Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Back Cover

Title: Specvlvm mundi
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101359/00001
 Material Information
Title: Specvlvm mundi or, A glasse representing the face of the world; shewing both that it did begin, and must also end; the manner how, and time when being largely examined. Whereunto is joyned an Hexameron, or a serious discourse of the causes, continuance, and qualities of things in nature; occasioned as matter pertinent to the work done in the six dayes of the worlds creation
Alternate Title: Speculum mundi
Physical Description: 7 p.l., 504, 26 p. : ; 15 x 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Swan, John, d. 1671
Publisher: Printed by the printers to the Universitie
Place of Publication: Cambridge
Publication Date: 1635
Subject: Natural history -- Pre-Linnean works   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Preface signed: John Swan.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101359
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 67402104
lccn - 06002707


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UF00101359_00001 ( XML )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Front Matter
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Title Page
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Table of Contents
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Chapter II
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
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        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Chapter III
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
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        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 58
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    Chapter IV
        Page 60
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        Page 81
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    Chapter V
        Page 83
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    Chapter VI
        Page 188
        Page 189
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        Page 191
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        Page 310
    Chapter VII
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
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    Chapter VIII
        Page 365
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    Chapter IX
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
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    Back Cover
        Page 533
        Page 534
Full Text

0 0

Lawrence Strangman
0 0
* *

4 I -

t /84~7




I C~


WO 1' 11.~~

I- k.
r -",.: rIanibl' C P 1.7-
L v T c'L': I

Se o 0 R
So both that it did begin,and muft alfb end:
"9.4316 'The manner How,and time When,
-G&O being largely examined.
-I anHexameron, or a ferious difcourfe of the
*W,&9 caufes, continuance, and qualities of things e
G&0 in Nature; occafionedas matter pertinent
G5IG& to the work done in the fix dayes of
-e ~ the Worlds creation.

(46^ hAuG. in Ser. dc Afcen. ;0c
I Qui fe dicit fire quod nefcit, temerarius ef. l.
ui fe negat fire quod fcit ,'ingratus eft. ^ ._
4E1^4c --------------r-- Ir^'Sll
Printed by the Printers to the C"_9&*
--X > Vniverfitieof Cambridge. 1635, S. ,0
(90S^" --.-------------- -L-- ^~P
*Q^~3<^~ 0 00 a0 05 G u0 ( &0 < ^ A & AA AQ^s ^
cwyad o 3~i<7:d^f~ C~
c^t,30~ PvTVV88V (a y8'9vvvv vyy^^*c

Duke of Lenox, Earl of March, Baror of Se-
trington, Darnley, Terbantep, and Methvwn,
Lord great Chamberlain and Admirallof
Scotland, Knight of the mo pnoble ord.qr
of theqGarwer, and pi of lhis PLI j flies
npofthonourable Privie-Councel
in both Kingdomes.
May itpleafejourGrace,
Fter I had brought this finally por-
tion of my intended: labour to
that unpolified perferion wVhich
now it is, aadloth to let it go, -
broad without a M ecanas. t.pr0-
tedt it, I could not on the fudden ref lve; either
whom, or where to make my choice, For it isa
tenet which may be easily granted, that nien of
retired lives, and fmall-grown fortunes,.are fel-
dome known tomany;it being with them as with
thofe in the dark,whofee afid obferv.e the paffa-
ges to and fro ofothers inthe light, butare un-
feenthemfelves: which condition, tith it doth
little leffe then jump with mine, and reflect with
3 an

i ] I

The Eflle Dedicatorie.
an opposite rade uponme,Icould not, I confeffe,
at the firft be feed, until my second thoughts
recalled the happie memories of your gracious
name: untowhom I could not but commit the
patronage of this unworthy work both in re-
gard that I was then a ftudent in that houfe,
where and when your welcome presence made
it glad;as alfo(if it be not prefumptionfo to fay)
in that I was directed by one and the felf-fame
tutour with your gracious felf. But above all,my
efpeciall motive hereunto,was the never doubt-
ing thought ofyour kinde good will to fludents,
and encouragement of thofe whofe wifhes are
well devoted to the Mufes. Now then, if it may
pleafe your Grace to make this book yours, by
proteding it from the detra6ting crew ofzoilus
his companies, I hall think my felf always too
poore to expreffe my thankfulneffe. Let it be as
the grapes of Babel, who ( as the Jews have it
in a certain Apologue) fent upon a time to the
vine-leaves of Judea, defiring to be overfha-
dowed by them; for otherwifethey shouldd be
confused by the heat of the funne, and never
suffered to grow up tomaturitie. The wings of
your favour may be as thofe leaves to shelter
my green and fcarce grown grapes3 fo hall I
hope to fee them thrive: not as the camomill,
by being troden on; nor as the palm, by be-
ing fuppreffed: for they be like to fuch a plant
which needeth props., and is cherifhed by the

The Epiftle Dedicatorie.
pearled diftillations ofcryftalldew. And as for
your gracious felf, my wishes are, that your ho-
nours and dignities may increase with your
hours; and let eternall glorie be attendant on
your vertues, to crown them with eternitie: fo
hall you live, not opely with faints above, but
with men below;and have the precious memo-
rie of your renowned name honoured of thofe,
whofe times are yet unborn, and beings as yet
farre from being. Thus prayeth

Tour Graces moif humbly

devoted fervant,

:o H S VV A N.


To the Reader.
Gentle Reader,
Prefent thee here with a bookofnogreat vo,
lume,yetflor d with much varieties; and fee
ing lam guiltie of my many weak infirmi-
ties, and no few overfights, 1 cannot but
cravethby courteotsacceptation: for it ia a
granted Maxime,tbat 'arfanderby hath often better eyes then
they who play the game. Howbeit he were no man that could
not erre, no more then they whofe rancor'd mouths fall bite
withfcorn, or vent the poifon of a loath'd didain. Ina word,
if thou expeSej.f quaint language, or fragrant flowers of
flowing Rhetorick, 1 amfmewhatforie my fadfatejhould
prove fo cruellas not to give way for fatkfaffion. Beleev it,
I could have vwihed a better file, and not been forie to have
foar'daloft: andyet again I muf confejfe, that as eloqgience
was never any part of my fence, fo neither was my aim fo
,much at that, a to produce apt matter fitting the feriouf-
neffe of the fubjel 1 took in hand. And verily if in this my
hopes fail me not 1 do not fear but my pains will be accepted:
for although Igo not about to teach the learned becausee Hu-
miles arbufla j)vant)yet the ignorant may be inflru&Eedin
what before they knew not;yea, and the learned alfo may be
occafionedto call again to minde something which (for the
present) hath either flept, or flipt their memories by reason of
their better thoughts, and deeper contemplation. Be not
therefore unjufltjudges in an har lefe caufe, nor forward
cenfurers, churlifhly to blaft young bringingg blofomes in
their tender bud: but rather take in good part thi from him,
who refteth,as his own,fo alfo
Yours in this or the like endeavour,
___ TO

To his friend the Authour.

T Ilo#n art the wrorld,nd now methinks Ifee
A worldofgoodneffe here dif/iltd from thee;
'Difill'd in lines fofweetlj, protect
1 thought thy book, the cryflallof thy brea#:
Where live Idea's, fuch as allJballpaffe
When they endure; onelj in clearnefe glafe.
Yet now i'le blame thee: Ifthou would'fl have had
The world drawn right,Jome line should have been bad.

oL. UIAKR.a sAw,; Coll, Tembp.

_ll-----IL .

W he



W Henfrejb Arorafirft puts forth her head,
And calls bright Sl from out his Eaftern bed,
She modefJly doth blufh; her crimfon die
Makes red the verges of the dawning skie:
Fearing (perhaps) that Sols reflecting ray
Procures too hot, to fome too cold a day..
So I, with baffull fear and trembling doubt,
This new-born book into the world fend out.
Some (fkre twill pleafe: but never all did any,
1 wijh the All were few, the Some were many.
But be they a& they will; 'tie told me since,
That enviefnarleth moft at innocence:
And those who lear Mknow where tofinde th' amiffe,
Wfillfvonefl brag they could do more then this.
Let them go on; they hurt not me nor mine:
Detra'inghatasf fet aft homre ifne.

J. S,

I_ CLC~ __ _

- --I ---~lrr~~r~~,~,------i ~II~

______ :1

A table of the contents in the feverall Chapters,
Sections, Paragraphs, Articles,and Quefti-
ons, which are contained in this book.

T Hefirfl Chapter concerneth the worlds begimdng and
ending; and is divided into three Setfions.
Sect. I. That the world began,and muff alfo end.
SeA. 2. Of the manner how the world muft end.
Sef. 3. Of the fundry times which ome have fancied out
for the worlds ending.

T He second Chapter concerneth the time of the year
when the world began: and itis divided into even
SeA. I Of three opinions concerning the time of the worlds
creation; with a confutation of thefirfl.
Set. 2. Their reasons fJewed who fuppofe the time to be in
the Spring.
Seca. 3. That the world began in Aututmne; with an an.
fewer to thelrfirfi reason who endeavour to prove it wa in
the Spring.
Se&. 4; An anfiver to their cond reafom.
SeCt. 5. n answer to their thirdreafon.
SeA. 6. An answer to their fourth reafon. ,
SeA. 7. Concluding the time to be e~Atumne.

T He third Chapter concerneth the firl day ofthe world;
and is divided into three Sections.
Set. r. Of God the ArchiteE of all; and of the firf part of
the frfi days work a z2 Sef.

The Contents.
Sel. 2. Of the creation of Light.
Se&f. 3. 0fthe intercourfe between day and night.

T He fourth avd fifth Chapters concern the second day,
S with fah things as are pertinent to the work done in
it; and xre divided into thefe following Seftions, Para-
graphs, and Articles.
Sea. i. Of the Expanfum,or fretching out ofthe heavens,,
called the Firmament.
Se&. 2. Ofthe waters above the heavens.
Se&. 3. Of the matter of the heavens, &c.

Hefifth Chapter beginneth with the second part of the
SLfeconddayes work; and hath two Setions.
Set. I. How to tnderfland the word Heavens.
Sel. 2. Ofthe Aire; together with fuch appearances as we
Sufe to fee there. This Setlion hath even 'Pdragraphs.
Parag. I Of the division and qualitie of the Regions in
the eA'ire.
Parag. 2. Of Aeteors:firf in general; then how they
be divided in particular.
Parag. 3. Of Fierie Meteors,fuch as are faidto be pure
and not mixt. This Paragraph hath thirteen Articles.
Of burning Torches.-
2. Of burning Beams.
S 3. Ofrotnd Pillars.
4, Of 'yramidall Pillars'
s Of b-orning Spears, Streams, or Darts"
6. Of dancing or leaping Goats.
7. Offling Sparks.
8. Of/hooting Starres.
~_ __)9.0

The Contents.
9. Of flying Launces.
I o. Of Fires in the Aire, two kjndes.
x I. OfFlying Dragons, or Fire-'Draket.
I 2. Of fandring Lights.
S3. Of Licking Lights.
Se&. 2, of the fifth Chapter, fill continued.
Parag.4. ofthefecond Seffion. It concerneth Fiery Me-
teors impurely mixt.
This Paragraph hath three efrticle;.
1. Of Comets, &c.
2. OfNew flarstheirr matter andfignifxations,
3. Of Thunder and Lightning.
Parag. 5. of fuch Meteors as are Fiery only in ap-
pearance. This hath even Articles.
x. Of the Galaxia, that it is no tcreteor.
2. Of Colours in the Clouds.
3. Of many Sunnes and Ctfoons.
4; OfBeams or Streams of Light.
j. Of Circles or Crowns.
6. Ofthe Rain-bow.
7. Of Openings, or Chaps in the skie.
Parag.6.Of watery Meteors,and oftheir feveratll kndes.
Thji Paragraph hath eight Articles.
x. OfClouds, and their matter~ .
2. Of Rain.
3. Of Dew.
4. Of FroJfs.
5. Of Snow.
6. Of Hail.
7. Of Mif/s, and their kinder.
8. Of the Cobweb-lik e c eteor. .
Parag. 7. of Aiery Meteors. This hathfive eArtclea.
I. Ofdivers opinions concerning Winde.
2. Of winde,what it z~, &c.
3. Ofthe division ofWindes, &c,
....,rq.. q_ 3 4. Of ,

The Contents.
4. Of the qualitie and nature of Windes.
.5. OfWhirl-windes,Storm-windes, &c.

T He fixth Chapter treateth of the third day, together
with fuch things as are pertinent to the workdone in it.
Here before Sedtions,and two Appendices.
Se&f. i. Shewing into how many main parts the buflnef'e of
this day may be difinguiJed.
Seat. 2. Concerning the firf thing done; viz. The gathering
together of the Waters, which God Almighty calleth
Seas. This Section diffuteth even Quefions.
I. How the Waters were gathered together.
2,low they could be gathered but to one place, feeing
there be many Seas, Laes, Rivers, and Fountains,
farre afunder.
3. Whether they be higher then the Earth.
4. Whether there be more Water then Earth.
5. Whether the Earth be founded upon the Waters.
6. The original of Rivers; as alfo why the Seaw befalt
andRivers fefb.
7. Ofthe Ebbing and Flowing ofthe Sea.
Vnto which Setion, an Appendix isjoyned: and it concerns
flrangeproperties in certain Wells,Waters,and Fountains.
Sed. 3. Of the Drie-land appearing after the Waters
weregathered: wherein the cafe of Earth-quakes, toge-
ther with the compare and circuit of the Earth,is fjewed.
Sec~.4. Ofthe Sprouting, Springing, and Frutfi cation of
the Earth: wherein the varieties, and vertues offundry
Herbs and Trees, is largely discovered, according to the
beft Anthours.
Vnto which two lafJ Se/ions, an eAppendix is joynedcon-
cerning all inde of cietals, as.Gold Silver,Stones fall
forts, ad fuch like things are under ground.

The Contents.

T Hefeventh Chapter concerneth the fourth day, together
with fch things as are pertinent to the work done in it;
namely the Matter,Names,Natures, Motions,and Offi-
ces ofthe Starres. It hath three Seflions.
SeAt. I. An entrance towards the difcourfe of the Stars and
Se6. 2. Of the Matter, Place, Motion, and Height of the
Starres, &c. This SeEtion hath two Articles.
I. That the Starres conjifJ mofi of a Fiery matter,
andare cherished y the Waters above the Heavens;
as was mentioned, Chap. 4.
2. Of their Order and Place in the Slke: and whj one
is higher then another.
SeA. ftofho officesgiven to the Starres when they were
created. This third Seglion hath three Paragraphs.
Parag. r. Shewing that their firfl office is to jine upon
the Earth, to rule theDay and Night, &c. Here we
have two Articles.
i. OfLight, what it is: and whether the Stwne be the
onelyfouantain ofLight.
2. Ofthe Starres twinkling, and Sunnes.dancin;g.
Parag. 2. Ofi ba other office;viz, that the Starresf,'oHld
before Signes,&c.This P.ir.agraph hath three Articles.
I. That the St.rres .work up the infcr;omur wer/d,
and are Jignes of future events.
2. Whether it be not a derogation from the perfeEion of
things created, to grant that the Starres may give
an inclination to Man, in his actions.
3. OfPredit/ions, or underflanding the Signes.
Parag. 3. Of that other office, wherein the Starret were
made (a it were) heavenly clocks. This hath three
x. OfSeafons; as Spring, Summer, &c. 2
._____________. .Of \

The Contents.
2. Of 'Daye and their kindes, &c.
3. Of Teares and their kindes, -c.

T He eighth Chapter concerneth the creatures madeim
thefifth day of the world;viz. Fiih, and Powl. This
Chapter hath two SeEtions.
Sea. I. OfFifhes, their names, kndes, properties; together
withfundry emblemes drawnfro*n them.
Sea. 2.Ofthe names,'kindes, andproperties ofFowls; with
many andfundry emblemes drawn from molf of them.
~----~ --
T He ninth Chapter concerneth the creatures made in the
fixth and laft day; being fuch creatures as live neither
in the Aire or Water, but upon the Earth. This Chapter
hath likewafe two Seetions.
Sea. i. Of eaffs, their properties, names,indes,&c. toge-
ther withfundry emblemes drawnfrom many of them.
SeA&. 2. The creation of Man, being created male andfe-
male, and made according to the image of God: together
with the injflittion of CMarriage, and bluffing given to
That efate.

| ^^^y /^Wrf ,/,


Wherein isjhewedthat the world neither was
from eternitie, nor yethallbe extended to
eternitie; but that it had both a beginning,
andfhall alfo have an ending: wherein alfa
is considerable how that ending fall be; as
alfo the time when is largely examined.
Se&. I.
That the world began, and mtjf alfo end.
He Philofophers of ancient times were
diverfly transported in the fiream of
their own opinions, both concerning
the worlds original and continuance:
fome determining that it once began;
Others imagining that it was without
beginning, and that the circled orbs should fpin out a
thread as long as is eternitie, before it found an ending.
Plato could fay that it was, Dei Tatris ad genus huma- e ,;
num Opiftloa, an epiftle of God the Father unto man-
kinde; and that God was vuipy,, ,I r a =np ~,
the Creatour, Maker, and Father of the whole universe.
But Ariftotle flicked not to affirm that the world nei- a L,. d. ao,
their began,nor yet fall end.Yet this his opinion,himfelf :.'i"" s.s
being witneffe, was nothing elfe but a Paradox; and (as .*, ''*E
without wrong to him may be affirmed) he maintained
it rather by way of contradicting others, then for any
S___ A defire

2 That the world began, Chap.r.
defire oftruth, calling it Problema topicum, as in thefirf
book of his Topicks, chap. 9. is manifetl; and as in
b Li. domfo. b that book written in his old age to king Alexander the
c Parus on Gen. Great,he alfo confeffeth. This therefore made 'onie fay,
that it was not fo much alogicall question, as a thesis or
position which Ariftotleheld and maintained: whofe
,* i, ,w,- reasons fopie have called vain fophifications to obscure
".erTiw ,".a,,t- the truth, having more wit then matter in them; and may
fi exc,." again be answered by more folid arguments then he al-
pomb. ledgeth. For that the world had both a beginning, and
mult alo have an ending, even reason it felf,,although
there were no Scripture for it, isfufficient.
As firfl, if'the world were eternall, then there
wouldbe fome memories given us of the generations of
men more ancient then that which Mofes mentioneth:
but there is none given us; for all other hitlories are but
latein refpe& of the faced ftorie: which is an evident
argument, not only against the eternitie of the world,
but alfo against the fables of the Egyptians Scythians,
and Grecians, concerning their ancientneffe, and.the an-
cientneffe oftheir ads and deeds of fame.
For indeed (omitting their palpable fi6ions) when
Ethnick writers tell us of any ancient thing, it is. either
concerning the Thebane or Trojane warre; of Cecrops.,
of Inachm, of'Ogyges, Deucalion, or 7anuw; of Ninws, or
his father Belw, or ofthe warre of the giants, ftiivifig
to heap mountain upon mountain that they might pull
the gods'out ofheaven. Now all thefe were either about
the dayes of the Judges, Mofes, Abraham, or Noah at
the furthest. For to whom did they allude by their fa-
2jm with two faces, but to Noah, who faw the times
both before and after the floud? Or whom did they
point at by their GigantomgchYa, when 'Pelion (for-
footh) muftbe- fet upon Ojffs back, and 'all thrown
down with a thunder-crack; whom ( fay) did they

