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Title: Domestic colonial architecture of St. Augustine, Florida 1565-1800 - its elements and characteristics
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00101122/00001
 Material Information
Title: Domestic colonial architecture of St. Augustine, Florida 1565-1800 - its elements and characteristics
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Currais, Jorge L.
Publisher: Jorge L. Currais
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: November 22, 1974
Copyright Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Historic preservation
St. Augustine, Florida
Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
 Notes
General Note: Course number: AE581
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00101122
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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    Bibliography
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Full Text
DOMESTIC COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE OF

ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 1565-1800-

ITS ELEMENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS















JORGE L. CURRAIS
AE 581 COLONIAL AHRCH
NOV. 22, 1974




I. INTRODUCTION:


AN ATTEMPT TO EXAMINE ST. AUGUSTINE COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE

IN THREE WAYS:

1.) SUMMARIZE THE HISTORY OF HOUSING UNTIL THE EARLY 1800's
2.) SET FORTH THE ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
3.) DEFINE & EXAMINE CONSTRUCTION TERMS AND PRACTICES
II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND & THE NATURAL SETTING

TO UNDERSTAND THE ARCHITECTURE, ONE MUST KNOW THE HISTORY
THAT AFFECTED IT..

1.) FLORIDA THE PHYSICAL SETTING:
A. BEING A PENINSULA, THE GULF OF MEXICO & THE ATLANTIC
TEND TO MODERATE EXTREMES OF HEAT & COLD.
B. TOTAL AREA OF 58,560 SQ. MILES OF WHICH 4,298 SQ.
MILES ARE WATER.
C. HAS 2nd LARGEST AMOUNT OF COASTLINE, NEXT TO ALASKA.
D. NOT ONE POINT IN THE STATE IS MORE THAN 60 MILES
FROM WATER.
E. FLA. HAS OVER 30,000 LAKES & THE COUNTRY'S LARGEST
NUMBER OF FIRST MAGNITUDE FRESH WATER SPRINGS
F. NATURAL RESOURCES:
a.) MINERALS- BASICALLY NON-METALLIC,:
PHOSPHATE, LIMESTONE, PEAT, PETROLEUM, SAND
AND GRAVEL
b.) ONLY METALLIC ORE- TITANIUM

2.) DISCOVERY & EXPLORATION
A. OFFICIAL CREDIT GOES TO PONCE DE LEON FOR THE DISC-
OVERY OF FLA.. IN 1513, THOUGH HOSTILE INDIANS WITH
SOME KNOWLEDGE OF FOREIGN TONGUES LEADS OirE TO BEU
LEIVE THAT OTHERS MIGHT HAVE VISITED EARLIER.
B. 1526 PANFILO DE NARVAEZ IS GIVEN PATENT TO SETTLE
FLORIDA. SAILED FROM SPAIN WITH 600 COLONISTS, 6UT
LOST ALL HIS SHIPS TO THE INDIANS, AND WERE ALL
GIVEN UP FOR LOST UNTIL ALVAR NUNEZ CAiEZA DE VACA
AND THREE OTHERS REACHED MEXICO CITY IN 1536.
C., SECOND ATTEMPT TO SETTLE WAS MADE BY HERNANDO DE
SOTO ON MAY 18, 1539. INSTEAD, HE LED AN EXPLORING
PARTY ThAT WENT AS FAR AS THE STATE OF KANSAS.
a.) DE SOTO DIED IN 1541 IN ARKANSAS, AND THE EXI
PETITION LEFT FOR CUBA IN 1543. ONLY 310 COM-
PLETED THE RETURN VOYAGE.
D. FRENCH INTEREST IN FLORIDA IN 1562 UNDER GASPAR
DE COLIGNY 150 MEN ESTABLISH A GARRISON AT THE MOUTH
OF THE ST. JOHNS IN 1564. CALLED FORT CAROLINE &
HOUSED 300 MEN.


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E. SPANISH SEND PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES TO DESTROY THE
FRENCH SETTLEMENT BEFORE FRENCH REINFORCEMENTS ARRIVE.
a.) LARGEST ARMADA TO SAIL FOR THE NEW WORLi 19
SHIPS AND 1,500 MEN, BUT LOST 10 SHIPS IN A STORM
b.) FOUNDING OF ST. AUGUSTINE ON JUNE 28, 1565 WITH
800 MEN.
c.) ATTACKED AND DESTROYED THE FRENCH FORT AND KILLED
MOST OF THE MEN LEFT THERE. 300 FRENCHMEN, HOWEVER
WERE NOT PRESENT., THEY PLANNED A COUNTER-ATTACK
WHICH RESULTED IN DISMAL FAILURE, AS THEY WERE
SHIPWREKED IN THE SHALLOW WATER OFF ST. AUGUSTINE.
d.) DE AVILES TRACKED THEM DOWN AND KILLED ALL BUT 17
MEN. THE NAME "MATANZAS" WHICH MEANS PLACE OF
SLAUGHTER CAME FROM THE ACTIONS OF DE AVILES ON
THAT DAY.
e.) FRENCH RETALIATION CAME, BUT NO NEW SETTLEMENTS
WERE EVER ATTEMPTED IN FLORIDA.
F. BY 1585 THE TOWN HAD GROWN TO 300 MEN,WOMEN, & CHIL-
DREN. THERE WAS AN ESTABLISHED TOWN COUNCIL, A CHURCH,
AND SEVERAL STORES.
G. 1586- SIR FRANCIS DRAKE & 2,300 MEN MADE A CHANCE DIS-
COVERY OF ST. AUGUSTINE AND BURNT IT TO THE GROUND.
MOST INHABITANTS HAD FLEB TO NEIGHBORING INDIAN VIL-
LAGES OR THE OTHER TWO SPANISH SETTLEMENTS OF SAN MA-
TEO & SANTA ELENA. THESE WERE SPARED DUE TO THE SHA-
LLOW APPROACHES NEAR THEM. IN 1587, SANTA ELENA IS
ABANDONED TO FORTIFICATE ST. AUGUSTINE.
H. 1600- AN OFFICIAL HEARING IN CUBA TO DETERMINE THE
FITNESS OF A SETTLEMENT REMAINING IN ST. AUGUSTINE,
DECIDES TO MAINTAIN THE TOWN. ST. AUGUSTINE WAS TOTAL-
LY DEPENDENT ON SUPPLIES FROM CUBA.
I. 1668 ROBERT SEARLES ATTACKED & KILLED ONE QUARTER OF
THE INHABITANTS WHICH RESULTED IN THE BUILDING OF
A STRONG FORT THE CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS.
a.) GROUND BREAKING IN 1672
b.) BASIC STRUCTURE COMPLETED IN 15 YEARS
c.) DOMINATES THE NORTH END OF THE HARBOR
d.) LARGE ENOUGH FOR ENTIRE TOWN POPULATION TO FIND
REFUGE IN IT.
e.) PRINCIPAL MATERIAL WAS COQUINA.
J. 1702 S. CAROLINIANS UNDER COLONEL DANIEL ATTACK,
BUT COULD NOT TAKE THE FORT. THE TOWN, HOWEVER WAS
TOTALLY DESTROYED. NO TRACE OF PREVIOUS ARCHITECTURE
IS FOUND TODAY DUE TO THE ACTIONS OF DANIEL.
K. 1740- 1742 GEORGIANS REPEATEDLY FAIL TO CONQUER THE
CASTILLO. FOR THE NEXT 20 YEARS, ST. AUGUSTINE WAS
RELATIVELY FREE FROM ATTACKS. STRONGER DUE TO AN IN-
FLUX OF REGULAR TROOPS EVERY 2 YEARS, INSTEAD OF THE
RETIRED MEN AND REFUGEES WHICH PROTECTED IT BEFORE.
L.. 1763 BEGINS THE ENGLISH REIGN IN FLORIDA AS A RE-
SULT OF THE TREATY OF PARIS..


