• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Slide list
 Shutters and blinds
 Hardware
 Appendix A
 Appendix B






Title: Shutters and blinds
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101126/00001
 Material Information
Title: Shutters and blinds
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Bessette, Ted
Publisher: Ted Bessette
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Historic preservation
 Notes
General Note: Completed for UF course AE686, Spring 19176
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101126
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Slide list
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Shutters and blinds
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Hardware
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Appendix A
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Appendix B
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
Full Text
SHUTTERS & BLINDS













TED BESSETTE
SPRING 76


AE 686





CONTENTS


SLIDE LIST

SLIDE LECTURE


Description

Shutters

Cut-outs

Blinds

Inside Blinds

Door Blinds


Page

3

9


SHUTTERS & BLINDS


HARDWARE

Hinges

Holdfasts

Builders Hardware Article

Stevens' Illustrated Price List

Specifications for Blinds and Shutters

Portfolio of Shutters and Blinds

Contemporary Shutters and Blinds


Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C


BIBLIOGRAPHY


APPENDICES

American Blinds and Shutters

Blinds

Slides 81-92





SLIDE LIST


SLIDE SLIDE
NO. SOURCE

1 Wattle and Daub house, Colonial Jamestown, Virginia.
Slide Library

2 Colonial tobacco planters frame cottage with shutters.
Slide Library

3 Huguenot window shutter.
Old American Houses. Williams.

4 Dutch house, William St., N.Y., 1648.
Slide Library

5 Letitia St. house, Philadelphia, street elevation, 1714.
Slide Library

6 Letitia St. house, Philadelphia, exterior, 1703-1705.
Slide Library

7 Small house at Williamsburg.
Photo by Ted Bessette.

8 Hager's, Hagerstown.
Slide Library

9 Blair house at Williamsburg.

10 Copy of old colonial farmhouse type shutter.
Baum. American Blinds and Shutters. (In American Archi-
tect, June 1915)

11 Van Cortlandt House, New York.
Slide Library

12 Van Cortlandt House, New York. Window detail with shutters.
American Architect, June 1915.




13, Corbit house, Odessa Del., built 1772. Shutter detail.
American Architect, June 1915.

14 Grantham house, New Castle.
Slide Library

15 House in Philadelphia.
Slide Library

16 Greenwich Village, 8 Grove St., New York City, 1829.
Slide Library

17 i Wide shutter, Dr. Bilderbeck's house, Salem, Kass.
American Architect, June 1915.

18 Madam Johns legacy, New Orleans,La., 1788.
Photo by Ted Bessette

19 Shutters in New Orleans, La.
Photo by Ted Bessette

20 Cut-outs.
American Architect, June 1915.

21 Bird cut-out on shutter.
American Architect, June 1915, P.352.

22 Shutters with cut-outs.
American Architect, June 1915, P.356.

23 Combination Shutter and blind.
American Architect, June 1915, P.355.

24 Blind at Westover,in Virginia, built 1737.
American Architect, June 1915, P.353.

25 Longfellow house, Cambridge.
Slide Library




26 Bedford Stearnes House, 1770-80.
Slide Library

27 House on Fell St., Baltimor, 1790-1800.
Slide Library

28 William Holroyd House,106 Angel St., Providence, R.I., 1798.
Photo by Ted Bessette

29 Samuel Eddy House, 100 Angel St., Providence, R.I., 1798.
Photo by Ted Bessette

30 Blind on Cook Oliver House Salem Mass., 1799.
American Architect, June 1915, P.353.

31 lEcLelan-Sweat House, Portland, 1800.
Slide Library

32 Barlett House, Newburyport, Mass., built 1812.
American Architect, June 1915, P.353.

33 Bremo. Facade attributed to Thomas Jefferson, 1815-19.
Slide Library

34 Owens-Thomas House,,Savanah, Ga., 1817.
Photo by Ted Bessette

35 Pickney Street House, Beacon Hill, Boston, Mass.
Slide Library

36 Blinds.
American Architect, June 1915, P.351.

37 Inside blinds, First Baptist Church, Providence, R.I., 1775.
Photo by Ted Bessette

38 Door blinds, Corbit House, Odessa, 18th C.
Slide Library




Door blinds, Salem, Mass., 1799.
American Architect, June 1915, P.354.

Some Designs for hinges.
American Architect, June 1915, P.355.

Holdfasts.
American Architect, June 1915, P.356.

Five designs for shutter catches from the Hudson River
Valley.
Old American Houses. Williams, p.93.

Blindfast found on a house in Nantucket, Mass.
Photo by Wilson Stiles


Source for slides 44-63: The American Architect and
Building News, January 5, 1889, Vol. XXV.- No.680,
pages 3-6.

Spring wire blindfast.

Blindfast.

Blindfast.

Gravity Blind-fast

New York Pattern Blind-fast.

Security Blind-fast.

Lock Blind-fast.

Drop-and-Pin-fast.

Blind-catch.

Blind-hinge.

Blind-fastener




55 Blind-adjuster.


56 Blind-adjuster.

57 Shutter-worker.

58 Shutter-worker.

59 Automatic Shutter-worker.

60 Brockton Shutter-worker.

61 Tucker Awning Blind-hinge.

62 Automatic Blind-awning Fixtures./Byam's Blind-slat Adj-
uster./ Shutter Bar.

63 Shutter-bar./ Moris's Self-locking Shutter-bar.

Source for slides 64-68: Architectural Elements The
Technological Revolution. Edited by Diana S. Waite.

64-68 Stevens' Illustrated Price List for blinds, 1897, Balt-
imore. Illustrations of Shutters, Blinds, and Inside
Blinds and their price.

69-70 Elevation details with specifications for shutter and
blind installation.
Architectural Construction Volume One, By Walter C.
Voss, 1925, pages 147, 163.

71-87 Portfolio of Shutters and Blinds.
From Architecture's portfolio of shutters and blinds.
(In Architecture. v. 72, December 1935, p. 346-360,)
----same. (In Architecture. v. 72, December 1935,
p. 346-360.)

88 Nechanical blinds at Gainesville Courthouse.
Photo by Ted Bessette




89 Blinds on a fraternity house, Gainesville, Florida.
Photo by Ted Bessette

90 Blinds on mobile home, built 1976.
Photo by Ted Bessette

91 Blinds on a mobile home, built 1976.
Photo by Ted Bessette

92 Shutters on a mobile home, built unfortunately.
Photo by Ted Bessette





SHUTTERS & BLINDS

SLIDE
NO.
Shutters and blinds were originally used as prote-

ction but later became a purely decorative element.

Shutters are nearly always of solid paneled wood, out

may nave small openings of cut-out designs. The word

"blind" is intended to mean a movable wooden screen for

window openings, composed of fixed or movable slats.

Although it might be expected that blinds might be

an adaptation to a southern climate, and shutters, with

their greater weather protection, would be a northern

type, it appears that there is no truth to this assumpt-

ion. Shutters were replaced by blinds, which were a

design refinement, during about the same period in both

the north and the south. The major reason for the change

was the lessened need for security. Shutters and blinds

are purely functional elements on buildings and although

there is tremendous variety in the ornamentation there

is very little difference in the basic forms they take.

Design did not vary to suit climate accept for the greater

use of the awning type blinds often found in the tropical

climates.

1 Shutters were first used in America by the colonists

both to protect their expensive glass and as protection

against intruders such as Indians and wild beasts. The

2 early shutter is known as the solid batten or old colonial

farmhouse type. These early shutters were of heavy wooden





3


Corbit House
Odessa, Del.
Built 1772


4



5-6



'I I
8



9


10 4








11



12


13


construction and were very sturdy. This can be seen in

an example of how a Huguenot window shutter was put

together. Some other ex- --

amples of this early type

of shutter construction "

can be found on the Dutch .

House, New York, 1648;

the Philadelphia Letitia !

Street House, 1703- 1705;

the small houses at Will-

iamsburg; the colonial

house at Hagerstown; and '

the Blair house at Will- H-IU.ENOT
SlUTTEIR CONSTRUCTION
iamsburg, 1760. sidsl'de)


A copy of a solid batten or

old colonial farmhouse type shut-

ter can be seen an a more contem-

porary design house by Arthur W.

Remick. This shutter has the very

popular crescent cut-outs. A good

early example of the solid pannel

shutter is on the Van Cortlandt

mansion in New York, built in 1748.

And also on the Corbit House in

Odessa, Deleware, built in 1772.

Similar pannel shutters were

used by the Huguenots in the Hud-

son Valley and farther south by




the Germane in Pennsylvania. Practically all houses

that had large, fixed windows or the latter guillotine

windows were originally equipped with solid shutters.

After the transition from the batten construction

shutters, found mostly on smaller houses, to the panneled

shutters, already in use by the Dutch in 1720, the clas-

sical influence began to be felt. This caused the pan-

neled shutters to become more elaborate, with fancy trims

and mouldings. Some examples of more refined shutters

14 can be found on the Grentham House, New Castle, 18th C.;

15 on a house in Philadelphia; and on a residence in New

16 York, Built in 1829.
An out of the ordin-

17 -- ary old shutter is

on a house in Salem,

Massachusets, on the
M __ --- Bilderbeck house,

this shutter is com-

posed of six panels

and covers the entire
J -" .|window from one side.

j Some good exam-

ples of early shut-

ters for protection

WWI, can be found in New

Orleans. Examples
Dr. Bilderbeck's House,
18 Salem, Mass. are Madam Johns




Legacy, New Orleans, La., built in 1788, and on a resid-

19 ence and slave building in the French Quater.

CUT-OUTS

Cut-outs are an important element of shutter design.

From early times

it has been the

20 customer of all

people to use dif-

Cut-outs ferent forms of

cut-outs in their shutters. Among the early Colonists,

they usually took the form of auger holes for looking

through to watch for Indians and also to fire at the

Redskins. In the first

Christian wars against S .

the Moslems, it was dis-

covered that a crescent ..

cut-out on camp screens, p

etc., would keep away.

the Moslems' fire on ac-

count of their religious

beliefs. Because of E u

this tale the crescent

shaped cut-out became

very popular in Amirica.

21 Some contemporary exam-
Bird cut-out.
ples of shutters using Dwight James Baum, Architect.

cut-outs can be found on the house by James Baum, architect;




22 the house by Aymar Embury II, architect; and the combin-

23 ation early form of fixed slats and modern cut-out design

by Dwight James Baum, architect.