Se6t i. and.muf alfo end. 3
.point at, but Nimrod and:his company, or thofe who
built the tower ofBabel, and had their languages.con-
founded for it?
That of the Poet is therefore pertinent, rW. iA.6.
Si nultlaefritgenitali origo
Tierr.r.rnm c'li, fempe'rque atern4 futre:
Cur fupra bellum Thebanum funerala Troja
Non alias alii quoque res cecinere Poeta?
Qo totfaREa virum toties cecidere? nec ufquat
s~Eternis fame onimentis infita florent?
If that the heavens and earth did not begin,
Had no creation, but remained from aye;
Why did not.other Poets something (ing
Before the Thebanewarre, or fall of Troy?
What ;re becomeof great mens iany deeds?
They could not die,
But would remain unto pofteritie.
Secondly, thus it may be alfo proved; All things
whichareto us-confpicuous, confilting of matter and
form, are of themselves frail and fading, having fuch a
nature, that they either are or may be fubjea to cor-
ruption; but fuch is the world: and therefore as in re-
fpc6l of its effence it is finite; fo likewise in refpe& of
time itcannot beinfinke, but have both a beginning and
an ending. For firft that is properly eternall, which is
altogether incommunicable, orwhich is without begin-
ning, mutation, fucceffion, and end: and fuch only is
God, and not theworld. Secondly, it cannot be denied
but that there is the fame reafon of the whole which
is of the parts;fo that if the parts of the world be fub-
je& to corruption,then muff likewise the whole world
alfo: but the parts areas we daily fee) and therefore
the whole.
But leaving reafon, we have a rule beyond it, which
is the rule of faith; whofe firft affertion makes it plain
A 2 that

4 lHow the world umft end. Chap.z.
that the world began; and that Time ( by which we
measure dayes, weeks, months, and years) hath not
eCn.z.' been for ever. For, In the beginning (faith Mofes) God
created the heavens and the earth: and why is it faid, In
the beginning he created, but that it might be known
especiallyy to his Church) that the world was not
from everlafting?
Divinely therefore did Du Barta" Gfng,as in the found
ofSilvefrer we have it,
D,. R464 Cleare fire for ever hath not atreembrac't,
fit taN Nor ayrefor aye environ'dwaters vafi,
Nor waters always wrapt the earth therein;
But all this A L L did once of nought begin.
7h' immutable divine decree, which fall
Canfe the worlds end, cauid hi original.
Which whofoever fhall deny, he doth but betray his
mifery; either because he wants Gods holy word to be
his rule, or elfe because he difdaineth to be ruled by it.
How great a priviledge then is that which even the
poorer Chriftian hath above the greater and moft wife
PhilofopherlAnd as for the scoffing Atheift, whofe pee-
vifh and perverfe opinion leads him up and down in an
affe&ed cloud ofignorance,difdaining to have faith, be-
caufe he fcoffeth at the rule of faith ; it is no more then
thus with him, he kicks -againfl the pricks, and cannot
therefore efcape away unhurt. For, Sequitur injuflAts l-
tor i tergo Dew; God, as a revenger, follows at the
heels ofa finner, ,
~;'!,ir.s ma: thousands now can witneffe-we/4
wyhofe faults with woe recanted are in hell.
Set. 2.
,The anter of Ut concerning the worlds ending, here fitly may
~lo, i: ~w ri (e thisqueflion, viz. Whether it (hallbe deftroy-
ed according to the fubftance, or according to the qua-
lities. _; If

SeCc. 2. How the world muft end. 5
r. If it be destroyed according to the fubftance, then
it muft be fo destroyed, as that nothing of it be remain-
2. If it be destroyed according to the qualities, then
it fall only be purged, the fubtance fill abiding.
Now of both thefe' opinions there can be but one
truth; whichI verily think to be in the latter of them.
For although it be faid in S. Peter, that the heavens *W rM-..I3.
,all paffe away with a noife ,0' the elements [hall melt away
with heat, &c. Yet it is not fo farre forth to be under-
ftood,as that in their fubfances they hall be quite burnt
up; but rather that they hall be purifiedin their vicious
qualities, which the vanities of inne hath laid upon the
model ofthe whole world. And this S. Paul points at
when hefaith, that -the creature it eiffihai be delivered RomS. i,zi.
from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberties of
thefennes of god. For we know ( faith he ) that the whole
creation groneth and travaileth in pain together untillnow.
And again in the hundred and second Pfalme, where the
Prophet faith that the heavens and the earth /ballperijZ, Prof *z. .
and wax old; he ifeweth' that their perishing hall
only be a changing: For as a veflure halt thou change
Them, and they fall be changed.
Whatfoever therefore is fpoken of their confiimrig,
paffing away, .and perishing, is meant bnely in refped
of their corruptible qualities, the fubftance fill abiding,
and fo hall the fire at the laft day ferve for a purging,
not for an utter confuming. There hall indeed be no-
thing unchanged, becanfe all 'things' hall. be renewed,
and each thing brought into a perrfe flate, A&s 3. 21.
A new heaven and a new earth, 2.Pet. 3 2 1. Not new
by creation, but by commutation; Non per interitum prifli-
norum,fedcommutationemin melius, as faith*S. Hierome; Rio., vn y,
Not by a deflrufion of the old,but by a change in toa better.
SWhich thing is yet further feen even in the little
A .31 world

6 How the world mut end. Chap. ..
world Man,who is the Epitome of the greater world it
felf. For he, in the fubftance of his: bodies, (hall not be
destroyed, but changed; and in Read of corruption hall
cor.,s.n3. put on incorruption, as faith S. Paul; beholding at the
3ol 19.16. laR day his Redeemer, not with, ofbhe, (faith Job) but
with thefe fame eyes. In like manner, the greater world,
in ftead of corruption, hall (I verily think) put on in-
corruption; and being putged by the fire, hall be deli-
nom. .,. vered.* into the glorious libertie of the fannes of God. It
hall not be delivered onely in the liberties of the fonnes
ofGod; that is,when they are delivered:'but it, hall be
delivered -; 7w ihseai, into their libertie;as it is Rom.
8. 2. If it were only in their liberties, or when they are
delivered; then in lead of a changing, there might be a
confuming-iwrich is iin ome fort a deliverie; because
(although quite taken away) there is then no longer a
fubjection unto vanitie:but feeing it is into the liberties
ofthe fonnes of God, it fall (like mans glorified bo-
die) put onincorruption; and fo, fao.modo, in its kinde,
be partakei of an incorruptible Rate.
Th Ksurs re- Butin this changing, I think we may fitly exempt all
"worlds nA fuch creatures which now ferve only for the neceffitie
ofmans life; as thofe which be for food, clothing, and
the like: because then (at the end ofthe world I mean)
there hall be an endlikewife fall fich needs.
Yet there are thofe who comprehend the brute beats
alfo, and other creatures having fenfe and life, within
the limits of this libertie: but they do somewhat qualified
their meanings; as thus:They fall not be partakers of
the glorie ofthe fonnes ofGod; yet in their kinde they
(hall be fellows with them in that glorious late, like as
once they were in Paradife, before man had fallen. But
ap. ". &Co. whether I may embrace this opinion, I knownot; and
See ro Dr. il. that in regard of the forefaid reason: unto which others
lets Hexap. o,
uRoft..' alo affent, saying, Ifas natural rerum non manfurar in

Se&t. 2 How the world wuf end. 7
extreme die, nif liquid oput habiturefint. Wherefore we
may rather relie upon this, without any tuch fpeciall re-
fpeet unto thofe creatures; lamely, .that the worlds fa-
brick, confifting of heaven and earth,- hall not be de-
ftroyed, but renewed according to the qualities, by the
purging fire. For the moon Ihaillhine as the funne, and the
light of the funne fall be fvenfold, as faith the Prophet
Efay, chap. 30. 26. which S. Hierome expoundeth thus,
viz. that the funne and moon hall receive that admired
augmentation oflight as a reward of their labours. Yea
and Zachary alfo witnefleth that there (hall be but zach, 1.7.
one perpetuall day: for there hall be o great light that
there hall be no difference between.day and.night; as
fome observe from thence. Neither is ita marvel, faith
b Chryfoftome, that the creatures Ihould at that time b Pet. Mar.
be illustrated with fo great fplendour and light: for ,'~o.
kings, upon the day when they inaugurate their fonnes,
are wont to provide, not only that they may come forth
with all' fingular pomp and appearance; but alfo that
their fervants may be well adorned. Much more there-
fore may we think, when Chrift fhallfit in glorious ma-
ieftie upon his throne, and the juft, who are the fonnes
of God, hall be admitted to their paternall heritage and
kingdom, that then God Almighty (hall caufe that all
his creatures be decked with an extraordinary bright-
neffe, beautie, and luftre. For although it be faid that ay 6r,. 9.
the moon and the funne hall fhine no more, but rather Rev Z'.
that the Lord himself will be for an eternall light; yet it
meaneth'notthat thofe ftarres fhould perifh,but that the
uncreated light hall be nmioe glorious. So that as now c j r.i ,.
the greater light obscures the leffe; in like manner it ":'.
hall be then when we come into that citie which want-
eth not the funne or moon. It is not faid, Solem &d lunam
non babebit;ed,Non indigebit,ut lucent in ea;that the cities
hall have no funne and moon; but that it fhallnot want

-8 How the world muf end. Chap. r.
themto fhine in it: silently declaring, that then indeed
fhallbe thofe luminaries;yet they fhall not then perform,
as now, the fame ufes of light, being fubjed to motion,
and an inceffant wheeling up and down to caufe a rising
and getting, yea and to diftinguifh one time and day
from another: For time is but as a fpace borrowed, and
fet apart from eternitie, which muft at the laft return to
eternitieagain. This for the heavens.
And as for the earth, our Saviour promifeth, amongst
Mrtah. s. ; other bleffings, a bleffing to the meek, saying, that they
d Dy. Willet, hallinherit the earth: which promife of his (faith"one)
xa,. in m. we fee is not performed in this world; and therefore to
be then expeted,when thereis a new heaven and a new
earth for the faints of God; and when the whole creati-
on (which now groneth) hall be delivered into the
glorious liberde of the fonnes of God. Thus fome.
But in this new heaven and earth we muft not expect
any terrene pleafures, as the carnall Jews do dream, as
the Turks believe, or as that Heretick Cerinthus held,
and after him the Millenaries or Chiliafts: because fuch
pleafures are fading, and corruptible; -joyes farre unfit
for faints, whofe very bodies have put on incorruption.
We look therefore for new heavens and a new earth
wherein dwelleth righteoufneffe, as faith S. Peter,
s Pet. 3. 13. and fpirituall delight unto eternitie; as in
Pfal. x6. I2.
And firther,feeing it is faid that righteoufneffe hall
dwell in the new earth as well as in the new heaven, it
may from thence be gathered, that both the heaven and
the earth fall be the feat of the bleffed; and that the
*Reve. 4- 14. faints Ihall* follow the Lambe whitherfoever he goeth;
and that there hall be an intercourse between the faid
SGn.A. it. heaven and earth: which is as Jacob in his vision faw,
when the angels were fome of them ascending, fome
defcending that ladder which reached from heaven to
---- __._ 1

Se.-3. The time of the worldsd nd examined. 9
earth: or as Mofes and Elias were feen talking with M.tt 17. .
Chrift upon the Mount.
But herein let us not be too bold; for in this we may
foon wade too farre: namely if we should nicely deter-
mine how the faints hall then be difpofed of; whether
fome always to the heaven;fome always to the earth;
or fuch like things which to us are unrevealed.
Let it therefore fuffice, that although the manner of
this change be fecret, and not known in every point,yet
the change it felf is moft certain: and therefore hold
ve molt certainly this truth for our flay, that the world
hall end; and leave we the manner thereofto be exafly
and particularly revealed by him, who will very quickly
perform it.. But of the time when, in the following
Sea. j.
Nd thus much concerning the manner ofthe worlds
Now follows the time when. But hereI purpose not orthe tme
to meddle with any thing which hall tend to the precife n R e wt
fcanning of it. I will leave that to them, who, out of
a desire they have to lanch into the deep,have pried too
farre(I fear) into the fecrets of the Thunderer:f6r often-
times we fee that they do but wifely tell us foolifh tales,
and smoothly bring long lies unto an end, because they
fay more then they have warrant for: To whom 'Du
Barta by our:famous Silvefler thus fendeth greeting,
Tou have wif-caft in joar e'rithmetick,
.Mif-laidyour counters, gropinglyyefeek
S In. lightsts bla ckjdarkneffe for the fecret things
Seald in the Casket of the King of kings.
'Tis He that keeps th'eternall clockof Time,
He holds the weights ofthat appointed chime,
And in his hand the acred Book doth bear
Of that clofe-cldfredfinall CAL END .. R,
B Where,

Io The time ofthe worlds end examined. Chap. i.
Where, in Red letters (not withus fequented)
SThe certain Date of that Great Day is printed;
7That Dreadfull Day, which dothfoiviftly pofj,
That'twill befeen, before forefeen of mofl.
Yet fach is the folly and curiofitie of many, that
they will needs undertake to tell us when this time fall
be: which if they could, then it feems it. should not come
* Luke ii.3 as a fnare upon the world, nor yet fteal upon us as a
21'. Th.. thief in the night: But fo it hall do. For of that day and
io:. 6 houreknoweth noman,faith our Saviour: and we may take
his word; because himself by his humanitie could not
know it: although in his humanitie, by reason of his
Godhead,he was not ignorant of it.Had he not therefore
been God as well as man, and of a divine as well as
humane nature, he muft have remained ignorant in; it
both with men and angels. Mar. 13. 32. And further-
more concerning us, that we be not too bold, the fame
leffon which he taught his difciples is alfo ours, not to
know the times or the feafons which the Father hath put in
his own power;asit is A& 1. 7.
From whence we may learn, that while we exert
cife our felves in things that he too high for us, we fall
fooner betray our own curiofitie, then deliver a truth.
For, cMaximi pars eorum qe facimus, eft minima pars
eorum que nefIimus; The greatest part of tiofe: things
which we know; is the left part of what-we know not.
Whereupon I cannot but think that the prediAions
of men in this kind especiallyy feeing they are fo va-
rious)muft needs be as true as thofe amorngf the brood of
prefumptnous Altrologers concerning the end of Chri-
2 e. f(tian Religion, which (as Do 'Pleffie bferveth from
them)-fhould have been fome hundreds ofyeares before
this time: nay,it shouldd then have ended,when indeed it
began moft ofallto flourish: And 6fo I doub nor, but am
certain, that the world alfo should have had'many end-

Se&t 3. The time ofthe worlds end examined. n
ings before this time, according to the doting froth of
fome mens idle fancies; which,if need were, I could re-
late.But as time was little beholding to them for cutting
it off fo fhort; in like manner they were as little behold-
ing to time for.difeovering their lies to plainly.
I will therefore(before I meddle further with fich ap-
proved liars)leave them unto their beft friends to gain(if
they can) their credit for the time paft, and addreffe my
felfto examine thofe who talk of a time yet to come.
Amongft whom the Jews have a tradition, which al-
though they fetch from the school or houfe of Elias,
yet we are not bound to credit it: For it was not Elias
the Prophet, but a Rabbin of the fame name, as the
learned know; and who more fabulous, or more full of
vain fancies,then thofe their greatest Do&tours?
Six thoufandyeares (faith he) the world falll fRnd,
and then it .hall be confused by fire. Two thousand
years thal be void or without Law;two thousand years
hall be under the Law; and the laft two thoufand hall
be the dayes ofMeffiah or Chrift. Thus farre Elias. And
that this opinion hath been favoured by- fomeofold, t, ws fur
and is alfo favored.now by f0me four time, I am not .r, ',ie.
ignorant:.which chiefly they do for this reason; namely, romc, &d. but
because the fix dayes of weekly labour do bear the Sym- nbro ab
bole of 6000oo years, wherein inarikinde should endure lee AUgu;ine in
the cares,and troubles,and travels of this world;and then po .o.
fall come that Sabbath of Sabbaths in the heaven of
heavens, when they are to reft from their labours. Or as
God was fix daies in creating the world before there was
a Sabbath: fo he hall be 6ooo years in governing it;
and then the seventh begins an eternal reft in heaven.
Now this they ground uponthe words of S. Peter;
who, fpeakingof the day of judgement, noteth that a
thonfand years in Gods fight are but as one day, and
one day as a thousand years, Pet. 3. 8. So that in this
B 2 regard,

I he time of theworlds endexamined. Chap.z.
regard, for fix dayes of weekly labour, they would have
6000 years of worldly trouble, and'the like, before
it endeth.
But if this weakneffe be the greatest frength for
maintaining their affection, then I do not doubtto fee
their caufe fainting upon the ground,as not being able to
fubfifl, or ftand upright.
For fidt concerning the Rabbin, had he been a Pro-
phet, he would certainly have been abetter Seer.This
I am fure of, that he was much deceived in the particu-
lar division ofhis time, in making three periods, all of
2000ooo years apiece. For although the years of the
world have been diverfly accounted by fundry authours;
Syet you hall not finde the Rabbins juft number of 2000
years, from the Creation to the Law, in any of them.
Scaliger, CalifiJus, Helvicus, Funccis, Bacholcevrs, and
others, who reckon the fewelt years, do account 45 3 a-
bove two thousand; and yet they reckon not fo many
as they should by aloft 60 years: fome fay altogether
60: as may be feen by Calvin, unius,Parens, Ainfworth,
or D' Willet on Genefis; besides many excellent.Chtdno-
logers: especially S'. W. Ralegh (that learned Knighr)
who in his hiftorle of the world makes it plain.
And 4ot only doth this Elias fail in his fifft division,
but in his second alfo: Fdr from the Law to the death of
Chrilt are not 0obb yeares;there be wanting well near
yoo to makethem ip. As for example,Ctke a view again
of Scaliger, Calvifius, HelvicMs, or our couritrey-man
W'Thom. Lydiator Bacholceru),or Petavits,or tFwccius,
and fee if it be not even fo. Bucholcerms (T think) want-
eth the feweft, and yet it is manifeft that he fatleth fort
of 2ooo. Whereupon it may be feen that in his frft
division (which is for the time before the Law) he
overfhoots; And in his second diviiohi ( for the
time-uinder the. Law) he is too lhortj imitating a

Sec. 3,. The time of the worlds end examined. .
bad. archer,- who tries, but cannot hit the mark.
If then for the time palf the Rabbin isfound to be
faulty, why should webe fo mad as togive credit to him
for the time which is yet to come? Quelftinleffe as he
hath deceived us in the one,- fo likewise he will deceive
us in the other; and therefore he is to be flighted and no-
thing credited at all. Yea, faith b 'one, D iflum inlE/i non eft b za7c. To. 7.
authenticum, Valet quidem ddveffifus utdeovs '(qid 'atici- [R"'e.
nium illid admittunt). ad probandum venife c.,'eff.am,
cm jamr elapfi fint anni quiniquies mille & 56o: fed ad
finem feculi demonflrandtm nihil valet. That is, The
sayingg of Elias is not authentick..-I maketh indeed a-
gainft the Jews(iwh entertain that trophecie) to prove
that the Meffias or Chrift is come, feeing there are'5 6o c note tha *.e
years ofthe 60oo alreadie runne out: but it p.:evaileth cI from the
nothing to (hew the end of the world, for whi*c 6aufe "h... ,rf y M""e.
itwas chiefly intended. "' .
But come we now to the examination of that fore-
named, placein Peter, which is brought as an help to up-
hold the Jews opinion, because a day'tgkenftora.thou-
fand years, and applied't the t e kddy -daye, fleemeth
to point ott ix thouifnd years: f6 tome imagine. Bru
without doubt the Ap fte meant no fiuch thing; not r
had in his minded to fet' dodwi any (Iria manner of ac-'
counting times, peculiar r-the court of he.ven' :,F6
mark but the circumflances of t~heyace, and vicv wciI
the occafiongiven hinito lpealk6 as he did ofthe Lords
coming to judgement, and then you (hall foon finde, that
itwas toveminfor the godly agaiuft the cavils andre-
proachesd other wicked; whb,, beh ife the time feemed
long to them, did thereupon miock at the ptdthife o'h'i
coming, taking it as if,he w,,ol4d inot: ome t, all.: ,For,
rrhereis. (fay they) thetrem if ofhis comii neg tthe k fa- 2, et.. Z .4;
thes fell flejep, all.things! cmtintue: tkiy d9d i~',',m'the 'e
ginning, &c. Wih is, as if they fhouldfay*Is I noth
... -. .. .. .. .. .. gre ra