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a.) ENGLAND TOOK CANADA AND EXCHANGED CAPTURED HAVANA
FOR FLORIDA. SPAIN TOOK THE LOUISIANAS.
b.) CULTURE FOREIGN TO SPANISH, THE ENGLISH REMODELED
OR TORE DOWN MANY SPANISH HOUSES.
M. 1783- FLORIDA IS GIVEN BACK TO SPAIN
a.) NEVER GOT A FIRM GRIP ON FLORIDA DUE TO:
1. LAND HUNGRY COLONISTS
2. NAPOLEON'S INFLUENCE IN EUROPE
b.) IN SPITE, MANY NEW HOUSES WERE BUILT IN THE SAME
FASHION AS THEIR PREDECESSORS, FROM THESE, WE CAN
GUESS ON THE APPEARANCE OF THE PRE-1702 HOUSES.
N., 1821- FLORIDA BECOMES PART OF THE UNITED STATES.

III.. ST. AUGUSTINE HOUSES BEFORE 1702

1.) INFORMATION ON THE HOUSES AND MATERIALS IS DIFFICULT TO
FIND BECAUSE THERE IS LITTLE OR NO TRACE OF THE jLDGS.
A. MAINLY BUILT OF WOOD & THATCH, LIKE THE INDIAN HUTS
OF THE SURROUNDING ArEAS
a.) A MAP OF THE PERIOD SHOWS 120 HOUSES ALL OF
VERTICAL BOARD WALLS & THATCH ROOFS.
b.) HIGHLY FLAMMABLE CONSTRUCTION.
B. MASONRY CONSTRUCTION WAS IN EXISTENCE, BUT VERY LIMI-
TED
a.) USED IN THE COLONY OF SANTA ELENA TO CONSTRUCT
AZOTEAS ( FLAT ROOFS ).
b.) FIRST USE IN ST. AUGUSTINE ON A STONE POWDER MA-
GAZINE IN 1596.
c.) FIRST DEPOSITS OF COQUINA FOUND IN 1580.
d.) FIRST LARGE COQUINA STRUCTURE WAS CASTILLO SAN
MARCO IN 1672.
1. CONSTRUCTION WENT ON FOR 25 YEARS, SO ALL THE
MASONS AND THE COQUINA ITSELF WENT TO USE AT
THE FORT.
e.) 1690- ST. AUGUSTINE ON THE VERGE OF ITS "STONE
AGE".
1. THREE HOUSES BELONGING TO THE CROWN WERE TO
BE RE-BUILT OF STONE. THESE WERE THE GOVER-
NOR'S HOUSE, THE TREASURER'S HOUSE, AND THE
ACCOUNTANT'S HOUSE.
2. ONLY THE GOVERNOR'S HOUSE WAS COMPLETED BE-
FORE THE BURNING IN 1702..

IV. THE RENASCENCE (1703-1763)

1.) THE BURNING GAVE THE TOWN A REMARKABLE OPPORTUNITY FOR
A NEW BEGINNING.. THERE WERE THREE PHASES OF CONSTRUCTION
AFTER THE SACK:
A. EMERGENCY HOUSING OF CANVAS, THATCH OR ANY OTHER
AVAILABLE MATERIAL
B. BUILDING OF NEW PERMANENT HOMES BY THOSE WHO COULD
AFFORD THEM.
C. BUILDING OF NEW PERMANENT HOMES WITH THE GOVERNMENTS
AID.


(3)




2.) TECHNICAL HELP WAS OFFERED BY THE GOVERNMENT FROM THE
MASONS THAT NOW HAD COMPLETED THE FORT.
A. MOST OF THESE WERE VERY CONSERVATIVE IN THEIR TRADES
SO IT IS SUSPECTED THAT THE NEW HOUSING WAS VERY SI-
MILAR TO THE PRE-1702 HOUSES..

V. THE HOUSES OF ST. AUGUSTINE (1703-1800)
WE SHALL NOW LOOK AT WHAT IS COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS ST.
AUGUSTINE ARCHITECTURE. WE ARE DEALING WITH HOUSES THAT
WERE MODIFIED AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THEIR EXISTENCE. CONS.
TRUCTION DETAILS WERE CONSTANTLY UNDERGOING CHANGE. WHEN THE
BRITISH OCCUPATION WAS OVER, MANY HOUSES HAD SPANISH,
ENGLISH, EVEN GREEK AND ITALIAN BUILDING PRACTICES PRESENT.
STILL, THE BASIC ASPECT OF THE ARCHITECTURE DID NOT CHANGE
THAT MUCH OR THAT QUICKLY. THE STABILITY OF A SLOW GROWING
POPULATION, EVEN AFTER THE ACCEPTANCE OF FLA. INTO THE U.S.,
MEANT LONG USE AND GOOD CARE FOR THE EXISTING BLDGS.

