. Examination immediately after spraying showed
that a small proportion had been killed, and others were more or
less distressed. Many thrips had run out on the petals, and se-
pals, from which the solution soon dried and the thrips seemed
to be unharmed. The next day no difference could be detected
in the relative abundance of thrips in the treated and untreated
rows. Doubled the strength of pyrethrum. Results some im-
provement on above.
Tobacco Dust.-Tobacco dust was thoroughly sprinkled
over and worked among the leaves of one row of plants. One
row was kept as check. No difference in the number of insects
in the two rows could be detected, when examined at different
Tobacco Decoction.-One pound of tobacco stems and
leaves was boiled for one-half hour in two gallons of water. This
was strained, and diluted with four gallons of water and applied
to four rows with knapsack sprayer. Two rows were kept as
check. Immediately after spraying, examination showed this in-
secticide was particularly disagreeable to the thrips. A small
proportion were killed or evidently dying. Most of the adults
had left the flowers entirely. Examination the next day showed
that the sprayed plants were much freer from thrip than checks.
Rose Leaf Insecticide.-This is an insecticide manufactured
by the Louisville Spirit Cured Tobacco Co., Louisville, Ky. It
is claimed by the manufacturers that it is an extract of tobacco,
of a uniform strength of nicotine. It should be noted that in a
decoction made by boiling stems and leaves in water, the per
cent. of nicotine is quite variable owing to the variation in quan-
tity of this compound in different plants. This Rose Leaf was
used at the rate of one pint to six gallons of water, and sprayed
thoroughly on five rows with a knapsack sprayer. Two rows
were reserved as checks. Examination immediately after spray-
ing showed that the insecticide was much more effective than
anything yet tried.
Quantities of thrips were dead evidently where the spray
had first touched them. Others were dying or trying to work
their way out of the insecticide, but were soon overcome. The
per cent. of thrips destroyed by this insecticide would probably
bc-near sixty-five or seventy. The action of the fluid seemed to
be that of a strong irritant, and was sufficiently sticky to prevent
the insect from escaping, after the spray had struck it.
Kerosene Emulsion.-This insecticide was made according
to the following formula:
Soap (hard) .. ............ ... .. ... .. .. pound
Water. ........ .............. .I gallon
Kerosene.................... .. ..... ....2 gallon
Two quarts of this stock solution were used to six gallons
of water and applied with a knapsack sprayer to four rows of
plants. The thrips were killed in considerable numbers. How-
ever, many that were thoroughly wet were observed to crawl out
on the higher parts of the petals, and probably eventually re-
covered. Probably a stronger solution of the emulsion would be
quite efficient, but the danger of tainting the fruit would exclude
its use. And the application of the emulsion of the strength
above indicated, would probably slightly taint the fruit.
Carbolic Acid in Water.-This was used at the rate of one
ounce of acid, to six gallons of water. The acid used was com-
paratively pure. being derived from carbolic acid crystals. This
mixture was applied with a knapsack sprayer to four rows of
plants, two being kept as checks. The use of this insecticide re-
sulted in killing a small proportion of thrips and drove many
from the blooms. Examination the next day did not show any
marked freedom of the sprayed plants from thrips, as com-
pared with checks.
Whale Oil Soap.-This was used in the proportion of one-
half pound of soap to six gallons of water. Applied thoroughly
with barrel pump sprayer. Three rows were sprayed, one was
kept as check. This insecticide seemed to be of some value.
Some insects were killed, and the flowers were comparatively
freed from thrips. Examination of sprayed rows the next day
did not reveal much reduction of thrips as compared with their
abundance in the checks.
From the results recorded above it will be observed that the
"Rose Leaf Insecticide" gave much the most satisfactory results.
Its superiority seems to be in its slight stickiness to hold sprayed
insects from escaping, and in the rapidity with which it acts upon
It was early observed that the thrips passed readily from
plant to plant, many leaving the flowers upon slight disturbance;
and some that had been caught in the spray were able to crawl
out from the blooms and eventually escape to other parts of the
field. This activity of the insects in passing to different plants
explains somewhat their abundance in sprayed blooms, fre-
quently in less than twenty-four hours after having been sprayed,
and comparatively freed from the insects.
To get the best results, it seems necessary that an entire
patch should be sprayed, and within as short a period of time as
practicable. To test the value of such a procedure, the entire
patch, save one row as check, upon which the foregoing experi-
ments were conducted, was sprayed thoroughly with the "Rose
Leaf Insecticide." The results obtained from this spraying indi-
cated that much could be done to keep the thrips in check by
its use when applied to the entire patch. The thrips were re-
duced throughout the patch at least one-half in numbers.
A second spraying of the patch two or three days later
would probably have done much to exterminate them. But if
the thrips were quite reduced, and a patch left for some time
without spraying, in all probability the insects would become
quite numerous again, from the fact that they are very abun-
dant in many other flowers, and that they pass readily from place
to place. Magnolia blossoms were most badly infested, and it
seemed that thrips were more abundant in strawberry blooms,
after a strong wind from the direction of a neighboring ham-
mock containing many of these trees.
It should be borne in mind that in the use of an insecticide
on strawberry plants during the fruiting season, an insecticide
must be used that will not injure the ripe or nearly ripe fruit for
market or eating purposes. The difficulties in finding an insecti-
cide that is effective against the insects, and harmless to the fruit,
are considerable. These conditions, however, seem to be fairly
met in the insecticide under consideration. Berries thoroughly
sprayed, and then well washed, carried no taste of the insecticide,
that the writer could detect.
Possibly a strong tobacco decoction mixed with sufficient
cheap molasses to make it slightly sticky would give satisfactory
results against thrips.
It has been stated that the Clouds, a pistillate variety,
are less subject to attack than the pollen bearing bloom, as the
Newnan. If this be true, it would probably be an advantage to
plant only enough pollen producing plants to insure the fertiliza-
-tion of the pistillate bloom. Both the Newnans and the Clouds,
were carefully observed during the last spring with reference to
this point, and in the case under consideration, but little if any,
difference was observed in the number of thrips in these two
THE STRAWBERRY PAMERA.
(Pamera vincta, Say.) Order Hemiptera. Family Lygaeidae.
This insect, first described by Thomas Say, has not, I be-
lieve, been previously recorded as of any economic importance.
Thomas Say gives the habitat of this insect as *Florida. I have
been unable to find any other reference to this insect, than his
For several years past this insect has been recognized as an
enemv to strawberries. In 1892 Prof. P. H. Rolfs observed the
insects in considerable abundance among strawberry plants,
feeding on the young green berries. Since that date it has been
under more or less of observation in the field and it has been
observed that it feeds to a considerable extent upon the fruit,
seeming to prefer the younger berries: it also feeds on the
petioles of the leaves.