14 The time of the worlds end examined. Chap. .
great while fince the world began, and yet what altera-
tion can \we.fee init? yesterday was as is this day; -men
are born fandAdieasorderly as they ever did :nature keeps
hercourfe;,and the like: Wherefore if the Judge had.
meant to come or fhew himself at all,he would'not tire-
ly that. his coming should: be thus long deferred, but
would father h.ie f(ewed himself before thus many
years could pofiblie beor,. -Thus, or after this man-
ner, f ch mockers reasoned and cavilled with S. Peter:
* C. cor. i. which cavill oftheirs is agreeable to that of S. Paul,
where he mentions fuch as did not believe the Refur-
retioun, but were like minded with thefe .who mocked
at the. llackneffe of Chrilts coming to judgement.
It ,wsw to Saint Peter therefore, that he might f comfortthe
lhrw (faith
s. Augufin weakand confute the wicked, iheweth,how to answer
twitp rif this their faithleffe objedion; namely thus, That al-
w'e though the time be long in refpet of us, yet to God
(with whom there is no time eitherlong or fhort) it is
not fo. Aday compared with an hour, to us may feem
long: Biit a thotifand years compared with a day, to
God they feemtbiifhot; for what is time to eterriitie?
idndtherrefeoralth ugh that day to the faithlee 'feems
fo o be taken away, or deferred rather,s if it were not,
or would notcome becaufeit quickly came not5yet know
that it is not quite taken away, For (as the fame Apoftle
Sfpeakith at the p verfe) Go.inotfylacki r p-r.ini,, .u
*foame tIi'cou;:t jlifpne-ff, lnt is lor-fTf7rring ia us-w. d,
not n7 illi'g th.it any fhoMld perifi, bt tatl..it .i J7li.ud come to'
repentance..And this (quenionleffe) was the Apoftles
meaning, Farre differing from their fancies who from
hen;would.fain gather that for onedayGod ufeth to
account a ~houfand years, and athoufaind jearec for
d arlt. Pin i. one day. Hic fermo ( faith done ) e/f .de flimatione ho-
minum, qui -non equ'e aimant temputa longum Cr breve.
This speech is according to the eftimation of men,

Sed.. 3 The time ofthe worlds end examined.
who do not equally esteem of times long and fhort.
Which alfo doth yet. further appeared by that in ,the
90 Pfal. at the 4 verf. Where, as there is a comparison
likewifebetween I oo years and one day; fo alfo, in
refpe& of God, a thoufand years are compared to that
which is leffe then a day, namily to a "watch in the night.
For (faith the' Prophet) God tirneth man'ko deftrurtion,
and then he faith, Turn again ye children of men. For a
thousand years in thy jight are but as yeflerday, and they
are gonews a watch in the nigShr.To which purpofe S. Hie- Hirome on jer.
rome fpeaketh alfo fitly, faying, efterhitati comparatum
omne tempus eft breve; that is, All tinmet 6opared with.
eternitie is but hort time, yea indeed as no tifie. And
again, did not Zanchius worthily finde fault ivith Ire- :-'o. r.; I
neus -and LaEtantius concerning thefethingolTndoiibt- A,.' ,!
ediy he did:'affirminigtht ththeir opinlil ias c0Itfoly to*
the vordd-4f God: For our Lbrd'hiiiiftefftth, that 1not1
can know,&c.Whereas (faith he) if this 'fentence of the
600o years were true, then-thetime mighbe known.
Let th'erefdrethy, who will, embrace. thijs fcie of,
fix thousand yeare f6or the whole trF fl i he worlds
continriance; I cannot: Fo'fuire Hiami,.tHr t'thte tradition
bfElis hath greatly failed for the-tiie that: is pafl' if
therefore it should be true for the tie which "is yet to
come, it were more then ari'f.n he of 4b 44dic a s as
for the iiiifnrtal~n fioi 9'Pete toiilha-ift;how
his meaning hath been thereby forced, is ddeclard.'.. :
Yet nevertheleffe I will not-deriy bilrthi the Wyord The world hth
may-fand fix ages bef6reiterideth; 'and 'fo.the ages, aI- re 'hbu ~ho~,
thouighnrib the yeatfe; may becormpredto'the1iKt daycs rands of e'ear es.
of weekly labour: and that the feventiHi ge fhil I begin't
therefurref ibn, as was figured ii Heiooht the seventh
from Adam, who died not as did the jx before hin, buit
Was takenup into heavern.-nto this Iaffent as probable.i
But that eachhgetlhould havel-'houf6find yeadrsiit iffl
___ __- I I I_ dcrid .... .

16 The.ie, of the worlsend examined. Chap, .
denied; and asin fetting.,themdown according to Scri-
pture will be manif ..
The firt is from the creatioirto thefloud: and this
by S. Peter, is calledthe 61d worl4j 2.Pet..5' P
The second is from thefloud to Abraham.Li
.The rhird, from AbrahapintoDavid'. atth;
The fourth, from Davidto te captivite: chap. x.
SThe fifth, from the captivitie toChrilt.
SThe fixtis the time after Chrift called d in many places
thelaft age,and;he laf .Ftimes: as in Hebrews, chap.i.
..gbod (faith the Apoftle)._wko atfindry times amd in di-
-vers mnatiners s ke an to thefathers by. the Prophets, hath
ui thefe aSfl days fpok n to u by hi Sonne. And again,
S.,Ptercalls thi the laftoftinme, I.Pet. .20o. S.John
alfo faith, Littl, children,t -tie-lafef time, I. John 2. I 8.
.Thele i grarp to;be the lX ages :f the.world: but
Swho.ifo mOi'as t-o fay .or think that threi -,were j'uf
thoufands ofyeares betwixt each or any of them? The
Septuag-ts make m6he then thoufandsbetween fome
fc them: and'thd.Hebrews,they mak leife; .excepting
the first age Yet;ifyo .will knov ,their lengths accprd-
ing to that which is none df the worft accounts, take
them thus: and this account I -may afterwards prove in
another work.
Thefirll th I g b yearesii .,:
The (ccond (if we end i at"e tle beginning of Abra-
hams peregrination aid givingoftte promise) hathkthe
juft number of 4z years.
The third (ifwe end it at the death f Saul and be-
ginning ofDMvids kingdom after him) contaieth the
number of 866 years. ,
The fourth (if we begin the captivitisin the firf
year of Nebuchadnezzar) hath 448 years.
,he fifth containeth the length both of the Chalde-
an, Perian, and Grecian Monarchies; together with fo

Sed.3. The time of the worlds end examined. 47

much ofthe Roman greatnefle as was paft before Chrift
came into the world : amounting in all to the fumme of
605 years, or thereabouts; although we reckon no fur-
ther then the birth of Chrift. But go rather to his ba-
ptifme, and then this age is 634, &c.
The fixth and lalt hath fo many years as are from the
time of mans redemption until now: for hitherto this,
age hath continued, and (hall not be ended until the
laft trumpet be blown, and Surgite mortui, venite ad Cor. 1cr.z .
judicium, Arife you dead, and come to judgement, be Revel.
founded in our eares.
To which purpose, divine Du Bartas, that noble Po- h,.i,
et, brings in our father Adam, speaking of thefe ages
thus: getting them down, as if the fpeech had been ut-
tered by him to his fonne; saying,
The Firfi begins with' me: the Seconds morn ,Adir.
Is the frf Z Ship-wright, who doth firfl adorn Noh.
The hills with vines: that Shepherd is the Third, 3 Abram
Wvho after God through flrange lands leads his herd
eA'nd (paft mans reason) crediting Gods word, .
His onely fonneflayes with a willing ford.
The Fourth's another valiant Shepherdling, '4 David.
That for a cannon takes his fillyfling,
And to afcepter turns hishepherds faff;
c great Prince, great Prophet, Poet, PfPlrfngraph.
*The .Ffth beginsfrom thatfadi Princes night s zceasoi t
Who fee his children murdered in hi fight; t tie.
Orfrom poore ]udahs dolefull heavineffe,
Led captives on the banks of Euphrates.
Hoped Meffias fineth in the Sixt; 6 chrit.
Who, mockt, beat, baniJft, buried, crucifixt
Forourfouli;nnes, (fille, lfy-inn-lcenr)
Mufl fully bear the hateful puntfhment.
The 7 Lafl fall be the very refing-day; The ternae
Aire [ball be mute, the waters works Jhallflay; t
C The

18 The time of the worlds end examined. Chap. i.
The earth her fore, the flarresbhall leave their meafures,
The fnne his jine: and ineternallpleafures
We plung'd, in heaven /all aye folemnize all
Th'eternallfabbaths endleffefelivall.
Thus farre Du Bartas.
But from hence I proceed; and on the fudden I have
met fome other forts of calculatours. For fo various are
mens:fearching heads, that thefe things have not only
been boulftered out by Rabbinicall traditions,. fabbati-
call fymboles, and the like; butalfo by fundry other fan-
Some have pretendedrevelations, and thereby delu-
Se,. tof cow. ded many. Amongft whom learned Gerard makes men-
tion of a certain, woman of Suevia in Germanie,who
ofours 2and was called Thoda; & ihe,in the year ofChrift 848,pro-
conxCfghe phefied that by the apparition ofan Angel it was reveal-
o g ed unto her, that the world should end that very year.
After whom there were others as true prophets as her
felfr namely in the years 1062, 1258, 1345, I5a6,
1530, &c. He in the year 1526, ran up and downthe
streets, in the citie ofS. Gallus in Helvetia, crying with
horrid geftures, that the day of the Lord was come, that
it was prefent. And he in the year 15 30, did fo strongly
prevail with fome, that he perfwaded them the laft
yeareof the world was come; whereupon they grew
e ibt'nI f prodigall of their goods and fubflance,fearing that they
should fcarcely fpend them in fo dhort atnime asi the
world was to continue. But this furely was an Anaba-
ptifticall trick,and a chipof that block which maketh all
things common; boating of visions and dreams- in an
abundant manner...
Others have pitched'upon certain Mathemnaticall re-
volutions, and thereby contituted a time: amongft
whom'Yoannes RegioamontanM is faid to be one,who part-
ly thoughtthaat the year ,5 88 shouldd adde an end to the

Set. 3. 7 he time ofthe worlds end examined. 19

world; because at that time was a great conjun&ion of
Saturn,Jupiter,& Mars.Upon which occasion Iremem-
ber thefe verfes,
Pofl mille expletos ~ part VirginiZ annos,
Et pof qttingentos rurfuw ab orbe datos,
OElogefimu oElavw mirabilis annms
Ingruet;isfecum trifia multa trahet.
Si non hoc anno totm rmaclm occidet orbis,
Si non in nihilum terra fretmque rent;
Cunia tmmen mundifurfum ibunt atqcue deorfam
Imperial :& lutlus undique grand erit. That is,
When from the Virgins*birth a thousand years or fromthe
With full five hundred be compleat and told, ,b, of eVi.
The Eightie Eighth a famous year appears,
Which brings diftreffe more fatallthen ofold.
If not in this year all the wicked world
Do fall, and land with fea to nothing come;
Yet Empires muft be topfie turvie hurl'd,
Andextream grief fall be the common fumme.
Which what it was, the event hath bhewed.
Others again dream of fecrets in Cabalifticall con-
Some fubfcribe to Analogies taken from Jubilees, or
from the years of Chrilts age,and the like.
Yea, and to omit many, foundry others have their
tricks and devices in Arithmeticall numbers, whereby
they can directly calculate the time; and make the fu-
perftitious multitude admire them, and lend a more then
greedie eare to their feared predictions.
SSuch a one was he, who out of:thefe words, Mu ir- A rotchetto
D I C oN F L A G R I o, which fignifie The burn- .world hwt
ing of the world, hath fet down the time when the i2nthe yisr
world muft end; namely in the year of our Lord, i 67:24 years hen"C
and that for two reafons. Firft, because as the year of
the world .i 67 was a fatall year, in regard of the
C 2 univerfall'

20 Te time of the worlds end examined. Chap.i.
univerfallfloud, which then came and drowned all the
world: In like manner the year of Chrift 657 fihall
alfo be a fatall year, in regard that then hall be the
end of the world by fire: for is it not faid in Matthew,
As it was in the dayes of Noah, foj.all alfo the coming of
the Sonne of man be? Matth. 24.37.
000o a Secondly, take thefe twowords, namely, M u N D i
5 c o N A G A T I o, which fignifie in Englifh The
5" burning ofthe world, and you hall finde in them fo many
1oo 0 numerallletters as will make 1657, if they be all added
together; asin the margent may be plainly feen. For in
; o the firft word [MuN D 1] there are M,V,D, and I;
Which areall numerall letters: and in the other word,
1 namely C o N F L A G R A i o, C, L, and I, arelike-
1657. wife letters of number; and how much every one of
them doth fignifie is easily known: amounting in the
whole fumme to I657.
Thus, upon thefe, two fancies, is this prediction
grounded: which that it is altogether idle may eafily ap-
SFor firft concerning the univerfall floud which they
urge; that year was indeed a fatall year to the world
when it came: but that it came in the year ofthe world
1 657, is denied: for it came, not when Noah was 6oo
years compleat; but when he was in the fix hundredth
year current of his age: and fo the year of the world
was not 1657, but 1656. As for example;
Seth was bornto Adm,when he was 30o.Gen.y. 3.
Enos to Seth, when hewas i o.5 Gen. 5.6.
Ke:.nfto EOs,when he was 9eo.Geift:. 9.
Mahalaleelto Keanf, hen hewa 7o.,Geie5 .1 z.
Yred to Mahalaeelwhen he was 65. Gen.y.ix.
Henohb to 7ared;when Jared was 162. Gen..,x 8.
Ciliathfel.b to Henoch,. when Hen :was 6 ,.Gea.iy.2 1.
latmechto Mathufelah,whenaO. was 18.7. Gen.y.29,

Se6t.. 3. e -etime of the worlds end examined. i
Noah to Lamech,Wlhen Lamecb was 82.Gen.5.Sp.
Then came the foud in the year ofNoab 600o.Gen.7,i
All which do make(being added together) f 656, and
not I 657, as they imagine: because that which is fa id
of Noah in Gen. chap. 7. verfe 6. viz. that he was i6oo.
years old wheb the fldud fwaters-was upon the earth,
is expoundedifi two fevcrall places after it, thatit mtft
beunderftood of his 66 -yeare current, and not coif-
pleat. The places are Gen. 7. I and Gen. 8. 13; the
one expreffing the beginniig,the other the ending of the
floudt and fo afo the moll and befl' chronologers hither-
to have obferved,although fome do not.; '
Which, as it is agreeable to the truth of computalton,
falfo f (tiat I may agnfer one fancier by another)fit is
moe" cdr;griuoidis to the nature .of the number of the
year wherein it ica4ei. :Fbi '-s, is ni ,number-of reff;
writneiTe the lix dayes oF eteatioi:i tlhefix day~ibf ofi-
weekly labour, and the fix ages of the World. But Sevnew
isfor re;ft witneffe the fabbaticall dyes,; the fabbaticall
years, and that eternall fabbath -in the heaven of
heavens,when.the fix ages 'f the world hall be ended.
Wherefore, ii the yeareofthe world 1r 65 the Atk
was without reft, and toffed upon the Waters: but in the
year 165 7, it found ret; the waters were dried lipand
goie; and Noahthen came out and offered tcrifice. 1
And firth'et, adnir it be faid, .thatp I if ,w in the
dates of No.ih, fo ill ifo t coming of tbh5 So e of aan
be: Doth this point 6ut any; thing concerning the. time
of his coming ? Verily no. It fhews indeed the greit
fecuritie that ffiall ti~ be ift'the world anmongfl the
wicked:Tfothat as the floud eame tpon the old w-rid
when they feared nothing; in like manner (hall the co-
ming of theSonne of man be. But what is this to the
time? Our Saviour doth not compute the time, but com-
pares themaianers ofthe times together; as may be vey
C 3 plainly

22 'he time of the worlds end examined. Chap. .
plainly feea by: that which he hath elsewhere publifh-
ed, fay ing, that the coming of the Sonne ofmianJ alllbe,not
only Asit was in the days of Noah, but alfo As it' w, in
the days of Lot,Luke 17. 28.
For conclufon therefore,feeing.thefloud came before
that year which they have computed, it may easily ap-
peare that their cfuandi co,;fl.gr.,tio for the end of the
world in the year of Chrift 1657, is but an idle fancie.
And as for the, time which they referred to the Aayes of
Noah, we fee that it is likewise referred to the dayes of
Lot: the intent only, being to compare the titnes, and
not compute them.
But fecondly for their Mundi conflagratto; admit it
were fo that the floud did not come until the year of
the world I 65~7 (as they would have it) yet why should
it be that thefe.nurerall letters mutl be picked out of
two Latine words rather then out of words in fome
other language? In Greek it is Koj oa iwsiuaic; out of
which words you may gather 183 o at the leaft.
Surely in this we may fay, that, as in the making of
anagrams upon ainame, ifone language will not help us,
we may then write the name in fome other tongue ra-
ther then want letters for our purpose;: o the fame liber-
tie(belike) he took who was the firft author ofthis fan-
cie for theworlds ending:wherefore we may wel .con-
clude that itis but idle and not worth regarding
Another (much like, to. this) is that which others
have alfo hatched;whereby in the year of Chri:ft 6i4,
should be the endofthe world. '
Another ,rotch Now~this they gather out of thefe words, IDVE N
ht, whereby' the
wod Iwoud t Vs DOMINI, Which lignifie TheIC ca? g oftlZord for
Cndin the year
15;whh now in them they hav to many numerall letters as will make
h '"" 2o0 z2:out of which they fubtra6t fo much as they gather
outof thefewords, DIEs A BBREVIABVNTVR, The
dajespfallbefbortened;namely $ 17 and then the remainm-

Se&. 5. The time ofthe worlds end examined. 23
derof 2o 2 is 1495: unto which they adde fo many as
thefe words will afford, viz. PROPrTER ELECT-s,
which fignifie For the elekisfake; wherein is a number of
15o; and fo the whole fumme amounteth to 1645, be-
ing (as they fondly imagine) the laft year ofthe world..
SBut iffueh or thelike fancies could hold, then- :(cque- The former opi-
flionlc ie)the world should -have had mahy endings finc "n confused.
it firft began; and muft either havehad a newi creation,
or elfe no world had been till now.
As for example, either in the year r 53 2 or in the
year. 3 3;orintheyeare i 578, or in~the year I8 88,
or in the year 1623;, the judgement day (upon thefe
grounds) was foretold to come. For firft, in the year
1532, they had- two wayes -to prove it; either out: of
thefe words,VIDEBVN T IN. oy M' VPV G E xVNT;
or outofthe-fe words, VIDE BVNT .Iri -QVM TRAI S j ohn 19,.3.
FIXERVNT; which fignifie, They fll/ /o on him whom
theypierced; the numetall letters being in either of there
-fo many as will make 1532. Secondly, for the year
153, ,they had this falfe proof, binding fill upon nu-
merall letters, which: they gathered out of thefe woids,
IEsVS NAZARiENVs tX IVDotORVM, ?efMt of VideBuhot.
Nazareth xkng of the Jewei;' here being fo many as will Dorm.
make x5 3. Thirdly,for the year 1578' thus.it was:
viz. they take thefe words, ADVE NTVS DoMINI, and
in then they hive 201 i; -ut ofwhich number theyfub-
tra&ed 5 17, which they gathered from DI.ss ASB B s-
VIA BVNTV-R; and then the remainder makes 1495:
unto which they added the number of the letters [a,e,n,
t,s,]in adventmm, which weren't numerall before, yet
by their natural position ini the alphabetpor croffe-row
they give 5 6: then again by the fame reason they take'
27 out of [o andn] Jthe non-numerall letters in the
word JDomini; both which numbers being added to
4.95, do make 57 8. Fourthly,for thqyeare 1 588, the

