Front Cover
 Front Matter
 General editor's preface
 Copies of his Excellency Governor...


Digitization of this item is currently in progress.
To the Right Honourable the Lords of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, the humble petition of Denys Rolle, es...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101392/00001
 Material Information
Title: To the Right Honourable the Lords of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, the humble petition of Denys Rolle, esq, setting forth the hardships, inconveniencies, and grievances, which have attended him in his attempts to make a settlement in east Florida ...
Series Title: Bicentennial Floridiana facsimile series
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Rolle, Denys, d. 1797
Sturgill, Claude C. ( Introduction, Index )
Publisher: University Presses of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1977
Edition: Facsimile reproduction of 1765 ed.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 2896319
lccn - 77005133
isbn - 0813004179
System ID: UF00101392:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Front Matter
        Page iii
        Page iv
    General editor's preface
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Copies of his Excellency Governor Grant's letters, and also copies of the rough drafts from which Mr. Rolle's letters to the Governor were wrote, containing the full import of the fame
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
        Page A-11
        Page A-12
        Page A-13
        Page A-14
        Page A-15
        Page A-16
        Page A-17
        Page A-18
        Page A-19
        Page A-20
        Page A-21
        Page A-22
        Page A-23
        Page A-24
        Page A-25
        Page A-26
        Page A-27
        Page A-28
        Page A-29
        Page A-30
        Page A-31
        Page A-32
        Page A-33
        Page A-34
        Page A-35
        Page A-36
        Page A-37
        Page A-38
        Page A-39
        Page A-40
        Page A-41
        Page A-42
        Page A-43
        Page A-44
        Page A-45
        Page A-46
        Page A-47
        Page A-48
        Index 1
        Index 2
        Index 3
        Index 4
        Index 5
        Index 6
Full Text


A University of Florida Book.
The University Presses of Florida.
Gainesville 1977.


Right HonoUR ABLE the LORDS

STY' s


M~oft H-onourable



The Humble Petition of Dnmys Rolle, Efq; getting
forth the Hardfhips, Inconveniencies, and G~rievances,
which have attended him in his Attempts to make a
Settlement in EaftFlorida, humbly praying fisch
Relief, as in their Lordfhips Wifdom thall feem

av Claude C. Stur gill.

His M

published under the sponsorship of the
SAMUEL PROCTOR, General Editor.




Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Rolle, Denys.
To the Right Honourable the Lords of His Majesty's Most
Honourable Privy Council, the humble petition of Denys
Rolle, esq, setting forth the hardships, inconveniences, and
grievances, which have attended him in his attempts to make
a settlement in east Florida ..

(Bicentennial Floridians facsimile series)
"A University of Florida book."
Photoreprint ed.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Florida-History-English colony, 1763-1784-Sources.
2. Florida-Description and travel-To 1865. 3. Rolle, Denys.
I. Title: Petition of Denys Rolle. II. Series.
F3 14.R72 1977 975.9'O2 77-5 133
ISBN 0-8130-0417-9


Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman
Lieutenant Governor J. H. W~illiams, Chairman
Harold WV. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman
'William R. Adams, Executive Director

Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando
Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg
A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine
James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale
Jim Glisson, Tavares
Mattox Hair, Jacksonville
Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville
Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee
Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville
Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola
Charles E. Perry, Miami
W. E. Potter, Orlando
F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville
Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables
Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa
M/rs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee
Don Shoemaker, Ml/iami
Mary L1. Singleton, Jacksonville
Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee
Alan Trask, Fort Meade

iv Bicentennial Commission.

Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee
Ralph D. Turlington, Tallahassee
W~illiam S. Turnbull, Orlando
Robert WVilliams, Tallahassee
Lori 'Wilson, Merritt Island


PEOPLING the "pine barrens or sandy desarts" became
a critical need of Britain after its acquisition of the
two Florida provinces at the end of the French and
Indian War. Article 20 of the Peace of Paris, signed
on February 10, 1763, ceded "Florida, with Fort St.
Augustin, and the Bay of Pensacola, as well as all that
Spain possesses on the continent of North America, to
the East or to the South East of the River Mississippi."
Not much was known of this empty wilderness, and
the few contemporary accounts described it as "poor
and mean." But whether it was another "Bagshot
Heath," as one critic called it, or whether England
had lost too much by exchanging Florida for the rich
port of Havana was no longer the real issue. Florida
was now part of the British Empire, and because of its
proximity to the Caribbean and to the Mississippi Val-
ley, it had to be protected. Although Spain and France
had lost the war, they still had powerful fleets which
might, if the circumstances were right, attack Pensa-
cola and St. Augustine. Bringing settlers in, establishing
towns and cities, developing an economy, and manning



fortifications achieved the needed protection and
strengthened the colonies.
A variety of publicists were enjoined to put Flor-
ida's best foot forward. The government launched a
major publicity campaign to "sell" Florida to would-be
settlers and colonists and to make it attractive for land
development. Articles appeared in Gentleman's Maga-
zine and other English and Scottish periodicals, and a
number of books and pamphlets were published. They
described East and W~est Florida as a veritable New
Eden whose temperate climate, rich soil, and abundant
waterways could sustain a large population and a
flourishing economy.
The Floridas were caught up in the irrepressible
American land boom after 1763, and fortunately there
were enough vacant acres available for anyone willing
to settle. The government instituted a generous land-
grant policy, and persons with connections at Court
and in the ministries petitioned for and received sizable
land grants, ranging from 5,000 to 20,000 acres. Be-
tween 1764 and 1770, the Privy Council issued 227
Orders in Council for 2,856,000 acres of land in East
Florida. During that period only 2,108,000 acres were
allotted in Nova Scotia, New York, Quebec, and Wlest
Florida combined. Members of the nobility, army and
navy officers, government officials, members of Par-
liament, physicians, and merchants were among those
seeking Florida acreage.
The Earl of Dartmouth and his four sons received
20,000 acres each, the Earl of Tyrone and his two sons,
20,000 acres each, and Dr. Andrew Turnbull obtained
grants of 5,000 acres each for his four children, in
addition to 20,000 acres for himself. Among the great
baronets who received Orders in Council for land
in East Florida were the Duke of Buccleuch, the Earl
of Cassi, and the Earl of Thanet. Patrick Tonyn, later
governor of East Florida; John Stuart of Charleston



who was superintendent of Indian Affairs for the
Southern Department; Sir William Duncan; Captain
Robert Bisset; Sir Edward (later Lord) Hawke; Rich-
ard Oswald, the peace commissioner in Paris in 1782
and a prosperous merchant and planter; and Lord
Adam Gordon, the fourth son of the second Duke of
Gordon, all petitioned for large tracts of Florida land.
Lord Adam was a Scotsman and a friend of Governor
James Grant who became the leader of the East Florida
lobby in London. He helped organize the East Florida
Society, which consisted of a group of influential
Britons who met monthly at the Shakespeare Hotel, a
tavern in Covent Garden. Their main order of business
at these sessions was to discuss their development plans
for Florida.
An Order in Council was not a grant. The land
had to be selected, surveyed, and then the survey had
to be recorded with the governor who would issue the
formal grant. Each grantee had to settle "the lands
with protestant White Inhabitants within ten Years
from the Date of the Grant in the proportion of one
person for every hundred Acres." Various settlement
schemes for East Florida were advanced, but very few
reached the stage of formal grants. Dr. William Stork,
a physician, botanist, and member of the Royal Society,
offered to bring over a party of industrious Germans
if the government would provide one of the King's
sloops to transport the settlers. M. Vivegnis proposed
sending over 1,000 munition workers from Li~ge
whom the war had left unemployed. He thought they
could establish an armaments plant in Florida. John
Daniel Roux, a citizen of Lausanne, wanted to settle a
colony of Swiss, and John Augustus Earnst, a German
then living in England, proposed a community of Swiss
and German Protestants.
Of the many proposals, only Dr. Andrew Turn-
bull's at New Smyrna and Denys Rolle's at Rolle



Town on the St. Johns River near present-day Palatka
became realities. Rolle's plantation was at Mount Pleas-
ant on the east bank of the St. Johns River between
Picolata and Spalding's middle trading house, and not
far from a ferry-crossing. After much hesitation and
indecision, which greatly irritated Governor Grant,
Rolle established his plantation on this site in the fall
of 1764. He suffered many setbacks, and blamed his
difficulties on the governor's obstructive conduct and
the lack of proper law and order. His plan to develop
a Florida colony and his frustration over his failures
were described in his Petition, which he wrote in 1765
and had privately printed. Denys Rolle set forth his
case in a bombastic and heated fashion. His document
is filled with half-truths and exaggerations. Yet, Rolle's
Petition, which has been edited by Professor Claude
Sturgill of the University of Florida for publication in
the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile Series, presents
information about life and conditions on the East Flor-
ida frontier which is nowhere else available. It broad-
ens our knowledge and understanding of those im-
portant years in East Florida prior to the American
Rolle Town survived fitfully for a few years, and
was an abandoned property at the close of the British
Period. At the time of the Revolution its buildings
were moldering, and only the overseer lived in the
mansion house. In 1783, Rolle petitioned for and re-
ceived a very generous settlement of several thousand
pounds compensating him for the money and time
that he claimed he had invested in his Florida prop-
erties. Charles Loch Mowat, in his seminal study, East
Florida as a British Province, 1763-1784, states that
by 1823 all vestiges of Rolle Town were gone, except
for a few excavations and a long avenue, the beginning
of a grand highway to St. Augustine.

Preface. ix

The Petition is one of the twenty-five out-of-print
volumes of Florida history being published under the
sponsorship of the American Revolution Bicentennial
Commission of Florida. The titles in the series repre-
sent the full spectrum of Florida's rich and exciting
history, which stretches back nearly half a millennium.
Each volume has been edited by a recognized scholar
who has written an introduction and compiled an in-
dex. In publishing the Bicentennial Floridiana Facsimile
Series, the Florida Bicentennial Commission has made
a lasting contribution to the scholarship of Florida and
American history.
The editor of Denys Rolle's Petition is Professor
Claude C. Sturgill, who has been a member of the his-
tory faculty at the University of Florida since 1969.
A graduate of the University of Kentucky, he earlier
taught at Western Kentucky University, W~isconsin
State University-Oshkosh, and East Carolina Univer-
sity. He is the author of several books, and his many
articles have appeared in scholarly and professional
journals in the United States and throughout the
world. He is an authority on European military history
and the history of the French military system during
the early eighteenth century.
The cooperation of the John Carter Brown Library
at Brown University was essential to the production
of this facsimile, and we are grateful for it.
General Editor of the
University of Florida.


ONE Of the most fascinating aspects of the historical
profession is the quality which we call perspective. In
a society in which the sheer volume of information,
distributive and investigative services has grown in size
and procedures to the point where it is possible to
know very nearly all things about a person living in
the twentieth century, it is rather difficult to convince
the general public, and from time to time to convince
even historians whose training and interests are limited
to the contemporary, rather narrow frame of their
own lifetimes, that this enormous bulk of material has
not survived for past cultures. This is especially true
of A4mericans who, for one reason or another, have
come to believe that certain archives and systems have
come down through the generations intact. And by
intact: they seem to think that this means all the infor-
mation available on conteinporary people, places, and
things was available also in a bygone era and that these
data have been retained. This error in the general per-
spective of many historians, and even more so in the
A4merican public at large, is nowhere better illustrated
than in the treatment of Denys Rolle, Esquire, by the



Public Record Office of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland.
All of the records for an era even as recent as the
colonial history of eighteenth-century America have
not survived in the Public Office. The general decay
of paper, water damage, and occasional losses from war
and other untoward events have reduced the supply.
Furthermore, records reduction, the system by which
the less important items in files are thrown away, often-
times without even being extracted or registered, was
practiced by every public body in the eighteenth-
century English government. Members of boards and
commissions such as the Lords Commissioners of Trade
and Plantations often took their correspondence with
them on completing their terms of office, as did the
ministers of state when stepping down as a result of
the various changes in government. Also, this was not
an era of tape recorders, and government officials pre-
ferred to carry many important decisions and conver-
sations in their heads. For example, the English secret
service was managed and paid by post office officials
throughout the eighteenth century. This arrangement
was rather an open secret in the contemporary era, but
the account ledgers and files of correspondence be-
tween intelligence agents and their superiors are almost
nonexistent. Then there is the fact that all persons, of
high or low estate, usually record only what they con-
sider to be necessary or convenient. Governments
really are not run with the judgments of future his-
torians in mind. A sense of political survival is the high
gear of politicians in any era.
Yet, it is the necessary hunt for information to fill
in the gaps, the trying-to-bridge the multitude of tid-
bits of information, that makes the historian engaged
in the study of a time earlier than the present, or per-
haps what is coming to be called the pre-typewriter-
age, appear like a Sherlock Holmes pawing through



dusty documents and rather often using his intuition
and subjective judgment when the facts are lacking.
All1 things from birth to death are not known about
Denys Rolle. Persons unknown threw a lot of material
concerning this upcountry esquire away or just did
not bother to record much information. But then not
that much is known about Benjamin Franklin in his
pre-"Lbread under each arm" stroll through Philadel-
phia, or for that matter about Lieutenant Governor
James Grant of East Florida prior to his promotion to
the grade of captain in the British Army during the
War of the Austrian Succession. Denys Rolle has been
researched again and again by historians in America
and abroad. But there has been no significantly new
information uncovered on him since the summer of
1918 when A. J. Mayes of 63 Lancaster Road, Stroud
Green in London, sent pencil-transcribed copies of
letters from the Public Record Office to Miss Carita
Dog~gett of Jacksonville, Florida.l All of the subsequent
writings concerning Denys Rolle, including the works
of the late Charles Loch Mowat and the present intro-
duction to Rolle's Petition, stem from this research.2
Denys Rolle remains as much a man of mystery now,
insofar as the usual historical facts are concerned, as he
was in 1918. The amount of known information on
Rolle and his Florida ventures has not been expanded
to any great extent since that date.3 Even Sherlock
Holmes could not invent facts where none were re-
corded, but he could and did interpret what was
Rolle has been rather harshly dealt with by previous
historians, especially by Professor Mowat.4 Perhaps it
was true that the settlers in Rolle Town on the St.
Johns River in East Florida did spend most of their
time in drinking and frivolity, but there does not ap-
pear to be sufficient extant source materials to docu-
ment a total existence of idleness and non-productivity.



Sir Lewis Bernstein and his associates used the same
sources that were available to Mowat in compiling the
official biography of Rolle for The House of Com-
mons, 1754-1790, admittedly a lackluster text.5 There
is little new on, the life of Denys Rolle to present to
the reader except his Petition, his great outpouring of
bitter frustration springing from his dismal failure in
East Florida in 1764 and 1765, which has never before
been reprinted.
Professor Mowat knew of Rolle's Petition, although
he made little reference to it. It does increase measur-
ably our understanding of its author. It is not a pleasant
story which Rolle recounts, there is no grim undertone
of humor present anywhere in it. Denys Rolle is re-
vealed as typical of his generation of upcountry, back-
bench, English gentlemen, a good example of that gen-
eration of the English squirearchy which destroyed the
First British Empire.
Denys Rolle sent his Petition to the House of Com-
mons because his first efforts to become a wealthy
southern planter had failed. This short printed diatribe,
directed mainly against the colonial administration and
James Grant, governor of British East Florida, was
written in 1765, and was privately printed with only
enough copies for presentation to a few English minis-
ters and the opposition members of the House. The
text is filled with bombastic, vitriolic phraseology and
half-truths which the colonial administration in St.
Augustine had no difficulty in countering so long as
Denys Rolle's political persuasion remained that of the
Parliamentary opposition. After Yorktown in 1781,
when this opposition became the government, Rolle's
position became that of a wronged man comforted by
the politicians in power, and he sought to recover most
if not all of his investments.
Denys Rolle was born in 1725, the fourth son of
John Rolle, member of Parliament from Stevenstone,



Devonshire. John Rolle was of the gentry, a graduate
of New College at Oxford, and the father of six chil-
dren. The family lands were inherited by Denys' eldest
brother, another brother entered the army, and a third
died. Denys, the fourth son, elected to run for his
father's vacated seat in Parliament, and in 1761 he be-
came the representative from Barnstaple in Devonshire.
True to his family and political heritage, he voted
against the peace preliminaries at the end of the Seven
Years' W~ar, thus identifying himself with the faction
opposing the king's position.6
There is nothing in the record to show definitely
why or how Rolle became interested in settling in Flor-
ida. He was the youngest son and without a fortune of
his own. He did not stand to inherit, and the members
of Commons served without pay. Rolle undoubtedly
cast about for a way to get rich quick, and after 1763
the new colonies, those which seemed to offer the
greatest apparent opportunities, were East and West
Florida. There were many others in Britain at the same
time who were casting covetous eyes towards the
vacant lands available in the Florida provinces.
Those provinces had become English possessions in
1763 almost by accident. It was an unmapped and un-
chartered territory about which little was known. The
Spanish had moved out wholesale, leaving little in the
way of settlement behind. The climate was tropical
and considered unhealthy. But at a time when the
oceans had become important battlefields, Florida's
proximity both to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of
Mexico had to be taken into consideration. The har-
bors at Pensacola and St. Augustine were to be denied
to the Spanish, and any attempt to strengthen the new
Spanish territories in Louisiana had to be thwarted.
The British government and the merchant companies
mounted a major campaign to sell Florida as an ideal
place for settlement. The military who occupied St.



Augustine on July 20, 1763, saw that the vast area be-
tween the Atlantic, the St. Johns River, and Mosquito
Inlet was empty save for abundant wildlife and an
occasional Indian. The rest of East Florida, from the
St. Johns to Tampa B3ay and St. Marks on the Gulf
was virtually unknown, although it was believed to be
a region of great, if undefined, wealth.
Land promotion was typically extravagant, and
then, as now, the printed word and even the mails were
used to attract clients. One such effort, in January
1'767, stated, "there is no class of men so much inter-
ested in getting grants of land in East Florida, as the
middling gentry of England, and the younger sons of
good families."' This was an apt description of the
social and economic position of Denys Rolle.
Rolle had originally intended to settle Cumberland
Island off the coast of Georgia, but that property had
already passed into private hands, so instead he ac-
cepted a grant of 20,000 acres in East Florida.8 The
conditions by which he would be judged by the Lords
Commissioners of Trade and Plantations were detailed
on the back of his grant: "Lay out a Parish of 100 acres
in the form as usual, and reserve the [said] Township
of 20,000 acres. Grant one of these to [Denys Rolle]
Esq.-if settled in two years according to the Condi-
tions, entitle him to another, and so from two years
to two years till he obtains the whole. Forfiture of the
first Township if not settled, and so of second and for-
fiture invalidate all future right."9 Thus Rolle had two
years, or until the spring of 1766, to settle the first par-
ish with white settlers, survey a township, and to cul-
tivate a crop of foodstuffs.
It is possible to believe that Rolle was either a dupe
or stupid, but neither was actually the case. The Peti-
tion of 1765 was written by a man who fully intended
to get rich one way or the other. Rolle knew what was
expected when the Privy Council approved the action



of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations
and when it placed an additional stipulation on the
grant: "That the Governor or Commander in Chief
of His Majesty's Province of East Florida for the time
being do cause Twenty Thousand Acres of Land to be
Surveyed in one Contiguous Tract in such part: of the
Said Province as the said Denys Rolle or his Agent
shall choose, not already Granted or Surveyed to
others, and upon a Return of such Survey, Conform-
able to His Majesty's Directions in his general Instruc-
tions to pass a Grant for the same to Said Denys Rolle
under the Seal of the said Province, upon the following
Terms, Conditions and Reservations-viz."' The terms
directed that one Protestant white per 100 acres had to
be living on the land within ten years, a minimum of
200 persons, and that if fewer than 134 whites were
settled in the ten years, the entire grant would revert
to the Crown. It further stipulated that each year at
the celebration of the Feast of St. Michael on Septem-
ber 29, an annual rent of forty-two pounds sterling
would be paid commencing with the fifth anniversary
of the next Feast of St. Michael (at current exchange
rates this is about 100 dollars). It was also agreed that
all places thought proper for the erection of fortifica-
tions or port facilities and mines of profitable natural
resources would be reserved to the Crown.lo
Rolle sailed from England on June 10, 1764, with
fourteen white colonists. The party reached Charles-
ton, South Carolina, after an arduous voyage of four-
teen weeks, on about August 10.11 The passage had
been through rough seas and on short water rations
much of the way. After arriving in Charleston, six of
the colonists decided to stay there, having obtained
better offers from local residents. Rolle gained one
settler when a member of his party married a Charles-
ton lady. There were nine Protestants in the group
which arrived at St. Augustine on September 13, 1764.12