1.) FLOOR PLANS
STUDY OF THE HOUSE PLANS REVEAL THE EXISTENCE OF THREE
DIFFERENT TYPES:
A. THE COMMON PLAN- THE UNIVERSAL ONE OR TWO-CELLED
STRUCTURE. IN 1788, 70% OF EXISTING BLDGS. WERE OF
THIS TYPE.
B. THE ST. AUGUSTINE PLAN- ESSENTIALLY A SIMPLE REC-
TANGLE WITH TWO TO FOUR ROOMS, BUT WITH A LOGGIA
OR PORCH, AND OFTEN A STREET BALCONY.WE FIND THAT
21% OF THE HOUSES WERE OF THIS TYPE.
C. WING PLAN- A MAIN STRUCTURE OF TWO OR MORE HOOMS
PLUS A SUBSTANTIAL WING OR TWO ONLY 9% OF THE
HOUSES WERE OF THIS TYPE.
MOST OF THESE PLANS ARE BUILT ABUTING THE STREET LINE,
AND MANY HAVE THE TYPICAL STREET BALCONIES SO OFTEN
SEEN.
a.) COMMON HOUSE- PROTOTYPE WAS THE EUROPEAN ONE
ROOM COTTAGE OF THE MEDEIVAL WORKER. SIZES
RANGED FROM 12' X 12' TO 16' X 35' IN THE ONE
ROOM HOUSES. THE TWO ROOM HOUSES WOULD HAVE
SMALLER ROOMS. IN GENERAL, ONE WOULD BE 14' X
12' AND THE OTHER SLIGHTLY LARGER ( 14'X20').
MANY HAD PORCHES, BALCONIES AND DETACHED KIT-
CHENS. THE FLOOR PLAN WAS READILY CAPABLE TO
EXPANSION. USUALLY IN SINGLE FILE TO ENABLE
THE USE OF THE OLD ROOF LINE. BUT IN SOME EX-
AMPLES (AS IN THE LLAMBIA'S HOUSE) EXPANSION
OCCURRED IN ALL DIRECTIONS.
b.) ST. AUGUSTINE- BEST ADAPTED FLOOR PLAN TO THE
LOCAL LIVING CONDITIONS. IT IS COMMONLY FOUND
IN TWO FORMS:
1. THE MORE POPULAR HAS A LOGGIA WHICH IS SIMPLY
AN OPEN-SIDED ROOM.. THIS IS USUALLY FOUND ON
THE CENTER OF THE EAST OR SOUTH SIDE.
2. SECOND VERSION HAS A LONG OPEN-END PORCH.
IN BOTH CASES, THE MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE HOUSE


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WAS THROUGH ThE LOGGIA OR PORCH, WHICH OPENED TO
THE SIDE YARD.THESE OPEN AREAS WERE ALWAYS ORI-
ENTED FACING SOUTH OR EAST. IN THE SUMMER, THIS
ALLOWED THE PREVAILING SOUTH-EAST WIND TO VEN-
TILATE MOST ROOMS. THE SUN WAS BASICALLY OVER-
HEAD AND THE OPEN AREAS WERE SHADED. THE THICK
MASONRY WALLS WOULD INSULATE AGAINST HEAT. IN
THE WINTER, THE SUN DROPPED TOWARDS THE SOUTH
HORIZON & SHINED ON THE LOGGIAS, FLOODING THAT
SIDE WITH LIGHT AND HEAT. THE MASSIVE WALLS
KEPT OUT THE COLD, AND THE LOGGIA WAS SHELTERED
FROM THE COLD NORTH WINDS BY WALLS.
c.)WING PLAN- MORE PRETENTIOUS OF THE FLOOR PLANS,
IT WAS USUALLY SAVED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
RESIDENCES OR FOR PROMINENT FAMILIES. A VARIETY
OF SHAPES EXISTED IN THIS TYPE PLAN- L,U, OR H
DEPENDING ON THE PLACEMENT OF THE WINGS.

IN ALL OF THESE PLANS, A STREET OPENING OR DOOR WAS
UNCOMMON. MOST HOUSES HAD THEIR ENTRANCES VIA A SIDE
YARD OR PATIO. WHEN A STREET DOOR WAS FOUND, IT U-
SUALLY LED TO A COMMON PASSAGE TO THE YARDS AND
KITCHEN, NEVER DIRECTLY INTO THE ROOMS OF THE HOUSE.

2.) WALL MATERIALS
A. 1500's AS STATED BEFORE, THE MOST PREDOMINANT WALL
MATERIAL FOUND WAS WOOD. OF THIS, MANY TYPES WERE
AVAILABLE: PINE, OAK, CEDAR, CYPRESS, & PALM. ONLY
BALD OR POND CYPRESS WAS USED FOR THE WALL STUCTURE.
REASONS:
a.) DOES NOT ROT WHEN PLACED IN GROUND.
USUALLY, THE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION WAS POST CONSTRUC-
TION:
A LINE OF POSTS (PALISADOS) WERE SET INTO THE GROUND
AND THE SPACES INBETWEEN WERE FILLED WITH STICKS,
& PLASTER,OR CLAY, OR MUD. THE WALL WAS THEN WHITE
WASHED ON BOTH SIDES.
b.) BOARD TABLASS) WALL- ONLY USED ON THE MORE IMPOR-
TANT BUILDINGS. THE BOARDS WERE USED AS VERTICAL
SHEATHING OVER A WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION.
c.) OTHER MATERIALS:
1. LINE- ONLY USED FOR WHITEWASH, AS YET THERE WAS
NO NEED OF MORTAR, SINCE THERE WAS NO
TABBY OH COQUINA STRUCTURES.
2. SHELLSTONE, COQUINA- DID NOT GET USED FOR CON-
STRUCTION UNTIL THE END OF THE 1500's.

B. 1600's WOOD WAS STILL THE PREDOMINANT WALL MATE-
RIAL. CONTINUED USE OF BOARD WALLS, AND POST WALLS.
NEW USE FOR WOOD- IN THE FORM OF SHAKES AND SHINGLES
FOR A BETTER ROOF. NO MASONRY CONSTRUCTION UNTIL THE
FINISH OF THE FORT IN 1690's.


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C. 1702- 1763 EMERGENCY HOUSING OF THATCH WAS BASIC
MATERIAL. AFTER 1720, THATCH WALL CONSTRUCTION VIR-
TUALLY DISAPPEAR. BY 1763, ONLY TWO THATCH WALL HUTS
WERE FOUND. THATCH ROOFING, HOWEVER WAS PREDOMINANT
ALL THROUGH THIS PERIOD. WOOD FOR EXTERIOR WALLS IS
LARGELY REPLACED BY MASONRY. BY 1750's, ONLY 14% OF
336 DWELLINGS WERE OF WOOD WALLS.
a.) MASONRY WALLS OF BASICALLY TWO TYPES:
1. TABBY WAS SIMPLY LIME MORTAR WITH OYSTER
SHELLS AS AGGREGATE. IT WAS THE MOST COMMON
OF THE TWO KINDS. ITS USE DID NOT EXTEND BE-
YOND 1763. STANDARD THICKNESS FOR A TABBY
WALL WAS 11" FOR A SINGLE STORY DWELLING.
MANY EXAMPLES WERE LOST AFTER 1763 BECAUSE
BRITISH SOLDIERS TORE DOWN THE HOUSES TO USE
THE WOOD FOR FIREWOOD, THE WALLS WERE MADE
BY TAMPING THE MORTAR INTO WOOD FORMS, AND
LEFT TO DRY. THIS PROCESS TOOK A LONG TIME,
SINCE ITS A SLOW DRYING MIXTURE. A VARIATION
ON THIS TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION WAS POST-AND-
TABBY CONSTRUCTION (OSTION Y POSTES). IN THIS
METHOD, WOOD POSTS WERE PLACED AT FIVE FOOT
INTERVALS AS REINFORCEMENTS. THE VERTICAL
POLES NOT ONLY STIFFENED THE WALLS, BUT AC-
TUALLY HELPED IN CARRYING THE ROOF LOADS,
THUS RECEIVING THE NEW TABBY OF PREMATURE
STAIN.
2.THE BETTER HOUSES USED COQUINA AS THEIR WALL
MATERIAL. COQUINA WAS FOUND IN ANASTASIA IS-
LAND IN GREAT DEPOSITS. COQUINA IS SIMPLY
SHELLSTONE WHICH IS SQUARED AND LAID AS STONE
IS. STANDARD THICKNESS IS 11" FOR A ONE STORY
HOUSE AND APPROXIMATELY 17" FOR A TWO STORY
HOUSE.
BOTH TYPES OF MASONRY WALLS WERE INVARIABLY
STUCCOED AND PLASTERED TO WATERPROOF THEM AND
TO PROVIDE FOR A SMOOTH SURFACE FOR CLEANING
EASE.
COMBINATIONS OF WALL MATERIALS WERE ALSO FOUND
BUT USUALLY ON SEPARATE STORIES. THE MOST CO-
MMON WAS A TABBY-AND-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. ALSO
FOUND WERE STONE-AND-FRAME, AND STONE-AND-
TABBY.
3. BRICK- NO EXAMPLES OF BRICKMASONRY SEEM TO
HAVE SURVIVED. YET SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF
BRICK FRAGMENTS HAVE r-.LN FOUND, AND IT IS
A FACT THAT BRICK AND TILE WERE MADE IN ST.
AUGUSTINE DURING THE 1730's. MOST HOWEVER
WERE OF INFERIOR QUALITY AND SOFT. SOME
REMNANTS OF A VERY HARD AND DEEP RED BRICK
HAVE ALSO BEEN FOUND, BUT THESE PROBABLY
WERE IMPORTED FROM CUBA.