BLINDS

When the colonies became more settled the need for

heavy wooden shutters for protection diminished and

louvered blinds began to take the place of shutters,

though some householders apparently were content simply

to do away with shutters. Blinds offered the advantages

some protection as well as light and ventilation. A good

24 J early example of blinds with fixed

slats can be seen at Westover, in

Virginia. This house was erected

in 1737 and the blind is divided

into three sections with sixteen

slats in the two lower divisions
and nine in the upper. Here we

also find one olr re lew examples

I of early curved top blinds.




Westover, in 7
M-r I r I i-r1.11 Virginia, built 1787-


The following is a chronological list of houses

having examples of blinds:

25 1759 Longfellow House, Camebridge, Massachusets.




1770-80 Stearns House, Bedford.

1790-1800 House on Fell St, in Baltimore.

1798 William Halroyd.House, Providence, Rhode Island.

1798 Samuel Eddy House, Providence, Rhode Island.

1799 Cook Oliver House, Salem,

Massachusets. The blinds on the .... __ _

street front of this house have

an unusual design. The setting --

of the slats in grooves cut in

the stiles is done away with,

and in its place is a raised

board frame, to the inside of

which the slats are fixed. "PO

These are exceptional wide,

only eleven slats to each pan-

nel. After this date the slats --

were noticeably wider in Salem ; J

than any other section of the Cook Oliver House
Salem, Mass.
country. Designed by


McIntire, 1799
1800 McLellan-Sweat House, Portland, Maine.

1812 the Bartlett house was built at Newburyport, Mass.

Here a large blind was used with one panel of twenty-

three wide slats.

1815-19 Bremo, The facade is attributed to Thomas Jeffer-

son.

1817 Savanah, Georgia. The Owen-Thomas House designed


31

32 V





33



34 I


g
m




by William Jay, architect from England, in the English

Regency style of Gothic Revival.

35 Beacon Hill House, Pickney St., 7-- -
Poston, Massachusets. Shown ----

here as an example of the

beauty blinds can add to a -

building.

36 These examples of blinds -

make it clear that, although

there are minor variations in -

the styles of blinds, they

were originally a functional
Bartlet House
element and there are not reg- Newburyport, Mass.
Built 1812
ional differences in their

design or application. It is important to note that all

these blinds are functional and, unlike the contemporary

decorative blinds that have copied them, they fit the

windows and are operable.


Inside Blinds

37 Inside blinds were also often used. An exceptional
example of inside blinds are found in the First Baptist

Church, Providence, Rhode Island, erected in 1775.


Door Blinds

38 Blinds were also often used on the front doors of

houses after 1800, and these were usually of the fixed

slat type. Examples of this are the Corbit house, Odes-





39 V sa, 18th C.; and a
doorway in Salem,

Massachusets, built

in 1799. Here the

wide slats typical

of Salem prevail,

but the usual meth-

od of letting the

slats into the stil-

es is followed. The

narrow stiles are

also noticeable.
Doorway in Salem, Mass.
Built 1799


HARDWARE

Blind and shutter hardware consists of hinges,

holdfasts or catches, blindfasts, pulls, shutter bars

and shutter lifts. These were invariably made of wrou-

ght iron by the village smithy in early times and were

later made by more modern methods.

Hinges

40 Hinges come in several basic kinds, shown here,

the strap hinge be-

ing the most used

in America. The

popular strap hin-

ge was later repla-

ced by the but hinge. - ,
Some designs for hinges.




Holdfasts

41 Holdfasts are the

metal catches project-

ing from the exterior

walls, placed to hold

the blinds against the

wall when open.






Holdfasts


They are gravity op-

erated and come in a

large variety of de-

signs. The complexity

and beauty of the | :

design was determined

by the skill of the

village smithy.







42 Five designs of
shutter catches
from the Hudson
River Valley.

43 A blind fast found on a house in Nantucket, Massachusets.





BUILDERS' HARDWARE.- XVI.
SHUTTER FASTS AND LOCKS.
SLIDE HE appliances for se-
IJO curing outside blinds,
though in some cases
combined directly or indi-
-(-- rectly with the blind
44 hinges, are more often
distinct fixtures, acting
independently of the
blind attachments. The
usage in regard to shutter
S fasts and locks varies in
different portions of the
Fig. 235. Spring WIke Blind-fast. country. In the West
there seems to be a
willingness to accept considerable complication in the de-
vices, whereas the standard Eastern goods are mostly
very simple; though, of course, this distinction is not a rigid
H0 one, by any means. The West, however, is rapidly developing
0 now ideas and fresh combinations, in hardware no less than in
E oo nearly every other department of mechanical industry, and
-1 \0 special patent forms seem to be more naturally expected there
0 0 than elsewhere. This does not imply that tile Eastern cities
f z are united in the usage of particular forms, for places as near
C 1to each other as New York, Providence and Boston employ
*different forms, as will be seen later on.
Figure 235 will serve to illustrate one of the most common
forms of shutter or blind fast, consisting of a tempered steel
Srod, or wire, one end of which is cut with a thread and screws
-M into the under side of the blind, while the other end is held by
S 0- a staple. The rod is bent so that the loop is kept away from
0> the blind, and the elasticity of the metal enables it to spring


E-i 0
co









into the malleable-iron catch on the sill, or on the outside of
0 the wall. The well-known Stedd" blind fastener is prac-
"C 3 stically the same as this, except that the rod is bent in a com-
o0 plete twist to gain the elasticity, and a common screw takes
r-- the place of the threaded end. The same form is made, with
1 7 slight variations, by several of the leading manufacturers.
O_ Figure 236 shows the only form of wire blind-fast which
S"0 allows one to close the blind without leaning out of the window,
() 1- I or in any way lifting the shutter to release it from the back
_C: catch. It consists of a steel wire, bent as shown by the figure,
E hbut carried as far back towards the hinge as the hanging-style
D h of the blind will per-
z g f mit. To release the
< blind, the fastener is
simply pulled inward.
4I6 Any form of back
catch may be used.
SFor the sill-catch a
Side staple is used,
which is set on an
angle to the blind, so
2. Bston Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works as to force the spring
t.23. Bton Pattern Blind-fst. Stanley Work. back and permit it to
latch behind the staple. This fastener has but very recently
on put on the market.
The blind-fast shown by Figure 238 works entirely by gravity.
It consists of a bent lever, working in a mortise cut through
the bottom rail of the blind, pivoted so that one arm protrudes
altiv the top of the rail, while the other catches over an ordi-
nary hook on the sill or against the wall. Lugs on the end of
the horizontal lever arm catch on a thin plate screwed to the
under side f the rail and prevent the fast from dropping too





low or being lifted too high. This fast is made of coppered
malleable-iron, and seems like a very satisfactory article.
Figure 237 is an older style of blind-fast, on essentially the
same principle as Figure 236; using, however, a flat bar
instead of the spring wire. This form requires a little more
work in adjustment. It
is designated peculiarly
as the "Boston" pat-
tern blind-fast. The so-
S called "New York"
pattern is illustrated by
;;' To L^Lor BuL,I Figure 239. The action
of this fast will be better
47 .-.. appreciated when it is
..____._..._ .... remembered that in
New Yorkf the blinds
are usually hung flush
with the outer casing,
Mov .rr and the sill is rebated
so that the bottom of
the blind strikes against
the upper rebate. The
latch is hinged on the
Fig. 238. Gravity Blind-fait. inner plate, the weight
of the long arm keeping the inner hook thrown up. The sill-
staple is driven perpendicularly, while the back catch is screwed
horizontally into the wall. The Stanley Works also has what
is designated as the Providence style of blind-fast. This is







48
Blind-fast. Stanley
Works.





Fig. 239. New York Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works.
exactly the same as the "New York" pattern, except that the
inner hook catches over instead of under the sill-staple, and is
shaped like the back catch of Figure 235, inverted.
Figure 240 shows a form of blind-fast which is screwed
bodily through the blind, catching on sill and wall staples in
the same manner as the preceding styles. A flat spring
inside of the case keeps the inner hook constantly pressed up
and against the sill-
staple. A variation
of this same pattern
is made which acts by
gravity, the catch
49 working in an oblique
slot in such a manner ,"
that the weight of the ,
outer catch forces
the inner catch always
the inner catch always Fig. 241. Security Blind-fast. Stanley Works.
against the sill-staple.
Figures 241 and 242 illustrate two forms of fasts which are
screwed to the under side of the blind. The former acts





50 '

Fig. 243. Turn-buckle
A. G. Newman.

Fig. 242. Lock Blind-fast. Stanley Works.
entirely by gravity. The lobes, A A, are connected through
the case, and are counterbalanced so as to always drop to the





position shown. When the blind is closed, the lobe strikes
against the sill-pin and is forced up as shown by the dotted
lines, dropping so as to catch inside of the pin. Figure 242
has a concealed spring, to force the action of the lever.
The foregoing styles of blind-fasts are intended to be used
on wooden buildings, but with some modifications in the sizes
might also serve for brick buildings. In New York, it is
customary to use some form of turn-buckle, Figure 243, which
is driven into the joints of the brickwork, the cross-piece being
free to turn, but hanging naturally in a vertical position by
reason of the greater weight of the longer arm. Turn-buckles
of a slightly different shapo are sometimes used, also, for
wooden buildings."
All of the foregoing are, in a certain sense, automatic; that
is to say, the blind, if flung open or shut will stay in position.
requiring no special adjustment. Figure 244 is a form of drop-













Fig. 244. Drop-and-Pm-fast. Stanley Works.
and-pin fast, much used in some cases, consisting simply of a
plate secured to the blind by a screw-eye, perforated with a
hole to fit over the pin driven into the sill. For holding the
blind open, a back catch is made as shown by the figure, which
locks with a plain, fiat spring, screwed to the under side of the
blind. The figure also shows the form of back catch used for
brick buildings.
Figures 245 and 246 show two very simple forms of blind-
catch serving only to keep the blind closed, and generally