Governor Grant welcomed Rolle, and immediately en-
couraged him to select the land provided under the
terms of the grant.'a Rolle wanted to establish his set-
tlement at St. Marks, the site of the old Spanish fort,
but was distressed to find out how little was known of
that region. There was still no formal understanding
with the Indians, especially with the Creeks living in
that area, and Rolle wondered if he might find himself
too far from the protective guns of the St. Augustine
Rolle next decided that he would settle somewhere
along the St. Johns River, close enough to St. Augus-
tine to secure both supplies and protection. Governor
Grant objected to Rolle's peremptory decision, and
threatened to "make strong representations to the
Board of Trade against him for altering his intention"
to locate at St. Marks. Grant was forced to admit, how-
ever, that Rolle's grant allowed him the flexibility "to
set down in any part of the province." The governor
then agreed to a colony at Fort Picolata on the St.
Johns River, a few miles west of St. Augustine. Rolle
then decided Picolata was not satisfactory, and started
to look elsewhere. This unwillingness to act decisively
became Rolle's great weakness. After more delay, he
and his party moved some twenty-five miles beyond
Picolata, selecting finally a tract on the river near
present-day Palatka and Mount Royal, not far from
the head of the ferry on the east bank of the St. Johns.
It was high land, and would provide the needed river
artery for transporting supplies. It had all the attributes
which Rolle, at least for the moment, considered suit-
able. Rolled Town, as the colony became known, was
in the heart of Indian country. According to Rolle, "as
soon as I heard of the Indians being in the Neighbour-
hood, I waited on some of the Chiefs, and obtained
their Permission to remain in the Place I set down."
He promised them a conference with Governor Grant



on land settlement, and agreed to limit his own planta-
tion activities until that meeting took place. He also
declared that if the Indians would "'permit the Great
King's People to settle, they would find him always
friendly, and endeavouring to be of Service to them;
brut, if it was not consented to at that Conference .
he would burn up his Hutts, and go away with all his
Rolle invited "WVarriors or Head-men" to dine with
him, and for the others he provided provisions. At his
request, the Indians often hunted for him and "some-
times brought him Presents of Venison, Honey, Bears-
meat, Buffaloes Tongues, Bear-skins, Sieves." Rolle
wrote that he was anxious to encourage trade by bar-
ter, and that he spent much time teaching English, the
methods of weights and measures, and "instilling the
highest Notions of the English Power from the Con-
quests of the late war, of their Justice and Generosity
from the late Peace." Always he found the Indians to
be "his Friends when intoxicated with Liquor, as well
as when sober; he found a Respect in both Situations,
which must proceed from the Heart." They called him
"the Squire," and admired him so much that "my own
Person would have a safe Conduct throughout their
Country unattended, unarmed. My Conversation by
Signs alone, under that Name, would convey me every-
The settlers found it difficult to adjust to the lone-
liness and isolation of the Florida wilderness. Many of
them, Rolle claimed, "were enticed away or abducted,"
and he received no support from Governor Grant in
this matter. Perhaps these people found life more at-
tractive in St. Augustine than at Rolle Town. His rela-
tions with the governor became increasingly acrimoni-
ous. Grant, Rolle charged, obstructed "his attempts to
fix the Boundaries of his Property, did nothing to ar-
range the necessary Conference with the Indians, whom



he stirred up by Gifts of Rum, and refused to encour-
age Settlements .. at a Place where Indians were likely
to come over the River on account of its Narrowness."
As early as November 22, 1764, Governor Grant
informed the Board of Trade and Plantations: "Mr.
Rolle arrived here on the 13th September. He was then
anxious to proceed by Land to Appalachi; I gave him
Letters to Mr. Stuart the Superintendent and to the
Commanding Officer at St. Marks, provided Guides
and Hunters for him upon easy Terms, but, after every
Thing was prepared as far as was in my Power for his
Journey, he altered his Opinion without giving any
Reason for it, and went to the River St. Johns, where
he has been for several weeks-During that time the
few People he brought out with him, have left him,
and he is now, as I am informed, at a Place called
Mount Pleasant, almost alone.l5
Later, in his Petition, Rolle blamed Grant, some
East Florida colonists, soldiers of the garrison, rascal
servants, highwaymen, dishonest officials, and others
for his problems in getting settled.16 There is no reason
why misfortune should have plagued Rolle, but the
fact is that he was a failure in his first attempts to
establish his Florida colony. On November 24, 1764,
Grant wrote of his bewilderment at Rolle's attitude
and his concern at the gentleman's lack of direction.
The governor wished to help. He wrote to Rolle: "If,
after receiving this Letter, which I flatter myself is
sufficiently explicit, though not more so than my
Words have been, you should still have any Doubt left
with Regard to your Affairs in this Country, if you
will take the Trouble to state them in Writing, I shall
endeavour, if it is in my Power, to solve them; but I
beg to be excused from talking any more upon the
Perhaps Rolle was struck by fear of the frontier.
Distances were great and travel difficult. His back-



ground and training had not prepared him to accept
the realization that even on the east bank of the St.
Johns River, just a few miles from St. Augustine, he
was beyond the reach of customary English protection.
Indians, he claimed, stole his horses.ls A hired hunter
violated his contract and was rude to him.lg The magis-
trates in St. Augustine would not enforce the laws to
suit him.20 The official surveyor, William Gerard De
Brahm, was slow in coming to Rolle Town, and then
he was not a man of his liking.21 All of these relatively
minor problems on a raw frontier distressed Denys
Rolle. He could not seem to cope with this great wil-
derness, although his settlement was only some thirty
miles from the sally port of the fortress at St. Augus-
tine.22 Rolle wished to change the terms of his land
grant, something which Grant opposed.23 De Brahm,
surveyor general for the Southern Department and sur-
veyor general for East Florida, arrived in St. Augustine
the last week of January 1765 to begin the general
survey of the colony, including Rolle Town. Rolle was
notified that he only needed to select his property and
be prepared to point out the proposed boundaries when
De Brahm or one of his deputies arrived.24 He delayed
even taking this action.
Rolle, though, continued with his misfortunes. His
cattle were run off.25 He could not get along with the
deputy surveyor, asked for one of his own, and then
argued with this second man.26 Governor Grant, whose
bewilderment had begun turning to anger, wrote the
Lords Commissioners on Mlarch 1, 1765: "Mr. Rolle
first intended, as your Lordships know, to go to Apa-
lache, his Plan was changed a few Days after he arrived
here. He went to look at the Province, and formed a
sort of Settlement at Mount Pleasant upon the River
St. John's, where he has been for six Months, In the
course of that Time, going further up the River, he
found a Spot which pleased him better, he called it



Mount Royal27-built a L~ogg-house by way of taking
Possession, and told me that he would run out his
Tract there. Upon Mr. De Brahm's arrival, in the end
of January, I immediately Issued a Warrant of Survey
for Twenty Thousand Acres for Mr. Rolle in Terms
of the King's Order in Council, And as Mr. de Brahm
was to proceed upon the General Survey, I sent a
Deputy Surveyor to attend Mr. Rolle, who then de-
clined running out his Land, and said that he must take
Time to consider it. The Deputy Surveyor returned.
M)r. Rolle followed in a few Days, and told me that if
the Land was not good, the Quit Rent of Forty Pounds
per Year would be a Load upon his Family, that he
had Children and must think of it before he fixed, and
that he was going to England. I observed to him that
he had delivered the King's Order to me, in conse-
quence of which a Warrant of Survey was issued, em-
powering him to take up his Twenty Thousand Acres
wherever he or his Agent pleased, And that after being
so long in the Country, if he went Home without run-
ing out his Estate, or giving a Power to his Agent to
do so, It would appear very extraordinary. .. The
few People he brought from England have left him,
and he has gathered together Eight or Ten wandering
Woodsmen with their W~ives and Children, who make
about Twenty in Number."28
This letter is a fair appraisal of the tale of Denys
Rolle in East Florida to this point in time. Tempers
flared between Rolle and Governor Grant.29 Rolle
glossed over this period in his Petition by writing of
his assumption of the eighteenth-century gentleman's
burden, that is the care and education of the pagan red
man. He added many paragraphs describing his fear of
settlement on "his lands by other colonists moving
down from Georgia and South Carolina with their
Negroes!"so These blandishments in his Petition must
have been an attempt to cover his true position, for



Rolle wrote to Grant on April 25, 1765: I have "acted
the more prudent Part in engaging fewer in the In-
conveniences" and am "justified, perhaps, from the un-
settled Opinion of the Indians, the unprovided State of
the Country on the one Hand, and the Vicinity of St.
Augustine, and two already settled Colonies at the
other."31 This then was Rolle's position when he began
composing his Petition. He decided that he would go
himself to Parliament for redress of his grievances.
Grant's reply to this April 1765 letter of Rolle was
direct.32 The governor once again reviewed his actions,
and agreed that it was unfortunate that Rolle was hav-
ing trouble with other colonists wanting the same land
that he did. Grant then threw down the gauntlet, or so
it must have seemed to Rolle: "When you came into
this Province above seven Months ago, a single Acre
of Land had not been granted .. you therefore have
had a long Time to look at the Country, and have had
it in your Power to make Choice of any Tract you
pleased in the Province, without Exception, so that no
future Grantee can ever come into it with the same
Advantage with Regard to Locality; and, upon the
Whole, you must excuse me for not complying with
your Request [to reserve tracts of land until Rolle
could return from England], as I should be very blame-
able if I presumed to postpone granting away Land
when Letters offer upon a Supposition that the Condi-
tions of His Majesty's Order in Council, granted to
you in May 1764, upon a Representation from the
Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, may
be altered upon your Return to England." What Grant
implied was that Denys Rolle had dissipated his ad-
vantage and should not look to the colonial administra-
tion for redress.
Rolle must have been far more threatening than
the extant source materials illustrate or Grant more
cautious than his correspondence demonstrates because,



in a letter to the Lords Commissioners on May 8, 1765,
the governor enclosed Rolle's statement of April 25.
Grant was indignant over Rolle's demand to keep "dif-
ferent Spotts ungranted 'till he [goes] to England." He
explained, "I trouble your Lordships with these Circum-
stances because Mr. Rolle must give some Reason for
his Conduct, and therefore I think it right to prevent
his imputing any Part of it to me.""" And so it went for
the remainder of Rolle's first stay in East Florida. He
would complain about any number of things, and the
governor would almost beg Rolle to take some decisive
Rolle did return to England after a little less than
one year's residence in East Florida. His Petition was
rejected by Parliament. He did not bare his soul or un-
leash his smoldering resentment in his Petition; he re-
served that for an appearance before the Privy Council
on October 30, 1766. According to his complaint, "The
whole Expense of Civil and Military Government as
maintained in the present Form [in East Florida] is
very great and without having any material or visible
beneficial Effect .. t'is to be feared that the apparent
Shew of Opulence in St. Augustine cannot be main-
tained by the Salaries alone paid by the Mother Coun-
try.. .That this expensive Fort affords no Security
to a distant Planter. .. Your Petitioner therefore from
the just Motives he has had in View would be ex-
tremely concerned should any Part of his Memorial be
interpreted to place an improper Liberty in the Subject
to the Diminution of the Prerogatives of the Crown."34
The Privy Council, without dissent, ordered the com-
plaint dismissed on December 3, 1766.
However, Rolle still sought success, and the home
government probably preferred that he reside in East
Florida, far away from London. Accordingly, Gover-
nor Grant received a note on December 11, 1766,
which read: "I must recommend to you .. so bold



and useful a Colonist as Denys Rolle, Esq."36 There is
no record of Grant's reaction to this communication.
Rolle did return to Florida.
Although his Petition was refused by the majority
party in Parliament and he was seriously rebuffed by
the Privy Council, Rolle's cause must have been at
least casually taken up by the opposition party, other-
wise his Petition would never have reached a vote on
the floor of the House of Commons nor would he have
been granted a personal hearing before the Privy Coun-
cil. And his cause must have been taken up rather seri-
ously by the opposition because by June 27, 1767,
James Grant was defending his actions to the home
government. The governor's explanations were specific.
He noted: "Denys Rolle, Esql., who is here for the sec-
ond Time, is as much undetermined as when he arrived
in September, 1764. At that Time there was not an
Acre disposed of in the Province, and yet he could not
fix. The Governor has done everything in his Power
to accommodate this Gentleman, but to no Purpose; he
will not run out his Tract according to the King's
Order, and he has often been told that the Governor
cannot deviate from his Instructions. If Mr. Rolle goes
on as he has done, he says that he will undoubtedly
ruin himself without being of the least Use to the Prov-
ince, where he has more Disputes, Differences, Quarrels
and G~rievances than all the other Inhabitants." *
In his Petition Rolle suggests that he is a man of
great substance who had invested large sums of money
in his East Florida venture. Yet, there are only a very
few instances when Rolle's business affairs are men-
tioned anywhere in the papers of the South Carolina
merchant-factor Henry Laurens.37 Rolle's agent in
East Florida was one Wlilliam Penn. Four letters writ-
ten by Laurens between November 21, 1767, and Octo-
ber 1, 1768, deal mainly with Penn's shipment of rum
and the sale of a few other goods, all amounting to less



than 100 pounds sterling. Laurens shared Governor
Grant's opinion of Rolle. In a letter to Penn he wrote,
"but between you and I it is my Opinion that he
[Rolle] gains most by those of his Servants who do
run away." Again, in the same vein, Laurens noted,
"This new Consignment [26 people] was certainly
very unwelcome to me because I foresaw that it would
produce no Benefit to our enthusiastic Friend & and
occasion me a great Deal of Trouble, but for once
more me thought I would humour him. .. But no
sooner was the Ship to Wharf & the Master gone .. .
than the whole Body March'd on Shoar & scattered
themselves in twenty different Parts of the Town. .. .
With great Difficulty [the ship captain] has collected
12 out of 26." Correspondence such as this must have
been very common in the story of Denys Rolle's at-
tempts to settle a plantation in East Florida.38
Rolle returned to England a second time, and was
re-elected to Parliament during this period. Sometime
after January 1768, his plantation in East Florida must
have been surveyed since he returned to it in 1778
and remained in East Florida for two years. In the
meantime he had been defeated for re-election to Par-
liament by a candidate, who according to his son, had
been sent down by the Court to oppose him.
When Rolle arrived in Florida in 1778, he brought
150 black field hands with him, and placed them under
the control of competent, experienced overseers.39 As
it turned out, his Florida plantations, for there were
several of them, now became profitable ventures. After
the surrender of the British forces at Yorktown and
the fall of the government of Lord North, the personal
political power of George III was eclipsed. The news
that East Florida would be returned to Spain, brought
Denys Rolle forward to reap his reward with a claim
for reimbursement.



Now, in 1783, he had become a true and loyal
friend of the political party in power. He described
himself as a man who had suffered under the hands of
the late, unlamented tyranny. His petition to the Privy
Council of September 10, 1783, was granted. "That
your Majesty was graciously pleased in the year 1764
to grant to your Memoralist 20,000 Acres of Land in
East Florida which with Purchases made since of other
Tracts in that Province, makes your Memoralist's prop-
erty therein 80,140 Acres.. .The value of said Lands
together with Negroes, Buildings, Plantations, Stores,
etc. .. is 28,488 pounds sterling." pensation Rolle asked that he be given either Mogane
or Marguana island in the Bahamas, and this was ac-
corded. From the wording of the Privy Council deci-
sion Rolle could select the island of his choice, and his
movables would then be transported there.
Rolle's property, including his slaves, were taken
aboard the Peace and Plenty in October 1783, and it
sailed for the Island of Exuma in the Bahamas.41 By
November 1, 1785, Rolle owned ninety-eight slaves.42
On his application for reimbursement for his "heavy
losses," both in East Florida and in the Bahama Islands,
the Privy Council granted Rolle 19,886 pounds, 17
shillings sterling.4
Denys Rolle died in June 1797, in Stevenstone,
Devonshire. His eldest son John (1756-1842) had been
elected to Parliament in 1780, and counted himself
among the opposition to the government until that
opposition became the government. While it cannot
be proven, John Rolle was undoubtedly of assistance
to his father's claims for compensation for his losses in
Florida and the Bahamas. John Rolle remained in the
Commons until 1'796, when he received the title of
Baron Rolle of Stevenstone. Unfortunately he did not
leave issue by either of his two wives. Perhaps that is



the reason why the Rolle family papers have been lost.
Or perhaps, the collection agencies of the nineteenth
century would not have considered them worthy of
preservation or even have thought of them as ancient
history. Thus the full story of Denys Rolle, the author
of the Petition, is still lost to history.
University of Florida.


1. These pencil copies are deposited in the library of the
Florida Historical Society, University of South Florida Library,
Tampa. Typescripts are in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida
History, University of Florida, Gainesville. Carita Doggett
Corse was the director of the WPA Federal Writers' Project
for the state of Florida and is a noted Florida historian.
2. Especially Charles Loch Mowat, East Florida as a British
Province, 1763-1784 (Berkeley: University of California Press,
1943; facsimile edition, Gainesville: University of Florida Press,
1964), which mentions Rolle's Petition in the bibliography, al-
though there is little actual textual usage, and his article, "The
Tribulations of Denys Rolle," Florida Historical Quarterly 33
(July 1944): 1-14. Both Mowat and Carita Doggett Corse,
"Denys Rolle and Rolletown," Florida Historical Quarterly, 7
(October 1928): 115-34, tend to view Rolle as a mixture of
romantic merchant adventurer and an idealist.
3. Some additional information was located in the Henry
Laurens letterbooks, South Carolina Historical Society, for
which the author is grateful to Dr. David R. Chesnutt, assistant
editor of the Papers of Henry Laurens which are being pub-
lished as a series by the University of South Carolina Press.
4. Mowat, "Tribulations of Denys Rolle," pp. 1-14.
5. Sir Lewis Bernstein, ed., The House of Commons, 1754-
1790 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1964), 3:371-73.
6. Ibid.
7. Gentleman's Magazine (January 1767), pp. 21-22. See also
Charles Loch Mowat, "The First Campaign of Publicity for
Florida," Mississippi Valley Historical Reviewl, 3 (December
1943): 359-76.
8. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial Office 391/
71, folio 26.



9. Ibid., 5/540, folio 119.
10. Ibid.; Privy Council Register, 110:459-60.
11. See this facsimile edition, pp. 2-3.
12. Ibid., pp. 5-6.
13. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augus-
tine, September 14, 1764, pp. 1-3.
14. See this facsimile edition, pp. 7-13.
15. Great Britain, Public Record Off~ice, Colonial Office, 5/
540, folio 234. Mount Pleasant was for all practical purposes on
the site of present day Palatka.
16. See this facsimile edition, pp. 7-8.
17. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augus-
tine, September 24, 1764, pp. 4-7.
18. See this facsimile edition, p. 14.
19. Ibid., p. 17.
20. Ibid., p. 18.
21. Ibid., p. 19.
22. Ibid., Appendix, John Gordon to Denys Rolle, St. Augus-
tine, November 5, 1764, pp. 7-8; Denys Rolle to John Gordon,
The Narrows, St. John's River, November 21, 1764, p. 8; Denys
Rolle to Governor Grant, January 15, 1765, pp. 9-10.
2 3. See this facsimile edition, p. 22.
24. Ibid., Appendix, James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augus-
tine, February 3, 1765, pp. 13-14.
25. See this facsimile edition, p. 23.
26. Ibid., pp. 24-25.
27. The present-day Mount Royal. There is no reason to
believe that Denys Rolle established the first ferry across the St.
Johns at this point.
28. Great Britain, Public Record O~ffice, Colonial Office, 5/
540, folios 357-58.
29. See this facsimile edition, Appendix, Denys Rolle to
James Grant, The Narrows of the St. John's River, March 18,
1765, pp. 15-20; James Grant to Denys Rolle, St. Augustine,
March 21, 1765, pp. 20-22; James Grant to Denys Rolle, St.
Augustine, April 23, 1765, pp. 22-24.
30. See this facsimile edition, pp. 35-60.
31. Ibid., Appendix, Denys Rolle to James Grant, The Nar-
rows, St. John's River, April 25, 1765, pp. 24-25. See the original
of this letter in Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial
Office, 5/540, folios 397-400, addressed to James Grant.
32. See this facsimile edition, Appendix, James Grant to
Denys Rolle, Augustine, April 26, 1765, pp. 26-29.
33. Great Britain, Public Record O7ffice, Colonial Office, 5/
500, folio 393.
34. Ibid., Privy Council, 1/52, October 30, 1766.
35. Bernstein, The House of Commons, 3: 372.
36. Great Britain, Public Record Office, Manuscripts of the
Marquis of Lansdowne, vol. 52, folio 307.

xxx Introduction.

37. The Henry Laurens letterbooks, South Carolina His-
torical Society. See also Journal of the Commissioners for
Trade and Plantations (London, 1920-1938) 13:135~, "Board of
Trade Journal for 1768" for the identification of W~illiam Penn
as Rolle's agent.
38. See also Great Britain, Public Record Office, Colonial
Office, 5/550, folios 23-24, James Grant to the Earl of Hills-
borough, December 24, 1768.
39. Ibid., Manuscripts of the Marquis of Lansdowne, vol. 66,
folios 685-86 and Register No. 28, February 2, 1783.
40. Ibid., Privy Council, 1/57, folio 85.
41. Ibid., Lansdowne, vol. '77, folio 15.
42. Ibid.
43. Ibid.
44. Dictionary of National Biography, 17: 163-64.


Right Honoun ABLE the LORDS

His M A JE ST Y's

Moft Honourable Privy Council.

The Humble Petition of Dnys~ Roek, Erq; getting
forth the Hardfhips, inconveniencies, and G~rievances,
which have attended him in his Attempts to make a
Settlement in Eaf 1%rida, humblry praying fulch
Relief, as in their Lordfhips WVifdom hall feem

Your Pertitiner humbly nrepreents,
THAT in the Year, r764, he formed a Plan for
the settling two Plantations in the Southern
Part of North America, one on fome River that might
be found running into thh Bay of Mexico, convenient
for the Wef Indian Trade; another on the Alatamaha
in Georgia, emptying itself into the Atlantic Ocean
for the Eurropean Commerce, as far up the Caid Rivers
as Navigation would permit, in order to poffefs the
thorteft Communication of Land Portage, for Com-
modities, of fuch light Weight, as could bear the Ex-
pence of it, rendered fafe by preferving the lIndian
Friendfhip in the Eitablifhment of a Trading Store-
Houle, on the middle Spot of that Communication,
with clear, express, and honourable Terms of Trade.
That being informed by the Lords Commillioners
of Trade, a late Indian Treaty with Georgia precluded
A his


his settling to high up the River .dlatamaba, he then
fixed his Intention of finding out, ifpoilible, a shorter,
more probtable, Communication in Ea}t Fkrida7; he
mentioned St. Mark's, and fome other proper Place, to
be fearched for on the Ea/icrn Shore. He alfo pro-
pofed that there Settlements might have Fame proper
Judicature eitablifhed within themselves, that might
tend to preserve Peace and good Order, and prevent the
Jealousy of Neighbours from injuring the Infant Settle-
ments ; but this was reduced to an Order for a fingle
contiguous Lot of twenty thousand Acres, with Direc-
tions to fettle two hundred white Perfons in ten Years,
one Third of which within three Years, Power of
Re-entry onNon-performance of Conditions, Exception
of all Mc'ines whatsoever. A FirtR Experiment, for the
Insurance of future Adventurers, he found the Methods
of Settlements unalterable, therefore obje~ed no fur-
ther to the Terms prescribed, but faid he would accept
it under thofe Reitri~tions, and would go and make the
Attempt in Perfon.
That he embarqued with fourteen People the roth
of 'fune I764, with fo~me Imputation of kidnapping
People for his Settlement, which induced him to wait
on the frir Lord of Trade, to reprefeart the. Necedity,
he thought, of preventing Misfortaone that might abl~e
to Families thereby, in the Privation of their Children,
by fome Enquiries and Bonds given to the Cuitom-
Hod~e Officers, at the different Poffs by Maft~ers of
Ships carrying Paffengers. Though many Cales have
appeared, and many more probably not known of fuch
ioffes, yet it, did not either appear of fuch Importance
to his L~ordfhip, or the Proviilon, mentioned by him
against it, feemed improper. It can be efleemed no
Digrellion, from the State of his Cafe, to mention
Circumstances attending his Voyage, a Reflexion on
parallel or extraordinary Cafes, within his Knowledge,
Humanity he diffruits not, will excuse. His Care, in
the Proviflon for his Voyage, extended to the putting at
Board two Puncheonis and one Hogthead of Water, for
his Fowls, Ac. but a Deficiency in the Captain's Pro-
villon for the thirty-eight Perfons a Board occalloned

that Stock: of his to be taken for them. The Mate
mentioning there were twelve hundred Gallons on Board
by Computation, he found it was two Quarts a Day
for each Head, which is the drual Allowance for thrirty-
eight Perfons for nine Weeks, which Time they hap-
pened to be in the Paffage from the Buoy and Nore to
Charles.wown, South Carolna ; but by this bare Proviflon,
after a prosperous Voyage, in the former Part of it,
as far as the Latitude of our Port, or rather of the
Canary I)7ands, we were put to the thort Allowanrce of
three Pints a Day, for the latter Part of it, a Dedu~ion
not to much to be dreaded in the W~inter, as in thoer
hot Months of Summer in a warm Latitude; but this'
Seemed to be more inexcurable in the Mate, under
whole Infpealfon probably the Stores were laid in, as
he related that the very Voyage before, that he made
to Charles-fown from the Canary I)7nds only, where
they touched at, they were no lefs than fourteert
Weeks, occartoned by Calms. Under what Diffrers
then muft your Petitioner's Settlers have been, in To
long a Voyage, when they had but enough for three
Pints a Day for twelve Weeks the which Time he
thinks no Ship can go to Sea properly for fuch a Voyage
without laying in for the full Proportion of two Quarts
a Day each Perfon, and Allowance for Leakage and
had Water, or rather at a Gallon a Day each. The
above Want of Proviflon being in a Ship commanded
by an elderly experienced Perfon, and of good Repu-
tation, it is reasonable to conclude that there Misfor-
tunes happen oftener than the Public hears of, Suffer-
ings, not only the natural born SubjeAs of his Ma-
jefly, but thole, that under the Hopes of partaking of
the benign Influence of the Sunihine of Liberty, place
themselves under his Prote~tion more frequently are
fubjea to. The Palatines, of whom the King's Baker,
Mr. M~eek, at St. Augu/iine, was one in a Ship bound to
Anertica, when he thinks that above half the Paffengers
died by the reason of the Non-proviflon, more erpeci ally
of Water; which Circumftances are only to be equalled
in the Difkrers of the New York Ship Company lately