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D.. 1763-1783 THE BRITISH OCCUPATION OF ST. AUGUSTINE SAW
A GREAT DECLINE IN THE USE OF TABBY OR COQUINA OR ANY
TYPE OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION. IN FACT, MANY OF THE
EXISTING HOUSES OF MASONRY WERE DESTROYED OR LEFT TO
GENERALLY ROT AWAY. OF THE MANY HOUSES IN ST. AUGUS-
TINE LEFT AFTER THE BRITISH OCCUPATION, OVER 43% WERE
OF WOOD WHILE ONLY 36% WERE OF STONE OR COQUINA AND
ONLY 5% WERE MADE OF TABBY CONSTRUCTION. COMPARING
THESE FIGURES WITH THE 1764 ONES, WE FIND ONLY 14% OF
THE HOUSES WERE WOOD, YET 39% WERE OF TABBY AND 32%
WERE OF COQUINA OR STONE.SOME STONE AND WOOD WERE USED
IN COMBINATION WITH EACH OTHER, BUT NO OTHER COMBINA-
TIONS ARE FOUND. IN GENERAL, TIMBER-FRAMED CONSTRUCT-
ION WAS WIDELY USED. THE FRAME WOULD BE MADE OF YEL-
LOW PINE AND WERE STRICTLY BRITISH CONSTRUCTION ME-
THODS. CYPRESS WAS NOW USED SOLELY FOR SHINGLES OR
AS THE CLAPBOARD SIDING OR WEATHERBOARDS. RED CEDAR,
A VERY LASTING WOOD, WOULD SOMETIMiES BE USED FOR THE
FRAME OF THE HOUSES BUT USUALLY IT WAS USED TO MAKE
FENCE POSTS OR ANY OTHER TYPE OF EXPOSED STRUCTURAL
MEMBERS. THE GREAT RISE IN WOOD CONSTRUCTION WAS PA-
RALLELED BY A RISE IN SAWMILLS. BY 1783, THERE WERE
FIVE SAWMILLS WITHIN 50 MILES OF ST. AUGUSTINE AND
AT LEAST ONE IN ST, AUGUSTINE PROPER. BARGES OR FLATS
WOULD TRANSPORT THE CUT WOOD TO THE LUMBER YARD IN
TOWN.

E. 1783-1800's- AFTER THE kRITISH LEFT, WOOD WAS STILL
THE PREDOMINANT MATERIAL FOR WALL CONSTRUCTION. THE
SUCCESS OF THE BRITISH FRAME METHOD AND THE LOSS OF
MORE THAN 100 TABBY STRUCTURES DURING THE OCCUPATION
WAS THE MAIN CAUSE. THERE IS LITTLE CONSTRUCTION DU-
RING THIS TIME, BUT A LOT OF RECONSTRUCTION AND UP-
KEEPING WAS DONE TO THE OLDER BUILDINGS.

3.) FACADE CHARACTERISTICS.
A MAIN POINT TO SAY ABOUT THE HOUSES OF ST. AUGUSTINE
IS THAT THOUGH THE PEOPLE LIVED IN A NARROW PENINSULA
AND WERE FURTHER CONSTRICTED BY DEFENSE WALLS AROUND
THE CITY; ALMOST ALL THEIR DWELLINGS WERE SEPARATE AND
DETACHED. THERE WERE NO ROW HOUSES.

A. HEIGHTS
a.) 1500- 1699 AS STAYED BEFORE, THERE IS LITTLE
DATA AVAILABLE ABOUT THE CONSTRUCTIONS OCCURRING
DURING THESE TIMES. WE CAN ASUME, HOWEVER, THAT
MOST CONSTRUCTION WAS ONE STORY HEIGHT, WHICH
WOULD EQUAL TO LESS THAN FOUR VARAS AND THAT IS
EQUAL TO APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET.
b.) 1700-1800's- THE STANDARD WALL HEIGHT FOR A ONE
STORY MASONRY STRUCTURE WAS 4 VARAS (11 feet),
THREE ALSO BEING COMMON. IN GENERAL, A 5 VARA
HEIGHT WAS RARE IN ONE STORY HOUSES, BUT WAS THE
USUAL MEASUREMENT FOR THE ONE-AND-A-HALF HOUSES.
MOST TWO STORY HOUSES AVERAGED AT SEVEN VARAS,
WHICH IS EQUAL TO 19 FEET. A VARA IS THE SPANISH
MEASUREMENT WHICH IS EQUIVALENT TO 2 FEET, NINE
INCHES.
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THE AVERAGE HEIGHT FOR THE TALL TWO STORY HOUSES
WAS CLOSE TO 8 VARAS, OR 21'-6".