52




Fig. 245. Seymour's Blind-catch. Fiv. 246. Blind-calch. Fig. 247. Sey mour' a
P. & F. Corbin. Shepard Hardware Blind catch and lock.
Co. P. & F. Corbin.
used with some form of turn-buckle to hold the blind open.
Figure 245 works with the aid of a small spring, as
shown; Figure 246 works entirely by gravity. There are
several varieties of each of these forms
in the market. The catch shown by
Figure 247 acts in the same manner
as Figure 245, but has, in addition, a
locking-lever, operated by a key, which
secures the catch so that the blind can-
not be opened.
53 There are a number of forms of blind-
hinges, which have been previously de-
scribed in the chapter on hinges, that
Sin a measure serve as blind-fasteners,
keeping the blind either open or shut.
SThey are all perfectly simple in their
operations, and it is dillicult to discrim-
inate between them. The common
Fhing.2. Byam, shwart ai& fault with them all ib in tile dillliculty
Baker. of opening and closing the blind. With
most of the forms of patent self-lockitng blind -hinge, the
blind must be raised from its seat in order to be swung
around. With the blind-fasts previously described in this
chapter, it is necessary to lean far out of tlhe window to
release the catch from underneath. Figure 248 shows a device
intefided to overcome the difficulties of both styles. It consists






simply of a lever attached to the blind, and hooking into a
plate screwed onto the jamb of the window. It is only
necessary to lift the end of the lever in order to swing the





54
OUTIDE OP RAIL
PIMGH.LEVER M01'E 0f


SILL


Fig. 249. Tenon Blind-fastener. Tenon Fastener Co.
blind shut. The advantages are that in closing, no lifting of
the blind is necessary; there is no danger of throwing it off the
hinges, and no chance of pinching the fingers or bumping the
head.
There are several other devices intended to hold the blind,
either shut or open. Figure 249 illustrates the "Tenon"
blind-fastener, which con-
sists of a bent, flat bar,
attached to the outside l
of the blind and catching
in slots cut in a plate
which is secured to tile
sill, so that the blind can
55 be held either open or =
shut, or in either of two
intermediate positions.
The bar is lifted by
means of a lever on the
inside of the blind. This
fixture does away with Fig. 250. Excelsior Blind-adjuster. Russell &
the ordinary bottom Erwin.
hinge, substituting therefore a pivot working in the locking sill-
plate. A blind-fastener of this description is especially suita-



56



Fig. 251. Washburn's Blind-adjuster. B. D. Washburn.
ble for bay-windows, or any, place where the blinds cannot open
clear back. Being placed on the outside of the blind exposes
it to the weather to an undesirable
degree, though it is made of Bower-
Barffed iron to prevent it from
rusting.
Figure 250 is a very simple form
of bar blind-adjuster, the bar being
attached to the blind, and held in
position by the action of the thumb-
screw on the jamb; Figure 251
shows a variation of the same
principle, consisting of a bar which
tits into the sockets at several points
57 aS on the sill, enabling the blind to be
1 held in several different positions.
0 The action of the adjuster will
readily be understood by the figure.
Zimmerman's Blind-fast is on
practically the same principle as
this.
The difficulty with the two fore,
going patterns is, that they do not
hold the blind perfectly rigid, and
the rods are likely to get in the way,
Fig. 252. Mallorv's Shutter-worker. specially as the rods and sockets
Frank B. Mallory. take up considerable space on the
sill. There is but little practical advantage in having a fixture
which permits of the blind being open at various degrees, for,





as a rule, most people prefer to have their blinds either entirely
open or entirely shut.
The desire to open and operate blinds without opening the
window has led to the invention of several devices which are
worked by rods pass-
ing entirely through
the frame of the
house and attached to
----the blind. It is not
altogether easy to
S"/"-- understand why such
58 devices are used so
little, but it must be
-----admitted, that all of
those now in the mar-
ket are more or less
clumsy. Still, the
idea is an excellent
one, and if there were
greater demand for
Fig. 253. Brown's Shutter-worker. Ireland Mfg. Co. such appliances, un-
0 doubtedly better ones
would be put before the public. The shutter-worker of this
description that is the most natural in its adjustment is illus-
trated by Figure 252. This consists simply of a rod, at the








59 0








Fig, 254. Automatic Shutter-worker. Dudley Shutter-Worker Co.
end of which is a thread working against a cog-wheel forming
a part of the bottom hinge of the blind. On account of the
slowness of pitch of the thread,
. it is very difficult to move the
blind from the outside, but the lev-
erage is sufficiently strong to
enable one to easily open the
60 .. blind from within by turning
m M the crank.
A very similar appliance to
this is the Brown shutter-worker,
Figure 253, in which the thread
Fig, e. B.rocktoln hutter-worker, on the spindle works into teeth
Tyler Mfg. Co. on the bottom of a plate forming
a part of the lower shutter hinge.
The Automatic Shutter-worker, Figure 254, combines the
good points of several other devices, and is somewhat more
complicated than either of the preceding. Two cog-wheels
gear into each other. The shaft of one wheel is carried
through the wall and can be operated by a crank or handle in-
side the house. The shaft of the other wheel turns a crank,
or bent lever, the end of which works in a slide attached to the
face of the blind. The cog-wheels are encased in an iron box,
which is shown partly removed in the figure, in order to illus-
trate the workings. Aside from the number of parts, which is
no very great objection, this shutter-worker has a great deal to
recommend it. It is strong and compact, and can act on the
shutter with such force that, it is asserted, a child can work
the blind with it in a high wind. It has the advantage of per-
mitting the blind to be removed without disturbing the fixtures.
One of the simplest acting shutter-workers, is illustrated by
Figure 255. This is very ingenious in its idea, consisting of a
straight rod set on an angle, with a bent lever on the end
working in a curved slot or catch secured to the outer face of
the blind. This shutter-worker will lock the blind as securely





as any door can be locked, the handle of the rod being dropped
down onto the pin as shown by the lock.
The company which manufactures the Brockton shutter-
worker has bought up the patents of the Prescott shut-
ter-worker, which was somewhat on the same principle.
There are a few other shapes in the market; but practically a
very few, which embody ideas essentially different from those
described.
AWNING-IIINGES.
Awning-hinges might more properly be considered with
common blind-hinges, but they are included in this connec-
tion, as they are in a measure blind-adjusters, permitting the
blind to be opened part way. The writer has been able to
find only two forms in the market. The simplest is shown












Fig. 256. Tucker Awning Blind-hinge. Hamblin & Russell Mfg. Co.
by Figure 256. This consists of a double-acting hinge for
the upper portion of the blind, a lower hinge being screwed to
the jamb and fastened to the blind only by a turn-button.
The other form of awning-fixture is more commonly used


F ig. 259. Byam's Blind-slat Adjuster. byam,
Stewart & Baker.


Fig. 257. Automatic Blind-awning
Fixtures. f. 0. North & Co.


Fig. 259. Shutter-bar.


about Boston, Figure 257. The upper hinge is so made as to
work in either direction, while the lower hinge consists of a
cup fitting over a pin screwed to the jamb. A small catch, A,
keeps the blind from pushing out when the hinges are to be
used in the ordinary manner, but is readily lifted when the
blinds are to be pushed out from the bottom. The fixtures are


Fir. 260. Shutter-bar.


Fig. 261. Morris's Self-locking Shutter-bar. Ire-
land Mfg. Co.


sold with side-bars to hold the bottom of the blind away from
the building, and with a centre cross-bar which permits the
blinds to be opened part way in the ordinary manner, and
secured. The description and the figure might seem to imply






a somewhat complicated arrangement, though the fixtures work
very simply, and seldom fail to give satisfaction.
Figure 258 shows a form of slat-adjuster intended to be
operated by a key from the inside of the house without opening
the window. The slats are connected with an eccentric which
is turned by the key, so that the slats can be either raised or
lowered as desired.

HARDWARE FOR INSIDE SIIUTTERS.

There is little to be said as regards fasts or locks for inside
shutters. The shutters themselves are usually provided with
knobs of some description, with porcelain or metal heads
secured in position by a screw. The shutters are also provided
with some form of latch or bar, of which Figure 259 is a very
simple type. Figure 260 shows a more elaborate form, for
inside, work. There are, of course, many variations of these
forms. A few of the hardware manufacturers have been
making self-locking shutter-bars, in which the cross-bar is
secured by some form of auxilliary lever or cam. Figure 261
illustrates one variety. There is, .however, but little demand
for such appliances.
For sliding shutters a bar like that shown by Figure 260
may be employed. There are also several varieties of mortise
hooks, Figure 262, which work with a spring, and are rather
preferable for most cases.
The retail prices of the foregoing blind and shutter fixtures
are as follows:

TABLE OF SHUTTER-FIXTURES. -PRICES PER WINDOW, WITH
TWO SINGLE-FOLD BLINDS.


Fig. Name. Price.

235 Stanley's wire blind-fast...................................... .... $ .07
236 Folsom's shutter-fastener ..................................... .08
237 Boston pattern blind-fast........................................... 08
239 New York pattern blind-fast.................................... .09
240 Standard screw blind-fast........................................ .09
241 Security blind-fast ................................................. 08
242 Look blind-fast............................. ..................... .08
STurn-buckles or drop-buttons for brick........................... 10
243
(Turn-buckles or drop-buttons for wood........................ .081
244 Drop-and-pin fast.................................................. .08
245 Seymour's blind-catoh.......... ................................. 12
246 Shepard blind-fast.................................................. .04
247 Seymour's blind eatch and look ................................ .21
248 Rochester blind-hinge.............................................17
249 Tenon blind-fastener............................................. .45
250 Excelsior blind-adjuster, galvanized .............................. 55
251 Washburn's blind-adjuster,' galvanized, 10-inch bar ............... .5
252 Mallory's shutter-worker, with hinges and handle ............... 1.25
253 Brown's shutter-worker, japanned................................ .85
264 Automatic shutter-worker, with binges and handle .............. .75
255 Brockton shutter-worker........................................ .05
256 Tucker awning blind hinges'..................................... .87
257 Automatic blind awning fixtures'.................................. 75
258 Byam's blind sla djuter........................................ .25
240 Shutter-bars-bronsed-ron, i-nch, per dozen ................... 8
280 Shutter-bars, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen........................... 1.35
Morris's self-looking shutter-bar, bronsed-iron, 2-inch, per dozen.. .60
261
Morris's self-looking shutter-bar, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen......... 3.00
262 Sliding shutter-hook, bronze, each............................... .75

For wooden house.





