• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Editorial preface
 Introduction
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Introduction
 Boston
 Southward
 Noctes Floridiana
 Pensacola
 Summer time
 The battle of Withlacoochie
 A camp hunt
 Progress
 Errata
 Advertising
 Index














Title: Florida breezes; or, Florida, new and old
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101388/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida breezes; or, Florida, new and old
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Long, Ellen Call, 1825-1905
Publisher: University of Florida Press
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Copyright Date: 1962
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101388
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 1574563
lccn - 62014791

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Editorial preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
    Half Title
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
    Title Page
        Page A-i
        Page A-ii
    Dedication
        Page A-iii
        Page A-iv
    Introduction
        Page A-v
        Page A-vi
    Boston
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Southward
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 63
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        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Noctes Floridiana
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Pensacola
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
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        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Summer time
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
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        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
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        Page 199
        Page 200
    The battle of Withlacoochie
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
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        Page 205
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        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    A camp hunt
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
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        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
    Progress
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
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        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
    Errata
        Page 403
        Page 404
    Advertising
        Page 405
        Page 406
    Index
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
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Full Text









FLORIDA


BREEZES;


OR,


FLORIDA, NEW AND OLD,

BY

ELLEN CALL LONG






FLORIDA


BREEZES;


OR,


FLORIDA, NEW AND OLD,

BY

ELLEN CALL LONG


A FACSIMILE REPRODUCTION
of the 1883 EDITION
with
INTRODUCTION.
by MARGARET LOUISE CHAPMAN

FLORIDIANA FACSIMILE & REPRINT SERIES


GAINESVILLE, 1962
University of Florida Press








Lq49


/I


1962 FACSIMILE REPRODUCTION OF THE 1883 EDITION
WITH PREFACE, INTRODUCTION, AND INDEX ADDED











NEW MATERIAL COPYRIGHT, 1962
BY THE
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS
OF
STATE INSTITUTIONS OF FLORIDA





Library of Congress Catalogue Card No. 62-14791









LITHOPRINTED BY DOUGLAS PRINTING COMPANY, INC.
BOUND BY UNIVERSAL-DIXIE BINDERY, INC.
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

















EDITORIAL PREFACE.

IN THE VICTORIAN AGE after the Civil War, genteel Southern
women with some ability and considerable energy found an outlet
in writing. Daughters of famous Southern politicians and planters
recalled the golden era before the war, when the moonlight was
brighter, the magnolia sweeter, the social gatherings more charm-
ing, the Negroes happier, and life in general more interesting
than in the drab, poverty-stricken postwar period. They wrote their
histories and recorded their recollections in good and bad prose,
and from "an unbiased Southern point of view." In total, perhaps,
they contributed more to the legend of the romantic Old South
than did Thomas Nelson Page in his nostalgic novels of an era
which no longer endangered the industrialism of the United
States.
Ellen Call Long belonged to that coterie of Southern women
who described their conception of Southern history and reminisced
about the past, but she was a maverick among Southern female
writers. Moonlight and magnolia were described in her Florida
Breezes; and much in evidence was her adulation for her father,
Richard Keith Call, who, during his life, had been severely criticized
for his generalship in the Seminole War, his executive ability dur-
ing two terms as governor of the Territory of Florida, and his
opposition to secession. Often her history, for she was too young in
the 1830's and early 1840's to be able to recall events of those
years with accuracy, was no more than a tribute to her father, and
eulogies of paternalistic friends of her girlhood, one of whom
was President Andrew Jackson. But she did more than describe
the idealistic Old South of columned mansions and slave cabins:















EDITORIAL PREFACE.


she anticipated novelists and historians who later discovered the
many yeomen farmers and the few "poor white trash" of the
slavery regime. Her descriptions of these people give her historical
reminiscences enduring value. She resented the criticism leveled
at her father because of his loyalty to the Union in 1861, and
proved herself faithful to his ideals by championing the rights of
Negroes in a New South determined to relegate former slaves to
a second-class citizenship. Perhaps these attitudes of hers caused
residents of Florida to buy and burn her book, and thereby make
it a rare item of Americana.
Although she holds a graduate degree in American History, by
training and experience Margaret Chapman's chief interest has
been and remains helping students and scholars delve into the
sources of history. For years Librarian of the P. K. Yonge Memo-
rial Library of Florida History at the University of Florida, Miss
Chapman is now Special Collections Librarian at the University
of South Florida and Executive Secretary of the Florida Historical
Society.
REMBERT W. PATRICK
University of Florida General Editor of the
June, 1962 FLORIDIANA SERIES


vi









INTRODUCTION.


ELLEN CALL LONG -THE WOMAN

MONDAY, DECEMBER 18, 1905, dawned gray and threatening,
with low-hanging clouds and the smell of rain in the air. Tallahas-
see, so often blessed with bright, blue December days, had taken
on a somber hue, as though the pall of sadness which lay over
the town had affected the elements. In the imposing old Call man-
sion at the foot of Adams Street, Tallahassee's grande dame, Ellen
Call Long, lay dead at the age of eighty, and the whole town was
in mourning. In the afternoon her family and friends gathered in
the big drawing room of her home to hear the Reverend Dr.
W. H. Carter read the Episcopal service for the dead. Then the
funeral procession, which included both former Governor William
D. Bloxham and incumbent Governor Napoleon B. Broward,
silently formed in front of the handsome old brick residence and
made the short journey under the giant live oak trees across the
field and into another heavily wooded area to the family burial
plot. There Ellen Call Long was laid to rest beside the man who
had so influenced her life, her father, Governor Richard Keith
Call.1
Few non-royal children could have had such an auspicious be-
ginning as Ellen Call's. On September 9, 1825, a few months
after the founding of Tallahassee, General Richard Keith Call and
his wife Mary Letitia Kirkman Call had their first child, a daugh-
ter. At the birth of this "first white child born in Tallahassee, "2
bells rang, cannons fired, and the tiny frontier community cele-
brated wildly. It was said that "the little creature soon became the
pet and pride of the young community."3 In Tennessee the old
friend and mentor of the child's father took notice of her arrival


vii







INTRODUCTION.


by sending affectionate regards to Call, his wife, and "the sweet
little daughter."4
For the baby's parents it was a time of rejoicing even though
the hoped-for son turned out to be a girl. The Calls had been com-
pelled to wait several years to marry, until Mary Kirkman became
of age, because her parents had steadfastly refused to consent to
the match. Their opposition did not seem to be directed at Call
personally, but at his close association with Andrew Jackson and
at his decision to settle in the wilds of the new American territory
of Florida. Andrew and Rachel Jackson had encouraged the match,
and the wedding took place at the Hermitage on July 15, 1824,
when Call was thirty-two and his bride was nearly twenty-three.5
It is doubtful that the Call mansion in Tallahassee, now known
as the Grove, was completed when Ellen was born. Call's biog-
rapher thinks it unlikely that the house was finished before the
1830's, though Ellen was apparently born in some structure on the
site of what is now the Grove, since Call wrote in 1825 that he
and his wife were settled in their own place a half mile from
town.6
There is little recorded information about the child in the first
years of her life, except that she accompanied her mother to the
Hermitage in 18277 and was entertained by the man who was the
first American governor of Florida and who two years later would
be inaugurated as President of the United States. In 1835 Ellen,
then nine years old, was a pupil at a school for young ladies in
Franklin, Maryland. She reported on her progress in two letters to
her mother which have survived, one stating that she was "learn-
ing Grammar, Geography, Dictionary, Scientific Dialogues, and
French," and one urging her mother to come to see her.8 Ellen
got her promised visit from her mother in the fall of 1835 when
General and Mrs. Call visited Washington and were guests of
Andrew Jackson at the White House. While Call attended to
business matters, Mrs. Call made frequent visits to Ellen in
Franklin and to relatives in Baltimore.9
By 1835 the Calls had a second daughter, Mary. In the nearly
ten years between the births of Ellen and Mary, six Call babies,


viii







INTRODUCTION.


including a son, Richard Jackson Call, had been born and had
died.10
Back in Tallahassee in 1836, General Call was busy with what
has become known in Florida history as the Second Seminole War.
In February Mrs. Call was seriously ill, and the General delayed
his departure from Tallahassee. However, she seemed to be recov-
ering, and urged him to go to his troops. Call was at St. Marks
preparing to sail for Tampa Bay when a messenger brought him
news that his wife was dying. Ellen described this tragic event in
Florida Breezes (206-7).11 Her father, in his frantic haste to reach
his wife's bedside, galloped so fast that his horse dropped dead
as he reached the gates of his home. Mary Kirkman Call was
already dead, and was buried the night of February 29, by torch-
light.
The bereaved husband then had to inform his wife's family in
Tennessee12 and Ellen in Maryland. From Ellen, then ten years old,
came a surprisingly mature and well-written expression of grief
over the death of her mother and of concern for her father and
baby sister. She assured her father that "I will do anything to
make you happy. I shall hereafter try to obey you in everything.
I feel very sorry that I ever displeased you or mother."13 Ellen
never wavered from this promise to her father.
Mrs. Ellen Kirkman, mother of Mrs. Call, took over the up-
bringing of her granddaughters. She sent her son Alexander Kirk-
man to Tallahassee in April, 1836, to get baby Mary. Call sent
one of his slaves, "a very capable girl-good house servant with
her as a nurse."14 The Kirkmans had business interests in Nash-
ville and New Orleans, and for the next few years little Mary
lived with her grandmother in those two cities, while Ellen spent
part of her time with them and part in a series of schools for
young ladies. The rift between Call and the Kirkmans was for-
gotten, and a series of affectionate letters kept the father in touch
with his family.15
Finally, in January, 1843, Ellen, at the age of seventeen and
accompanied by her grandmother, came home to her revered father
and her beloved Tallahassee. The long-awaited reunion was noted


IX







INTRODUCTION.


by Ellen's aunt in Nashville, who wrote, "I hope you have reached
the home of your childhood, and that you may realize your fond-
est anticipation." Aunt Kate then proceeded to give the news of
the theatrical season and other social festivities in Nashville.16 If
Ellen missed the more cosmopolitan centers of Nashville and New
Orleans where she had lived, and Baltimore and Philadelphia
where she had gone to school, there is nothing to indicate it. She
entered into the social life of Tallahassee, quickly found herself a
promising young lawyer, and married him in 1844. The lawyer,
Medicus A. Long, was a member of George Walker's law firm,
and Walker and Governor Call were cousins.17
In 1846 the Longs had their first child, a son, whom Ellen,
characteristically, named Richard Call Long for her distinguished
father. The baby's grandfather wrote to Mrs. Ellen Kirkman in
New Orleans that her great-grandson was "a fine little fellow and
the image of his mother."18s For the next few years Ellen led the
life of any busy young Southern matron. Besides the son Richard,
there was a daughter Eleonora. The Longs apparently had two
other children, one who died in 1853 and one who died in
1857.19
Ellen's husband, Medicus A. Long, remains a shadowy figure.
He agreed to act for Ellen and her minor sister, Mary Call, in
trying to recover their mother's share of their grandfather Kirk-
man's estate. Thomas Kirkman had left an estate valued at
$200,000 when he died in 1826, with his wife Ellen named as
executrix, but no accounting had ever been made. This was a
delicate family matter, since Mrs. Kirkman had assumed the
responsibility of rearing both her granddaughters after their
mother's death, even though their father contributed to their
support and education. Little Mary was still living with her
grandmother, though Medicus and Ellen wanted to have her with
them. Medicus Long, who designated himself as "a lawyer and a
gentleman," was "acting in both capacities" for his wife and
sister-in-law. The Kirkman family settled the matter with the
Longs in 1849, and with Governor Call for Mary in 1850.20
Medicus Long remained an active Democrat, while Governor








Call supported first the Whigs and then the new American Party.
During the campaign of 1856 Medicus Long and George W. Call
actually met Richard Keith Call in public debate. In that same
year Medicus Long was named as a presidential elector by the state
Democratic convention.2' No written evidence has survived to
indicate that this difference in political philosophy ever caused any
family difficulties. However, Medicus A. Long did move to Texas,
where he continued to practice law. Hearsay evidence says he went
to Texas for his asthma. He had been critically ill in 1849 and
again in 1857, so he might well have left Florida because of his
health.22 But there was a definite separation, since Ellen and the
children remained in Florida with her father.
On October 23, 1851, Governor Call had deeded the Grove to
Ellen, and she and her children continued to live there after
Medicus Long's departure.23 Her father, busy with his plantations,
spent most of his time at Orchard Pond Plantation on Lake Jack-
son near Tallahassee. Caroline Mays Brevard, daughter of Mary
Call and Theodore Washington Brevard, says that her aunt's home
"was known for its generous and charming hospitality. "24
The gathering storm of the Civil War profoundly affected both
Governor Call and his daughter. Staunch Unionist, R. K. Call
thought secession would be suicidal. He fought against it with all
his might, and in 1860 finally issued an appeal in a pamphlet
entitled An Address to the People of Florida from General R. K.
Call. But the tide of public opinion in Florida was running against
him, and in January, 1861, Florida's convention adopted the
ordinance of secession.25 In Florida Breezes (308) Ellen describes
her father as standing defiantly before the men who had carried
the day, waving his big cane over his head and accusing them of
having "opened the gates of hell."
In the early months of 1861 Ellen was still corresponding with
northern friends. Mary Y. Holmes, author of Lena Rivers, wrote
that she agreed with Mrs. Long that an equal number of North-
ern and Southern men should hang on the same gibbet to stop
the talk of war. Mrs. Holmes, a New Englander, added that her
sympathies would be with the North even though she had many


x\


INTRODUCTION.








Southern friends. Another letter to Ellen from a Philadelphia
friend addressed her as "My dear Countess of Tallahassee." This
would be a fitting title for Ellen if Southerners received "the titles
of nobility for which they are covetous." Ellen, felt her corre-
spondent, would be more qualified than most Southerners to bear
a title. Great admiration was expressed for the strong stand taken
by General Call in support of the Union. In a second letter the
friend assured Ellen that "Black Republicans or Abolitionists"
were in a minority.26
However the Calls might have felt about the dissolution of the
Union, the fact remained that they were Southerners; Florida was
now a Confederate state, and all their friends and relatives were
joining the troops. Ellen's son, fifteen-year-old Richard Call Long,
came home from school at Elmira, New York, and later served as
a courier for General William Miller. Mary Call's husband,
Theodore Washington Brevard, was serving in Virginia, and in
the spring of 1862, George W. Call, Jr., General Call's nephew,
was killed in battle. In 1862 the bitterest blow of all fell when
General Call died at the Grove in Tallahassee on a stormy Sep-
tember day. The grief-sticken Ellen said that he died of a broken
heart because of the war then raging between North and South.27
In May, 1862, Call, at his Orchard Pond Plantation, had written
a strangely prophetic letter to Ellen in Tallahassee, a fragment of
which has survived: "The withdrawal of troops from the Missis-
sippi is significant. It indicates the abandonment of the west, and
the approach of the death struggle at Richmond. It will be terrible
and fatal. The short and brilliant military career of the Southern
Confederacy will end, like the going down of the sun in its
meridian glory. It will have no declension, no waning of its
resplendent light. It will win undying fame with the slaughter of
thousands and the ruin of a whole people. My heart sickens in the
contemplation.' '28
Of all the people in Ellen Call's life only her father never
failed to measure up to her expectations. He had the relentless,
driving ambition of the American frontier, and the qualities of
political and military leadership which she so admired. Ellen was


Xttii


INTRODUCTION.







INTRODUCTION. xiii
her father's daughter. No son could have been created more in
the father's image. They shared the same keen intellect, the same
flair for self-expression, the same tremendous vitality and zest
for living, the same generous and affectionate nature, and the
same deadly sin of pride, to the point of arrogance.
At the war's end Ellen urged her son Richard to go to college,
but he chose instead to join his father in Texas. After two years
he came home to Ellen; and since he had no prospects, she put
him in charge of her plantations. Richard seemed to have no inter-
est in the land, so back he went to Texas to study law with his
father. He visited Tallahassee long enough to marry Cora Gamble
and took her back to Texas with him. She stayed a few months
and then came home and refused adamantly to return to her hus-
band. Mrs. Long, to save the marriage, persuaded Richard to come
home, and offered him and his family "a home free of board as
long as necessary." He and his wife and two children lived with
Mrs. Long about twelve years.29
Also with the war's end Ellen began to devote her considerable
energies to both writing and causes. Believing with her father
that the Union should never have been dissolved, she was now
ready to do everything she could to try to bring the South back
into its accustomed place in national life. The plans for celebrat-
ing the centennial of the United States gave her a chance to work
again with northern friends on a project for the country at large.
In 1874 she was elected Corresponding Secretary for the state of
Florida for the Centennial Exposition to be held in Philadelphia.30
This was in recognition of work already done in Florida in try-
ing to get women's groups to have teas and parties to raise money
for the proposed exposition. It was an uphill task because most
Florida ladies could not summon up enthusiastic support for this
undertaking. In 1872 one of Ellen's correspondents wrote that it
would be impossible to have a party in Chattahoochee. "Fifteen
years bitter struggle has crushed nearly every speck of patriotism
from the Southern breast. It will be hard to bury the past."31
The ladies in Quincy pleaded the excuse of protracted meet-
ings, and in Fernandina Mrs. David Levy Yulee politely refused







INTRODUCTION.


to head the Centennial Committee there, without deigning to
give an excuse.32 But Mrs. Long was not one to give up easily;
she did persuade some Florida ladies to send their handiwork to
be sold at the Cincinnati Centennial Festival in 1875. A report
from Cincinnati stated: "A few choice articles in fish scale work
sold readily, unmanufactured feathers were in demand, feather
flowers and coarse shell work would not sell at any price. We
could have sold a carload of dried grasses and moss. If Southern
ladies would preserve these things they might find a ready market
for them."33 The most enthusiastic support for the Centennial
seemed to come from Key West, where Joseph B. Browne reported
that a Centennial ball had raised $155.00.34
Ellen was also active in the campaign to make Mount Vernon
a national shrine. Even before the war she and her father had
sought to raise money for the purchase of Washington's home. In
a speech made to a meeting of a ladies association in Tallahassee
in 1856, Call had ranked Mount Vernon in importance with the
Holy Sepulchre. In 1875 it was Harrison Reed's suggestion that
Mrs. Long should replace Mrs. Yulee as Regent for Florida of
the Mount Vernon Association, since Mrs. Yulee had not attended
meetings.35
The governors of Florida were quick to recognize Ellen's work
in these various patriotic undertakings. It was said that Mrs. Long
knew personally every governor of Florida from Andrew Jackson
to Napoleon Bonaparte Broward. She seemed to be on good terms
with them all, whether native Southerner or carpetbagger, whether
Democrat or Republican. Governor Marcellus L. Stearns, a Yan-
kee, appointed her Florida's delegate to the Centennial Exposi-
tion in Philadelphia in 1876, and Governor William D. Bloxham,
a native Floridian, appointed her as one of two Lady Commis-
sioners to represent the state of Florida at the New Orleans World
Exhibition in 1884. The year before he had appointed her to
represent Florida on the Columbian Liberty Bell Committee. The
highest honor came when Governor Edward A. Perry appointed
Mrs. Long as one of the commissioners for Florida to the Paris
Exposition. Ellen sailed for Paris in 1889. She almost called off


X/IV









the trip because of the illness of her son, but was assured by
Richard's doctor that he would be taken care of and that she
should go on with her plans. In November, 1889, she wrote that
she was leaving for London and would sail for New York the
middle of December. She added that she was homesick for her
family.36
Though Ellen was traveling widely, and was busily engaged in
work for various organizations, her financial assets were rapidly
dwindling. Richard Keith Call had died a well-to-do man. His
considerable property had been divided between his two daughters
for their lifetime, with Mary Call Brevard receiving a propor-
tionate share in terms of what had already been deeded to Ellen
(the Grove and a large plantation on Lake Jackson).37 The Civil
War and the subsequent collapse of the cotton market had been a
blow to the Calls, as it was to most planter families. Ellen, accus-
tomed to money, continued to live well and to treat all her family
generously long after she could afford to do so. Richard Call Long
seemed to lack the drive which both his mother and his grand-
father had, and he also suffered from poor health, so there was
no one to recoup the family fortunes. Ellen bore the burden of
dealing with creditors and trying to raise money for mortgages.
In 1904, at the age of seventy-nine, she was about to lose the
Grove because of a $3,000 mortgage she was unable to pay. Her
granddaughter, Reinette Gamble Long, Richard's daughter, came
to Tallahassee with her husband, E. C. Hunt, just as the mortgage
was about to be foreclosed. Mr. Hunt offered to help, and it was
Mrs. Long's understanding that he would go to New York to try
to borrow the money for her. She discovered later that the papers
she had signed for Mr. Hunt actually deeded the Grove, and an-
other piece of land known as the Union Bank property, to him. In
several anguished appeals to her lawyer, Frederick T. Myers, Mrs.
Long explained the situation as she understood it, and asked that
something be done to stop what she considered to be a fraudulent
act. She was particularly distressed because she thought her son
and his family had been a party to the business.38 Richard, now
an invalid, wrote his mother concerning "this abominable business


INTRODUCTION


XV/








snarl we have gotten into." He denied that he had instigated Mr.
Hunt in any of his dealings with his mother, but added that he
felt that what Mr. Hunt had done was "a most sympathetic,
honorable and unselfish endeavor . to assist you in a crisis
from which you, I, and your attorneys had failed utterly to devise
any means of escape." According to Richard Long, Mr. Hunt not
only paid the $3,000, he offered Ellen a $600 annuity and life
occupancy of the house, and, said Richard, "The property was
virtually gone, but a few hours intervened between you and evic-
tion, where on earth would you have found shelter next day?"39
Whatever might have been the true story of the transaction, it
was a bitter blow to a proud and generous woman to know that
she, who had always scattered largesse, was now the object of
charity. There is no doubt that her spirit and her health were
broken by it, for she soon took to her bed with a lingering illness
and died a year later. Her handwritten will, dated September 2,
1904, gave preference to her daughter, Mrs. E. K. Hollinger, who
was named executrix and who was left her mother's personal
property and the Union Bank property which Ellen had purchased
after her father's death. The property received from Richard Keith
Call was entailed and was to be divided between her two children.
There is no mention in the will that the Grove and the Union
Bank property had gone to Mr. Hunt. Mrs. Long wrote, "Par-
tiality I think is only seeming in the division of my property.
Mrs. E. K. Hollinger is alone in the world with children to edu-
cate and support, whereas I have given my son a home for wife
and children for ten or twelve years without charge and much
help in money in attending years besides a few acres of land
lying east of Grove residence . and at no time has he been less
personally endeared to me than my daughter." The will was wit-
nessed by her sister, Mary Call Brevard, and her two nieces, Caro-
line Mays Brevard and Jane Kirkman Brevard.40
Ellen Call Long would have been a remarkable woman in any
age. In her own era she was truly exceptional. Though she cher-
ished what was best in plantation life in the old South, she did
not turn inward to a tight, provincial society as did many South-


XVi


INTRODUCTION.







INTRODUCTION. xvii

erners. She remained cosmopolitan rather than provincial in out-
look. She lived by certain steadfast rules, "I have always been a
truthful and honorable woman in all business matters . and in
all matters of 'care-taking' I have been natural and generous to
those depending on me.'"41 She reacted to all situations as her
conscience guided her, and was not swayed by public opinion. The
best illustration of this is her support of a Negro for postmaster
of Tallahassee in 1882. Former Governor Harrison Reed had
written to Mrs. Long in the fall of 1881 to suggest that Ellen her-
self be appointed as postmaster, but she declined, saying: "It is
not to my taste, but in the first place I promised to recommend
Mr. Stewart."42 Stewart (or Steward) was the Reverend William
G. Stewart, who had first come to Florida in 1865 to organize
the African Methodist Church.43 He had asked Mrs. Long to
speak to the Florida Congressional delegation in his behalf when
she visited Washington in 1882, and this she agreed to do for, as
she wrote a fellow Tallahassean who questioned her support of a
Negro: "It is a conviction of mine that when a negro proves him-
self worthy morally and capable intellectually of the rewards of
citizenship by the practice of honesty, & soberness and discre-
tion, he is entitled to enter the list for competitive places of pre-
ferment. This doctrine was taught by Republican pioneers in
Florida and if in its adoption, I out-Herod, Herod, by a practical
recognition of said tenets, it must be charged to that earnestness
with which I always believe or disbelieve."44
It took real fortitude to hold to convictions like these in the
face of public opinion, but Ellen Call Long, a great lady in the
best Southern tradition, never chose the popular or expedient way.