B. DOORS
a.) PRE-1763- AS WE STATED BEFORE, THE CONSTRUCTION
OF DOORS OPENING TOWARDS THE STREET WAS VERY
RARE.. A MORE TYPICAL DESCRIPTION WOULD BE THE
FOLLOWING: THROUGH A GATE ON A HIGH MASONRY WALL
YOU CAME INTO THE SIDE YARD OR PATIO. PERHAPS
UNDER A PORCH ROOF TO PROTECT ONE FROM THE ELE-
MENTS. THE ENTRY TO THE HOUSE PROPER WOULD BE
A FEW STEPS AWAY IN THE LOGGIA OF THE HOUSE..THE
USE OF THE STREET DOOR CAME WITH THE BRITISH .
A SIMILAR CHANGE HAPPENED TO THE SPANISH CUSTOM
OF BUILDING THE NORTH WALL SOLID, WITH NO OPE-
NINGS WHATSOEVER. THE ENGLISH FIREPLACES AND
THE GLAZED "GUILLOTINE" SASH MADE HOUSES LIGHTER
AND WARMER, AND CHANGED THE APPEARANCE OF THE
NORTH WALL. CUSTOMARILY, THE SPANISH DOORWAY
WAS IMPRESSIVE IN SIZE AND AUSTERE IN APPEARANCE..
THE USE OF DOUBLE LEAF DOORS WAS COMMON, EVEN
THOUGH ONLY ONE WAS ACTUALLY PUT TO USE. THERE
ARE NO REMAINING SPANISH DOORS IN ST. AUGUSTINE
TODAY. THE MAIN CAUSE OF THE DISAPPEARANCE IS
ATTRIBUTED TO INSECT DAMAGE AND ROT. THE DOOR-
FRAME CONSISTED OF TWO LONG DOORPOSTS SET DI-
RECTLY INTO THE GROUND OR INTO THE MASONRY, AND
CONNECTED BY A LINTEL AT THE TOP. THIS CONS-
TRUCTION IS VERY COMMON AND SUCCESSFUL IN THE
CARIBBEAN, WHERE CERTAIN WOODS RESIST ROT AND
INSECTS INDEFINETLY.
b,) 1763- 1800's WITH THE COMING OF THE BRITISH
CAME THE ENGLISH JOINERY WHICH, IF NOT ACTUALLY
LONGER LASTING, WAS MUCH EASIER TO REPLACE.
WITH IT CAME MUCH LIGHTER DOORS, USUALLY OF THE
SIX PANEL TYPE, WHICH WAS THE VOGUE IN THE EN-
GLISH COLONIES.
c.) SIZES- INTERIOR DOORS WERE PREETY MUCH STANDA-
RIZED AT 33" OR ONE VARA. EXTERIOR DOORS RANGED
FROM 33" TO AS MUCH AS 50" FOR ONE DOOR, AND
EVEN 33" A LEAF FOR DOUBLE LEAVED DOORS. THE DOU-
BLE-LEAF DOORS WERE SOMETIMES USED IN VERY SMALL
OPENINGS, TOO- AS SMALL AS A STANDARD 33" OPE-
NING..

C. WINDOWS
a.) DEALING SIMPLY WITH THE SPANISH CUSTOMS, STREET
WINDOWS WERE GENERALLY LARGE AND HIGH, AND SO
WERE THE ONES FACING THE YARD. WINDOWS ORIEN-
TED TOWARDS THE SETTING SUN WERE USUALLY SMAL-
LER.
1. REJAS USUALLY A CLOSE GRATING OF WOOD ON
WINDOWS FOUND ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FA-
CADE FACING THE STREET. A MASONRY STEP CAR.
RIED THE WEIGHT OF THE REJA AND SERVED AS A


(8)




SMALL BENCH ON A BAY WINDOW, SINCE THE REJA
USUALLY PROJECTED OUT INTO THE STREET AT LEAST
ONE FOOT.
2.) HALF LATTICE- ONE INCH STRIPS AT ONE INCH
INTERVALS RUNNING HORIZONTALLY AND VERTICALLY
EFFECTIVELY SCREENING THE LOWER HALF OF THE
WINDOW, WHILE ALLOWING VENTILATION ABOVE.
3.) GRATINGS- OTHER WINDOWS THAT DID NOT HAVE ANY
REJAS HAD SOME OTHER TYPE OF GRATING FOR PRO-
TECTION. USUALLY OF WOOD AND SHAPED AS LATHE-
TURNED SPINDLES, THEY WERE DESCRIBED AS "BAN-
NISTERS".
4.) ALL WINDOWS WERE PROVIDED WITH INSIDE SHUTTERS
MOST DOUBLE LEAF AND WELL FINISHED. SOME HAD
LITTLE WICKETS IN ONE OR BOTH LEAVES. THE
BRITISH PERIOD BROUGHT DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW SA-
SHES, WHICH MADE SHUTTERS OF SECONDARY IMPOR-
TANCE, AND PUSHED THEM TO THE OUTSIDE.
5.) WINDOW WIDTHS VARIED GREATLY- FROM 44" IN THE
ENTRANCE WALLS, TO A MINIMUM OF 27" ON THE
WALL ORIENTED TOWARDS THE SETTING SUN.

D. COVERED GALLERIES- WHETHER PORCH, PIAZZA, OR LO-
GGIA; THE COVERED GALLERY WAS AN ESSENTIAL CHARAC-
TERISTIC OF THE SPANISH FACADE. IT WAS NEVER FOUND
ON THE STREET SIDE, BUT FACED THE SIDE OR BACK
YARD, USUALLY GIVING SHADE AGAINST THE SOUTH SUN.
A COMMON WIDTH WAS APPROXIMATELY 9 FEET. THESE
GALLERIES WERE COMMONLY COVERED BY AN EXTENSION
OF THE MAIN ROOF, SUPPORTED BY EITHER A ROW OF
ARCHES OR PILLARS. THESE WERE SOMETIMES AS HIGH
AS THE HOUSE WALLS.
1. ARCADES- COVERED GALLERIES WHICH USED ROUND
ARCHES SPRINGING FROM A PIER NO HIGHER THAN
ONE'S HEAD. DIFFERENCES OF WORKMANSHIP WERE
VISIBLE IN THE PIERS. SOME WERE SQUARE AND
MASSIVE, YET OTHERS WERE LIGHT AND THIN WITH
THIN, GRACEFUL ARCHES.

E. BALCONIES
1. USUALLY FOUND ON STREET SIDES ON MOST OF THE
UPPER STORIES OF TWO STORY HOUSES.
2. CONSTRUCTED UPON SECOND FLOOR JOISTS THAT PRO-
JECTED THROUGH THE WALL FOR FIVE FEET, WHICH
WAS THE AVERAGE WIDTH OF THE BALCONIES.
3. ON THE AVERAGE HOUSE, THE BALCONY EXTENDED
ACROSS MOST OF THE FRONT, SO THAT ITS ROOF
INVARIABLY PROTECTED ADJACENT WINDOWS AND THE
DOOR, WHICH WAS IN THE CENTER.
4. SIMPLICITY OF THE BALLUSTRADES OFFERED DURA-
BILITY AND FINE PROPORTION TO THE BALCONY.
THE HANDRAIL WAS USUALLY WELL ROUNDED ON THE
TOP.]ALCONY POSTS WERE ALSO LIGHT, BUT EVEN
SIMPLER IN SHAPE- MOSTLY SQUARE.


(9)




F. STAIRWAYS
STAIRS WERE COMMONLY FOUND AT THE END OF THE LO-
GGIA OR PORCH OR TO ONE SIDE. THEY WERE WELL CO-
VERED FROM THE WEATHER, BUT WERE STILL AN OUT-
SIDE STAIR. RISERS WERE USUALLY LOW AND COMFOR-
TABLE. TWO MATERIALS, WOOD AND TABBY, WERE MOST
COMMONLY USED. SOME OF THE LARGER HOUSES HAD
BALLUSTRATED STAIRS ALL THE WAY TO THE AZOTEA.

4.) ROOF MATERIALS
A. THATCH- A THATCH ROOF ON TABBY WALLS WITH A SMOKE
HOLE OPEN ON THE ROOF WAS THE "COMMON SPANISH"HOUSE.
a.) PALM THATCH- LONG BEFORE THE WHITE MAN ARRIVED
IN FLORIDA, THE INDIAN POPULATION USED THE PALM
FRONDS FOR ROOFING. USUALLY, CYPRESS POLES WERE
USED AS PURLINS. THE PALM FRONDS WERE THEN TIED
TO THE POLES WITH THEIR OWN STEMS- WHICH WERE
LONG ENOUGH TO TIE AT LEAST TWO PURLINS.
1. DISADVANTAGES- FLAMMABILITY, IMPERMANENCE,
AND VERMIN COLLECTORS.
2. BRITISH LAW PROHIBITED ITS USE IN 1783, ON THE
GROUNDS OF BEING A FIRE HAZARD. NEVER REGAINED
POPULARITY AFTERWARDS.
b.) STRAW THATCH- VERY POPULAR, TWO-THIRDS OF THE
ROOFS IN 1759 WERE MADE OF SOME TYPE OF MARSH
GRASS WHICH THE SPANIARDS CALLED "PAJA". THIS
TERM NORMALLY MEANS STRAW, BUT THE SIMILARITY
TO THE TO THE MARSH GRASS MUST HAVE COINED ITS
SPANISH NAME. THE USE OF THIS THATCHING STOPPED
WITH THE DEPARTURE OF THE SPANISH IN 1764.

B. MASONRY- MOST OF THE MASONRY ROOFS WERE FLAT AND
WERE CALLED "AZOTEAS". THIS ROOFS WERE MADE BY PO-
URING A SLAB OF OYSTER SHELL TABBY OVER A PLANK
DECK. FIRST USE WAS IN THE CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS
TO SPAN 19: THEY BRIDGE THE SPAN WITH BEAMS OR
VIGASS", 11" HIGH BY 16" WIDE. OVER THESE, A RAN-
DOfM WIDTH PINE PLANK LAYER WAS PLACED, AND THEN
A POUR OF MASONRY, USUALLY TABBY. ON THE UNDERSIDE
OF THE ROOFS, THE DECK PLANS REMAINED VISIBLE..
SECOND STORY MASONRY FLOORS WERE BUILT THE SAME
WAY BUT WITH MORE THAN ONE POUR.
a.) TILES- THE USE OF TILES WAS MORE SOPHISTICATED
IN THE CARIBBEAN THAN IN FLORIDA. NORMALLY, THE
ROOF WAS BUILT IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER:.EVENLY
WIDE PLANKS OF WOOD WERE PLACED AT EVEN SPACING.
OVER THE SPACES, TILESAPPROXIMATELY 10" LONG,
WERE PLACED. THEN A LAYER OF MORTAR, AND FINAL-
LY A SECOND COURSE OF TILE. THE THICKNESS OF
THE ROOF VARIED FROM 3" TO 6". FINDS OF TILE
ON TREASURY STREET LEADS ONE TO BELEIVE THAT
SUCH ROOFS WERE USED ON THE MORE PRETENTIOUS
BUILDINGS IN ST. AUGUSTINE.
C. DURING THE BRITISH OCCUPATION, THE LIGHT AND DRY
ROOF OF LUMBER WAS INTRODUCED. NO AZOTEAS WERE BUILT
NOR WERE THE EXISTING ONES KEPT UP, SO BY THE 1780's
ONLY ELEVEN STRUCTURES WERE LEFT.
(10)




D. WOOD
a) SHINGLES
1. 1690 SEVERAL GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS USED SHINGLES.
2. 1759 NO JORE THiAN 26 SHINGLE ROOFS WERE FOUND.
3. BUT, THEY GAIN D POPULARITY AFTERt THE 1760's AND
BY THE 1820's HAD SUPERSEDED ALMOST ALL OTHER ROOFS.
4. CYPRESS WOOD WAS ALWAYS USED.
b) TABLAS- FROM EARLIEST TIMES, SAWED'BOARDS (TAiLAS)
WERE USED FOR WALL CONSTRUCTION AT SAINT AUGUSTINE.
DURING THE BRITISH PERIOD. AND SPANISH TIMES ThEY WERE
USED TO COVER PITCHED ROOFS. THE ENGLISH PHRASE FOR
THIS TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION WAS CLAPBOARD ROOFS. THE
BOARDS COULD BE LAID EITHER HORIZONTALLY OR VER-
TICALLY.

5.) ROOF SLOPES
A. FIRST INFLUENCE ON THE SPANISH ROOrF SLOPES CAME FROM
THE LOCAL INDIANS IN THE 16th CENTURY. THREE TYPES OF
ROOFS WERE COMMON GABLE, HIP, AND BEEHIVE. THEY WERE
ALL MADE OF THATCH AND ALL HAD A PITCH OF 450. THE
SPANIARDS, STILL INFLUENCED BY THE MEDIEVAL ROOF, PRO-
BABLY HAD A SLIGHTLY STEEPER SLOPE.
a) THIS PROVIDED MORE HEAD ROOM FOR THE LOFT.
b) IT ALSO PRODUCED A BETTER WATER SHED.
EX. THE GOVERNOR'S HOUSE IN 1764 HAD A SHINGLED GABLE
ROOF WITH A PITCH OF 500.
c) GABLES PREDOMINATED SINCE ThEY WEhE STR hG ROOFS,
EASY TO BUILD AND HAD A ROOMY LOFT.
B. FROM 1760 TO THE 1800's THE PITCH ON THE ROOFS DROPPED
TO 450 OH LESS. AS WE MOVED CLOSER TO THE 1800's, THE
ROOF SLOPES DROPPED TO 300 OR EVEN LESS IN SOME EXAMPLES.
IN THE 1760's WE ALSO SAW THE INTRODUCTION OF DORMER
WINDOWS. THE OLDEST HOUSE IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE HOOF SLOPES
OF VARIOUS PERIODS ALL IN ONE STRUCTURE. ITS EARLY
RAFTERS ARE 470 AND 440, ITS LATTER ONES ARE 26.
C. BALCONY ROOFS- MOST BALCONIES WERE COVERED WITH SHED-
ROOFED CONTINUATIONS OF THE HOUSE ROOFS, SOMETIMES
WITH A NOTICEABLE LOWERING OF THE PITCH. ON A AjaLE
WALL THE BALCONY HAD A SEPARATE ROOF. NOT UNCOMMONLY
WE FIND THAT THE BALCONY ROOF ITSELF IS HIPPED.

6.) INTERIORS
A. FLOORS
a) THE HUMBLEST OF THE INHABITANTS BOAST NO FLOORS AT
ALL BUT PLAIN EARTH, AT LEAST IN THE EARLY STAGES OF
THEIR USE. THE TERM FOR T IS IN SPANISH WAS "CASA
TERRERA".
b) WOOD WOODEN FLOORS ARE IMPERMANENT AND MOVEAL3LE.
THEREFORE EVIDENCE OF THEM IS BOUND TO BE LOST.
BUT THE EXISTENCE OF WOOD FLOORS IN SAINT AUGUSTINE
CAN NOT BE DENIED. PUNCHEON FLOOR CONSTRUCTION WAS
SO WELL KNOWN IN OTHER COLONIES THAT WE SHOULD NOT
BE SURPRISED TO FIND IT IN SAINT AUGUSTINE. BOARD
FLOORS WERE RECORDED AS EARLY AS 1763 THESE BOARDS
WOULD BE LAID OVER JOISTS IN THREE METHODS:




1) RABBETED 2) TONGUE-AND-GROOVE, WHICH WAS THE MOST
POPULAR 3) UNDRESSED BOARDS OR "DEAL".
c,) MASONRY THE ONLY TYPE OF MASONRY FLOOR FOUND IN
SAINT AUGUSTINE WERE TABBY FLOORS. IT IS VERY UNUSUAL
TO FIND ONLY ONE TABBY FLOOR. USUALLY, WHEN AN OLD
FLOOR BECAME ROUGH, A NEW FLOOR WAS TAMPED IN RIGHT ON
TOP OF THE OLD ONE. THE ORIGINAL POUR WAS BUILT UPON
A WELL PACKED BASE OF OYSTER SHELL OR COQUAINA CHIPPING.
A SINGLE SLAB WAS NORMALLY TWO INCHES THICK. THERE WAS
NO FINISHING WITH TOOLS ONLY A THOROUGH TAMPING.THE
TABBY POUR WAS A WET MIX OF LIME AND SANS AND SHELL.
IN BEST QUALITY TAIBY, THE SHELL WAS CLEAN YELLOW
COQUINA GRAVEL, SMALL ENOUGH TO PASS THROUGH A QUARTER
INCH SCREEN. THIS TABBY WHEN FINISHED LOOKED VERY
MUCH LIKE TERRAZZO. TO GET A NEW FLOOR LEVELED, NAILS
WERE DRIVEN INTO THE OLD SERVICE AND PEOTRUDED TWO
INCHES ABOVE IT. THE NEW POUR WOULD SIMPLY COME UP TO
THE HEIGHT OF THESE NAILS.
d) FOUNDATIONS THE FOUNDATIONS OF MASONRY WALLS WERE
ALMOST NOT EXISTANT. THE USUAL METHOD WAS TO EXCAVATE
A TRENCH SLIGHTLY WIDER THAN THE WALL ITSELF AND ONE
FOOT DEEP. A THIN LAYER OF FLAT STONES OR OYSTER SHELLS
WAS TOSSED IN AS A SPREAD FOOTING AFTER WHICH THE WALL
SIMPLY BEGAN.

B. PARTITION FINISHES
THE MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF INTERIOR PAR-
TITIONS WERE AS VARIED AS THE EXTERIOR WALLS. TABBY,
COQUINA, BOARD, STUD, EVEN ONE BRICK WALL HAVE BEEN
FOUND., THE COMMODITY OF THE CLOSET WAS RARE IN ST. AU-
GUSTINE. GENERALLY, STORED THINGS WERE KEPT IN LARGE
CHESTS AND WARDROBES.
a)FINISHES:
1) SOME HOUSES HAD NO INTERIOR FINISHES, SO THE WALLS
WERE LEFT EXPOSED
2) MOST COMMON FINISH WAS PLASTER (LIME) WHICH WAS
TROWELED SMOOTH AND WELL FINISHED.
3) PARTITION WALLS WERE SOMETIMES FACED WITH WOOD, EVEN
OVER MASONRY WALLS. THE PRACTICE OF WAINSCOTTING
OLD WALLS UP TO CHAIR RAIL HEIGHT TO SEAL OUT
DAMPNESS FROM THE FOUNDATION WAS ALSO PRESENT.
4) WALLPAPERING WAS NOT PRESENT UNTIL THE BRITISH
PERIOD.
5) PAINT WAS PRESENT, BUT IT IS NOT KNOWN TO WHAT
EXTENT. WHITEWASHING TO RENOVATE OLD PLASTER AND
TO COVER ANY PATCHWORK WAS COMMON.

C. CEILING FINISHES
a) IN MOST CASES, PLASTER WALLS HAD PLASTER CEILINGS
b) LIMITED AMOUNTS OF WOOD CEILINGS WAS ALSO FOUND
a) SIMPLEST CEILING WAS THE EXPOSED BEAM TYPE

7.) KITCHENS AND YARD BUILDINGS
A. KITCHENS- IN MOST CASES, THE KITCHEN WAS A DETACHED
BUILDING OR AT LEAST A VERY DETACHED ROOM. ONLY IN
THE POOREST HOUSEHOLDS WAS COOKING DONE INSIDE THE
HOUSE. THE SPANISH USED USED A FOGON- A LARGE WOOD OR
CHARCOAL BURNING STOVE AND OVEN. THE ROOMS WERE VEN-
TILATED BY ROOF VENTS- THE CHIMNEY WAS A BRITISH
(12)




COMMODITY, WHICH CAME WITH THE USE OF THE FIREPLACE
FOR COOKING. THE MATERIALS USED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION
OF KITCHENS WERE MAINLY WOOD OR TABBY.

B. THE YARD- MOST SPANISH HOUSES HAD A YARD OR PATIO
WHICH WAS FENCED, NOT ONLY ON THE OUTSIDE, BUT ALSO
IN MANY PARTITIONS ON THE YARD ITSELF. THIS DIVIDED
THE PROPERTY FOR MANY USES, SUCH AS HOUSEYARD, GROVE
GARDEN, CHICKENYARD AND SO ON. AN APPEALING PART
OF THE YARDS MUST HAVE BEEN THE BROAD TABBY WALKS
AND OCCASIONALLY, TABY BENCHES ALONG HOUSE WALLS

a) WELLS- WELLS WERE USUALLY SIMPLE TO DIG, SINCE THE
WATER TABLE IS ONLY SIX FEET DEEP. IN THE BEGIN-
NING, WELLS MAY HAVE BEEN CASED WITH WOOD, BUT AS
THE YEARS WENT ON, MOST ACQUIRED STONE CASINGS.
RAPID BAILING AND THE REMOVAL OF DEBRIS KEPT
THE WATER CLEAN FOR MANY YEARS.
b) SANITARY FACILITIES- CALLED THE "NECESSARY". THE
FACILITY WAS A SEPARATE STRUCTURE AWAY FROM THE
WELL AND WAS VERY SIMPLE. THE SIZE WERE APPROX-
IMATELY 40OX44''" AND HAD A PLAIN APERTURE OFP NINE
INCHES, WITH A ONE FOOT SEAT ABOVE. VENTILATION
WAS SIMPLY A VENT IN THE BACK WALL.
c) MOST OTHER OUT HOUSES, SUCH AS THE CHICKENHOUSE,
WASHHOUSE, ETC. WERE OF SIMPLE FRAME CONSTRUC-
TION. STABLES WERE RARE EXCEPT FOR THE VERY RICH.
HOG HOUSES DID NOT OCCUR UNTIL THE BRITISH OCCU-
PATION.

C. YARD WALLS AND FENCES

a) MASONRY WALLS WERE FOUND ON THE STREET SIDE. THESE
WERE HIGH- RANGING FROM TWOO TO EVEN FOUR VARAS.
SOMETIMES THE ENTIRE YARD WAS ENCLOSED BY THE MA-
SONRY WALLS, AND FENCES WERE THEN USED AS INTERIOR
DIVIDERS. THE WALLS WERE ALWAYS STUCCOED, AS WERE
ANY STONE PARTITIONS.
b) SOME FENCES WERE MADE BY PLANTING THE SPIKED YUCCA
PLANTS IN VERY CLOSE THICKETS- VERY EFFICIENT AND
NEEDS NO UPKEEPING.
c) PALE OR STAKE FENCES WERE SIMPLY SPLIT WOOD SHAR-
PENED AT THE TOP, THEN THEY ARE STUCK IN GROUND
AND NAILED TOGETHER WITH A HORIZONTAL PIECE OF
WOOD. THE STAKE FENCE WAS VERY EXPENSIVE, AS WAS
THE WELL FINISHED PICKETT FENCE. THE PALE FENCE
WAS USUALLY ROUGHER AND SHORTER, AND THEREFORE,
CHEAPER.
d) BOARD FENCES WERE EFFICIENT, BUT THE MATERIALS
WERE COSTLY TO PRODUCE. THE TERM IS APPLIED TO
VERTICAL PLANKS NAILED CLOSE TOGETHER. NORMALLY
THEY WERE ONE INCH PLANKS ON 6X6 INCH POSTS.
THE TERM BOARDED FENCE WAS WHAT WE CALL A CLAP-
BOARR FENCE. THE EDGES OF THESE WERE LAPPED OR
JOINTED, MAKING IT A BETTER FENCE. THE HEIGHT OF
BOARD FENCES WAS GENERALLY 6 FEET, AND MIGHT GO
AS HIGH AS 7 OR 8 FEET. THE POSTS IN THESE WALLS
WAS CEDAR AND WERE SPACED AT 8 FOOT INTERVALS.
(13)




THE WOOD USED FOR THE PLANKS WAS PINE AND NORMALLY
WAS CUT INTO TO 6 FOOT LENGTHS. A BASEBOARD WAS
DUG PARTLY INTO THE GROUND FOR A MORE EFFICIENT
FENCE..
e) GATEWAYS ALWAYS RECEIVED SPECIAL TREATMENT. THE
HEIGHT OF THE WALL WAS RAISED 2 OR 3 FEET IN THE
GATEWAY SECTION, SO AS TO MAKE A LARGER ENTRANCE
IN THE WALL. MOST EXAMPLES WERE FLAT ARCHED AND
WIDE ENOUGH ONLY FOR SINGLE LEAF DOORS, BUT OCCA-
SIONALLY WE FIND A LARGE DOOR OR GATE UP TO 6
FEET WIDE WITH TWO LEAVES. THIS GATES WERE CALLED
PORTION" .


8.) PAINT-


THERE IS LITTLE RECORDED EVIDENCE OF PAINT FOUND
IN ST. AUGUSTINE, BUT THE REASON WHY IT WAS NOT
MENTIONED WAS BECAUSE IT WAS TOO COMMON. COLORS
WERE SIMILAR TO THOSE FOUND IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES-
WHITE, OCHRE, RED, BROWN, AND GREEN PREDOMINATED.
BLUE PAINT WAS COMMONLY USED FOR THE PRIVY. MOST
OF THE COLORS CAME FROM DRY PIGMENTS, SO THEY
COULD BE USED IN PLASTER. CRUSHED RED BRICK WAS
USED TO COLOR PLASTER AT THE CASTILLO DE SAN
MARCOS. THE MOST COMMON PAINT WAS WHITEWASH,
USED AS AN ALL PURPOSE FINISH ON BOTH WOOD AND
MASONRY.


(14)




BIBLIOGRAPHY


THE SIEGE OF SAINT AUGUSTINE, aRNADE, CHARLES V.,

UNIVERSITY OF FL RIDA PRESS, 1959.

THE HISTORY OF SAINT AUGUSTINE. DEWHURST, WILLIAM W.,

ACADEMY BOOKS, 1968.


THE FLORIDA HISTORY QUARTERLY, VOL. XL1V, NUMBERS 1 & 2,

FLORIDA HISTORY SOCIETY, 1965.


THE STORY OF OLD SAINT AUGUSTINE, LEE, N. HOWARD,

RECORD PRESS, 1951.


A HISTORY OF FLORIDA, TEBEAU, CHARLES W.,

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI PRESS, 1971.


SPANISH COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, NEWCOMB, REXFORD.,

J.J. AUGUSTIN PUBLISHER, 1937.


COLONIAL FLOORS AT CASTILLO DE SAN MARCOS, MANUCY, ALBERT,,

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 1960.


SPANISH FARM HOUSES AND MINOR PUBLIC BUILDINGS, WINSOR AND SOVLE,

ARCHITECTURAL BOOK PUBLISHING CO., 1923.


TRADE AND PRIVATEERING IN SPANISH FLORIDA, HARMAN, JOYCE,

THE SAINT AUGUSTINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 1969.


(15)




BIBLIOGRAPHY




THE HOUSES OF SAINT AUGUSTINE, MANUCY, ALBERT.,

THE SAINT AUGUSTINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 1962.


SPANISH INTERIORS AND FURNITURE, BYNE, ARTHUR, AND STAPLEY, MILDRED.,

NEW YORK, 1928..



NOTE: THE FOLLOWING PAGES ARE THE SOURCES FOUND IN

ELEMENTS OF ST. AUGUSTINE ARCHITECTURE, MANUCY,ALBERT.,

THE SAINT AUGUSTINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 1966


(16)






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