The following is taken from ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS

The Technological Revolution, edited, andwith an introd-

uction by Diana S. Waite, American Historical Catalog


Collection, The Pyne Press, Princeton.

catalog order shutters and blinds:


An example of


IND

PAGB.
Baltimore Sizes of Sash and Blinds............ ....... 3
Blinds, (Outside).......................................12, 21
Blinds, (Inside)......... .........................13, 22, 23
Bracket Shelves....................................29, 46, 47
Balusters, (Turned)...............................42, 43, 58
Balustrade, (Sawed)........................ 29, 52, 53
Brackets, (Patterns)................. 52, 53, 54, 55, 56
Brackets, (Prices).................................... 29, 31
Centre Flowers, (Wooden)........... ...............50, 51
Cornice Drops and Post Tops...........................49
Discounts to Wholesale Trade.......................... 37
Doors, Plain and Moulded....................... 4, 5, 16
Door Frames............................................15, 25
Finials.........................................................45
Front Doors, (Single) .................. ................6, 16
Front Doors, (in Pairs).............7, 17, 18, 64, 65, 66
Hand Rails, (Patterns)............................. .......39
Hand Rails, Directions for Ordering..................33
Hinges for Blinds..........................................35
Hot Bed Sash..............................................20
Inside Shutters and Blinds.....................13, 22, 23
Mantles, (White Pine and Walnut) Prices...........29
Mantles(White Pine &Walnut)Patterns,46,47,48,50,51
Moulding, (Sawed) Prices, 29 (Patterns)............45


GEO. 0. STEVENS' ILLUSTRATED PRICE


shandaid SimG of Blind~s









H


- qe


LIST, BIALTIMORE. 3



I ahifor 12 Ligh Window1


m m -It- -w o Lo =


C2-----


cc.






00CiC
ii


EX.

PAGE.
Mouldings. ...............................32, 67, 68, 69, 70
Newel Posts ................... .................40, 41, 44, 45
Ornamental Window Glass...........30, 60, 61, 62, 63
Panel Shutters, (Outside).............................. 21
Panel Shutters, (Inside)............... 13, 22, 23
Pew Ends and Caps........ ..........................39, *8
Painted Window Blinds.................... ..............34
Paints, (Mixed Enamel).................................36
Rim Sash ................. ............................20
Sash Doors........ ................................4, 5, 16
Sash for Windows, 12 Lights.......................... 8
Sash for Windows, 4.. ............................ 9
Sash for Windows, 8 ...........................10
Sash (Irregular Sizes) .............................11, 19
Sash Weights.............. .................................. 2
Store Doors..................................................26
T ransom s ............... ..................................... 11
Verge Boards......... ...........................29, 52, 53
Walnut Mantles......................... 50, 51
Walnut Doors, (Veneered)........... .. 44, 64, 65, 66
Window Frames...................................14, 24, 25
Weights of Sash, Doors and Blinds ..................28
Window Caps .................................................48
Window Springs (Northup's)..........................27




65



















66


SIZE OF
GLASS.


W tH. LEN' 'T
FT. IN. FT. IN.


7 x 9 2 1 x 3 7
8 x 10 2 4 x 3 11
;8 x 12 2 4 x 4 7
9 x 11 2 7 X 4 3
9 x 12 2 7 x 4 7
9 x 13 2 7 x 4 11
9 x 14 2 7 x 5 3
9 x 15 2 7x 5 7
9 x 16 2 7 5 11I
9 x 18 2 7 x 6 7
10 x 12 2 101 x .4 7
10 x 13 2 10, x 4 11
10 x 14 2 10 x 5 3
10 x 15 2 10 x 5 7
10 x 16 2 10 x 5 11
10 x 18 2 10 x 6 7
10 x 20 2 10 x 7 3
12 x 14 3 4 x 5 3
12 x 16 3 4 x 5 11;
.12 x 18 3 4 x 6 7
12x20 3 4x 7 3
12 x 24 3 41 x 8 7


PRICE
PER PAIR.
1il 3-16 In
$1.25
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.65
1.65
1.75
1.75
2.00
1.50
1.70
1.70
1.75
1.75
2.15
2.30
1.85
2.00
2.40
2.60
3.10


For Blinds of 1( inch in thickness, add for sizes 10xl5and under,
20 cents. Add for Sizes 10x16 to 12x24, 50 cents.


I



I


I



I


I11

I~n


I



I


Add for Segment Head Blinds...................0 cts. to 70 cts.
Add for Circle Head Blinds .....................90 to 1.25 "
8 Light Blinds, in pairs, same price as 12 Light.
8 Light Blinds, Single, j price of 12 Light.


Extra for Pivot and } Pivot.................................................. 15 cents per pair.
Extra for Panel and J Panel......................................................... 75 to 10x16.
Extra for Panel $1.00 per pair, over 10xl5 to 12x20. (For other Styles see page 21.)


12 GEO. 0. STEVENS' ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST, BALTIMORE. 1}7 I
OUTSIDE WINDOW BLINDS TO SUIT 12 LIGHT WINDOWS.


GEO. 0. STEVENS' ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST, BALTIMORE. 19718

FOUR-FOLD INSIDE SHUTTERS.
Measuring height of window, ordinary width,
j inch thick, 60 cents per linear foot. A. B. C.
70 cents a foot if made of 1I inch stuff. .-
80 cents a foot if made of 14 inch stuff. F
1.75 per Window, extra, for Circle Head. i
1.00 per Window, extra, for Segment Head.
The above price is for Pine. Of hard wood, F -'
such as Cherry, Ash, Maple or Black Walnut, we I i
charge about double the price of Pine. We make
Inside Blinds that are not excelled, either in work-
manship or style, in this market.
In ordering Inside Shutters, give the full length
and width of Shutters over all when Rabbetted,
and the height-from bottom to the centre of the
Meeting Rail. i 1 f
If they are intended to fold back into boxes,
state the Width of the boxes, and whether alraight
or splayed.
For Other Styles Inside Shutters, see pages 22, 23.


I





GEO. 0. STEVENS' ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST, BALTIMORE. 1'97 21


OUTSIDE V

THE REGULAR BALTIMORE STYLE
OF WINDOW BLIND is made with
wider rails and stiles than either
the Eastern, New York or Western
Blinds, and are therefore STRONGER
and MORE DURABLE than the others.
Buyers in considering price, should
remember this.


WINDOW BLINDS AND SHUTTERS.


2.
0J


6.






K-

i; 'I


Price of Blinds, Pattern 2, same as given on page 12.
Price of j Panel Blind, Pattern 6, 75 cents over price on page 12.
Price of all Panel Shutters, Pattern 5, $1.00 over price on page 12.
All of 1 inch thickness,


22 GEO. 0. STEVENS'


ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST, BALTIMORE. 1897


INSIDE BLINDS AND SHUTTERS.


SEE ALSO P.AGc-S
E.



B51O




~n~gao

nFIO[


2S3.


13 A.STD
F.







hIl


Price of Six-Fold Blinds,
Five-Fold "
Two-Fold "


50 per cent. additional to Four-Fold, on paga 13.
25 13.
Two-thirds the price of 13.


H.







i : ! i !i
," ni: i


l*





















,Scale 1,o? ', .







Mounting of inside blinds and shutters.





The following is an example of specifications and

plans for the mounting of blinds and shutters. It is

taken from ARCHITECTURAL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME ONE, by

Walter C. Voss, New York, London Chapman and Hall Limited,

1925, pages 147, 163:







SPECIFICATIONS



126. Blinds and Shutters.
SPECIFICATION CLAUSES
Blinds and Provide and hang as shown at windows,
Shutters blinds of first quality white pine, stock pattern.
Blinds shall be 11" thick, firmly secured with
galvanized, old style S fittings and copper wire
fastenings, and shall be marked for identification
with a corresponding mark upon the frame. The
samples of blind hardware desired may be seen
at the Architect's office.
The blinds used on this building are illustrated
on P1. 59. These are carried in stock in one-half
roll and stationary patterns. They are all 11" thick
and are made to correspond in size with most of the
st6ck sash. In this case the rails and stiles were
made plain and the panels' were of the typical slat
pattern as shown on P1. 43. This feature is often
the basis for individuality in pattern, but in most
cases is similar in construction to the ordinary door.
(See Index.)
In choosing hardware for blinds, unless for econ-
omy the cheapest stock forms must suffice, care
should be taken to secure hinges of angle shape to
form a -metal reinforcement of the blind joints where
rails join stiles on the hinge side.
The hold-backs, of either the lever or dropped
S form, should be fitted to hold the blind stiffly
ualinst play in the wind by a brass, upset ferrule
on the shank of the fitting in addition to the lever
at its outer end.
















mI I*1' .


- ~ 4~,.


I _


- e


~IIt




IIt










!it IT,


















j ~j



L- 7T


"-!XTEID.1D DETAILS


PLATE 59 THE SUBURBAN HOUSE
EXTERIOR DETAILS
RALPH COOLIDGE HENRY, ARCHITECT


.&~k k~


V


-






- ;.-r


S
'Cl-


-- ~ -


La


A -


A ~
t~. t.-
.4.


PLATE 43 THE SUBURBAN HOUSE
ENTRANCE DOORWAY
RALPH COOLIDGE HENRY, ARCHITECT


.1
I
V




PORTFOLIO OF SHUTTERS & BLINDS


From Architecture's portfolio of shutters and

blinds. (In Architecture. v.54, December 1926,

p. 409-412, illus.)


----same. (In Architecture.