A 2


That the arbitrary Power exercised by many of the
Captains, appropriating the better Share of Provilions to
themselves, and the Ship's Company, throwing Diffi-
culties even on the Paffengers, to obtain the Share they
feem to allow, and often enlgrofs or even deitroy the
Extra Proviflon made by fuch Paffengers, when they
have more than sufficient, perhaps, for the whole Ship's
Company and Paffengers: The recent Inflance of the
Son of the firit mentioned Captain, suffering his Crew
to extort Money from his Majefty's Company of Ar-
tillery, now at St. Augufine, during the Paffage to that
JPlace partly drowning, in a peculiar shameful Manner,
the Women Paffengers attending them. There feemn
not only to deferve Reprimand but Punilhment. It may
be objea~ed that the Law, salutary for Punifhment, is
open, but, if it is not at hand, many good Laws are
ufelers, It is the voluntary Aat of thofe People to
become Paffengoers, their Prudence mui) diaate the ne-
ceflfary Bargain : But alas i no Bargain fuggefied by
common Capacities can bind fuli~ciently; the thort
Stay of thd~e Captains in their Port will not suffer the
Law to take Place which requires Time for Execution,
before which the Parties are separated by the Sea, and
the Witneffes impoffiblee to be drawn to a Trial. This
the Delinquents consider and fee that the Joy of the
Paffengers' fafe Arrival, and Freedom from their Power,
often intoxicates them to a Forget~fulneifs of their ill
Uiage, which, if they do refleA upon, they never fore-
Tee the Cafe may happen to them again, nor do they
feel for others, who may fall under furch Calamities,
anld, from Inability or Inconvenience, drop the Thoughts
of a Corre~tion. But to prevent the Foreigner, who
flies for Lliberty to this its Native Soil, the unhappy
unprovided Orphan, the unfortunate Traderman, the
mnunte-portioned Branches of large Families, who feekc
their Bread in Shere American W7ilds, and turn them to
the great Emolument of the Mother Kingdom, there
feems a Call, not only for the Prote~tion of Govern-
inent when there, but their fafe Condud to thofe
Colonies, while under the arbitrary Dominion of the
Tyrant Captain, which, as your Petitioner has colleaed

( 5)
modern Inflances of, andi himfelf experienced, may he
prefume to lay before your Lordfhips.
That Auguil the I oth, he arrived at Chatrles-CTown, South
Carolina, when a G~entlemnan of DiftinaCion Mr. Wragg,
and his Lady, advil'ed a. Family of five Perfons, the
Father whom he relieved from a Prilon here, to leave
him and fettle at Charles-'TowLn, which they accordingly
did, but however paid him for their Paffa~ge; another
Servant he had hired by the Year was alfo reduced, the
Juffice of Peace explaining away a Provincial Law,
which, though calculated for filling the Province with
Settlers, yet took Care that Jullice in repaying the Im-
porter for the Paffagoe M/oney might be observed;
though advised, your Petitioner did not trouble the
Lieutenant Governor on there Injuries, though he did
him not only great Honour, but thiewed him Marks of
Civility and even Kindners. He married one of his
People, and thereby gaided two to recompIenfe his
Loffes by Sedu~tion, and embarqued for St. dugugive
in Ea# Hlorida, when the Governor received him very
politely, and was entertained daily by a particular In-
vitation every Mlorning. H~is intended Paffage byLd
to St. Atarts, was prepared for, but, the rainy YSeafo
at the Equinot commencing, all Enquiries concerning
St. AfarR's furnifhing no Knowledge, the Paffage which
no Pedion had hitherto undertaken for 24o Miles
through a Country inhabited by the Indians, with whomH
no Conference had been held, exhibited at length to him
Difficulties and Dangers which though he might run
hidfelf into, yet could not answer to his own Con-
fcience the engaging his poor Settlers in; after there
Reflexions, a Leading (urgion by the Governor, one Day
before Dinner, drew the Intimnation from him of the
above Opinion, with Requeft to fet down with his
Settlers on the Rtiver of St. John's, where the Governor
had contented to permit two young Gentlemen who
came over with him, to take up their Rights of a hun-
dred Acres each, according to the Rules of Settlement,
and which he intended, as a Commencement of his
Settlement on the Atlantic Ocean, to correfpond with
the other at or near St. Alark's. This drew on an im-
A 3 mediate

mediate fevere Reprimand from the Governor, with 4
Declaration of his Intention to make a strong: Repre-
fEntation to the Board of Trade againft him, for alteriugg
his Intention. Your Petitioner f~at frlent The Governor,
recolleaing himself, fid it was true that the King's;
Order gave your Petitioner Liberty to fet down in any
Part of the Province. He might go to Picolata Fort
on St, John's River, about twenty-five Miles Weft of
St. Auguj~ine, where a Serjeant and eight Men were
flationed, and let down under the Proteation of the Fort.
That Mr. Greenanr of Augglline, Regiffer and Naval
Officer of the Province, who at this Time aaed as Se-
cretary to the Governor, made your P~etitioner an Offer
of a Boat to fend his U~tenfils, ViAnalling, and other
Neceffaries, to St. 74~n'r River a which was accepted
of, but the next Day, on your Petitioners mentlomngn
the Offer at the G~overnor's Table, a certain DiC-
countenance appeared in Mr. G~reenan, and no Boat was
torth-conunlg; on September the 27th, he commenced
his Journey, and let down then at a hmall Difiance ofF
the~ Fort, but he found that the Induffrious would foon
looie their good Difpolition for CLultivation in that
Neighborhood, and making any Tnclofures under the
Cannon was faid to be Shelter for the Indiains; that
the Guard mutt have a clear Sight all round the Fort:
He therefore considered, that, being out of Gun-that,
they were as liable to the Injuries from the Indians as if
further off in the Woods. Though your Petitioner
pow received the News of the Lots of his Boat which
he had bought, in which your Petitioners Servants were
bringing Provifions, Tools, and other Neceffaries, on
the Bar ofiluguff~ine, and finding his Endeavours at this
Place would be rendered ineffeau~al, he borrowed a Boat,
and proceeded with all his People up the River on the
zlth of Ott~ober, and landed on a Spot about twenty-five
1Miles above, where the Bank is considerably elevated
above the Level of the River, or as termed there a high
Bluff, where formerly, perhaps eighty or a hundred
Years fince, a Spanifh Settlement had been., This is the
Place where his Settlers flill continue. In a few Days
two of his People attempted to find out Auguline,

where they arrived after five Days laborious Search a
which became absolutely neceffary, from the malll
Provifion (through the lofs of his Veffel) he had with
him and the Uncecrtainty of the Dependance on his
Hunter for Game I by this means a Path was Aruck out
from St. AuguJ~ine to the moff valuable Lands on St.
'fohn's River.
That, about eight Miles above the Place he resided
at, there was a Store or Trading Houle fe~ttled for the
Indians, kept by one Mr. Spalding, whom he requested
to inform him when any of the principal Indians were
there, to defire a Conference with them. On his Infor-
mation the Second of Noveumber, he immediately went up
thither, and met fome of the pri-ncipal M~en of the
neareft Tribe, at Latchaway, which is about fifty
Miles tWCef-Northerly from him. They objefled at
firft to the White People's settling any Lands, diifco-
vered a Jealoufy that he was going to ere1 a Caffle,
and that they heard that there were several Caffiles to
be built throughout the River. H~e told them he was
certain there would be none built, or any Thing elfe,
till a Conference had been held by the G~vernor with
the beloved People of the Greek Nation. As for himfelf,
he should notz that the Grreat King had permitted him
to come into that Country to feek for Land to raile
Rice on, which the Land on the other fide of the Great:
Lake would not bear; that, if they would permit him
to flay where he was till the Conference (Talk) was
held, hemight at present only raife a little Garden,
and hunt for Proviflon; that, if agreed to permit the
G~rear King's People to fettle, they would find him
always friendly, and endeavouring to be of Service
to them; but, if it was not cod~ented to at that
Conference, (Talk) he would burn up his Hutts, and
go away with all his People. They then faid theyr
believed what he faid was true; as to the Caitles, it
was a falle Report, and that they would content to
his flaying there ; he then returned to his little Colony
in Confidence of Safety.
That your Petitioner received a Letter from Mr.
Gordon, of ChalrlezcTown, South-GaJrolinaP, then in St.
A 4 Au g glin e,

AuguJfine, dated Niov. the 5th, I764. informing him
that he had heard, fine he arrived at that Place of
his Settlement, that he had, in the Year r763, pur-,
chafed all the Lands on the Eaft-fide of St. John's
River (except a Trai three Leagues in Front next
below Picolato) from the M/outh thereof to about the
Latitude of 29, and alfo on the other Side from the
faid Latitude as far NJorth as the Rio Blanco, about
four Leagues below De Popo ; presumed he had un-
knowingly fet down on fome of thofe Lands, and defiredd
an Ainfwer of his Refolution. His Anfw~er of the 2iff
of Novemnber dignified that the Board of Trade had
told him the prior Sales would not fland good, and
that the G~overnor had alfo-told him his Orders were
to disregard them, and alfo referred him to the
Governor, by fending this Anfwer open to Mr, Bulle-
more, his Agent at AuguJiine, to thew it to the Gover-
nor, who, being highly affronted, would not fee the
Letter nor receive any Meffages, but told your Peti-
tioner afterwards that Bullemor-e was an exceptionable
That, fome time in this Month, iome Soldiers from
P~icolata came up to his Settlement, and, on their
Return in the Night, carried off a Smith and his Wife,
whom he was at the Expence of marry ing and bring-
ing with him from Charles-'Town; they afterwards
went to Az~uuJiine, where they were provided for by
being placed on the Ifland of AnaJfa,6, to tend Perfons
in the Smnall-Pox, perhaps in order to render his En-
ceavours to procure their Return ineffe~tual. Major
Ogilvie, the Commanding Officer, to whom he had
complained by Letter of this Behaviour of the Garti-
fon of Picolata, answered it in the politeft M/anner, and
intimated an Intention to infift a severe Punifhment
on the Delinquents; but which he requelled to reduce
to a severe Reprimand only, which when he was at
Augugline foon after, and that Officer made him an
obhlging Vifit, he again repeated.
T hat two young Gentlemen, one who had been in
the Army and the other in the Navy, who came over
with him, with Intention of settling, enticed with the

(9 )
Dillpation at Auguffine, and difliking the Inconvenien-
cies attendant on the firit Settlement of a Colony,
unhappily averse to the Confinement within the Bounds
of fober Regulations, had retired to ACuguj~ine, where
too much Encouragement was given them by thof~e
who wished ill to his Settlement, to procure it's Dif-
plragement; which turned to the Ruin in the Sequel
of the two Youths, when every Proviflon neceffary
for a comfortable Life would have attendhi them,
had they flaid. The one found his Way back to a
Prison in this Mcetropolis, the other fispplied through
his Hands, by the Generofity of Mr. Onflo3w, with
neceffary Proviflon, Mc.~ at a Place ninety Miles lower
down the River, by the Converfion of which into
Rum, he imagines from Experience at laft has died
a Martyr. His Recommendation to the Governor, to
prevent it, had not it's defired Effeat, though the leaft
Word fuggefted by him at his Table, where the whole
Corps of Offcers were entertained in the Courfe of
every Week, would have had it's due Influence. In
this Month of November, the laft Week, Lieutenant
Sweetenha~m, of the Garrifon of AuguJfine, came to his
Settlement, when he entertained him agreeable to
his Rank, and his own Abilities, and obl~erved a very
particular Enquiry he made of your Petitioner, after
his Surveyor, a Perfon he had taken to infpe&t and
meai~re Land, and was then in his Service, he an-
fwered he was gone from Home; about an Hour after-
wards the fame Enquiiry being made again, he gave the
fame Anfwer, and added, he thinks, to a Q~ueffion where ?
that he was gone on his Bufinefs; an Hour or two
afterwards the fame Qeiefion was repeated, and the
fame general Anfwer given. Mr. Sweetenham then went
up to the above-mentioned Shore, and next day Not
vembelr :8i3; yrour Petitioner fet out for dugufine, where
he arrived on the 29th, and waited on the Governot'
to relate his Situation, and the good Agreement with
the Indians; he likewif'e chewed a Draught of the River
St. Johnz's, as surveyed by his Surveyor; discovered his
Inclination to a Spot of Land on the other Side of the
River, opposite to where he lived; but he did nrot

(Io )
know whether that might be within the Power of his
Excellency till after the Indian Treaty, left the River
might be the fixed Boundary, or if the G~rant of the
Governor of Carolina had dilpofed of it. If fo, whether
he might chufe a Spot twenty-five Miles above on the
fame Eaft-fide of the River he refided on. He had
feen it, deferibed the Scite; that the Length of his
Traft, according to the preferibed Rule of runmang
Land, wduld be nearly about nine Miles three-quar-
ters in length, by three Miles one-ninth in Breadth;
the Leggth he imagined would reach beyond a confi-
derable navigable Creek, which he met with in his
Traverse, and, as he had heard, not permitted by the
Rules in Georgia and South Carolina to be paffed, and
that in that Cafe, where he might be fupplied with
his Qurantity, whether well in his Breadth, or take
in any Corner or Slip of Land adjoiningh: to mke p
his full Quantity o oo ce.TeGvro
did not feem to resolve any thing then fa~id that
was improper ; afked him what fort of Land it was
beyond the Creek ; he told him it did not look like
good Land, but he had not been over to examine it;
he feemed then to reafon that he muff pafs the Creek,
to obtain any full Length, at he made Choice of that
That a Perfon who had fourteen Head of Cattle,
made your Petitioner a voluntary Offer to fell them
to him, and a Bargain was made by his Servant for
nineteen Pounds, every thing fettled as to the Delivery,
Payment, and the Seller's Allfiiance to drive them to
your Petitioner's Plantation; which Bargain was not
concluded at any improper Time, of the Party in
Liquor, or fuch-like Situation; it was confirmed on
a second and third Day. He fet out for his Plantation,
and left Money to pay for them, and his Servant to
bring the Cattle; but the Seller firff declined Aliritance
to drive them out, on Account of rome Bufinels, and
at length refueled to deliver them.
That he returned to his Settlement the following
Noon, D~ecember the 2d; on the Road met several Indian
Warriors going to wait on the Governor; he found

they had been at his Settlement, and were accommo-
dated by his People in his Ablence. On their Return
from Augu/line, they came again to his Settlement,
and were f~et down to repose themselves for the Night,
at the Place where his Boats ufually land, and where
he has fince built a Hut or Honfe for their Reception,
which was but a few Yards from his Tent, wherein
he at that Time lived; he went to them, and fat and
converted with them, and afterwards fent them Pro-
viflons for their Supper. He perceived they had been
regaling themselves on the Road with fome Rum the
Governor had presented them with, and which they
drank deeply of during the whole Night, when the Fa-
mily by their: Singing, Dancing, and Hallowing, were,
kept chiefly awake. This is what he is obliged to be
careful over his own People, io ufing every Caution to
prevent Intemperance therein; yet, to Indians, he is
obliged to prohibit it, as it might endanger his whole
Settlement; however the Indians did not come to him
till the Time of Rifing, when one of the W~arriors
(Philoki) came to his Ten't, when he was fill in Bed;
and [poke to him, though in a freer Manner than at
any Time fittee, being much heated by Liquor, but
all in good Temper, desiring his Boat to convey them
over; on whichhe got up,and gave Orders for it. The
hIrdians, fearce able to fland, firaggled through his Tent,
where all his Utenfits, Goods, Mc. lay open, of which
he alked them, whether they wanted any Thing; but,
in the greatest good Humour and Sincerity, faid no,
acknowledging they had had too much of the Rum,
it was too good and affected their Heads; he got all
of them over the River, except one, the long Warrior,
(a Warrior at the Time that General aglethorpe' was
Io Georgia) who was too much intoxicated to go, and
whom, after Sleennfe leping, he entertained in his Tent, and
gave him fome Coffee to relieve him of his Head-ach;
and he ftaid the whole Day, and he put him aver the
River the Day after. At different Times he fagw fome
of thee fame Indians, and several other a who came
to his Plantation as he might call it then, having fome
Thoughts one Day or other it might arrive to fuch in
Reality ;

( 1 )
Reality; and had made a little Garden, and was pro-
ceeding for a Crop, on fuch good Agreement with
the Natives. The WI~arriors or Head-mnen dined atl
your Petitioner's Table, the others he fent Proviffons
t~o. They often hunted for him at his Requeft,
sometimes brought him Prefents of Venifon, Honey,
Btears-meat, Buffeloes Tongues, Bear-fkcins, Sieves.
His RefutIl of Rum to them was founded on a Treaty
he had read of, wherein the Greeks had defired the Pro-
hibition of this Commodity, to prevent Qurarrels amongfk
their young Men and the W~hites, that might end in
W~lar; and, though several faw twoCafkrs of Rum, of above
one-hundred Gallons each, landed at his Settlement,
for his own Ufe, at one Time, yet if the Queffion
was for Barter with Skins, Mc. for it, yet Iris Reafon
that, while lober, they were Men, and the Greeks and
white Men were friendly, and knew one another,
yet when Rum came we knew not each other; but
it made us Women, and we quarrelled and fought with
one another, and therefore, though your Petitioner had
it for the Ufe of his People in their hard Labour, to
drink with Water, yet they muff not have any.
This did not difoblige them : Thd~e that dined at
his Table, after Dinner, he dred to open a Bottle of
Port Wine, perhaps for them, when two or three
Glaffez were the moff he helped them to, and it fuffi-
ced. One or two of thofe who brought their Women
or Sq1uaws with them, permitted them to fet at his
Table, a Favour their natural Jealouly did not afbally
encourage as he has heard, and two of the Women
belonging to one of the Warriors who is come to fettle
near him, fince he settled there, have come dlown by
themfelves in a Canoe, bringing fome Prefents, and
have fiaid the whole Day, with your Petitioner with-
out raining any Jealouly in the Men.
That he acquainted the Indians that Rum was an
unneceffary and dangerous Merchandize, yet a Trade
of fuch Things, as they should want. in Barter, for
fuch Commodities, as they had, he would encourage
on the moft honorable Terms. This was alfo
founded on an old Treaty at the fame Time with

them, when sealed Weights and Meafores were to
be fent up-to their Towns. Every Dealing of his thould
be as open as poilible, with the U~nderflanding clear, and
and Heads free from Liquor. That their young Men
should be infirudted in our Language to prevent Frauds.
For this Purpole he pent much Time, with them, to
convince them of the Utility of his Propofals, and,
as far as poflble and permiflible, to put the fame in Prac-
tice, having taught them the Method of weighing with
the Stilliards, and measuring by the Yard, not wfith`-
out inflilling the highest Notions of the Englif Power
from the ConqueRs of the late War, of their Juffice and
Generofity from the late Peace which he could convey
the Idea of, from the Exhibition of the Views and
Seblions of Men of War and Maps. He fell: not far
thort of his Hopes and Ends in this Undertaiking. Het
found them his Friends when intoxicated with Liquor,
as well as when fober; he found a RefpeA in both Si-
tuations, which muff proceed from the Heart; an
attempt however vain it might be thought, yet
mall Obitacles appeared to prevent it's Progorels tow-
ards the Civilizing them, which an Inflance, or two,
of what fell out, fome M~onths after this, may help to
elucidate. Several Indians of the meanest Rank, fome
of which had been perhaps, or had heard others re-
late, having been, on a Saturday Night, at your Peti-
tioners Plantation, and have ~been going away on a
Sunday Morning on their hunt; where he has fignified
to them, that it was the Day the Whites addreffed the
Being above, who thundered, to fend us what wats
neceffary for us, whereby they law we never wanted ;
they have answered, muff we flay ? to which he ifaid,
yes, he would have them, when they have flaid the
whole Service, with the utmost Decency and Gravity.
This probably had the following Effe1 on fome of there
Indians who had been to efugu/line, and though he had
but juff before heard of the Governor's Praife of your
Petitioners Order, in refpell of Rum, towards them,
yet thee came full freighted with the Governors unhappy
present of that Liquor to this Settlement on their Return,
~Of which they regaled, as alf~o the others before,

( x4.
anentioned, the whole Night; being in a very g5ay
Mood, they went to the other End of his Town, and
affaulted the Houle of one his Settlers, where tw~o
young Lads were that were his Interpreters; on finding
the Door that, broke it open s but it was only to get
the two Lads to come and drink with them, whuch they
did for a Tmall Time. That Night about Ten o'Clock,
as he ufed to fay Pray erS to his ~privatte Family, before he
went to Becd, In the Middle of the Prayers, as his Face
was towards the Door of the Houle which was open,
he [aw the Indians, and knew how much intoxicated
they were with Liquor; but they did not offer to come
ta~p the Steps into the Room, feeing, as he fuppofed,
the Family on their Knees, and knowing, from what
he mentioned above, the Meaning of it, till he had
done, and rofe up, which might be five or fix Minutes
after he firft faw them; when they came in with their
Bowl of Punch, but all in a merry cheerful Temper,
and offering him to drink, which he did ill two Rounds
of their Bowl; he expreffed his ]Friendfhip for them,
and gave them to understand by Signs, having: no In-
terpreter, that they mnRf Ray in the Morning for hire
to fee them, before they f~et out on their Hunt, till
th~e Sun came to thre South-Eaf), and wished them a
good Night; and they went away, and did not come
to him any more the whole Ni~ght, which they pent
entirely in drinking. The next Day they Feemed ra.
t~her ashamed of their having behaved to in their Cups;
Some of them are HorfTe itealers, pafs his Settlement,
and go to AuguJ~ine a~nd fl~eal Horfes, bring them to his
Settlement, and go over the River, in his Boats ; but,
though your Petitioner has loff h is Harles for two Months-
together, yet they never touched his, but have relied
on his Einding theirs when loff, as happened to four
of them; and, if there was any thing intended ill againit
the white Men, he had their firidt Promife they would
inform him of it, which rendered him quite edTy,
at a Time when the Governor was in fomne Fear, on
the Suppofition that one of the Indians was loff or
murdered at AlguJine.

(s 15
That neat Chbrifrs, your Petitioner's Hunter, whom
he had hired and kept. at the Expence of three Pounds
per Month, himself having the Profit of the Skins, and
alfo his Provilion and Dunk, when at Home retired to
AurguJfine for a W~eekt, and he found out very acci-
dentally by his own Confeflion, that he firppied that
Place with Venifon at your Petitioner's Expence, and,
which the Governor hiefelf could not but allow, he had
furnished his Table with fome. The Hunter keeping
a M~an who could not thoot about two Miles off fr~om
his Settlement, with two Horfes to carry off from Time
to Time the Venifon he killed to Augguine, after this,
your Petitioner determined to supply his Colony with-
out fuch Adifiance, only requeffing the Indians, when
wHith him, to hunt for him, or have the Chance of any
Venifon procured the neareft at hand by any of hjs
Settlers, whom he did not chdre to encourage in a
hunting Life, as he effeemed it a very idle one. But
he supported them by much Labour and Expence, fomre-
times by his Horfes bringing Neceffaries from Augal/ine,
and at others by his Canoe, at one hundred and fifty
Miles Diftance, and at length from Georgia by Schooners
hired on Purpoife at the Value of twenty-five Pounds a
That on the Chriflmas Eve, his Hunter returned,
and brought the Produce of his Venifon, fold at the
Metropolis in Rum, the effects of which discovered
itself the next Day in the Settlers very apparently. He
employed him now no longer, but however the Hunter
kept his Horfes flill at your Petitioner's Settlement,
Eillinag and driving off the Deer in its Neighbourhood,
and carrying the Skins and fome of the Venifon (for
it muff be underflood of Ihefe kind of Hunters, that
they deflroy, for the Sake of the Skins, ten Times as
much Deer as they make are of the Venifoa of) to St.
Augu/line, turning it into Rum, with which he Cupplied
a Family at your Petitioner's Settlement every now andl
then, to as to enable them to keep a Public Houfe, to
the Ruin of the Induffrious, particularly that Family,
though confifting of a Man, his Wife, and Ax Children,
either of which did not do the leaft Work towards

railing: Corn, Garden Stuff, or any Thing for their
Sublfi~ance. This he related afterwards to the Go-~
vernor, as he thought it required fome Authority to
redrain, as it was to injurious to his Settlement; his
Anfwer was, if any Thing was done contrary to the
Law of England, that was open, there was his Remedy.
That was not adapted he thought, your Petitioner an-
fwered him, to the present Cafe~; a Remedy could only
be found in himself, his own Power ; he atked your
Petitioner what he would have him do ? He replied, he
could not presume to direAk his Excellency in that
IVatter. The Confequence appeared fome Months af-
terwards. The Horfes were till kept there, sometimes
breaking into his Corn Inclofures, and doing Damage
to him likewif~e in that Way; fomte of the Settlers he
thinks ofed there Horfes, but paid the Hunter for the
Ufe; during his Ablence in May, his Agent had like-
wife ufed one to fetch Proviiion from Aug~uJ~fie, and
proposed paying for the fame, as the others had, and
did not refuse ; but what was the particular Reafon he
cannot affgn, except the Irritation of Rum ; one Ev~en-
ing the Hunter, being much in Liquor, was going up
in a Boat to hunt on the Lakes above his Settle-merit,
but, juff before he fet out, faid to his Companion, he
would go out in the Pine Barren, and kill a Deer firit,
he went out there, when two Negroes were sawing for
your Petitioner ; he afk~ed them whether they were all
alone ? They faid yes. Soon after they heard a Gun
go off, and they law your Petitioners Cow's runtling in
a confused Manner, and the Hunter came to themn, and
told them, in thefc W~ords : Ihave fhot one of Mr.
Rolle's Cows, and you may go and tell him fo, and I
will thoot all his Cows, and Horfes, and Hogs, and
himself; you are no Wlitneffes. T'he Negroes went
in immediately, and came and informed him of it, and,
w~hen he fent to the other End of his Town, where the
Hunter frequented, found he was fet off in a Boat up
the River, but, as he could not tell where, his Com-
panion who ded to carry the Venifon to AurguJfine was
examined, and it appeared he was to take the Horfes
up to a Lake about fix Miles from his Settlement the

( r7 )
next Week, but a Perfon, that went with the Hunter
ini the Boat, intending to return the next Night, on
which your Petitioner waited his Return, and, though
he could not depend on him, yet his Agent, being ap-
pointed a Juffice of Peace, wore him, and three Itrong
Perfons more, and fent them up in Search of the H~unter,
with a Warrant to apprehend him; they luckily hit on
the Place, in the M~iddle of the Night, and feiz~ed hire
in his Sleep, and brought him down anid feat him to
Augu/line, where there was no Jailer to be found, and
the Sheriff or Provoft Marthal, who was one of the
Governors menial Servants, seemed at a Lofs how: to
adt. None seemed expeditious in fecuring him, more
seemed defirous of having him freed ; however he was
at laft admitted into Jail, but the Attorney General
wrote a Letter to your Petitioner's Agent ; though he
could be the only Profecutor of the Caule, yet appeared
more in the Defence of the Definquent, alledging the
Warrant and Commitment was irregular, &c. as by
the faid Letter would more particularly appear. That
your Petitioner having been at a considerable .Expence,
and having faved feveral Things out of his Bodit, which
was loft as before-mentioned, on his Agent on the zd
of 'fanuaryt r65, hired another Boat to bring the fame
round over the JBars to his Settlement, another Boat
coming round at the famle Time, with Goods belong-
ing to a Store, whole Mafter being better acquainted
with the Bar of Augu/~ine, than the Perfon who had
the Dire~ion of your Petitioner's, Tet out firi), in order
to dire&t the other; the firf% Boat pait the Fort
without Obf~ru~tion, when the other, freighted entirely
with his Goods, was flopped by the Officer then
on Duty; who was Lieutenant Swoeet~enham above-
mentioned, as he afterwards heard; and delayed to long,
that the Tide was to far gone out, that, when they anrived
at the Bar, the Boat flruck on it and overfet; whereby
he 100t every Thing, except a Barrel of Tar, the only
Thing which came a Shore; the Mafter was drowned,
and a free Mulatto faved hidfelf by liwimming a pro-
digious Leng~th of T'ime. This Mulatto foon after
Vi de Letter, page.
B went

went away to another Province,which prevented his Hear-
ing of the Particulars from him; and his Agent, menti-
meoed before as an xcptionable Perfonr by the Governor,
declined interfering in the Examination into the Reafon
of the Stopping of the Boat, but heard, that both of
the Boats were alike open Boats; the firi), not a Con-
cern of your Petitioner's was not topped, as the other,
freighted with his Goods was; that the Pafter went a Shore
at the Fort, and afterwards went to the principal Om-
cer, Major Ogilvrie, to relate the Circumffance; who
disapproved of the OtScer onl Duty at the Fort's faop-
ping the Boat, as both were equally to be eiteented
open Boats going provincial Voyiges, and never were
to be flopped to be examined at the Fort. This
Officer, Mlr. Sweectenham, is the Pedobn that was con-
cerned in a Riot in Geor~gia 1 by which Mr. Greer, then
ChiefJulice, was firperfeded, but Sn~ce re~lored to
Honour. This Of~icer your Petitioner has heard the
Governor mention more than once, as a Perfon he had
a great Reg~ard for, and knew not another whole la.J
tere& he theold be more inclined to pmmroact. Mr.
Lloyd, your Petitioner's intended Overiter for his Plan-
tation, arrived from England, and brought him A~ccount,
that probably a Ship with Settlers, &c might be on their
Voyage to Absecar, on his Account; and, left they should
go round to St. Mark's, where it was fupporfed that he
was fettled, he had dispatched Letters to Pvroiddece and
Jamakea, and other ifands, to Rtop her if peablle, and
order her to St. John's River, but which afterwards
proved without E~rea. When Mr. Lloyrd, bis Overfeer,
had waited on the Governor at AlguJlinr, the Governor
had intimated that feveral Petitions had been prefetetd
from his Plantartion, with fomne Irtreularity. Thefe
were dated the l5th of Dc~mber, and -had been fant at
that Time, under Cover, direaed bl your Petitioner to
Mr. Dun~net, the Secretary of the Province. As for the
Irregularity in the fending of them, and the Non-ap-
plication in Perfon, it was occallo~ned by yfour Petitioner's
fending his Surveyor to the Secretary's Ofcto know
the particular Method or Form of Petitioning, and how
it might be with the leaft Trouble and Expence to the
Petitioner ;

( 19 )
Petitioner, where he had a written prectcibed Form deli-
vered him, and was acquainted, that therewouldbe a Day
appointed to take them under Confaderation by the Go-
vernor in Council i at which Time only, there would in a
N~eccity of the perfonarl Attendance of the Petitioner s
and the 1Goernor had mentioned to himn before, that the
Dates of the Petit oas would kbe ule to himr in gramiog
when two happ~ened to be prelented for the fame Spos,
according to their Priority of Prdenistlrem. As this
was the flofontration fromthe Of~ce, and Aremed to be
reafronable, it was followed in the tive Petttionsr lent in.
That the Secretary had poromiled your Petitioner's
Surveyor, who was one of the Petitioners, that he
should have Notice of the Day or considering Petitionse.
This was reprefeated in a Letter of the r5th of 'fanv-
crry, and an~mwered by the Governor on the r6thi, where-
in the perfonal Appicaltion with she Petitions in the
Edti Place was ia~fted on r al~fo an Inthatston that no
Add~i~tion whatfoever could be malde to your Pectitioner's
Land, as having the Kings' Order for 1 ~Grant of twenty
thmoufjand Acres, and that his Proclamation extended
only to induce other refponafble Perfons, who might be
incined to Settle; and that he thould be very careful of
thePerfons, whom he fLhould grant any Land to fettle on.
Your~ Petitioner heard afterwards tihat thee Petitions
were thrown under the Tarble, and with Declaration,
that no Perfons from your Petitioner's Settlements or
concerned with himg, thould harveany Grants of Land.
That, about the latter End of 'fanuary, Mur, Grranan,
Regifter and Naval Officer, made your Petitioner a
V~i6 from Augypffin, at his Plantatlon ; he was much
ctcemed by the Governor, and often did Bufiners for him,
of the Secretarythip, when the Secretary Mr. Dwunnr
was ill; s he entertained him as well his Situation per-
mnitted, and theed him his Intentions in his Settle.
ment, and diverted him with a View of the neighbourinig
Parts of the Province; he is forry to mention now a
Circumr~ance which might refleB Dilhonour on any
body, but efp~ecially on loch Gentlemen, who might
be (nppofed to well discern the Laws of Hofpitahty.
Asn orldMan, his Wife, and Son, who came up to him
9 2 enly

( 20 )
early in his Settlement, the latter unhealthy and the two
former rather aged; however the Father and Son were
sometimes dfeful in Capplying his Table with Venifon ; the
'Wife allified in his Kitchen Bufinefs, where federal
Attendants were neceffery, having a great Number to
supply. They had unhappily a Daughter in Augaf/inel
vJirhich had long before been a Paftiftute, he rsay fately inyt
fo, as a Child of ~ome Age, wa~s the Fruit of it by a Se$
Captain; but now was too far adv~ynced in Proffitution,
to afford an Augment ation to a Colony, by the Un Forl
tunate Situation in a Town, where the fmnall Number of
Females occafioned much Divilions and Irregularity.
The Child of this Profitatde inherited an ill State of
Health from it's unhappy Parents, and was there-
fore effeemed a Burden to the Town in which it
lived with it's Mother. Mr, Greenanf endeavoured to
enter into a Treaty with it's Grandmother above-
mentioned ; who wasan Alfliftant in providing daily fisch
Entertainment as your Petitioner could give that Gen-
tleman at his Table, and whom, -with her Hufband
and Son, he might be faid to maintain already, as their
Labour could not recompenfe him for their Living;
treated with her, to take the Child to your Petisi-
oner's Settlement, that he might have that additional
Burden, as the Town thought it fuch, and, might
relieve the Mother alfo from the Trouble of it, who
might then be more at Leiiure to follow her Occupa-
tion. 1Mr. Greenan alfo was defirous that a Boat-
builder, who had retired from the Extravagance and
Drinking at Augu/ine ; and came to his Settlement for
a mlore quiet and iniduff~rious Life, should go back to
refide at that Place, which it was his own free WTill, not
your Petitionerls Decoying, that led him to quits be
alfo acquainted him, that he had fome Timber belong-
ing to him in his P~offenion,, but the Boat-builder re-
plied, that he should not return, and he did not regard
the Timber at all. He alfo left a WVife there. which
he could not much regard, having chole; other People's
Company, and who your Petitioner heard was in
Mr. Greenzan's Service. There seemed to be a Defire
alfo for a young Woman, who had come up from the.

lower Past of' the River, to refide at his Settlement, to
quit it again, and go to Augujiine; but the was then
indifferent in choice, and your Petitioner, foon after
advised her to a Match, which the immediately com--
plied with; under which Security, the itill refides at
his Settlemnent. However as it was fuppofed by Mro
Lloyd his Agent, and himlel~f, that Mr, Greenan's Vifit was
not idle Curiolity and Compliment, your Petitioner did
not Ibew him only what. he had done, but deforibed to
him his Plan of Settlement, and informed him, if he could
have the major Part of his Land run out on the other Side
of the River, and Part on this Side, he didn't care if
the River was reckoned and meafured as Part of his
twenty thoufa-nd Acres, or if the whole was granted on
the other Side; that he might have the Liberty of pure
chafing a few hundred Acres of Land, on that Side
of the River he then refided on, to preserve the Plan
of his Town, which, asa healthy Situation, was eligible,
but could not be to to any Perfon, to take up accord-
sug to the Form of three Perch Back for one in
Front ; and alfo about two hundred Acres below, and
two above the Town a fome for the Appropriation for
a Minister, and rome for the Endowment of a School.
All within the Offer as he thought, made* by the Pro-
clamation of the Liberty of purchasing to the Quantity
of one thousand Acres, above the Rights or Grants,
according to his Majeity's Order. Or he propofed,
that, if the Mode of Settlement did not permit that,
yet if the Perfons refiding with him, took up their
Family Rights of one hundred Acres per Head for
themselves, and fifty for each of their Family, on the
Eaft Side of the River, which they would not do on the
Spot where his Town ftands, unle~rs any other pecu-
liar Advantage to them was in View i this might ferve
the Purpole of preserving the Plan of his Town, by
their keeping Part of their Land in Poffeilion in Lots,
in and adjoining to the Town; and the Refidue might
be supplied to them by Exchange of better Land, from
his Grant of twenty thodrand Acrep, when laid out,
on the other Side of the River.
*Vide Governor Granrt's Proclamatione
B 3 Tha t,

( 22 )
That, in a Letter dated the gd of Februaryr, the
Governor takes Notice of the Receipt of your Petiti-
oner's to him, of the 29th of Jantuary, fent by Mr.
Grseenan, on his Return, snd of a Plan of your Peti-
tioner's Settlement or Town, and other projected De-
pendencies thereon: This Letter intimated that .there
was no Power in him of making Additions to his Tradt
of Land, which was to be furtveyed out to him -in
Terms of his Majefly's Order. An Extra Settlemeqt
was impradicable, because therein it was termed a
contigeoub Trad; that no Grants were to be given
to other People, who would transfer their Righ~ts to
yerPetitioner. That there w~ere Orders from thea
Lofrs of T~rade to guard againft Perfons Engrolling of
Land. That he could not fee any Utility a Settlement
could be of at the Narr~ows of the Riveri where his
Tow~n wauss projeaed, if his twentyr thooland Acree
were to be run out elsewhere. That no Advantage
could accruer to the Province from a Town, where
there would be no Inhabitants, as no-body would flay
with him any longer than he fed them. That he would
set encourage Settlements of any of there People, at a
Plac~e where the InAdians were likely to come over the
Rivers on Acou~t. of it's Narrowiners. That he was
not at Liberty to judge of the plaut~ble Reafons your
Petitioner laid be had to alledge for the Meautue. Tihat
sto Application of others thal~l preclude him front having
the Granrt of the Indian Stre he had proje~tedat thi6
Place. Tha~t the Surveyor General was arrived, had
iifued the Warrant of Survey, for hisytwenty thou-
fand Acres, and fent a D~eputy he brought from. Georgia ;
and alfo one Faircdild, who had been hired before byt your'
Petttioner, as a Surveyor, and had now a Deputation,
as one for the Province; which the Goverrnor thought
would be agreeable to him. That Surveyor, late hiR
(for it proved, in the Sequel, he was not to be his
any longer) only came, the other being ill. Another
Letter, dated the nexst Day (the 4th of Fdrbuary) intclofed
a Power to him, to admimifter the Oarths to his Agetri
Mr. Lloydl, to qualify him to aB as a 'pfieofu 6~the Peace.
Th at

That, about the latter End of 'fanuary, there was an
Agreement made for your Petitioner, with one folnmfo,
for fixteeni Head of Cattle, and which were brought to
his Settlement the 9th of February ; with thee fixteen
there were a Bull and a Steer, that were firay Cattle,
that did not belong to throfe he bought, but which
having been with them, and, as a common Thing, would
not be separated from them all the Drivers could do
did not prevent them from continuing with them, as
they were drove near Auguj~ine his Servant went mnto
Town, and (poke to the several Owners' of Cattle,
and alcquamntinrg them of thei'e two firay Cattle, and
that his Maliter muff pay for the two Cattle, or, if they
would come out and fee them, they might have themJ
no Perfon came, and they were drove to his Settlement
with the others, under Nlecedfity only, not Choice. As
his Settlers had not had any freih Meat lately, and ~the
Steer was the better Mreat, rather than the others, and
it would not have been worth any Owners ~While to
have drove the two only back to Augu/inec, the Marks,
the Colour, and thBe Value, were afcertained wPhile
dlive. His Agent thought it would be no Injury, but
a Benefit to whatever Owner appeared, to kill it, and
allow for it. It was therefore killed, and the Weight
of it then taken, and, when he went to Augujine after-
wards, he carried tbc Certificatee of the fame, and lodged.
it with the Money in a Merchant's Hands, (Mr. Iyifon's)
for the Value, after the Augylinee Price per P~ound. That,
if any Pedobn alleged the Mqarksb of their loft Cattle,
and they proved the fame as the Certificate mentioned,
which he was to keep private, that, in that Cafe, he was
to deliver the Money for the fame, and would pay for
the Bull, or they might have is at his Plantation. There
was immediately railed an Uproar about this Theft i
one Mr. Piles, who had the largest Stock of Cattle,
fent a threatening Letter to his Servant, that they were
his Cattle. Captain Skinner, an Of~cer at Augugine,
feat to know what we~re the ~Mrks of thofe: two Cattle:
Your, Petitioner therefore informed the Juffices~ of Peace
of what he had done, at to lodging the Certificates and
Money in Mr. if~lons Hands.5 Mr. ti~lon fent f or
B 4 Mr.

( 24 )
Mr. Piles, and mentioned the fame; he dellrred him to
n'arne the Mlarks of his Cattle, when it proved quite
di~erent from the M~arks in the Certificate. The latter
your Petitioner waited on, and acquaintecd him of the
fmam The Certificates and Money were in Mr. TWdjon's
Hands, and the Bull fillI in being at his Plantation,
when be came away in Se~PtEmbEr, sy65*
That, on FSebruarv the 19th, arrived at his Settlement,
one Arunton and others, who had before called there in
theit W~ay up to find out a PalFfge th cough to the G;ulph
of Afetvio, from the River St. 'fonh's, as it had been re-
ported there was, but which they did` not find s the
Journal they gave himr a Copy of contained to one hun-
dred and twenty-fix Miles, above his Settlement, and
they faid there was between twenty and thirty Miles
more they had not entered.
That, on. ebratr~y the 26th, he fet out for St. Au-
Itfhne, -and intended to have camped without-lide the
TIown, and went in by Day to tranfacT his Bufinels, and
wiait on the Governor, but, over-perfuaded by his Agent,
went to Mr. Greenan's to return his Vifit, agreeable
to Invitation. At this Gentlemlan's Houfe he lay, and,
as dfual when in Town before, was invited to dine at
the Governor's, except the three laft Days, when the
Governor imagined your Petitioner had been fet out
for his Plantation, and was then entertained by the
Attorney General, Major Ogilvie, Commander of the
Troops, and another Oti~cer. The Surveyor Fairchild,
whom your Petitioner efleemed a hired Servant, one of
his own Houfhold, and had accepted one of the Deputy
Suz veyorthips of the Provinfce, by Content of youir
Petitioner, waited on him at Mr. G~reentaan's, to know
his Pleathlre about returning to his Plantation as a Sur-
veyor for the Province, but seemed too high for his
Service, and inquired what Wages he would give.
This Alteration induced~ him to mention it to the Go-
vernor, that fodnre Methods had been taken he believed
to induce him to leave his Service, contrary to his
Contralt. The Governor told him to peak to Mr.
Greenan, to [peak to Pairchild (the Surveyor) that he
might attend his Service, as well as the Province Bufiners.

( But afterwards, an Opportunity f~ervinlg, the Governor
fpoke to him himfelf, and told him, that the two Offi-
ces were not incompatible, and he might f~erve hire
itill on his Plantation. The next Day at Mr. Greenan's
Fairchild came and offered to adjuQ the Accounts of
Wages due, and Monies received and, fuppoling the
Balance against himR, offered to fetch the Money to
pay nt, as loon as it was fettled. He drew it out, and
proved twelve Pounds received in Cath, about twenty
Shillings due for Store Goods, in all thirteen Pounds,
of which about eight Pounds ten Shillings was the
Proportion of twenty Pounds a Year for twenty-two
Weeks he: had served him, anld this Balance of four
Pound ten -Shillin~gs appeared due; to your Petitioner.
The Propof`al of Payment, dropped on the Queition,
how much was he to give ? For Mr. Greenan pleaded
for him, that your Petitioner could not give lefs to him
thin a Crown a Day; year Petitioner answered not
till he was compelled by Force. He continued to f~ay
his *Bargain was juit, and therefore should be ob-
kerved; -thus, with fo good an Advocate, he had neither
Servie nor Balance of Account paid him. The Con-
kequence of this plain Sedultion was the utter puin
of the young Man. At your Petitioner's homnely Plan-
~tation he la~ved Money, was freeing himself from Debt
even out of twenty Pounds a Year, and pref~erved his
Health by Temperance and an induffrious Life. For,
without Vanity, there might be Faid to be Regulations
tending to this End, amidfb a moderate Plenty, not
found in a garrisoned Town, where Luxury and De-
banchery reigned amidit Scarcity. And Surveymng va.
tued by it's Huindreds per Annum, your Petitioner
fuppoles, did not fuli~ce, the Youth was ruined, a
fifty Pound Debt appeared in one Shop Book against
him, and he took up the Money for his Surveys, and
carried off the Plans with him, or dearoyed them, and
Bed to Wep-Flbrida. Two other Perfons who were
tired of this fatal Place, one having been caught in
a Law-i'uit about Driving of Cattle, who had propo-
fied to come to your Petitioner's Town to fettle, but
by no Sedui~tion of his a only their own Choice, and,

( a6 )
as one had Cattle, wkould have been beneficial to his
Colony; yret were at Brit powerfully retained by thet
Servieo --- atl~ength obliged
to part with the Cattle, being nineteen Head, which
fold for only twenty Guineas, he thinks a full P~roof
you~r Petitioners'Bargain wats .no I~mporliion, of fourteen
Hafor nineteen Pounds. But this P~urchafe seemed
only contrived to prevent his having them ; and though
purchafed by Mr. J~uffice Greecnan, who was jua then
beginning a Plantation, and they would foon have been
a Pretty initial Stock; bult they paffedf quietly into the
Juffcic s Servanrts Hands, or through them into the
shore Shop, where the Deputy-Surveyor funk his fifty
Pound~s. At this Time came on the final ConcIflron
of the Affair of the Cattle your Petitioner bought as
before-nentioned ; Mr. G~reenan when at his Settlement,
pfled his Judgment in Appearance, that the Seller
isud make good his Bargain, which was fourteen
Hed of Cattle for wiineteen Pouncts, and he would adviie
b'hn and fettle that Matter at his Retunr. At firft when
your Petitioner came to Town, he was Informed that
the Seller would deliver the Cattle ; he came to M~r.
Oc~neses, who now your Pedtitoner faw Became Plearder
ofJ this Cadte af fo t which was by propoing he should
giv the fame Money for eleven or twelve He~ad, as two
at thrie~e of them had been killed fince 4 not that he
foppoied the Selktr would have let: himn have had them
then, this was only to raife Matter of Difpute s your
PetPPPPPPP~~~~~~~itionert taid the Beargain was fair and open, sad he
trhatght every one should fland to luch, and tf would
to Mantt of Lenity in him, after he had the fulfi11ing
Of it, as far as the Circumitances allowed, by the
DE~elivery of the Remainder, with fome Dedullion for
~thofe that were k~illed. There: was then produced- an
Alldrvit, gne~d by a Perfon jit before he removed
horn mc~/r th at your Petitione/s Surveyor gave
rp the vtale an your Pejtitioner left him, it was
otre to brting out the Cattle, and M~oney to pay For
thern, bar he did not make the Bargain, and it was
ser~ t like (if the Juitice hadl he was left in Towa, wiCh Cath to pay for them, and

to drive them out, that he fbould have left Powers to
annul it I he had been ready~, and your Petitioner fant
him to make an Afl~darit to contradlid the other; but
the Judice would not permit it. Thus the Enrgli
Law~~~IIIIII~~~~~IIIII was open, as the Governor had told him it was.
But he found it open only on one Side of a Qudltion.
H~e now happily concluded an Account whtlh his Agent,
a Perfon (M~r. Ballamarr) who accidentally under-
took it, he fays happily, as this unfortunate Gen-
dleman, in tuniting to a Promife of the Place of the
Colledtorthip of this Port, was ruined, and made a
dreadful E xit, not long after. This Account amount-
ed to the Value of one hundred and fourteen Pounds,
which by( Exchannge of eight and a quarter, for his
Bills on C3harla-Tioses, made above one hundred and
twecnty-three Pounds, which, with three hundred and
forty-two Pounds and the Exchange twent~y-eight,
making in all four hundred and ninety-three Pounds,
nearly all expended in St. Raggime, proves a confr.
derable Sam i your Petitioner begs Leave to mention,
after the Publi~c Money is noticed for that Metriopois,
and he does it to difainguith himself, as laying oat
Money in Aagngine, a Circutmflance that rcerits Fa-
Vour, ars his Neighbour Mr. 8)arldingb, who keeps the
Store for blachy and Co. In Georgia, had Threats that
his Licnnce should be taken from him, not onl~ ?as
he had not conformed to it, which was only Jarft
intimated, as to the Power over him, but Irn moren
exrprdls Term8, because he did not lay out his Molney~
for- Goods at A~gaPtisee i for his Partners fent it all byr
Water from Georgia ; whereas he muft have kep
H~iorfes, and had expedaysc Land Carriae fo San
gsf~i~dier. So impolitic s Demand by the Secretary, Mr.
Damer in a Letter, occafiaeed Mr. 8paing~q too to Ae
gaptiar, a knaow whecther it wasl only Mr. Dsates lati-
anation inFavour of Mr. Icm~e's Store,which was hissed
so the Place to buy alt, who wase in Partnerihip with one
BackP, whom the Governor had givn the Command
of the Province Gchfoornr to i Mr. Dasset replied it was
thes GIIrnOr's ~i17; that he thould have the Intimaionn
Ibefoaremnrioned. The Gverortrg bcphimif we Mr.
Staln warited on him, was flent on thisTgf

( 28. )
This Letter having been tranfinitted to Georgla, 6e
need not recite it, as it was foreaalled in the Relations
by an uninter~efed Perfon, mentioning his Knowledge
of the Fa&. For Want of this kind of Recommendation
of expending his Money at 191. 071/n's Store,. in
ArggY~ine, he could not be blameable, he muft proceed~:
further to find the Cadfe of Blame.
TIhat he had, in the Courfe of fome Converfation,
de ring this Week, an Intimation that in the moreregu-
lar Manner, the Governor should havb directed the At-
torney General to have profecuted h~im for settling on
the.King's Land, without Leave. He now endeavtour-
ed to find out in what Manner he might be permitted
to run his Land, for he could without much Forefight
pierceive, that whatever feemed more particularly his
DCefire, would fall further without the Line of his
IMhiefly's Dire~ions and Orders.
That having an Inclination to fome If ands, Fome
W~ay above where he is now settled ; but which Iflands,
if he had [pecified, would fome how or other be con-
Atrued improper for him to have; but which he in-
tended to have taken, with fome Land adjoining, or
not far off, could he have aff~ured a Will to grant them,
He afked therefore a Queffion about the Ifland of Aneliaii
which lies on the Confines of Georgia, which the Lords
of Trade had once codrented to recommend to his
blajefly to grant to your Petitioner, whether if he
altered his Mind again for that Ifland, which he fisp-
yofed about fifteen thoufand Acres of Land, whether
he might have the remaining five thodfand Acres on
the Continent, neareft to the Ifland The G~ov~ernor
anfwered, your Petitioner's Grant was to be of a con-
t~iguous Lot of twenty thoufand Acres. This how-
ever he had obviated before in his Plan, hewn to Mr.
Greenan, by which the Water intervening, amounting to
thr~eeor four thoda~nd Aores, wias to have b~een meafurred,
and fome Land on each Side, which would certainly
have been contiguous, though Part of it might be
covered with Water. He was furprized now however,
with a particular Care in his Excellency for the poor
Settler .himfelf at laff, though, in the Cafe of his

( 29 )
)Iunter, th~e Governor would not interfere, as is before
mentioned. The Satisfadlion made by Major Ogikoie,
f~r the Inju~ry done him by the Soldiers at Picolata, in
carrying off his Smith and his Wife, was reduced to a
Reprimand at his Requeft, and pardoned, as is related
That in Fome of his Letters, among many of the
Grievances that he had full Reafon to Complain of hav-
ing barely recited, this of the Soldiers, the Governor
took up this fingle FaB alone, and exerted his ~Au-
thority as Governor in allifting and protecting him as
a Settler, by removing of this G~arrifen at Piolata, who
had injured him in the Manner before related, but it
happened to be thus untimely, after the Satisfa~ign
and Pardon given through Major Ogilv~ie.
That, one Day this Week, the Governor mentioned
to him this Order of Removal s he told him it happened
to be extremely unfortunate, as he had addreffed his
Complaints to the Major, being the Commanding
Officer, and he had answered him in the politeft Man.
ner, and rendered him all the Satisfamon of Punifhment
~pomible, which he had declined, and intreated for a
Relaxation and had pardoned the Delinquents. The
Governor faid,he was not to afkL the Major any Queftion
about it, that your Petitioner ought to have addreffed
himselff to him; he replied, he thought in applying to
the Commanding Officer of the Regiment, refpe~ing
fuch Matters, he had aaed properly; the Governor
faid no, in refped of the Care of the Settlements, he
himfelf was the only Dire~tor. But, as various
Circumitances, which fall out at different Times, are
not eafily conneaed and ambiguous, meanings difin-
velop, your Petitioner is obliged to make his Rela-
tion with the utmoft Plainnels pf Style, for Perfpicuity's
Sake, and reafon from Faats to Caules, in the Courfe
as they happened. In three Governments in America,
(w~beck, We}J and Eaji Floridia, a 3Difpute arole between
the refpedtive Governors and the Commanding Officers
of the Forces at each Place, as to the Power of giving
the Word of Command. In Eafi-Florida, the Governor
claimed it; Major Ogilvie, the Commanding Officer at

( So )
JAgine~r, pprfred the Right, anld taid that thete Palarts
auft not be given up, but that, the Governor rad him-
felf, had been in -Friendfhip in the Expedition to the
Havassa, he did not defire to quarre with him.
If he liked the Feather, he might have it, till a Deter,
mination of the Queltion might be had from the Gene-
ral Commanding Oflicer (General Gagw) to whom he
would fend. The Anlwer from General Gags gave It
-in Favour of Major Qgilwis. He cannot aftign any other
Reason, but a kind of Reverfal of this Order, unless,
as Protector of Settlers, it might be that of throwing
the Blame on your Petitioner, for Pardoning and re-
vedirng his Pardon, and to raiife an Odium and Hatred
in the common Soldiery again&) him, which appeared in
a Refusal, for fome Time, to let himr In at the Gat~e of
the Foritifcation, called Meorfe, one Evening juAt after
the Gate was thatt, but which is dfual to all People at
any Time of the Night s fr without Leave the Poma~sd
Fortification on that Sids of the Town admits in many
Places a Hodte to pale through it, at a Difkance from
thisr Guartd at the Gate.
That, on, Anard the x8th, Philsi, one of the leafons,
sande y our Pe titioner a Viftt of Compliment, with his
Sauaw, or WIiife, and, two Sons well daired; on fame
Converfation he exrpreist fame Aager at a Trading
H~oule beiag e~ablithing at a Place a great Way abows
by one Mrr. Trilfas, and fi~ud due Adrians would not Cuifer it,
which your Petitiewer knew was rather out of Jealady,
for the other Store, whichr waskrept by Mlr. Spa~liaig, whole
Fricad this lIndlian was, however your Petitioner thought
Ait, to sEqulaint the Governer of it by Letter, buxt this
Indianr brought BMr. We e away by Forcer, and obliged
him to depart, after letting him fell the few Things
he had ~thep with him. Ja this Letter hte affo informed
she Governor of his explaining the Plan of Trade, he
purpofed with the Indlerrs, to this Indiae Philkki, which
proved to agreeable as mentioned before. But he alfo
was obliged to mention see Circrsit~ance, that this
Vifit drew Jealonly of the Trading Houle& of M~r.
Spakldng, who wras himself then abfsnt in Georia, but
his Interpreter came down to his Settlement, in Perfuit

( gI )
of Philoki, as a Debtor to his Store, and had dedents it
in order to apply to him. That your Petitioner tup-
pofed, by anl Applicasian for a Licence to keep a Store,
he fbould obtain a Quantity of Land, in Propostion to
the Perfons fettled therein, agreeable to Ihe Pteoeluams-
tion; and that one of the Petitions befers mentioneda
had Reference to the Settlement of fuch Stoem, on the
opposite Side of the River. That the Perfion intended
to be settled thereon would give a perfo~nal Attendance,
when his Ex~cellency was knowvn to have appointed a
Day for Examination. But that he then took the
Liberty of mentioning, that the Report of two Perfeas
jiuf returned from Aagydise, who had waired on his
Tacellency to petition for Land. Meaffrs. Danis, and
$ohnfon, thrat no Perion reiiding with your Petitioner
should ever have any Grants of Lands in this Poorines,.
and that' the Petitionrs fent in, under his Direction to the
Secretary were thrown under the Table; that he re-
~laedi this as a Report only without any real Foundation,
or more than a Non-correfponden~ce with the Grovernortrs
Sentiments and 'Will to ef~ablifh a thorough Settlemast
of the Province: in fame Perfons wholea~ S~tjatin of Eife
should dire&t to a differeatntIoportarsat, and whish,
however it would answer their Ends he knows not, het
migh render his Settlement more difdFic fanglahr,
adtrifling as it is a if continued to a second or third
Adventurer, might dircourage a. greater Number of
more important UJndertakings; after which followed a
RBecapitulation of the Sedu~ion of his Surveyor FPairthild
recited more at large before, b~ut more particularly
mentioning IMr. Juice Greenan's Ajfertion at latt,
that Fairchild the Surveyor's ferving of l;im was
incompatible with the Office of Surveyiag for the
Province, though his Excelleucy had faid othierwife.
That he thought the Advice, Weight, and Authority,
of Fome already eftablifhed in Office, might make Equity
Bow easily to private Individuals, and that Contradts
would be preserved in FaB, though wanting fome ne-
ceffary Forms; reflecting on the Charadter ofa J uftice
of Peace, as holding a Balance between Equity and the
Rigour of the Law. That Colonies have been much

diQurbed by the fainier Arts of Nelghbours, or private
Connellions within it's own. That your Petitioner ex-
pelled it; that he found it at Charles-Towun, as to the
Former ; as to the Latter in the Point of the Cattle.
His Boat loi) perhaps through D~ifappointment in Affi-
davits feared to be made, and fome others, already
troubling his Excellency too much aboat, yet mnuff ferve
for Reffexion and future Advice to himfelf. The above
OmilioHn of the NJame of the Perfobn, through whom the
Lofs of the Boat was occalloned, afforded ample Rea-
fon to the Governlor to take the IMatter up. The moll
minute Affairs in Aagujine, or the Province, were known
to him, and this more worthy of his Regard, than the
affair of t~he Soldiers of Picolata already mentioned. But
it is not to b~e doubted he knew that thi's Blank would
be properly Gilfed with the Name of Mr. Sweetenhlam,
the young Man he: withed well well to, and knew not any
one he should be more ready to promote. fh~e Go-
vernor wrote him an Anfwer dated the *zzft of Mlarch,
in Answer to what he wrote about the lIndian Ph~iloki,
and the Traders I~r. If'ilfn and Mr. Spalding~'s Inter-
preter, wherein he observed as to the Latter, that he
hrad not followed his Infk~rudions, which forbids Traders
giving Credie to any Indian, and his following Philaki
to your Petitioner's Settlement was an Irregularity he
thould inquire into. The Letter mentioned above from
the Secretary to Mr. Spalding the Store-keeper Mr. Dun-
net now feemed to be grounded on this Advice of your
Petitioner as a Reafon for withdrawing the Licence; but
the Terms for keeping the S'tore f~ill by purchafing his
Good s at M r. If1-fn 's, of Augaf ine, had no Reference to
your Peiitioner's Sef't7trlemnt The Governor mentions,
in this Letter, a Will and Defire to grant a Licence for
an in~dian Store to your Pethrionter; but defires him
not to talk to Inlianrs about T'rade, left he thiould coun-
teraQt what the Superintendant had agreed to, on which
muff beg Leave to observe, what your Petitioner had
proposed to the IndiansJ would be, he believes in every
Perfon-'s Opinion juft, and could not counteract an~y
Regulations productive of beneficial Trade, unless the
Interest of the Ram Colonies thould be considered, in

Preference to the Security of Eaf-Floride which the
Sale of that Commodity to the Indians might effe&,
whatever Injuftice there might be in the Introdualion
of it, to the Dei~ruaion of their Race. The Gover-
nor mentions a~lf, that a Licence to a Trader does
not preclude him from being a Settler, but does not
Intitle him to a TraB of Land near the Store; the
Liicence is annual; permanent Property upon that Ac-
count would be inconfiffent. This refers to his afkring
for Land, with the Store; but which he mentioned as
the Proportion affigned in the Proclamation of fifty
Acres per Head, to thofe Perfons fettled at the Store.
This seemed to be only as a kind of Denial of the NeteT-
faries of Liife to foch Perfons as your Petitioner should
fekttle there, and which, as Corn and Rice, are Articles
of Sale, or Gift to the Intlansn at all Stores it f~eems
as if Land was a neceffary Appendage. In Antwer to
the Report mentioned, in his laft Letter, of the Petiti-
ons from Perfons at his Settlement having been thrown
under the Table, and none would be regarded, the
Governor adrwers, I do not confult a Mr. Johnf/on, or
a IMr. Dakis, about the Plan of Settlement of this
Province s pray do not give Attention to tuch idle Re-
ports; in which his Erc~ellency does not deny the Fa&.
~The People at M~ount Pleafa~nt, he continues, as I have
told you, I can only conrtder as Settlers upon your
Eftate, when you ftx upon at ; other wife you may believe
I should not permit them to fettle upon Crown Lands,
without making Application to me; for you know
well, if that was not the Cafe, that I fbould be obliged
to dire the Attorney General to protecute them for a
Trefpafs ag~ainit the Crown, as they have taken Pof-
felflion of Crown Lands, without asking my Content s
that, in Refpea of your Petitioner's Surveyor Fairchild
he wit~hed him to fettle with me; it was not decent
for him to go greater Lengths. If your Petitioner had
been ill dfed mn an Bargzlm, the Law of Englanzd was
open. That he edlu leave it to the Juffices of Peace
to dle their Power to afER young Coloniffs; for pe-
culiar Circumf~ances, where Points of Law are con-
crned, it was not in his Power to fubftitute, to excure
C hira

( 34 )
him fromn entering further into thofe Particulars, unlet
your Petitioner entered a regular Complaint aganint
any particular Perfon, for not executing his Office,
then the affair would come properly before him.* Here-
on your Petitioner mull beg leave to remark, that his
mentiomang the Report of his Petitions being throw
under the Table came from the two Perfons named,
who were returned at that Inftant, from the Secre-
tary's Office, if not the Council-Board; buft your Pe-
titioner mentioned it as a Report that could come from
Underlings in Office only, who wished ill to his Co-
lony; but fuch Givings-out might be prejudicial. If
there were People came to his Settlement for Security,
and, in tfopes of Conveniencies for Education of their
Children, and other Benefits, might be induced to
refide at his Town, Village, or whatever Name it
may be called by ; yet, as for Land for Cultivation,
fuch as he might be inclined to grant, they might not
chule, or could m~eet with fome as convenient and
,nearer on the othat Side of the River, and without
the Ltimits of his Grant. Your Petitioner could not
think that their Poffdironn of a Plot of Land, three Perch
in Breadth, and twelve in Depth, the Size of the Town
Lots, as at present taken up, or if they should alfo
cultivate the five Acres Lots laid out without the
Town, with any Manner of Reafon, could preclnde
them from his MajeRy's Offer of one hundred Acres
for themselves, and fifty for each of their Family.
If they had accepted of the IKing's Grant of the fame,
firft of all, your Petitioner is pretty well persuaded
there could be nothing contained in his Majeity's In-
itructions to prevent their poffelirng other Lands of
private Perfons, either by Purctrate or othmrwife; he is
certain that fuch Coni~ruction mui) militate with the
Plan of settling the Colony with Whites, the express
Condition of the Royal Orders for Grants; for, as the
Governor fald, no Perfon would flay at your Petition-
er's Town, any longer than he fed him; and the
Offers to Settlers, in his Proclamation, mauft contend
* The Petitioner's reason for not making [nch Complaint,
See above,

with his fettllaig ih that Part of the Province. His
F-orming a Town without any Inhabitants was ufelers,
for he could not grant Land with greater Conveniencies
and Privileges than his Proclamation offered. Thus far,
or in foch Lights, it is true ; for twenty thodfand
Acres are granted to a Perfon bringing four hundred
~Negroes, and, perhaps at several different Times, he
poffeffes him felf of as many federal Tracts of Land;
by their being run out in fmaller Portions, contain,
altogether good Land, with little or no Addition of
bad Land, and, in three Year's Time, may fell the
Stock of Negroes, poff'elfed irrevocably of the Land,
and may, or may not, cultivate the lea8 Part of it,
and leave what he did clear worfe than he found it,
as the Weeds and Quick-wood immediately furcceeding
would foon render it more difficult to clear, than
old freth Land; the other receiving a Grant in one
contiguous Plot of twenty thousand Acres, perhaps, a
twelfth, or a tenthr Part good, the Refidue, what is
called Pine-Barren, or the moff indifferent Land, he
muft equally, with the Negro Settler, pay forty-one
Pounds thirteen Shillings and four Pence, a Year, Quit
Rent, or one Half-penny an Acre; he muff convey his
two-hundred white Settlers, and f~er them down to
Cultivation, at a far greater Expence than the other i
and muff lore his intire Property in there Settlers at
the End of the Term agreed for, which is usually
four Years. If they flay, he lets them his L~and, at
What Q~uit Rent the Governor tells him, not at To low
a Rent as he will, agreeable to his Proclamatin, an
Half-penny an Acre; therefore, no Perfons will fettle
with him. This appears to be almoff unanswerable;
but the Contrary did appear, in a fmall Degree, at your
Petitioner's Settlement, maugre all Oppofition and
Obfiru~ions; in a greater it would have appeared, had
not peculiar Contrivanes, which his Excellency feems to
think him too presuming to expcA, might be formed for
the Prote~tion and Encouragement of the Settler, feeni
to be fet in Battle Array against your Pecrtioner.
That his Excellency, not contradicting -the Report
mentioned, but defiring him not to mind fuch idle Re-
C 2 port s,

ports, your Petitioner was extremelp obliged to him for
the Intimation. He did obferve this Refolution, he fet
out. with It from England, not to let the Spirit fink,
by permitting the Contradiaion of others to grate on the
Mind ; it will, if given Way to, in a hot Climate, your
Petitioner knows, enervate the Alan in a thort face
of Time, and thakte the Frame to Pieces; Labour of
the Body will prevent this Labour of the Mind, and
preferve both for the Ufe of the State. Your Petiri-
oner can plead Excuie for this feeming Digrei~ion, only
by alledging it, as an Offer for Information to thofe
who may undertake Expeditions of this Kind in warm
Climates, how much depends on the preserving in all,
under their Care, the Chearfulnels of Temper, and
Equality of Mind. He does not doubt, if he the Adven-
turer, on his Majedty' Permiison to fettle, had chole to
have difpruted the several Points of Obitrudtions to his
Settlement, he might eafily have embroiled himfelf with
half the People eitablithed by his MClajeity, for the Pro~-
tection and Defence of the Colony i but, as the Gen-
tlemen of fome Part of YorAybirs, who were greatly
diflurbed in the peaceable PofediTon of their Lands and
Game by a certain Major, who provided Dainties at
his Table for two Ladies of Luxury in different Parts
of England, wherein he pleafed to place them, were
idiigated by bne another to challenge this Gentleman
of the Sword, at whofe Point they were to be kept
from even viewing their Demelnes, like Pri~foners io
their own Houles, when one Gentleman, more pm.~
dent and of juit Reafoning, at fome General Public
Meeting faid, that, as that G~entleman was intended
by his Majefty to defend and faght, not with his
Subjects, but for them, it was no Dilihonour in any
Perfon to omit the Challenge, and to join in the Pro-~
pofal he then made of an humble Reprelentation to
the Secretary of State, to interest himself in obtaining
an Order of Removal for that Gentleman from thoer
Quarters, as a Public Nufance; which they all rea-
dily joined in, and he was ordered, he believes, to join
his Regiment in Ireland. Your Petitioner has the f'ame
kind of Reafoning with himfelf, as to the Point of
Honour ;

Honour; and doubts not of his Majdly's Protection of
thofe he pleafes to grant Lands to, and who support
a Settlement at a great Expence, on the Plan he di-
r~edis in his Order of Grants to be followed. As to
what the Governor refers him to, the Law and the
Juffices, and a regular Complaint against the Execu-
tors of it ; he law to little good Effct from the humble
Remonfirances, To little Obedience to his Excellncy's
Opinion, as communicated to him, and having the
fame Complaints from other Parts, and for the Reafons
before mentioned, he thought~ it more prudent to make
aill poflible Provilion iagaint thee Misfortunes within his
own Settlement, as far as the Nature of his own Pow-
er permitted; and to defer his Reprelentations of thofe
Matters till his Return to England, which he medita-
ted on daily ; but was Htill defirous of flaying to locate
the Grant of Land. TJhe Governor on one Side pref-
fing him to a haky Determination, though he did not to
others already f~et down on Lands, equally with your
Petitioner, on Sufferance only; and as yet no Agree-
ment had been made with the Indlians, or likely to be
foon for the Permillionalf getting any Land ; he imagi-
ped, if he couldhsave any Affurance, not extraordina-
ry Indulgence of the Time, to procure Opinion
of Government at Home on his Reprofentations, he
might fet out and return again, before the Treaty with
the Indanrs. But he could neither venture to go, and
his Stay proved not long enough at laft to locate the
Lan~d with Propriety, being continually obftruited on
every Propolal.
That, on April the 2oth, he fent a Letter to the
Governor, which he mentions in his Anfwer of the
23d, wherein he inclofed a Lift of the Grants of Land,
made by Mr. Boone, Governor of South-Caro~fna, of
eighty-three thousand one hundred andl fifty Acres, Part
of which was on the Alastamraha, the former South
Boundary of Geor~gia;i Part on St. IMay'sr River; the
present Boundary of Georvgia ; Part on what was
agreed between General Ogletborpe and the Governor of
C 3 S t.
* See the Indulgence to Col. Middleton, ( ) of three
Months Confideration.

St. Augufljine to be effeemed Neutral-- on the Iflands
of Anelia and Talbot. But alfo three thousand Acres, one
hundred Aliles up from the Mouth of S t. 'fohn's River.
Suppofe twenty 11iles more South than St. AuguJ~ine, in
the very Heart of the Province of Eaf1-Florida, ceded
by the Spaniards, on a Prefumption that King Charles
the Ifd's Charter of South Carolina could extend to the
Deprivation of all Inhabitants, as far as the Latitude of
29 Degrees, which included St. AuguJfine, Penf/acola,
1Mobile, Newu Orleans, & c.
That your Petitioner had this Plot furveyed by his Sur-
veyor, and which Draught he had chewed to the Gove rnor,
and related that as an eligible Spot for him, if the Indrans
would permit a Settlement on that Side of the River;
that, if not, he muit chule another Spot, as mentioned
before. In the Governo~r's Anfwer concerning this Grant
to Colonel 1Middleton, he Caid he had not underitood that
any of the Gran~ts in EaJ2-filorida Province had been com-
pleted, in Confequencse of Governor Boone's Grants, till
lately M~r. MidJdleton's, to whom thofe three thousand
Acres oppofite to your Petitioner's Settlement had
been granted by Govern~or Boonfe, fent to their Corre-
[pondtents, to request the G~overnor to have the Grants
recorded in the Regifter-Offce, in Eaf-Florida ; they
are very relponfible People, and would make good Sett.
lers; his Anfwer to this Requeit was pretty nearly as
follows, that this Province had been formed out of a
Part of the Country ceded to his Majefty by the late
Definitive Treaty s that he was the firi oeno i
Majefly had appointed, and that he could admit of no
Grants, but f~uch as had paffe~d under the G~eneral Seal
of this Province ; that the Validity of a Deed under
the Gfeneral Seal of South-Carolina muRt be considered
before it could be recorded in the Offices here; but
that, upon personal Application to him in Council, if
thore Gentlemen complied with the Terms of his Pro-
clantation, as the L~ands had not already been granted
by him, all Difficulties might be removed, as they should
get a Gr-ant of the Land they claimed; and, that they
might have Timne to consider of it, he would not

( 39 )
give away thofe Lands to any body for three Months.
If Mlr. Enlliot applied to him before the Lands of Anelia
Bl~and are granted away, he hall give him the fame
Anfwyer; but it is the Bufinels of Gentlemen who have
obtained fiuch Grants to inform him of it, for he is
fulppofed to know nothing of them till Application is
made to him ; he then mentioned an Initru~tion of
a Survey of St. John's River foon, but has not hap-
pened unless very lately ; preffes your Petitioner again
to locate his Land, for fear he should grant away
Land he might like. Your Petitioner's Letter of the
25th of April, takes Notice that this Letter of the Go-
vernor's, as well as the former Reafonings on the L~o-
cating of his Grant all together in a conneaed View,
rendered a greater Difficulty in his declaring his Sen-
timents, alledging there seemed to be full T'ime, before
there was a Likelihood of an Indian Congrefs, for him
to have the Opinion of Government at Home. The
Land on the oppofite Side of the River had not now
at this Time the Obje~ion of the Indians; indeed your
Petitioner believed he could have had it of them, if
no Land had been granted by any Congrefs; his Friend-
thip with them made him quite eafyr, though the two
Irrdians Traders were at that very Time drove from
their Stores, the fatal Effe s of felling Rum!i and which
obliges his Neighbour Mr. Spalding, to lie aboard his
Boat in the River every Night, while the Rum lafts,
for fear of being murdered ; and alfo now the Indian,
whole Name was Chuckle, mentioned before, was fup-
p~ofed to be murdered at Augu/iine, which made the
Governor fear Mitchief would enfue, who f~ent to the
~Indians at Latchaway, to express his Inclination to ufe
his belt Endeavours to find out the Murderer, though
the I~ndian appeared again afterwards; it being a Con-
trivance he had to occallon a Sufpicion of a Quarrel
and Murder it was fuppofed. But your Petitioner
thought himfelf n~everthele~ls quite secure in their Good.
will, and Promiife of Information on any the leaft
Danger or Intention of Harm. He herein expreifed his
utmoft Defire to make a Settlement, agreeable to the
C 4 Intere~ts
*See. above

( 4PO )
Interefts of the Mother Kingdom; recapitulated, in a
thort Mannaer, the different Sentiments exprefTbd there,
on, and the Oppolition he received from unexpected
Hands, though Didiculties and Oppolitions in Intereits
he in fome Meature had expedted.
That on the Eaft Side of the River he refided on,
would be eligible only on Account of Health, the other
Side for better Land; and the Indi'an Friendfhip would
now permit it, requefied the Governor's explicit Opini-
on as to Right of Pre-ele~ion, in himf~elf, of fach Spot
on the W~eif Side, should the Grant of~fovernor Boone
be invalid; or, if valid, of Admifiron to the f~ole Pro-
perty of a Ferriage, the Indians paffing free with Con-
venience and a Store for the Indians on that Side, cl-
teemed before by the Governor improper on this
inhabited Side; and whether two other eligible Spots
be had in View might remain ungranted, till he might,
by Representation at Home to the Lords of Trade,
obtain a differetst Arrangement the Governor had
intimated it not to be within the Limits of the Com-
million, may be yet thought proper by their Lordibips
to recommend to his Majefly, to facilitate the ex-
penrive Attempts though he hoped not illaudable, of
your Petitioner.
That the two eligible Spots, two lilands, and fome
main Land, are not efteemed by the Governor a conti.
guous Plot. Thatc, on April 26th, the Grovernor's Let-
ter expreffes a Difbelief of any Perfon's wishing your
Petitioner ill, and should have a bad Opinion of fuch,
if any. It was his Duty to facilitate his Settlement,
but he faid your Petitioner had given him no Reafon,
why he did not go annd fettle at St. Mart's, according
to his firft Intention, hinting rather a D~iffatisfadtion at
his not running out his Land, as he had a Surveyor fent
over in FebruaryL, and was in no Apprehenflon of giving
Offence to the Indians an running out his Land, though
above the Fort Picolato, as he was already fettled there.
If he had propofed fixing on that Spot of Land which
had been granted by Governor Boons to Mr. Middlton,
your Petitioner, th~ould have told him fo, he faid it
was mentioned as an extra Settlement, which he could

( 41
not grant. If he had proposed a Survey of that LandC,
before the Carolinao Grant had been laid before him, his
Answer to Mr. Af~iddleton's Agent would have been
different, but that he could not recall what he had
[aid. As to the Grant of the Governor of South.
Carolina, difpofing of the Trsads of Land mentioned
above, it was upon a firange Suppofition, that the
Right of the Governor feems to be founded. That
King Charles the Ild's Charter of Carolina extended to the
Latitude ofz 2Degrees, by which St. AuguJ~ine, St. Mart's,
Penfacola, and New Orleans were included : Any grant of
Land, at this Place, muff be of Land ceded by the Spa.
-srards, if any Thing was in their Poffeflion, wthatever
might be laid of the Lands, eighty-three thousand one
hundred and fifty Acres, the Governor of Carolina, had
granted on or near St. iMaryr's River, and the River
Adlatamaha, which your Petitioner thinks were agreed to
be neutral, between General Oglethorpe, and the Gover~-
Jtor of St. Augufine, at that Time. The Governor con-
tinues to fay, that a Place would be reserved for a Fort, at
the Narrows~, that is, at his Settlement; a ]Leafe of the
Ferry he might have the Refufal of; a Licence for an
Indian Store he might have at any Time, but, the Mo-
ment Inhabitants were fixed upon it, the Store would
of Course be removed to another Place, none being
permitted in an inhabited Country As to the two
Plots of Land defired to be reserved, he knew lthe Terms
in the King's Order for a Grant, before he left Londbn ;
then was the Time to objedt, he had had a long Time
to search for Land, and no fuch Spots could be referved
on a Suppofition of an Alteration; he added, no Perfoa
could come with a greater Advantage of locating his
Grant, than your Petitioner did; as to Obitruaions to
his Settlement a Perfon of his Excellency's good Intelli-
gence, could not want Information from your Petitioner.
Every minute trifling Circumiftance he found on federal
Occallons the Governor knew. When he had a Surveyor
he had a Plan, and thewed it to the Governor in De.
reaktr, of that Plot of Land oppofite to the Place of his
Residence, and mentioned the Cmarlina Grant, which
he had heard of, and chewed an Inclination to that Plot
of Land all aong 3 but the Misfortune was, that every

Propofal for any Plot, no Matter what or where, was
certain to receive fome Objeaion. This certainly dal-
lied Time away, not through his Fault, till others might
come to take any good Land away from him, as it
happened afterward. At this Time a different Anfwer
would have been given to Colonel M~iddleton, had it
been known before-hand *. Surely, the little Knowledge
of the Country near St. 1Mark's, the Conference not
yet held with the Indians, through which Country, for
two hundred and forty Miles, he was to pars, and no
Person had paffed it as yet, were sufficient Motives to
a humane Governor to have prevented his attempting
to go, with ten People, to be scalped, had it not en-
tered into your Petitioner's unexperienced Head. The
Fort is held out as a Bugbear, to prevent his Continui
ance even at the Narrows, where little good Land ad-
jpins. As to the two Plots, it had been plainer propo-
fed by him as an Ifland, and a Part of the Main; which
was answered could not be a Contiguous Plot, accord-
ing to the King's Initruaions; and your Petitioner has
lately been told by a Lawyer, this is one of the more
nice Species of Refinement. He could not conceive
of Weight, but, with a previously itiff determined M~ind.
Your Petitioner did not presume to make Comments on
his Majeity's Order, he accepted it without Inter-
pretation, and would try the Experiment in Perfon
If ConaruAlons are foreign to the Meaning of his
Majeity's Order, or any Thing, by Experiment, is found
injurious to the more beneficial Settler with Whites,
he doubted not of Relief, could he have had Time to
seprefent it, and no Injury done to his Settlement in
the mean Time. The Leafe of the Ferry he defired,
to oblige the Indians, which he feared others might
not, was the fole Motive of his Requeft~ h ut for a
valuable Confideration he might purchase other Things
more valuable in Income he fuppofed. The Store was
to be granted and foon revoked. He fees no Obje~tion,
if proper Direaions are given, and observed, the more
intimate the Indians and Wrhites are, the better.
This was known before, as appears, juft above, by
the Petitioner's thewing to the Governor a Survey of this
Land made by his own Surveyor.

( 43)
That your Petitioner wrote a Letter to the Go-
vernor previously to his going to England, as intended
in the firit Week in iMay; wherein he recites again
the prior Petition of Colonel Middleton, by an Agent or
Proxy, not permitted to your Petitioner, or any Perfon in
any wife belonging to him; but, his Application had
been personal, he had ibewn a Map run out by his
own Surveyor, before he was deprived of him, by being
reduced away, of this fame Tra61 of Land. That his
Excellency had declared his Intention of not receiving
of Petitions, for any Land above Pioleta, till after the
Indian Treaty; therefore, his Delay fruftrated no At-
tempts of others to fettle : The Petition for Part of
that Land, by a Perfon he had intended Settling at an
Indian Store, was prior alfo to Colonel Middleton ; and,
if it wanted the Form of a personal Attendance, it was
owing to the wrong Information at the Secretary's
Office, where his Surveyor inquired for the Form and
Method, and was intended only to fave Expence in
Attendance; for he could not think, that his Excel-
lency created an Obligation on the Settlers, by enhance-
ing their Expence of Attendance, to support the Taverns
at Arugufine. He, on this Account, intended going imn-
mediately for England, but, left that Fome Land should
be granted to Colonel Middleton, in Preference to him-
felf, or any other Perfon, hearing your Petitioner had
viewed fuch or fuch a Spot of Land, may make Ap-
plication for a fmall Slip of Land in the Middle, to the
Depriving him of Land agreeable in Contiguity, as re-
quired by his Majefly's Permit. If he can have no other
Election but a f~econd after Colonel M~~lidleton, then that
he muff fix on a Piece of Land, difpoled in a Neck on
this Side of the River, as Colonel M~iddleton's is to
termed on the other, (which is altogether Swamp) by
a prudent Line of Dire~tion ; though, if your Petitioner
included it in his, he should have mixed much Pine-Bar-
ren, and, according to one Plan, should have paid for
near two thoufand Acres of Water in his Quit Rent; he
thought it not quite a dishonourable Propofal to make
to his Excellency, not an Injury to other Settlers, or the
Interest of the Province. He objected to the fending

( 44 )
the Perfon, who had been Surveyor in his own Service,
as a Surveyor for the Province, for Reafons too obvious
to mention to a Perfon of Honour ; but, if another was
fent, Mr. Lloyd, his Agent, would thew him his rough
Draughts, done by himself, through Neceility, fince he
was deprived of his own Surveyor, for eafier Comprec
henflon how to run the Land.
That your Petitioner was forry, that he had related
to the Cowkeeper, one of the Indian Chiefs, as he men-
tioned before, that he believed no CaRtles would be
built on the River, as he found now it was different
from the Intention of his Excellency's Meaning, the
Reservation of a Spot to build a Ca~tle on his Settle-
ment; which, whenever executed, he should certainly
fow no Corn, &c. within the baleful Influence of fuch
a Fort, leit he might hide the Enemy from the Sight
of the Garrifon; but, as for Colonel 1Midd~eton's Rice
Plantation, on the other Side, though within Gun-Shot,
it would not be of fuch Prejudice, as Rice would fearce
hide an Enemy. As for the Place where his Village
was, being the narrowedt and belt adapted Place for the
Fort, it was equally as well a Mile below, where it
was one Chain narrower ; and, above nine Miles above,
there is a Place, that f~eemed to him not above a Stone's
'Throw over.
That, on May the 9th, two Gentlemen of Carolina,
Mr. Kinlauigh and Mlr. Afoultrie, both considerable Plan-
ters in that Province, arrived at his Settlement, and
brought him a Letter from the Governor, dated May
the 7th, to inform him, that thee Gentlemen came to
petition for Land, and fix upon the Locality of the
fame; that he could not grant them any, till after the
Limits might be settled by an Indian Treaty; but that
f~uch Land as they should chufe should not be granted
away to any other Perfon, till they, or their Friends,
came into the Province to eftabifh their Settlement in
the Autumn after the Congrefs is over *; preffes him to
Eix on his Lot, as their Choice would become prior to
his otherwise, and irreverfbly fo, and that there Gen.
tlemen would fix on federal Spots before they returned;
It appears the Governor gives Indulgence to all others.

( 45 )
which they accordingly did, on two Spots only, very
near your Petitioner's Houle and Village, one of which
was within the Survey chewed to the Governor. He
always, he fays, expreffed a DeFere to accommodate your
Petitioner to his Satisfaaion, as far as lay in his Powcer i
and thought it expedient to put him on his Guard.
The Poftf'cript informs him, that he had received an
Exprets from St. Mark's, and fent him an Extraa of a
Letter from the Commander there; Mr. Pompillione,
wherein was an Account of a Veffel, a Brigantine, with
Settlers for his Plantation, which had attempted to come
into St. 1Mark's, but had failed, and had put into Pen/a-
cola, From whence an Exprels had been rent to l~r. Pom-
pillione, at St. Mark's, with the Letter from the Captain
to him.
That your Petitioner was now to be hurried into the
Fixing of his Plot of L~and ; he entertained there Gen-
tlemen with all RefpcEa, as well as his Situation per-
mitted; and acquainted them, that he had not really
determined about the Running out of his Land, as he
had had many Propofals rejeAed by the Governor, and
Difficulties flill occurred; but chewing them the Plans,
as drawn by that indifferent Surveyor, himfelf, be-
ing obliged to do fo as he was deprived of him he had
hired into his Service, by the Seduaion of others ; and
intimated he should ftli flick to the Spot they faw him
on; which he fuppoled would not interfere with their
Choice, as they were going far up the River; and men-
tioned, that the Proportion of his Lot, would be nearly
three Miles and a Quarter in Breadth, and nine Miles
and three Quarters in Length, which he would get run
as foon as he could procure a Surveyor to come to him.
This he then thought ratisfaatory to them, anid, for him-
felf, consulted with his Agent, and made out Direafions
to him, for Information to the Surveyor in his Ablence,
as he now was obliged to put off his going to England,
and determine to haften to the Aflifiance at his Settlers
from England at Pen/aola, left his Letters of Advice
where he was had not reached them. This was a
Journey of N~ecefiity, though dangerous, being the firft
undertaken by the present White Inhabitants of Ea/l,
Florida ,

( 46 )
1%brida, not of late Years ventured on by the late Pof-
f'effors of St. Augufi~ine, the Spaniards. It was not a Care
ofNeceffity, when the Governor would have had him
undertaken it on his firf) Arrival, and before he became
acquainted with the Indians or the Governor himfelf
had had a Congrefs with them, but which latter Security
he flill had not.
That he prepared however immediately to go to St.
Afark's across Land; one of his Servants would go with
him, though your Petitioner had determined to run
the Rifk alone, without engaging any other of his
People. He let out juff as it was dark in the Evening
rof May, the zoth, and went up in his Canoe to the
Indian Trading-Houfe about eight Miles up the River,
where he repofed himself on the Bank of the River
till the Morning, when he found the two Carolina Gen-
dlerenn juft getting out for a further Search higher up the
River, and proposed to go over the Great Lake which
is about thirty Miles further up from your Petitioner's
Settlement, and is twenty Miles in Length, and ten in
Breadth; nothing transpired from them of any Choice
near him at that Time, neither did they mention it to
his Agent, on their Return to his Settlement, when they
were entertained by him in his Ablence, but on his
proceeding as herein aftermentioned down the River
for Georgia and England, he met one Mr. Gvry, who was
a Perfon in Company with thofe two Gentlemen when
they went up the River; and he acquainted him that
they proceeded no further than the Great Lake, did
not go over it, but returned back, and had made Choice
(Mr. Adoaultrie) of three thoufand Acres on the South-,
Weft fide of Dunn's Creek, the M~outh of which dif.
charges a Lake, formed about fix Miles above, to the
South-Eaft into St. rohn's River, nearly about four
Miles higher up the fame from your Petitioner's Town
or Village; and that Mr. Kinlaugh had chole the fame
Quantity of Land on the North-Eaft Side of the fame
Creek, and that the Governor had promised themn
Grants of the f~ame~. As a Plot of three thoufand Acres
mnuff be, according to the Rules of running out Land,
three Miles and three Quarters in Length, and one

( 47 )
Mile and a Quarter in Breadth, the Breadth muff reach
within three Miles of the Middle of your Petitioner's
Town, which, as the Breadth of his Land was known
to be three Miles and a Quarter in Breadth, and nine
IVMiles and three Quarters in Length, might, in either
Method of running the fame, interfere. It seemed to
be a Breach of Hoifpitality he thought in thofe Gen-
tiemen in the Silence upon fuch a Choice fo near him,
if it did not approach to what the Gentlemen Racers
call 'focke~yfhip. It was then too late to make a personal
Appeal to the Governor; he could only fend a written
Remonfirance, which he did by the Return of his Boat
from Georgia, and ordered his Agent to do A~s of
Ownership on that Land, to diftinguifh his Choice. He
muft in this Place remark, that both of the Gentlemens'
Lots will have Side L~ines run on a Creek as called fe,
but is really a deep River navigable for large Schooners,
as well as their End Lines on the River, and perhaps the
other End on the Lake above; that the faid Plot of
Mr. Kinlaugh's will contain about fix hundred and fifty
Acres of good i'wamp and marfh Land out of three
thousand, when even your Petitioner's twenty thouf~and
run in the mo& beneficial Manner, though not admitt-
ed by the Grovernor, will contain but one thousand eight
hundred and thirty Acres of good Land, of which the
fix hundred and fifty Acres in M~r. Kinlaugh's Lot is a
Part and the Relidue eighteen thousand one hundred and
seventy is Pine-Barren, or indifferent L~and. Mr. Grey
alfo informed him that his Family had pitched on a Piec~e
of Land below him, on the other Side of the River.
This was a Place he once had Hopes that he might
have had Liberty of placing a Mill at, there being a
Stream of Water with fome Fall, to grind the Corn for
his Villagers, and it appeared fince not an inadmillible
Petition, as to one M~r. Davis, who had settled on a
Spot of good Land about seventy Miles below him,
whereon much fine Bay-wood, &rc. grew, which he
had presented the Grovernor with a confiderab~le Spe-
cimen of, where the Governor had permitted him to
run both his Side-line and the Front-line on the great
River, and he thinks about one thoufand Acres as for

( 48 )
himself, and perhaps eighteen Negroes ; and about eight
Miles difiant as he thinks, he told him, promised hint a
Lot fo~r perhaps the Refidue of his Family and Negroes,
whereon he intended a Mill. This Lot alfo, made
Choice of by the Greyg Family, has the chief Part of it's
Side-line on thre River, as well as the End-line.
That your Petitioner now took the Interpreter at the
Store of Mr. Spokiiing, to proceed to the firit Town of
the Indians, about fifty Mliles Difiance, which lay in his
Way thither ; and by the Alliflance of twko Horfles,
walking the chief Part of the Way himself, they arrived
there, the second Day at N~oon, at a Store-Houie kept
by a Dutchman one Mr. B3arnret. Your Petitioner, being
well known himfelf to many of the Indians here, and
the Chiefs being out on the Hiunt, had no Obfiru~ion
to his Paffage; he here engaged the Dutchmran, Barnet,
to condua hitn to St. Matrk's, and the other Interpre-
ter returned to his Store; he here law, at this Town,
the unhappy Effeas of the Rum Trade, which he fore-
boded, and ufed all Precautions againit; one of the
Indiaons, called Neatohbowki, who alfo kept a Shop here,
had procured from Mr. Spalding's Store several Cafks,
which had intoxicated the Inrdians; and this Man who
is a Nephew of the Indian Chief of the Village, the
Cow-keeper had, on an Apprehenflon of being bewitch-
ed, ht the Heait of Liquor devised the Death of an old
'Woman and two Men, one of whom being present he
knockred out his Brains with a Glafs Bottle, andi after-
wards dragged him by the Tail of a Horfe, a Stone's
Throw off from the Huts, into the W~oods, where your
Petitioner faw him in his Walks out, and would have
buried him, could he have procured a proper Tool s
which he might have effketed with Safety, as the Indi-
ans avoid the Sight of fuch Spe~tacles, and are much
afraid of the Spirits of there Viatims sacrificed to
their Paffions ; and had immediately removed their
Huts a Qluarter of a Mile off, and lighted federal Fires
every Night for fome Time. This is the unhappy
EffeB of our Trade with them. Though, in their
Licences, Traders are restrained from felling Rum,
agreeable to the Treaty General Oglethorpe he believes

( 4;9 )
made with them, when the old Men of the Cra6B
Nation requesting the Prohibition of this Commod ity,
adirgned a very fubitantial Reafon, leD their young
Men intoxicated thendelves and breed Qluarrels with
the Great King's People, and occallon War and Blood-
thed. There was another Article in that Trearty, That
of their having fealed Weights and l\&eatures lent up
to each of their Towns ; which, he believes, are not
made Ufe of in any Store ; and almost all the Condi.
tions the Traders are bound to in their Licences which
he has feen, are not observed by them. By this Commo-
anodity of Rum alone, we may be isaid to conquer large
Provinces, but, as Lord Bacon lays, not fettle them;
we difpeople them at the fame Time we are, in Ap*
pearance, flocking the Land with Inhabitants.
That the N3ativres, by their Methods of L~ife, have,
especially in Florida, kept the wild Beafts from encreaf.-
ing ; and, by burning the Woods every Year, have
oc~calioned even a Scarcity of venomous Creatures. This
is a Reafon delivered of old by the Jewifh Lawgiver
for the Non-dtefirudlion of the Canaanites ; and your
Partitioner wishes it may be urged for the Prefervation
of the Creeks, and other Indian Nations bordering on
car own Settlements ; and, as he has alfo had full Proof
of the: beneficial Tr~ade now carried on, and which may
be in~created by thre civilifing of them it is to be
;hoped that Se~Lfnterek mray conduce to the fame End.
Their Seofe of the Utility of the Propofals arifing
fromi disch Sentiments appeared in this fame Murderer
;Viaskoawki, who, was with him juff after the Commit-
ment of the IVurder, arnd fat very friendly with him at
this Aidian Towns anld came twice to his Settlement
with his Skins for Trade ; and, at the latter Time,
pteitd him much to take them, and keep theat till be
had Goods agreealble to his W~ants.
Thbat having engaged Andrew Batrnet, who keeps a
Stose at. shis PlaceJ to go with your Petitioner to St.
Mark's, 3ho a~lfo took an lIndian, as an Alliftant, to
kill fome Game, and as a Maqrk of being friendly with
the Get~s, o~ubit~ he meet with any on the Road be
pmroceed on Journ being five in Company, hi

( so )
own Servant, and a Carpenter, bound to Penfacola, w~ho
defired Liberty to join him for fafe Condult, being the
other two; the second Day he arrived on the Banks of
a River, which runs from the North Southward into
the Bay of Meiceui called there Little Savannah, but, in
fome Maps, he believes, the Carolinian Rivrer. Your Pe-
titioner palled is in a Canoe kept by the Indians, whole
Town he came tohn a Quarter of a Mile off by Land on
the Banks of the fame River, but about a Mile further up
by Water. He alighted at one of the firft Huts; but was
foon after fent for by the head Mran of that Tribe, who
bears the Name of the Wthite King: he went immediate-
ly to his Hut, and found him, with fax or fevenl other
floult Indians, fitting on their Couches ofRepofe. The
Chief enquired of the Reafon of our Journey, and at
firft seemed to objeak to our proceeding farther ; but,
after fome Time, on alledging the Intention was only
to go to St. M~rk's and Penfaol~a, to order a Ship, late-
ly arrived there, to fail round to Sopavranna, in Georgia, he
seemed to fay nothing~ further. Soon after there was fery-
ed up fome Venifon dreffed with Bear's Oil, and a Bowl
of China-Briar-Root Soop; with which your Petitioner
and his Attendants having refrefhed themselves, he re-
tired, to find out a Place for encampmng that Night s
which he did at a finall Space off from the Ind~ans'
Hutts, when your Petitioner difengaged his Horfes
Of the f~ew Necelfaries, and placed them on the Ground
near the Fire. Barnet, the Indian Trader, who, be,
ing jealous of your Petitioner's Intereft with the Indians
in general, would not inform them, though requefied
by him, of his Name, and Place of Refidence, and
fome other Reprefentation he thought neceifary, retired
from him, to drive fome Bargains with the Indians for
his own Benefit, having brought fome little Trifles for
that Purpoie ; but that your Petitioner had proposed
paying for them, and to present them as a Compliment,
but was dilarppoincted therein by the Jealonly of the le*
2ian Trader, who was his only Interpreter. `In the meanr
Time, while the Trader was ablent, the young Indeahr
of the Village came down to his Camp, where only
himself and one Servant passed tbp~ to be rather
rudely inclined, and wanted beepea his lin Parcels of

( 5r )
Cloaths, and faome few Neceffaries that he had there
lying on the Ground, on which your Petitioner was
obliged to exert himfelf in the following Manner : -
He defired them, by figonificanit Motions, to fit down,
and, with a Stick, described on the Sand the River
St. 'fohn's, pointed out the Road to St. AuguJfine, and
the Spot of your Petitioner's Settlement, where the
Grreek Indians he hinted paffed in their Way to that Place,
and, were entertained, which he did by pointing to
the Mouth, by the Squire a Name affxed to General
Oghthorpe formerly, and which was now given to your
Petitioner That fome Way above your Petitioner's
Settlement there lived one Sekiki, an Indian, with two
Squaws, who came to fee him, and were his Friends;
as alfo one Philoki, and his Squaw, and two Sons, the
Long W/tarrior, the Cowkeeper, &c. all the Names of the
Indians he knew, and had been entertained by him at
his Settlement, were all in A~r;dt Friendfhip with him,
which he defcribed by joining his two Hands together,
pointing to his Lips, and then to his Heart ; b ywhiclx
your Petitioner foon found they underflood him, for
they afterwards fat down very quietly, only expreffing
rather Pleafure, and, on the Return of his Interpreter,
found they invited him up to a Dance, which they ure
on the Artival of Strangers, and the whole V~illage
joined in it till about Eleven o'Clock : the Chiefs came
down likewise, and they seemed to be alfo in a very
agreeable Humour, and fet and dilcourfed with the In-
terpireter, but who, iill perfited in not communcicating
any Thing your Petitioner should fay to them ; how-
ever, he converfed by Signs, in the fame IVanner as
abovementioned, with one of the old Inodians, whom your
Petitioner could find understood him pretty well, and
did not doubt infmrmed the Chiefs thereof. -Your Pe-
titioner, the next Day, let out on his Journey to St.
Aford's, where he arrived in four Days, and was received
very poilitely~ by theCommandant, Mr. Lieutenant Pomt-
pillion~, who he found had been To obliging as to forward
a Letter to a JMerchant at ~Puifaola, at his Reqyuell,
which your Positioner had, Arnie Time before, fent to
him; which was foar t$Je "Care of the Settlers expected
from Enland ~lthouald he ut theres ad orderilg them

to come round the Cape to the Settlement on St. John's
River, by the Way of Savalnnahb. On almost a Cer-
tain yt of his Letters fafe Arrival at Penf~cola, alledged
by ML~r. PowrpillioneP, it was not incumbent on your Pe-
titiboner to proceed thither, but to haiten his Return,
to prepare Houfes for the new Inhabitants; he there-
fore, after reading a few Days, and having: been kindly
entertained by the Commandant and Mr. Enfign Haw-
kins, proceeded to a Return. He muB here remade,
that* all what he had ~feared to rifk hisSettlers in would
have happened, ITndians to whom he, at that Time,
would have been unknown, would certainly have ob-
irudied his Paffage St. Mark's, the Place of Settle-
unent a hmall three-cornered Spot of Ground, con-
fined between two Rivers a Fort unfinithed, of
ilo Strength, though fixty Men in Garrifo~nd, b one
B3afion only of, he ppestheinnddben
partly built the Indians~r jealous of the leaft Garden
outfide this purpofed triangular Fortrefs and the Gar-
irifn itfelf, at that Time, in Difirefs for Proviflon,
htaving five Days' Aliloweance for even the little
PrciFpet there was in this Situation, after feren Monthe'
Refidence, will, is Iirefumed, alleviate the heavy Charge
that was to h-ave been transmitted atgaini) him to the
honourable Board of Trade, for an Alteration of Mind
on h presumptive Prudence now evinrced to have been
really well fbulnded. On your Petitioner's Return to
th~e recond Inidia Town mentioned above, on the Bankts
of the Little Savanmnab, he found the Town nearly de-
Terted by the Men, only one or Itwo old Men, wtith the
Women, being: left therein ; they were gone to meet
the Indians of the firit Town, called Latchaway,, to play
at fome Diverflon of the Ball ; but learnt alfo on the
Road another Reafo~n had detained them longer abroad,
which was the unfortunate Commerce of Rum. Dur-
hiig the twelve Days' Ablence from that Place, in his
WVay forwards, the two Prarties had emptied eighteen
Catks of that Liquor at Latchawany. He met several of
See Page ( ) the Petitioner's Objeft~ions to priced.
ing to St. Mark's, mentioned to the Governor on h~is Arti
val, before he could have, or the Governor himdlf had, hn
Opportunity of Council with the Indianrs.

( 53 )
the Savatnnah ~Indians on their Return at different Times,
when he always firft accofted them, though in that
overheated Condition, and met with the kindeit Re-
turn athe W~hite Kinga especially seemed much pleafed.
At Latchlawzay he found the Chiefs, which he did not
fete when he went forward, but were now returned from
their grand Hunt at the Cape they came up to Bar-
nefs Hut, where your Petitioner was fet to repose, to
fee him, and were very fond of dircourfing with him;
but Barnet's Jealoury would not permit a free Conver-
fation. Your Petitioner treated them on Coffee, which
they are fond of, and then feigned a Wearifomenefs,
and Defire of fleeping ; but they preffed him much to
itc up and converfe, but, finding it to no Purpole, at
length lay down to fleep. They afked him to come
and drink Black Drink with them the next Day, which
is a Liquor they make of the Plant Caffeua it is
faid, when they have a Mind to have a 'Talk, as they
call it, on any Affairs; but being acquainted the next
Day, whether true or not it is doubtful, by Barnet, that
the Place where they met was a Mile or more back on
the Road your Petitioner came from St. Maruk's, he
then chole to hasten back to his Settlement, where he
arrived the next Day, quite unexpeaed, after an Ab-
fence of about nineteen Days, wherein he had traversed
about four hundred Miles; but much to the Satif-
fa~ion of your Petitioner, in the Confirmation of his
own Prudence and Forefight, objected to by the Gover-
nor a thorough Convi~ion of the Indian Friendfhip
and in the Enjoyment of the Sight of a moff fertile
and agreeable Country, Part of it the moft perfea na-
tural Garden in his Majefty's Territories, and which
will hereafter, probably, produce the moff beneficial
Return to the Mother Country.
On his Return he found a Deputy Surveyor, whole
Name was Funk, who had been fent over by the Gover-
nor and Surveyor General, and had, the whole Time
of his Ablence, been infpec~ing the Plot of Land he was
upon, and it's N'eighbourhood, and, after the Continu-
ance of a few Days more, fet out with a Plan of the
fame to St. Augujine, to wait on the Governor and Sur-
veyor General with it.

D 3


( 54
The Governor's Letter of the r5th of June notices
the Receipt of two Letters from your Petitioner of the
6th and I3rh. Date: The former relating his Expe-
dition to St. M~alr's, a Queffion about a River called
Calafahithe, and Bay of '~T'apa, and alfo another about
the Indian Tradingo-houles already settled, and Privilege
for one your Petitioner might encourage, concermang
the pernicious Effe~ts of Rum your Petitioner had feen;
-e and the latter Letter, fent by M~r. Funk, relating to
the locating his Grant. The Governor, in this his
Answer to the foregoing Points, fent him a Note ha
'Mr. De Bra~hemn's, the Survevor General's own Hand-
Writing, but did not clear up the Point your Petitio-
ner wished to have had, which might have been useful
to the Government in fome future Time ; but which
Supposition, he muff lay, was not dilclofed in his Quel~-
tion : But the indeterminate Anfwer, as to the Intdian
Stores already licenfed, and of that particularly re-
quefied by your Petitioner, chewed a Caution in the
Governor, and there was feared a Claule: de Re-
ferve against any poFtive Requefi on your Petitioner's
Part ; for the very Thing fought after in your Petitio-
ner's Quefion is rather avoided. As to the Point of
Rum, the Gfovernor reasons in there W~ords : I am
(' much of your Opinion, that Rum is hurtful. It
"L is to be hoped Means will be fallen upon to put a
'C Stop to that very detrimental, I may fay, iniquitous
<' Branch of the Inidian Trade. There have been always
"C my Sentiments; and, when Mr. Sitewart arrives, new
** Regulations hall be made about it; but, till he
"' comes, I do not chule to make any Innovations, for
"E fear of counterading what he may have fettled ; but
"( be afllured I have what you point out, with Regard to
** Rum, very firongly at Heart." That the Plan fene
of Part of St. John's River, where he refided, had been
examined, and your Petitioner's Propofal of running out
his Grant esteemed not agreeable to the King's Initruc-
tions. This Opinion of the Grovernor's was forgot in
a (mall Time afterwards, when several of the lower
Claf~s of Indians (if they might be called fo) had the fatal
Present of Rum, and brought it to his Settlement, as menJ
tioned before, and were as likely as any to break it up

( 55 )
under fuch Circumfiances of Liquor. The Governo
did not mention in his Letters concerning this Delivery
of Rum, though your Petitioner mentioned it in his to
the Governor ; but he heard the Indian Interpreter,
called 1/enor, lay, that the Governo~r had at that Time
anked him whether any Rtum had been given to the
Indians at that Time; he told him that there was, and
by his, the Governor's Order.
The Governor alfo mentions, that the Line of Di-
reaion in Mr. Afiddleton's TraBt, granted by EMr. Boone,
Governor of South-Garolina, was hewn by Mc~r. FunkR, and
that it appeared to, Governor Grant, mo} xcdinglyt
irregular. -~ Mr. Funk, the Surveyor, returned with the
above Letter the 16th or 17th, made further Obler-
vations on the Quality of the Land, and endeavour-
ed to point out the M~ethod how to run it out with Pro-
pnety to the Governor's Opinion, and a competent
Share of good Land for the G~ranttee. June 22d, your
Petitioner went down the River with Mir. Salding~ +, to
look for his Boat coming from Savuannab, freighted with
Provilion and Store Neceffadries, entirely for your Peti-
tioner. Th~e y met it about feventy Miles below, when,
Mir. Spakding finding no Rum freighted for himfelf, only
two Caflks of one hundred and ten Gallons each, being
entirely for your Petitioner, knowing your Petitioner
would not part with any to him, for Trade with the In-
dians he took the Boat they came in, and went diown
to purchase a Calk of Rum of a Perlfon who kept a Store
fome Miles below. Your Petitioner, in proceedingr
back in a fmall Canoe after the large Boat freigohted for
his Settlement, which wals ailed fomne Way before,
having two mall Lads with him, he was that at by two
different Perfons, be believes. He called, on the firit
Shot, to the Perfon that fired, thinking it might be a
;8naSignal for Want of something ; but on Recolle~tion,
lfitmight be fome Pedfon fled from Augufline for
fomte Mildemeanour, and wanted a Boat to pafs the
River, and go off to I~ef-Florida, he thought it pmu-
dent to keep on, as he had only two fmall Lads
with him to defend the Boat if there should be an
D 4 A K ul t
Keeper of the Indianf Store.

( 56 )
All'aut on their going afhiore ; but on the i'econd Shot
one of the L~adS heard the Ball in the Air, and faw the
Bullet fall in the Water about ten Yards beyond the
Boat, but which had paff~ed but five Yards thort of it's
Stern.--The Remark worthy on this Point is the Dan-
g~er of rifled-barrel Guns falling into the Hands of the
Indians, this being about a Furlong Difiance, as was
f~uppofed ; and a white Hunter, who was at hi's Settle-
Inent, told youlr Petitioner he could make rure of a large
ObjeA at Reft at that Diftance with Foch a Gun. T
Aidians are to very expert with the common flirming-
ham Guns; and Wh~ites may kill their Game with the
better common Sort. That your Petitioner, as before-
mentioned, left it as a Queffion to the G~overnor,
whether a Prohibition of thfofle rilfed-bartel Guns in
Whites' Hands might not be a prudent Caut~ion, to pre-
vent their getting into In~dian Poffeffion. There Shot
came, as beforementioned, from iome of a Party whereof
your Petitioner's former Hunter was one s but were in-
tended only as Signals to a Boat they expe~ed with Runx
for their Ufe in the Hunt, and not deftgned at your Pe-
titioner, as he was not known to have been in that
Part of the River.
On the Arrival of this Boat at your Petitioner's Sete
tiement, and alfo Mr. Spalding, who overtook, and ar-
rived with your Petitioner, many In~ians appeared ~in
waiting, expecting his Return for Rum, and alfo your
Petitioner's Ship from England, which they fuppofed
would produce Rarities for their Trade. On this was
(hewn a great Inflance of their good Inclination to-
wards your Petitioner. They faw the two Cafks of one
bunhred and ten Gallons of Rum landed, and knew it to
be fuch, of which they were to have none they alfo knew
by the Rules he had preferibed. The Trader had but
a mall Cafk with him, too little for the Wants of To
many. T'he Indians, though disappointed in your Pe-
titioner's Veffel not being arrived from~ England, yet re-
ceived his recall Enter~tainment, and a little Riecruit of
Corn, with SatisfaAtioh.--The Trader, angry at a View
of the Temper of the Indians towards your Petitioner,
[aid, heF muft remove his Store from this Neighbour-

( 57 )
hood, and imprudently, if not by Def gi, theigebd te
Aidians wkith having fatren one of their Rafes~a born p
gu/iinie, which they might then here tuken for on Intfbt.
matron ftom your Petitionery and after he w~ent tapi with
them to his Store, to dfiffribute his Ram, there ebme a
Report osf their Intention .to stack your P~etiiationra
Sefttement for his Rum. LEeft the 'Power ofthe Store.
keeper's Ruml, tand a little Inlfgation ftomn the Je~alouiry
of the Storekeeper of a Prefbrence to your Petitioner,
might engage the poor Atdiarr under futch fluenCe is
to unhappy an Expediti~on, yorur Pertitiner, cion~rittrly
watchful over his Settlers against M~athinations on all1
Sides, on this Account he buried his Ram-Calks, ec.
after his Settlers were retired to Steep, kept two or
three Fires lighted thefefidue of the Night,and attend-
ed them himself, to convine the }Wfdhian~s,f IF amny n
with bad Intentions, that the Settlement was on itsr
GCuard, which continued for a W~eek, till the Fire of
the Storekeeper's Rum was rpent, he feated no longer,
and, indeed, ufed it only as a nreceiffry Canddar, not
as in Fear of an Attack. The other Cirermnitnes
mentioned befbre, chewed it leait to be feared from the
poor Ad~ians, if the Whites were not the Irritigators.
On the 5th of July your Petitioner's Shiptload df
Settlers arrived fr~om Englandi, after a long Pa~age around
to St. Atart's, Imagining he had settled on thant O~oak,
were obliged, on not being able to get in mor~e, to put
into Penfaolaywhere Letters direfied them to 88elastab,
from whiich Place they came in a hired Schooner ~to the
Settlement on St. John's R'iver, Enft-Plorirda, where they
arrived in good Health. The Mlafter of tihe 8thoonet
having Bufmners at St. Auguline, yrour Petitioner fent a
Letter by him to the Governor, requeffing Permif~ar
for his being adniitted to make Oatth of his receivinlt
there Settlers from the Hands of the 1Mafter of the Vel-
fel, who had brought them from England. H~is Infor*
mation that they were on your Petitioner's Ateoulnt,
and that, pursuant to his Letter, he had conduttd
them to your Petitioner's Settlment, and had delivered
them to him in Perfon, --- that fath Certificate might
be regiffered at Atkgafine, agrteeabe to the Spirit of the
Proclantation, ieft any might die after the Charge of Imr-

( sS )
)aatm had been borne by your Petitioner, and the
2Xcnc of fulfilling the Terms of the Grant enhanced
to `him for W~ant of the proper Regiffry in Time.
Trhe Claule referred to in the Proclamation is this :
*~ That when any Perfon, who ball hereafter take up,
"~~~~~ and paetayLnfall have heated, planted, and
cultivated, or improved the fa8id Land, or any Part
of it, according to the Dire~tions- and Conditions
abovementioned, foch Paltentee may make Proof of
"t fuch fearting, plan~tingy, and Cultivation, or Improve-
*C mrent in any Court of Record in the raid Province, or
*L in the Court of the County, Dillriat, or Precinat
where fach Land Jfhall be, and have fach Proof cert fed
to theRegi~ter and Secretary's Of~ice, and there enter-
ed, with the Record of the iaid Patent; a Copy of
t w-hich thall be admitted, on any Trial to prove the
a eating and planting of fuch Land."
rr~8, 7765. The Governor's Letter of the 8th
et~w adiwers this Reqluet, thus: '' No Court of Ju-
~iature hras any Thing to do with the Arrival of your
u Settlers: The Mafter of the Schooner, at any Rate,
ae is not the proper Perfon to give an Affdavit about
asthem. If you with to be provided with proper Ma*
noterials to ascertain the Arrival of your Settlers in this
atProvince, in Cafe your Compliance with the Terms
of0 thre Grant to be made oult in Obedience to his
M(bajefty's Order in Council should hereafter be dili-
ac putcd, the Attorney General lays, that either you,
** or your Agent, should make Oath before a Juffice of
ae the Pe~ace, that fuch a Number of People arrived at
** Cch a Time in the Province of Ea~-~Floride, and
as were brought into the Province at your Ex pence, in
at order to fettle upon your Eftate, and that you, or
** your Agent, should get a Certificate to that Purpole
ar from the Jultice of Peace ; but thofe are Points of
a Law, with which I have really noth~ingo to do. '
Your Petitioner begs Leave to fubmit his Semti.
sments of the Captain of the Schooner's being more
inadependeto, confequently, more _probably, true Affer-
tor of this Cir~cumfkance than either your Petitioner
or his Agent who were interefted in the Colony. -
The Delay of a Day, after the Expence of Importation,

( 59 )
might occasion a double Ex pnce of fispplying the Place
of any dead, or any reduced aw~ay. The former hap-
pened foon after this Refufal, as your Petitioner ac-
quainted the Governor i the latter was alib foretold, and
your Petitioner had Redron, when a Juitice of the Peace,
naval Officer, and Regifter, who was fulpc~ed to have
made a Vifit, not entirely of Compliment to him, but as
Infpe~tor of his Trada~~ions in the Province, when
furch had made Attempts to injure his Settlement, as
Beforementioned ", the entertained at it in the beit
Manner your Petitioner could.-- To this the Go-
vernor answers in this fame Letter, that nothing but
Indentures on the Settlers could prevent Sedu~tion, the
Governor himself paying Dollars a Day, and to a Car-
penter a Dollar and an Half. Such T~hings, when
known, would incline Settlers to leave his Settlement.
'This, doubtless, appeared a good Argument your Peti-
tioner could not controvert, though, in fome ~Inantces,
Persons were defirous. and fome did learn thefe high
Wages at St. Augalline, and came and worked for mode-
rate Hire at this parsimonious Settlement on St. JA's~
River, and the former, who wished to come, were de-
tained by the moft powerful and f~pecious Invitations.
Your Petitioner did not attempt to reduce, but requeft-
ed only the Countenance of a powerful Proteaion to
his Settlement, which would have prevented any Breach
of Hospitality by Juftices of Peace, and Perfons of
higher Rank, in reducing thofe People that were to be
termed adtual Settlers of your Petitioner's. The Go-
vernor's Intimation at his own Table, whenr he ~awK,
perhaps, the whole Corps of Officers, and the Gentry
of the Town, once a Week, would, your Petitioner is
well satisfied, have had it's due Influence to prevent
fuch Injuffice ; but it seemed too impertinent in him to
propose fuch a Remedy, but could not but think it
muft occur to Perfons of superior Penetration. The
Governor alfo adds, in the above Letter, if the Sur-
veyor had finished his Survey according to his Initruc-
tions, either your Petitioner, or his Agent, with proper
Powers, should come to Town to take out his Grant s
See Page ()

;n sad o dro as, year PaiEi~sior, thould not mind the Re-
parts of the ladians in his Ne~ighbourhood, they were
not of Wa~ighit in their Nation, and that your Peti-
thener thmould noat talk to themn about Settlem1ents. The
Repent was, that the white Perfun who wast from St.
Af~arts to Pufacdoi, had been ordered by the Indiasns 5
whbich gave fome UneaF~lofs to the IndRiat Sch:iki, who
lives jLuk above your Petitioner's Settlemnent, and was
npearly quli~teig his little Settlement on this Repozt, for
Aprs of-the pe~taliation olf rhe Whites o1 him ; and that
feene lotimatieon of .1)irpledure had beca thewn againkt
year Petritiolner's new Settisment, but which he imas
gfiares Pro~Lceeded1 from the JealouS)y of the Storekeepers.
Your Petitioner would have pedwaded Sc~hiki to come
to hin, waiahb his famiity, and be would defend them
f~roa lejury, but be foonl after was better fatisfie~d.
However, your Petitioner thou~ght it advileable, in his
$ @i~c to lecure his Settlement from Marm, which
he know~ prior Acts of Kindnefs will nearly at all
Tiases Q)Fe t even on the moff fava g~e DiFpolition ;
he difrpatche two of his People to ~Latchcaway with a
ferasil Prtelet, about eleven or twrelve Shillings worth
perhaps~, to the Chief called the swkeep~er, and his
Squa)W, having Dsver feen them at his Settlement to
entestain~f them; sad his People seturned the fourth
Days and he found had been kindly received. As for
taking to them about Settlemnaets, three wa4only ryor
Petitioner's above Picabata Forta; this they had- permitted
hi to mrake, and he wais to preserve their AB e~Ctions
by sil Mlethods of Endearmont, which he did by very
incou~resewble trifiing Pretentrs; a Guinea's Worth
night Be the utookt on the Whole. It was the Method
diss wrought on them, a perfonal Inclination to ervre
;and: atift them~, anrd a ChegErul Appearance at t~he Timle
of doing them little Services were Indicati~icons to the
Sediblre ladian, not the favage Barbarian, lregicient,
so civilise then; and wrought a )lendi~ence in (ach
Hearts above the Power of Rum, denied them by
your Petitione, but givenr by the Governor ; for
they have complained to your Petitioner at the f~tew
'Enne, though they had Rum given to them, that

( st
their Entertainfimet, as to Previ~ens wes very indit-
f~erenrt at St. Auaf~inr ; by relatig which ywr Pt~itiqaer
would prefumne to infer, that the reliarig the Pets(*
cities of Nature wedl8 more infinlpcly ob) 4 t e ]4.
dian, than all the Prefelse of iiasury, and saake A
anore takting Imrprted~mie. This w~asevident in hieal~f,
who rave~ no Rum, their grestat Delight in Dobsuch i
and, perhaps, a CoUpld of Qpast of lisdies Corp,
Value Feren Farthings; the fanke of Rise Value three
Pence H~alf penny i hak a Pound of Malcria~do Sugan
Vainre two Pence i is a Prefeat fuEdhistat for a King andi
his Train to proceed on their Huat i in all Ceven BEace40
Farthing, or, pe~rhps, at a commfont Value, staaig
not exceecd the Value of fisfeasce. Hereby the hMtanas
of Civilization is procCred at an eary ExpenoSe their
Strength not impaired, but renewed, to the Pielorrdarie
of she Britifb Inkabitant, by disllitting the Nasa*
ber of wild Bearfs and venomous Infoets, thopr~curing
she ben~efacial Skin-T~rade wrIthout the white Settler's
entering into tht idle Way~ of Life. This <@ablikes,
that overthirowrs, Settlemeants.
Thrat Mwr. A~sk, the Surveyor, wenat on in his
Obf~erartions on the Land;i he drew out an ~arA lk al
of the Land, between two large Creeks wbhel coate
froml thte Eaft, and fall into te River St. ?'s, the
ane four Mkiles abase yolur PD~etidness Plansti~on, she
othwr- eigh or ten Miles below it i and alls Lie rawaa
from'~lPif~es upp the latte, where your Petitioner pa~a
it to go to St. Angefine abrlout eight MliQes from his
Settlement to the Lower ]End of a great Lake, to which
the former Creek is an Outlet; about fix Miles frtom it's
aforefaisd Mo~th, and about the lione DiOasse from~ his
Set~tlement, containing fortyr-leven thodaamd ore khadsed
and forty Acres, fpecfy'in g partitalarly tfte ffevera~l
Sorts of Ground, as per Schedule anlnexe~d; amaontintg
to two thousand even hundred and ten Acres of good
Swamp, two hundred and forty of clear Marih, five
hundred and twenty good dry Land, in all three thou-
fand four hundred and ferenty ; the Refidue, of the forty
ifeven thousand one hundred and forty, is called Pine.
Barren, or Pine Land, and bitter Bay G~auls, bearing the

( 62)
roBloll Bayr Byr the Plan idid before the Right Ho-
nouabl Bod, tl will apperT~hat- your Petitioner cani-
net make t~one his twenty thoduand Acres in any Msannr
whabefoevr, its one coamtigueossot, to as to include
ahroe good Lanrd chan in the faid Plan, which Plan,
through, if't trhe wo Number of Acres of good Land
in the forty-kven thoufand clne hundred and forty were
included isr the twenty thoufand, it would be ftill difpro-
portionable in the bad Acres to the Planter ; but which
Planr is~, neverthe~lels, eftetemed iniadmillable. The D~e-
puty Surveycor seemed to thrink his Orders were much
Ori~ter than in Georgias; he was not to permit the SideL
lines of the Grants to pals near nisig~able Streams, or to
at to intchade any of the good Land bordering on fuch
Streams, nor to parsc the further Ends of fuchi Trad*
over any navigable Cruks~, whereon their might be good
Swamps affo. The Orders for plotting thle Grants hav-
ing a good Reafon Ibr fuch Policy, but thePraaice there-
of precisely wroultd militate against the Settlement of the
Colony i the Rivers having many different Turmngs,
the taking the Front-lines on the River, and running
the SidediEnes back i'nto the 'La~nd, would aill interfere
wtithr Lo run on another Turn of the River, and
cannot to avoided. The only Mlethod that could be
ptrfined so lave all the Lands taken up and none omit-
ted, would be to plot the Whole in different Quantities,
according as the good and bad Land might be inter-
mixed, and the Whole granted in fisch certain Lots,
whatever they may amount to, as by the Plan fol-
leelag :
*I See Page () the Governor rays, and alfo Page ( 1
the Surveyor General fays, your Petitioner may pafs can~
wain Creeks, where it was previonfly known there was no
good Land.

/i? 8 0~

( 64 )
Ori as the Rivrer St. John's, in it's general. Course,
&ows from the South to the North, the Grants of the
Lands fball have their Front-lines on the ifaid River,
and directed back into the Land direAly Eafft or W~efi i
and each Plot the Surveyor hall form Cither larger or
smaller, to as to include a proportionable Mixture of the
good and bad Land. Your Petitioner remarks this, as
the only M~ethod he knows, for an intire Grant of
the Banks of navigable Streams or Rivers; it cannot be
intire according to the present Terms, if precisely fol-
lowed, and the Grantees fkill chufing their Land, by
which large Spots on the Banks of the navigable Ri-
ver will be left unpoffeffed in the King's Hands, for
wphic~h no Quit-Rent will be paid as on St. John's
River, within the Plan proposed by your Petitioner to
run his Grant, there is a Pine-Barren, continued for
fome Miles on the Bank of the River, which no Settler
whatever will take any Grant on. In the faid
Plan, fent by the Deputy Surveyor to the Governor
and Surveyor General, the Front-line is uponl the Ri-
ver, where it lies Eaft and W~eft; if any fmaller Plots,
fuch as five hundred to two or three thodrand Acres,
leav~g ste eFront-ines on one Part or other of that
fame Ftdce they would hare been permitted to be
run in the Came Diredion ; and rihatever Plot was to
taken up,~ next to wheret the Point is founed by the River,
muft bear it's Sifde-Line on trhe River : For at rp9sint
of the River, and many there are where the River
makes a right Angle in it's Courfe, no TraA can be
taken up without it's having both it's Side-line, as well
as Back-line, on the River. There are two Cafes
mentioned on the Plan laid now before your Liordfhips,
wherein Mr. M~oultrie and Mlr. Kinlaugh, two Gentle-
men of Caratina, were promified by the Governor two
Traats of Land; the Sides of which would have been
on that navigable Creek, or father large River 4 it may
be called big enough for confiterable Schooners to fail
on, and perhaps both their Bafe and End-lines on the
great River or Lake, when a more precise Meafure
might be taken ; and alfo at another Place below, at a
Turn of the River, where it forms a deep Bay, the

( 65 )
Side-line of fifteen hundred Acres, promifedto a Family
called Grey, was intended to be run about feventy
Miles below your Petitioner's Settlement. Mr. Davris,
who had a considerable Number of Negroes, had the
Grant, as beforementioned, paffed, for, I think, one
thoufand Acres of Lanld which muft be for himlfelf
and eighteen Negroes, and about eight Miles difiant,
as I think he told me, the Governor had promised
him a Lot, perhaps for the Refidue of his Family and
Negroes, whereon he intended to ereft a Mill. Mr.
Davuis's Home Settlement is run thus:



By this it appears, that your Petitioner, who engages
to be at the Expence of firengthening the C~olony, w it~h
the Importation of two hundred W'hites, of~ whole
Labouir he can have the Profit himself only for a ver y
few Y~ears, has not the fame Privilege that there Perfons
mentioned have, in bringing Negroes into the Country,
at a Small Expence, whafe Labou~r is for Li'fe, or
faleable after the TIerm of three Years is expired; in
which Time the Land is settled Secure from Forfeit,
and by bringing them at different Times, takes up al-
together good Land, in separate Parcels, without an
Intermixture of the poorer and more barsen Soils; and
to there are hewn a different Inclination to accom-
modate the Settlers, from what has been exhibited
throughout to your Peaitioner, who, chiefly from the
OppoCition met with, waCe nearly at two thousand Pounds
Expence, in eftablithing his Settlement in Peace and
Plenty, but which he did effect nevertheless maugre all
the Obitacles to it. There may have separate Plots of
Land. Though your Petitioner had thewn the greatest
Defire of f~ettling, with the moff beneficial Views to the
Province, the effab~lifhing a Town of Artificers in the
H-eart of the Provinice, Provifron for the Education of
Children, and the Cultivation of Chrifaianity, free from
Enthufialm; the Civilization of Indians, the Fidelity of
Slaves, preferved on Principle; a Library of Agricul-
ture, Botany, Gardening, M~echanics, and of fuch
Learning as appears more peculiarly adapted to the
American Planter; and, above all, the firengthen~-
ing this Frontier Province of Ea/?-Florida against any
Enemy at a future Time, by well flocking it with
white Inhabitants. To fuch a Settler who vainly imagines
there Things, form fuch Projedks, but who was certainly
at the Expence of this UTndertaking, not disagreeable,
perhaps, to the Views of Government at Home, the
Face of the executive Part of Gov~ernment on the
Colony was fet against. He could not obtain Leave to
purchase a few hundred Acres of indifferent Land, to
the Prejudice of no other Settlers, as a healthy high
Spot, to place his Town on, the Endowment of a
School, and the Appropriation for a Church-1Viniffer.

(67 )
Though the Governor's Proclamation rays, Anld in
"( Cafe any Perfon, applying as aforefaid, hall be
" defirous to take up a larger Quantity of Land than
"' the Family Right intitles fach Perfon to, upon
'' thewing a Probability of Cultivation an additional
** Number of Acres, not exceeding one Thouland, may
"' be obtained, upon paying to the Receiver of tite Quit-
" Rents the Sum of Five Shillings, Sterling, for
** every fifty Acres of fuch additional Grant, on the
"' Day of the Date of fuch Grant."
To Mr. Davies was a Grant of a separate TraA of
Land promised. To him, MCr. Moultrje, Mr.Kintlaugh,
and IVr. 1Grey, were Trads of Land allowed; and whole
Sid-es were on the greater River of St. John's, or a
Creek equally navigable with that River; and though
youir Petitioner had been at the Expence of furveymng
the Wef% Side of the River, and chewed an Inclination
to the Governor of having his Tra&t of twenty thou-
[and A~cres on that Side, provided it was free from
any former Grant to Colonel Middleton, as fuppofed,
or Ardian Claim ; yet when it became neceffary, for your
Petitioner was obliged to [peak, as Promifes were making
of L~ind, previous to the Power of granting had been
allovifed of Ify the Indians, there appeared a Promife to
Colonel fiddleton, if he would folicit agreeable to the
Proclamation, he should have that Land granted to
hiim, by the Governor of Eaji-Flor~ida, and he was
allowed three Months' Tim'e to confider on it; at the
fame Time intimating to your Petitioner, that another
Answer would have beer; gwven to Colonel Mi~ddleton by
him, the Governor, if he had known your Petitioner's
Inclination to that Tra&t.
In the whole Tract of forty-feven thousand one hunl-
dred and forty Acres, fiurveyed by the worn Deputy-
Surveyor, there are but twenty-three Peices of good
Land, measuring together three thoufand four hundred
and feventy Acres, of which, except one long Piece of
Swamp of between four and five M~iles in ZLength, con-
taining one 'thouiand Acres, four other Pieces of five
hundred and fixty, two hundred and fifty, two hundred

and forty and two hundred, the remaining pieces of
g~ood Land are but Imall in any one Place, and there
hjrger Pieces .cannot be run out without taking larger
Plots of Pine-Barren, or poor Land, with them in ge-
neral. Your Petitioner believes the larger Plot of one
thodfand Acres may be run out, according to the pre-
cire Rules of taking the Baie Line on the navigable
:Streamn, and running the*Line directly on a Square,
three backr to one in Front, a Plot of five thodfand Acres
might include the Whole of that thoufand Acres of
good Land It is to bie observed, that no Part of this
Piece of one thousand Acres is included in the Plan
proposed to the Governor by your Petitioner for his
twenty thousand Acres; yet, this is not efteemed ad-
aniffable. If your Petitioner had not feated himself
onuthis Land, he much doubts whether any other Perfon
would have fet down where his Town or Village is.--
The Swamp adjoining above it would have tempted a
Perfon to have f~oicited a Grant, he fuppoles, of Land,
from five hundred to one thodrand Acres. On a thort
TIurn of the River, below the Town, there is a narrow
NeckE of Land, which may be inclofed by a Fence of
about half a Mile in Length, which would induce ano-
ther to solicit for a Grant of three hundred Acre, ur-
cluding, as by the Schedule appears, about eighty Acres
of good high Land, and thirty Acres of Swamp -
Lowerl down, at the greater Bend of the River,. if the
Side: Lines were permitted to run on the ,River, there
are, large Tradks of good Land might be run out i as
alfo where IMr. Kinlaurgh has chofe his three thod~and
Acres above, on Dunn's Greeck, where the Pieces, as by
the Schedule, of x 24Co O 360-- M 7o NJ so, in
all fix hundred and- ninety ; or, if the Piece L is added
of fifty, perhaps feven liurdred and forty, nearly aL quar-
ter Part of good Larnd would be inchided; but where
tzhe Side Line is run on a deep navigatile Stream, call it
Rivey or Creekr, it cannot alter it's P property of being
rniavgable. Except in thee thee Cafes, no. other
Land could be run out on your Petitioners Survey, t~o
as to be eligible but to Iingle Perfons, or Tmall Families,
whole Claims may be one, two, or three hundred Acres;
and even. then muff include spor Pine-Brren Land in

( 69 )
general than they would chure 3 for there are very few
Places where the good Swamp reaches farther from the:
River than Half a Mile ; and even fifty Acres, run
agreeable to the Rules preferibed, .will reach back to
that Diitance.
That your Petitioner fent a Letter to the Governor
on July 26, 1766, wherein he firit Qakes off the Impu-
tation, in a Report of the Ind~ians shooting at him, by
informing him, that fome white Perfon, then at his Set-
tclment, had owned the Fa&t, he esteemed it as a pro-
per Circumftance to be cleared up, for the Prefervation
of the Indaons' Chara~ter, and for the future Peace and
Security of Travellers. It contained a Complaint that
several Perfons arrived at his Settlement together at that
'Time, with no good Defign, endeavouring to make
that a Place to f~educe the Indian Trader at Latchaway,
Barnt, down hither, in order to feize him, and place
him in the Prifonr of AuguJfine at the Suit of one Priles,
who was one of the Parties, and had, heretofore, under
fuchb Confinement, preffed Bamrst to give him a Bondi
for a very large Sum (about two thodrand Pounds is ima-
gined) when it was fuppofed, by moit People, that there
was nearly a Ballance of Account between them. -
That Piles had endearvoured to inveigle away one of your
Petitioner's Settlers, jut imported, at a great Extpence,
Fhough he had but barely turned his Back on your Peti-
tioner's Tarblewhere he had been entertained as a Mer-
chant, with one Davis, the Son of a Planter, who hadi
entertained your Petitioner once at his Settlement about
fifty Miles lower down the River, and was a Deputy
Surveyor to the Province. That this Davis alfo, took
on him the Ogce of a Lawyer, by writing a threat-
aing Letter in Beltarlf of Upton, your Petitioner's late
Hunter, recommending, he fuppoles, a Profecution, re-
tpe~ting the Ufe of one of his Horifes, kept at your Pe-
titioner's Settlement, to your Petitioner's great Detri-
ment, by breaking his Fences, and otherwise, as men-
tioned. That fome of~ thee Perfons' Arrival a second
Time occalloned alfo an IntroduAion of a Quantity of
~mURum by the Hunter Upton, the Effects of wKhich had
aperdin his proceding to the thooting of one of

( yo)
your Petitioner's Cows, glorying in the Faa, by
fending two Negroes, who were pawing for him, and
had feen him hoot it, but who, he told them, could
not be Witneffes againR) him, to inform your Petitio-
ner that he would hoot all his Stock of Cattle, Hor~fes,
Hogs, (Sc. and, as he heard afterwards, he added
alfo, he would hoot your Petitioner himfelf. TShat
an Attempt to feize his Perfon would be hazardous at
prefent, while he would be on his G'uard with a rifled
barreled Gun, that would kill at a Furlong DiRance.
He therein mentions the strong presumptive Evidence,
befides that of the Negroes', by one Langley Brianti,
who was near the Place where he fhot at the Cowcs,
and faw him jud) after, and leaves it to th~e Gover-
nor's Diferetion, as to what might be done. Your
Petitioner muit remark, that this Refer~enc~e to the Go-
vernor was agreeable to the Governor's Atffertion of his
Right over the Garrifon of Picolata, in Prefervation of
the Peace, and Quiet of the Settlers in the Province,
as aforementioned.
He concludes, that the Plan of the Land, with the
Obfervations thereon, tranfinitted by the Deputy Sur-
veyor, Mr. Fuznk, would convince the Gov~ernor of the
billiculties he was under, of running the Boundaries of
his Grant confident with the Rules the Governor pre-
fcribed, and that in the settling two hundred Perfons,
at a great Expence, he mull consider their Conveniency,
and an Equivailent for them with fingle Settlers, to be
the juit D~ue defigned them byr Government at Home,
-- in which was meant;, that Grantees of twenty thou-
find Acres might have Land equally as good as fingle
Settlers to fettle the two hundred Perfons upon, they
were ~oblig~ated to at a great Expenice, and that Go-
vernment at Home would, .on Reprefentation, consider
it, he thought, and thoul~d immediately proceed Home
to make it.
Your Petitioner receives a ZLetter from the Gover-
nor, dated fJull 30, Iy66,-wherein he firft complains,
that the Deputy Surveyor f~ent him, in the Beginn'irg
of May, at your Petitioner's Requeit, returned a few
D~ays before, and had done nothing in the Bufinefs fent
upon ;