ELLEN CALL LONG THE AUTHOR
Ellen Call Long was a prolific writer. Some of what she wrote
was published, but a great many things were not. Besides her
chief published work, Florida Breezes, there was an account of
Andrew Jackson's strategy at New Orleans entitled The Battle of
New Orleans: Jackson and Packenham, which was published in
New Orleans in 1885. The pamphlet consisted almost entirely of









quotations from Richard Keith Call. She also wrote for periodicals
and newspapers a number of unsigned articles, such as the one
on Prince and Princess Achille Murat, which was published in
Galaxy for June, 1875. Even though the article was unsigned, a
reader in Jacksonville spotted it as one of Mrs. Long's efforts,
and she acknowledged that it was.45
As early as 1870 Mrs. Long was negotiating with Columbus
Drew, of Jacksonville, for the publication of her father's papers
or a biography of him. Drew suggested that a biography might be
sold on a subscription basis. He asked for the manuscript and,
after reading it, wrote back, "I cannot say that I am in a situation
to publish the book." He felt it needed culling and that it was
already too late to get it in shape to publish by the winter of
1870.46
Mrs. Long, searching for some money-making proposition for
the South, decided to try silkworms. She threw herself whole-
heartedly into research on the subject, and soon became a leading
authority. She and her granddaughter, Reinette Gamble Long,
raised silkworms in one of the cottages at the rear of the Grove.
Some of their silk was used to make a Florida flag which Mrs.
Long presented to the state at the time of Governor Edward A.
Perry's inauguration.47 Mrs. Long's experiments resulted in her
illustrated monograph, Silk Farming in Florida, which was pub-
lished in Philadelphia in 1883.
The manuscript of what was to be Florida Breezes was in the
works for many years. Finally, in 1881, Harrison Reed wrote that
he thought the time was ripe for publication. Reed had been busy
editing the Semi-Tropical, a monthly magazine devoted to South-
ern progress and published in Jacksonville. Ellen had been a
contributor to the now defunct journal. Reed offered to donate
his services in preparing her work for book publication because
of all Ellen had done for Florida, and for the Semi-Tropical
which he hoped to revive. Ashmead Brothers in Jacksonville
agreed to bring out the book at Reed's request, but they balked
at Ellen's proposed title, "Nothing New But What's Forgotten."
They thought it was "liable to criticism and not technically cor-


xvill


INTRODUCTION.









rect."48 They wanted to use "Breezes" but finally consented to
"Florida Breezes, or Nothing New But What's Forgotten." Actu-
ally the book was published under the title of Florida Breezes, or
Florida Old and New. Reed added that Ellen would notice many
errors in the book, but assured her the publisher would be held
responsible for these and not the author. Apparently Ellen did
not proofread any of the book, since the errata sheet (after page
401) lists thirty-three errors which are called the most flagrant.
Actually there are many errors scattered throughout the book,
which must have been anathema to a perfectionist in the art of
writing like Ellen Call Long. An example of an error not men-
tioned in the errata sheet is in the account of the visit to Hardy
Bryan Croom (123) who discovered the Torreya (not Torrier)
tree and named it for Dr. John Torrey (not Torry).
Mrs. Long says that most of the material in Florida Breezes
was gathered from her father "in fireside chats and forest ram-
blings" (Dedication). Though it is actually a book of reminiscences
about ante-bellum life in Middle Florida, she used the literary
device of having her story told by a fictional character named
Harry Barclay, a Bostonian who had to come to Florida for his
health, and who decided to visit an old college friend, Guy Mc-
Lean, in Tallahassee. This gave Mrs. Long the chance to make a
case for the Southern way of life to a visiting Yankee. She was
also able to picture her father in the best possible light as both
soldier and statesman, particularly the part played by him in the
Battle of Withlacoochee during the Second Seminole War. Bar-
clay arrived in Florida in 1835, remained for two exciting years,
regained his health, and went back to Boston. The first part of
the book is concerned with his journey to Florida, including a
stopover in Washington which gives Mrs. Long an opportunity to
praise Andrew Jackson and discuss the Peggy Eaton affair. Upon
landing at St. Marks in Florida, Barclay is met by McLean and is
immediately caught up in the social whirl of Tallahassee and the
surrounding plantations. It is in this first part of the book that
Mrs. Long does her best writing. She pictures plantation life at
its romantic best-gracious hospitality, bountiful feasts, witty


xix


INTRODUCTION.








conversations, faithful slaves, and kind masters. The ladies discuss
the heroes and heroirfes of Sir Walter Scott "as if they lived in
the next town" (132) and the gentlemen not only read the Spirit
of the Times, but one of them, Captain William Stockton, contrib-
uted to it under the nom de plume of Cor de Chasse (218).
There is a fascinating chapter on the "Code Duello," several
Indian legends that were worth preserving and might otherwise
have been lost, and a description of a sugar boiling. Oddly
enough, Mrs. Long's best word pictures are drawn, not in describ-
ing her own stratum of society, but in the vignettes on the brief
contacts Barclay has with the small farmer (52-54) and the
Southern poor white (170).
At the end of two happy years, Barclay went back to Boston,
and the next part of the book is a series of letters, interspersed
with poetry, by Guy McLean in Tallahassee and Barclay in Bos-
ton. Here Mrs. Long can cast the shadows of the coming Civil
War while making the point that the Union must be preserved.
The actual war letters in the final chapters of the book are from
Ruth, Guy McLean's niece in Tallahassee, and from Barclay in
Boston, a correspondence between two moderates who deplore
the fighting and bloodshed and long for peace.
Ellen Call Long had another manuscript on the history of
Florida including biographical sketches of well-known Floridians.
Mrs. R. E. Ellis, a friend in Aripeka, Florida, had read some of
the sketches and thought a book which included them "would be
a valuable contribution to the historian."49 Mrs. Ellis sought the
aid of a publisher, Ludwig Swift, but he thought there was noth-
ing he could do with the manuscript. As he put it, "The writing
is like some luxuriant garden, full of many charming, but also
too gorgeous flowers and shrubs, yet overwhelmingly decked with
weeds, undergrowth and undesirable vegetation."50 Perhaps the
same comment could be made on the unevenness of the writing in
Florida Breezes.
Mrs. Long herself was not satisfied with Florida Breezes, and
she had written to Maurice Thompson, a popular writer of the
day and author of A Tallahassee Girl, for advice. Thompson


INTRODUCTION.


XX







INTRODUCTION.


asked for a copy of the book as printed so that he could judge
whether or not to offer it to a publisher when it had been revised.
He insisted he do this without remuneration since "authors have
a sorry enough time at best" without charging each other. In a
second letter Thompson told of his happy memories of Tallahas-
see in the time he spent there collecting material for his book.
He added that he saw the "Tallahassee girl" while he was there,
but that he never knew her name.51
Regardless of the uneven quality of Florida Breezes, the work
itself is invaluable as a social history of ante-bellum Florida. Mrs.
Long had an intimate knowledge of the people and the events
about which she wrote. She has preserved a record of manners
and customs, of dress and entertainment, of gossip and legend,
that might otherwise be lost.
Ellen Call Long, as a rule, expressed herself very well. Perhaps
this quality shows up better in her letters than in Florida Breezes.
The fault of the writing in the book is that there is too much of
it, and some of it is grandiloquent, but this was common to the
times.
Florida Breezes was not too well received in Florida. A bio-
graphical sketch of Mrs. Long suggests that Floridians "did not
relish its candor." It was said that "the entire edition, or as much
of it as could be located, was bought up and destroyed."52 It
seems likely that some of the "barrage of criticism" of which
the article speaks might have been directed at Mrs. Long, herself,
as well as at the book. The first printing of Florida Breezes occur-
red in 1882, which was the same year that Mrs. Long supported
William G. Stewart for postmaster in Tallahassee. This might
well have been a contributing factor to the cool reception which
the book received. Whatever the reason, it is true that there are
few copies of Florida Breezes extant. It is a collector's item, and
few Floridians have had a chance to read a copy. This new fac-
simile edition will make it possible for a great many more people
to find out what life was like in ante-bellum Florida.


MARGARET LOUISE CHAPMAN


xxI








NOTES.


1. Weekly True Democrat (Tallahassee), Dec. 22, 1905.
2. Caroline Mays Brevard, A History of Florida . ed. James Alexander
Robertson (2 vols., DeLand: Florida Historical Society, 1924-25), I, 198n.
3. Weekly True Democrat, Dec. 22, 1905.
4. Andrew Jackson to R. K. Call, Apr. 9, 1826, Call Papers, Southern
Historical Collection, University of North Carolina.
5. Herbert J. Doherty, Jr., Richard Keith Call, Southern Unionist
(Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1961), pp. 33-34.
6. Doherty, p. 43.
7. Doherty, pp. 51-52.
8. Ellen Call to Mrs. R. K. Call, July 18, 1835, Call Papers, Florida
Historical Society, University of South Florida, E.C. to Mrs. R.K.C., Aug.
24 [1835], Call Papers, U.N.C.
9. Doherty, p. 93.
10. Doherty, p. 66.
11. Parenthetical citations in the text are to pages in Florida Breezes.
12. R.K.C. to Mrs. Barbara Kirkman, Mar. 3, 1836, Call Papers, U.N.C.
13. E.C. to R.K.C., Mar. 1836, Call Papers, F.H.S.
14. R.K.C. to M. A. Long, Nov. 24, 1847, Call Papers, U.N.C.
15. R.K.C. to E.C., Apr. 23, 1837; R.K.C. to Mrs. Ellen Kirkman, Jan.
4, 1839, May 26, 1840, June 29, 1841, Dec. 10, 1842, Call Papers, U.N.C.
16. Kate [Kirkman?] to E.C., Jan. 8, 1843, Call Papers, U.N.C.
17. Doherty, p. 135.
18. R.K.C. to Mrs. E.K., May 25, 1846, Call Papers, U.N.C.
19. R.K.C. to E. C. Long, Aug. 23, 1853; H. Douglas to E.C.L., Apr. 18,
1857, Call Papers, U.N.C.
20. Edwin H. Ewing to M.A.L., Aug. 20, 1847; R.K.C. to M.A.L., Nov.
24, 1847; M.A.L. to E.H.E., Nov. 25, 1847; E.H.E. to M.A.L., Mar. 12,
1849, Jan. 17, 1850, Call Papers, U.N.C.
21. Doherty, pp. 149, 151, 154.
22. H. Douglas to E.C.L., Aprl. 15, 1849, Apr. 18, 1857, Call Papers,
U.N.C.
23. A copy of the deed is in Call Papers, F.H.S.
24. Brevard, I, 198n.
25. Doherty, pp. 155-58.
26. Mary Y. Holmes to E.C.L., Jan. 26, 1861; E. R. Lea to E.C.L., Jan.
26, Feb. 15, 1861, Call Papers, U.N.C.
27. "Richard Call Long," unsigned typescript, Florida State Library,
Tallahassee; T. W. Brevard to Mary Call Brevard, Feb. 2, 1865, Call Papers,
F.H.S.; Doherty, p. 161; unsigned fragment in E.C.L.'s handwriting, Call
Papers, F.H.S.
28. R.K.C. to E.C.L., May, 1862, Call Papers, F.H.S.
29. E.C.L. to F. T. Myers, May, 1940, Call Papers, F.H.S.
30. Alice C. Ewing to E.C.L., Mar. 1, 1874, Call Papers, U.N.C.
31. Ida Wood to E.C.L., Apr. 8, 1872, Call Papers, U.N.C.

xxii



















32. Minnie White to E.C.L., Jan. 27, 1875; Nannie C. Yulee to E.C.L.,
Dec. 10, 1874, Call Papers, U.N.C.
33. Mrs. E. F. Noyes to E.C.L., June 4, 1875, Call Papers, U.N.C.
34. Joseph B. Browne to E.C.L., Jan. 13, 1876, Call Papers, U.N.C.
35. Brevard, 1, 198n; Doherty, p. 154; Harrison Reed to E.C.L., Dec.
15, 1875, Call Papers, U.N.C.
36. Brevard, I, 198n; N. L. Mitchell to E.C.L., Mar. 25, 1883; M. L.
Moore to E.C.L., June 20, 1889; E.C.L. to T. T. Wright, Nov. 20, 1889,
Call Papers, U.N.C.
37. A typewritten copy of the will is in Call Papers, F.H.S.
38. E.C.L. to F. T. Myers, May, 1904, and 2 undated, Call Papers, F.H.S.
39. R. C. Long to E.C.L., May 24, 1904, Call Papers, F.H.S.
40. "Last Will and Testament of Ellen Call Long," File 1270, County
Judge's Office, Leon County, Tallahassee, Fla.
41. E.C.L. to F.T.M., May, 1904.
42. Harrison Reed to E.C.L., Sept. 10, 1881; E.C.L. to A. Hopkins, Apr.
1, 1882, Call Papers, U.N.C.
43. Charles Summer Long, History of the A.M.E. Church in Florida
(Palatka, 1939), p. 52.
44. E.C.L. to A.H., Apr. 1, 1882, Call Papers, U.N.C.
45. T. W. Osborne to E.C.L., June 9, 1875, Call Papers, U.N.C.
46. Columbus Drew to E.C.L., Mar. 11, 1870, Call Papers, U.N.C.
47 "Ellen Call Long," unsigned typescript, Florida State Library, Talla-
hassee.
48. H.R. to E.C.L., Sept. 10, 1881, June 30, 1882, Call Papers, U.N.C.
49. Leonora B. Ellis to E.C.L., May 22 [1904], Call Papers, U.N.C.
50. Ludwig Swift to Mrs. R. E. Ellis, July 6, 1904, Call Papers, F.H.S.
51. Maurice Thompson to E.C.L., Nov. 13, 1883, Oct. 13, 1885, Call
Papers, U.N.C.
52. Lucy Worthington Blackman, The Women of Florida (Jacksonville,
1940), I, 89-90.


xx///


NOTES.













FLORIDA


BREEZES


O R,


FLORIDA, NEW AND OLD,

BY

ELLEN CALL LONG







FLORIDA


BREEZES;


OR,


FLORIDA, NEW AND OLD,



BY




ELLEN CALL LONG


JACKSONVILLE, FLA.:
ASHMEAD BROS., BOOKSELLERS, STATIONERS,
PRINTERS AND BINDERS.
1883.






































Entered according to Act of Congress in the year lSS:I,
By ASHMEAD BROTHERS,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.

All rights reserved.


















I DO not think that I can more appropriately dedicate this
book than to the memory of my Father, RICHARD KEITH CALL,
from whom in fireside talks and forest ramblings, I gathered
most of the material herewith reflected; which, if I could render
in his finished language and toned emphasis, would be greatly
enhanced by grace and fact.
History records his work-Memory recalls his eloquence-
and the fields of Tallashatchee, Talladega, Emuckfaw, Enoto-
chopco, Pensacola, New Orleans, Withlacoochie and Washoo
witness his valor ; and in the vicissitudes of national progress
mid passions' blaze, he plead with the North for life; and to the
South in prophetic warning he told the tale at which, since, the
world has paled and trembled; and while Freedom drooped he
died, despairing to save. But Time has proved his disregarded
word, and the honor and glory of his country is the recompense.
Yet higher still is the recollection of his moral worth, and
the generous impulse of his noble heart, for they can never die
in the hearts of those who knew and loved him best; and here
as a grateful daughter, I render him honor. E. C. L.










INTRODUCTION.


|gLORIDA was somewhat remarkable in its history, and its
Early social life is interesting and worth preserving, in con-
j.'trast with the present and probable future; and though not
exclusively of this section, I have made a record of facts and
I events, gathered traditionally as well as from personal
I knowledge, that I think will find favor. The semi-romance
of the style does not admit always of chronological exactness, but,
except the medium of narration, the characters are all verita-
ble people and events-real matters of fact. With these, I have
mingled a little of slavery, that our children's children may know
how a great evil grew upon the Southern people, and in what
patience of duty they accepted it-and there is intertwined a
thread of Indian presence, merely to distinguish individual merit
or make sequence of time.
Of the ten letters referring to the civil war, they are merely a
contemporary record of rumors and opinions made without refer-
ence to publication at the hour of announcement; and, though
they do not always correspond with subsequent reports, they are
interesting from that very difference. Nothing existed long; the
rumor of to-day gave place to that of to-morrow, and it was
months (even if we know it now,) before judgment secured the
truth. News came and went through doubtful channels; some-
times a whisper was wafted through the picket lines, a smuggled
letter, or newspaper, or memoranda found on the battle-field,
subjected to bias representation-were the only sources of infor-
mation, and these are now curious from their incongruity with
later thought and action; and, although it may be denied by
some that the popular feeling of either section is expressed, yet
the fact that the record was made daily, proves at least, that such
things were said by the way. The correspondents are waifish, and

























VI INTRODUCTION.

there are discrepancies in date, but, with the glamour of a love-
knot, I hope it may hold fast.
I have purposely avoided a more extended account, or anec-
dotes of individual suffering and depredations during the civil
war, because of the numberless books already furnished the read-
ers on these subjects.
Sept. 9, 1880. E. C. L.










FLORIDA BREEZES.


CHAPTER I.

BOSTON.

It was September 18,
From an invalid's bed, nothing met the eye outward, upward,
below, far or near, but snow-clad roofs, icicled eves and frosted
pavements, while my poor body racked painfully within the stone
walled climate of a furnace-coughing, chilled and feverish by
turns, a condition little cheered by the gruff voice of my Doctor,
who growled like one who had arrived at a conclusion.
You must be off South, sir! or you are a dead man. You
can't breathe here, and you know people die sometimes for want
of that very simple thing. Too many books. The health of the
body is now the best study for you. Go South you must; where
you can live out of doors, develop muscular strength and vital
vigor-knowledge is nothing unless it brings health."
For the sake of all that is good, M. D., don't send me down
among the Indians and negroes to be scalped or massacred. I
would far rather take my chances for life in this warm room."
Chances! I tell you, man, there are no chances here. It is
settled-you die if you stay. This nonsense about coal bring-
ing the tropics to your chamber won't do, and even grant that,
you could as easily extract sunbeams from a cucumber as life
from vitiated hot air. And this reminds me that rattlesnakes
are said to smell like cucumbers, and this in turn that I want a
specimen of his snakeship-so with your gun, rod and traps be
off-ten feet of snake and forty-five rattles is my order. Leave
it for politicians tb tip their glasses over the tomfoolery about
Indians and negroes, and if needful, old maids can sip their tea,
the devil take them all; we might have less of winter even here
in Boston, but for their cold blasts of fanaticismm"
But, Doctor, I might die down South."
"Well, sir, if you do, I suppose they can find dirt enough to
cover you-and, sir, if die you must, see that you die game.
Find comfort in having the magnolia and myrtle soughing over
you. So go to the land where the "Citron blows," the Orange







FLORIDA BREEZES.


glows," and the Laurel and the Myrtle grow freshly "-death
or the South; take your choice."
Thus, the gruff old man, bringing Goethe to his aid, disposed
of me, repeating the refrain until the heavy door of the house
shut him out, thinking of me only as one less off his suffering roll.
And, indeed, as all the wild stories of Indian massacre, and
negro abuse, crowded my mind, the alternative weighed equally
in the balance, as far as will to accept or reject, but finally I
emfibraced the situation and determined to make the best of it,
which was the more easy when I recalled the frequent invitations
of a college chum to the hospitalities of his Southern home; and
more than all it was in the whilom Spanish Peninsula he lived,
and to him I wrote for advice and sympathy, receiving by return
of mail (a period of weeks,) the answer which faith in my friend as-
sured me so certainly of, that I commenced at once my preparations
for the journey and sojourn South, pronounced so imperative in
my case.
My dear old Aunt Hepzibah, with moistened eye and often
nervous hands, packed my trunk in the first days of M. D.'s
order, but daily thereafter, and sometimes more than once per
day, the contents were overhauled to add and to perfect. The
robe and slippers-vestments for the lowest, highest and inter-
mediate temperature were provided-buttons and tapes were
doubly secured, rolls of flannel and linen, vials as variously
labeled as tinctured-all going to prove her fixed idea that I was
banished beyond the confines of civilization. Above all and
conspicuously was the Book of Books, in blue and gold, and the
Prayer book to match, on which I smiled with some self-reproach
as I remembered the solicitude of school days-that placed the
same valued guides among my effects on each successive annual
packing, only varying, the color .or cost of binding, the un-
tarnished gilt of which was my questionable accuser on my
return-but a kiss and the declaration that I thought too much
of them as her gifts to make common use of them, satisfied my
good Aunty, who had little in life to love beside her orphaned
nephew.

Ready, yet I waited, but without reason, as the following
whole-hearted letter expressed:

My DEAR BARCLAY.-Why was not the Doctor's mandate
and your coming simultaneous ? When-I reflect that your letter
to me and answer thereto are subjected to the detentions incident
to swollen rivers, bad roads, as well as drunken drivers of dilapi-
dated stages, I am mortified and harrassed, and hasten to say







WASHINGTON.


come at once. I wish you could bestride the clouds or electric
flashes of a prevailing thunder storm and dash into an ethereal
bath some thirty or forty degrees higher than the frosty air that
surrounds you. I hail almost with delight the cause of your
coming, for I know that the panacea awaits you here in the
restorative of Gulf breeze and a wealth of sunshine. Throw
physic to the dogs, dear boy-make a Fourth of July of your
bottles and pills; declare your independence of all such impists;
come to our highlands, and you shall have a welcome as broad
as our fields, 'and where nature will battle by your side for a con-
stitution that will defy over-taxation of any kind; in short, be it
tuberculosis or tic doloreaux, you shall here take up your bed and
walk; only metaphorically, dear fellow, for Southern hospitality
requires a darkey to do all chores (I borrow the word), and fortu-
nately for them they cannot assume our heartaches or physical
troubles.
The disappointed "settler," who reported forty bushels of
frogs to the acre, and alligators sufficient to fence them, explains
your sarcasm, speculating as you do of web feet and amphibious
habits. Look to your charts and you will see that, though three-
fourths of Florida is under water, there is yet land equal to two
or three of the New England States firm and wooded, inviting all
the sport we have so often contemplated in former chimney talks.
Beside your city preparations for red snapper and pompano fish-
ing are unnecessary ; lazy Indians and idle dejos will initiate you
into ways natural to the waters. But really nothing is neces-
sary, and yet this long letter, which only means, come come !
The 'good-bye' was said with tears and sobs on the part of my
devoted Aunt, but the hope of health, inspired by the hospitable
letter of McLean, buoyed me above all present considerations,
and I rushed from old Boston's commons as a groom to meet his
bride-as the caged bird to freedom.
WASHINGTON.
A little of railway, very much of steamboat route, and some
of road staging brought me, in the course of three or four days,
to the Capital of the country, Federal City," as Washington
called it, which I found a primitive village, unbusiness-like, here
and there a good house, then vast waters. The Capitol and the
Palace (or as now more frequently called the White House,) are
the features of the place, with the varied characters who assemble
here furnishing its attractions.
Never out of New England before, the interest of novelty
attends everything I see and hear in the nation's ten miles square,
which affords a stage, upon which strut divers actors, and many







FLORIDA BREEZES.


puppet players, foreign as well as home-bred. At one moment a
gilded equipage, with livery, dashes by, as well as mud and stones
-will permit, bearing some bedizened representative of a foreign
court, like which we have never seen before, except in Cin-
derella illustrated. Then a time worn country landau whose
well-used harness trappings and ebony driver, tell of another
people; and the well-poised dignity of the occupants declare them
of not less consequence; and up and down everywhere are pedes-
trians and equestrians of this great company, eager and waiting
for the cue that is to lead them on to fortune or distinction; and
as I walked beside Goose Creek once, Tiber now ;"* I wonder
what Statesman this-what hero that-my preconceived ideas
not admitting anything common-place into this national arena.
The collective wisdom of the nation attracted me first to the
Capitol, and as I ascended the broad steps and entered its halls,
a feeling of individual proprietorship filled my heart, and I
realized perhaps more than at any other moment of my life the
proud privilege of being an American citizen-an elation not
dispelled as I viewed from the galleries the luminaries of the land.
The American Cincinnatus was prominent, (Nat Macon,) who
goes from Congress halls to follow his plough, preferring to fill
his own, to living upon the people's crib, and whose name has
become synonymous with the highest integrity; and Webster's
well-developed form and lustrous eye bespeak the man within.
Clay and Calhoun show the well-bred polished gentlemen they
are, whose statesmanship is too well recognized to admit of com-
ment from a mere looker on in Vienna." But Randolph, the
Ishmaelite of politicians, forces notice, however impertinent in a
tyro like myself, especially when he enters Congress halls with
boots and spurs, whip in hand, followed by his hound. His lean
lank form, his clear thin voice, so little suggest the intellect
awarded, that when my attention was directed to him I involun-
tarily exclaimed, 'can't be!' He is certainly the nearest ap-
proach to a disembodied spirit that I have ever seen, so little of
the one, so gigantic in the other. He spares neither friend nor
foe in the interest of the people. Their sovereignty and no con-
cession are his fixed principles, and moved by his earnestness he
crushes an opponent -by a single blow, and in a few words or an
apt anecdote, false promises vanish as mist before the sun. The
mysteries of the duel between himself and Clay are yet too recent
not to be discussed, and the cause well illustrates the concentrated
power of a few words from him-" Puritan and Blackleg "-and
the contrast further presented by the heroes of Tom Jones "
expressed more venom than an hour's invective from most men.
*Tom Moore.







WASHINGTON.


Even the fair sex do not escape unscathed, whom frequently visit
the halls ostensibly to hear the debates, for only a few days since
he threw a shell among them that caused eyes to flash, and silk
to rustle. Arising from his seat, he sharply asked: Mr.
Speaker, I wish to know what are all these women doing here ?
Their place is at home, attending to their knitting and house-
wifery." It was well doubtless for him that he was screened by
parliamentary rule, or he might have suffered by the retort
courteous." And yet with all his talent, he says he would rather
have the physical strength of a negro, than the wisdom of
Solomon.
This gilded puddle is not without its muddy places, and a
nearer acquaintance proves that the great, good and happy are
here as elsewhere. the exceptions; and cringing, time-serving
deference to those in power or high station, give the'reverse of
the picture.
But Congress is indulging at present in a "masterly inac-
tivity," and, therefore, they present the aspect of ordinary men,
and might be sitting in a county or municipal body, charac-
terized by a bow,.or a smile. It is only when occasion calls that
mind and principle contend, and with the ebb and flow of public
sentiment they speak and act history; but, for the nonce, they
are as the limpid lake that may be lashed into fury by a prevail-
ing storm. Foreign representation, and the different types of
men and women meeting here Trom the East, West and South,
give a very cosmopolitan character to the place. The learned
statesman, the revolutionary patriot, the long, loud, large West-
ern man, who are as distinct from the Virginian and Southern
man, as Russia's Minister from that of France. From the prox-
imity of the State, Virginia prevails, which is, and is always to be,
as much so as the marked race of Israel, a unit in allegiance or
opposition. Their Royal named counties tell of a former love,
but the now pride in. State tell of a patriotism born of a revolu-
tionary struggle higher and greater, because gained through suf-
fering. And though proud of Virginia's confederate action
during the war-proud of her federalism-they are still more
proud that she was the first to resolve against the encroachments
of power, and the years 1798-99 is the higera of their greatness
as the house of Burgesses is their political Alma Mater-proud
as Lucifer, chivalrous as Knight Templars, polite without pomp,
kind and cordial, they bear over all the manner of those accus-
tomed to command. Their dress even is distinctive, consisting
of a blue coat, brass buttons and ruffled shirt, make almost an
uniform complete with the gold finished cane, which, with them,
gives emphasis to speech as the fan does with ladies fair.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


All my life on New England soil, I am for the first time face
to face with slavery-always more or less the subject of conver-
sation iii Southern circles, and having looked on the one from a
Northern standpoint, to some extent, I wish disinterestedly and
fairly to look upon the other; which advantage I shall most
likely enjoy, for it is safe to predict that wherever two or three
are gathered together the subject of conversation is slavery, dis-
cussed constitutionally, and what they term as impertinent inter-
ference. A listener, I only record what I heard among them,
and thus they talk: "At the convention made to amend the
Constitution we were deluded, and the difference between confed-
eration and consolidation is just that power that enables Northern
slanderers to meddle with our domestic matters-great imperti-
nence to say the least-as they suffer none of the consequences
of slavery, and if it is a sin, it is our own." But while defiant,
they are yet boastful that one Virginian (Patrick Henry,) was
not deceived, but saw the trap to "State's Rights," and gave
warning of the larva, that has quickened into discord, fulminated
in petitions against evils and cruelties that have no existence,
and in unlawful restrictions, as offensive as unjust. And although
(they say,) slavery was entailed upon us, it was Southern fore-
sight that first moved to curtail its importation beyond 1808,
after which it was to be criminal and piratical, and so punished;
and Virginia early moved to make a code by which it should be
a truly patriarchal institution, and by which the negro's welfare
should not be dependant upon the accident of a good master.
And although Patrick Henry, Washington, Madison, Jefferson,
Randolph, Monroe and Clay were all slave-holders, the anti-
slavery sentiment arose in the South long before Quakers and
Abolitionists invoked their ill-spirits; and in the South theafeel-
ing was higher in its purity, based upon acquaintance and self-
sacrifice. The philanthropy of the East was easy, it involved
no loss. And seeing the evils that must result from an increase
of slaves, a colonization society was formed for the transport of
negroes to Liberia, and that colony was especially under the
auspices of slave-holders, and hundreds of negroes were volun-
tarily freed by their owners, and shipped to the African coast,
and if it could be allowed to progress it most likely would meet
all the necessities of the case. But the majority of Missouri, and
her advent as a State, was the bugle note of conflict, and where
vague ideal imaginings had before prevailed, adverse prejudice
succeeded and established a principle, and champions pro and
con were arrayed in almost frenzied bitterness. By what right
(say these Virginians) do we, the North, interdict slavery any
where, when the Constitution says expressly the States shall de-







WASHINGTON.


cide that question for themselves ? John Randolph, before an
anti-slavery mail, said, no compromises stand by the Constitution!
but Henry Clay and even Calhoun (in his own State) sustained a
compromise. What (says Randolph) is the South to gain by a
compromise ? The matter is potentous of evil, nip it in its birth."
And he had as much venom for the South that offered the com-
promise as for the dough-faces (as he termed them) that ac-
cepted it.
And as certainly as it was agreed that there was no more
slavery North of the Territory lying above 36' 30', so was there
no more freedom below it, and a division* made in another in-
terest (that of British subjects) has become the dead line of a
once bravely united people, and there is such a tangled web of
benevolence and malice-of meddling and spite-of policy and
resentment, that the poor negro will suffer by the restrictions im-
posed through interference. No more colonization work-no
more freeing of negroes-no more instruction, because an exten-
sion of these is a tacit acknowledgment of abolition motives.
Nothing certain, however, but that we do not know where we are
wandering in this wilderness of divers teachings. The time
seems momentous, and thus these representatives of a generous,
chivalric brave people talk here within the precincts of our
National Capitol, of the questionable value of the Union, and
TRouP's call "to arms" far down South echoes practical oppo-
sition to Federal rule; and this and these are of what Southern
men prate, and from them it bears a significance not understood
beyond their limits,
Introductory and letters of credit gave me entree to all circles,
of which I availed myself to study this society, which .assumes
all phases. Among the great are often small people dancing
attendance uponi power and fashion. With many others life here
is a daily labor of trifles, idle women and gigling girls seeking
the happiness they do not find at home. Women are very
prominent, and as elsewhere they are good and bad, pretty and
ugly, fashionable and dowdy, and as sometimes elsewhere they
are assailed for questionable manners and conduct. There are
some, doubtless, who neglect opportunities, living merely on
vanity and frivolity, but there are many more who, by grace, in-
telligence and elegance, shed .an influence on society and the
world, as powerful and as essential as is the sun to color the rose
gr to ripen the peach. Women possess the strange gift of put-
ting away out of sight the sterner work of life, and most generally
the elegantly dressed chatterer of nothings could tell of loving
sacrifice, of endurance, practiced in the home circle and in charity
*Mason and Dixon.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


to neighbors, that if common among men, would be harangued
from the forum, pulpit or wherever they could secure listeners; but
these dear almoners of good believe and do and too often suffer.
Yet, while they enjoy, they keep close the curtain over the back
ground of care, and of responsibilities, which men could not and
would not if they could assume. Such I find here (who form the
large proportion) good and attractive, and this would be a deso-
late wilderness without them, even in this city.
The marriage of Miss Delia Lewis to Alphonse Pagent, Secre-
tary of the French legation, gave me an opportunity to see the
elegant and distinguished assembled-the second marriage in the
Palace-the first having been Miss Maria Munroe to M. Gon-
verneur, of New York. The President's house, sometimes called
" Palace," but more frequently the White House," conveys no
idea of finished elegance in its appointments. The east room
is long and empty-three chandeliers with crystal pendants adorn
its length, and under each is placed a circular table, while chairs
and sofas sit close to the walls, which, without pictures, look bare
and cold. My cicerone whispered that, until the present admin-
istration, it was not furnished at all, but was used as a play-room
for children, or as a drying-room for the family wash. Mrs.
Adams was the first mistress of the Palace, and her letters give
the best idea of the Magisterial home, its cold, bare and dark
rooms-of the Capital, its woods, and mud, and the inefficiency of
wood fires to warm, and the difficulty to get fuel even in this
wilderness-of the unhealthfulness from undrained morasses that,
forced Congressmea to board and sleep at Georgetown; and, in
short, there was so little to mark even a town, that the story is
told of an M. C. who, seeking the Capital for the first time, rode
his horse through it before discovering. But the plan proposed
by the Frenchmen, L'ENFANT, if ever perfected will make this
.)ne of the most beautiful cities of the world, crowned as it is with
the sublime grandeur of the Republic's Capitol. The develop-
ment of the chosen locality into a planned city was early checked
by the avarice of speculators who crippled progress by monopolies
and, driving enterprise away, made solitude from which there is
vet no re-action. TOM MOORE, on his visit here, likens it to
Rome-describes squares in morasses, obelisks in trees, and
" shrines unbuilt," to braves yet unborn ;" but how vital the
difference of stagnation-one the union of age, the other only the
waywardness of youth-one ended, the other beginning! A lady
of the old regime told me, with a sigh, of the courtly grace prac-
ticed in the days of WASHINGTON and Adams, who, in cere-
monial life, sustained the prestige of royalty itself. She blamed
Jefferson for abolishing Levee,, but gave Dolly Madison great







WASHINGTON.


credit for the warm-hearted cheerfulness that made the Pilace
attractive under his charge, and drew a pretty picture of that
lady in her bright turbans, so gay, so gracious and hospitable, so
genial in the use of the snuff-box, made an auxiliary to socia-
bility in her graceful hands.
But Dolly's" reign was interrupted by the British burning
the Palace in the year 1814, and it was not until the time of Mr.
Monroe that it was rebuilt in its present style, and not until the
present administration (of President Jackson) that it was finished
and furnished as it is at present. Gen. Jackson is the President
of the people, and the people know it and claim him. The de-
clared policy, that to victor belong the spoils, and consequent
rotation in office, has brought-a clamoring crew to the front,
and produced an upheavel of social strata that drives exclusive-
ness to the rear. From the mountain knobs, from the swamps
and jungles, as well as cities, they come, many merely to shake
hands with Old Hickory, but more frequently to claim reward for
their services and adulation. And though many of them areun-
lettered and unmannered, General Jackson himself is elegant
and courteous in his dignity, unostentatious, having the perfect
ease of manner common to all well-bred. Mr. Jefferson, whose
early training was in the refined circle of a Virginia home, and
subsequently in foreign courts, is said to have wondered where
this favorite of the people learned his manners.
I stopped at the Franklin House, kept by a Mr. O'Neil, the
home or resort especially of the administration, which brought
me somewhat into the magic circle. Moreover, O'Neil, is the
father of America's Helen (Mrs. Eaton, one who has occa-
sioned more discord socially and politically than is common to
women in the modern world), nee Margaret O'Neill whilom Mrs.
Timberlake, and now the wife of Gen. John H. Eaton (once United
States Senator from Tennessee, and later of Gen.Jackson's Cabinet),
is beautiful and fascinating without doubt. Of good height and
graceful form, a wealth of brown hair encircling a face of bright
complexion, made variable in its expression by an ever-sparkling
deep and clear blue eye, with mouth and chin of finished beauty,
together with a vivacious and affable manner, she is the possi-
ble heroine of prose and poetry, and though not yet sung in
ballads, she fills momentous pages in her country's history.
Mrs. Eaton sat in view rolicking and frolicking with two bright
and pretty little girls (her children of the first marriage), while
one of the regime talked as follows:
Her husband, Capt. Timberlake, was on a three years cruise
to the Mediterranean. Gen. Jackson and Gen, Eaton were both
U. S. Senators from Tennessee, and boarded with us at this







FLORIDA BREEZES.


(O'Neal's) house. It was soon evident to every one that Eaton
had fallen a victim to the fascinating Margaret. Friends went
every length to save him. Gen. Jackson himself advised him to
avoid her as the devil; denying and still denying, Eaton promised.
A more noble, amiable, high-toned gentleman never lived than
Eaton; unselfish and self-sacrificing, he promised the most de-
voted friends who made every effort to turn him from this direful
passion. Gen. Jackson made his health an excuse for returning
to Tennessee, and under the pretext of not wishing to travel
alone, gave Eaton a chance of escape, by asking him to accom-
pany him to he Hermitage before the close of the session. The
next morning at breakfast the plan was announced as agreed
upon, neither Eaton or the Timberlakes were present, but the couple
(O'Neils) looked surprised. During the day I left the Capitol
with Gen. Jackson, and as he descended the steps, he remarked:
'I wonder where Eaton is ?' Very shortly after the sitting of
the Senate, a page brought him a rose-tinted note, after reading
which, he hurriedly left the Hall. At dinner it was seen that
some terrible confftct of feeling had disturbed both Major Eaton
and the generally vivacious daughter of the house. The infer-
ence was, that upon the news communicated.at breakfast being
repeated to her, she had at once dispatched the note demanding
an explanation, hence the tearful traces in both as seen at din-
ner. Midnight of the same day when I entered Gen. Jackson's
chamber, he informed me that he had had an interview with
Eaton, and he declined for reasons of his own*, to accompany him
West, as he had at first promised. From that moment we gave
Eaton up as lost. Subsequently, Capt. Timberlake died abroad,
and in a very few months or weeks Gen. Eaton married his widow ;
and if Gen. Jackson had left then to their own devices there
would have been an end of them; but after making Eaton Secre-
tary of War, his chivalrous, generous nature wished to make
Mrs. Eaton the social equal with other ladies of the Cabinet.
But he found conquering the Creeks and Choctaws or driving the
British from our shores an easy matter, compared with subduing
the wil1 of women, who said they would'nt and did'nt. Gen.
Jackson swore by the eternal" she shall be recognized. Min-
isters of the gospel wrote persuading him to deliberate; and I,
remembering the effort the General made with other friends to
save Eaton in 1814, received a demand that I should retract
such memories, but I replied: Gen. Jackson may command my
services, my life, but not my honor and we have not been such
good friends since. However, the dissolution of his Cabinet has
given an importance and interest to the Eatons that they could
never have commanded otherwise. The lady rather enjoyed the


10







WASHINGTON.


notoriety ; she was as independent as any; pronounced the ladies
of the Cabinet a dowdy set, and as she commanded the attentions
of the bachelors and Foreign Ministers, she cared little for the
domesticity of the Cabinet; but Eaton has never been the same
man again; his sensitive and proud nature feels the retribution.
General Jackson's long and devoted attachment to Eaton was
one cause of his persistence, but a more powerful influence was
that he detected in these social strictures a reflection on his own
marriage to the widow Robards, and thus all his chivalry was
aroused to sustain the woman.
Mrs. Jackson was dead, and her husband missed in this ques-
tion of the Eatons, the healthy counsel of a good and sensible
wife. Excellent Aunt Rachel, the friend of everybody, lived
only to congratulate her husband on his elevation to the Presi-
dency, having died two or three months before his inauguration.
Never more true affection was felt for woman by man, and he
would sooner have resigned the triumph of his success, than
abandon the wife of his bosom in her suffering-thus he declined
all ovations following his election that he might devote his loving
care to his wife. She was not beautiful, nor graceful, nor intelli-
gent or accomplished, but a brown, rotund, homely, wifely wife,
who sympathized with her husband in every emotion of his
heart, or act of his life; she was his companion, his other self,
even in the smoking of tobacco, and that not in a fashionable
cigarette, but through a capacious clay pipe, and long reed from
their neighboring brakes. So in the hour of greatest triumph,
he succumbed to the greatest grief.
Interested and delighted with this stream of contemporaneous
history, I resolved to drink as deep draughts of facts as possible,
so I asked: tell me, "did Gen. Jackson ideal another man's wife
and then horse-whip him ?"
Of course not, he cow-hided him first of all The story runs,
that sometime after Nashville was located, the surrounding
country was a wilderness and dangerous from the frequent
attacks and depredations of Indians. Families, therefore, living
outside of the town were very much exposed, and more or less
apprehensive of assault all the time. A widow by the name of
Donelson lived five or six miles from town ; to insure pro-
tection, she gave board and lodging to two young lawyers re-
cently from North Carolina, onp a Mr. Overton, the other
Andrew Jackson. Mrs. Donelson's daughter Rachel had mar-
ried a gentleman of Kentucky by the name of Robards, but she
frequently visited her mother while these gentlemen were inmates
of her house. Andrew Jackson was always distinguished for his
courteous attentions to ladies, and report says that he assisted


11







FLORIDA BREEZES.


Mrs. Robards to the saddle and galloped at her side too often, to
please the stupid and indifferent husband, who, green eyed, saw
nothing but evil in the pleasant chit chat and genial' smiles of
the two. Mrs. Donelson (the mother) discovering trouble brew-
ing between man and wife, and recognizing the source, went
weeping to Jackson, urging him to leave the house, although she
believed that Robards' suspicions were groundless. Jackson
consented to leave immediately, but said, before doing so, he
would chastise the villain that dared to asperse his name, as
well as that of her amiable daughter.' Consequently, after
night, with a cow-hide under his cloak, and a loaded pistol in his
coat-pocket, he invited Robards to a walk through the garden,
and when sufficiently distant from the house to avoid disturb-
ance, he jerked out his cow-hide, saying: Now, you villain, I
am going to chastise you for slandering me, as well as your ex-
cellent wife." Robards took to his heels, and Jackson fired his
pistol after him, but in the air. So all was quiet apparently,
for a while, between man and wife. But some months subse-
quently Robards and Overton made a trip to Kentucky together,
for such danger attended traveling through the wilderness that
parties were formed for mutual protection, the habit being to
camp at night on the prairies, turning the horses loose to graze.
And Overton told me that it was after the first night's camp
while the servants were seeking the strayed horses, that Robards
told him that his mind was in no respect relieved in its suspicions
regarding the attentions of Jackson to his wife, and that he was
then leaving her never to return. Overton was the more sur-
prised, as he had witnessed the parting between man and wife.
The distress was mutual; both wept bitterly, which was at-
tributed to the dangers attending the contemplated journey.
Kentucky was under the jurisdiction of Virginia. Robards went
direct to Richmond and applied through the Legislature for a
divorce. It is said that when Jackson heard of this desertion he
was very indignant, and declaring to the brothers of Mrs.
Robards how unfounded the cause, he further declared his readi-
ness (with her consent) to marry their sister whenever the divorce
should be granted. Time past-news traveled slowly-but
at last the report came that the divorce was granted, whereupon
Jackson and Mrs. Robards were married, and actually made the
wedding trip to Natchez. The mortification, therefore, was very
great on learning subsequently that at the time of marriage the
divorce had not been granted, but only referred from the Legis-
lature to the Judiciary of Virginia, and the last deciding the
question, to avoid all doubt, the parties were re-married. Jack-
son cares little what the masses say of himself, but is quick to


12







WASHINGTON.


resent any reflection upon his wife. Although his difficulty with
Dickinson apparently originated about a horse race, it was really
owing to insidious remarks concerning Mrs. Jackson, and there
is no forgiveness in his heart for such slurs, as there is no regret
or repentance for the tragic duel that followed."
"And yet his popularity (I remarked) has withstood such acts
of violence!"
"Withstood what ? Do you call killing a man that slanders
your wife an act of violence ? By George, sir! Gen. Jackson is
incapable of an act of violence, and when he kills a man, you may
be sure that he is doing society a courtesy. Act of violence, in-
deed pray tell me sir, how is society to be regulated if not by
pistols and ten paces ?"
The mild answer that turneth wrath, was my only defence,
especially as I was more anxious to gain information than to in-
dulge in disputation, thus with tact I directed my companion to
further talk..
Nothing (continued he) was left undone or unsaid to break
down the popular strength of the hero of New Orleans, forgetting
that if mutiny had not been quelled, the Creeks could not have
been conquered; if the Creeks had not been conquered the
British could not have been repulsed. Stealing Robards' wife was
a favorite theme. The story went that Jackson had taken the
wife of a Mr. Rodgers, and when the 'latter called on him and
demanded his wife, the General replied with a horse-whip, and
ordering him off, said: If you come again on that business, I
will shoot you." Another story was, that while under trial in
Congress for the execution of Arbushnot and Ambrister, Gen.
Jackson entered the Senate Chamber for the purpose of cutting
off the ears of Gen. Lavcock, Macon and Benton, and that he
was only prevented from doing so by Commodore Decatur, who
observed that the deliberations of the Senate could not be dis-
turbed. Great hand-bills. illustrating six coffins, were placarded
in all conspicuous places. Death's head and cross-bones was the
Jackson symbol. Grave and reverend Senators were repre-
sented as leaving the Capitol with one ear the less, sometimes
none; the wives of the land were placed under lock and key,
members of Congress horse-whipped for daring to veto an act of
this military chieftain, whose messages were sent to the people's
representatives through an armed officer or guard, while he him-
self proceeded to the Capitol daily escorted by troops, with
artillery in advance. But, my dear sir, all such statements went
down under the overwhelming popularity of 'Old Hickory,' and
Jackson is President."
Well, suppose he had not been elected ?"


13







FLORIDA BREEZES.


"Well, sir, pistols and bowie-knives would have been at a
premium, that's all; for I tell you that there would have been a
lot of old scores to settle. But in proof of all I have stated, you
shall read a letter written to me during the campaign by the
General himself."
HERMITAGE, .
DR- : While absent at New Orleans, my political enemies
have opened a general and systematic attack upon me, the last
dying struggle of a desperate coalition. Clay has brought forth
Patrick H. Darby as one of his champions, and Clay has written
a book. Clay ought to remember the adage, '(Oh! that my
enemy would write a book.' It was intended to arouse me, and,
if possible, to bring me out before the public. This they cannot
do yet. But my friends mean to notice the book. As to poor
Patrick he will be left to perish in his own filth, unnoticed and
unpitied. I am happy the address of the Central Committee at
the City of Washington has reached you. Taking this in view
with Kendal's fifth letter to Clay, and it is conclusive of the bar-
gain. The whole object of the coalition is to calumniate m6.
Cart loads of coffin hand-bills, forgeries and pamphlets of the
most base calumnies are circulated by the franking privilege of
members of Congress. Even Mrs. J- is not spared, and my
pious mother, nearly fifty years in her tomb, and who from the
cradle to her tomb, has been dragged forth by Hammond, and
held up to public scorn as a prostitute who intermarried with a
negro, and my oldest brother sold as a slave in North Carolina.
This Hammond does not dare publish in his vile presg, but keeps
the statement purporting.to be sworn to-a forgery-and shows
it secretly. I am branded with every crime, and were not my
hands tied and mouth closed, I would soon put an end to their
slanders. This they know, but suppose when the election is
over all things will die out, but not so. I look forward to the
first of December next with much anxiety as a day of retribu-
tion. I am charged with Burr's conspiracy. Were A. and Mc.
as free of perjury as Master Masons as I was of the Burr con-
spiracy, it would be a pleasant thing for their conscience. My
philosophy is almost worn out, but my enemies expect to urge
me to some rash act; this they cannot do until the election is
over.' If my hands are not tied by the event, there will be a
final settlement. Much of my time is taken up by my friends
here and abroad for documents and statements to enable them to
meet this attempt of the secret assassin to wound female reputa-
tion and feelings by raking up transactions that had slept for
thirty years, when almost all the contemporaries of the day slept


14









in their silent graves; but Providence has spared as many of the
creditable and respectable as will fully refute this base
to stain the reputation of Mrs. J., and harrow up her
her declining years. When this is done, then, my
of this secret mover* behind the curtain must
'd attempt. My friends from a distance say
that coalition can only succeed by my
myself and keep clear of assassins.
that I have always thought could
here there are so many admonitions,
-ed."
y your friend,
ANDREW JACKSON."
home of Jackson's friends, and
that is interesting of him, I could
disadvantage. Few men were ever
does, the powers of command, upon
'e gentle affections of the heart, he
attaching or repelling, as pleases
of men-of science, or books he
rs are even proud of his illiteracy,
.at because he did not study books.
x i jLar irom ignorant, though not a scholar, bad spelling and
rhetorical error to the contrary.

WESTWARD.
Bleak winds and renewed catarrh admonished me that I
lingered too long 'in the neighborhood of mountains, and that I
must seek milder modes; via Wheeling, the mild shores of the
Ohio, and the picturesque palisades of the Cumberland, I
breathed again in the rocky town of Nashville, which stands like
a fortress on the precipitous river banks.
But to return a pace. Was't ever in Gondola, at Venice ?"
That is one experience, and a trip on a Mississippi boat is quite
as distinct, Two blacks conveying my small trunk led the way
from the hotel at Wheeling to the river, along the shores of
which lay here and there a steamboat. The "getting up of
steam," and the passage to and fro over a narrow plank that con-
nected one with the shore indicated the Ellen Kirkman as the
boat that was to bear me on my journey. Pushing my way
through a crowd of blacks, who, as they rolled barrels and freight
across the plank, sang and jested merrily. I found the Clerk's
office, who, (on passage being paid,) called Minerva," and gave
*He suspected Henry Clay.


15


WESTWARD.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


her orders to see that the gentleman found his birth. Fol-
lowing this goddess of mulatto tint and yellow turban, we entered
a long cabin, with sky-lights, through the length of which ex-
tended a table already set for supper, spread with cold meats,
pickles and preserves, raisins and almonds, crackers cold and
biscuit hot, and seemingly everything but what one wanted. On
either side and same extent were two rows of shelves called berths,
and No. 10 of these was indicated as the locus in quo. I was to
rest or not to rest, which was a question with myself, as I saw
that the curtain of No. 11 (above me) was already drawn, but
concealed the form of one who perhaps snored or talked in his
sleep, and over-night revealed both and more, for the guage
cocks of his lungs. now and then sent off a whistle that rivaled
the steam escapes of the propeller.
Women and children were grouped around a stove and had
evidently supped. The women gossiped and wondered who was
who, and talked of aches and pains, and their remedies ; and
while they talked, they dipped curiously (to me) small sticks
with mopped ends into boxes, which I afterwards learned, con-
tained snuff. Sometimes several dipped into the same box, and
this was called dipping. One or two older women smoked pipes,
but they all "reckoned concerning all that surrounded them.
My type evidently puzzled them ; they had never seen anybody
that favored me, but they settled in their minds that I was a
" down easter," and wondered what I was a coming West fur."
These were soon wrapped in sleep, and the counterpart of the
picture were the men of the passage, who in profanity of lan-
guage, consumption of tobacco, and gambling excess, were be-
yond any previous knowledge, or even conception, on my part.
Far into the small hours of the night my sleep was rendered
feverish and uncertain by loud and rough demands of "what's
trumps ? the devil it is! Diamonds-spades What in the h-
did you lead from ? Go to h-, and find out! Euchered, by
G-! Go it alone? D- me if I do! Waiter! drinks for
four-two fingers, no sugar! Waiter, d- you, hurry up! With
these were mingled the sounds of money jingling (for it was
Jackson money,) and tlhe vocabulary of other games, such as
" Thar! I will go a $5, my cards, raise 'um. He is a jam-up
peart nigger. I'm d-d if I do! By G-, sir, she's the best four
mile brute in Kentucky, chip a chip. Queen full here, it's good;
give me three cards? No, he's after that rich widow down in
Boscier, and a d-d likely lot of niggers. Two pair ain't worth
a damn. Old Jackson will knock h- out of that business. What
have you got-Jacks? Good enough! I'll raise you a cool $50,
Captain! He thinks John C. Calhoun the smartest man out or


16









h-; killed him first shot down at Memphis; there ain't no
gamer breed in Mississippi. D- that flush! Now stranger,
nobody means to say that thar is bin cheating round this board,
but I do jess say things are spicious." Quickly as the charge fell
upon the ear, followed rebuff, rebuke and then tumultuous con-
flict, after which the usual calm. And this was the occupation
and pastime of two-thirds of all the passengers throughout the
trip, not only at night, but during the intervals of meals, cards,
drinks, and this in view of women and children. With some it
was not accidental, but constituted a livelihood, to secure which
they traveled with the boats up and down the river, seeking their
kind and entrapping the unwary.
The country along these Western waters presents a continuous
panorama of natural beauty. On either side are ranges of forest,
some places covering precipitous hills, others extensive plains, in
that virgin wealth of luxuriance that presents a boundless con-
tinuity of shade, which with the rapid gurgling of the river
arouses the poet within, though he may not speak. The
sublimity of the wilderness is increased by the contrasts with the
varied life that floats on the stream that bears them on to a mart.
Steamboats meeting and passing, oftentimes engaging in races
that not only peril life, but freight. Then there are flat-boats
and all styles of ark bearing grain to New Orleans, or moving
West with the worldly goods of a pioneer, in horses, cattle,
hogs, fowls; and penates in wife and children, following the path
of Daniel Boone or David Crocket, and doubtless many a little
tow-head that peeped from his mother's petticoat on this wild
journey will retrace the watery route in years to come, and tell
of the big grapes and sweet honey of their Canaan, that can only
grow bigger and sweeter by the adoption of such and such laws,
and under the guidance of such and such a President of the
United States, the qualifications for which may exist in him-
self, which, by the blessed republican spirit of our country, can
be claimed and established as well in the rude man of the West
as the polished scholar of the East.
In great contrast to the wild scenery of the shore and the float-
ing life of the river, are the comfortless huts that are seen at in-
tervals of miles in the wilderness, and which teem with occu-
pants as seen by the miserable bare-footed, bare-headed, almost
naked inhabitants that flock to the river's edge, when a boat
stops to wood. Question and answer, however, establish the fact
that there is no poverty among this class, but that cutting wood for
the many passing boats supplies all that the shot-gun and fishing-
rod leaves wanting; the horizon of life being very high and near
to them, luxuries were unknown and necessities were few. Wild


17


WESTWARD.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


and new as it is, history has made footprints along the route in
Blannerhassett's Island, a solitude now, but once the home of
contented elegance. What wonder that ambition ran riot or
that daring planned perils amidst such untrammeled nature, that
unhampered thought developed desire for corresponding action!
" Wood-up'" gave an opportunity to ramble through the treason
nests of Aaron Burr, from which hatched only regret and igno-
miny consequent of failure in a scheme, which, not betrayed and
blasted, would not have been treason. Another vault and he
most probably would haye reigned in Montazuma's Halls," and
the world would have applauded where they now decry. As I
walked the grassigrown paths and viewed the moss-coated remnants
of Blannerhassett's home, I sighed more for ruined hopes than
dilapidated walls, which the moon's soft gilding, with the solemn
notes of the Whip-poor-will, (fit pall and requiem,) summoned
by their enchantments. BURR, as the brave revolutionary solb
dier, the man of charities and accomplished gentleman, the gallant
as romantic lover, in the perilous visits to the woman he had
chosen to be the mother of his daughter-Theodqsia, (the gift
from God,) who by this father's training was made the most accom-
plished, the ideal woman of the time, and who became priestess
of this spot in conspiracy for conquest. The. bow of glory was
beaming brighest, when the black cloud of disappointment arose
on the horizon, ending in a storm of bitter sorrowing and con-
demnation; blight sufficient, but as nothing in comparison with
the anguish that came breaking the heart of the father in the
unknown fate of the daughter, the child of his love and pride,
with, whom died every great purposeof life.
But again afloat, we thumped and bumped over the rapids at
Louisville, where the river falls twenty feet in a very short dis-
tance, and then followed the inevitable race where boats attempt
to pass each other; one moment we were raking the shore, where
bows of trees swept the guards, and then dashing across to mid-
stream. Men .houted, women and children even lost all sense
of danger, while they clapped hands and screamed, we are
ahead." The cloud of darkness that issued from the chimneys
told that the Captain and firemen were doing their utmost to.
establish a character for speed, but at the moment that the honor
seemed gained, there was a crash that sent the blood back to the
heart, and for an interval there was-nothing. The table that ex-
tended the length of the cabin had been set for dinner, but con-
sciousness revealed that dishes, plates, and their contents were-
scattered in fragments, cutting and breaking; and where all was
so lately well ordered, there appeared the ugly brSken shafts of
the engine, penetrating even the sky-lights of the beautiful boat.


18









" Struck a snag!" the quivering, quaking of the shock passed,
and gratitude beamed on every face on learning that we would
not sink; and, having won the race, was sufficient compensation
for any damage sustained or terror experienced.
Progress in the same boat was impossible until repairs were
made. According to destination of parties, transfers were made;
passing boats were hailed, and in twenty-four hours those that
had lived as one household, were scattered most likely never to
meet again. The season of the year admitting large boats to the
Cumberland, I selected this passage to Nashville, which river is
more like the Hudson in its palisades than I was prepared to
expect. It is, however, itself narrow and shallow, but the
palisades and mountain growth on either hand make it most
picturesque. Thus I found myself in Tennessee, the State that
cradled Jackson-his birth-place they give to the sea and of an
immigrant mother, and not to either of the Carolina's. This
State of his adoption can truly claim him, for it was her Legisla-
ture that gave him command of her militia to march against the
Creeks, when the government at Washington had declined his
services; but now the stone rejected by the builders has become
the head of the corner."
After seeing Gen. Jackson in the Palace at Washington, I
felt the more interest in visiting his home-the Hermitage "-
which is situated twelve miles from the City of Nashville. I
found it silent and lonely ; its mistress was dead, and her tomb
(within sight) gave an air of melancholy to the scene, which,
together with the absence of the master, took away much of in-
terest in visiting the place. The long avenue of sombre cedars
through which I approached the dwelling, the weeping willow
and solemn ivy of the tomb, seemed to need the accompaniment
of deep sounding music such as we hear within darkened Cathe-
drals to satisfy; for I was ready for a High Mass in memory
of all the great men that had centered here, and especially so of
the owner-a feeling not lessened as the spacious halls and cham-
bers echoed my voice. The furnishing of the house was com-
fortable, and in some respects elegant, but the portraits were the
only objects of much interest. The General himself was repre-
sented at different periods of life, and in different styles of dress.
There were portraits also of the members of his staff-Col. R.
Butler, Gadsden, Coffee, R. K. Call, Dr. Bronaugh, Overton,
Houstoun, Eaton, Hayne, and one of Mrs. Jackson painted in
white, and the topaz pres nted by the ladies of New Orleans. I
stood by Stone River where the building of boats for Burr's ex-
pedition had nearly involved Gen. Jackson irk the conspiracy;
I saw the clover bottom that was once the race course; the cock-


19


WESTWARD.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


pits were not so fixed; but these, with accounts of duels fought
and combats encountered, made me marvel the more that the
Presidency was the goal attained by such training. Ii the
"t social circles" of Nashville I learned of the hospitality, charity
and benevolence practiced at the Hermitage, which more than
counterbalanced all acts of violence attributed to the Lord of the
manor. Of what other commander, since battles were begun
and fought, can such a tale of tenderness be related as that of the
rescue of the Indian babe at the terrible slaughter of the Tallus-
hatches? From the bosom of its slain mother, the infant was
brought to his marquee with other prisoners, who refused to
nourish it, but advised that as all its people were killed, it should
share the same fate. But the General adopted it within his own
heart, and ordered it nourished on sweetened water until he could
send it home to Mrs. Jackson. This was Lincoyer, (so named by
the General,) and at the Hermitage he found good friends and a
home, until consumption conveyed him to the grave in early
manhood.
Gen. Jackson made the interest of his friends his own; whether
it was business or pleasure, hatred or love, he was commander-in-
chief as on the battle-field. The Hermitage was the home of his
staff, and whatever concerned them concerned him. One of these
married a niece of Mrs. Jackson, and the celebration was in their
dwelling. The guests had assembled, and after waiting some
time for the expected ceremony, the message came that the bride
elect was in tears and declared her purpose not to be married.
Gen. Jackson, in answer, swore "by the eternal, my Adjutant
shall not be treated with such indignity," whereupon he rushed
up stairs, and, without parley, offered his arm to- the shrinking
girl, and conducting her below consigned her to the expectant
groom. And, on one of his staff receiving a rebuff from the
family of a young lady, he rails: "How sordid must be the soul
who would prefer riches to worth, the automaton of a man
because he possessed wealth, to a noble, generous and disinter-
ested lover, who alone appreciated the person beloved. How lost
to the real happiness of a daughter must they be, who alone view
riches as the only qualification of the man to whom they wish to
unite a daughter." Aunt Rachel, too, (Mrs. Jackson) was ready
with her sympathy, as the following letter discloses, which I was
allowed by the recipient to read, and of which I give a copy liter-
ally, to illustrate that educational accomplishments are not neces-
sary to high-toned sentiments:

DEAR SIR-With much satisfaction I have received your
friendly letter of the 11th of November. Therein I was informed


20









of the restoration of your health. Indeed I was anxious for you
on that account. But I hope your manly firmness, together with
a good constitution, will overcome every difficulty in your way
through life, and I sincerely pray that the cloud that has lowered
o'er and obscured your happiness for some months be succeeded
as the sun in all her splendor after a tempest in the morning;
that the meridian be without a cloud, and rest assured you will
enjoy and feel more real happiness. The great apostle says 'they
are lite afflictions' when he was in chains and imprisonment, and
all things are intended for our good. I think you will say I
can't believe it. I promised to write on a sertaine subject-it
was Decreed otherwise. We met in the roade between Florence
and Nashville; I co'ld not help exclaiming, '0 I am so sorry!'
She cout my hand as if she expected something from
mine, and she appeared a stricken Dear. 0 that the arrow be
drawn, healed and bid to Live. 0, my friend, I would unite
full sentences, not by halves, and say many things to you, but
knowing you have two such faithful correspondents in Lieut.
Donaldson and Capt. Eaton, he has told you everything, I will
tell you something of my own concerns. You well know my
anxiety to return to my home once more. Well, it was so, as I
drew near Every Day I felt more happy, and the last day of our
tedious journey whom should we meet but sister Hays moving to
the fork Deer, with Dr. Butler and family. Then it was mani-
fest to me that joy was not to be in this world, no honey without
a sting, no rose without thorns. The General is not well, he has
a bad cough, but has set out for Florens. We have been to a
fine meeting. 0 how I was renewed in my strength. I feasted
at the table Jesus spread for his followers. Will you believe it
is true, there was joy without alloy, Hope as sure as the rock of
ages. 0, had I the tongue of a Seraph, or the pen of a ready
writer, I should fail. Farewell, and the blessings of that God
home I hope you serve and honor rest upon you, amen. May
you be happy is the sincere wish, warm from my heart, who
thinks of you as a son or younger brother.
(Signed) RACHEL JACKSON."

Inregard to some personal difficulty in which one of his staff
was involved, Gen. Jackson wrote advising:

Be silent as to the past at least; with me you know you are
safe. I have before stated to you that my experience of human
nature has made me a judge of mankind; I am seldom mistaken.
You cannot have forgotten the advice I give to all my young
friends-that is to say, as they pass through life have apparent


21


WESTWARD.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


confidence in all, real confidence in none, until from actual ex-
perience it is found that the individual is worthy of it. From
this rule I have never departed, but still, in one or two instances
only, have I misplaced confidence. Rest assured I am not easily
taken in of late by politicians. I well know many of them stir
with the current, run with the hare, and cry with the hounds."

Concerning another affair d'honneur, he writes:

CAPTAIN C.-In prosecuting the business you have taken
charge of for your friend, Major E., you must steadily keep in
view that the man you have to deal with is unprincipled. You
will be guarded in all your acts, have everything in writing, and
hold no conversation with him unless in the presence of some con-
fidential person of good character; he is mean and artful. It is
probable from what I think of the man that he will propose rifles
or muskets. These are not the weapons of gentlemen, and cannot
and ought not to be yielded to. Pistols are the universal
weapons (with one solitary exception,) of fire-arms gentlemen
use. These or swords ought to be selected, and as neither of
those concerned are in the habit of using swords, the offending
party will make choice of this weapon. The next choice in the
opponent is distance-ten paces is the longest-and although the
defendant may choose as far as ten paces, still if the offended is
not a good shot as the defendant, custom and justice will bring
them to a distance that will put them on a.perfect equality of
position. To prevent accident, let them keep their pistols sus-
pended until after the word fire is given. The first rule is to let
each man fire when he pleases, so that he fires within one minute
or two after the word. Charge your friend to preserve his fire,
keeping his teeth firmly clenched and his fingers in a position
that if fired on and hit, his fire may not be extorted. Sometimes
when the distance is long, it is agreed that both or either may
advance and fire. If this ari'angement is made, charge your
friend to preserve his fire until he shoots his antagonist through
the brain, for if he fires, and does not kill his antagonist, he
leaves himself then fully in his power. Have every rule written
down and signed by his friend; receive none but written answers,
and all open that you may inspect and see that they are decorous,
for this is the friend's duty-'to see that no paper that comes
through him contains indecorous expressions. I have been
always of the opinion that a base man can never act bravely.
The attack upon Major E. was, in the first place, wanton; then
throwing the authorship on a diminutive black-guard printer
that no one would notice, only with a cudgel, shows a meanness


22


















WESTWARD. 23

and cowardice, with all his boasted courage, that induces me to
believe he will not fight. It may be he rather select me, as he
may think I will have nothing to do with him, and in this way
get offi Should he (by way of example's sake) just close with
him, I then have a right of choice of distance-take him at seven
feet, placed back to back, pistols suspended until after the- word
fire, and I will soon put an end to this troublesome scoundrel. It
is possible from what I have heard that he may attempt to take
this ground, and I charge you on my part to agree without hesita-
tion. He is a man I cannot challenge, but if a villain will run
from one danger and hold out ideas of bravery, they ought
always to be taken in. I pledge myself on the above terms, if
my pistol fires, I will kill him.
(Signed) A. J.

Thus I gathered as 1 lingered within the precincts of Nash-
ville in reading and gossip very much that was interesting of our
soldier President. Of his many combats and duels, there is here
as elsewhere, divers of opinions as to their moral certainty, but
for bravery and boldness all agree he is fit to stand by Hercules.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


CHAPTER II.

SOUTHWARD.

In continuing the journey South my recent experience on the
water inclined me to the land route, and from this point (Nash-
ville) the known path is through the Indian Nation, which, for
mutual protection, is made in parties. We are four-and one a
young lady of beauty and refinement-all on horse-back, with
pack mules, and Natchez, the point of destination, trunks
having been shipped there by the river. Gen. Coffee, who had
fought by the side of Gen. Jackson for the possession of the terri-
tory extending to the coast, most obligingly gave us a list of
stations through the nation, promising, however, little more than
shelter from the weather. Indeed, we found the accommodations
very bad and long fasts very trying. The first Indian house at
which we stopped to take a snack there was no bread excepting
a few crusts, and no corn pounded out of which to make any,
and of meat only a cold fowl. Miss K. summoned her knowl-
edge of cookery, fried some of this, which we found appetizing
indeed. Her cheerfulness made each meal a feast to some ex-
tent. At the next hut we had plenty, though so greasy as to make
it difficult to' eat, but necessity knows no law," so we swallowed
all without examining too closely, where nothing was wanting so
much as neatness.
MISSISSIPPI.

At Natchez I had my first view of the Mississippi River. Of
course, as of all we hear so much in advance, the feeling was one
of disappointment, but familiarity increased my admiration and
wonder, and at this point in width and boldness it exceeds. The
town proper is on a high bluff, and it boasts of some fine houses.
Hospitality, as everywhere in the South, is generous and ready.
We attended some entertainments, which were mostly eating
frolics-gentlemen in one room, ladies in another. The assem-
bly balls were more attractive; the ladies were neatly dressed in
muslin, danced well, and were as intelligent as courteous. We
had at these what is called the nobility-the Minors, Shotards,
Ralstons, Rouths, and many other wealthy planters. Orie was
a very stately looking old lady, as cross looking as possible. She
thinks few good enough to speak to, or to be honored so much as to


24









dance with her daughter.' Her son, as proud as she, as he seldom
dances with any. but his family, but Miss K. was flattered by the
latter and I was honored by the other, which we jestingly ac-
cepted as compensation for the trials of the wilderness. Land
and negroes form the badge of aristocracy here. All other pursuits
are but for the convenience or pleasure of the owners of these.
Miss K. was young, and beautiful not merely because she was
young, but for her virtues, wit and gentle grace, which all
shone forth on our passage through the wilderness in such
patience, cheerfulness, merriment and usefulness, that the travel-
ers in gratitude and admiration addressed her in practical par-
lance as the ministering angel," which, for the convenience of
daily uise, we, soon reduced to Angel,' and from henceforth I
shall thus speak of her-the more becomingly .as she is in that
spring-time of life, early teens. The only treasure of her father's
heart, accompanied by him, she was en route to a Phi]delphia
boarding school for the completion of her education, which here-
tofore had been conducted in the seclusion of home; hence we
had it in anticipation to renew the journey together as far as the
city of New Orleans, from which point she was to take the sea
for the North. An orphan boy without sisters, my lines hitherto
had not fallen much among the young of the other sex. I had,
however, worshipped afar and entertained a most chivalrous
respect for them, but had never committed that green indiscre-
tion of being in love; but this little girl in her native loveliness
of truth, amiability and sprightliness had strangely awakened
something very akin to attachment, of which I was made aware
almost for the first time when- the day arrived for-our departure
from Natchez.
The boat had arrived in her descent of the river and was at
the wharf waiting for freight and passengers, and while the one
was hurrying aboard, the other was rolled off and on amidst
cheering boat songs of the black crew. Evidently the plank that
bridged the boat with the wharf would soon be withdrawvn, and
vet Angel and her father were not aboard. I had watched
eagerly the arrival of every carriage from the moment it came
in view moving down the hill, and the impatience with which I
walked the deck, and the delight with which I at last welcomed
the party, revealed to me that they were more than traveling ac-
quaintance; for the feeling of purposeless existence had given
place to one of genial contentment, the first step in the restora-
tion of health.
We were afloat-if one can ever be said to float-on this tur-
bulently rapid river, which dashes forward from four to six miles
an hour, tearing and carrying in its mightiness acres of the


25


MISSISSIPPI.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


dissolved clay that colors its waters. As we descend on
either side, the country lowers in its character, and there is not
much of interest until the hundred miles to New Orleans are
nearly traveled and we reach the sugar-cane plantations with
their villas embowered in golden fruited orange trees, especially
interesting to me in all the novelty of such scenery to a Northern
man.
NEW ORLEANS.
New Orleans at last-situated on a neck of land between the
river, and a swamp in the rear. The levees or embankments on
both sides have the effect of raising the waters at this point
above the city, which really sits amidst the debris, as if it
had been likewise washed down with the river's torrent and here
lodged for a time, until some great flood or upheavel of nature
shall bear it farther on its course. But not more strange was the
scenery than the people among whom we landed. French,
Spaniards, Americans and negroes, furnished a greater variety of
the human species than I had ever seen assembled before, and
" a boat, laden with produce of the country above, is the -ignal
of gathering in numbers as eager as they are noisy; but so gracious
and civil that I almost fancied that it was a special welcome or
reception of our party. 'Everybody knew the father of Angel,
and so everywhere I move in the South everybody knows every-
body, or rather, who is who; hence their cordiality. ,The "French
market is said to be the best in the United States. We de-
termined to test this in a breakfast the morning after our arrival.
In a fog almost equal to a rain, we made away to the Quartui
Francais, which is divided from the American part of the city by
a wide boulevard known as Canal Street, and the business and
social life of the different nations is kept as distinct as the
municipal. But the market, and Sunday morning, with for-
eign factors and negro lingo, made it difficult to retain one's in-
dividuality as an American, especially a New. England man; but
it was as good as novel-such cafe, such bread, oysters, fish and
fruits could not be found elsewhere. I learned that Creole eggs,
Creole oranges, Creole chickens, or whatever Creole prepared, sig-
nified a preference; in other words, that what was raised within
reach of the city was necessarily more fresh, and therefore better
than those brought down the river exposed to delay and neglect.
Indian women, dirty and squalid, exhibited dried herbs, plaited.
mats and scrubbing brooms, and their men wild game. Span-
iards and French were the fishermen, but negro women in bright
bandanas, and otherwise neatly dressed, presided over tables, and
were evidently the popular traders; and these were slaves, laugh-


26







NEW ORLEANS.


ing and chatting, and apparently as free as the customer .who
ordered his omelet or fruit; and I learned subsequently that these
women represented their owners, and most generally the sales at
the market furnished the support of a family; and wherever they
possessed capacity above household work or field drudgery, they
were licensed as marchands of beer, cakes and fruit at street
corners, or with baskets of fancy goods which they carried to the
houses of patrons; and a more free, rollicking set of creatures I
,never saw-slavery at least with them had little signification.
Near the market is the Place D'armes, a famous point in the city.
It was here the Spanish colonist transferred allegiance to
France, and here likewise the ceremony of exchange took place
between the Fleurs de Lys and the Star Spangled Banner. Thus
this square was the parade ground for three nations at different
times, and from time immemorial, all distinguished guests have
been here welcomed to the hospitalities of the city. It was here
that more recently General Jackson rallied his forces to march
below to meet the British; and where he came again to receive
the highest award to well doing-the approbation of his fellow
men and women. The square opens to the river, and on the west
side rises the venerable and time-honored Cathedral whose dingy
towers and moss-covered facades tell of another people as of another
time, and so does its sister in art, the Calaboose which adjoins;
the church and the prison standing side by side in the need of
man. And as these have done for two centuries, will others in
the future-the one receiving what the other rejects.
Sunday night is selected by the elite of the French population
to attend operas. Did I go ? Angel wanted to kn9w. Not long
subsequently a Boston paper reported that the Creole women
could not be called beautiful, but they were more, for they were
fascinating, and their toilets exquisite in taste." Some one had
seen them at the opera, and wrote of their "full evening dress,
eyes, neck and arms "-their vivacity without brusqueness, cheer-
fulness without noise;, and of the elegant ease of the gentlemen
as they visited boxes between acts, the evening being more a
social re-union than a specular or musical entertainment.
In the order of sight-seeing, we drove to the .' battle-field,'
twelve miles below the city, our road that of Jackson's army.
Excepting the live-oak, under which PACKENHAM is said to have
died, there is nothing to distinguish the ground from other culti-
vated fields surrounding the homes of planters nestled among
orange trees. But the point where the Caroline lay when she
sent her broadsides upon the British, and the ditches where these
latter hid themselves, and finally the arrival of our army and the
conflict) was so well described by our cicerone that I irivolun-







FLORIDA BREEZES.


taril.y lifted my hat. He said (and he was a staff officer of Gen.
Jackson's on the occasion): "In my opinion the battle of the
23d of December is far the greatest and much the best fought
field ever won by Gen. Jackson. It enabled him to prepare for
and fight the battle of the 8th of January-the second great vic-
tory was the legitimate result and offspring of the first, without
which New Orleans would have been lost." But if wind and
tide could have exceeded nature's limits it need not have been
fought at all, for on the 24th of December, nine days before and
one day after the first battle, 'peace' was declared between the
United States and England, at Ghent, by their respective commis-
sioners.
"Yes, this is true, (replied the officer) but what would have be-
come of Gen. Jackson, he might not have been President ?" And
thus it is, wherever I encounter the followers of Old Hickory "
they have the one creed, that all men and things are subservient
to his will and benefit.
On the return drive to the city we were entertained from the
same source by an account of the conflict of martial and civil
law-the authority of Gen. Jackson and that of Judge Hall-
which he described as an eye witness. Under the first, Lou-
villier, the Mayor, and Dominick Hall, the Judge, had been
committed to the barracks for attempting too soon after these
battles to' assume civil authority. But at last the city was
emancipated from martial law by Jackson's own order; prison-
ers released, offenses pardoned and the militia disbanded; and
among others released were the Mayor and Judge.
If Gen. Jackson claimed to be guardian of his country's safety,
Judge Hall likewise claimed to be the depository of her civic
honor, and assuming that this had been assailed in the disregard
of a writ of habeas corpus, issued by his Honor, and in his expul-
sion from the city by military authority, he straightway on his
return to the city issued the following order: "That the said
Major-General Andrew Jackson show cause why an attachment
should not be awarded against him for contempt of court."
Thus when New Orleans and Jackson was on every lip and
in every heart, and Legislatures were voting thanks and swords,
the 'hero of battles was arrested. Knowledge of so much made
the following account of Gen. C. very interesting:
"My encampment was on the opposite side of the river from
New Orleans. Hearing of the summons of the court, and that
Gen. Jackson would be arraigned and possibly sent to prison, I
hastened over to the city to inquire the truth. Upon Col.
Thomas Butler assuring me that the rumor was'correct, I said:
'Sir, the army will not permit Gen. Jackson to go to jail.' My


28







NEW ORLEANS.


friend replied: Young man, you do not know what you arc
talking about; it is not impossible that Gen. Jackson may be sent
to jail, in which event you will probably be detailed to command
the guard to conduct him.' I was confounded, and I had been
so often selected for special duty, that I recognized the force of
what Col. Butler stated. We were, however, saved this mortifi-
cation. Gen. Jackson was summoned before the court, and the
following day set for trial. I waited near the court-house for
his arrival. From this point to headquarters on Royal Street,
leaving space for his carriage to pass, the cheering wherever he
appeared was tumultuous, and women from the balconies waived
handkerchiefs, and with approving smiles cast bouquets to the
passing hero. Arriving, he entered the court-house, followed by
the crowd pressing after him and cheering until he reached the
bar, where he stood before Judge Hall. As one of his staff I
was very near him, therefore, saw and ,heard distinctly all that
passed. In a moment after reaching the front, the stillness of
death prevailed. However, the Judge turned to the Marshal
and remarked with perfect composure: 'The tumult is too
great for the court to proceed.',"
Gen. Jackson rose, and with the utmost dignity, .said: I
think there will be no disturbance, and I hope your Honor will
proceed.' Judge Hall took no notice of Gen. Jackson, but reitera-
ted his remark to the Marshal: The tumult is too great for the
court to proceed,' and ordered him to adjourn court until the
next day. Gen. Jackson 'retired amidst renewed clamors and
hurrahs, which continued through the streets ),, his lodgings.
Judge Hall was a large, portly man, near sixty years of age,
dignified in person, and in all respects brave and unflinching in
the discharge of his duties. The next day there was, if possible,
a greater crowd and greater enthusiasm; the excitement was in-
tense; streets and court-room were filled with enthusiastic peo-
ple. Arrived before the tribunal, there was perfect silence, un-
til his Honor, for the first time, seemed to recognize the presence
of the arraigned by ordering the usual form of interrogatories to
show cause why a fine should not be entered for contempt. Gen.
Jackson's counsel rose to read from a manuscript in his hands, but
the Judge declined to hear him, assigning as a reason that it
might contain matter improper for the court to hear. Every
assurance to the contrary was without effect. Whereupon Gen.
Jackson said: 'Under the circumstances I appear before you to
receive the sentence of the court, having nothing in my defence
to offer.' Judge Hall then proceeded to say that Gen. Jackson
was arraigned for contempt of the United States court, but in
consequence of his valuable services to his country, the penalty


29







FLORIDA BREEZES.


of the court would not equal the offence.' Gen. Jackson in a
tone of reproof, replied : 'Such language ill-becomes the Judge
on the bench. If I have offended, I am here to receive the full
penalty of the court.' Without noticing the reproof, Judge Hall
proceeded to pronounce a fine of one thousand dollars. Gen.
Jackson turned to one of his staff and ordered him to fill the
check for the .amount. Then, with marked dignity, he advanced
to the Clerk's desk and signed it in the presence of the court;
and the officer handing it in turn to the Clerk, received from
him a receipt. Amidst shouts of the wildest applause, the Gen-
eral and his staff withdrew, and on reaching his carriage (from
which the horses had been detached), he was lifted within and drag-
ged by human force to the New Exchange,' the applauding
multitude following. He was here carried and placed on a table
within the building amidst huzzas for a speech. Weak and suf-
fering, he excused himself-adding, however: Fellow-citizens,
I have shown you how to defend the liberty of your country, and
I now set you the example of obedience to its constituted authori-
ties, which I hope will be profitable to you.'" The citizens of
New Orleans, irY gratitude to their defender, raised by subscrip-
tion the amount of the fine imposed, which was declined by the
General for himself, but to show an appreciation of their kind
intent, he requested that the sum might be given to the indigent
widows and orphans of the city.
As one most generally inherits religion, so had I my politics,
which were, in my case, of the Webster school, that is strictly con-
stitutional, and in no degree sectional. I came South, therefore,
without prejudice for or against men or places. All Aniericans
were my countrymen, the whole land my country, and I would
not intimate for one moment that the opponents of my leader en-
tertained any opinions adverse to such feeling.
The respective fathers of all the sons of our soil had fought
equally to establish the great principles of freedom, and it is fair
to suppose that in the joint heritage all are working honestly to
maintain, or if needful, to fight again for them. Independent,
however, of party exponents of the country's needs, there has
risen a society, originating with the Quakers, which at first had
for its object the amelioration of the negroes condition through-
out the United States, but as this society has increased it has ex-
tended its purposes, and from the fact that the members have
petitioned Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Colum-
bia and in all our forts and arsenals, they are called abolitionists.
It is a society very inconsiderable and uninfluential, and has no
supporters in Congress, though their petitions have been ad-


30







NEW ORLEANS.


mitted'-as the "right of petition is a constitutional .one-but
they have received no consideration.
But emboldened, they have more recently sent lecturers
throughout the North, and South too, to cry out against this
sin "-this offense to humanity-and they go so far as to call it
a blot and stain upon the Republican character of the country.
Cart-loads of pamphlets have been circulated with coarse illus-
trations of man's inhumanity to man. Slave whipping and slave
hunting are presented in every view disgusting and harrowing to
human sympathy. These have aroused a corresponding element
in the South, which petitions Congress that the literature of this
school shall not be admitted to the South through the United
States mail. The denunciation of mischief makers has given
importance to the society, and they gain strength by proclaiming
themselves the reformers of the age, ready for conflict and mar-
tyrdom. There is one Garrison whose enthusiasm and persistence
gives the power of numbers to accusations and threats, from
which bitterness, hatred and malice is fast accumulating ; for the
South attacks this pharisaical love ofthe negro afar in those who
are neglectful of home-bred poverty, in the want and woes of the
white laboring class at their doors. So crimination begets re-
crimination. While the one proclaims it a sin, and prates of the
'unity of the races,' the other gives slavery divine origin, points
to Solomon's Temple as the work of its hands, and renounces in-
dignantly the notion that climate makes the man. Living upon
soil for which their fathers have fought; themselves as brave in
later defence; law loving and law abiding; christians, intelli-
gent, learned and accomplished; influences practiced in the faith-
ful charge of an inherited responsibility, the South stands
aghast at the assault of impertinence, and contemptuously shuts
the door of investigation in the face of what she terms meddling
fanatics. The more s.), that through legislation and associations
she has refused to accept for the negro the unjust edict towards
the descendents of Canaan, and long before England or France
awoke to the evil, had moved to abolish the slave trade and had
emancipated thousands; and but for untimely denunciation, Vir-
ginia, Kentucky, and perhaps others would be enrolled among
free States. With my bread and syrup," age had mingled
homilies on the poor black creatures that produced the latter
under the lash of a cruel master; but so far from pitying, I
rather envied them as I did children whose paternity kept candy
stores, loosing sight of the evil, if there is any, in the good or
sweets, and I do not realize that maturity has developed in me
higher teaching than was insinuated with treacled bread; which
put logically is-if sugar, coffee and cotton, luxuries of slave


31







FLORIDA BREEZES.


labor, are by their demand incentives to Southern agriculture,
and slave labor a requisite of this agriculture, what more readily
abolished than slavery, if England, France and the Northern
United States would abstain from the use of these articles ? This
would destroy the value of the negro, and thus the object of own-
ing them. This, at least, would be an atonement from the class
who now are only sentimentalists, compared to the Southern peo-
ple who suffer vicariously for the mistakes of a former genera-
tion. These reflections were prompted by an impulse to visit
the 'slave market' in New Orleans, and I prepared to do so
alone, that I might be the more free to make inquiries and draw
my own deductions; and for fear too that some careless expres-
sion of word or look might compromise me with these hospitable
people and confound me in their estimation with a class as hate-
ful to me as them. For, with some in the South, even a doubt
as to its pecuniary value is regarded with suspicion. A 'gang'
of slaves had formed part of the freight of the steamboat on
which I had descended the Mississippi River, destined for sale in
this city and the adjoining plantations. A man by the name of
Franklin had them in charge, and was bringing them from Ken-
tucky. He was called a trader;" the first I had seen of a class
assailed by the philanthropists of the New England societies;
and in the intercourse, prompted by curiosity, I found at least no
spirit of brutality. His pockets are said to be lined with thou-
sands of dollars made in the negro traffic. Of course his thoughts
and habits ran in this channel; he knew which planters needed
negroes, and their ability to pay for them. And in this as in all
other trades, there was speculation. Cotton or sugar rising in
price caused a corresponding rise in the price or value of negroes.
The negro with him represented so much money, and their value
as such made him humane in his treatment and careful of their
physical condition. His human freight was transported on the
lower deck of the boat. There were no manacles and no rigor as
to conduct. They were well clothed, well fed, all in good health,
and, as far as I could see, in good spirits, judging from the
almost incessant sounds of the banjo with corresponding songs
and dancing. But I wished to see the same exhibited for sale.
Among other 'illustrations' touching slavery, I had seen in
Boston a representative of a slave mart." In satire the "Star
Spangled Banner waived over an auction stand, before which
stood a negro woman alone-" going !" "going!" while her
children were defined to be in another lot to be sold. Planters,
whip in hand, with all the seriousness of buyers, stood aloof or
.mingled with the crowd of 'blacks,' horses, cows and hogs, all


32







NEW ORLEANS.


offered under a glaring advertisement of "slaves, horses and
other cattle in lots to suit purchasers."
With some such impression I approached on the third day of
my stay in New Orleans a rude arcade, beneath which were
benches, and, it is true, an auction block beside. Beneath this
roof were seated in groups, less than a hundred negroes, most of
them Franklin's gang," but, he himself, "the trader," was not
present; an agent or commissioner evidently represented his
interest, as I gathered from his remarks to several gentlemen
who seemed to be considering a purchase of negroes. The latter
appeared the least concerned; they were all neatly dressed; all
were cheerful, some were merry, under the sweet influences of a
jews-harp or the melody of the banjo. The women plied the
needle or were knitting; children gamboled in the freedom of
nature, and except when under personal inspection, they were all
as much at their ease as if in their own cabins. These were
slaves from the Middle States-Virginia, Maryland and Ken-
tucky. The invention of the cotton gin had extended cotton
raising, and this with sugar planting was making drafts on the
border States for this labor, no longer so profitable to them.
Thus slavery drifts South to the rich lands of Mississippi, Louis-
iana and Alabama especially, and but for this necessity to the
South, the negro would have been adrift, emancipated, idle and
neglected as expensive and u remunerative, and the South would
still be a wilderness, and Indians would yet pillage or murder.
So, taking a practical and philosophical view of the relation of
the negro race to the uses of man, we must admit he is a great
element in the progress of civilization-cutting down forests,
clearing fields, opening woods-nature's pioneer, preparing an
arena, where the higher genius of the white man can play a part
free from obstruction.
I had sauntered through the arcade, stopping occasionally to
ask a question, more to elicit the answer in negro dialect than to
obtain information, and was being answered with a pat juba "
of a barefooted black, when the agent accosted me with the ques-
tion, would I purchase field hands or house servants ?" If
he had asked if I would have boiled or baked baby, he could not
have more thoroughly startled my antecedents. Without await-
ing an answer, he continued in a monotone, as if reciting a lesson
well memorized : "I have both; good, healthy men and women;
none ever had pneumonia or pleurisy; good lungs; no disease;
the women all sound; all of them mothers. Here are washer-
women, cooks, seamtresses, waiters, brought up in the families of
the 'Dabneys,' the 'Hardens,' the 'Taliaferros' and the
' Harrods;' sold for debt and no fault."


33







FLORIDA BREEZES.


I think before he finished his recital he discovered that I was
not to the "manner born ;" he at least changed his manners; and
upon declaring that my visit was only one of curiosity, though
polite, he evidently pitied one brought up in such ignorance of
the (to him) one important resource of the country. With the
stains of Ole Virginny neber tire and the Jay bird sitting on
de hickory limb," I went my way, remembering that savageness
and ignorance form the start of every race, and that when
men are fit for freedom, they will take it. Was not a son of
Priam sold for a hundred cattle by Achilles ? and, moreover, the
descendants of Achilles and Agamemnom were reduced to
bondage. With such reflections I exorcized the sorceress before
whom I had curtisied, for it seemed to me the flavor of the
baked baby" was still in my mouth. By a strange coincidence
on returning to mine inn," I witnessed from my window over-
looking the court" a scene exciting as strange. Handy (a
negress) was nurse to a child belonging to a family boarding in
the hotel-one whose respectful deportment, together with her
untiring devotion to her little charge had been remarked by
me; but provocation developed a torrent of passion and fury
that was as astonishing to me as unfortunate for her. The agra-
vating cause of trouble, was that Handy had taken some clarified
water to rinse a garment washed for her little mistress; the
Mississippi waters being so muddy V to make the process of clarify-
ing necessary, but this being expensive was rarely done, except
for drinking purposes. The man H. who kept the house was ill-
tempered and overbearing; upon discovering the liberty taken
with his cistern, without warning he struck the offender ; but if
he expected to do so again, or that Handy would receive it sub-
missively, he was mistaken, for she turned upon him like a tigress,
seized him by the throat and pumelled him well, and while she
was bursting with passion, she cried : I'll tell my master, he'll
kill you for hitting his nigger," and when torn from her hold,
she shook her fist: "You hit me! you hit me my master will
kill you! my master won't let no white man hit his niggers!"
H., maddened, had run to his apartments, it was said to get his
pistols. The conflict had been reported to the ladies to whom.
Handy was attached, and by this time they appeared upon the
scene and hurried the culprit to their rooms, where they looked
her for security from H.'s wrath. The whole house was aroused,
and the entire sympathy of the inmates was with Handy; among
whom I followed, entranced to see the loving petting of the child
to the sobbing nurse, who in no degree physically hurt, could not
at once rally from the indignity of having been struck by a
stranger. There being a penalty, however, where a negro strikes


34









a white person, poor Handy was arrested by H.'s vindictive com-
plaint and carried to the calaboose, leaving the child of her care
in screams and her mistress in indignant tears. Money, how-
ever, soon satisfied the demand and peace was restored, but H.
lost the patronage of this family's wealth, as well as others who
condemned him for his grossness.
But New Orleans, good-bye!" The United States has other
cities, and bigger grown, though she has but one Orleans. I shall
take with me pleasant remembrances of the hospitality enjoyed,
of the elegance and taste of her society, where mingle so grace-
fully the best characteristics of the two peoples. And good-
bye," ANGEL when we two shall meet again belongs to the far
future; a mystery and uncertainty that greatly saddened a fare-
well.
ST. MARKS.

Middle Florida was my destination. Within a sailing craft,
and emptied by the father of waters through his Southwest
Pass into the deep blue of Mexico's gulf, I became conscious of
that indescribable sensation, only hinted at by what JOB terms a
" yearning of the bowels." Amid the intestine arrangement of
the oak-ribbed, copper-skinned leviathan, tossed up, down, over,
and so nearly under, I thought of the unfortunate one who set
out from Tarshish, and longed-for the .disgorging moment, which
finally came, after many days, when I heard the cable chains
rattle through the ships' eye as her anchor touched the sand in
the Spanish Hole," of Appalachee Bay.
The next tide carried the vessel to St. Marks, which is a point
formed by the junction of the two rivers, Wakulla and St.
Marks, which affords a sea port for all central Florida and lower
Georgia. To this come ships laden with merchandise from the
Northeast and Europe, seeking the products of the country in ex-
change. I found here a quaint little village, amphibious-like,
consisting of a few dwelling houses, stores, etc., mostly built
on stilts or piles, as if ready to launch when wind or tide pre-
vailed.
But the feature of the place is Fort San Marco. This is, a
structure built of the limestone of the country, quarried in the
neighborhood by the captive Creeks and Seminoles, on which
work they must have been employed many years. There are
two stones* that tell its origin. One bears the coat of arms of
Spain, Castile and Leon-Thunderbolts, Golden Fleece and
Crown; the other proclaims that the fort was built in the time of
his Catholic Majesty, Ferdinand VI., of Spain, A. D. 1753.
*Now in possession of the author.


35


ST. MARKS.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


It has bomb-proof walls, with bastions mounting a flat room,
and at intervals embrasures for guns, and there is a parapet finish.
The apartments within are vaulted, neatly finished with iron
doors. Below and within the walls are comfortable officers' quar-
ters, stone lined floors, and at hand an excellent well, curbed
with the same. To the South, but connected with the fort, were
other buildings, and before this a garden of fruits and vegeta-
bles (green peas, turnips, cabbage, etc., in December,) extend-
ing the length of the point.
To the North is a deep moat connecting the two rivers over
which there is still a draw-bridge; but its record for defence
falls short of its fortification, as English, Indians and Americans
have assailed its strength and entered its walls with little resist-
ence. For the present ,all people of all nations are hospitably
welcomed by "mine host," who dispenses comfort in a moderate
way to all who are willing to pay for it. And here I rested from
billows tossed, in curious wonder, penetrating to its sepulchral
donjons which tell of skeletons, manacles and inquisitorial torture
of buried humanity.
St. Marks is supposed to be the Aute mentioned by Navarez
and De Soto, and the district Appalachee, extending north and
northeast to this, is claimed as the region of the numerous and
flourishing towns of Anhayea, at one time so productive and
prosperous as to induce remnant followers of those renowned ad-
venturers to settle in the country as early as the year A. D. 1500.
One of De Soto's companies reported one village of two hundred
and fifty houses occupied by fierce and warlike Indians. As an
evidence of the fertility of the soil, he says that the whole
Spanish army, together with the Indians in the service, (exceed-
ing fifteen hundred,) besides three hundred horses, subsisted on
supplies taken at the first occupation; and when further supplies
were needed they were readily found within a league and a half
from the line of march. But I am advised that this country
referred to is a few miles northward of the town and fort of San
Marco. A few real Indians, called friendly because they linger
around the white man's settlements rather than join the hostiles
in the South and East, are here to be seen. Their style of dress
differs little from those described for them during the past two
hundred years. Some wear a covering made of dried grasses,
others of buck-skins ; bright colored calico shirts with much
ruffling is most usual. The head is usually tied with a handker-
chief. The women I have seen wear the traditional blanket,
which is always dirty.
My first enterprise was fishing. Having already satisfied my-
self that the fish of Southern waters were best for thetable, I was


36









impatient to test the sport of catching them, and in doing so I
admired new men as companions and new modes of conveyance.
To this end the services of Swamp John "-Spaniard and In-
dian-with his canoe were engaged for two bits-which being in-
terpreted means twenty-five cents; but he would as readily have
gone without a price. And let me here commend an Indian as
fisherman; so quiet, so dexterous, that they gather fish from
waters as fruit from trees. With the ebb we dropped down San
Marco into the spreading bay, threading the way among the net
work of oyster bars, which, with the receding waters, were rais-
ing their rugged backs in fantastic shapes, suggesting ungainly
monsters of other seas. John shot his canoe on to a beach front-
ing the open gulf, and here we found the sand covered with a
curious little crab, commonly called a fiddler," owing to the
shape of one of their claws resembling that of a violin held in
position for play. There were myriads of the tiny creatures
which live on the salt marsh and burrow in the sand. I was
much interested in their rapid movements and in the variety of
their coloring, in which a little imagination assisted in defining
a bouquet or basket of bright flowers on the shell that forms the
dorsal; and still more strange, no two could be found exactly
alike. John began running rapidly, like mad, in the line of a
circle, perhaps a rod in diameter, the fiddlers as fast gathered to
the centre of the circle from the line. John with each round
contracted the circle until a peck or more of the tiny things
were piled one upon another; with a dexterous swoop a bucket
was filled and we had a supply of bait, when we pushed off into
deeper waters. The bay seemed alive with fish, which were
jumping from the water singly in sport, or rising in schools, the
effect of which under a bright sun was very beautiful. We at
last drifted between two oyster beds and then began such sport
as I had never enjoyed before, and which I had supposed im-
possible with such tackle, which was of the most primitive char-
acter; the lines were hand twisted and of cotton, attached to
stout bamboo canes, but they proved well suited to the capture
of the old salts we encountered that day. The hook of John
seemed fatal, and I had enough in attending to my own work.
Sheephead, ied fish, black fish, flounder, magnificent trout, and
now and then on the Indian's hook a great floundering, fight-
ing grouper came over the side, and soon the little craft was cov-
ered with our finny booty. Suddenly I felt a tug-another-
sharper-whiz, whiz-and all my energy and skill were called
into play. I had hooked a stranger. His fight was new to me.
Whatever it was, fine work was wanted. My blood was up-I
handled him with all the art I was master of, and in the excite-


37


ST. MARKS.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


ment I rose to my feet. Carambo, go down, you maksee all
swim like h-," cried John as the canoe went nearly over, and
down I went just in time to save an upset, but notwithstanding,
held on to my struggling captive. Whiz-ziz, whiz, my line cut
through the water, and when at full play there came a rise and
a splash. I saw the dazzling sheen and glimmer of silver. Ah,
Carajo, pompo! pompo! pull quick; no let he shake; keep he
down." But the battle was over; the splashes announced sur-
render; one or two desperate lunges and I had my prize along
side, and John seizing, lifted it into the boat. Out of breath
and intoxicated with the excitement of the struggle, I was dazed
with the beauty of my prisoner, who looked fresh from a bath of
moulten silver and sprinkled with diamonds. A pompano-the
first that I had even seen-the grandest and choicest fish of
Southern waters. John said that several miles to the coastward
they were numerous, but rare about St. Marks. Well, in my
life was never more excitement crowded into a few moments than
in taking this beauty from the briny deep. It weighed between
eight and nine pounds, and supper added my testimony to its
unequaled merits as a dish.
We started for a grouper bed, but the Indian was hungry,
consequently he shot his canoe upon an oyster shoal, on which
we stepped as dry as if on terra firma. An oyster! the name
alone gives vitality. Refreshing, life-making bivalve! delicious
everywhere, but the relish of eating them in the open air, on
their own garden, dished in a bay, without price or charge, was
a magnificence that only dame Nature could command and a
revel only offered where privileges are not bought and sold, as in
more populated regions than this. The excitement of anticipated
and realized sport allayed, appetite satisfied, Swamp John talked,
and I listened under the pleasing effects of tobacco's narcotic, as
he told me, in his gibberish of mixed Indian, Spanish and Eng-
lish, of many things concerning the past.
My dusky companion was in the hey-dey of manhood when
the Spaniards left the province, and we much sorrow when he
go, for he stay inside forts and give land to Ingins." Ingins no
fraid but old Jack." From which I gathered through much
circumlocution that his people had never had fear of any power
but that of General Andrew Jackson, and of this they have
surely had ample reason. In a half comic, half tragic manner,
he described the rapid march of the commander-in-chief through
Florida. "He was like mad hawk; he come down on the fort,
drive out Spanish and send him to Pensacola in two- little boats,
and one poor Britisher go jump on his horse; he tell him no go.
' What for no go ?' Old Jack say, you no go, cause you make


38









Ingin bad." Interrogatory established that the Britisher was
ALEXANDER ARBURTHNOT, but the Indian continued to desig-
nate him as Captan," adding that Gen. Jackson marched on to
San Ju.anne* and brought back to the fort more Britishers,
"cause they make Indian bad too;" and with the motion of
shooting an arrow, he expressed the haste with which two were
put to death. From previous information I knew these to be
Arburthnot and Ambrister, two traders who unluckily provoked
the jealousy of speculating adventurers from the United States-
rivals for the profits of Indian patronage, and whose malicious
reports prejudiced the mind of Gen. Jackson and betrayed him
to a course of procedure which shocked and astonished nations.
The insufficiency of the evidence, haste in execution of foreigners
engaged in legitimate trade on foreign soil, may reasonably im-
pugn the justice of the court, and the mercy of the commander;
but. the favorite of the people could do no wrong. On returning
to St. Marks, I induced my Indian friend to visit with me the
graves of these white men so summarily sacrificed, which he did,
leading the way over the bridge that spans the ditch at the north
end of the fort, conducting me to the'spot a hundred yards more
or less distant, where, with two or three cabbage palms to mark
the spot, were two graves otherwise unmarked. The intervening
years of neglect left little to indicate their outline; but here lay
the remains of the un'ortunates beneath the sighing reed,"
which, with the songs of wild birds, afford a perpetual requiem
over their sad fate--for the one young and ardent Ywith all of
life's hopeful dream before him, the other with the burthen of
three score years and ten. As we here rested, SWamp *John"
told me that for a long time after these men were buried, an In-
dian girl, called Mallee, came every moon and laid down upon
the grave of the young man, and "made sorry ;" that she was
the "young man's girl;" thai she was "pretty like Spanish
squaw ;" rode a fine horse and dressed like a senorita ; that she
was at the grave when Ambrister was shot; stood as near as
possible and made much loud," and she dead too," and then
" take way "-all of which I interpreted as meaning that this
beautiful savage girl, felt as other true maidens would feel under
like circumstances, and that overwhelmed by ,grief she had
fainted and was carried off by her friends, Mallee was daughter
of the Chief Francis, whose town had been three miles distant on
the Oclockonee. John represented him as Big Warrior,"
"take much scalp," and owned several hundred nogroes, much
land, horses 1:nd cattle, but "old Jack's mans fetch him on ship
and hang him a short.time before the execution of the traders.
"Suwanuee.


39


ST. MARKS.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


Thus poor Mallee lost both father and lover by this extraordinary
invasion. To my inquiry concerning Mallee subsequently, he
answered sullenly, go away," pointing eastward, and from this
fell into a gloomy reverie, suggested and saddened doubtless by
all the sorrowful reminiscences my curiosity had aroused.
Old John greatly abetted my resolution to pass another
twenty-four hours at the St. Marks .with other legends of the
past. He told me of the Seminoles, that they were Muscogees
from the far West, who strayed to the Creeks, and then to find
hunting grounds, came to Florida and SECOFFEE was their
Chief; and he always supported the British power against
Spanish and American invasion, and for this his people were
called "Wild men or Seminoles." He settled east of San
Juanne,* but some invaders landed on Amelia Island in 1812,
and drove his people from their homes in Alachua up to the
Appalachee district where they made many towns, which they
called Fowl Towns, and Chefixico was also a Micco or King, but
each town had a Chief, and he was called Tustinuggee, for he
settled their civil concerns. Cahallahatchee was one town situ-
ated at the head spring of the western branch of the St. Marks
River, about two miles above the fLake of Tallahassee. Old
Tallahassee was Chefixico's town, and was on the south side of
the Lake, and there were subsequently the towns of the Chief
Neamathla. Tapalga, another town, was situated on -'Tallin-
hatchee Creek, and Emathlochee was Chief. Allikhadgee was
situated on the St. Marks above the great sink. Estotulga was a
small village governed by Emathla-hadgo. Miccosocce, or King
Lake, lies northeast of Tallahassee, and here Kinhaizee governed.
Ayavalla is a great Lake too and had many Indian settle-
ments, Ben. Burgees' town being the biggest; and there was a
town on Lochicochie. It was near here that Gen. Jackson, with
Bill McIntosh, the half-breed from Georgia, entered the territory
in 1818 and destroyed Kinhaizee's and Ben. Burgee's towns, then
marched down the banks of the Oclockonee to this fort (St.
Marks,) and thence on to the Suwanee, where he destroyed the
towns of Bolleck and Payne, sons of Secoffee; but Swamp John
said: McIntosh he do de fighting, and Jacks men do de eatin
and de hangin." My companion further added that they had
scarcely rebuilt these letter towns when the United States bought
Florida, and the Indian no where to go." And he told me,
as connected with this fort, the career of Gen. Augustus Bowles,
who, having been a tory, came from Maryland to live with the
Creeks and they made him a Chief, and he sympathized with the
British and operated with the Creeks -under Lord Dunmore
* Suwanee. t Now Lafayette. I Rock Comfort.


40









against the United- States. In 1813 he came from Englald in a
ship and proclaimed himself KING OF FLORIDA; and, foraken
by his old friends, the Creeks, who now called him Capetunne
Loxe, promised, with their help, to free Florida of the Spaniards before
the following Bosseketah. To counteract this appeal, the com-
mandant of this Fort (St. Marks,) invited Kinhaizee, of Micco-
socce, to confer with him, and there was reason to suppose that
Kinhaizee would have co-operated with the commandant, but,
unfortunately, when the Micco came to tle Fort, he smoked his
pipe in the presence of the commandant's squaw," (for so John
called the Spanish signora,) and she ordered the interpreter to tell
him not to smoke in her presence. Without a word or a gesture
Kinhaizee left the apartment, and only after crossing the bridge
of the moat he turned, saying: When I enter that Fort again
it will be as "conqueror." Thus woman's fastidiousness caused
Kinhaizee to join Augustus Bowles, and a very few days there-
after the Fort was surrendered to a beseiging force of all ages
and both sexes, and a powerful imaginary army, supposed to con-
sist of the whole Creek Nation. The commandant, with his
troops, were sent in two small vessels to Pensacola. Embolded
by his success, Director-General Bowles declared war against
the King of Spain; and, the Indians, elated with the distribution
of stores, dispersed to gather their warriors for an attack upon
St. Augustine and Pensacola, for tfie conquest of Florida. They
had scarcely sounded the war-whoop, when several vessels With
troops and guns sailed up the Appalachee Bay from Pensacola,
and obliged the intruders with Bowles ft the head to sound a
retreat, which they did, enriched with all that they could carry
off with them. The power of Bowles was broken. Spanish au-
thorities combined with United States agents to bribe the Creeks
and Seminoles to give him up; but it was a long time before
treachery succeeded, such was his power among the Indians.
At last, however, he was betrayed, and for safety taken to Moro
Castle at Havana, where, humiliated and broken-hearted, he
refused to eat and finally died of starvation. The Captain-
General of the Island, hearing of his melancholy, proposed to
visit him, but Bowles refused his sympathy, saying: Bowles
has fallen, but not so low as to receive the Spanish commandant
of Cuba!'*
This legend, told in the broken English of the Indian, and in
a weird, unfiuniliar tone of voice, and on the very point or scene
of its principal action, seduced me into thorough forgetfulness,
and for a time I stepped backwards into the land of Don Quixotte
The author prepared this legend for an article for the Semi-Tropical."


41


ST. MARKS.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


and hailed his chivalry. Which indulgence I, however, exor-
cised by inquiring of John if the Indians had knowledge of a
God, but the inability to make him understand ,whqt I meant,
and my own want of understanding of what he would explain,
was so suggestive of the historic tower that I abandoned the sub-
ject. Subsequently, in a French work, I found they had had a
worship, but as described quite unworthy of their free mode of
life. Every day they gathered at their cabin doors, before the
rising of the sun, and watched for the first appearance of the
great cause that gives light and, heat to the soil, producing the
life-supporting grains and, fruits, besides its genial influence upon
the air in which they lived and breathed, and with the first ray
they extended their arms, singing a hymn which is called the
" act of admiration." In the evening they performed the act
of gratitude by addressing to the sitting sun their thanks fof
all bounties poured upon them during the day. And they had
consecrated to the sun four feasts or holy days, corresponding
with the change of seasons. They believed also in a demon,
known as FOYA, to whom remotely they offered human sacrifice.
Their priests were called IAUVAS. And to quote further from
this French work: "The Florida Indians of Apalatchy have
consecrated to the sun four principal yearly, feasts or holy days.
At the very earliest dawn they assemble at the highest point.
There stands a natural Grotto, through whose entrance the first
fires of the day penetrate. During the preceding night the
ladivas have lighted a large coal fire in front of the Grotto.
They continue to throw on odoriferous plants, from which clouds
of perfume rise in hdhor of the divinity, and the high priest
throws upon it a libation of honey, whilst the people, at a dis-
tance. and in a respectful silence prostrate themselves on the
ground. The Chief of the lauvas spreads on a polished stone a
certain quantity of broken corn, intended for the nourishment of
the birds, whose warbling at every dawn celebrates the return of
the sun. This first divine office being performed, an innocent
joy pervades throughout, and they all abandon themselves to a
decent dance. At noon the pious exercises begin again. The
priests, standing erect before an altar that bears no kind of orna-
ment, wait until the sun reaches its apogee. Instantly, as the
fiery rays fall perpendicularly upon this altar, the high priests
light a pile of chosen perfumes, reserved fbr that moment. A
balsamic odor soon evelopes the mysterious spot. On a sudden,
cages, where flocks of birds have been collected, are opened by
him, and those ascending to heaven joyfully express the delights
of freedom in songs listened to most attentively. Their flight is
carefully observed, and more or less happy presages deduced


42









from the direction of their movements. -Then the people, in
great compure, carrying in their hands consecrated palms,
descend from the heights in procession. The Chiefs march at
the head. The pilgrims are last, and carry off part of the offer-
ing which ~every worshipper has with emulation heaped in pyra-
midal form around the altar. The remainder of right belongs
to the lauvas. In the month of April there is a festival agree-
ing with our Easter Day (the birth of Apollo among the Greeks,
the passage of Aries among the Egyptians), during which an
effigy of a deer or stag is offered to the sun. The skin of the
animal is stuffed with odoriferous herbs' and covered with gar-
lands of flowers, to which hang as much dry fruit as they can
attach. Then it is hoisted to the top of a high tree, where it
remains exposed to the scorching rays of the sun during a whole
(ay. Whilst the lauvas perform this part of the ceremonial, the
devout assembly sing, in a choir, some hymns demanding from
the vivifier of nature an abundant crop.
In great calamities, man in a state of nature, as well as in the
highest state of society, becomes degraded. Such must have
been the origin of the rite by which the Florida Indians sacrifice
to the sun a male infant, the first born to a family. In some
districts they immolate a young girl to the moon. She must be
the handsomest, and of a respectable family; and it is the duty
of the mother to assist at this celebration so atrocious. The mis-
erable creatures, whose turn will come some day, dance around
the mother and shout cries of joy or honor, which prevent the
wretched beings from hearing the screams of the victim. Then
there are sacrifices to the demon FOYA. In some parts of Flor-
ida the evil spirit is known as Capai; in others, as Esawjetuh-
Eminssee, and his abode by that of Tecupacha, and heaven is
called Hamanpacha, or the higher world. The lauvas are also
the medicine men, with whom continual observation has cer-
tainly afforded some botanical knowledge, from which they de-
rive prescriptions as applicable as most of those of educated phy-
sicians. They deterge wounds by the use of the lips. When all
remedies prove fruitless, the patient is exposed at the door of the
cabin, his face to the sun, and the physiciati turns priest and en-
treats the deity to complete his work. When the Florida
aborigines prepare for war, the lauvas utter oracles which are
supposed to be inspired. Their Chief, at such times, draws water
from a spring and sprinkles it over the assembly, saying: Let
the blood of our enemies be thus spilt to the last drop." Then
pouring water on a fire, he adds: "May the enemy perish as
quickly as this fire." This reads like romance, and published in
Paris with none, to contradict, most likely it was received as a


43


ST. MARKS.








FLORIDA BRMEZE8.


trailer's tale; for Ionee de Leon and other Spaniards had made
the Floridas theft All we know certainly of the Indian is
ltba I.topean9 found him here, but whether he had strayed from
the old ,t6 the new Ede;. bringing ignorance with him, or that
this was thi sla4ow of the Wilderness, it is useless to'speculate;
and the irvd. strldes of civilization make it difficult to realize
such 's9litt f9or such people, but it is more difficult to believe
that th',e Awih races could be subordinated to observances and
aecs of wore .that necessitated domination of mind and body
to the pPwer of pr'iets; for we wouli as sn expect the hirds of
(he air or the beasts of the field susceptible of training in the
*rts and seineen of worship, as these children of nature, fresh
frofmi the liand of the Maker.
In, another talk with "John," he said Indian must go
away-nowhere for him on de land-he go to the sea ;"and
then, with melancholy painful to see, he reverted to the de-
partired of hig pOople from this portion of Florida. The fact was
the Untied States had bought Florida from, the Spaniards, but
the Indij". *ere the real possessors or occupants, and immigra-
tion wa iat likely to be plentiful while the ." wild men" occu-
pied th9be*t lands, which they claimed to hold by an indisputa-
bletitle fromin God himself. Nor had the Spaniards or British
ever'been able to'xpel them ;, while they, with the aid of their
neighbori, the Creekts and funaway.negroes, had at divers times
drive the occupantss of the Forts from their strongholds. But
t&e America'n came, and he came in his individual sovereignty,.
.W-t ttorely the agent of a crowned head. He came in behalf of
hhnselft He came to stv,thrfor there Indian must go.
Trouble& and distressed, many leading Chiefs visited Gen. Jack-
;-Fsi at 1Phsacola, (when he came as the first Governor to receive
ithe transfer of territory) to inquire what was to be done with
them and their people. Gen. Jackson told them that he was
glad to see them and take them by the hand in friendship,
and 'to assure them that the hatchet had been buried and
that their father, the President, never wished to see it
raised again; that the refugee -Creeks in Florida must
return Ji~ir own hatibn 'and Chiefs; that runaway negroes
llstwf to*their owners in the States, and that the Indians
bel"higingbT Florida would be gathered together in some portion
of the Territory, as they could not be permitted to live all over
jhelIand, for their white brethren must settle the country to keep
them from bhad men and bad habits; that the British and Span-


44










iards had made use of them and the province.to annoy the border
settlers of the United States, but the President would forgive
them and give them the same protection as the white man. To
which one of the Chiefs replied: White people live in towns,
where many thousands work together on small ground; but the
Seminole is a wild and scattered people, he swims the streams
and leaps over the logs of the wide forest in pursuit of game, and
is like the whooping wortola (crane,) that makes its nest at night
far from the spot where it dashed the dew from the grass and
flowers in the morning. For a hundred summers, the Seminole
warrior had rested under the shade of his live-oak, and the sun's
of a hundred winters had risen on his pursuit of the buck and
bear, with none to question or dispute his bounds." These Chiefs
accepted the talk of Governor Jackson, and agreed to carry it to
their people and assemble them from all the towns to hold a
council. But this visit was the key-note of a mournful dirge
that was to resound through Florida from heart-throes for men,
women and children murdered.

Land speculators were the greatest enemy to the Indians at
that time. Anticipating the influx of immigration, numbers
flocked to the territory and bought lands of the Indians for a
trifle, supposing their titles good, and those wlbo came to make
permanent homes were disappointed to find the locations occu-
pied, or held by large grants. All, however, united in decrying
such neighbors; alleging that the Indian, ever an inveterate
enemy in time of war, and persistent depredators in time of
peace, weie entitled to no consideration ; that these of Florida
were mostly fugitives from justice of Creek tribes, and have no
rights to be regarded or merit to be rewarded-are not so much
as united among themselves, but .are indolent, drunken, and in-
subordinate; protecting a most rebellious element in runaway
negroes from the States, who, possessing the greater intelligence,
are really the masters directing assault and opposition to white
settlers. The purchase of Florida was worthless, unless the In-
dians were removed or confined to certain boundaries, and many
settlers seriously considered the necessity of abandoning the ter-
ritory in that it was impossible to live as neighbors with these
degraded people. To meet this difficulty, a council was invited
to be held near St. Augustine, in November, 1823. After much
pursuasion, the majority of the Indians in the territory were in-
duced to rendezvous at Fort Moultrie, six miles below St. Au-


45


ST. MARKS.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


'gustine, but several influential Chiefs refused to give countenance
to the meeting. There were many days of talk-promise and
threats on one side, protest from the other. Finally, by the
agreement that six of the most important Chiefi should hold
reserves on the Appalachicola River, a number signed the treaty
by which they bound themselves to live together within the
Alachua district and never more to 'trespass beyond its bounda-
ries. The commissioners appointed to confer withthem promised
that they should not be disturbed in their (then) settlements for
the period of one year. The six favored Chiefs were Neamathla,
John Bloupt, Luki Hago, Mulatto King, Emathlochee, and
Econchatimico.
General Jackson was satisfied with three months of dignity
connected with the Governorship of Florida, when, resigning,
Governor Win. P. Duval, of Kentucky, was appointed to fill his
place. The latter entered into negotiations with the Indians at
Fort Moultrie, and immediately after visited all the towns, took
the ceefts of their population, and by friendly intercourse con-
ciliated the Indians, and proclaimed to the Americans that they
were not to build houses or otherwise encroach upon settlements
for one year.. This delay, checked immigration, and many who
had already come to stay left in disgust, proclaiming abroalZ that
Floriill was buta sand bank; .but others told of cotton fifteen
feet high, ten stalks of sugar-cane to the bud, and where the lands
had escaped annual burning, were found spontaneous the tender
plants of Cuba, in the hiaco plum, 'orange, mangrove, maguey,
and even coffee on the extreme peninsula. The big hammock
near the Chiciutty village, covering Alachua district, were the
land selected for the Indian, and to these they were to remove
from all points in the spring of 1823 according to the agreement
of Fort Moultrie. A military, post was established (Cantoune-
ment Broo,k) near the mouth of Hillsborough River, and it was
hoped that the wild men of the wilderness would here locate and
become incorporated citizens of the territory.
At the expiration of the stipulated year the white man came
with his wagons, teams, hogs and cattle, to build upon the Capi-
tal site-a plateau a little to the northwest of Cowhonfbnchee or
'old ,Tallahabsee,' having been selected for this purpose. But the
Indians still "occupied the fields ahd were planting crops, besides
clearing land for more extensive cultivation. To enforce the
agreement would have created a famine among them; conse-
quently 4the time af- departure was extended until they could
make and gather ti)e crops planted, and Noveniber was fixed for
the fulfillment of the indulgence.
Neama.thla was the gre.t mIan. He would have been so with


46









any people, but. among Indians he was a most uncommon one,
For boldness, energy, prudence and respectability, he had been
made Chief of all the Tallahassee tribes. He governed by mili-
tary rule, and while feared, was very greatly beloved. Recog-
nizing his influence, Governor Duval used every pursuasion to
induice him to go within the limits of the Indian boundary, but
he would only agree to remove to a 'reserve' on the Oclockonee;
and this provided he was paid six hundred dollars in silver for
his improvements at Cowhonfonchee, near Tallahassee pond. But
before the time arrived for the execution of the contract, Nea-
mathla had grown sullen and careless, insolent and threatening,
so much so as to send a command to the United States infantry,
stationed at St. Marks, not to dare to leave the Fort to ramble
the country; expecting to overawe and confine them as the In-
dians had heretofore the Spaniards.
Records further state that when the thirteen members of the
Legislative Council met, according to the Governor's proclama-
tion on the eighth of November at the new Capital, (in a hastily
built frame house,) and reported at the Governor's office that
they were organized for business, the Secretary (George Walton,)
announced that his Excellency was absent at St. Marks on busi-
ness connected with the IUdians. The Indians, not preparing to
abandon their fields as they had contracted to do, Gov. Duval
had commanded Neamathla to concentrate his people at St.
Marks on a special day for embarkation, but not an Indian ap-
peared. The Governor went immediately to Cowhonfonchee,
(Neamathla's town,) and there he found three hundred warriors
assembled; many armed, and all sullen and dejected. Gov.
Duval addressed them in their public square, and by threats and
pursuasions again obtained their promise to meet him within
four days at St. Marks, but when the time expired, few or none
were in attendance. There was another respite and another day
fixed for the exodus; and to enforce the mandate, Gov. Duval
ordered militia companies to join the United States troops at
Fort St. Marks. This or some other influence resulted in a very
large attendance, among whom was Neamathla, but his manner
was insolent and overbearing, and in conflict with pacific
measures. Governor Duval accused him of disaffection and
treachery; seized him by the throat and shaking him like a dog,
thrust him out of the assembly; deprived him of his office of
Chief and bestowed it upon John Hicks, an Indian of quiet
determination, who, with a counsellor, was made the leader of
his people in the new home. To flatter him into gathering them
for a speedy departure, he was promised the title of Governor,
but this, Congress refused afterwards to sanction. Neamathla's


ST. MARKS.


47







FLORIDA BREEZES.


'dissatisfaction had arisen from complaints of those who had early
removed .to the lands assigned the Indians, that they were poor
and insufficient; and subsequent investigation proved the fact;
so that twenty miles more of territory was added to the twenty
sections first granted. After many days they were at last assem-
bled at St. Marks, from whence they were to go in canoes to
their new homes, the want of teams making their'transportation
by land impossible. More than ten years have elapsed since
these poor creatures were uprooted and sent adrift, and it must
have been a sad sight, even to those who expected to be bene-
fitted by the removal, to see the men, women and children float-
ing away, and a feeling of doubtful justice must have prevailed;
at least I thought so, as Swamp John described the scene and
told me of the poverty of the soil allotted them; the want of
suitable drinking water; their accumulated sufferings compell-
ing them to abandon thb limits and scatter over the territory,
maurauding and depredating until open hostility was declared,
which drove them to their hiding places, but. from which they
issue at will to do direful evil. "Swamp, John" says there are
a great many, however, (of whom he is one,) that are friendly,
who see no prospect for the Indian. as a nation, and therefore
prefer to live among the white people and make a living by
sporting and hunting.

THE MEETING.

There are, doubtless, times when one may find a rapture on
the lonely shore," and music in the deep roar of the sea,. and
"pleasure in the pathless woods," but it is th'e sickliest nature
that will not grow sicker under their perpetual influence. Thus
I hailed the desire for a change,as an evidence of healthy life in
myself-solitude is sweet, but it even is more enjoyable with a
friend at hand to tell of its pleasures. John Savage had filled
his mission in the exhaustion of my purse. I had sighed suffi-
ciently, Lo the poor Indian," and had resolved to continue my
journey on the morrow to the interior-to Tallahassee, the Capi-
tal of the Territory, twenty-four miles distant, where I, expected
to join my old college chum, Guy McLean, whose affectionate
letter of invitation had inclined my lines thitherward. I had
scarcely formed the resolution when the sound of rolling wheels,
the echo of horses feet movirig through the marsh, the barking,
of dogs,-the opening of doors and gates, reached me as I sat on
the ramparts of the fort indulging in the sweet do-nothing, in-
duced by the genial temperature of the atmosphere. The un-
usual confusion told of an event, and, as it proved, an arrival-


48









and, who is it calls? and who else could it be -
Harry! Guy! It was indeed a moment of exquisite pleas-
ure that re-united we two college friends. How are you? all
right-only a little thin ? What induced you to stay an hour
in this dull town?" and such a torrent of questions were poured
upon me from McLean's kind heart that I was almost speechless
from grateful emotion. If I had elected to stay perdu in. an
New England village, I should have been left unquestioned to
my own devices, provided I did not commit murder or petty
larceny-but as my friend said, in answer to my inquiry, how
did he know of my proximity ? Why, my dear boy, did you
suppose that you could pass unnoticed in this community with
that peculiar hat and choker? You are an exotic, and the indi-
genous were curious; they suspected that you had come to fill
an office under the government, or that you were the bearer of
secret dispatches, but when you lingered at St. Marks, the mys-
tery was maddening, and a man walked up to the Capital to in-
form the Governor of all the Florida's that a 'stranger was
below,' hobnobbing with Indian John; and indeed there is no
telling how far suspicion might have gone, if instinctively I had
not guessed it was you, and asked permission of our Governor to
come and investigate, fearing you might be annoyed in a strange
town."
A nice introduction truly for your friend, but I assure you
'Swamp John' has done the hobnobbing, though I am not in-
clined to ignore the friend who has enabled me to while away
the hours unregretted in this quaint fortress. However, I am
yours now, do with me whatever you will ; deliver me to the
authorities or keep possession yourself."
You are emphatically mine," answered McLean with another
hearty shake of hands, and nothing but strength and health
shall claim you from me or Florida."
Since parting with the father and daughter at New Orleans, I
had had no companions, and their good fellowship had made the
isolation that followed dreary and more sensible, and this in
turn now added greatly to the delight of renewed friendship-
while the rest, security, and the thousand nameless joys, restored
to me by this meeting with McLean in a strange land, can only
be reckoned by those with like experience, and for these I count
myself in nothing so happy, for the otherwise dull hours of the
remnant day were made lively by our kindred thought, speech
and sympathies as we talked of the "old class" of which we
were two, as well as of the "girl ?) we left behind," and of all
the people, places and things that make a young man's life.
Morning came, fast was broken, and the team that owas to


49


ST. MARKS.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


convey us to the Capital stood beyond the bridge and" t te~
fort, John was there, and the customary shake of
made more heartfelt by the douceur slipped within hfsI
hand. Mine host smiled, bowed his thanks and
would come again, and we were gone. The bed fbor a
from the port of St. Marks to Tallahapsee had 'been andn kI
struction for some time. We availed our horses of its more easy
travel at intervals, but usually the road was very rough from
roots that seemed to thread the soil everywhere, which McLean
called alligator." Why, he could not tell me, for they had W o
connection with the American chiocodile, but belonged to.
growing palm that covered the country hereabouts on ev :
Where else the eye glanced was water and swamp-graas...
sionally a growth of black-jack and bay-galls relik 4;,
monotony of the scene, and wherever a hillock presented, there
were upheavels of the whitest sand, which my.companion called
salamander beds, and the reptile within was a gopher. These
increased as we advanced into still greater calcareous soil and
higher pine lands. This was Florida !-but certainly* not the
Florida of my anticipation. Where was the orange and io
golden fruit that I expected to cover the land-the fig az4...
vine under which I had painted smiling patrial---the myrtle';
jessamine of song-tt- e magnolia of Flora! Such was my
appointment that I was surprised that my friend did not explain
or apologize; but he talked, and made even this barren prospect
interesting.
Do you see that sink hole ? that is unfathomable-plunge in
and perseverance will doubtless greet you from an oasis in
Arabia."
"And let me tell you, this is a curiously natural country---
(veriily I had commenced to think so)-we have spontonu
springs, sinking terra, subterranean streams; lakes banish I 4
ing fish, alligator and turtle stranded amidst debris, and"'p m
fall, submerging soil and forests in the cavernous water, whilh
rises, flowing, fruitful in pisces and amphibia. On the coast 'we
find fresh water in the sea-salt, sulphur and iron amidst the
fresh, diving and rising rivers, architects of natural bridges."
Good manners requiring that I should acknowledge these
statements, yet a little afraid that my credulity was assailed, 1
ventured to suggest that creation was still in process.
"Yes, in that you have expressed volumes of philosophy
creation continues. But to continue myself, not far from Nthis
road there is a sink known as Alligator Hole,' of which'there. i
tradition coming through old Indians to younger; that from this
point*there came a noise like thunder, and that then followed


50









from this sink a spouting torrent of water that flowed in great
strength for several days, covering all the plain with water,
when it fell to its present level, which is far below the surface of
the ground above. And they do tell of one man who went to
bed with a field of corn before his house, and, on awakening
next morning, there was a pond of as many acres at his door."
That 'could not be true, McLean, for corn would never
sprout in this soil."
Oh, you are mistaken, but- hush !" and, in a suppressed
tone, my friend asked if my gun was in place with flints all right.
For a moment our horses had crouched in terror, and were
now plunging for a race, but Guy's skilled hand withheld them.
It was but a moment, when we found the cause in a big buck,
which started from a small thicket and darted across our road.
I raised my gun, but Guy, with positiveness unusual pressed
down my arm, eitclaiming: Don't shoot, there might be In-
dians."
Indians!" the sepulchral tone of my voice alarming to my-
self. Oh Ito be again at St. Marks, anywhere but there, where
land and water, and possible Indians outlawed nature. 'Tis
Indians, the country is more or less everywhere exposed to their
murderous intents; and within a few days an Indian, who was
fishing on the Oclockonee, not far from the bay, was enticed to
the land by some mischievous white men and was then whipped
to death, an outrageous act which will soon or late bring retribu-
tion, and consequently the risk to travelers more hazardous.
This was an additional reason for my coming to meet you."
"And you risked your own life for my protection ?"
Oh, we will hope there is no risk, but keep your gun as you
see I do mine ready for action. A mile further on we will reach
old Smith's,' and there we will rest for an hour or two; beyond
that there is no danger. Dissatisfied (and not without reason,)
with the district assigned them, the Seminoles have been strag-
ling over the country stealing and now and then committing
some outrage, and so far no effort has succeeded in confining
them within their limits. Authority is delegated to any one to
arrest an Indian wherever seen and to deprive him of his gun.
Any justice of the peace can condemn him to a whipping, which
often results in death, owing to the malice and vindictiveness of
the lower class of white men. All such inflictions are followed
by house-burning and murder."
Arrest an Indian and take his gun," vide Mrs. Glass. First
catch the fish and then kill it." Where the accomplishment was
so hazardous I should think it more prudent not to attempt the


51


ST. MARKS.







FLORIIA BREEZES.


first, not even to stand on the ordering of my own going, consid-
ering the modes of the wild man.
The welcome bark of a dog told of a habitation, and more
time brought us before the residence of Mr. Smith, which con-
sisted of tWo log rooms on stilts,, connected by an open passage,
upon, the floor of which reposed a white man, who use. a re-
versed hide-bottomed chair as a pillow. Peeping from a door
was a slouching white woman who wore a dirty sun-bonnet, who,
upon our halting before the gate, called: "Alik! Alik Smith !
I keep on a telling on you to git up. Git up, Alik Smith! thar's
folks a calling on you at de gate."
Finally, the intelligence of Mr. Smith was aroused, and yawn-
ing and stretching, he came out to greet us:
"An' I declare; it's you Mister McLean, to be sure. I hearn as
how you had gone down below." "My friend" was sufficient
introduction to make Mr. Smith as much at his ease with me as
if he had known me all his life.
"Light gentlemen ; hitch your creturs; that d-d lazy scoun-
drel is nary time about when he's wanted ; but there's the rascal
4,w. Hocules,* see how you give feed to them horses."
wAs we got under the roof of the building, (for it could scarcely
he called entering a, house,) he called aloud to the woman ,no
longer seen, "Ole Sweet, push up the pot, for the gentlemin will
be agying hungry ;" and with the diffuse manner of a grand
Chamberlain, he offered us seats, which he called cheers, adding,
" Make on yourself at home, gentleman."
Then he. placed part of his own body on a chair, while his
legs were extended up and down and over, resting on a rough
railing that partially empaled the passage, when a quid of
tobacco completed his ease, and he was ready for the enjoy-
ment of society.
"Well, gentlemin, what's the news? We are bin a looking
for a mail down these hyah parts for sum time. 'When Joe
Brown goes to the settlement; he will get drunk; so the mail lies
like drunk, too."
"We hear down hyah as how the General, Call, is agying to
march. I Jreck'ond as how it was true, for he ain't one of them
to stand back like; and I just know if de millish stand up to
him, we ain't gwine to want any regulars to keep Injins away
fromtbhe settlemintsf
This and much moLe like conversation, or rather monologue,
ftilel 16he time, interspersed with the mdst astounding (to me)
ejectment of ambia, both as to quantity and dexterity in its rid-
*Hercules.


52,









dance; but the strength and self-reliance of the man very
greatly attracted me.
Hoculas, you d-d lazy scoundrel!"
Sah," answered the black, accepting the character and call
with an equanimity that puzzled.
Fo0ch a pail of fresh water, you rascal," which being
brought, the master turned to us with the same grand Cham-
berlain air, "Gentlemin, won't you be after a wash ? Thar's the
tin, and thar's the wiper,"-which we found in a basin and a cir-
cular arrangement of toweling that turned on a roller-the
length and breadth of which afforded satisfactory change. While
we were thus employed, he turned his battery upon Mistress
Smith. Ole woman, if you don't be up with the cooking, we'll
be after helping you. Whar's Vittals and Cloze ?"
From a sort of shed in the yard there came a cracked sound.
"I ain't afear'd on your a helping on me, Alik Smith, and as fur
a 'vittals and close' I dun sent her to Sister Betsy Hales, to see
as how she couldn't borrow a small pasle of 'short sweetning,'
an' she ain't no turn'd up yit." I ventured to inquire what this
strange-named feminine could be.
Waall, stranger, you must know as how niggers is mighty
high, and they is getting higher. It took my level best with five
crops on this poor piney woods land, to git done paying for Hoc-
ulas-and sure ard sartain I can't buy agin right off-so you
seed'd, to sorter help the ole woman,' I gin vittals (victuals) and
cloze (clothing) to a little nigger gal, and her mistress takes it
for hire, cause she ain't got no use for her nohow, and she helps
the ole woman right smartly-for she is mighty piert."
How mysterious are thy ways, fair Florida," I.thought to my-
self. Finally, the strange cognominal returned, and in a neat
homespun frock evidently donned for the occasion, covered a
pine table with a clean cloth, and with all the necessary adjuncts
of a dining table, which, though of the most primitive order, were
sufficient. At last Mistress Smith appeared-this time in a
fresh sun-bonnet, and addressing herself to the lord of the
manor," she said, "Alik Smith, dinner, she is ready," and imme-
diately seated herself at the table, maintaining the most pro-
found reticence until the master, closing his eyes, said, Lord
Jesus help us !" Then madam played the hostess.
Manners is complimints, gentlemin ; help yourselves; thar's
the fry, and here's the stew, and thar's flour bread, and here's
the hoe (cake.) And, stranger, will you tuk long sweetnin or
short in your'n ?" "/Gin me my natural ole sweet,' said the
husband. Anxious to respond to the wife's courtesy, I handed a
dish toward. her ; she startled my sense of fun, which was hard


53


ST. MARKS.







FLORIDA BREEZES.


to control, as she replied in the most self-possessed manner, I
wouldn't chooze any, if it's all the same to you. Prehaps, Mister,
you'll hev som of them corn doggers along of the greens ?"
'The meal was well cooked and clean, and we were hurrying,
aid we did full justice; and perhaps with more than usual read-
iness, felt with the husband as he said on rising from the table,
"The good Lord make us thankful."
Gentlemin, I ain't a doin of it to skear, but it's on the rise of
two clock, jedging by the sun, and my advize is fur you to be
getting along-for you mought and you mough'nt run agin In-
gins betWixt here and Tallahass, fur they's bin a swarmin
since them white-livered scoundrels killed Snake Root' on the
Oclockony other day."
"Hoculas !" (as loud as he could pitch his voice,) you rascal
you, bring out them beasts and hitch up." And then in a semi-
apologetic tone, as we opened purses, he said: "Wall, gentle-
men, fifty cents for feeding of the creturs, and that'll pay back
the corn, but don't be of insultin my ole woman, fuf she'll gin a
dinner just to be a seeing somebody."
"Stop agin, gentlemen, when you pass along," and we were
gone. Refreshed, the horses trotted off. Turning to McLean, I
saw in his eye a question, while he smiled, to which I answered :
"There was hospitality, sincerity, honesty, bravery and truth,
and Socrates said, 'he who' had the fewest wants was most a
man.'"
This ride was long remembered by me, and I wondered then,
as I often did afterwards, if McLean really felt, or affected the
cheeriness he maintained, for I felt as a man is most likely to do
when every bush is supposed to hide a savage Indian in all his
war paint. But gradually we grew less talkative, more restful.
" We will soon be there," my friend said, as the roads changed
from the deep sand through which we had traveled all day to a
firm clay soil, on which the horses trod with renewed gait, as if
assured of the rest and food ahead.
It was in early December. As the day closed, we had seen
the setting sun color the woods and fire the tops of high trees in
advance of us. Shade had deepened shade, but there was no
twilight nor darkness, for the last ray of the sun was succeeded
by a silver shower of moonlight, heralded by the full notes of the
Whip-poor-will; and then there was the soothing sound of falling
water, as we traveled.the last hill, the highest and largest of all.
It is a Cascade. A clear and beautiful stream runs East of
the town, and hear this road falls over a rock twenty-five feet
long, where it forms a bed, with a subterranean outlet."
"More Mysteries."


54







TALLAHASSEE.


"Well, dear Barclay, there can be nothing more strange than
that you and I, boys in Boston, are re-united as men in Talla-
hassee.

TALLAHASSEE.

On through the town we passed, welcomed by a chorus of
barking dogs, accompanied or varied by the whistling or whoop-
ing of boys. Lights from unshuttered and thinly draped win-
dows spoke of home-life so inviting at that hour, and so cheering
to a wanderer, but the streets had no illumination excepting a
shower of moonlight that poured a wealth of beauty upon the
scene, its effulgence streaming on and through the dark green of
Centenary Oaks which lined the streets, besides gilding all that
was ugly or shabby. Business, (if they ever work in these Ely-
sian fields,) had ceased for the day; there were few passing, but
the rapid gallop of an equestrian, or driving of a carriage, told
that others beside ourselves were benighted. Our horses, seem-
ingly without direction, turned from the street towards a gate
which opened as we approached, and McLean's recognition of
Edmund told that we were expected; further proved by the
opening of doors, appearance of lights, and the coming forth of
servants, led by the mistress of the house, to meet us as we made
the sweep of a circled bed of shrubbery that laid before a vine-
covered cottage.
Just as if he was welcoming me for the first time, Guy shook
me again and again heartily by the hand, saying, "Under my
own roof I want to say welcome," and the mother said.that I was
her son's friend and that made her mine; and sympathetic hu-
mor was reflected in the good natured faces of the servants, who
took charge of big bundles and little, and then we entered the
comfortable home where Guy did it all over again, and as if he
wanted everybody to participate he called to one to put on
more lightwood," where there was a blazing fire; to another to
"snuff the candles," and to do an infinite number of small duties
that I never heard. of before; but the effect was to make me feel
in an incredibly short time, a full flow of satisfaction, as if I had
been here always.
My friend's household consisted only of his mother, and an or-
phaned niece; the last a baby, without whom McLean insisted
my welcome was not complete, and although the mother remon-
strated, mammy was ordered to' bring our baby from her
crib, and so the rosy, sleepy pet was placed in her uncle's arms,
and told to kiss "the gentleman," upon whom she looked in
startled curiosity, while I was called upon to admire the eyes


55







FLORIDA BREEZES.


and tiny feet," whereupon the mother said, Don't plague your
friend with the baby."
A frame building, situated centrally of a square enclosure with
palings,, and so hedged with shutters as to secure quid and pri-
vacy in the midst of neighbors, made the home. Although
Squire Smith's frys and stews were sufficient unto the time and
place, we were nevertheless ready to do full justice to the ample
and excellent supper awaiting our appetites, and to enjoy a half
hour's pleasant chat with the mother, while we smoked; and
that dear woman rose immensely in my estimation when she de-
clared her willingness to tolerate the. smoke at any time that it
would secure her our company.
Good night to madam, and we went out again into the moon-
shine-down garden paths, under graperies and roseries, until
we reached a remote corner in which stood a two-roomed office,
white and pretty as a bride's cake.
Harry, an invalid must not be taxed with conventional ways,
therefore this is your house-the house built for you."
"For me?"
Yes, it is yours; but I will share it with you. It is yours as
long as you will make it so, and I should be glad to think that
could be always."
"Guy, my dear fellow, I am most tenderly touched by your
kindness-a house built for me !"
Oh, that is a very common civility ; to knock up a room for
a coming guest is an ordinary matter. Timber is plenty and our
negroes do the work-architecture not being considered; but in
your case I have been a little liberal, knowing as an invalid. you
would require a little fire morning and evening, I have given you
a fire place."
And here, verily, was the coziest resting place; two rooms,
containing all the needs of a batchelor, fronted with a latticed
portico, that gave promise of many a charming tete-a-tete, and
that sweet do nothing of life, so charming at times. I should per-
haps have stumbled over an object sitting on the stop, but Guy,
more familiar with incident habits, by two or three shakes or
thumps, developed the obstacle into a live creature that answered
to the name of Boy," who with a rub of the eyes and a scratch
of the head darted within, and re-kindled a fire that had grown
dim under his somnolency, and in a moment, as if by magic the
rooms were gorgeously lighted, and a genial, pleasant heat, like
that of the sun, seemed to penetrate within.
Guy said it was "light-wood," a resinous wood from the heart
of pine trees, that made the flames; that it was made for the
negro, and sometimes he was inclined to thank the negro for it.


56







TALLAHASSEE.


"But you will admit it is very comforting to the white man ?"
He that made the fire was introduced as my factotum. His
name is really 'Yellow Hair,' supposed to be so-called because
his hair is especially nappy and black. His sobriquet of garcon
comes from the fact of his being the only son among several
daughters."
To describe these rooms is not laborious; they were simply
comfortable and neat in the comfort; this was Guy's, and there
was mine, separated by a partition that did not extend to the
roof, leaving space for companionship, which induced many a
talk that extended to the wee sma' hours of night. My apart-
ment was more particularly the company room, and Guy's love
for me was displayed even in its ornamentation, for his books
and his trophies surrounded. There were two sets of antlers, and
over these was draped a rattlesnake's dried skin, wonderful in its
length and breadth ; stuffed birds of varied feathers, a pink cur-
lew, and an owl of wonderful proportions and concentrated wis-
dom of eye. All have a history, which you shall hear with the
exhalation 6f Havana's, when fresh feats are wanting." And
here too were law volumes, English classics, and some of the old
companions of college days, that might have seduced us into a
night of talk, but there came suddenly and loudly a long drawn
out call of" Oh, Boy !" across the garden, as if the voice meas-
ured the distance. The black bounded outward at the call, and
returned in less time than I have taken to relate it, bearing on a
waiter a glass containing a rich creamy substance, which he
handed toward me with a bow: Mammy say-ole Miss say-
you mus drink dis and go to bed."
My good mother has adopted you, Barclay, and you must
expect that henceforth to be her good night. It is with her a
sovereign cure for all run down conditions."
But what is it?"
"Only an egg nogg, and as my mother thinks quiet and
sleep must follow her remedy, you must drink it and say good
night. Begone 'Boy' and see that you close the door after you.,
"Close the door?" said I.
Yes; negroes never shut doors. You must tell them on each
and every occasion when necessary."
But, Guy, don't you lock within ?"
Why, no; that is troublesome. I only ordered it closed be-
cause I feared a draught upon you towards morning. Oh, no
one would be troubled locking up here. Good night again, you
are tired."
And thus I fell off to sleep, fully impressed with the idea that
I had wandered into the happy valley of Rasselas; the whis-


57







FLORIDA BREEZES.


pers of fancy," and phantoms of hope," had left no deficiency
in the day, and I never wished to soar beyond-
I slept as tired nature will, sound and completely; and yet
with all the forgetfulness of sleep there seemed to be a realiza-
tion, (a new one to me,) of taking into my lungs all night big
draughts of fresh air, without any chilliness to my body. In
this thin boarded and roofed house of mine, there was no
possibility of breathing the same air; it was pouring in below,
fresh and cool, rushing out above little charged by its short pas-
sages; and I felt that first morning, and realized afterwards, that
this fresh breathing would make for me red blood, and frpm this
I hoped for vigor and renewed health. But I did not awaken
voluntarily; arodaring, cracking, blazing fire, and the conscious-
ness of a presence caused me to open my eyes, when I partially
realized the standing by of 'Boy,' apparently with the same
waiter, goblet and errand. Not allowing for the passage of time
and startled into some fancied neglect of madam's attention, I
exclaimed, I did drink it all."
But Ole Miss say you mus drink dis here;" and Gus added
from his alcove, "This is your morning draught, my friend."
And I might as well state here, that for the period of my stay
under her roof, this valued friend never omitted this morning
and evening tribute towards my re-establishment of health, either.
in an egg nogg, or mint julipt, and I IQve to think it was her
genuine sympathy, together with the delicious climate, that led
me on to renewed strength.
"Mass Guy, git up; Aunt Peggy say de rolls be spiling, anid
I dun clean'd yourn boots, and his'n too; I cleai'4d his'n good.
And Guy called to know if I heard the mandate: "-Aunt Peggy
will be in a bad humor the rest of the day, if we keep her break-
fast waiting."
"Who is she ?"
"The cook, and she is majesty here, and very jealous that .her
cuisine should' not suffer in reputation."
There was general comfort in making my toilet by tie brightly*
blazing fire; there was refreshment in the quick walk across the
yard, and there was joy in the kindly, tender greetimigs of the
mother as she welcomed us to her well spread table, 'where we
found her seated, ready to administer to appetites as ready for
appeasement. But the hot rolls, hot cakes, eggs seemingly laid
to order; butter and cream, such as comes of green fields; well,
as I concluded subsequently, these things belong to the climate.
Fast broken, madam said we must visit the chief of these
good things, ozt else offend her dignity. A few yards, from the
house in' her kitchen, we found Aunt Peggy, whose very' p-


58







TALLAHASSEE.


pearance advertised good living, and from the date of her ac-
quaintance, good biscuit in my mind are inseparable from big,
black, bare and muscular arms, such as hers. She. dropped a
kettle as we entered, hastily wiped her mouth and hands on a
long, blue checked apron, which she untied and laid' aside with
a sleight-of-hand truly wonderful, displaying the clean dress be-
neath, which, with her bright bandana head turban, made a pic-
ture. Advancing and extending her hand, she made me a cur-
tesy, 'taking me in at a glance,) and said: "Why you is pint
blank like Mass Guy; I inflected in a manner you is kin folks,
but I reckin that's 'cause you went to school one with otherer"
Upon my acknowledging the implied compliment: Oh, Ise
mighty proud on my young master, for all he's so spilt; Ise
slapped him many a time; I tell you I never see'd his match
when he was growing like. I jess 'member the day Mass Guy,
when you break'd the donkey."
And you told me I had found my match. Great wits in
conjunction, Barclay-Aunt Peggy and Sidney Smith."
Ah, but Sidney Smith couldn't make such hot cakes as Aunt
Peggy." Which appreciative remark brought upon me a broad-
side of good wholesome laughter, presenting a double row of
faultless teeth-sound as white.
Such cooking will soon cure me. "Well, let on when you
wants ony ting pertickler, and I'll fix it up. You don't some
time look like dem Yankees I seen, for I tell you, honey, that
some-on dem look so mean I would not ask dem for a chaw of
baccaa, or so much as a picayune. But don't anyways hold back
when you want ony ting. Ise many a time cook snipes, and de
like, for Mass Guy, by ten o'clock o'night, when he and his young
men have suppers."
"Yes, you old humbug; and you know when to please."
"Well, dat's right; how poor nigger gwine to get along, if she
don't sarve somebody."
This pleasant way of identifying the servants with the hospi-
tality of southern homes, I found to be general, and accounted in
a great measure for the comfort and pleasantness of their attend-
ance; they seemed as responsible, and to take as much pride in
the best appearance, as the heads of families themselves.
Then we went to the stables; two horses whinnied as we ap-
proached; they were pretty matches, and Guy said one was to be
mine so long as I pleased to use him. I could say little, but I
attributed it all to the climate. Then on the porch of our sanc-
tum, (in December,) we smoked, and talked of the lang syne, and
of the present.
"I shall keep your arrival secret until you are thoroughly re-


59







FLORIDA BREEZES.


freshed, besides I intended to be selfish in the enjoyment of your
society, for when one's known, you will be inundated with invi-
tations, Our ladies manage matters social here, and they permit
no idleness in their service. There are banquets, balls,, picnics,
literary clubs, quiltings, dinners and suppers, all the time."
Diversion is the business of the country, but Guy will your
friends admit a Massachusetts man into their social life ?"
"No trouble about that; our negroes themselves recognize a
gentleman, and sometimes sooner than their masters, and are not
slow to report any direliction. You can be at ease; Boy' has
already endorsed you, for when he brought me my books this
morning, he whispered : I made his'n shine, for I injudged in a
manner he was used to it.'"
I did not think it necessary to inform my friend, that perhaps
a "bit," and promise of more, had secured me this confidence.
Yes, you must stay still awhile; let one of our physicians
make a diagnosis of your case, and my dear mother will do the
nursing, and thus you shall soon be well."
At this moment, a strange figure-tall, well built; arrayed
in a red calico shirt, fringed with yellow beads and feathers
forming a head dress; leggings and moccasins covering the other
extremities-crossed the garden in a quick, direct walk, and
reaching us, threw a wild turkey and a bunch of quail at Guy's
feet, and without salutation, muttered, "fifty cents."
"Fifty cents, Tiger, you are extravagant."
I want whiskey and baccaa; I bring you turkey and par-
tridge."
The bargain made, Guy introduced him as a Seminole, friend-
ly, and as one who spent his time in fishing or hunting for the
town. A cigar made us friends, and though morose in manner
at first, he relaxed, and when we asked for news he talked read-
ily. Oseola down South, he say he no go away out, but stay,
.hold up tomahawk, stay kill, but no kill woman, no kill child,
ugh! ugh! I hide, I hide, 'till after fight."
Later in the day, I saw Tiger Tail re-pass; the whiskey had
taken effect; he was astride a pony and had a jug tied behind
him. Boys were pelting him with sticks and chips, but he good
naturedly looked back as he galloped, half triumphant, yet chal-
lenging. When in one of these simplest moods, the cork came
out of the jug, and after it the whiskey, which frightened the
pony ; he started in good earnest; the Indian checking the bridle
suddenly, caused the pony-to land him on his back in the middle
of the street. The boys were uproarious, and even Tiger Tail
was good humored as he arose and ran after his pony.
In the morning Gus had told Tiger that I was a sick friend,


'60







TALLAHASSEE.


come to Florida for health, to which. he replied: He git well ;
he live like good Indian-drink whiskey; he no die, but dry up
like de fig on de trees, and go to de great Spirit in de air." His
afternoon escapade amused me the more from his advice of the
early day.
In Florida, negroes and Indians! The one promising me dain-
ties, the other health I remembered my gruff old doctor at
home, and I blessed him that he sent me South. How readily
we adapt ourselves to new places and to new modes, however
rapidly they follow. A few weeks only have transferred me from
one extreme to the other-a change not greater in the thermom-
eter than in social surroundings. Where I had ice and snow, I
have now green fields, fruits and flowers, not on gala days alone,
but every day and enough for everybody-black and white-for
this is the distinction here, not rich and poor; for although all
may not be rich, there are none of the last-no wretchedness
from cold and hunger. Everything is new-all
I hopeful. Scarce a decade has passed since the
these wilds only with the deer and wolf, one not
the other; but these hold their places no longer.
i's hammer, wagons, and teams, the trades and
of different occupants, while beauty and elegance
declare it not less a Paradise for the change-for
'as gladdened.
;, furs, and over-shoes are put away, (I should
forever,) and I step forth sure of dry and
bile I fairly bask in the delicious sunshine until
I to my very marrow, and I drink the life-giving
et deep into my lungs, which bring a ventilation
a eath that has been long a stranger to these vital
if I wanted to hurrah for something or some-
; fabled cow, jump over the moon. Under this
;or, I am in danger of frivolity; I love everybody
How delightful is existence in this rural coun-
st and crowds!

SEEKING HISTORY AND HEALTH.

.al name of Florida was Cautio, and the famous
he Spaniards sought, was Biminci. Tallahassee
Jds," and these were cultivated by the red man,
,)nce the towns of Chefixco, and later of Neamath-
la, anu -ow stands Florida's capital-not on a common, but
in a City oi gardens, which are bowers of roses, and this in De-


61







FLORIDA BREEZES.


cember, under the glorious blue of celestial skies, pink, fragrant,
and beautiful, as if it were June.
Well! have you seen a doctor ?"
"Yes, Dr. Taylor; he says that he was once an army sur-
geon."
"That is so. But what is his advice ?"
"I have not sufficiently accepted his pronunciamento to repeat
it with composure."
Why! what ? My dear fellow."
Do not take it so seriously; it is neither death or suffering
he threatens; indeed, he is rather flattering as, to my present
condition of health, and congratulates me that I took time by the
forelock."
"What then is the trouble ?"
Why, he says, nothing short of two years in the South, will
cure me, and that even at the end of that time, I may 1nd my-
self obliged to remain here altogether, to secure me permanently
from a return of bronchial disease."
"Then, is Florida so uninviting that you cannot stay with us
two years?"
"But apres, Guy ? A man at my time of life is laying his bed
for the latter days thereof, and if I idle away this period in places
not mine, my lines will be rather entangled at the end.'
"Fall in love, man The girls expect it, besides common civil-
ity requires that you should."
"That might give occupation for the present, but the future
thereafter! With my previous education I am not prepared to
give up all purpose in life, and settle down to a continual holiday.
What can I do ? Transplanted from one extreme to the other,
can I take root and grow ? Dwarfed I must be."
Oh, no! We will make a hybrid of you-better than
either."
What can I do ? that's the question. As to love, one does
not always escape unhurt from such engagements; besides south-
ern belles do not much affect northern alliances."
"Cela; depends; but buttors are going to place all civilians at
discount."
It is astonishing how women prefer those automatons, with
their holiday and lady terms,' their chit-chat talk about the
order of the day, and stuff about rank; but, Guv, you speak as
one jealous."
"Not at all; but even so, the remedy is at hand, for we may
all be called upon to turn soldiers. Your hint, however, sug-
gests an occupation; suppose you write of our war."


62







TALLAHASSEE.


A book! Be Ossian to your savages, because a 'book' is a
book, though there is nothing in it?"
Well, then, dash into Political Economy,' a safe name for
anything doubtful or obscure-or study the Flora and Fauna of
Florida."
"Bertram, Audubon and Wilson have covered that ground,
and I see nothing left in a literary way, unless it be a parody
upon Mrs. Leo Hunter's inimitable poem, substituting your Alli-
gator for her Frog."
"Suppose you write for us, and tell of your old time witch-
craft ; the stories of Anna Hutchinson and Mary Dyer; of Cotton
Mather, and the ministers of Salem and Boston, skilled in nec-
romancy, who taught that toleration was not a virtue, and ren-
ders witchcraft a science; of the wealth and power of those days
arrayed against poverty and ignorance ; of the religious bigotry,
and malicious craft "
Stop awhile; do you know, Guy, that a witch was found and
hung on Virginia soil ?"
You don't tell me so !"
"It is a fact; but, really, my people are so fed on the calen-
dar of crime, recital of murders, poverty and destitution, and
the horrors of mobs, consequent on lack of employment, that I
apprehend a skulking Indian's outrages will scarcely satisfy them;
and I see that pauperism, and even crime, are almost impossible
here. Your working class, owing to the supervision of good
masters, are protected from both."
"Eureka! You shall write for the benefit of your Massachu-
setts men-women, and their women-men, a 'dissertation on slavery.'
Not as it is, for they will not read it. You must give them the
horrors painted for 'Exeter Hall.' Poets are prostituting their
gift, orators their eloquence, fiction its talent, to vindicate imag-
inary wrongs to the negro; your's is the opportunity to seek
through the hospitality of our homes for material, from which
you can manufacture a romance so hideous that you will precip-
itate Massachusetts into a crusade upon us, as did Peter the her-
mit, Europe upon Asia."
"And you might add, one as senseless as the other."
"Sufficient unto the period were the things of Peter. At this
time some of your people are equally bent on a fanatical crusade.
Out of this humor you shall make a book, that will sell; I will
help you, and we shall share the profits."
"You wound my sensibility by the mere suggestion."
Come, let us consider; you must certainly corroborate all the
lies already in circulation. First, there is the story of a young,
and, of course, beautiful negro girl, who is sacrificed at the ac-


63







FLORIDA BREEZES.


customer festival of every young man arriving at majority;
dwelling particularlyupon the pride of said young and beautiful
creatures in being selected for the occasion, and the eagerness
with which they lend themselves to be fattened for the celebra-
tion."
A dazzling commencement, certainly, and as negro girls cost
from six to eight hundred dollars in your market, the sacrifice
makes a very ostentatious entertainnient. The .effect must be far
beyond wax candles, must be truly magnificent when twins come
of age."
"Yes, of course; put down two girls for such cases, and both
young and beautiful."
"And fat."
"But only fattened for the sacrifice. Then there is the cere-
mony of ownership, where the purchaser knocks out the left eye
of the negro, and puts it into his own mouth, and spitting it forth
upon the ground, proclaims himself master. When eyes are
exhausted from change of masters, they substitute ears and noses;
these exhausted, no title can be secured, consequently no one
will buy, and the negro must expect no further change."
"So probable, Guy! and yet I know of quite as preposterous
lies."
And then, there are our dog-.hunted, starved and whipped;
how mothers silence their children by twisting whips for them to
lash little negroes; how our fair women handle cow-hides. Oh,
we can make a most dainty dish, over which your man-loving
gourmonds can smack their lips."
Quit such absurdities; you and your neighbors are in all
respects like other men, and it strikes me forcibly that here
where negioes are not free, they have more liberty than with us.
It is especially absurd that so many in old and New England
should be grieving for supposed abuse against their rights and
well being."
Nothing easier than to be generous and philanthropic at the
expense of others; but it is certainly very unfair to seize excep-
tional cases as they do, to condemn a people as intelligent and as
refined as themselves-cases that would be equally condemned
with us. And let me tell you, that the most exacting and severe
masters and mistresses in the South, are northern people; indeed,
the only mistress I know who whips grown negroes with a cpw-
hide is a northern lady; and it is said that she keeps this weap-
on under her pillow for the correction of her husband."
"Ha! ha! That will do to tell my maiden aunt Hepzibah, at
least. But I see clearly that in the South slavery is but a name,
and I believe it is the exceptional rose, that would acquire sweet-


64







TALLAHASSEE.


ness under another. I recognize the patriarchal relation exist-
ing in the general benevolence extended, and the happiness
secured by it to the negro; at the same time the great respond
ability of the master dawns upon me, and in all there seems more
a perseverance in good than in evil. I am especially interested
in the care that the proprietor gives here to his laborer, when he
is sick, and to his morals when he is well; while the capitalist
North does neither."
No; with yot\ he says, work or starve; while the southern
man says, seeing first that the negro is well, warm and able, now
work, or I will whip you."
The only argument for laziness, whether in black or white.
Slavery has existed at all times in different forms, and must al-
ways exist as long as there is poverty and wretchedness and
ignorance; want is an enslavement, but never before has slavery
existed as it does here, and, I believe, it is the feature of chattel-
ism that offends; this seems a wrong practice against the dignity
of man-man as differing from beasts."
That idea has grown with an independence of such labor as
the negro affords, and an ignorance of the negro's character. The
sentimental poems, and'many fictions written on this subject, are
by persons, perhaps, who never saw a negro, and don't know
that slavery alone is the civilization of the negro. Slavery is a
necessity to the negro, and the negro is a necessity to the South.
A labor that can be controlled must work here. A power that
can control must civilize the negro. Slavery and the South is
the school in which the negro is restrained from vice, and trained
in the ways of men and humanity. Besides, when did the negro
arrive to the dignity of manhood ? He is no more like a: man, as
we recognize men, than he is like a Chimpanzee. He has under
southern training, grown less like the latter, and further progress
may make him more like white men, but he is far from it yet.'
"Yes; 'in all progress, man is the instrument to develop and
to perfect; the God that is within man urges a fulfillment."
"Just so; give us time and we may make :an intelligence 'of
the negro. It is only by looking backward that you can realize
what southern civilization has done for him."
Europe was peopled, Asia was peopled, Africa, too, had her
population; one on her borders, and another within. These` lat-
ter, so different, as scarcely to be people. But they were all
crowding Europe, Asia, and Africa. There were feuds, enmity,
and wars, and there were plagues and pestilence: Space, greater
space, was the demand. That great ever-working mystery that
man seeks, Providence, had waiting a vast land of fifteen r bit-
lion square miles, washed by oceans, veined with rivers, mined


65







FLORIDA BREEZES.


with ores, covered with forests; its waters and woods teeming
with animal life. Nature here was plethoric, and in the fullness
of maturity ; she cried for the higher life which use and perfec-
tion bestows. This wilderness of nature had a people, (the In-
dian,) but, like the fig tree of scripture, they yielded no return
for the blessing; they must give way to a broader people, and
the need of the old crowded lands was founa in the space of the
new. Three columns of men advanced, but at long intervals and
of different nationality. The Spaniards came first to the South,
the English to the Eastern borders, while the French entered
from the North. Towns were built, and ships brought food, but
the forest stood like an impenetrable wall, from which issued
savage assault. Men, must be soldiers, fields could not be opened.,
The Spaniards and French had intermarried with the Indian ;
the. result was an inferior type of man. They tried to enslave
them, but thousands died. The invaders at last lived in forts,
and left the wilderness to the natives. Builders came, Holland-
ers came, Swedes, and thousands flocked to the hew land. At
last, there was starvation, and the land must be abandoned, if
constant, systematized labor, uninterrupted by military or civil
duty, could not be supplied. Where was the labor to come
from? God's universal law of harmony provided it. There was
a central country, unexplored ; from its jungles came wild beasts,
serpents, apes, ourang-outang, and another creation like these
last, and yet so much like man as to be classed in the same genus?
His form was different, his hair wool, color black, redolent with
effluvia, covered with parasites; his instincts, animal; in moral-
ity, a brute-Canibals ; ao law but that of the strongest; slaves
to slaves; eating ants, snakes, or each other-their passion cap-
tives, of whom they made victims. And there is no history to
prove that they were ever otherwise; there are no monuments,
no hieroglyphics to show that they ever belonged to a'higher
race. They see'g always to have, been savage heathens, without
reason; they halIenjoyed Egyptian, Phoenician, and even Roman
civilization, but the African to-day what he was in the time bf
the Pharoahs. The necessity oftit1*7stern wilderness was their
first step towards civilization, of which we have record. ., Tb&
Dutch were the agents of the harmony of nature; they brought
these wild men .to wild lands, where, under the direction of in*
telligence, morality and benevolence, Athe one should; be hu-
manized, the other utilized. The kings of -the semi-man learned
that it was better to sell the, captives of their continual brawls,
than to eat them; so thousands were bought with beads, calico,
and tobacco, and brought to a people of different gifts and higher
capacities, and the twp became joint instruments jn a great work


66







TALLAHASSEE.


-the opening of a vast wilderness where both should expand and
perfect. The heathen was brought captive, but captive to a
higher order of kings or masters; those who would not eat them,
but in exchange for their work, give them clothing and food;
and henceforth he was freed from the burdens of war, and direct-
ed in felling forests, clearing rivers, building cities. He was the
"mustard seed, less than all the seeds of the earth;" he is fast
becoming a tree, shooting forth great branches, fitting and filling
the necessity so beautifully, that the relation can only emanate
from the same great source that created all things.
It was in 1500, when the Spaniards carried them in ships to
the West Indies, but it was not until 1600, that the Dutch
brought the first Africans to Jamestown. After this, a great
trade was developed. Every nation -that owned ships, carried
them where labor was needed. Thus a great want was supplied,
and the enlightenment of a people commenced-a humanizing of
heathen brutes started. We wanted muscle; in return, we dis-
ciplined them. There was no compact; further relations were
not considered. What followed, grew out of thfe difference in
race, the superiority of one to the other; they could not have
been enslaved had they been equals. They did not come; there
was no betrayal; they were brought as tools, not as men-no
wrong to them was purposed, but great good resulted. But the
Britons were true to the instincts of a high born race. There
was no marriage; they were in the wilderness, but they were
Britons still. Hereditary slavery does not seem to have been
contemplated. It grew out of the nature of things, just as water
finds its level. However, this semi-men lost nothing in the ex-
change of African habitudes for those of America, which was a
transition from inhuman to human masters. He came where he
was worked, not eaten. The best was done for him at the time;
his bestial nature allowed nothing more. Privations, toils, free
air, and free purposes, made the white man braye, active, adven-
turous, enterprising, sympathetic and generous. Subjected to
such influences, the negro becaine docile, humane, industrious,
affectionate, clean, and to some extent, intelligent; and thus the
leopard has changed his spots and the Ethiopian his skin. A new
world was made, a new society formed of which history had no
previous history; and this was southern society, based.upon slavery,
and so it was fulfilled, Japheth will be enlarged; he shall dwell
in the tents of Shem, and Canaan Shall be his servant." Was this
an accident-a chance ?
"You are quite logical, and as negroes were sold and brought
equally from Maine to Georgia, it does not become those of the
North, now that by your patient care you have advanced the ne-


67







FLORIDA BREEZES.


gro in manhood, to revile their teachers as inhuman brutes-for-
getting that they, rather' than tolerate their deficiencies, resold
them to you in the South."
"Yes; the northern people were commercial; they required a
more intellectual labor than the negro afforded, and a cheaper
labor for their felods. They could not agree to feed and clothe
negroes twelve months, in order to secure three months labor out
of tJ year. From expediency and not philanthropy, they re-
nounqed the negro from the start. But the first difference was
entirely political, and had its origin in the formation of the com-
pack entered into when the first Congress formed the confedera-
tio*, and proportioned the expense of the war; which was pro-
posed to be borrOe by the separate colonies in proportion to the
population of each, excepting only Indians. The colonies were
at that time, as you know, all slave holdhig. There were negro
slaves in all the States, but they preponderated in the South.
The representative from Maryland in the first Congress, offered
the amendment, that the words white population be inserted,
because negroes were property. With that proposition sprouted
the germ of dissension, your John Adams planting the seed, by
:asserting that negroes Were persons, however." This was the
first sound of the tocsin, that has rung forth difference and dis-
edad on the ear through all the time since, but no one then but
glorious old Patrick Henry seems to have noticed the inharmo-
nious diapason. He told them at home of strange and fatal am-
biguities in resolutions proposed, but he was ridiculed for useless
alarms."
My recollection is that they agreed in enumerating the pop-
ulation that five negroes should count as three." -
"Yes; after .the display of such sectional feeling, that Gouv-
erneur Morrisis credited with saying: 'If our differences are
real, instead of persevering in the effort to bind incompatable
things, let us take a friendly leave of each other.' And as much
as I lbve you, hayclay, I wish they had acted on his advice, for,
really, though we declaim on all occasions about the 'glorious
Union,' it has really never existed, and never can, I fear."
"Don't say &o, Guy. What becomes of the past, and what
must be the future without one nationality."
"Dissolution would certainly be a serious thing to you of the
North, but for us-"
"Treason! treason Guy; dbn't utter it!"
All men are born free and equal! What a set of Jackafiapes
those old signers' must have been to endorse such a proposition,
especially when they had three races of men under their noses,
Indians, negroes, and themselves, that contradicted the proposi-


68




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