1935, P. 346-360, illus.)


v.72, December


The following is a collection of examples of

shutters and blinds both early and more contemporary:





NUMBER 110 IN A SERIES OF COLLECTIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHS

ILLUSTRATING VARIOUS MINOR ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS


ARCHITECTURE'S PORTFOLIO OF


SHUTTERS


BLINDS


Subjects of previous portfolios are listed below


*1926
DORMER WINDOWS
SHUTTERS AND BLINDS
+1927
ENGLISH PANELLING
GEORGIAN STAIRWAYS
STONE MASONRY TEXTURES
ENGLISH CHIMNEYS
FANLIGHTS AND OVERDOORS
TEXTURES OF BRICKWORK
IRON RAILINGS
DOOR HARDWARE
PALLADIAN MOTIVES
GABLE ENDS
COLONIAL TOP-RAILINGS
CIRCULAR AND OVAL WINDOWS
+1928
BUILT-IN BOOKCASES
CHIMNEY TOPS
DOOR HOODS
BAY WINDOWS
CUPOLAS
GARDEN GATES
STAIR ENDS
BALCONIES
GARDEN WALLS
ARCADES
PLASTER CEILINGS
CORNICES OF WOOD
+1929
DOORWAY LIGHTING
ENGLISH FIREPLACES
GATE-POST TOPS
GARDEN STEPS
RAIN LEADER HEADS
GARDEN POOLS
QUOINS
INTERIOR PAVING
BELT COURSES
KEYSTONES
AIDS TO FENESTRATION
BALUSTRADES
41930
SPANDRELS
CHANCEL FURNITURE
BUSINESS BUILDING ENTRANCES
GARDEN SHELTERS
ELEVATOR DOORS
ENTRANCE PORCHES
PATIOS
TREILLAGE
FLAGPOLE HOLDERS
CASEMENT WINDOWS
FENCES OF WOOD
GOTHIC DOORWAYS
A,1931
'BANKING-ROOM CHECK DESKS
SECOND-STORY PORCHES
TOWER CLOCKS
ALTARS
GARAGE DOORS


at left and right of page










Below are the subjects of

forthcoming Portfolios



Fireplaces

(MEDITERRANEAN TYPES)
JANUARY


Pediments
FEBRUARY


Balcony Railings
(INTERIOR)
MARCH


Gothic Buttresses
APRIL


Corner Windows
MAY


Self-supporting Stairways
JUNE




Photographs showing interesting
examples under any of these head-
ings will be welcomed by the Edi-
tor, though it should be noted that
these respective issues are made up
about six weeks in advance of
publication date.

< ARCHIECTjRE. >
DECEMBER, 1935


1931--Continued
MAIL-CHUTE BOXES
WEATHER-VANES
BANK ENTRANCES
URNS
WINDOW GRILLES
CHINA CUPBOARDS
PARAPETS
1932*
RADIATOR ENCLOSURES
INTERIOR CLOCKS
OUTSIDE STAIRWAYS
LEADED GLASS MEDALLIONS
EXTERIOR DOORS OF WOOD
METAL FENCES
HANGING SIGNS
WOOD CEILINGS
MARQUISES
WALL SHEATHING
FRENCH STONEWORK
OVER-MANTEL TREATMENTS
1933+
BANK SCREENS
INTERIOR DOORS
METAL STAIR RAILINGS
VERANDAS
THE EAGLE IN SCULPTURE
EAVES RETURNS ON MASONRY
GABLES
EXTERIOR LETTERING
ENTRANCE DRIVEWAYS
CORBELS
PEW ENDS
GOTHIC NICHES
CURTAIN TREATMENT AT
WINDOWS
1934*
EXTERIOR PLASTERWORK
CHURCH DOORS
FOUNTAINS
MODERN ORNAMENT
RUSTICATION
ORGAN CASES
GARDEN FURNITURE
WINDOW HEADS, EXTERIOR
SPIRES
BUSINESS BUILDING LOBBIES
ROOF TRUSSES
MODERN LIGHTING FIXTURES
1935+.
CIRCULAR WINDOWS,
GOTHIC AND ROMANESQUE
TILE ROOFS
MOLDED BRICK
DORMER WINDOWS
ENTRANCE SEATS
OVERDOORS, INTERIOR
BRICK CORNICES
SIGNS
CHIMNEY OFFSETS
WINDOW HEADS,
EXTERIOR, ARCHED
UNUSUAL BRICKWORK
































Detroit's modernized demonstration house Modern work in
D. Allen Wright Stockholm, Sweden


Living quarters over a garage


Old Norristown (Pa.) Presbyterian Church (r71o)


<4 MACHIMECBURE -
DECEMIBER, 1935
SLIDE 71 346



























House just outside of San Francisco
Masten & Hurd


House at Brookville, N. Y.
Unusual panelling, New Castle, Del. James W. O'Connor


SLIDE 72


+ Al tCTUijRE-
DECruBER, 1933
347


Old house at New Castle, Del.


6*

































House at Englewood, N. J7.
Caretto & Forster


House at Mill Neck, N. Y.
William Lawrence Bottomley


House at Radburn, N. 7. House at Scarsdale, N. Y.
Clarence S. Stein Electus D. Litchfield


4- ARCHITUCMlR 4>
D)FrEMI&ER, 1 935
































Chateau d'Odre, House in Connecticut
Pas de Calais, France Frederick 7. Sterner


House at Cincinnati, Ohio
Charles F. Cellarius
MMsIMssM p. 4


4,AKf2ll
DUEC1rfli
3'


SLIDE 73


House at Pleasantville, N. 7.
7ames Renwick Thomson



























ECIUREB
ER, 1335
" 37

























-~ ~


Bank at Lexington, Mass.
Thomas M. James Company


House at Kingsport, Tenn.
Clinton Mackenzie




f


AVA





&2 Jr.


' --'l",, T. i. ""..












House at Easton, Md.
Henry Hopkins


House at East Hampton, N. Y.
Aymar Embury II
[] .... .-,, "L;: f "-J, "t .'',


S11111111


4,ARC~IUMCMU *>>
iDLCEF&1L1k, 1935
350
SLIDE ?4































House at Cincinnati, Ohio I
Charles F. Cellarius

Veterinary Hospital, Washington, D. C. House at Warrenton, Va.
E. Burton Corniny Bottomley. Warner & White


4b



,- ; .- ,,.o ;

S.* -., .* "? ,4
. W ,i ,; -* .
"., .' ; -'.,# a .' Jr *i, A,' ", i'1


SLIDE 75


<4 ARCHTECIURE 4
DFCIEAI.uR, 1935
351

































House at Orleans. House at Springfield, Mass.
France Clifton C. West


House at Morristown, N. J. House at Pelham, N. Y.
Greville Rickard Pliny Rogers


<4 ABC19TECM1R ->
DECEMBIER, 1935
352


SLIDE 76
































House at Fieldston, N. Y. House at Middleburg, Va.
Dwight James Baum Peabody, Wilson & Brown


House at Los Angeles, Calif.
Ralph C. Flewelling


slide 77


4 ARICHOECIURE -
DECF.MBER, 1935
353


































House at Atlanta,Ga.
Hentz, Adler & Shutze


Club house, Lake Sunape
Prentic


.T,T DE78


- 4-
-4


















House at Ithaca, N. Y.
LeRoy P. Burnham


e, N. H. House at Mt. Vernon, N. Y.
e Sanger Lewis Bowman





























4 I AmmlpUE 45
DICEM3BE5R 1935
354













---iii--
-:H ,
4
I.T1uu1~
b.M


House at Ithaca, N. Y.
LeRoy P. Burnham


House in Southern California
Gordon B. Kaufmann


House at Scarsdale, N. Y.
Westchester Little Estates, Inc.


House at Needham, Mass.
Charles S. Keefe





Slt [J C


SLIDE 79


a... A-a-A, I tdL.
* ARCHflECTURE .
DECEMBER, 1935
355


4-






b *
e-


.4.


'It


House at Lake Geneva, Wis.
Howard Shaw


aLa


House at West Hartford, Conn.
John M. Bell


House at Oreland, Pa. House at Summit, N. 7.
Tilden, Register & Pepper Clark & Arms


SLIDE 80


* ARCHItECTURE
DECEMBER, 1935
356


3


































House at Chestnut Hill, Pa.
Magaziner & Eberhard


House at Bethayres, Pa.
* Leigh French, 7r.; Harold D. Eberlein


House at Los Angeles, Calif.
Paul R. Williams


House at Montclair, N. 7.
Wallis & Goodwillie
S,' S'.


SLIDE 81


4 ARCHUTECjRI 4>
DECYMBEIR, 1035
357



























House at Los Angeles, Calif.
Meyer & Holler


House at Winchester, Mass.
Boat design in relief


ii ,*


House at Veere,
Holland


House at East Aurora, N. Y.
Office of John Russell Pope


<4 ARCHI EC~URE M
DECEMBER, 1935
SLIDE 82 3S8












-T...


House at Monikendam,
Holland


House at Wantagh, N. Y.
Walker & Gillette


House at Watertown, Sliding blinds,
Mass. Burford, England
-M1 0' -


., ARCHITECTURE >>
DECEMBER, 1935
359


SLIDE 83
































House at Gloucester, Mass.
Henry Sleeper


House at Monticello, Calif.
George Washington Smith


House at Enkhuizen,
Holland


ARCHITECURE
SLCEMBER, 8935
SLIDE 84 360


House at Southampton, N. Y.
LeRoy P. Ward




























BAUMAN & BAUMAN, ARCHITECTS


McGUIRE & SHOOK, ARCHITECTS


SHUTTERS


AND


BLINDS


THE SECOND OF A SERIES
.OF PORTFOLIOS ILLUSTRAT-
ING SOME ARCHITECTURAL
FEATURES OF VARIABLE
DESIGN. OTHER SUBJECTS,
TO FOLLOW IN EARLY IS-
SUES, ARE: STAIRWAYS,
PANELLING, AND TEXTURES
OF STONEWORK AND STUCCO


HEATHCOTE M. WOOLSEY, ARCHITECT


HENRY P. HOPING, ARCHITECT
HENRY P. HOPKINS, ARCHITECT


PEABODY, WILSON & BROWN, ARCHITECTS


DWIGHT JAMES BAUM, ARCHITECT


FRANCIS A. NELSON, ARCHITECT
49





ARCHITECTURE


J. W. O CONNOR, ARCHITECT


LEWIS C. ALBRO, ARCHITECT


SMITH & BASSETTE, ARCH' II CTS


JULIUS GREGORY, ARCHITECT


BARBER & McMURRY, ARCHITECTS


DWIGHT JAMES BAUM, ARCHITECT
SLIDE' 85


WALLIS & GOODWILLIE, ARCHITECTS


LEWIS BOWMAN, ARCHITECT
50


DECEMBER, 11





DECEMBER, 1926


ARCHITECTURE


GEORGE H. WELLS, ARCHITECT


NEW ORLEANS RESTORATION
MOISE H. GOLDSTEIN, ARCHITECT


W. E. FISHER & A.A. FISHER, ARCHITECTS


WALLIS & GOODWILLIE, ARCHITECTS


BARBER & McMURRY, ARCHITECTS


H. B. LITTLE, ARCHITECT
SLIDE 86


EARLY DUTCH IN NORTHERN NEW JERSEY


AYMAR EMBURY, II, ARCHITECT





ARCHITECTURE


WILLIAM B. KOELLE, ARCHITECT

























WILLIAM B. KOELLE, ARCHITECT


EDWARD S. HEWITT, ARCHITECT


CHARLES A. PLATT, ARCHITECT


NELSON H. BREED, ARCHITECT


LEWIS C. ALBRO, ARCHITECT
SLIDE 87


EDWARD S. HEWITT, ARCHITECT


AYMAR EMBURY, If, ARCHITECT
52


DECEMBER,




CONTEMPORARY SHUTTERS AND BLINDS

Contemporary shutters and blinds fall into three

major categories: one, the very functional large scale

88 powered louvers used to diminish heat gain by shielding

the sun, a good example of these can be seen on the

89 Gainesville Courthouse; two, the copies of traditional

shutters and blinds that are primarily decorative but

are also sometimes functional, an example can be seen

on fraternity house, 13th St., Gainesville: and three,

the most popular by far and unfortunately the ones we

90 most often see, the nonfunctional "decorative" type.