24 rhe time f the worlds end examined. Chap. .
manner ofcalculating is as before for the year 1645;
unto which number having raised their fumme, they
fubtrak [a, e, n, t, ,] viz. 56: and fo they have 5 87
years; which they reckon compleat, and referred their
prediction to the beginning of the year 1588.
Side Gerardum in. locis communibtu, pag. 185, Tom. 9.
Fifthly, for the year r 623, thus was the fancie, IV-
veDeuw.4ot i DICARE VIVos & MoRTVos,Toj#dge the quickand
O"'. um. the dead: Now here'(as before) they were led by nume-
rallletters, having fo many as would make 162 3, in
whichyeare they dreamed ofthe worlds ending. Now
thefe times we know are palt long fince,but the event
you fee hath not answered to the prophefie. Things
therefore of the like nature being yet to come, and
built upon the fame grounds,cannot but prove as falfe.
'But whatrneedniany words be'fpent about the confu-
tation offuchidledreams and foolifh fantasies? Surely,
that great and terrible day of the worlds ending, is a
thing ofgreater moment then that it should be thus dal-
lied with. Let not thereforethe quinteffence of wit ex-
pofeus to fuch impudent folly: For:although it may
fomewhat pleafe us in, fhew~ yet, when the beft is made
of it that can be, it, will be proved, not only the doting
froth of a wittie brain, but alfo a fuperitious and an
heathenifh vanitie. .
SIhave feen a world of fancies more upon this fabje&,
g ee Treaf. o especially fach as may be taken out of Cuf, who was
ancient 2nd ino,
tdmn me, 1j.4 made Cardinall under Pius the second: But feeing they
a"PO. are as idle as the former, and built upon as falfe grounds,
I fcarce hold. them worth the answering.
h Npeir on t~e Yet(having come thus farre)let me go a little further,
,herehedet 4h because in the next place I hope to meet fome wifer
"ob bhe t the men; granting (as indeed they ought) that the precife
,6,.inge-. day and houre of the worlds ending cannot be known:
1697, r. yet theywould not have any to be fohbafe ofjudgment,

Se6t.3. The time of the worlds end examined. 25
as to conclude thereby, that an apparent length of this
laft age may not be found; or'that seemingly between
fuch and fuch years the judgement day hall not be
known to come: For is it prophesied? and why are pro-
phefies, if they either may not,or cannot be understood?
It is recorded in Matth. 24. I 5. Let him that readeth,
understand. It is faid Dan. 12. t o. None of the wicked
fJall underjfand, but the wife Jhall understand. And Re-
velation 1. 3. Bleffed is he that readeth, and they that
here the words of this prophejie, and keep thofe things
which are written therein: for the time is at hand. And
Dan. I 2. 4. it is faid, that thefe things towards the end
hall be unfealed: for many hall runne to and fro, and
knowledge Jhall be increased.
Now here I may answer, that although fome under-
ftand the forefaid texts to have relation to the.times, to-
wards the worlds ending,yetthere be no few who con- Jun. C ?,.
tradif it; affirming that what they alledge out of Daniel w,, Hll on
was accomplished about the time ofAntiochus: and that
by running through (which fome reade running to and fio)
is meant the diligentperufing ofthe book: namely, that
though at the first it were not regarded, yetmany in
time to come should give their mindes unto it: being (as.
Polanus expoundeth) thus to be understood, that in the
great perfection under Antiochus, many fall be found
faithful, who hall cleave unto this: prophetic : And as.
for the wicked-not understanding it, we muft apply it
unto the falfe brethren which should bein thofe days of
perfection, and give way unto t ntiochus his wicked
proceedings; labouring to reduce and betray their bre-
thren; and they themselves living without any care to
observe the accomplishment of this prophefie, never
comparing the event with the thing prophesied: For (as
was foretold Dan. I I. 34.) many fall cleave unto
them fainedly, &c. And, for feeling it up unto the, end,
D is

26 The time ofthe worlds endexamined. Chap. i.
is meant the not making it too common on the fudden,
because from the time of thefe visions until the dayes of
Antiochus were about 3 oo years. In which regard it is
faid concerning that other prophefie of the Revelation,
that it muft not be fealed up, because the time was at
hand, Revelat. 2. I0 .Yea fome part ofit was not only
prefently to take effel, but even-then in act, chap. i.
verfe 19. And as for that in Matthew, it hath relation
unto the deftrufion of Jerufalem under Titus and
Or fecondly, be it fo that I do not altogether con-
demne this their inquirie, because I verily think that a
modest and religious fearch into thefe mysteries may
fee very farre: yet ncvertheleffe, feeing interpre-
tours of fuch mysteries are not (as yet) at one a-
mong themselves, especially in their Synchronifmes
and periods of'time it cannot- be denied but that
even in them there is much matter of doubt (al-
though they ftand upon better grounds then Hefrchius
k s*. f did, whom S. Atuftine confuted:)fo that it ishard to fay
when fuch a time appears indeed to be. And further,
were it fo that we had perfed Synchronifines of all
things prophesied in the Revelation (for that prophefie
doth molt concern the end) and knew how to link them
together; yet if we erred in the true placing of our firf
link,it meutf needs be that the end of our reckoning either
falllfhort,or elfe overfhoot that period,which otherwise
might point out an apparent time, if not diredly of the
worlds ending, yet offuch prophefies as th all be fulfilled
before it endeth: (for perhaps that which fome take to
be the apparent time of the worlds ending, may as well
be taken for the time wherein other things prophesied
Hall be accomplifhed)but how long the end l iall be
after them, is unknown. We know that the seventh
Trumpet hall give an end to all because when

Set. 3. The time ofthe worlds end examined. 27
that seventh Angel came and tood upon the fea, and up- meveit.o.6.
on the earth, he lift up his hand and voice to heaven,
wearing folemnely by hi- who liveth forever, ',b, Xp6-
.- ~i 7 s1,' Time fJall be no more: but we do not know
whether the pace of time allotted for that Trumpet be
either long or fhort. The Trumpets before it had time
allowed them; and what time this laft, hall have, the
event will belt discover.
Wherefore I do well perceive, that it is no eaie
thing to finde an apparent length of this laft age any long
while before it endeth, unlelffe e could be diredcly cer-
tified of the utmoft periods of all the Trumpets; or' knew
the times of the even Vials,which by even Angels were
to be poured out. The bell andonely way is always to.
watch, and to be evermore ready either for death or
judgement: For certainly when that time comes, pure
hearts (as Bernard fpeaketh)fhall-prevail more than fub-
till words; good confciences, better then full purfes-
becaufe the Judge will not be deceived with words,nor
moved with gifts: neither is it poffible that any should
avoid him; for all hall be fummoned/to appeared before
him. To which purpofe 'Du Barta defcants thus,
Thofe that were laden with proud marble tombes,
Thoje rt werefwiallbw'd down wilde m nflers wombes,
Thofe that the Sea hath drown'd, thofe that theflalbes
Of ruddy flames have burned alt to ad/be,,
Awaked all, fall rife, and all revef#
The flefh and bones that they at firf po]fefl.
,,But fome muft Jultice, fome :n uft Mercie tafle;
,,Some cfl'd to joy fome into torment caff.




I r'rAf TiT

hewing, in what part of te year the world
w7as created.

Set. i.
Of, three opinions concerning the time of the wvlds be-
ginning, with a confutation of the firf.
SN the account of Times, it is very ne-
ceffary that there should be a proposed
point or narkk, from whence every
reckoning may take beginning; that
thereby the years which have feverall
times ofbeginning,may the more truely
be computed ,and compared amongft themselves.
Wherefoge it cannot be amiffe to fet down the moft
probableconjeftures concerning theyeare wherein the
world began; especially feeing amongft Cnronologers
it is ufiall to referred their accounts either to the year of
the worlds Creation, or to rh birth of Chrift.
And now, concerning this, there be chiefly three
x. Some imagine that the world was created in
the very time of the Summer-Solftice, and that in ,the
beginning oftime, the Sunne entering into Leo, gave be-
ginning to the year.
a. Others referred it to the Spring, when the Sunne
entered jnto Aries.
3. And in the laft place'tis fippofed, that the world

I _~s_ _ l _ l

I .. .

Sed.r. When the worldbegan. 29

was made in Autumne, when the Sunne entered into
Libra. Of all which I purpose to difcourfe federally,
and to fhew the belt reasons for that which I think to
be the trueft time.
The firtl is an opinion maintained by Mercator, and
(as is thought) was firft hatched among the Priefts of
Egypt who, obferving the river Nilus to overflow
about the Summer Solftice, adored it for a God, efteem-
ing the time ofits inutidation for an infallible beginning
of-divine afions in things created; and thereupon, for
the beginning likewise of the year at the time of the
worlds creation.
Butif this were the only caufe, we may not unfitly
fay, that it was folly and fuper(tition which firfl fet this
opinion abroach; and therefore he is worthy of blame
who will go about to maintain it. And although Mer-
cator in his Chronologie feems to alledge fome other
reasons, thereby to uphold his fhare in it; yet his chief
reason is not sufficient; for it is grounded upon that
which is not granted; vi<. that the Floud should end
about- 7uly;becaufe in the eleventh month, which he
fuppofeth to be May or yune, when the Olive beginneth
to put forth, the Dove brought green Olive leaves unto
Noah into the Ark.
To which it is anfwered,That the word in Gen.7. x x.
which he taketh to fignifiegreen leaves, may (as expoli-
-tours witneffe) as wellbe taken for Iranches; even fuch
as have been ufed to make Bowers with:which(accord-
ing to the translation of the Septuagint) is expreffed by a
word signifying a dry talk. And fo faith that f Dof&our, t Dr. wi1e,.
in his Hexapla updn Genefis, chapter the firft, question
the 17, that the word in the original is Gnalce, which
.(as S. Hierome tranflateth it elsewhere) flgnites the
branches of Olives: and-in the Septuagint it is a' a
talk without leaves.
_D 33 That

30 The time of the year Chap. 2.
That therefore which the Dove brought, might be
fome branch of the Olive tree rather then the leaves;
and fo might the Floud end at the dead time of the
year, rather then when things were frefh and flou-
But admit that the ftalk or branch had leaves on it,
yet it proves not that it was about Ct.fay or June, when
the Dove found and brought it; because it is recorded
p a. ie t. of the Olive, that fhe lofeth not her leaves as other
trees doe, but is green and flourifhing all the year.
Such leaves therefore as it had before the Floud, it
might have after the Floud: for if they were new
ones, they muft needs spring out in even dayes, because
the Dove was fent out but even dayes before, returning
then as a creature difconfolate, not finding any .thing
at all.
Ser. 2.
A second opinion Nother opinion is,that it was created in the Spring,
"bgn at the"ord and that the Sunne (who is the Index of time, by
spring. whofe revolution we account our years) began his
course in e.4ries.
The mot forcible reafons to uphold this opinion, are
Firt, the natural beginning of the year was in the
Spring time, because Noah entered into the Ark the firft
month; and after a year, about the end ofthe second
moneth,he came forth ofthe Ark again, Gen. 7. 8. Now
the firfl and second months here mentioned, agree not
to Autumne; because if Noah came out of the Ark at
that time of the year, he could not then provide him-
felf with vidualls for thofe creatures which were with
him against the next year, by reafon that the Harveft
time was then paft, and Winter coming on: fo that the
year naturally began in the Spring time, and not in
Autumne. Secondly,

SeA. z. when the world began. 31
Secondly, it is likely that the world took beginning at
fuch a time when things were growing more and more
to perfection, as in the Spring; rather then when they
were decreasing, as in Autumne.
Thirdly,it is no weak affection to affirm that the world
was created about that time of the year when by the
second Adam it was redeemed; which was not in Au-
tumne, but in the Spring.
Fourthly, the children of Ifrael coming out of Egypt
were commanded to begin their year at Abib, called
afterwards Nif2n; which month agreeth partly to our
March,and partly to April. [See Exodus chap. I2. verfe
i; and chap. 2 3. verfe I 5.] Now by this command it is
like that they were only put in minde of their ancient
cuftome which was in ufe among their Anceftours, and
loft by them, fince their going into Egypt, and death of
the Patriarchs: For when the twelve Patriarchs, the
fonnes of Jacob, were dead, they of their pofteritie
learned the cuftomes of Egypt, and fo came to change
their year from the Spring to Autumne: But when Mo-
fes brought them out from among the Egyptians, they
had a command to reckon the beginning of their year
from Autumne no longer, but from the Spring, begin-
ning (as hath been faid) in the month eAbib or Nifan.
Now this -is chiefly grounded upon that which Mofes
Swriteth concerning the order of the months in the hi-
ftorie of the Flond: For by that it appeareth, that the an-
cient form ofthe year was no other then what was ob-
ferved from the times of Mofes when he wrote his hifto-
ry, until the end of the old Teftament, and afterwards.
Consider therefore the order of the months which was
before the coming out of Egypt ( I mean that order fpe-
cified in the hiforie ofthe Floud) and compare it with
that order which God -gave Mofes command to put in
prafife, and fee if itbe not the fame. So that as Mofes

2 The time of the year Chap 2.

reckoned thefirft, second, third, fourth, fifth, &c. from
Nifan, which began in the Spring; in like manner did
Noah: for where can it be chewed in any place of Scri-
pture, when the months are reckoned in their orders,
that they take beginning from any other time?
And thus thefe are the chief reasons to uphold this
opinion that the world should take his beginning at
the Spring time of the year, at the Vernall Equinox,
the Sanne entering into eAries, rather then at any time
Set. 3.
A third nd be t "L t, if they be well weighed, I rather think that
t" world begit thofe, who in the third place imagine that it was in
i Autum. Autumne, are nearest the truth.
For firft in the description ofthe floud,it is true indeed
that the firft and second months there mentioned, are
meant the firlt and second months of the year: but
that they.mult take their beginning from the Spring, ra-
Aa, nrwcto their then from Autumne, I cannot be perfwaded. Firft,
their firft reafon
who place the because 7ofephs (who wrote the Antiquities of his own
creation in the
~pEg. nation) in his firft book and 5 chapter writeth thus,
viz. that the second month, being the month where-
in thefloud came, was called by the Hebrews Marhefu-
van, and by the Macedonians, Dyo; both which months
agree to that part of the year wherein our November
falleth, and not April or uc ay. Secondly, because the
ChaldeeParaphraft begins the ancient year of theJews
from Autumne, as afterwards hall be fhewed.
And further, whereas it is faid,that if Noah were to
go out of the Ark when the year was fo farre fpent, he
mut needs want food for thofe creatures which were
with him;I anfwer,that it follows not.
vi. the fir For firft, the mountain tops appeared by the begin-
day. ien.8.45, ning of the tenth month, which was (according to
---- -------- -- j

Se&t.3 when the world began, 33.
our Julian account) about the end of May,or. beginning
of June, although the head of the year be accounted
but from Autumne: fo that if the waters began to af-
fwage fo foon, then furely all the montanous places
were flourishing with their fruits and herbs,by fuch time
as Noah came out of the Ark; which (queftionleffe) he
might then gather to feed thofe creatures that were
with him.
Neither fecondly doth the temperature of the climate
wherein the Ark rented, afford fuch a rigid winter, but
that Noah might fow fome kinde of grain, fuch as might
afford him food against the next year, if need were; and
fo both himself and other creatures with him might be
preferved and kept alive.
But what need I peak of Noahs providing for him-
felf, or them feeing to the beats, fowl, and the like,
their difmiffion from the Ark was enough; especially
there being but a few of every kinde.
And as for himself and his families (who were but
eight perfons) they had libertie given them by Almigh-
ty God to eat of any living creature whatsoever, as Gen. 9.3.
well as of the green herb. And therefore their firft rea-
fon on the contrary contending to prove the worlds cre-
ation in the Spring rather then in Autumne, is not fo for-
cible as they imagine it.
But let me illuftrate the matter yet more fully, and in
fo doing I cannot omit what* Calvijiu urgeth for proof iaow. .
of the fame tenent. Thofe (faith he) who would have !.'^"d'
the time of the creation in the Spring rather then in Au-
tumne,ufe this for one oftheir chiefeft reaforis. Dic mihi,
inquiunt, &c. Tell me (fay they) if the world were cre-
ated in Autumne, and that Noah,with thofe living crea-
tures which he kept alive, did then or at that time of
the year come out ofthe Ark,how could they be fuftain-
ed,the year being fo farre forth fpetit? what? mut they
E hunger

34 The time of the year Chap. .
hunger for the pace ofa whole year, or live with no-
thing,feeding, like Cameleons,on the aire? &c.
To which he anfwereth, that thefe men fpeak, as if
for their singular wifdome the Patriarch Noah had made
them of his counfell when he carried food into.the Ark,
because thus puntfually they feem to know how much
of it was left when he: came out from thence: which
that it was all fpent,how can they tell? yet nevertheleffe
concerning fuch creatures as lived ravenoufly by feed-
ing on flefh, if Noahs old (tore were gone, I bid (faith
he) that they take no great care for them,. because they
had dead carcaffes enough to feed on. Likewife con-
cerning the other kinde of beats or cattell, let them not
be too felicitous; because the mountains, being watered
, or from the with fuch a fatting floud, and dried alfo fince the fifth
tenth to the fe-
odmoneth. month before, had now brought forth herbs, graffe,
see Gen. hap.. and young tender shoots by which thofe creatures might
easily have their lives futained. Which reason of his is
very pertinent,either because it makes it appeared that it
was poffible to finde food ifall in the Ark were fpent; or
that there might be fome of the old R(ore (till remaining
to help fuch creatures as were leaff able to help them-
Come we therefore now to the examination, of their
next reason; which is as followeth.
SSe&. 4.
tir fet r eao Econdly, whereas they fay that it is mof like the
"he etion n world took beginning at fuch a time of the year
he spring, when things were growing more and more to perfeai-
on,rather then when 'they 'were' decreafihg: answerr is
rnade,that if we fatid upon ftch probabilities fdr proofs,
it is then mbre like that the worldtook beginning, not
when things were growing to perfetion, but when
they werein perfe&ion it felf, :ifimediately before they
\ -- began

Se&.. when the world began. 35

began to decline; which could not be in their infancie,
but in their maturitie; not in the Spring time, but in Au-
tumne. And fo we finde it even in the hiftorie of the cre-
ation it felf: for the trees,as it is faid,were made to grow Gen.. 9,, and
up with their fruits on them; not green, but ripe, as is 3.-
evident: not only because they were pleafant.to the
eye, but alfo because they were-good for food; in.which
regard they were made even in their very perfection:
and fo God is faid to have feen them, not only as they
were good, but alfo as they were very good, which was
with an approbation of their perfe'neffe,as may be feen
in Gen. chap. verfe 31.
Yet nevertheleffe we know that the Almightie
could have created trees with their ripe fruits on them,
as well in that part of the year which is our Spring, as
in Autumne: butfurely the course ofnature once begun The course of
was never altered: and therefore, as now-they 'are in ha. never
their perfection about Autumne, fo were they then
when they were created.
Se&. 5.
F Hirdly, whereas it is faid that it is very like the first An .anwer to
Adam was created about fuch time as by the second i .'. i
Adam he was redeemed; that proveth nothing:the con- Spr ing.
trary may rather be affirmed: fo that the time of the fall
and the redemption are better fevered then conjoynid.
For furely me thinks it is farre more probable that there
followed a fad winter for Adam to bewail his horrid
fall in, rather then an acceptable and pleasant summer:
for do but grant this (which may not well be denied)
namely that Adam fell prefently after his creation; and
then tell me what time of the year was fitter to expreffe
the time ofhis fall then Autumne.
For as the trees in Autumne being come to maturitie
do then lofe their beautie by the fall of their fruits and
E a leaves;

36 The time of the year Chap.z.
leaves; or as the year then slides away like the day at
the getting ofthe funne: even fo mankinde, as foon as he
began to be in a perfe& fate, kept it not, but fell away
and loft his happineffe: yet as the day is restored again
by the rising of the funne; and life is as it were put anew
into the year by the return of the Spring: even fo at
that very time decayed man was again restored by the
death ofChrift, who in the Spring-time of the year
paid the priceofour redemption.
The fall therefore of man at the fall of the leaf, and
the reftoring of him at the reviving Spring, do'make a
more perfe& harmonies, then if for their circuinftances
of time we should caft them both into the Spring: for as
the death of Chrilt was contrary to Adams fall; fo the
time for the one was contrary to the time for the other:
and yet being contrary, both do well expreiTe the nature
of each a& ateither:time.
Adaimf ntoon And now,left itmay be doubted whether Adam fell
z his cIl. prefently after his creation,this may be added as a proof.
Firft, that Sathan was a murderer from the begin-
ning, and therefore he delayed no time to purchase
mans mifery.
Secondly, it was thefixth day that man was created,
even as on the fixth day he was redeemed. By which it
appeareththathe fell on the very day of his creation.
SUponmsttui Whereupon Theophyla maketh this obfervation, fay-
v7. ing, Sexta die homo eft conditwu, qi &.fexta hora de ligno
comedit: Sexta quoque die &fexta hor Chrflut cruci eft
afFixus. a igitur hora Domimnu hoinem condidit, ea-
dem-& lapfum curavit. By which he'meaneth, that as
manwas formed the sixth day, and did eat ofthe tree
the fixth houre: fo Chrift reforming man, and healing
the fall, was fattened to the tree the fixth day and the
fixth houre. And hence alfo came that common faying
roe s concerning Adam, that* In one and the fame day he was

Seft.y. when the worldbegan. 37
formed and deformed, not continuing in righteoufneffe
and true holineffe until the Sabbath: for then (as fome
obferve) he would have performed the ordinances of
the Sabbath,which was tohave eaten of the tree oflife,
and fo have lived for ever,being never guiltie of that fall
whofe ach even yet the fonnes of Adam feel.
3. And furely Mofes making mention of many'times,
would never have omitted this time of the fall, except
it had been prefently after the creation.
4. Besides, it muft neceffarily be granted that Adam
fell before ever he knew his wife: otherwise Cain had
been conceived without finne, because prefently after
the nian and woman were made, God faid, Increafe and
multiple; as in Genefis 28. is manifest: but itis a thing
not to be imagined that Cain was conceived without
finne; neither is it true that Adam accompanied with his
wife utill after he was caft out ofParadife. Eve there-
fore and Mary may well be compared together; as thus:
Eve being a Virgin, hearing the words of the ferpent,
and beleeving them, brought forth death. The Virgin
Mary hearing the words of the Angel, and beleeving
them, brought forth life. Such is their resemblance; and
it very fitly ferveth to teach us that the fall was foon af-
ter the creation.
5. To which purpose that place in the nine and forti-
eth Pfalme, at the I 3 verfe, is very congruous, viz. that
Adam lodged. not one night in honour. For fo (faith
D' Wi/let) do the wdrds fignifie, if they be properly ",p.aupon
translated. As for example, the word (faith he) is lun, quds. '.3
which fignifieth roldge or ftay all night: which by di-
vers of the Rabbins is expounded of Adam who conti-
nued not one night in Paradife, but fell on the felf fame
day of his creation: which for the time of the year
bears a fit refemblance with the fall of the leaf, even as
on the other fide the redeeming of him bears a fit refem-
E 3 balancee

38 The time of theyeare Cha.,'2.
blancewith the reviving Spring, whenhe was again de-
livered-from: his fpirituall prifoix, like:the herbs and
plants ferom their':earthly one.
All which considered, their argument is but weak to
prove the creation of the firft Adam in the Spring, be-
caufe the redemption by the second Adam was at the
fame time: for we fee by an exad and perfed harmonies
how thofe times are better fevered then conjoyned.
Let us come therefore unto their fourth reason now,
and fee the greatest force it beareth.
Sel. 6.
A on el fo Ourthly,the children of Ifrael coming out of Egypt
their fourth -
fon ho picer J were bidden to begin their year at Abib or Nifan.
the creation in
the spring. Now they (as hath been fhewed) who maintain the
worlds creation in the Spring, think that the year namt-
rally began at that time, and that the Ifraelites by:this
command were only put in minde to reltore again their
ancient cuftomewhich was in ufe amongif their ance-
ftours, before they went into Egypt. :
All which is but a meer conjedure:for what author
ever reported that the Egyptiansimade the Ifraelies for-
get their ancient cutomes? it is written no where but in
fomemensimaginations, and therefore-it proveth no-
thing. In which regard we may be rather confident of
the contrary, namely that the year was changed, and
not renewed: especially if we consider but of this one
thing more concerning the beginning of the Egyptian
year, which was not from September, as the Jews be-
gan; but from 7~w or about the Summer folflice, when
their river Nilau began to overflow. If therefore the
Jews had altered the beginning of their year that they
might obferve the cuftomes of the Egyptians and imitate
them, why did they not reckon their firft month from
the Summer folftice, as did the Egyptians, but rather

Set. 6. when the world began. 39
from the Autumnall Equinox, as did not the Egyptians?
I confeffe that conjeftures in fome cafes for want of bet-
ter proof may hold water;but here the cafe is otherwise,
as evidently appeareth.
.But itis objected, that the Chaldeans reckon the be- ObjeEa
ginning of their year fi-om the Spring; and from whom
'did they learn their cuftomes but from the ancient He-
brews? wherefore the Hebrews of old time began their
year from the Spring, and not from Autumne.
The C haldee Paraphraft mentions no fuch thing, but Anfw.
plainly affirms the contrary; fhewing that that month
which after the coming out of Egypt was the feventh
month, had in former times been the firft month.
This that author affirmeth; then which what can be
more plain?
But it is further objected, that the order of the ojea.
months in the history of the Floud makes it appeared
otherwife;for it cannot be fhewed in any place of the
Scripture where the months are reckoned in their or-
der, as the first, second, third, &c. that ever they be-
gan but from Ntfai: Mofes therefore,,according to the
command ofGod, ordaining this moneth to be the firft
month, doth make no new inltitution,but.reneweth the.
old, as before was mentioned.
To which it is answered, that when Mifes hadiocca- ,,t,.
lion to fpeak of the months -of the year in the hiftorie
of the Floud, he mull either mention them as he did, or
elfe fay nothing of them at all:- For it is plain enough
that all of them had not names to be called by; and
mtif therefore bel.eckoned according to, their number
(if at all they be reckoned) from whence foeveri:the
reckoning began.We do not finde that any of them had
names, excepting four, until after the captivitie. The
four were thefe : I Ethanim. 2 Bul. 3 Abib or Nian.
4 :Zif The firRt was called Ethanim, or minkfiortiuin~ r. Kings s.z.
from I

40 'Te timeofthe year

a i. King. 6.38,

bl. King.4s. I,

The conclufon,
wherein the fots
mer part of the
chapter is recapi-
tulated, and all


from the excellence and dignitie of it;not only because
it was the beginning of the year, but alfo of the reft
and Jubilee. The next to it was called' Bul, which is
as much as deflaens; because in this month the leaves do
as it were flow, lide, or fall away from the trees. The
seventh was eAbib, fo called a novi frugibus, from the
new fruits or cares of corn then firft appearing. The
eighth was called b Zif, which was ifplendore &r nitore,
from the fplendour and brightneffe of it; feeing the
earth was at this time fored with daintie fine flowers,
and curious fair obje&s. Thefe were all which had
That therefore for the order of the months proves as
little as any thing elfe.
Wherefore I cannot fee but that this opinion above all
others may fand as the moit probable, namely, that the
year naturally began from Autumne; and fo, by confe-
quent, the worlds creation was then.
The Autumnall Equinox was at that time(ifit be re-
duced to our Julian account) about the latter end of
OElober; but now it is about the 13 day of September:
And the Sunne then entered into Aries about the latter
end of April, which in thefe dayes is about the o or
I ofMarch; fo much hath the Equino&iall anticipated
fince the beginning.
SeC. 7.

BUt concerning the particular day, it was on the
U 26 or 27 day of OEtober. And as for the other,
when the Sunne entered into Aries,it was about the a i or
S2 day of April.
So that if the world began in the Spring, or at
the Vernall Equinox, then we may account that a-
bout the i1 or 22 day of April was the firft day
of the world. Or if it began in Autumne, then the

Se.3. when the world began. 4.
firfr of dayes was neare about the 26 or 27 of
But in my judgement the befl opinion is (as hath been
fhewed)that it was in Autumne when things were not
growing to perfedion, but even in perfection it felf, as
Adam was, who prefently after fell: fo alfo the trees
and plants in Autumne, with their fruits and feeds on
them at the ripeft, were in their perfe~ion, began the
courfe of Nature, faded afterwards by little and little
through the approaching winter: which time feems to
be a fitter time for Adam to bewail his fall in, and
to make him the more fenfible of his loft happineffe,
then a pleasant and chearfull Summer; because by how
much the more he was afflicted, he would by fo much
the more be fenfible of his miferie, and thereupon long
the more earnefily after the promised feed.
And not only fo, but alfo the fall of man at the fall
of the leaf, and the restoring of him again at the revi-
ving Spring,do make a more perfed and exad harmony,
then if for their circumstances of time we should caft
them both into the Spring. For (as hath been faid)like as
the death of Chrift was of a contrarie nature to Adams
fall; fo the time for the one being contrarie to the time
for the other, doth well expreffe the nature of each ad
at either time.
And further, we have not only the teftimonie of yo-
fephmu before alleged, against whom fome except; but
alfo the Chaldee Paraphraft doth witnefle as much,fay- a cav. (,,,ap.
ing that that month which in the firft book of the d.T '; d.
Kings,the 8 chapter, at the 2 verfe, is called the seventh '. .,,. 7.
moneth,was in former times the firft moneth.The words
of which text ftand thus, And allthe men of ljrael af-
fembled themselves unto King Salomon, at the feaft in
the month Ethanim, which ih the seventh month. The
meaning of which place that author doth thus explain,
F saying,

4 The time of theyeare Chap,2.
Tfaying, All Ifrael were gathered together to king
. oRTIum, Salomon in menfefortium, or in the month Ethanim,on
digKnatd the feat day; which month in times paf they called
,i, edtiv the firft month, but now.it is the seventh month. Thus
pwi.im rMt.. he for the ancient beginning ofthe year: and of what
Tlpb. de Temp.
li ~. 's. authorities this Paraphraftis in the Church, the learned
Alfo we have tetimonies in holy Writ to strengthen
the fame alfertion, and to fhew us that the ancient be-
ginning of the year was from Autumne, because that
Tekmpha or Quarter isexpreffely termed the end of the
year. As for example: in Exodus, chapter the 2 3. verfe
S16. and chap. 34. verfe the 2 2. it is faid, the feat of ta-
S M. 1. bernacles was to be celebrated in the f feventh month,
2. Chron. 36.1o.
i.ek. 40o. at the end and return of the year : which seventh
See alfo Wolph.
d ,tem. Bx. de month was agreeable to Autumie, as is well known.
can'.r,. '. It is not only faid, at the return of the year, which
may be attributed to any ofthe four Quarters when
the funne returns to them again: but it is alfofaid, at the.
end and return of the year, being always about the fe-
venthmoneth. :i
Yet nevertheleffe we ainenot to think that the firf
day of the seventh month was always the firft day of
their year; for their months being lunar were move-
able: and therefore the head of the year was to take be-
ginning according to the courfe of the fine. So that in
what partfoever ofthe lunar month that Tekupha hap-
pened which pointed out the Autumnall Equinox, from
thence muft the year be reckoned; for there the laft
year ended and the next began.
9efl. And now if it be further demanded why God com-
manded the Ifraelites at their return out of Egypt, to al-
ter the beginning of their year from Atitumne unto the
Spring, unleffe it had been fo of old:
Anf. To that it is answered thus,. viz. that there are two
reafons for it. i. The

Sea. 7. when the world began. 43

i. Thd:one is this; They coming out of Egypt from
the bondage of Pharaoh, were to begin their year from
that time in memories of their deliverance. And there-
fore it is faid in Exod. 12. 42. It 1i a night to be much ob-
ferved to the Lord for bringing them out of the land of
Egypt: this 'i that night oftke Lordto be observed of allthe
children oflfraelin their generations.
2. And not only fo, but alfo at the fame time of the
year (as God had determined it) there was a better and
a greater delivevie to be wrought for mankinde5 namely
fuch a delivery as should free him from the bondage of
Satan by the death ofChrill. Now this may be called the
Deliverie ofdeliveries; of which that other out of Egypt
was but a figure,becaufe it was but from a corporall bon-
dage, whereas this was from a fpirituall.
And thus came the year to be changed, which ever
before pointed to the time of mans creation: but now it
is made to point another way, namely to the time of
mansredemption: by which God taught his Church
(then typically delivered) how to expe& the acceptable
year of the Lord, and time of rmans redemption; which
was both proclaimed and purchased by that Lambe of
god who taketh away the finnes of the world: whofe offer-
ing upon the crofle was at the fame time of the year
when that Pafchal lambe,by which he was prefigured,
was lain: which time why it is fevered from Autumne,
hath been fhewed.
Yea thus came the firR to be laft, and the laft first -.thus
came Nifan to get the dignitie from the other months,
and to be called the beginning or firft month in the
year. At which weneed not marvell : for the time of
mans redemption was a more worthy mark from
whence to reckon, then the time of his creation.
And thus have I delivered what I finde and verily
think to be molt probable in this matter. Unto which
F ._may

44 The time of the year, &c. Chap.z.
may be added,that as the evening was before the morn-
ing, fo was the Autumne before the Spring: for the
year and the day have a kinde ofanalogie between the
one and the other (as may be feen in the seventh day
compared with the seventh year) and therefore they
do well ferve, the one to expreffe the natural beginning
ofthe other.



, ______



Containing a difrourfe offuch things as are
pertinent to the frf days work.

Sea. i.
Of God the ArchlieH of all, andof the firft part of
Sthe ftrft dayes. work

I-me, by whofe revolutions we measure
Hours, days, weeks, months hnd
years, is nothing elfe but (as it were)
a certain pace borrowed or fet apart
from eternitie; which fall at the laft re-
tnrn to eternitieagain: like the rivers,
which have their firft course from thefeas; and by irn-
ning on, there they arrive, and have their laft: for before
STime began, there was Eternitie, namely GoD; which
was, which is, and which hall be for ever: without be-
ginning or end, and yet the beginning and end oF all
things. ternitas enim, Deifoltammodo naqtnr fu.m..0 -
tialter ineft, faith one: that is, Eternitie is fnibjfanrial/
only in the nature of God. When Mofes therefore would
have known Gods name, hetells him,Thusalt thou fay
unto the children of Ifrael, I AM bath fen me untoyou:
By which name, faith Junius, he would have himself known
according to his eternal effence, whereby he is discerned fomr
all other things which are either in heaven, on the earth, or
elsewhere. Which in another place is thus illustrated
Ego fum Primus & Vltimwe, prater me non eft J 'e m;
.______ 3 ; lam

at Deyudym .aiou
e~ormalet,pcis Win-
rVIm,$ qk",/dam i,
zir tifogmnc Mon n0S

od. e. CA;
b Ho. norlmre e
eln1o rrn, qno oh
omoihus quo funtr
14n n rt~orn:diper
Sn~eu innre'an~llE-
7i:042 E~rncr!a.

-~-~- -~----

46 Theirft days work. Chap. 3.
1. lamn thl Fhjl and tle LaT, and befjde me there is no God,
Efay 44 6.' Or thus, Before the day was, I am he; and
there is none that can deliver out of my hand, Efay 43. 13.
To which that of the Pfalmift doth well agree, Before
the mountains were broughtforth, or ever the earth and -the
\world were made, thoizJrt God fjom everlafling to everlafl-
ing, Pfal. 9o. 2.
Thus we fee,that before ever any thing was,God one-
hod the admred ly was, who gave both a beginning and a being unto
fbrickof the every thing that is: and he, inrefpe of his divineef-
world, &c. we
can no more fence, is but one. Yet fo, as in:that single effence of his
tibe it to chance,
r"rintors there be three divine fubfiftences, or perfons all truely
could by chance fubfifting; whereof every one is diftina from other, and
fall into the right
Sompoc fiti oa yet each hath the whole Godhead in it felf: and thefe
any fuch bookas
heprinteth are, the F.urlr, Soune, and 'oly,/Ghofl,I.John, 5. 7.
.i. The Father is a perlon who from all eternitie hath
begotten the Sonne.
,- 2, The Sonne is aperfon from all eternitie begotten
of the Father.
3, The holy G;Qfi is a person eternally proceeding
Join . fio thc Father and the Sonne,i as the holy Scriptires
doMre. d Thefe thus difintE in person, not divinitie,
SAll three in one make one eternal Trinitie.
Firomnwhich. eternall and undivided Trinitie, the
x*coloL r.a6 1 yhole world, confilling of things visible and invisible,
took begin ing, as the original words,Elohim and Bara,
do well expreffe. For Elohim being a word plurall doth
fignifie Dii,qods:but being joyned with a word singular,
namely Bara, which is Created, they then together fhew
that there are three perfons in the Deitie, and that the
'three perfons are but one God, who did create. Or thus;
e Dr. wiler on e Thofe two words, being the one of the fingular, the o -
,en.pag. zo. their ofthe plurall number, do note unto us the fingulari-
tie of the Godhead, and pluralitie of the perfons. And

Se&. i. Thefirfl dyes wor k 7
not only fo, but they alfo fhew that the three perfons
being but one God, did all of them create: For fich is F Ga on Gen.
found to be the proprietie of the Hebrew phrafe, Elohim
bara, g Creavit D ii, The Gods created. gs sf nitior.
r.- O.Fthe Fathcr it is witnefled,that he created as the oaic.
fountain of goodnelfi. ForfithiS. James, Every good
and perfefcgift is rom above, &o cometh down from the Fa-
ther of lights, Juam. I. 17. Of whom and through whom,
faith S. Paul, are allthings, Rom. 11. 36.
: '. Ofthe Soinc it is wvitnmefd, that he createdas the
,wifdome of the Father. For when he created the heavens,
faith Wifdome, Iwas there, Prov. 8. 27. And again,
By him were all things created that are, Coloff. I. 14, I 5.
namely by him who did bear the image of the Father,
and was the Redeemer of the world. I
3. Aindlatly of the holy Glioll iris Nvitnef'ed, that
hecreateth as the powe- of the Father and the S6nne.
For by hi Spirit he garniied the heavens, and by his hand
he hath formed the crooked fervent, Job 26. i3 and
chap. 33.4. Or, as the Pfalmift:hath it By the iord of
the Lord' we:ib hehi b .r made,: and- all'the horts of
them [fpiritu oris] by the Jfift of his mouth, Pfal. 33.6.
All which considered, and found to be done in the,
beginning, mutt needs be then when there was no pre-
e:ifRent mattrr'to-work upon. For (h as itis wirnelTed) h Gib. on Gea.
theH~ brewiword R &ithwhich is engli led the begin a'4 ..
ning, doth not fignifie any fubftance; neither doth the o-
ther word Bara, to create, fignife any way to create 'but
ofnothing:and thereby it is diitinguifhed from the word
Jatzar,toform,and Gnajfa,to make.And therefore though
now-we behold a glriousfom~ething'wherein appear-e
in every part more-then much matter of wonder; yet at
the fir(t, faith noble Bartas,'
Nothing but nothing had'the Lord Atimghtie,
whereef, wherewith, whereby to build this itie.

48 The frfl dayeswork. Chap.3.
That Axiome therefore in philofophie, Ex nihilo nihil
fit,mu& needs ftand aloof off when we peak ofcreation,
i a p e; xni n ; For although it be i true that according to the course of
sm;,,o": nature and ordinary cuftomeofthings, nothing can be
; afmA ni- made,unleffe ot ofome fomef er matter: yetwhenwe
~~,i, i"'mi.- defend adinquirenda 'primadrm rerum conditioned, to
oem, id eftt, Che.a r
Ga,. di. enquire after the firft condition of the firft things, then
Pv we hall find that God is above nature, because he is
the Lord of nature. And he, whofe fufficiencie and effi-
ciencie is altogether absolute,. mufl needs be ablefuper-
naturali quadam ratione,by a certain fupernaturall means,
to produce all things out ofnothing.
Of which nothing that I may fay something, my beft
and only way is to look at Mofes,and (as neare as I can)
explain his meaning,-
in.the beginning (faith he) God created the heavens
and the earth. In which words he laboureth not fo much
to deliver a general proposition of the works of creati-
on, or of the two diftin& parts of the world, or of the
matter of heaven and earth, as if the one word did infi-
nuate all the fuperiour parts of the world,, theother all
the inferiour parts beside: or as iftaking both together,
he meant by them joyntly totim mundi femen, the feed of
the whole world, mentioning it under thefe two words of
Heaven and Earth,as a Chaos.This he meaneth not; be-
caufe that which concerns the Chaqs is mentioned after-
wards in the second verfe. And what were it but a plain
tautologie, to fay that in the beginning God created a
Chaos, and that Chaos was a Chaos ? Wherefore in
thofe firfl words he intendeth nothing more, then
to fhew that the world which now is called, ac-
cording to its parts, Heaven and Earth, was not from
everla-ting, but took beginning: and fo without contro-
verfie the right reading of his words doth alfo witneffe.
For in their original (as it is witneffed by expoficours)

Se^. i,. 2ihefirft days work.

thus they found,~i the beginning iod cn.rtcdl hee heavens
andthih earth: as if it shouldd be faid, Thefe very heavens
and this very earth which now we fee in being, Were
not always, but began. Then afterwardshe proceedeth
to fhew how, and in what time G6d created them~
speaking firft how all was like a difordered and deform-
ed Chaos, the earth and the heavens not diftingutifhed,
but lying as it were in a confused heap all together r. And,
this isnianifeeft.For on the second day,w\heir the heavens
were made; it feemeth that their matter W.sfriom
amongft that maffe or unfalhioned lump which 'as faid
to e'void and without form, and not able to be kept to-
gether, hadnot the Spirit of God cherifhed it, (for the
SpirittofGod i-moving upon the waters,difd as it wvLI e lit
uponit and nourl ic it, as a fowl doth her eggs, with
'hea and life:) yea their niatter, I fay, ws fi otn among
the waters, which by the power of Gods word were ex-
tended and stretched like a catiopie round about the
earth, as now we fee them.In which regard S. Aultines
words are alfo pertinent, saying concerning this All,
of which we noW peakk. AMateries fdhac erat corporea. k meAjr ,b.ii.
rum rerum informi,Jfine ordine, fine luce; It was yet an in- cdp.Z.
formed matter of corporal things, without order, without
light. Or, as that Nightingale of France hath fuig it, I p a It
This was not tbenthe world:'t mn. but the matter, wd e.k
The nurferie whencie Pi touldiffue ifter;
Or rather th 'Embryon that within a weekly
Was to be born: for that huge lump was like
The fhapeleffe burden in the mothers wombe,
Which doth in time into goodfafhion come.
Thus and in this manner I cannot but think 6f thefe
things, not doubting that-Mofes in his defeription of the
fenfible world meaneth otherwise; but Theweth that
that heaven and earth which now we fee, were in the
beginning or firft degree of being, an earth,- or as an
G earth,

To he firf dayes work. Chap.3.
earth, or one lump, without form, and void; a darkened
depth and waters; a matter of no matter, and a form
without form, as one fpeaketh; a rude and indigefted
Chaos or confusion of matters, rather to be believed
Sm. Pfth.iin. then comprehended ofus.Andthk,faith m he,isthefeco;d
1.,.P. a.. natural beginning. For, after the expreffing of the matter,
followeth that whc hich lofophers calla second natural prin-
ciple, Privation, the want ofthatform of which this matter
wqs capable ; which is accidentally a natural principle, re-
quirEd ini reg.ird ofgeneration, not of conflitution, here de,
fribed by that part next w, e.arth, which was without form,
as isfaid, and void. This was the internallconflitution, The
externallwas darkneffe upon the face of the. deep, Which
deep corpqrieth both the earth before mentioned, and the vi-
fible heavens alfo, called a depth, as to otir capacitie iPfinite,
and pliatr to the Almighty hand ofthe Creatour: called alfo
waters, not because it was perfect, waters, which wa yet con-
fufed; but because of a certain resemblance, not vnely in the
uniformitie thereof, but alfo of that want offlabilitie where-
by it could not abide together, but as the Spirit of God moved
uponthefe waterstofuflain them, &c. Here therefore is
the third beginning or principle in nature, that form
n Notthe ire which the faid n Spirit by that action framed it unto.
or winde; they
were t yet. The Hebrews call the whole maffe, as it is compre-
Gen.quft ended under the names of Heaven and Earth,Tohu Va-
anKt. bohu: Tohu, without order; bohu, without varietie. But
it was not long that it continued in this imperfect fate:
Sfor in one week it was (as I may fay) both begotten and
Born, and brought from a confused Chaos, toa well or-
dered and varioufly adorned Univerfe. Or, as one, faith,
t(tAateriam 'Dews ipfe creat,.comitque creatam.
Whofe meaning may be taken thus,.
The matter firf God out ofnothing drew,
Afnd then addes beauties to that matter new.
Which was, not because he was unable to, make all
i the

Set. Thefirfl days wor. 5y

the world perfed in. an infant; but because he would
not. Whereupon an holy t Father faid, Voluntas Dei ef t Audi.
caufa celi & terra; ideo major eft voluntas Dei quam ca-
lum & terra: The will of God is the cafe of heaven and
earth, and therefore it is greater then either of them.
God therefore doth not difable his omnipotence in not
working all at once, but fheweth that he worketh all
things according to the counjell of hiswill; which in E~Et. iW .
this work of creation ( prosecuted both by an order of
time and degrees) is fo farre from eclipfing his power,
that it rather doth demonstrate both his power and wif-'
dome to be infinite: and that he hath fo done his marvel-
lous works, that they ought always to be had in remem-
brance, Pfal. I 1.4. For in wifdome he hath made them
all: And why not all at once, was because the counfell of
his will was otherwise.
But may we not yet enquire a further reafon why it ,efl.
pleaded the Almighty thus to will fuch a face, and
would not rather produce this All perfe& at once?
This perhaps may be thought a queftiontoo curious lAnfw.
to be determined, because Gods will is a sufficient rea-
fon in all his adions ; and therefore it is better left then
looked into. Which furely might well be fo, if the rea-
fons urged prove too eagle-eyed and unprofitable,.not
bettering us in our dulneffe or want of knowledge. But
otherwise, if they inftru& man in any thing pertinent
to his prefent condition, and inform him fo as he may
be somewhat reformed by them: then they may be
urged without the brand of niceneffe or imputation
of curiofitie.
Firft therefore we may joyn with them, who fay that
perhaps it pleafedGods infinite perfection to take this
leisure; because if the creatures had been made all at
once,they might be thought to be increate,and not made.
at all; nor yet to have the like fenfe of their infir-
G 2 mitie

r .The firf days work. hap.3.

rnitie as now-they have, one feeing another made be-
fore them.
Secondly, feeing the world was thus perfeCted by de-
grees.before man was, who (being made) was the chief
inhabitant of it me thinks fo orderly to raife fich a fnm-
ptIoni palace for mankiide, while yet mankind was
not, what was it, but the declaration of a greater kind-
neffe,and a demonstration proving how kinde,how care-
full, and how gracious God would be to us ever after
being made? and therefore now we mult not diftrunf
himi but int allour iWa)yes -acknowledge him, and he Gall
Sdiref or paths, Prov. 3. y, 6. Forfo he hath promised,
and fo he doth perform to all that love and fear him;
causing every thing to work together for their good;nay,
for their beft, as the Apoftlefpeaketh. Or, as the Pfalmift
hath it, No good thing fJll he withhold from them who
live godl life, fal. 84. lt.
Thirdly,by this example mankinde may reade a lefcure
against himself if heedlelly or haftily he behave himself
in any work, and hall not rather proceed foberly and by
degrees,making hafte (as it is faid) by leifire.For true it
is, that with us a foft pace goes farre: Which made one
SBl. Hal, fix this contemplation upon the works ofcreation, fay-
l""'.. i. ing How fould we deliberate in our aeions which arc
fo fabjeffto imperfettion;feeing it pleaded gods infiniteper-
jfetion (not out ofneed) to take lelere! Ipon thought of
which,let us .
CMake-fober ff eed: for 'tis obferv'd by proof,
That iwht s welldone is done foon enough.
Fefina lente: Namfat cito,j fat bene.
Thus having (as it were) considered the firft part of
the firft days work, we may now come more nearly to
that which is the beautyof it, I mean the Light,which
fome call Gods elder daughter, or the firft ditinguifhed
*. ral.o14.s. creature, wherewith the Lord *-decked the world as
Switch a garment. Se&.

Se&t.2. The frf days work. -53
Seca. 2.
The creation of the Light.
A Nd now concerning this bright creature, no fooner
did God fay,Letit be,buf lo it was.He'commanded *2. cor.4.6.
that it should fine out.ofdarkneffe, as fpeaks the Apo-
ftle; and that being separated and fet apart from the r d "iffei,
darkneffe, the firft ofdayes might be, and Gods good 2 .1i',brt
works appeared, beginning with the Lights proceeding l,,,) fd t d"T
to fhew forth his exceeding glory. i"4', M"",".
But ofthis refplendent creature (without which the ,' 14"'
beauty of the reft could not be feen)there are no few
I. Some would have it a fpirituall Light;and fo under
it they comprehend the creation of Angels. But furely
in my judgement their opinion is the founder who make
it a natural and material Light only, fich as now is in
the Sunne, the Index oftime, and the worlds bright eye.
For as the office of the Sunnes light is now to diftinguifh
between the Day and the Night; fo was the office of this
Light,being commanded to fhine out ofbdarkneffe before b Which was the
the Sunne was made: which being made, was the flib- ic orii-
nailofit, as ih
je& ever after to retain it. If it were otherwise, or any "Pacu. ibid.
other light, where is it now? hall we fay that it is either
extingiilhied or applied to fome other ufe?fhrely I think
not; because God (who made all by the power of his
word) needed no instrument or help in the work of his
creation:,And therefore that Light which at.the firft
made his works appeared, is no fpirituall Light; but fuch
and the fame that now is in the Sunne.And yet perhaps,
asc A4fquinas thinketh, it was but Lumen informed, quod c 1,,,. su,.
quarto dieformatum eft; An informed Light, which on the 9"P.' 74.
fourth day had its perfed form..
And as for the creation of Angels, it is not like that OeArg .,;
they were made.this firf day, but on the fourth day: For. '-t-
G 3 it isI ..

A rhe frfl days work. Chap. 3.
it is very probable that there was the like order obfer-
ved in making of the invisible world, which was in the
visible; and that on the second day, hot only the vifible,
but alfo the invisible heavens were created; yet fo as
both of them remained as it were unpolished or unfi-
nifhed untiJ'-the fourth day: For then as the outward
heavens were garnihed with Starres, fo might the in-
ward and highelt heavens be beautified with Angels.
This me thinks is not obfcurely pointed at in Job, chap.
3 8. verf. 7. Where wert thou, faith the Lord to Job,when
the flarres praifed me(or fan, g together) and allthefonnes of
d see Dr.willet menfhoutedforjoy? it being here d evident that when the
on Gen. chap. I.
Qoe u.ch. Starres were made,the Angels alfo had then their being;
& rejoyced before God; which was but upon the fourth
day of the creation. All this,I fay,might well be thus al-
though Mofes doth not direftly- mention it; which was
because he applied himfelfto the simple capacitie of the
people, describing the creation only of fenfible things,
being that which at the firlt he intended,and did in plain
terms teftifie in the beginning of his hiftorie, when he
faid, Thefe Heavens, and this Earth, of which I fpoke
And further, were..the creation of Angels compre-
hended under the creation of the heavens and light,
what were this but to leave the literally fenfe (which is
to be followed in the hiftorie of the creation) and to
cleave unto Allegories?
But fecondly,concerning this Light,others think that
the element offire was fignified by it, whofe effea is
light, and whofe a&.and qualities to enlighten: which
made one therefore fay, that The ancreated Light (viz.
God) commanded ihis elementarie light to be, that fo the
thinner and higher element feveredfrom the aire, might by
his enlightning operation effect a lightfome fining, and
the ar-e, according to the nature thereof,receive it: which to

Se6f. T. he fir days work. S
the fire waz an efentiall propertie,-to the aire an acciden-
tall qualities approved of God, as good both to him-
felfand thefuture crttures.Thus fome. But others except
against it, affirming that this light was moveable, by the
presence of it making day, and by its absence making
night: which could not have been, had it been the ele-
ment of fire; unleffe it be more or leffe in one place then
in another, and not equally difperfed. Or, as ?areu6 an-
fwereth, it could not be the element of fire,becaufe that
is abovethe clouds (according to the common rules of
Philofophie) and therefore in his judgemcnt the flerie
element was not until the second day, being created
with the Expanfum or stretching out of the aire.
But unto thefeexceptions I think an answer may be
framed, as I perhaps fall afterwards fhew you.
Thirdly, if(as fome have done) we should think that
this was the very light of the funne, and then in the
funne, or in fuch a cloud or fubjed as was the matter of
the funine, the text would be objeefed against it; which
affirmeth that the funne was not int'ill the'fourth day:
for the creation of that W-asbut thenjalthough rhe light
was before.
Fourthly, e itq:.is faith, Lux primo die fti prodtea e 4 ~.. su.
part. P Ji 70.
fecundum commune lucis natural: quarto autem diA at- ",. .
tribute eft luminaribms determinata virtms ad determitiatos
effeE;u :fecundum quod videmw alios effeFhs habere radi-
um/olis, & alios radium luna, &fic de allis. Whereupon
he concludeth, that howfoever it was, it was but an in-
formed light untillthe fourth day.
Now therefore, amongft a multitude of opinions
which are besides thefe already mentioned, I (for mine
own part) cannot but preferred this as the beft; namely,
that the light for three dayes fpace wanted a fubjeAl,
fuch as now it hath: and yet it did perform the fame
office which now it doth being fattened to a fubjer, or
ofe ._ Ito

56, 2hef rftdayeswork. Chap.w.
Stoh the bodie ofthe Sunnei which is Vehicuuam lucis, A
Chariot for the light. For we may eafily perceive that in
f Godmade one the works of creation there is fuch an f harmonious or-
proper centre
for'l things o. der. observed, as that there may, be an union and reducti-
one indu., unto
ohic 'iee d o0n fall things of one kirde to their own heads and cen-
ceth them,
As for example, the upper waters mut be fevered by
the out-fpread firmament; and the lower muft repair
all to one fea, as their naturalliubjed:: and as for heavier
ubftances, they haften'downWards; and the light ones,
they fly upwards. In like manner, that light which at the
firfl was difperfed and fixed to no fubject, doth prefently
(as foon as the funne was) unite it felfunto that body, as
now it is.
This of all other feemeth to me the beft opinion to
pitch upon, and the.moft probable in this kinde: which
may well be as an Embleme how God will one day ga-
ther his eled from all coafts of heaven to the participati-
on of one glorie. S. Paul applieth it to our regeneration,
St. cor. 4.a thus; God, who commanded the light to IJine out of d4rk-
& eph, . neffe, hathflhined in our hearts, &c. that we, who were once
darkneffe, are now light in the Lord. And in this confidera-
tion I think we need not much diflent from them who
would have the element of fire dignified by it; which opi-
nion was before mentioned:for howfoever it be that
that element be now difperfed, or wherefoever placed,
yet it might be that the firft light fined from it; thus I
g prtib. ti. i fay it might be, because we may not reafon afad~ o adfi-
-1,. Z. eri, or from the order of the constitution of things in
which they now are, to the principles of their inftituti-
onwhileft yet they were in making. And for further
h Prl. prl. proofofthis,I do eafily affent to themh who have proba-
S bly affirmed that the ftarres and lights of heaven contain
the greatest part of this fire; as afterwards in the fourth
days work hall be more plainly chewed.

Se.. re firf days work. 57
This I have faid, as feeming to me the bet and mofl
probable tenent; although perfectly to affirin what this
light was, muft be by our enlightning from him who
commanded that it should fhine out ofrdarkneffe. Of
which shining and darkneffe feeingg the Sunne was not
yet made, which by his course and turning about makes
it day and night at the fame time in divers places)it may
be faid that it was day and night at the fame infant now
over the face of the whole earth: which made'one in FPA i
therefore fay,that the firft darkneffes were not loco divl-
/f fed plane depulffe a luce ut nufquam efent; yet fo, as that
they should either return or depart,according to the con-
tration or expansion of this firft light, caused by a divine
difpenfation.k Thus Pareus. k other
And now ofthee, oh bright-fhining creature, it may tvthfirftdaye
be faid, that, hadft thou never been, the beautie ofthe to h,~.d
world had been as nothing: For thou art the beautie of ,wi hthedaning
all the beauties elfe, as faith D Bartas, for .s oon s the
out-fpresd Firma-
*Gods eldefl daughter, Oh how thou art full mentwas com-
manded to be,
Ofgrace and goodnefe! Oh how beautifull! the Heavens
wefl. But if God made the Light, was he not before unid ee ae,
in darkneffe? Anfi7. No: For he needs not anycteated mo
light, who is himfelf a Light uncreated;nocorporalf
light, who is a fpirituall one. God is light, and in him is
no darktnefe at all, Joh. I . He made this light for
our mortall Journey on earth; himfelfis the Light of our
immortal abode in heaven : neither did he more dwell'
in this light that he made, then the waters were the ha-
bitation of the Spirit, when it was faid that the Spirit
moved upon the waters.
But fee, there was Night, Light and Day before the
Sunne; yet now without it there is neither: which fhew-
eth that we muft allow God to be the Lord of his own
works, and not limit his power to means.
And furely as it was before man was made, fo hall it
-H be

58 The firf dayes work. Chap.3.
SEy 6 9. 9. be after he is diffolved: For then,as the Prophet fpeak-
eth,The Sunne fallno more be thy light by day,neither f]all
the Moon give light unto thee:but the Lord hall be unto thee
an everlafting light, and thy God thy glory.
Laftly, unto this amongft many things let me adde but
one thing more. God made light on the firft day; fo
Chrif arofe from death on the fame day,b eing the firlt o
the week:And heis the true light which lighteth every one
that'cometh into the world: Of which light if we have no
portion, then fall creatures man is the mor miserable.
Se&t. 3.
Of the intercourse between day and night.
W Hat now remaineth? God called the light Day,
V and the darkneffe Night: 'Tis true;
T 'Alls Architet alternately decreed,
That Night the Day, the Day fould Night facceed.
Of both which we have more then manifold ufe and
benefit. The night eafeth the burden of the day; the day
driveth away the terrour of the night. The night burieth
our cares, and doth what fhe can to -drown all our griefs
in a fluent fleep: the day ferveth for our needfull labours;
is the wicked mans juft terrour, the mother of truth,
and true beauties only glaffe, wherein (he may both
fee her felf, and be alfo feen. The night ferveth to tem-
per the dayes exceeding drought, and to cool its heat; for
by moiftning the aireit makes the earth to frudifie : the
day again warmeth the coolneffe of the nightly melting
the white hoariehaires of winters beard; and with a re-
viving, cherifhing, and nourishing of things, as well fen-
fible as vegetative, addes life afrefh into the dying uni-
verfe; serving (as Ifaid before) for the need full labours
of man: For, as the I~falmift hath it, The funne arifeth,
and then man goeth forth unto his work., and to his labour
o ntillthe evening, Pfal. 104.2 2.And fo qlfo for the night,
i. it is

Se& 3. 3he irfr dayes work. 59
it is deftinated or appointed for quiet and fleep, wherein
the wearied bodies of living creatures are refrefhed,and
their strengths repaired: the noifome beats now come
forth and feed, left coming in the day theymightbe a
terror unto men: For, as the Pfalmift again recordeth,
Thou make~f darknefe that it may be night, wherein all
the beafts oftheforreft do move; as the lions roaring after
their prey, and the like, verf. 20.
But of this enough. And now laf of all when this
dayes work was done or brought to an end, God is faid
to view it, and behold there was nothing amiffe; That
is, Mofes, speaking according to our capacities, telleth
us that God doth approve and ratifie that work now
done, which before he purpofed to make.
So Eve and Morn conclude the firf of dayes,
And God gives to his workdefervedpraife,



of the second day ; and offuch things a are
pertnent to the work done in it.

of the'Expanfum, or firetching osut of the
Oncerning this dayes work what it was, we
fincleit thus exprefled and Godfaid,Let there
be a. frmament in the midft of the waters; and
let it divide the waters from the waters. And
God made the firmament; and divided the waters which
were under the firmament,fiom the waters which were above
the frmament: and it wasfo. And God called the firmament
Heaven: and the evening and the morning were thefecond
day,.Gen. 6,7,8.
This is the narration of what was done. And here let
us consider, frft of the Firmament: then of the waters
which it fepraraeth: and latly of the fevcrall Heaven;,
i together with the regions.oftheaire.,an 6ffuch appea-
rances as we ufe to feethere:unto which ifany thing elfe
be met withall pertinent to this dayes work, it fhall be
.aoG ibb s The word' Raktah translated Firmament, fignifieth
Expanrum, or expanflonem, which is a firetching out; not
oriely from the earth, but about the earth: fo that the
World being mans houfe,the Firmament is as the vaulted
i 33t. roofof it: Or (as bFyperiat obferveth) it is tanqam the-
\~~ -3 M .

Sedt. The second dayes work. 61
ca quadam, omnia qua Deo ipfo inferiorafunt, inclufa con-
tinens; as a certain husk, hell, or box, inclufively con-
taining all things without the Heaven of heavens, or
which are below that place where God doth manifest
his glorie. Which 1if6 is further to be feen in the huri-
dred and fourthePfdinme,, at the feeond verfe, where it is
faid that God hathflretched out the heavens as a canopie:
or, extendiffe incurvando calos tanquam conopeum,as fbme
reade it: by which comparison it feemeth that the Fir-
mament is not fo much expanfum ratione extenf7onis a cen-
tro, quai circa centruan; not fo much a thing stretched
outby reason of its distance from the centre, as about the
And again, we call it the Firmament, because in the
Stretching oat it was not weakened, but made strong: In
which regard expofitours do well ob'ferve the difference
which is between Raktah and Karah. For, the word
which is here ufed, they reade it Rakjah, and c fay that c seeGibbenson
it doth properly fignifie a thing made strong by stretching ,qu. .'
out; being therefore contrary to the word Karah, which
is to break in stretching.
And the Greeks likewife,that they may give a full ex-
preffion according to the proprietie of the word, do
translate it and call it -rwsp"'u, from the verb rspvj',
signifying to make strong or firm: and thus alfo the anci-
ent Greek Philolophers obferved,. calling the whole
compatle oFthzeheavensS.Zc_ iwov, meaning theveryut- d stieydiM
moft bound ofthem, which is not fo weak that it should c'a. xo.6,.
be broken in the stretching; but strong, and farre more
free from a fluid nature thenis that airewhich the con-
cave ofit keepeth and holdeth.
The Latines alfo call it Firmamenitum and we, in our
fpeech, the Firmament: which in refpefl of its extension
is the whole compaffe ofheaven on all (ides; being as it
were the cafe of the vifible world and all things in it, as
hath been chewed H :3 Se&.


'-- --- I

62 reJcuroni uayL, wVIo. F L.+.

Seft. 2.

Of the waters above the leavens.
B) Ut from the concavitie of this firmament, we may
paffe to the convexitie of it. And now ifit beconfi-
dered as it is convex, then we hall come to the exami-
nation of that which God affigned as proper to itEmoft
efpecially;viz. that it separate the waters from the wa-
ters. For this out-fpread firmament is by its office to fepa-
rate; and to be, not above the waters, but between
them: and therefore thofe waters which it feparateth,
cannot be fuch waters as are in the clouds, but rather
above the concave of the firmament.
If they be fuch as are in the clouds, then are they ra-
ther in the middle of the firmament, then the irmament
in middle or between them. And this made one argue
SDoI.. .ti thus, faying, Expanfio in nubium region aut finitur, aut
.t s ultirius extenditur: fi bi fnitur, fellas infa nubes conflita-
tas e'fe oportet. Sin ulteriws extenditur, rupercolefles aqua
ab inferioribu~ expanfo non fejungit,fed nubes pots unam
expanfionik partem ab altera difpefcunt. Atqui utrumque
horum a tclofis narratione abfonum.Tutifime igitur aquas
cceleflesfuprafdera efe conflitutas; tottimque illud, quod a
globo terr & aqua furfum expanditur, celi velaeris nomi-
ne contineri fentiemw. That is, The out-fpread firmament
either is ended in the cloudie region, or is further extended.
Ifit be ended there, te hen thefarres muff needs be under the
clouds, because they are within the firmament,Gen.i .6.
But if it be further extended, then the fupercele/flall waters
are not fearated by the firmament, but rather the clouds fe-
ver one part ofthe firmament from the other: both which are
againfj Mofes his narration. Therefore -we may fafel
thinkthat the.celefliall waters are above the farres, &-c.
In which regard it may be alfo thought that both
S thefe


Seft. 2. The second days work. 63
thefe waters dropping from clouds in the aire, and alfo
all other waters under the canopie of Heaven, or within
the concavitie ofthis..Expanjum, are but the lower wa-
ters:andthofe other, which are separated from them,
muft be in an higher place, viz. above the firmament, and
fo hall they be divided by the firmament3otherwife not.
To which purpose b Du Bartra thus, b Inofis fecon
Tie rather give a thousand times the lie eek.
To mine own reason, then but once defie
The faced voice of th'everlafling Spirit,
Which doth fo often andfo loud averre it, Gen. 7.
That God above the fhining firmament, Pv. 1.0 4.
Iwot not, 1, what kinde of waters pent.
Or, as c Hyperius alfo writeth, Afentiemmr AMof, ac -'h.*
fimpliciter flattemm aquas non tanwtm infrafirmamentum, 33s.
ubi inportiones & quafiregiones certal ex ipfa funt diflri-
but,, alixa per aerem circumvehuntur, ali terris'funt
adglutinatxe; verum etiamfuper illud efe alias unique cir-
cumfufas. That is, Let us affent to Mofes, and plainly de-
termine that there are not onel wYaters below the firmament,
as it were divided into certain portions and regions, fome of
them carried about through the aire fome faflened to the
earth; but alfo that there are other waters above the firma-
ment/pread round about it.
Which thing is alfo thus further manifefted; because
thofe waters that are feparated by the firmament, are to
be at all times separated. For God,in the creation of this
firmament, did not only command that it should fepa-
rate, but alfo that it should be separating: that is, Let it
d continually separate or divide the waters from the wa- d Ainfworth or
ters; e quaFi voluerit nllum effe tempmu quo non diflinguat; peL,. 4i
as if he would have it that there should be no time wherein 'iW 'hvr. 'c. A0.
it might not diflinguifJ between the one & the other. Which
as it cannot be done unleffe there be always waters to
be diltinguifhed; fo neither can it be pertinent to thofe

7'Te feiond days work.

watersin the clouds, because the aire is often cleare,and
thofe bottles ofrain are not always there.
* Jer.io. 3. And again, it is from the vapours drawn from be-
low that clouds and rain come:which cannot at all times
be; but then only when there is a natural concourfe of
caufes to effed it. And then again when they are there,
they be foon gone : for the rain,proceeding from thofe
vapours which we call the clouds,ayeth not long in the
aire, but forthwith falleth down again; and fo by little
and little the vapour confumeth and the cloud is gone.
How can it therefore be that thefe should be thofe fu-
perceleftiall waters feparated from all other waters by
the firmament, feeing the firmament is above them? and
not only fb, but alfo their proper place is here below,
being but at times drawn from hence, and then it is as it
were against their wills, which makes them therefore
haftei hither again with all the fpeed they can: whereas
on the contrary the firmament is to be between thofe
waters,and not over them;feparating them,not attimes,
but continually.
Neither may it feem strange how the out-firmament
can be able always to uphold them, seeing (as hath
been faid) it was made strong by stretching out, lifting
then the waters up with it, and therefore well fitted for
pcdlrye*oanA this office, and can no more fall then 'the heaven; it felf,
gs quw calsm
j q... whofe beams or rafters are laid in the waters,as the Pro-
,d.ai. .t~. phet fpeaketh, Pfalme I04.3.And hereupon it alfo was
".' that noble Bartas.faid,
I fee not why mans reason f/ould withfland,
Or not believe that Be whofe powerful hand
Bqay'dp the Redfea with a double wall,
That Ifraels hoft might/cape Egyptian thrall,
Could prop asfurefo many waves on high
Above the Heav'n flarre-fpangled canopie.
This was his opinionconcerning the waters feparated

~j _______~_________L __ _IPI_


SeC.& The second days work. gy
by the firmament; of which opinion are fundry
But on the contrary fide are other fome who are of The country
another minde, affirming that they are meant only of and thoir reaons.
thofe waters in the clouds:for (fay they) the aire is call-
ed the firmament; fo alfo is the:skie ? &c. And of the
clouds it is faid in Job, that God bindeth up his waters ix j z6, s.
thickclouds and the cloud is not rent under them. So that,
firft as every part of the water is called by the name of
water;in like manner every part of the firmament is call-
ed by the name of the firmimentiin which regard thofe
waters in the clouds, although no higher then the aire,
may be taken for thofe waters which the firmament
doth separate: and fecondly, that place in Job theweth
no leffe, making it appeare,'how and in what manner
the waters are separated by the firmament.
Furthermore, Ex ipfa nubium natural, faith g Paree), a I no. P.
From the very nature of the clouds this appeareth to be fo: 17"0
for what other thing are the clouds but waters separated
by force ofthe diurnall heat, and by the cold of the aire
made thick? whereupon, (as ~Pliniecalleth them) they
are faid to be Aqua in ccelo flantes,Waters landing in h ti., j,
the heavens. Alfo, it maybe added (faith Pareu) that *
Mofes makes mention but of two kindes ofwaters, fupe-
ras, & infers, the higher and the lower: but the clouds are'
waters, as hath been fhewed;and:no low *waters; theie-
fore they are the upper waters: unleife there be three
kindes ofwaters, which is contrary to Mofes. T
Besides, this (faith he) is confirmed by the gtammati-
call conftrution of the words. For Mofes faith, not that
it divided from the waters which.werefupra Expanfum;
but thus, viz. from theaters which were defspir e.v-.
panfo: The fenfe therefore is, not that the waters were j
carried up above the whole Expanfumor Firmament;but
-rather that they were carried upwards, fo, as that wkh
I the tl

66 The flcoid daees' work. Chap.4.
the firmament they were fupra and defuper; that is, above
and on high.
Alfo, the name of heaven confirms no leffe: for (faith
he)the Exvp'.r, fi is called according to the Hebrews
Scf.man.tji or Shoaajim; from Sham, There,and Mtajim,
MWiters : which derivation is common. And therefore
thofe upper waters are not quite above the Expanfum,
or the Firmament; but are there, that is, in the Firma-
ment, namely in the middle Region of the aire.
Thus we fee the difference concerning thefe waters.
Thereader isleft And now let the reader choofe which opinion likes him
horce. beft. Bat for mine own part 1 like this latter worft: yet
let me not tie another to be of the fame minde any fur-
ther then he pleafeth: for it is no matter of. faith, and
therefore we have our free choice according to the bell
reasons and molt forcible demonstrations. Wherefore
let me proceed a little further, that thereby (as neare as
I can)I may fet down that which feemeth to me the bel
meaning and nearest to the truth.
The mttr- Firft then I anfwer-; that they do miftake who divide
ed by ai: g the Expanfum into parts, as-ifin-fodoing they could ab-
the contrary at- t ua-
gumens. folutely clear the matter inqueftion : for it is not a part
ofthe Firmament that is appointed to this separating
office, but the whole Firmament;as any one may fee, if
he do but observe the words of God, producing and
affigning it.. Neither do we finde that the Firmament is
any more then one.To divideit into parts fo as they ima-
gine, is not to divide it into part; but rather to make fo
many Firmaments as they imagine parts; like as every
fcale of an onyon is a feveralland differing fcale, and not
one the part ofanother. And besides, neither is there the
fame reafortbetween the parts of water and thefe fup-
.pofed parts of the.Firmament::for then when God made
the Sunne, Moon,and Starres,he would not have faid,Let
them be in the Firmament,but above the Firmament; for

Se.22.. Thefcond days work. 67

they are farre higher then the clouds; yet, I fay, they be- The runne.moon,
ing higher then the clouds,he is faid to place them but in i gt"'n the
clouds, and et
the Firmament: and they being no more but in it, how they arenotid
improperly do we affirm thofe things to be above it, irmann,buin
whole places are lower then either Sunne, Moon,or ld itliwt
And fecondly, admit Job tells us that there are wa-
ters bound up in thick clouds; doth not Jeremie alfo tell
us that they are drawn up in vapours from the earth? j,.,o.,3.
which (as hath been fhewed) cannot at all times be, but
then when there is a natural concourfe ofcaufes to ef-
fe& it: whereas the out-fpread Firmament is to be al-
wayes between them, separating them, not at times, but
continually. And as for the rain proceeding from thofe
waters which we call the clouds, it ftayeth not long
in the aire, but forthwith falleth down again; fhewing
that of right their proper place is here below, and there-
fore we make not three kindes of waters(as if we would
be contrary to Mofes) in faying that there are other wa-1
ters above the concave of the Firmament, which on this
second day of the worlds creation were feparated from
all other waters.
Wherefore obferve but this,they being f pirated on
this second day, how could they befnchas the aire af-
fordeth ? for the middle Region of the aire, which is
theplace for the:clouds,: .was not uLntll the third day There wasno
Not until the third day, I fay, becaufe it is found by ex- ddle 'l
periene, and from fiffficient witneffe proved true, that day.
the tops of the highest mountains do reach up unto that
place which we call the middle Region ofthe aire, be-
ing fome of them more loftie then the clouds.
As for example, iny apan there is a mountain called
Figeniana, which is fome certain leagues higher then the
clouds.And in Ternate among the Philippine Iflands there
is a mountain,which(as M'. Pu;rchas in his pilgrimage re-
I 2 lateth)

68 The second dayes work. Chap,4.
Slateth) is even angry with nature because it is fastened
to the earth,and doth therefore not onelylift up his head
above the middle Region of the aire, but endeavoureth
alfo to conjoynit felfwith the fierie Element. And of
the mounrin Athbs between Macedon and Thr~ce, it is
Sv.~. 3 faid to be to high, that it cafteth ihade more then thir-
Smiadn tieCgndfeveni miles.Alfo the'mount of olymps in Thefa-
li is.faid t, .be of that height, as neither the windes,
qlouds,,or rain do overtop it.And(although I omit fundry
^. As., A O, others ofte-ceeding height) it isilfo written ofanother
,w fhipf mOlarqLitfq high above the clouds, that fome who have
jong as jifep feen it do witneffe that they have been on the top ofit,
w"mc and have had b9th a clear skie over their heads,and alfo
clouds below them pouring down rain and breaking
forth with thunder and lightnings;at which thofe below
bhae been terrified, but onthe top' of the hill there w\J
no fuch matter. This purely was that mountain which
ofs*i. M'" Lydist meant when he faidthat etiam aefiviis diebas,
eves in the fammertime,when the clouds are at the:high-
eft thofe.on the top of the mountains have had fair wea-
ther, qnd withall perceived that there was, plentie of
rain about the middle height of the fame hills.
Thus we fee that there are lofty mountains:And indeed
their loftines is the cafe ofa middle Region:for the hils,
hindering the aire from following the motion of the hea-
vens,do make it about their tops a fit & convenient place
to th ick en th c e va pours i n to clouds,which by the attra-
Sfive power ofthe heavenly bodies aredrawn up thither.
SWherefore (that I may conclude) the placeofthe
middle Region being both caused and alfo overtopped
by fundry high mountains, it will appearethat there was
no middle Region ofthe aire until thethird day,becaufe
the waters were all over the earth, and (landing above
the hills until that very day: For then, and not before,
IGod gathered them together unto one place, and made

Se6.2. The second dayes work. 69
the drie land to appeared, which before was covered
with waters as with a garment, Pfalm. 104. Rarior
aquae,faith one,velut nebula,terras tegebat,qua congregatio-
ne denfata eft;-The thinne water, like a mift or wet cloud, co-
vered the earth,which by gathering together was made thic.e
In which regard it may be faid, faith Aquinas, that it ,.
was as natural for the water to be every where about .'* ef69.t,.
the earth, as for the aire to be about both water and
earth: yet nevertheleffe, propter neceffitatem fini, -faith
he, for the neceffitie of the end, namely that plants and li-
ving creatures should be upon the earth,it was meet that
the earth should be fo uncovered, and the waters fo ga-
thered, that the drie land appeare.Now this was a work
pertinent untothe third day; and before this work done
there could be no middle Region:and the middle Region
being on this day and not before, how can the waters in
the clouds be thofe waters which were separated by the
dout-fpread Firmament on the second day? Neither do I
here argue a faRo adfieri, because in the very creation
of this Firmament, God then faid, Let it be between the
waters; that is, even then beginning its office and art of
feparatihg them. Which that it is even fo, we fee he
fpeaketh next concerning the lower waters, and makes
no more mention at all of thofe upper ones, because he
had already done with them, and left them in their place
unto which he had appointed them.
But furthermore, this tenent is not a little helped by a Of the windows
consideration of the catarafts or windows of heaven ed inthe`o
which in the dayes of Noah were opened, and poured
down rain by the pace of fourty dayes: For me thinks
the clouds could not bethofe windows of heaven, be-
caufe it rained fourty dayes, and before it left raining
the waters were higher thenthe hills, being,when four--
ty dayes were ended, fifteen cubits above the higher
mountainw,,as in the hiforie of the Floud is manifera.
:__ 3_ And.

70 cThefecond days work. Chap.4.
And hereupon it was that one once by the fame reason
concluded and faid, that either it did not rain fourty
dayes, (which affection we are fure is falfe) or elfe it
rained from fome other where then from the middle
Region:For feeing the middle Region it felfwas drown-
ed before it ceafed to rain, it cannot but be that the rain
defended from Come higher place.
I.objet. But perhaps fome may think that the clouds
mounted higher and higher as the waters increased; in-
fomuch that as the waters by little and little gat above
the mountains, fo did the clouds.
Anfw. This cannot be; because that which makes us
dillinguifhthe aire fo as it may have a middleRegion, is
nothing.elfe but the differing temper that it hath, both
from the upper and lower Region ; and this differing
temper is caused by -the hills, which hindering the aire
From following the motion of the heavens, do make
it a fit place to thicken thofe vapours into clouds, which
by the attrafive power of the ftarres and planets are
drawn up thither; as already hath been Ihewed, and
as afterwards (hall be touched when I come again to
peak of the feverall Regions and their tempers; (hew-
ing you that it is an Axiome undeniable, that the farnefle
from a circular motion gives quietnefle, coldneffe, and
heavineffe even as the neareneffe to it gives motion,
heat, and lightneffe.
.2. oijeE. Or fecondly,perhaps fome may think that
the hills and mountains were not before the Floud,but
made by the violence of the waters; and that Mofes,
when he would defcribe how high the waters were,
doth but (hew us that they were higher by fifteen cubits
then the highest mountain that was then in his time:
which he might well fay, and make fuch a comparison,
although there wereno hills before the floud.
Anfw. That which hath been faid in the former an-

Sea. 2. The second days work.

fwer concerning the caufeofthe middle Region,doth fuf-
ficiently Rlop this laft objedlion,unleffe it be granted,that
there were no clouds until the Floud had made the
hills: And indeed if any fuch thing be granted, then all
is granted, and the controverfie quite ended concerning
thefe waters above the Heavens.
But besides that answer, I hope to make it appeared That ill
that mountains, valleys, and plains were created in noufed
the beginning, and were before the Floud in the dayes
of Noah.
For firft,ifhills were caused by the Floud,then it muft
be that the waters suffered an extream violent motion:
but the waters being over the whole face of the earth
had nothing to hinder them from their own free motion,
nor any thing to compell them to a violent motion; fhch
I mean as should make them work fich wonders as are
fuppofed. Had they been overtopped by any thing,then
indeed running from one place to another there might
have been a repercuffion, and by fuch contention more
lirange accidents then were, might have been produced,
as the making ofhills, and the like.
Or fecondly, if there were fuch a violent motion, (as
queftionles the waters moved until all places were filled
alike, with no filall violence) yet the violence was not
fo great as to bethe parent of the hills and mountains;
for then without doubt it, wofild have been fo forcible
alfo as to have turned rivers and changed them from one
place to another, caft down all manner of buildings and
ftrudures, rooted up all trees and the like, fo that after
the Floud nothing should have had the fame name,
bounds, and description which before it had, neither
would the memories of the former ages have been but
buried from all succeeding time; which we know is
otherwise:, for if it were not, it is likely that Mofes,
speaking of the (ite of Paradife, and getting down all the

- --





by the

72 The fecod dayes work. Chap.4.
rivers ofit exaIHy,would have specified it in his hiftorie,
that thereby after-ages looking for thofe places might
not mifake or fufpet the truth of his relation. Neither
have we jult caufe to think that all buildings and ancient
monuments ofthe Fathers before the floud were extin.
I p .xrcl,,tib. guifhed in the floud: For it is reported by' Pomponiu
rs.l.Za. IMela, and Wlnie, concerning the citie foppa,that it was
'd" built before the floud, and that Cepha or Cepheuw reigned
there; which is witneffed by certain ancient altars,bear-
ing titles of him and his brother Phinew together with
a memorial of the grounds and principles oftheir religi-
on. And of the citie Henoch there is a much like relation.
m A.nti. ,b. But what need I mention more, feeing m Jofephsr, a wri-
ter of good credit, affirmeth that he himself faw one of
thofe pillars which was fet up by Seth the fonne of
Adam? and this for the truth of it was never questioned,
but warranted by all antiquitie.
Moreover, feeing the dove was twice fent out of the
ark,and returned with an olive branch at her laft return,
and not at her firt,it is not without reason that we think
the trees were not torn up by their roots, but remain-
ed Rill fixed in the ground even as they had done
before; for, if the trees had been swimming or floating
upon the waters (as fome may think) then the poore
dove might have found one branch or other as well at
the firft as second time. Besides, when fhe did bring any
thing, Noah took it not as a token what havock the floud
had made, but as a figne that the waters were decreafed:
fhe therefore plucked it off from fome tree growing on
the earth, and not floating on the waters.
And laft of all (although I fay nothing of the deleta-
tion and profit of the mountains, which do thereby even
amplifie the goodneffe of God in his works, creating and
not occafioning them) I fall need to point you no fir-
ther then to the plain text it felf, which doth moft plain-

Seaz;2. The feco u days work. 731
ly tell us, not that the waters were as high.as thehigheft,
mountains which are now, or were then when Mofes
wrote his hiftorie, but that even from the beginning
there were hills an i-tountains whofe- loftie,tops in the
iuniverfall floud were covered with waters:for thus land
ithe words, *:And the waters prevailed excredingly uppN Gen. 7.
the earth;and all the high hills which were under the 'whole
hbeven were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters
p evwail; and the montaivsweri. c)we ri.; Whereuponbas
I remember, one writeth thusfaying tlit this jirdge- n Ainr. onCen.
ment was admirable, feeing there are rhouritains, as At-
las, oympuw,Caicaf, Ajtho., and other fuch,ittiat are
fo high,as their tops are above the clouds and winds (as
Hiftbriographers do report it) and yet fee, all thefe are
covered: and thefe being, covered the middle Region
muft needs be drowried; and that being drowned ,. :ow.
could; the clouds be thofe windows ofheaven which
poured down rain for fourtie dayes?And thofe not being
the windows ofheaven,it cannot but be that the waters
above the heavens are in: a more remote and higher
place, even above the concave of the out-fpread Firm'a-
3. ObjeEl. But perhaps you may think that I now
pitch too much upon reason concerning this f the
Floud;feeing it was caused not by nattirall and ordinary
means, but by the extraordinary power ofGod.
eA.nfw. To whichit is answered, that this floud was
partly natural, partly fupernaturall; and to fhew how
farre nature had a hand in this admirable effe&, we may
diftinguifh with them, who fay that;an effect maybe
called natural two manner ofwayes: firi, in regard of
the cafes themselves: fecondly, in regard of the direti-
on and application ofthe cafes. If we consider the meer
secondary and inftrumentall caufes, we may call this ef-
fe& natural; because it was partly performed by their
K help

74 The second days work. Chap.4.
help and concurrence: butifwe consider the mutual ap-
plication and conjunaion of there second caufes toge-
ther with the firft caufe, which extraordinarily fet them
on work, we muft needs acknowledge it to be fupefna-
Now then, although we have built upon reason, and
fo foundthat before fourtie dayes fully ended the middle
Region it felfwas drowned,whereupon it could not rain
from thence; yet in fo doing we do not argue amiffe:
for it is nowhit derogating from the power of the Al-
mighty to afcendup higher till we finde the caufe ofthis
long rain, and alfo the place from whence it came, fee-
ing that when we have fo done we hall plainly fnde,
that in regard of the dire&ion and application of the
caufe it was extraordinarily fet on work by a divine dif-
penfation; and fo the effect was fupernaturall.
I may therefore now proceed:and that I may make the
matter yet a little plainer concerning thefe cataracts or
windows ofheaven,and fo by confequence of the waters
alfo above the heavens, this in the next place may be ad-
ded;namely, that Mofes fetteth down two caufes by
which there grew fo great an augmentation of water as
would drown the world: the one was the fountain of
the great deep: the other was the opening of the win-
dows:ofheaven.Now if thefe windows were the clouds,
then it feemeth that the waters were increased but by
one caufe: for theclouds in the aire come from the wa-
ters in the fea,which by defending make no greater aug-
mentation then the decrefion was in theirafcending.And
althoughit may be thought that there are waters enough
within the bowels of the earth to overflow the whole
earth (which:is demonstrated by comparing the earths
diameter with the height of the highest mountains)
yet feeing the rain-water is made a companion with the
great deep:in. the augmentation of the drowning waters,
_____ II

Sed~ 2. The second dayes work. 75

I fee no reason why that should be urged against it; efpe-
cially feeing it is found that the earth emptied not all the
water within her bowels, but only fome: For thus ftand
the words, The fountains alfo of the deep, and the win- en. s. .
dows of heaven wereflopped, and the rain from heaven was
refrained: their ftore therefore wasnotfpent when they
had sufficiently drowned the world,but their fury rather
was restrained, when they had executed Gods purpofe
by climbing high enough above the hills.
Cardinall Cajetane was conceited that there was.a
mount in Paradife which was not overfown, and there
forfooth he placeth Henoch : The like dream alfo they
have amongft them concerning Elias: And, as their
champion and Goliah 0 Bellarmine is perfwadedall thofe o r. yiil..x
mountains only were overflown where the wicked >. d""'
dwelt. P ofephAu alfo reporteth out of Nicholas Dama- ,.4., .,
ftens,that the hillBaris in .Armenia faved many who fled
thither for fuccour. But thefe are dreams and devices,
which are foon overthrown by Mofes in his forefaid evi-
dent text;where the words are fo general, that they in-
clude all and every mountain, under,not only the Aiery
heaven ( as Cajetane colleeteth) but under, the whole
Heaven without exception.
And now after all, what hindereth that there should
not be waters above the concave of the Firmament,
and that-the opening of the windows, of heavenfthould
not be more then the looting of the clouds? For it is af-
firmed, and not without reason you fee, that.the rain,or a
great part of it which fellin the univerfall Floud, came
from an higher place then the middle Region of the aire:
and that the upper waters are to be above the Firma-
ment, and not the parts ofit,is an affertion well agreeing
to Mofes his description of this second dayes work. For
(as hath been chewed) concerning the fowls and flars, it
is true that they are but in the Firmament, and not above
K 2 it:

76 The second dayes work. Chap+4.
S it: nteither:is there any more Firmament then q one, fee-
Sjt, od ming Moles mentions not a fecond.The fowls indeed fly a-
i Yld, ego bove the earth(as the text it felffpeaketh in Gen. i.2 o.)
odefi d but not above the Firmament: their courfe being(as Jy-
S; ?144- nims reads the place) verfjsfoperficiem expand coeli; or an-
,o,~.f,,t. ,.,o. te expanfram; oor coram expanfo celi;butt never fapra expan-
irm.And as for the flarres,the text likewise faith,ver. i 5
Let them fbe for lights in the out-fpread firmament; menti-
oning never more then one and the fame Firmament.
But for the Waters., it is other wife : The Firmament is I
appminte&eto'feparate them; as being between, and'not
abovethem Eflo y.paxfetm inter aquaf(it is learned yiinim
his right version ofthe place)ut fit diflinguens inter aquas.
t ,: .D Febit ergo De s expanfum quod ditiniguit inter aquI qua
fenttenfe,oting fint fub expanfob, & iNter aquas quaa funt flupra explain
^ t faCin um. That is Let there be a firmament between.
St"r." the eaters, ce.. 'Beteen the waters, as having wa-
ters aboveit: And how unlike it is, that the upper wa-
ters should be:placed btherwife, let the former reafons
witne lee: -For, alt things confidered,\eiieed not ftand tf
much tipon Pareuw his read in Stuper, lJ in exfpanfo,and
tdefiper ;x'panfo, as' if they were but above, or on high
within the concave, as are the fowls and (larres: this (I
fay) we need hoi (land upon, feeing Juniws readeth Su-
pra expanfum, without any fich nice falvihg,alfhough he
thinketh with 'Pareus that theei upper waters areno
higher then the middle' Region of the aire. And alfo,
admnitthat fdme derivethe word Schamajim or Shama-
jim (vhich fignifieth Heavens) from Sham, There, or in
that placer and from Majim, Waters; concluding there-
-upon that thefe waters which we now fpeak of muft be
There, viz- intheheavens, and not above them: although
ir v.a.schindi.- f6m(I fay) make this derivation, yet others derive the
& Fagius upon
j en.cs ...u fame word otherwifei And no'few be there, whonot
of Abpn Ezra. n
a without reason, do fuppofe that it is no derivative nor

Se&.3. The second dayes work. 77
compound word at all; but rather that the Ifmaelitith
word Schama, which fignifieth nothing elfe but High or
Above, doth proceed from this word Schamajim which
in English we reade Heavens: In which regard the Ety-
mologie helpeth nothing to prove the adverfe part.
And yet (as I faid before) let the reader take his
choice: For perhaps he may now think after all, that if
there be waters above the ftarry heaven, and that part
of thofe waters defcended in the time of the Floud,that
then the Heavens would have been corrupted and-diffol-"
ved (as fome have faid) the rain falling through them
from the convexitie of the out-fpread Firmament.
Sea. 3.
&e objedfon- answered concerning the nature of
the Heavens, .examining, whether they be of a
Bllt concerning this it may be faid, that it is not
known whether the heavens be of fuch a nature,
as that the rain falling through them should diffolve or
corrupt them. Thole indeed who follow Ariltotle,make
them ofa 0hic-,t-e ~cealtogether differing from things
compounded of the Elements: But for mineown part
more eafily fliould I be perfwaded to think that there is
nofuch fifth effence in them, but rather that they are of
a like nature with the Elements, or. not much differing.
For firf, although e-riftotledenyany change or alte-
ration to have been obfervedor feen in the heavens fince
the beginning of the world; yet he was deceived: For
Hipparchus,who had better skill in Aitronomie then ever
e riflotle had, he (asa Plinie witneffeth) telleth us; out .r J a. '. .
of his own diligent and frequent observations that the
heavens have had changes in them; for there wasin his
dayes a new flarre like unto that which was once in
Caffiopea. And that which is beyond the authorities oP
KI the:

78 Thefecond days work. Chap.4.
the greatest philofopher, doth alfo witneffe as much; I
mean the facred voice of the everlafing Spirit, affirm-
ing that the two partsof this universe, the heavens as
r* Par. i. z6. -well as the earth, do both of them wax old even ms
doth a garment: which is as -if it should be faid, that by
little and little they are changed, tending fo long to cor-
ruption till at laft fall come the time of their dif-
What great difference then can there be between the
heavens and things here below, feeing in their own na-
tures both of them do tend to corruption,and are fubjea
to mutation?
Befides, as it is with Man who is the little world, fo
certainly it is with Macrocofme who is the greater
world: but man changeth and declineth daily, not
being now as heretofore .he hath been; and fo al-
fo as a good confequence it muft follow, that the great-
er world'doth alfo fiffer change, and, by declining,
b heif. Srha. alteration. That man declineth, b faith one, is a
thing moft manifest: For men are of lower nature,
leffer bones and strength, and of shorter lives then
their forefathers were. Now from whence cometh this!
but from the declining estate of the greater world?The!
earth,we fee,which is the lower part of it,is.not fo fruit-
fhll as before, but beginneth to be barren like the wombe
lofSarah; neither do the fruits which the bringeth forth,
yeeld fo much nutriment as heretofore they have done.
And how cometh that to pale but because the heaven
alfo fainteth? For the Planets wax old and cannot afford
fo great vertue and influence to thefe lower bodies, as in
Sl, Pt1,.kb. times palf they did;which'Plinie and Aulws GelliU tefti-
7. c 1 6. ti ex
Ato Gel. a. fie. And deed this mut needs be a manifef proof,fee-
A.. 1. c13. '. ing lefe and weaker bodies are conceived every Age in
the wombe oinature, that nature therefore waxeth old
and weary ofconceiving.
Al fo,

Set. 3- The second days work. 79
Alfo,faith he,ifa man do but behold the face of hea-
ven, the Moon looketh pale and wan, Afarlefle rubi-
cund, Sol leffe orient, 7upiter not of fo amiable and fa-
vourable countenance, Venu. more hypocritical, and all
the recf both of the wandering and fixed lParres more
weak and fufpicious then they did before. That mighty
'Giant,which was wont to runne his unwearied course, I* P1. 19. .
now waxeth wearie, as if he would ftand flillin heaven,
as he did in the dayes of ofhua; for he fhineth more
dimmely, and appeareth more feldome then before, be-
ing much nearer to the earth then of ancient times. For,
(if we may give credit to the calculations of the chief
masters in Aftronomie)-the Sunne, quoth Copernicas, and
after him alfo Stofler, is nearer to the earth then it was
in the dayes of Ptolomie,by the fpace of twenty fix thou-
fand,fix hundred and fixtie miles:or (as 'hilip Melanch-
thon faith) nine thoufand,nine hundred,feventie and fix
miles; to whom (faith d Dietericm) afienteth that fa- d Diet. p.ofz.
mous mathematician of our age, 'David Origanus, in his ': '" a "-
Prognoftication for the year of our Lord 604.
All thefe are proofs: and although we do not greatly
contend concerning this laft allegation ofthe funnes ap-
proachfo neare us, yet neverthelefle the affcrtion in ge-
nerall is true enough,. that the heavens as well as the
earth, as they grow older and older, do. fiffer change,
and in that. regard their natures cannot but be much
Unto which adde this, namely, that thefe visible
heavens, ofwhich'we now fpeak, were taken from that
maffe or lump which lay here below, and that the whole
lump was created at once;-in which regard it cannot be
denied that they differ totogenere or altogether, but that
they are of a much like nature with inferior bodies or
things here below. And as for Ariflotle, he never would
fo earneftly. have defended the contrary,. had he not
known __

8o 7he second days work. Chap.+.
known that it was an excellent means to colour that
e rPA.. 8. which he alfo held concerning the worlds eternitie.
C p. z. & libl. But besides all this, the obferyations of our beft and
modem Aftronomers make much against him: for they
have modestly and manifestly proved,that not only new
ftarres, but comets alf6ohave been farre above the moon.
As for example,thatftrange flarrewhich once was at the
back of Caflopea's chair,was ofan extraordinarieheight
aboveit; for it fined without any difference of Afpe,'
Parallax, or diverfitie bf fight, even until all the matter
whereof it confifted was consumed; having always (as
the observers thereof do witneffe) one and the fame ila-
tion to every of the ftarres, both in all climates, and alfob
in all parts of the heaven, no diverfitie of fight at all ob-
ferved: all which in the lowermoft Planets is otherwise,
and perceived moft of all in the moon,becaufe the Semi-
diameter of the earth (according to which quantitie we
dwell from the centre) hath a fenfible bigneife unto the
distancee of the moons sphere from us. Had therefore that
New ftarre, Comet, or what you pleafe to call it,: been
lower then the moon, and not in the ftarrie heaven, then
(like the inferiour Planets) it would have fuffered a Pa-
rallax or diverfitie offight, and never have kept fuch a
regular motion as it did; contending not to be overcome
of the ftarrie heaven in its motion, but to keep as it were
an equally pace with it: thereby chewing that it was even
in the Ethereall heaven it felf. For this is a rule, that by
how much a fIarre is higher then the earth, by fo much
it imitateth the highest heavens in their daily motion.
Neither was it this ftarrealone,but others alfo after it,
even Comets themselves, whofe places were found toi
be above the moon: for obferving more diligently and
exactly then in former times, the observers could easily
demonstrate this truth alfo: thinking thereupon that
many of thofe Comets which have been feen in former
__ _____ages,

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