As will be seen later there are several insects, whose injuries
are essentially the same, that may be concerned in the so-called
"buttoning" of young fruit. All strawberry growers are doubt-
less familiar with these buttons, as small, hard and woody berries,
which do not develop into large and perfect fruit, but remain
small and worthless. Almost any strawberry plant will have some
of these buttons on it. A study of this insect, both in the field
and laboratory, make it seem quite certain that it is responsible,
to a considerable extent, for this buttoning of the fruit in certain
parts of Florida. The tarnished plant bug, described later,
occasions this buttoning also, but the tarnished plant bug is not
nearly so abundant in strawberry fields in Florida as the species
Specimens of the strawberry Pamera kept in the laboratory
on strawberry plants, were observed to feed mainly on the
ovaries of the young fruit. Walking around over the berry, the
beak was thrust first down into one ovary, and then another,
frequently fifteen or eighteen ovaries being pierced during the
course of half an hour. As is well known, the ovary is, physio-
logically, an essential part of the fruit of the strawberry, and if a
considerable number of ovaries are destroyed, the development
of the receptacle, the juicy part of the ripe strawberry, is checked.
This insect seems to destroy the vitality of the ovaries which it
attacks; in case the attack has been severe, i. e. many of the
ovaries of the fruit having been pierced, the berry rarely de-
*Entomology of North America, Thomas Say, p. 333, Vol. 1.
velops to anything of value. Further growth is greatly checked,
and the receptacle eventually becomes more or less woody, pro-
ducing a "button." Very young fruit seem to suffer more
severely yet. In such fruit, the receptacle is also attacked, and it
usually results in the blackening, and eventual drying up of the
berry. This effect was observed repeatedly in the laboratory;
blossoms are sometimes attacked, with the same results. One
insect may so pierce a very young fruit or blossom that it will
die. After a berry has become a third grown it is probably safe
from destruction from this insect.
The extent of the injury of an individual insect was not sat-
isfactorily determined. However, it would be a moderate esti-
mate to charge it with two or three young berries a day. But at
this rate, from the fact that both adults and young feed on the
berries, and that they are usually quite abundant, the total
damage done by this species during a season must be consider-
DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT STAGES.
Egg.-Length .88 mm.; width .43 mm. (.o34x.oi6 of an
inch); elliptical in shape; no markings; on the apical end are five
short processes, each process ending distally in a thick hook, the
Fig. s--Egg of Pamnera vincta, from a photomicrograph. greatly enlarged.
hook projecting outward. See figure 5 from a photomicrograph,
First Stage.-Length of body, 1.75 mm. (.068 of an inch);
length of body and antennae. 3 mm. (.117 of an inch); length of
head, .45 mm. (.017 of an inch) width of head. .46 mm. (.117 of an
inch); width across prothorox. .5 mm. (.ol9 of an inch); width
across third abdominal segment. .63 mm. (.024 of an inch).
In general shape the body is oblong, not depressed; head is
somewhat triangular, slightly constricted behind the eyes; pro-
notum as seen from above, rectangular, about twice as wide as
long; meso, and metanotum together about equal in area to
pronotum and somewhat trapezoidal in shape; lateral margins of
pronotum and mesonotum, and caudal margin of pronotum flat-
tened into a narrow rim. Abdomen about three-fourths as long
as head and thorox together. Antennae four jointed, excluding
a very short, possible joint at base; first joint about two and one-
half times as long as wide, sub-cylindrical in shape; second joint,
.26 mm. in length, about equal in size and length to third joint;
fourth joint somewhat longer than second, and spindle shaped.
Numerous hairs are distributed quite evenly over the three distal
joints, first joint sparsely haired.
Fig. 6--llustrating comb on tarsus of front leg of Pamera vincta, first stage. En-
The beak is distinctly four segmented; the third and fourth
about equal length; the second is the longest, being .21 mm. in
length; the first is three-fourths the length of the second.
Labrum is narrow and pointed, about two-thirds as long as
first segment of sheath.
Clypeus protruding as a semi-ellipse; eyes large; no ocelli
Legs well developed: femora of the first pair somewhat thick-
ened, about one-fourth as thick as long, with tibia about same
length as femora, becoming broader distally. On the distal end
of each fore tibia, is a fine comb-like row of hairs, extending
transversely across from a large terminal spine to the point of
the attachment of the tarsus (see figure 6); on the distal third of
the posterior aspect of each of these tibia are two rows of diverg-
ing spines, becoming stronger distally, and terminating on each
end of the comb of fine hairs.
The tibia of the second pair of legs is about equal in length
to a femora of that pair. In the third pair, the tibia is approxi-
mately a fourth longer than the femora of that pair. The tarsi
are two jointed. In the first and second pairs, the distal joint is
the longer; in the third pair, the joints are equal. In all of the
tarsi the proximal joint is obliquely pointed, the distal joint is
attached to the anterior, and proximal part of the oblique.
The claw is composed of two strongly curved hooks, set
transverse to the length of the tarsus, and two bladder-like struc-
tures on stalks, extending distally from the base of each hook is
a slightly curved bristle.
The body is sparsely covered with slender hairs; on the legs
these become much thicker; on the distal portion of the tibia
they are much larger, amounting almost to spines.
When first hatched the insect is rather uniformly bright red
Fig. 7-Pamera vincta, first stage; hair line indicates natural length.
in color. This soon changes, and the general color becomes red-
dish brown with the red restricted mainly to the distal joints of
the antennae, the proximal joint of the beak, the femora, and to
the caudal part of the abdomen. On the dorsum of the abdo-
men, on each of what are probably the fourth and fifth segments,
is a rectangular spot of a deep red color. There is a streak of red
across the abdomen, on the caudal margin of the second seg-
ment. See figure 7, much enlarged.
Second Stage.-Length of body 2.6 mm. (.ioi of an inch);
length of body and antennae 4. mm. (.156 of an inch); length of
head .61 mm. (.023 of an inch); width of head .61 mm. (.023 of an
inch); width of prothorox .75 mm. (.027 of an inch); width of
body across third abdomen segment .96 mm. (.037 of an inch).
Body oblong; head less constricted behind the eyes than in stage
I. Antennae, beak, femora, tibiae and claws as in previous stage,
except that the spines on posterior surface of tibia are larger, and
are more nearly in rows, two rows on each tibia. The abdomen
ends in a short fleshy protuberance. Color also much as in first
stage, the bright red in distal segment of antennae becoming
deeper, less red in abdomen; quadrate spots and band same color
as before. See figure 8, much enlarged.
Fig. 8-Pamera vincta, second stage; hair line indicates natural length.
Third Stage.-Length of body 3.1 mm. (.12 of an inch);
length of body and antennae 4.45 mm. (.173 of an inch); length
of head .78 mm. (.31 of an inch); width of head .63 mm. (.24 of
an inch); width across prothorox .7 mm. (.027 of an inch); width
of third abdomen segment 1.16 mm. (.045 of an inch). Body
rather oval in shape, proportionately narrower in front than
formerly, the width of the prothorox being less than in the pre-
ceeding stage. Head somewhat longer than wide; there is a de-
cided indentation on each side, where the antennae are attached.
Clypeus, antennae and legs as previously described. Pronotum
Fig. 9-Pamera vincta, third stage; hair line indicates natural length.
not quite as wide as long; no essential change in meso and
metathorox. Beak reaching nearly to the middle coxae; tip
clouded with black. General color brownish yellow; head deep
brown; pronotum a shade lighter. Eyes a brownish black. Red
markings as in previous stages. See figure 9, much enlarged.
Fourth Stage.-Length of body 3.6 mm. (.14 of an inch);
length of body and antennae, 5.83 mm. (.227 of an inch); length
of head .83 mm. (.032 of an inch); width of head .78 mm. (.03 of
an inch); width of prothorox .9 mm. (.035 of an inch); width of
third abdominal segment I.19 mm. (.046 of an inch). Body
elongated, and becoming somewhat depressed. Wing pads
plainly visible, the anterior pair being about one-half as long as
Fig. 10-/'Paiicr zincta, fourth stage; hair line indicates initural length.
mesonotum; both' pairs extending nearly to caudal margin of
first abdominal segment.
Distal segment of third pair of tarsi a fourth shorter than
proximal segment. Quadrate markings on abdomen separated
into five or six rectangles, by transverse lines. In other respects
this stage is essentially as in the preceding. See figure o1, much
Fifth, and Last Nymphal Stage.-Length of body 4. mm.
(.156 of an inch); length of body and antennae 6.5 mm. (.253 of
an inch); length of head .86 mm. (.033 of an inch); width of head
.85 mm. (.033 of an inch); width of prothorox i.08 mm. (.042 of
an inch); width across third abdominal segment 1.4 mm. (.054 of
an inch). Body elongated, depressed. Pronotum wider on
caudal margin than on cephalic. Wing pads equal in length and
reaching to transverse bar of red, on second abdominal segment.
First and second joints of beak equal in length; tip of fourth
joint brownish black. Second joint of antennae longest.
Femora of first pair of legs armed with six or seven strong spine
like projections on posterior surface. Scutellum of mesothorox
plainly outlined. Tarsi tipped with dusky. General color of
body yellowish; head darkest; distal joints of antennae reddish
purple. The six rectangular spots on abdomen alternately one
red, and two black. See figure I. much enlarged.
Adult Stage.-"Thorox constrained near the base, and with
Fig. 11-Pa-mera vincta, fifth stage; hair line indicates natural length.
a transverse line before; hemelytra whitish with a fuscous spot.
Body blackish, punctured: antennae, basal joint yellowish,
tipped with black; remaining joints : thorox much con-
Fig. 12-Pamera.vincta, adult; hair line indicates natural length.
stricted behind the middle, sub-cylindric, anterior margin with a
tion: basal edge piceous: scutel: with a carinate line: hemelytra
piceous: posterior margin of the stricture with a cinerious reflec-
transverse impressed line, anterior to which the margin is
yellowish white and punctured on the corium, the posterior mar-
gin of which is fuscous; membrane milk white; abdomen on the
margin dull rufous; feet whitish, thighs honey yellow, dilated.
Length one-tenth of an inch.
Differs from contract nob, in size, arrangement of colors,
and by the distinct, impressed line before."-Thomas Say. See
figure 12, illustrating an adult, and figure 13, illustrating a
tarsus. Much enlarged.
All specimens of this species which I have examined differ
Fig. 13-Tarsus of Pamera vincta.
from the above description in two or three particulars; the length
will average about one-fifth of an inch, nearly twice that given by
Say. However, there is much variation in length, the bodies of
some males measure but 5-32 of an inch, while some of the long-
est females measure 5-16 of an inch. The membrane of hemely-
tra is much clouded with dusky above; below it is milk white.
The feet are dusky. The claw and distal segment of each tarsus
are blackish, the clouding extending upon the tibia; not whitish.
The basal joint of the antennae is uniformly yellowish, there
being no trace of black on distal portion.
The antennae of an adult are very similar to that of the
nymph. The first joint being short, about two and one-half times
as long as thick; second, third and fourth joints are of about
same length; second and third are cylindrical in shape; fourth
joint is spindle shaped. First, second and third joints are uni-
formly yellow. Fourth joint rufous. Tarsi composed of three
LIFE HISTORY OF THE INSECT.
In order that the insects might be kept under observation
during their entire life cycle, twenty-five or thirty adults were
captured from strawberry plants and brought into the labora-
tory. Several strawberry plants bearing green fruit were also
brought in. On each of these plants a cluster of green fruit was
inclosed in a large glass tube and loosely plugged at the bottom
and top with cotton. Four to six adults were placed in each of
these tubes. They soon became accustomed to their surround-
ings, and in the course of three or four hours were observed
mating in two of the tubes. Two days from this date eggs were
discovered down in the loose cotton at the bottom of these tubes.
The eggs were placed in groups; probably the different groups
were deposited by different females. In some groups the number
of eggs was as low as six; in others, as many as twenty-five were
counted. The egg state lasted eight days. When first deposited
the eggs are uniform whitish in color. By the end of the third
day the egg has a decided yellowish color; by the end of the fifth
day this has changed to a bright red. From this date develop-
ment seems to be quite rapid. The embryo becomes fairly well
outlined in the course of another day. Early on the seventh day
the embryo is distinctly outlined; the legs, antennae and beak
can be made out with much certainty. From this time the red of
the head and prothorox deepens to a reddish brown; the three
basal joints of the antennae become clear yellowish; the legs be-
During the eighth day of incubation fully two-thirds of the
eggs in the two tubes hatched out, the skin of the egg breaking
over the prothorox and head, and the insect gradually working
itself free. After half an hour of quiet, the insects move slowly
around for a while, and soon acquire considerable agility. Feed-
ing begins usually, in the course of an hour or so.
During the first stage they probably do not occasion much
harm to the berries. This stage lasts five days.
During the second stage, feeding continues about as before;
they have gained in agility, and are easily disturbed from the
fruit. The second stage lasts three days. The third also lasts
three days. Habits and appearance similar to preceding stage.
By the fourth stage, the insect has become of sufficient size
to be decidedly injurious to the fruit. They have now the
general form of the adults. This stage continues during three
The fifth, and last nymphal stage is, as a whole, less active
than the preceding stages. Feeding continues up to eight or ten
hours before the last moult, when feeding ceases for the greater
part, and the insects remain quiet. When disturbed they move
reluctantly and slowly. In moulting into the adult stage, and in
previous stages the skin splits longitudinally along the dorsum of
the thorox, and the old skin is gradually worked off. Immedi-
ately after moulting, the colors are much lighter than normal.
From the fifth stage the normal color of the adult is attained
after twelve or fifteen hours. This stage lasts five days.
The length of life of the adult was not determined. Speci-
mens were kept in a breeding cage twenty days, when they un-
fortunately escaped. Nor was it determined how soon after the
adult stage is reached that egg laying begins, nor the total num-
ber of eggs that may be deposited by one female. It is seen from
the above statements, however, that the life cycle from egg to
adult, requires twenty-seven days.
THE INSECT IN THE FIELD.
The insects are probably overlooked by many, or are not re-
garded as of economic importance. To one standing naturally,
they appear in the older stages, very much like the yellow ants
that are so common in strawberry fields, and elsewhere. In
many cases they are probably mistaken for these ants. By a
more careful inspection, however, they are readily distinguished
from ants by their less slender form, and by the less specialized
body, the division of the head, thorox and abdomen being n'ht
nearly so well marked. And the insects remain more or less in
hiding, preferring to remain under the heavy leaves of the plants,
or in the surrounding mulching. It is very probable that a good
many fields are quite badly infested with these insects, and their
presence is not suspected, their injuries probably being attribut-
ed to other causes, or possibly not recognized to any extent.
This insect cannot be regarded as a menace to strawberry grow-
ers, at least at present, but by its continuous feeding on the
young fruit, frequently causing them to "button," it will, during
a season, cause no inconsiderable loss.
The insects probably pass the winter in the strawberry
fields, and during the coldest weather find protection among the
dead leaves of the plants and mulching. Early in spring adults
may be seen among the plants in considerable numbers; their
activities are probably not suspended during our milder winters.
In the course of a few weeks young in various stages of develop-
ment are to be seen. By the time that the earlier and more
valuable fruits has begun to form, the insects are abundant
enough to cause some destruction. As the season advances they
become much more numerous, and their injuries are consequent-
Fields a year or two old are very naturally, not so badly in-
fested as older ones. The usual custom of mulching offers these
insects good protection, and an excellent breeding place.
By the first of March of the present year these insects were
quite abundant in the fields, in all stages, here at Lake City. In
more southern parts of the State, they may begin breeding
earlier; possibly breeding continues throughout the winter where
food is abundant. Although these insects have been frequently
observed feeding on the leaf stalks of the plant, yet it would seem
that these do not furnish a good substitute for the fruit. After
running" begins and the formation of fruit ceases, they are
much less abundant, than when fruit was abundant.
Enough adults, however, may usually be found among the
plants to infest them the next season. The adults fly readily
during the warmer part of the day, and possibly pass from one
field to another. At this date, July 15th, they are abundant in
the plats of late varieties, which are still fruiting, on the Experi-
ment Station. In fields where Newnan and Cloud varieties are
planted, whose fruiting has ceased, they are not nearly so abun-
I have not been able to discover other food plants of this
insect than the strawberry. The insect seems to be indigenous,
and it is probable that its preference for the strawberry is an ac-
quired one. A near relative of this insect, Pamera longula,
Dallas, I have frequently swept from oats and various other
grasses, and have observed them in various stages feeding on the
involucre of the Sand-spur (Cenchrus echinatus).
Pamera vincta, in the field, is very agile, and not at all easy
to capture. To observe them in their natural mode of living,
one must approach the plant carefully, and look down among
the leaves, on the ground around the fruit clusters. Usually
a considerable number may be seen on the fruit with their beaks
stuck down into it, sucking up the juice for food; others may be
standing quietly by, or walking slowly here and there. Upwards
of fifty of these insects, in various stages of development, have
been counted around a single plant. A slight disturbance of the
plant, less than that caused by picking the fruit, causes a panic
among them, and the older ones dart here and there to hide.
Where plants are mulched, they have no trouble in finding pro-
tection. Where there is no mulching, they may run out from
the protection of the plant, and the adults fly away.. The older
nymphs usually run off to neighboring plants. The younger
nymphs do not leave the immediate neighborhood of the plant,
but find protection amongst the dead leaves of the plant, on the
HOW TO BEST CONTROL THE INSECT.
From the foregoing it will be seen that this insect will be
rather difficult to successfully combat. From the fact that they
obtain their food by sucking, the arsenical compounds that kill
by being eaten with the food, will be of no use. An insecticide
must be used that kills by contact, or that poisons the air breath-
ed by the insect. The great agility of these insects makes the
application of such insecticides as these only partially effective,
particularly with respect to the adults. However, a good contact
insecticide may be used with advantage during the cooler weath-
er of the spring, or in early morning, or late in the evening. At
these times they are not nearly so quick to escape as during
mid-day, the adults rarely taking flight. Kerosene emulsion is
a good insecticide against these insects, and is particularly ef-
festive against the younger nymphs. If used thoroughly, in the
spring, and during the cooler portion of the day it will probably
keep them well in check.
There is, however, an objection to the use of kerosene emul-
sion'during the fruiting season, and that is, that it taints the fruit
upon which it has been sprayed. This is a serious objection to its
use during the fruiting season of the plants, and if the insects can-
not be gotten well in check before fruit begins to ripen, an-
other insecticide should be used. The most satisfactory insecti-
cide among those tested, that could be safely used during the
fruiting season, is the Rose Leaf Insecticide, previously referred
This insecticide was used in the proportion of one pint to
six gallons of water and was thoroughly applied with a knapsack
sprayer. The young were killed quickly by it; adults are not so
susceptible possibly from the fact that their agility enables them
to escape thorough spraying. However, the insects can proba-
bly be kept in check by this destruction of the young. In ap-
plying this insecticide, and all others, it should be done with a
good spray pump of some kind, and applied thoroughly. The
leaves of each plant should be moved around during the opera-
tion of spraying, so that the ground beneath may be thoroughly
Spraying should be repeated at intervals of ten or twelve
days, until the insects are destroyed.
This insecticide may be readily washed from the fruit, and
does not seem to leave any taste, or injurious effects.
THE TARNISHED PLANT-BUG. (Lygus lineolaris, Beauv.)
Order, Hemiptera. Family Capsidae.
The injuries of the tarnished plant-bug are i)y no means
confined to the strawberry plant. Indeed, but few species of in-
sects cnjoy a wider range of food plant, than does this small Cap-
sid. It is to be found in Florida on almost all varieties of garden
produce, and on various field crops as well. Like all Hemipter-
ous insects, it feeds by sucking up sap from plants with its beak,
and when quite numerous, serious damage is occasioned.
Injuries to strawberries, consists in puncturing the leaves,
tender shoots, and in sucking juice from the young green ber-
ries. This attack on the berries, if very severe, causes them to
blacken and die. In less severe cases the fruit "buttons," much
as in the case of the strawberry Pamera.
While this insect cannot now be said to be a serious draw-
back to strawberry growers in Florida, yet it must be carefully
watched in that it has been known to cause much damage to
strawberry growers in the North. Should the particu-
lar conditions that best favor its development occur in our State,
we might expect it to become a serious pest.
Dry seasons, such as the spring that has just passed, are fa-
vorable to its development, and it is during such seasons, that
its ravages will be most felt. Aside from this dry condition of
the air and soil, which retards the development of the fungous
enemies of the insect, the plant infested shows the effect of an at-
tack more quickly, in that respiration is greater, and the water
supply less, and it is consequently less able to suffer the drain
upon its sap.
Dr. S. A. Forbes, records one instance* where this insect,
during one season, occasioned a loss of between five and ten
thousand 'I...il, to an extensive strawberry grower in Illinois.
In this case the damage was occasioned by the insects attacking
the green berries, piercing and sucking the juice from them,
which caused the berries to wither, and blacken. The above in-
dication of its destructiveness, well emphasizes the necessity of
keeping a close watch on this pest in Florida.
APPEARANCE OF THE ADULT.
The adult tarnished plant-bug is illustrated in figure 14, D
considerably enlarged. The small hair line to the right indicates
approximately its natural length. As seen from the hair line it
is about one fourth of an inch in length; it is about twice as long
as broad. The body is elliptical in shape, and somewhat flatten-
ed. There is much variation in color, varying from a rather
uniform brown to a light yellow. The usual markings may be
almost entirely absent. More commonly, however, the insects
are yellwish brown in general color, with the prothorax margin-
ed with yellow, and with several yellow longitudinal lines across
*Thirteenth Report on the Noxious and Beneficial Insects of the
State of Illinois, pg. 12-i.
it; on the scuttellum is a yellowish shaped mark and there is a
dark patch on the distal portion of the corium.
LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.
Adults appear early in spring among the various plants
which they infest. It seems very probable that the winter is
passed in the adult condition. In the North, both adults and
nymphs pass the winter under rubbish and trash, or almost any
< -'4 .'
/ -- a' (
Fig. 14- yus linelais: A f t t e; second stage C. fourth stage D,
adult. ll iuch inlarged. (After Davis.)
place that will afford them the desired protection. This mode
of passing the winter is probably followed by these insects in
On the Horticultural grounds of the Station, these insects
have been observed in considerable abundance during early
spring, in the St. Augustine grass growing on the slopes of the
terraces. It is probable that many pass the winter in the dried
up grass along these terraces.
After the appearance of adults in spring, eggs are soon depos-
ited on the food plant, and before long young and adults may be
seen feeding together. After hatching from the egg, the young
pass through four stages before arriving at the adult condition.
Soon after hatching from the egg they are sulphur yellow, or
pale green in color, measuring about one-twentieth of an inch
in length. Figure 14, A.
During the second stage they are about one-twelfth of an
inch in length, with about the same general color as in stage I. A
black quadrangular spot is found on the dorsum of the abdomen.
On the thorax are four circular black spots, varying much in
the degree of intensity. See figure 14, B.
The third stage differs from the second mainly in size; the
length now being about one-eighth of an inch. Wing-pads be-
gin to appear as slight prolongations, from the meso and meta-
In the fourth or pupal stage, the wing-pads are considerably
elongated, reaching quite to the fourth abdominal segment. The
length is now about one-eighth of an inch, the breadth averaging
about one-twelfth of an inch. In this stage the body is markedly
broader than in proceeding stages. Figure 14, C.
Several broods are probably raised each season. Young
may be observed as early as March, and throughout the summer
until November. This long breeding season allows of three or
four broods each year, and possibly more.
The insects, both young and old, are quite agile, readily
hiding among the heavy leaves of the strawberry or other plants
tlfat they infest, thus frequently escaping the notice of the grow-
er entirely. They are less agile during the cooler mornings of
early spring, and may be destroyed much easier at this time, than
during the warmer part of the day, or later in the season.
The use of contact insecticides against this insect is not very
satisfactory, as may be judged from their habits, in that they are
quite active, particularly during the warmer weather. How-
ever, if the application be made during early spring when the
weather is still cool, considerable may be accomplished with con-
Dr. Forbes of the Illinois Experiment Station, who has giv-
en this species considerable study, has found that pyrethrum
powder, applied either diluted with flour, or suspended in water
makes an efficient remedy. This should be thoroughly dusted jr
sprayed on the plants infested, preferably during the cooler por-
tion of the day. If the dry powder is to be used, it should be di-
luted with eight or ten parts of cheap flour, and dusted on while
the dew is on the plants. When it is desired to apply the powder
with a spray pump, it should be thoroughly mixed with water at
the rate of one ounce to four gallons of water.
Kerosene emulsion is also effective, and can be used safely
before, or after the fruiting season has passed.
The "Rose Leaf" insecticide, previously referred to was not
tried against this insect. It would probably be of value, applied
as for the strawberry Pamera. It may be applied during the
fruiting season without detriment to the ripe fruit. One pint to
six gallons of water would probably be about the right strength.
THE LEAF-FOOTED PLANT BUG.
(Leptoglossus phyllopus, Linn.) Order Hemiptera. Family
The leaf-footed plant bug not unfrequently attacks the
strawberry. In early spring the adult may sometimes be ob-
served sucking the fruit and tender shoots. They are capable of
doing considerable damage in this way. Probably they occasion
most serious harm by sticking their beaks in the young fruit,
which frequently withers and blackens from the attack. They
have been reported as attacking the blossoms of the strawberry;
this is not at all improbable; however, the writer has never ob-
served them doing so.
The usual food plant of this insect in Florida seems to be a
species, of thistle, (Carduus spinosissimus). On this plant the
insect breeds, and the young and old may be seen clustered
around the heads, sucking juice from the plant. The young are
confined mainly to this, and similar plants, and do not, as a rule,
attack garden crops.
However, nymphs were observed during the fall of '96, on
the vines of the Irish potato, where it would seem that they had
developed from eggs. The young, not being winged, are con-
fined to the immediate neighborhood of their birth. The adults,
Fig. 1.--Leftoglossus fpyllofus; adult from a photograph, enlarged about two-
however, during the warmer part of the day, are quite active, and
fly readily from place to place. Figure 15 illustrates an adult of
this insect, from a photograph, enlarged about two-thirds.
HOW BEST CONTROLLED.
From what has been said, it is evident that an excellent pre-
ventive measure would be the destruction of the plant upon
which they breed. Where the insects are troublesome it would
be well to carefully look around for these thistles and destroy
them, and the young insects infesting them.
Mr. H. G. Hubbard, in "Insects Affecting the Orange"
states that single large patchof thistles has been known to infest
a wide area,but that when these were cut down and destroyed,the
bugs in time disappeared from the groves in the neighborhood,
and gave no further trouble. This statement will illustrate the
importance of attending to these thistles.
The insect may be kept in check very profitably by picking
them from the plants by hand. This is only practicable during
cool, cloudy weather, when the agility of the insect is much les-
sened. Where the thistles, upon which this insect breeds, are
kept down, there is usually no occasion for further measures
THE NEGRO BUG.
(Corimelaena pulicaria, Germ.) Order Hemiptera. Family
This is a small, black bug infesting strawberries, blackber-
ries, raspberries and other fruit. In Michigan it has been report-
ed as very destructive to celery. It enjoys a wide distribution
over the U. S. and Canada. In this State it is probably
more abundant on blackberries than other fruit, but strawberries
are frequently badly infested.
The injury of this insect to strawberries and blackberries is
due mainly to the strong bed-bug odor which it imparts to ber-
ries with which it comes in contact. A great many of us know
by experience of the nauseous flavor imparted to fruit by this
pest. Although the culprit may have left the fruit for some time,
his tell-tale odor renders the berry unfit for eating.
Where a field is badly infested by this insect, the market
value of the fruit is greatly lessened, by the odor which it imparts
to the berries. Aside from injury to the fruit in this way, this in-
sect occasions considerable damage by sucking the berries and
Mr. F. M. Webster has made some observations on this
insect in captivity. In the latitude of Indiana, adults confined on
wheat under glass, and fed on ripe strawberries, began oviposit-
ing May 20th. The eggs were placed singly on the leaves, and
sheath of the grain. The eggs are elongate-oval in shape, about
.6x.4 mm. in length and breadth respectively and are of a very
light orange color when deposited, changing to a livid red as the
embryo becomes nearly developed. The egg state lasts sixteen
days The first larva, or nymph measures .6 mm. in length; legs
yellow, body brown anteriorly, barred with brown posteriorly.
The adult is black, with a white stripe on each side; the body
is short, broad, and somewhat convex above. It is about an
eighth of an inch in length. Figure 16 illustrates the insect,
Fig. 16-Corinelaena ulicaria; natural size and enlarged. (After Riley.)
natural size, and much enlarged in outline. The "scutel" or
shield is greatly developed, in all members of this family, cover-
ing the entire dorsum of the abdomen.
Mr. G. C. Davis of the Michigan Station has made a number
of experiments with insecticides and repellants against this in-
sect.* As the result of these experiments he finds that the use
of a spray of crude carbolic acid, mixed with water in the propor-
tion of a tablespoonful of the former to two gallons
of the latter, was a very effective repellant against them in celery
fields. They were driven and scattered by the offensive odor of
Mr. Davis also used air slacked lime and plaster, impregna-
ted with the odor of the acid. A teacupful of acid was added to
a bushel of lime, or to the plaster. This was sprinkled over the
plants, and was found to retain the odor longer than in the case
of the spray, although not so strong.
These repellants would probably be of much value in keep-
ing this insect away from the strawberry or other plants. There
is possibly some objection to its use on ripe strawberries that are
to be picked soon after its application. However, when a field
has become badly infested, it would be economy to thoroughly
spray the field, and not to pick the berries for one or two days
*Bulletin No. 102, Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station.
thereafter. This would give time for the odor to quite disappear
from the fruit, and the insects would probably not return in much
severity. There need be no fears that poisoning might result
from eating berries so treated; the usual washing of the fruit
would probably do much to remove all trace of the acid, even if
picked soon after having been sprayed.
Hot water was also used, and seemed to be very effective in
killing the bugs. Water heated to a temperature of 155 degrees
F. was found to kill the bugs, while the celery plants could stand
water at a temperature of 175 degrees F. The use of hot water
would probably be practicable in fighting this insect on strawber-
Under this name are to be included larvae of several differ-
ent species of Noctuid moths. Cut-worms are usually naked, or
but slightly hairy, of a dark color, ranging from an inch to an
inch and one-half in length. Cut-worms as a rule live in the soil
during the day time, and at night come out to feed. They attack
various plants, usually near the ground, or at times climb upon
the plants, eating the tender stalks and buds. In this way from
their usual abundance, they occasion serious trouble.
In the strawberry field, cut worms are frequently very abun-
dant and destructive. Frequent letters have come to the Experi-
ment Station regarding them. One grower wrote that he dug
out on an average of 600 daily, for a period of a week, and finally
gave up the fight. Another grower reports that he has found as
many as forty near a single plant. These might be regarded as
rather extreme cases, but it is well to recognize the fact, that cut-
worms are usually sufficiently abundant in the fall and spring in
this State, to warrant our recognizing them as serious pests.
Our more common and injurious cut-worms are larvae of
moths belong mainly to the genera Agrotis, Mamestra and
Hadena. The most abundant and serious cut-worm to the straw-
berry in this locality seems to be the larvae of Agrotis ypsilon, or
the greasy cut-worm. This species has been particularly abun-
dant during the late fall and spring just passed.
Nearly full grown larvae of this species were placed in
breeding cases November 24th. These were fed until December
12th, when they began pupating. In a few days all had pupated.
On January 23rd forty-two days later, the first moth appeared.
In five days, all pupae had changed to adults. These were fur-
nished with plants to induce oviposition, but this was not ob-
served nor were any eggs discovered. The adults died in three
or four days after emerging from the pupae. Adults of this
species were by far the most common Noctuid at electric lights
during the spring, and judging from their abundance, we may
expect trouble from the larvae during the fall.
LIFE HISTORY OF CUT-WORMS.
The following general statements regarding the history of
cut-worms, is applicable to most of our 'common species. Eggs
are deposited by the female soon after their emergence from the
pupa state, quite low down on the leaves or stems of various
species of plants. Upon hatching, the young larvae descend to
the soil, and feed on the tender portions of herbaceous plants.
They grow -comparatively slow for caterpillars; larvae hatched in
the spring probably become full grown by late fall, and during
the latter part of their life, their ravages are much more severe.
During mild winters larvae ofAgrostis ypsilon have been
taken of various sizes from early fall until late spring, and it
seems probable that there is but little regularity as to the time of
appearance of the adults. Many larvae pass the winter buried
beneath the soil; in some cases, as in Agrotis ypsilon, the winter
may be passed in the pupa state.
APPEARANCE OF A CUT-WORM.
The greasy cut-worm, the larva of Agrotis ypsilon, Hufn.
from its abundance in Florida, is here described. A full grown
larva is usually about an inch and one-half in length, body
rather stout and plump. Its general color is a brown, or a dull
gray, varying to lighter. The head is darker than the body, and
darker above than below, tips of mandibles black. Just behind
the head, on the first segment of the thorax is a shield, dark
brown in color about covering the dorsal surface of this segment.
There is much variation in the markings, but usually there
are two pale lines extending down along the back. Along each
side are eight small black spots, the spiracles or breathing pores.
A few slender hairs are distributed over the body, arising main)
Fig. 17-Agrotis saucia; a. larva: d. adult; (Riley. U. S. Dept. Agriculture An-
nual Report 18?4.)
from small, black or brownish colored spots. Figure 17 a, repre-
sents the larva of Agrotis saucia, another common cut-worm in
APPEARANCE OF THE MOTH.
The body and head are a little less than three-fourths of an
inch in length. From the head to the tip of folded wings is seven-
eighths of an inch. Wings expand nearly two inches. Above,
the insect is dark brown in general color; on the thorax below
whitish; on the abdomen below, gray, darker on the sides; the
abdomen terminates in a small bunch of yellowish hairs. The
front wings have usually certain quite distinct and constant
markings, of lighter color. The hind pair are white, margined
with dusky. Figure 17 d, illustrating the adult of Agrotis sau-
cia, gives an idea of the general appearance of one of the cut-
Various remedies are recommended against cut-worms.
Some of these are of value; others do not seem to give much re-
lief. The useiof poisoned bait, has probably proven tobe the most
satisfactory remedy thus far advocated. Dr. Riley was first, I
believe, to recommend the use of poisoned cabbage leaves
against cabbage cut-worms. The leaves were poisoned by dip-
ping them in water with which Paris green had been mixed.
These were placed around promiscuously in the field a week or
ten days before the field was to be planted, and even after plants
Of late years, poisoned bran has come into more general
use, probably from the fact that it is much more accessible, and
convenient to apply.
Mr. F. A. Sirrine* of the Geneva Station, has recently re-
ported some interesting experiments with insecticides against the
onion cut-worm. As a result of these experiments, he has found
that dry bran poisoned with Paris green gives the best results
against this insect. The dry bran bait is preferable to the wet
bait in that it is much easier to apply, and does not harden or
mould so quickly and hence become worthless as bait. Further-
more, the dry bait may be applied much more uniformly. With
this it is possible to drill it with a seed drill along each side of a
row. In some cases the insects seemed to prefer this hait to their
usual food. As a rule, cut-worms are quite general feeders, with
feeding habits essei.tially the same; and we might expect to be
able to treat the strawberry, and other cut-worms in Florida
quite successfully with this bait of dry bran poisoned with Paris
green. The bait is made by thoroughly mixing one part by
weight of Paris green to fifty parts of bran. This bait should be
drilled or sprinkled along the rows quite early in the spring, even
before the presence of cut-worms is noticed to any extent. It
would be an advantage to have destroyed the cut-worms before
*Bulletin No. 120, New York Agricultural Experiment Station.
ripening of fruit begins, although there is but little danger of
poisoning, if the bait has been carefully applied.
Cut-worms frequently migrate from the herbage and grass
surrounding fields, to the plants within, and in a short while may
bring about their destruction. In such cases, the use of dry bait
scattered around the field would probably be of considerable
THE C()MM()N \H [TE GRU'BS.
(Lachnosterna spp.) Order Coleoptera. Family Scarabidae.
There are a number of different species of insects which in
the larval state attack the roots of the strawberry plant. Proba-
bly larvae of the above genus are responsible for a considerable
part of this damage in this State. These larvae are familiarly
knoxl\n as "grubs" and are very frequently plowed up during the
cultivation of various crops, particularly on new land. These
larvae Iass their entire life under ground, feeding on the roots of
The firous roots of grasses probably furnish a considerable
part of their food. but they are known to attack the roots of many
other plants. Corn frequently suffers severely. The roots are
frequently eaten off within a few inches of the stalk. Whole
fields of corn have been destlroed in this way, particularly on
nc\ land. Potatoes are at times attacked, and holes eaten in
them. The grass cn lawns and pasture lands are frequently
severely attacked at the roots by these insects, large areas turn-
ing brown and drying uip.
Injury to thie str:., wbrr and other similar plants consists in
the destruction of the fibrous aind main roots, and if the larvae
are somewhat numerous the death of the plant will eventually
APPEARANCE OF THE GRUB.
Figure 18, 2, represents a larva of one of the most common
of these insects (Lachnosterna fusca) in its earthern cell feeding
upon the roots of some plant.
It is a large, white, soft grub, sparsely haired, with a light
mahogony colored head. There are three well developed pairs of
nearly the whole length of the body. This is the alimentary
than anteriorly. When unearthed, the insect usually assumes a
curled up shape, the head and caudal end nearly touching.
There is another grub somewhat similar in appearance,
which is sometimes quite abundant in manure, or compost heaps.
This grub feeds exclusively on decaying vegetable matter and
manure, and should not be confounded with the injurious grubs
which feed on live vegetation. In the manure feeding larva a
dark line may usually be seen extending down the dorsum, for
nearly the whole length of the body. This is the alimentory
canal, filled with black vegetable matter, their food. In root eat-
ing grubs this black line is usually not to be observed, except
near the caudal end, since their food, being light colored rootlets,
is not so apparent through the whitish body.
Beetles of the genus Lachnosterna may be recognized from
3 and 4, figure 18, which represents adults of fusca. This species
is of a brownish color, lighter below and deeper above. Head
almost black. The body is oblong oval, somewhat convex, meas-
uring about three-fourths of an inch in length, though the size
varies considerably. On the ventral surface of the thorax is a
patch of light yellowish, silky hairs. There is also a fringe of
hairs of the same color on the dorsum, apparently born by the
posterior margin of the prothorax.
The adults are usually known'as May beetles, June bugs, or
cock-chafers. They fly mostly late in the evening, and at
night. In the evenings they are sometimes seen in myriads flying
around oak and other trees. In this stage they are not destruc-
tive to the strawberry, but feed mostly on the foliage of forest or
orchard trees. Their injuries in this stage are sometimes quite
severe. Being readily attracted by lights they not unfrequently
find their way into lighted rooms, and fly around here and there
thumping against the wall.
The life histories of insects of this genus are not well known.
In the case of fusca, the larval stage has been said to last about
three years, but more recent observations indicate that it is prob-
ably not so long. This time is passed in the earth feeding upon
the roots of plants. When ready for pupation an ovoid chamber
is constructed, lined with a gelatinous substance, and the larva
changes to a pupa. (Figure 18, I.)
Fig. 18--Lac/nsierna fusca; 1. pupa: 2. larva; : and 4. adult. (After Riley.)
The adult soon developed from the pupa; at first it is white,
and soft, but gradually becomes harder until the normal condi-
tion is reached, when the beetle escapes from the earth. In ovi-
positing, the females are said to creep into the earth, especially
where it is soft, and deposit forty or fifty white, translucent eggs.
Soon after oviposition, death occurs. The egg state lasts about
SUGGESTIONS FOR TREATMENT.
The strawberry grower will be interested mainly in the de-
struction of the larvae, since the adults do not injure his plants,
but a wholesale destruction of adults would result of course, in
materially lessening the number of larvae in the future.
In fields where the presence of the grubs is manfest from a
withering of the plants, much can be done by digging them out
from the affected plants and destroying them. This procedure
would hardly be profitable perhaps, except in the case of valua-
Flowers of sulphur has been used with considerable success
as a repellant. It should be thoroughly mixed in the soil around
the infested plants. The use of gas lime has also been found of
value. It should beapplied thicklyto the surface of the soil four or
five weeks before the field is to be planted to strawberry or other
plants. It should be thoroughly worked in the soil by plowing.
This dressing is said to be of much value in destroying the
grubs in new land, and in land that has been devoted to pastures
for some time. The lime should not be used fresh, as thrown out
from the gas factories as at this time it is fatal to vegetation. On
exposure to the air, however, it looses its injurious qualities, and
becomes a fertilizer of some value, as well as a remedy for the
Fall plowing and harrowing in fields that are to be planted
to strawberries, will be of value. Barnyard fowls should be en-
couraged to follow the plow, so that they may destroy the un-
THE STRAWBERRY FLEA BEETLE.
(Haltica ignita, Illiger.) Order Coleoptera. Family Chrysome-
The strawberry flea beetle has been reported at times as
quite destructive to the leaves of the strawberry plant in Floida.
In bulletin No. 9 of this station, Dr. J. C. Neal, state; that this in-
sect has been a source of much trouble to strawberry growers,
and has been frequently sent in from various parts of the State.
The insect seems to have been very bad -it Orlando, during
the spring of 1890, judging from a letter written to the Entomo-
logical Department at Washington, by Mr. W. E. Hudson, and
published in "Insect Life." Vol. II, Nos. 11 and 12, pg. 367. In
this letter he states that the beetles appeared on his strawberry
plants by thousands, and that all the berry fields in the neighbor-
hood were infested. They were also observed on different spec-
ies of weeds, and on peach trees.
This insect, like its near relatives, the grape-vine flea beetle,
and the cucumber flea beetle, feeds on the leaves of plants, eating
holes in them, and when numerous would probably quite defo-
liate the plants. They are small beetles, about a fifth of an inch
in length, of a bronzy yellowish color. The femora of the third
pair of legs are greatly thickened, enabling them to jump with
agility, somewhat like fleas.
The life history of the insect has not, I believe, been made a
subject of thorough study. It has not been observed by the
writer at Lake City, and hence it has not been practicable to un-
dertake the study of its life history.
In the case of one of its near relatives the grape-vine flea
beetle, the eggs are placed in clusters on the under surface of the
leaves. The larvae hatching from these, feed on the young leaves
for about a month, and then enter the ground and change into
pupae, emerging in about a month as adults. The second brood
also attacks the leaves of the grape-vine, but they are not nearly
so destructive as the previous brood. The winter is probably
passed in hybernation.
Possibly the life history of the strawberry flea beetle is some-
what similar to that of the grape-vine flea beetle. There seems
to be no record, however, of observations of the larvae feeding on
the leaves of strawberry plants, and it is possible that they live
beneath the ground feeding upon the roots of plants, upon the
leaves of which the adults feed, as is the case with the cabbage
Until the life history of the insect is known in detail, it will
not be possible to more than indicate treatment against the adult.
The use of an arsenical spray would probably be quite sufficient
to destroy these insects, but there are objections to the use of ar-
senites on strawberry plants during the fruiting season, from a
possible danger of poisoning the fruit. This insecticide could be
used safely before and after the fruiting season.
Probably the following formula would be quite efficient:
Paris green. ................. ........ . pound
Powdered, or quick lime... ... ..... ...... .... pound
Water.... ......... ......... .... ........ 25 gallon
The lime should be made into a thin paint with water, and
strained into the mixture of water and Paris green. Unless the
lime is used, where the proportion of Paris green is so large,
scalding of the plants may result.
For the treatment of this insect during the fruiting season of
Fig. 19-- cist-ocrcn americana; adult. (Riley. U. S. Dept. Agri'l)
the plants, it has been recommended to dust air-slacked lime, or
tobacco dust freely over the plants. These substances act as re-
pellants, and are said to have considerable value against this and
Several species of grasshoppers eat the leaves of the straw-
berry plant. When abundant they are capable of doing consid-
Figure 19 represents our common large American locust,
Schistocerca americana. This species is occasionally of consid-
erable trouble in strawberry fields.
Figure 20 illustrates another common grasshopper, (Calop-
Fig. 20- Calfte usiisfieur-rubru mI; adult. (Riley. U. S. Dept. Agri'l.)
tenus femur-rubrum) in Florida, and sometimes a serious pest to
All of these different species can probably be treated suc-
cessfully in the same way. The use of poisoned bait is probably
the most satisfactory way of treating them. To a quantity of
Fig. 21-Gry'lus assimnilis; adult female, from a photograph. enlarged about two-
bran add enough Paris green to give it a greenish tinge, and add
molasses to sweeten it. This bait should be placed here and there
in the field in small heaps. Care should be exercised in its use
that it is not gotten on the plants, from the possibility of poison-
ing the berries.
(Gryllus assimilis.) Order Orthoptera. Family Gryllidae.
Figure 21 illustrates a common insect in the strawberry field,
and one which has been accused of doing considerable damage
to the ripened fruit. Notwithstanding their frequent abundance,
probably but few growers have ever actually seen them feeding
From the shyness and alertness of these insects, they can
rarely be approached unawares, and studied in their normal mode
of living. Examinations of many different plants from which
crickets have been frightened, lead me to believe that the cricket
must undoubtedly be classed as an enemy to the strawberry
grower. In the majority of cases where crickets were frightened
from plants, much of the ripe fruit had been eaten into in such a
way that decay would soon result. A hole, an eighth of an inch
deep or more is sometimes eaten into the fruit, but more usually
several smaller pits are eaten out. If an individual cricket were to
confine its attention to one berry, the damage would not be so
great, but itdoes not seem to dothis, but attacks several different
berries. In this way a single insect is able to occasion the destruc-
tion of a'considerable number of ripe fruit in a short while. The
heavy leaves of the plant, and the mulching, afford them excel-
lent protection, and unless disturbed they rarely leave these
places during the day.
Probably two or three different species of crickets are de-
structive to strawberries in this State, but the one illustrated,
seems to be the most common and injurious. The young, as well
as adults, are capable of injuring the fruit.
Probably a bait of poisoned bran, sweetened with syrup,
would be of value in destroying these insects. The bait should
be placed in small quantities along the infested rows. Much
could be done by frightening the insects from the plants and de-
stroying them with a suitable stick, or brush.
THE STRAWBERRY WEEVIL.
This is a small snout-beetle measuring about one-tenth of
an inch in length. The beetle varies in color from a dull red to
nearly black. On each wing cover is a dark spot, surrounded
with fine whitish hairs. The injuries of the insect consists in cut-
ting the pedicel of the young buds in such a way that they will
fall over, much as if broken, or in some cases cutting off the
This injury is occasioned by the insect, in order that further
development of the bud may be arrested, thus protecting the
eggs which the female deposits within the unopened bloom. The
young grubs feed upon the pollen within the bud, and when this
is exhausted, attack other parts. The grub matures within three
or four weeks, and the pupa state is entered, within the bud. This
state lasts from five to eight days. Only pollen bearing flowers
are attacked, as the larvae are essentially pollen feeders.
In many parts of the United States, this insect occasions
considerable damage. I do not know that it has been reported
from Florida, but it is here mentioned in order that growers may
be on the lookout for it.
THE STRAWBERRY CROWN-BORER.
(Tyloderma fragariae, Riley.)
This is another snout-beetle that in some parts of the United
States is a source of anoyance to strawberry growers. The wri-
ter has not yet met with this insect in Florida.
The eggs are deposited on the plants by the adult females.
The grubs hatching from these, mine into the crowns of plants.
When full grown they are about one-fifth of an inch in length,
white, with pale yellow heads. They change to the pupa state in
the burrows made in the crowns, and after changing to the adult,
usually remain in the crown for some time. The beetles are
brown in color; on each wing cover are several poorly defined
But one brood is raised each year. The insects are more
common in old, than new strawberry patches.
THE STRAWBERRY LEAF-ROLLER.
(Phoxopteris comptana, Frohl.)
The strawberry leaf-roller has not as yet been reported to
the Experiment Station from Florida. If it occurs within the
State, it is probably not yet very severe. It occurs throughout
the northern United States, where it is regarded as a very de-
structive insect. Observationson the distribution of this insectfor
several years past indicate that it is making its way southward. I
have not been able to determine its southern limit at the present
date. In 1890 it was an abundant insect in Kentucky.
Larvae of this insect are leaf-rollers, or folders as the com-
mon name indicates. Upon hatching from the egg, a larva be-
gins folding the leaves together, and fastening them with silk.
The caterpiller spends its life in this retreat, eating the leaves,
eventually causing them to turn brown and die. The pupa state
is passed within the folded leaves.
The moth is small, measuring about one-half of an inch
across the wings, is of a brown color, and obscurely marked.
Two broods are recorded for this insect annually, in the North.
According to Prof. Garman, at least three broods are raised each
year in Kentucky.
The use of some form of spraying machinery is absolutely
necessary for the proper application of insecticides or fungicides.
A convenient and serviceable sprayer is to be found in the
Knapsack spray pump illustrated in figure 22. This sprayer may
Key to Detail Engraving.
A-Brass Cylinder of Pump.
SB-Suction Pipe and Strainer.
C-Mmain Part of Barrel Clamp.
D-wWrench or Clamping
S-Bolt holding Clamp to
F-Thumb Screw holding
,-E "Pump in Barrel Clamp.
C G--Discharge of Pump.
be swung on the back, and the application of the insecticide or
fungicide accomplished by one person. The kerosene attach-
ment, illustrated in the figure, is designed for the mixing of kero-
sene and water while in the act of spraying. This attachment
may be removed when it is not desired to use it for this purpose.
This pump is manufactured by the The Deming Co., Salem,
Figure 23 illustrates the "Gem" Brass Spray Pump, attached
to a barrel cart. This pump may be attached to any barrel by a
clamp, as shown in the figure. It is also manufactured by the
Deming Co., Salem, Ohio. By the use of this pump, with a kero-
sene barrel, placed on a wagon, a very serviceable and cheap
spraying machine is secured.
I am under obligations to Prof. H. Osborn for the deter-
mination of Thrips tritici, and to Dr. P. R. Uhler for the identifi-
cation of Pamera vincta. Drawings for figures I, 7, 8, 9, io, II
and 12, were made by Mr. J. P. Davies, under the author's direc-
tion. Prof. P. H. ,Rolfs has kindly looked over my manuscript.