Those in this latter category often are not large enough

91 to cover the windows even if they were not fixed to the

wall permanently. Shutters and blinds sink to their

92 lowest form as decorative ornaments on mobile homes,

many examples of which can be found in Gainesville.




APPENDIX A


American Blinds and Shutters, by Dwight
James Baum. (In American Architect.
v. 107, p.351-356, June 2, 1915, illus.)




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT


FIG. 9-A DOORWAY AND WINDOW ON BEACON HILL, BOSTON, MASS.


AMERICAN BLINDS AND SHUTTERS

By DWIGHT JAMES BAUM, Illustrations by the Author


IT might be well to say at the outset
that the word "blind" is intended to
mean a movable wooden screen for win-
dow openings, composed of fixed or
movable slats, while shutters are nearly al-
ways of solid paneled wood, but may have
small openings of cut-out designs.
Shutters were first used in America by
the Colonists as a protection for their win-
dows against Indian raids and wild beasts.
Therefore, the early shutter is what" is
known as the solid battened or old colonial
farmhouse type, as shown in Fig. 1, which
is a photograph of a facsimile designed by
Arthur W.. Remick.
Later came the solid panel shutter; a
good example of which can be seen on the
Van Cortlandt mansion (Fig. 2) and the


paneled shutters on the old Dyckman house
at 204th street and Broadway.
Modern shutters like modern times are
more ornamental, and seldom built on such
sturdy lines.
A good early example of blinds with
fixed slats can be seen at WestoVer, in
Virginia. This house was erected in 1787
and the blind as shown in Fig. 4 is divided
into three sections with sixteen slats in the
two lower divisions and nine in .the upper.
Here also we find one of the few examples
of early curved top blinds.
On the Corbit house at Odessa, Delaware
built in 1772, appear blinds of four panels
of various widtlmwith raised centers. (See
Fig. 5.)
Seventeen years later McIntyre built the




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT


Cook Oliver house at Salem, Mass. Figure
6 shows the very unusual design of the
blinds on the street front of this house. -The
setting of the slats in grooves cut in the
stiles is done away with, and in its place is
a raised board frame, to the inside of which


FIG. 1-ARTHUR W. RENWICK, ARCHITECT

the slats are fixed. These are exceptionally
wide, only eleven slats to each panel. After
this date the slats were noticeably wider in
Salem than any other section of the coun-
try; probably this is due to the McIntyre
influence.
Another Salem house with interesting
blinds is at 186 Derby street and was erected
in 1799. (See Fig. 7.) Here the same wide
slats prevail, but the usual method of let-
ting the slats into the stiles is followed.
The narrow stiles are also noticeable.
In 1812 the Bartlett house was built at
Newburyport, Mass., and as shown in Fig.
8, a large blind was used with but one panel
of twenty-three wide slats.
The southern blinds are very like the ones
used in New England except the slats never
reached the great width.


A Boston house at 48 Chestnut street,
Beacon Hill, built at about this date, has
one of the first examples of movable shut-
ters. Here in the double blinds (see Fig.
9) the two lower panels are made with mov-
able shutters, fastened to a small round rod
of wood, a method since used in nearly every
case where blinds have slats. The upper
slats are fixed showing.that this is the tran-
sitional period.
Another out of the ordinary old shut-
ter is found on the Dr. Bilderbeck house at
Salem, N. J. Fig. 10 shows that this
shutter is composed of six solid panels.
Still another division of blinds, not shown
here, is the two paneled blind with slats,
and separated at the center so either the top
or bottom can be opened or closed. An


FIG. 2


example of these is found at Mount Ver-
non, Va.
On the old Wilson house built in 1807 in
Baltimore, the blin ire divided into two
sections; the upper portion having slats,
while the lower part is solid.
Blinds not illustrated in this article and


352




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT


used only occasionally are slat
panel blinds; these are hinged
at the top and also at the cen-
ter, so when the lower portion
only is raised it forms an awn-
ing. Venetian blinds are sim-
ilar, but the slats are made to
open and close, being held to-
gether by strips of webbing
and controlled by cords, so
that they may be opened,
closed or packed closely at the
top of the window. The roll-


FIG. 4-WESTOVER, IN
VIRGINIA, BUILT 1787 ,

ing blinds, invented in the sec-
ond half of the nineteenth cen-
tury, differ from the Venetian
blinds in that the slats are se-
cured together edge to edge.
They may be of wood, but
generally are of metal and are
used as protection against both
fire and burglars. In a great
many of the older masonry res-
idences, where deep inside re-
veals permit, box shutters are


FIG. 5 CORBIT HOUSE,
ODESSA, DEL.
BUILT 1772


FIG. 8-BARTLETT HOUSE,
NEWBURYPORT, MASS.
BUILT 1812


used. This is an inside fold-
ing shutter so constructed that
when not in use it can be
folded back into a recess pro-
vided in the deep jamb. The
upper and lower sections are
divided for independent open-
ing or closing.
Coming to the question of
modern blinds and shutters,
the foregoing illustrated ex-
amples probably exerted the
most influence on the work of


FIG. 6 COOK OLIVER
HOUSE, SALEM, MASS.
DESIGNED BY
McINTIRE, 1799

today. While there are nu-
merous arrangements of pan-
els on both blinds and shutters,
not mentioned here, those
shown have a grace in their
proportion that can well be
studied for modern adapta-
tion. Space permits but little
attention being paid to work
of today, but the few examples


353




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT


illustrated indicate ge very important influ-
ence of earlier worEr
In Fig. 1, Mr. Renwick has carried out
on the first story shutters following the
lines of the earliest examples of battened
type. While the second story blinds are


FIG. 7-A DOORWAY IN SALEM, MASS.
BUILT 1799

also built on sturdy lines, but with the later
movable shutters added in a central panel.
Mr. Aymar Embury (see Fig. 16) has
used on the second floor of the Bruce house
fixed shutters in the large lower panel, while
the upper section has a raised panel after
the manner of the Corbit house, shown in
Fig. 5.
On the Dr. Wyeth house, shown in Fig.
11 (by the author), the solid panel shutters
are carried out, and on the author's own
residence the blind shown in Fig. 14 has
the lower portion of fixed slats, while the
upper simple panel wears a cut-out design.
From early times it has been the custom
of all people to use different forms of cut-
outs in their shutters. Among the early
Colonists, they usually took the form of
auger holes for looking through to watch
for Indians and also to fire at the Redskins


and can be- seen in the old Dyckman house
shutters.
In the first Christian wars against the
Moslems, it was discovered that a crescent
cut-out on camp screens, etc., would keep
away the Moslems' fire on account of their
religious ardor. This has always been a
favorite cut-out pattern, but is being much
overdone in present work.
Modern designs are shown in Figs. 11,
12, 14 and other styles are to be seen in Fig.
13.
Blind and shutter hardware consists of
hinges, holdfasts, blindfasts, pulls, shutter
bars and shutter lifts. In olden times these
were invariably made of wrought iron by




























FIG. 10-DR. BILDERBECK'S HOUSE,
SALEM, MASS.

the village smithy, and the existing examples
of this old craftsmanship are the basis upon
which the best modern work is modeled.

The hardware shown in these photographs
and sketches are both old and new examples,
but all are modeled on the earlier types.




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT


nary hinges on the backs and thereby obtain-
ing the desired effect.
Holdfasts are the metal catches project-
ing from the exterior walls, placed to hold









FIG. 13-CUT-OUTS

the blinds against the wall when open. A
few of the many designs are shown in Fig.
15. Blindfasts are of two kinds; those
operated by a spring which automatically


FIG. 11-DWIGHT JAMES BAUM, ARCHITECT

Hinges are of several kinds; the strap
hinge being the most used in America.
The straps are found in many designs,
some of which are illustrated in Fig. 12.
Modern shutters are liable to lose a great
deal of the charm they might possess by
using ordinary galvanized butts or hinges













FIG. 12-SOME DESIGNS FOR HINGES

in place of the graceful strap hinge of the
olden days. When the complete strap hinge
cannot be used, strips can be applied to the
face of the blinds, butting against the ordi-


FIG. 14-COMBINATION OF EARLY FORM OF
FIXED SLATS AND MODERN CUT-OUT
DWIGHT JAMES BAUM, ARCHITECT

catch upon a pin, hook or other projection,
and those in the form of a long bar or hook
to be engaged in a socket or screweye.
Well designed blinds and shutters, we be-

355




THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT


lieve, add artistic motives of design to most
structures, for they usually improve the
window groupings, avoid bareness in ap-


FIG. 15-HOLDFASTS


pearance and serve as one method of adding
color to Colonial and other houses of period
designs. The types of blinds and shutters


here illustrated are reminiscent of an earlier
period of architecture in this country. They
are so truly American in their origin and
suggestiveness as to commend their introduc-
tion in the design of our domestic architec-
ture.
Only a few of the examples that have been
observed in a limited area have been consid-
ered. There exists throughout all of the
Colonial states a wealth of suggestion and
most artistic introduction of these very nec-
essary features of the exterior of American
country' houses.


FIG. 16-AYMAR EMBURY II, ARCHITECT


356




APPENDIX B



Blinds. (In Interiors. v. 107,
p. 109-112, 134, 136, 138, May 1948)





Philip L. Goodwin, commenting on the
problem of heat and glare control, wrote in
his book, Brazil Builds: "North America
has blandly ignored the entire question.
Faced with summer's fierce western sun,
the average office building is like a hot-
house, its double-hung windows half closed
and unprotected. The miserable office
workers either roast or hide behind airless
awnings or depend on the feeble protection
of Venetian blinds-feeble because they do
nothing to keep the sun from heating the
glass." Readers of Mr. Goodwin's book
probably remember that the original motive


for his trip to Brazil, was his curiosity to
see the achievement of our southern neigh-
bors in the field of blinds.
The Brazilians had not invented something
new; they were merely incorporating a very
old principle into their vigorous new archi-
tecture. They had been mindful of the fact
that if a blind is to work at all, it must be
applied externally. For unrecorded time
this rule was known and intelligently obeyed
by peoples who lived in warm countries.
On these pages we show some charmingly
decorated blinds from Italy, which are still
made and sold today.


Peddling blinds is, of course, a seasonal business. With the first strong spring sun,
the Italian decorator-vendor sets out on his journey with mule and cart, and spreads
samples of his new collection unceremoniously on the road. His self-assessment as
an artist is absurdly modest: Before the war, eight-foot long, unpainted blinds sold
for the equivalent of $1.20, painted ones for $1.40.

63
109


-w


















































Photos by Bernard Rudofsky


No two of the violently colored blinds are
ever identical, but it may be noted that all
paintings are invariably framed by the same
queer arabesques. These pictures were
taken in a Sicilian mountain town (above)
and on a beach near Salerno (below).



























blinds (continued)



Since the time when Nero had his masons
contrive him a louvered window of stone
slabs set at an angle by uprights, in order
to keep the vulgar populace from watching
him play his lute, there have been some
improvements in construction and varia-
tions in material worthy of mention. While
nobody knows the exact origin of raisable
blinds with slats, it was told that Marco
Polo brought some back from China to the
Queen in Venice; they were made of solid
gold encrusted with gems. No one lately
has seen any Venetian blinds in Venice,
even of ordinary wood, but there are plenty
of jalousie shutters. In Continental Europe,
Venetian blinds are known as jalousies a
la persienne, indicating that perhaps mer-
chants of Venice brought them from Persia.
Anyway, by the 18th Century they were all
over Europe and the United States.
The effort to keep people feeling secluded,
like Nero, while still enjoying the passing
spectacle, has developed into a $200,000,-
000 a year business. This the Venetian
Blind Association of America at 75 East
Wacker Drive, Chicago, and its branch
offices in New York and Washington, D. C.,
tries to keep track of. Not all firms belong
to it, but there are about 400 members, in-
cluding producers of metal and wood
materials, finishes, hardware, cord and
lapes, and manufacturers who assemble the
parts in assorted ways to captivate the
prospective user. Although the present
group owes its ancestry to the louvered
stationary blinds, manufacturers of jalou-
sies feel that they occupy a separate
province and have not applied for mem-
bership in the Association. However, some
of them term their products "outside Vene-
tians," referred to later on in this article.


Painted bamboo blinds, used by Designs. for
Business at Edward Fields' New York showroom.
Bronx Window Shade & Awning Company.

Outside Venetian Blind Company installs
adjustable jalousies in light colored enamels.
Enclosed porch of Houston Clearview Company.


U


m I


110


. .........



























The Bet


SeIt to right: rouea screen wiln emorolaerea
-. edges in a Mussulman harem; Venetian
blinds in a Victorian house (showing how to
eliminate the need for festooned draperies) ;
and "Les Persiennes," reproduction of a
French painting, about 1815. Privacy in
the casual manner: note Madame's arm
over the window rail and the rose being
proffered her by a male hand at lower right.












tmann Archive






































it Teller's 6th floor window. beveled for privacy. Hough Shade Corporation.



a, Wisconsin, can be horizontal or weather-resistant galvanized, bonderized steel,
for curtains, screens, sliding doors, white, ivory. Other colors by suppliers.


P)~i ot/ig
jiuI gold
M BU1w


reieie,
Wa'iesh
'elrtical





by Rex Venetian Blind Company. The S-curve
improves closure, adds to rigidity, as plastic
slats are thicker than other types, although
light in weight.


The Venetian Blind Association, through
Butler Advertising, 2 East 45 Street, New
York 17, supplies information as to who is
producing what, and where it can be ob-
tained; it sends blinds out on location for
photographing and testing; and will soon
issue a booklet, 24 pages in color, Ward-
robe for Your Windows, supervised by
decorative consultant C. Eugene Stephen.
son, A. I. D. Most manufacturers, of course,
have their own specific literature, but the
Hunter Douglas Corporation, 150 Broad-
way, New York 7 (manufacturer of the
rn Flexalum coils that are sold to individual
makers and cut into slat lengths) has just
brought out a large dealer book that prom-
ises to have wide general interest. Designed
by George Nelson, it has 9 pages of rooms
with cellophane windows behind which a
color wheel can be passed, showing for
example, how a blue room would look with
blinds in 9 of the 11 baked-on colors, not
including white or aluminum, provided by
Hunter Douglas. There are also two pages
on use of the blinds in small businesses.
Price, $5. A Hunter Douglas sales film
about Flexalum, in sound and color, may
be borrowed by dealers, exhibitors, and
women's clubs. Further ideas are presented
in a booklet of the Acme Steel Company,
2844 Archer Avenue, Chicago 8, called A
Gallery of American Windows. Acme
makes flat steel coils that are sold to as-
semblers for slats. Varied schemes are
shown too in the booklet, Smart Window
Styling by the Kirsch Company of Sturgis,
Michigan, makers of drapery hardware and
Sunaire Venetian blinds-whose S-curved
steel or aluminum slats make an excellent
* closure when the blinds are drawn. Sun-
aires are equipped with the Lorentzen
Levolor, a device which automatically keeps
the tilt cords level. This fairly recent in-
vention of the Lorentzen Hardware Manu-
facturing Company, 391 West Broadway.


New York 12, has made it possible for over
400 manufacturers of blinds to eliminate
the "tilt cord creeps." Two small metal
beads attached to the cords identify the
product and prevent the higher cord from
riding to the top of the blind.
For the purpose of hanging everything from
one unit bracket-blinds, curtains, drap-
eries, and valances the Drape-O-Blind
Corporation, 629 West Washington Street,
Chicago 6, has an all-in-one crane that is
fitted to measure. In use. the works are en-
tirely concealed.
The confetti-like variety of colors in cords
and tapes makes possible very individual
room treatments, when combined with the
agreeable slat colors. The International
Braid Company (1947), 72 Leonard Street,
New York 13, one of the largest suppliers,
offers a Basic Home Furnishings assort-
ment besides standard colors, in its Fasto-
lite tapes and cords. Tapes have a herring-
bone weave, with woven-in cross straps
bearing a trade mark pin stripe through
the center. They are practically fade-proof.
Rusco Montex tape has a different weave,
a solid petit point, very firm and durable,
in the B. H. F. shades as well as other
pastel and clear colors. Montex tape has
an exclusive, two-faced character: neutral
facing outside for all rooms, and different
colors on the reverse side. Made by the
Russell Manufacturing Company, Middle-
town, Connecticut.
An advantage of a patented plastic tape, in
several colors and grain textures, offered
by the Frason Company, Inc., 2576 Pitkin
Avenue, Brooklyn 8, New York, is that the
non-porous surface does not absorb dust or
stains. It is especially appropriate for bath-
rooms and kitchens. Price is in the same
range as cotton tapes. Frason has a Flex-
alum blind to go with it.
Probably tapes and cords of nylon and
other materials will be in production be-


112


fqre long. There are several styles of re.
placeable tapes with matching cords-
complete new sets or stick-on ribbon type.
To intimate to a connoisseur of Venetian
blinds that they all look alike is as bad a,
telling a Marine that he looks like all the
other sailors, or vice versa. In fact, manu-
facturers have introduced so many varia
tions with gadgets, tapes, cords, finished.
and slat shapes that an attempt to list them
all would be encyclopedic. One of the fe
companies that makes its own. hardware
enclosed in a dust-free headbox, and doe.
its own coating and finishing of slats (steel
aluminum, and wood), is The ColumbL
Mills, Inc., 225 Fifth Avenue, New Yori
10, also maker of window shades. Colum-
bia blinds come in a great variety of color.
Tapes may be two-colored, front and bad
and are easily removed.
Modern Venetian Blinds, Inc., 261 Fifit
Avenue, New York, prepares and finish
its own slat metal and uses Lorentze
hardware enclosed in a metal head, idet
tifying its product by the name Sealtop. Thi
cedar wood slats are exceptionally light ip
weight. Wide choice of tapes, monotone a
two-tone.
Pella Venetian blinds, sold by the Rlol
screen Company, Pella, Iowa, and guaran
teed for two years, have an independtm
cord-controlled lock that instantly stop.,
the blind at any level. Cedar slats come!
with rounded ends, in different width,.
Rigid aluminum slats are curved to inter-
lock as they close. (This is the company
that makes the window screens you can rol.
up and leave installed all year round.) Fe
transoms and fanlights, The Weiss & KI;
Company, 462 Broadway, New York 1
installs stationary blinds inside or outside,
with or without frames and tapes. even i:
sunburst arrangement. Wankraft VenetiU
blinds are custom built for any size a,,
type of (Continued on Page 134
67








I- mo


5loir Aluminum Furniture Co.






all plastic upholstery
graces fine interiors

COLORFUL, PLIANT, VERSATILE
... adds radiant beauty, new comfort on chairs,
booths, stools ... superb decorative effects
on walls, doors, ceilings and panelling.
LONG-WEARING, WASHABLE
... resists wear, scuffing, fading and damage
by grease, alcohol and perspiration . a
damp cloth removes sticky food stains, soil
and smears.
DISTINCTIVE AND DEFINITELY DIFFERENT
... all plastic ... will not peel.. For new in-
stallation, re-upholstering or redecorating,
specify Duran an exclusive Masland creation.
Available in pale pastels or rich, mellow tones.

THE MASLAND DURALEATHER COMPANY
3248-90 Amber Street, Philadelphia 34, Pa.


0r

ias an) ISSU


and other items adaptable to modern interiors. Miss Sargen
will cooperate with decorators to coordinate her designs
and colors with their ideas. Telephone Eastgate 8291.

VIIRKA TIMIRIASIEFF, designer of production ceramics, is
now at 205 North Main Street, Concord, New Hampshire.

ANDRE DE GROHE, recently associated with the Washington
D. C., Hecht Company department store as design coordi-
nator of the home furnishings division, has his own studio
and office at 114 East 54 Street, New York; PLaza 5-6142,
for residential and commercial design.

Blinds
(Continued from page 112)
installation. Compound blinds with many tapes take an
oscillating roller lift mechanism which insures uniform
adjustment of the extremely long slats. They have stock
sizes, too. All hardware is Lorentzen.
P.astic slats have been developed by Rex Venetian Blind
Company, 817 Albany Street, Boston 19, Massachusetts,
and by Modern Products Corporation, Fort Worth, Texas.
If you want flowers, wild life, or any pictures painted on
the blinds, one place to get them is from M. Klahr, Inc.,
otherwise known as the Arlington Window Shade Corpora-
tion, 780 East 134 Street, New York 54. This is one of
the companies affiliated with the national chain called
Western Venetian Blind Company. Are you still with us?
Don't drop that thread! Wood slat blinds are covered with
an enameled material in chintz designs by Artex-Green
Corporation, Ozone Park 16, Long Island. Artex also has
an inexpensive fiber blind in ivory, and sells rayon ribbon
refacing tapes by the spool, that fasten to soiled bands like
adhesive tape.
Still less expensive are the Skyway Venetian blinds of
Clopay Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio. These are tubular,
like an airplane wing, of strong, 3-p'y fiber. A complete
blind retails for about $1.50. All but the paper ones may
be laundered. The Venetian blind laundry business has
grown into an industry. They come and take your dirty
blinds away and bring them back clean and put them up
again for about 20c per square foot.
If you want to remove your own slats, that has been
thought of, too. C. D. Walker of the Snap Slat Company,
616 Crocker Building, San Francisco 4, has invented a slat
that can be lifted from the ladder rung as easily as un-
snapping a snap. No cords run through the slats. Mr.
Walker calls his blinds Calnetians. He licenses other man-
ufacturers to produce them, including the Ambassador
Venetian Blind Company of Berkeley, California.
Another unrelated Walker, at 327 South La Sa le Street,
Chicago 4, has a notched removable slat, licensed by Rupert
N. Hoye. If named according to the locality system, these
might be Chinetians.
A further simplification is brought out in Zeph-Aire blinds.
One continuous control cord or chain accomplishes all tilt-
ing, raising, and lowering. TI;e removable cord ess slats,
which have complete closure, fit into vertical guide channels
installed in the window frame. Tapes fasten on with snaps.
One quick flick of the wrist can pull out a handful of
flexible metal slats for laundering. (Also avai able with
wood slats.) Among recent installations are the top ten
floors of the Pepsi Cola Company at 9 East 57 Street, New
York, designed by August Schmiedigen. Eastern repre-
sentative for Zeph-Aire Blinds, Inc. is J. Allan Smith
Company, Inc., Suite 524E, 39 Church Street, New York 7.
The Zippit Blind Company of Texas has a built-in cordless
blind that is e evated from the bottom rail like a window
shade. (Continued on page 136)


INTERIORS


134































































WALL PAPER




INEZ CR0011M
690 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 12, I
Distributed in New York by
ARTHUR H. LEE & SONS, IN
501 Madison Ave., New York 22, I


INTERIORS


INEZ


ROAM

HAND PRINT









































DISTRIBUTED BY:
C. W. S70CKWELL
(0. LTD
I., Ang 1,, ,, Ca 1.
THE WARNER (OMPANY
118 .120i,,. III,, A- .
(-I, "a
ART"U
L .NiS,"i.L'
1120 Boykl.n St.
Boston, Mass.
M. DWO$m N &SONS
763 PaoT-,, r4l,
ce Atlanta, Ga.
ROY JA(OBS
N. Y 1105 Main SI
Houston 4, Texci


A vertical slat blind, not yet in production, has been de-
signed by Martin Green of Swan, Incorporated, Ramsey,
New Jersey. The louvers slide left or right in a channel
at the top of the window, and turn to any desired degree.
Vertical Venetian Blind Company of Kansas City, Missouri,
has a similar product, with Celanese multicord at the sides,
eliminating need for draperies. To be distributed nationally
soon.
The price range of Venetian blinds is, roughly, highest for
plastic, next for wood, slightly less for metal, and lowest
for paper and composition, with, of course, custom instal-
lations costing more than stock deliveries.
In tropical and semi-tropical climates, where heat, glare,
wind, and rain must be kept out, but where plate glass is
often superfluous, the stationary outside jalousie has lost
none of its popularity.
The Outside Venetian Blind Company, 2625 Elm Street,
Dallas 1, reports over 200,000 installations of its Clearview
Visors from Florida to California on all types of buildings
in the past 12 years. An illustration on page 110 shows
how the inter rocking louvers may be tightly shut and
locked to defy hurricanes and burglars, or may be opened
at any angle to catch the breeze and light,
Thorn Tropic-al aluminum jalousies are factory-assembled,
complete with hardware, by J. S. Thorn Company, Alle-
gheny Avenue & 20th Street, Philadelphia 32. A connect-
ing rod up the center holds the extruded slats in any
position. One 3' x 5' ready-to-install window would cost
about $26 f.o.b. Philadelphia.
The F. C. Russell Company, 6400 Herman Avenue, Cleve-
land, Ohio, offers, besides custom built jalousie porch
enclosures, Rusco all-metal Venetian awnings, designed to
keep out the snow as well as the hot sun. Slats of wood or
glass may be used in a factory-assembled unit with
weatherstripped brackets for operable louvers patented as
Win-Dor Jalousie Hardware by The Casement Hardware
Company, 406 North Wood Street, Chicago 22.
From time to time Interiors receives wistful inquiries
about "those Chinese rolled screens of very fine bamboo
they used to have on porches." These all but disappeared
during the war, but are now beginning to come back, and
one of the largest importers is Pacific Bamboo Products,
1188 South La Brea Avenue, Los Angeles 35. This firm
has not only the matchstick blinds, but alsG an assortment
of coarse fibered tropical mattings like Philippine burri,
Samoan lauhalla, Mexican sawali, fish nets, abaca cloth,
Madagascar cloth, yucca stalks, and bamboo poles. A
number of dealers carry the rolled Chinese bamboo screens,
including Vogue Venetian Blind Company of Los Angeles,
and Bronx Window Shade & Awning Company of 372
East 162 Street, New York 56. The Bronx Company tells
us, however, that for the time being the price is rather
high on the very thin reed blinds, which have to be split
by hand, as there is so much breakage due to unseasoned
wood. They sell a lot of the wider kind at popular prices.
A sample is shown in this article.
Some of the glamour of the East has been fortified with
scientific improvement by Hough Shade Corporation, Janes-
ville, Wisconsin, in its Vudor porch and Belmar indoor
shades made of %" wide basswood slats. They are woven
for ventilation by Hough's own process. Porch shades are
equipped with a draft opening at the top, a cord stop with
fingertip control, and wind-safe devices; indoor shades are
in colored enamels, available in widths up to 12' and any
required height.
An unusually light and delicate appearance distinguishes
Temlite, the narrow wood-strip material originally only in
window shades. Besides the photograph on page 111
(which was furnished by the design firm of Paul T. Frankl
Associates, 306 North Doheny Drive, Los Angeles 36, a

69


136





Temlite distributor) see the article "Studio and Sanc-
tuary," page 9j of the September 1947 issue.
Still oriental, but in the fabulous manner, are the woven
shades by Dorothy Liebes, 526 Powell Street, San Fran-
cisco, one of which is shown. (See Interiors, July 1947 and
February 1948, page 136.)
A fascinating idea for rolled screens, as yet undeveloped
commercially, comes as a result of paper clip doodling by
Paul Kay.or, 815 North Howard Street, Baltimore, Mary-
land. He has worked out a way of interlacing lengths of
wire to form a simple decorative screen-like material. It
is flexible horizontally and looks nice either way. He uses
steel wire in several gauges and finishes, including "iridite."
Everyone who sees the material thinks of a new market
possibility: light-softening window shades, space-dividing
curtains, fire screens, display props, waste baskets, minnow
traps.
The diversity goes on. A client can have everything that
suits his style, from a gauzy web to a locked and barred
shutter.

Interiors9 paint pot
(Continued from page 103)
seize his musket and cross belts, and hustle up town in
his ordinary business clothes, which happened to be a
gray swallow tailed coat and white linen pantaloons, the
weather being warm. Arriving at the parade ground it was
generally agreed that he looked far more impressive than
the rather dusty blue and red the rest of the regiment wore.
At a regimental meeting the new uniform was quickly
approved, and the broker was only too glad to provide the
gray cloth. With only the slightest changes, that is the
uniform that the regiment wore until the outbreak of
World War II, and will wear again as soon as dress
uniforms are re-approved.
About this time the Superintendent of the United States
Military Academy was the famous Major Sylvanus Thayer,
"The Father of West Point." The Academy was limited
by law to 250 cadets, but it was hard to fill even this num-
ber. Under Mayor Thayer the cadets first paraded in an
almost exact replica of the Seventh Regiment uniform,
and so they still do. Other military academies followed
suit, particularly the Virginia Military Institute. At the
outbreak of the Civil War so many of the Confederate
officers were graduates of one or the other of these that
it was natural for the Confederate Army to adopt army
gray as its official color.
As amusing note: When Lincoln issued his call for 50,000
volunteers, the Seventh marched bravely off to the front,
but still violently insisting on retaining their gray uni-
forms. They spent the war defending Baltimore from
something or other.
Slate gray. The word "slate" comes from the Old French
esclater meaning to split or chip and referred to a number
of sedimentary rocks formed by the compression of thin
layers of clay and shale, but always having the faculty of
splitting easily into flat even planes. Slates can be, and
often are, dark green, dark red, tan, and brown, but in
the color industry "slate" means a very (lark bluish gray,
and nothing else. In England, roofing slaLtes are sold under
fascinating names and sizes; they include:
Countess: 20" x 10", Duchess: 24" x 12", Princess: 24" x
14", Marchioness: 22" x 11", Lady: 16" x 10".
Drab. Here is a yellowish gray, for a change. The word
comes from the Low Latin, drapus meaning a cloth and it
is from the same root that we get "drape." It referred
originally to a thick brownish gray homespun, probably
made of a mixture of black and white wool dipped in a
walnut or other home made vegetable dye.

70


INTERIORS


138




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs