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Issue 15 June 2013 English Edition, ISSN 2157-8958 Translators/Editors : Marta Curti Graphic Design : Marta Curti Cover Photo : Juvenile Falco femoralis. Paul Spurling, The Peregrine Fund SPIZAETU S N R N NEWSLETTER www.neotropicalraptors.org Spizaetus: The Neotropical Raptor Network Newsletter 2013. non-commercial purposes. To republish any articles contained herein, please contact the corresponding authors directly.


The NRN is a membership-based organization. Its goal is to aid the research and conservation of Neotropical raptors by promoting communication and collaboration among biologists, raptor enthusiasts, and other conservationists working in the Neotropics. To join please e-mail the NRN coordinator, Marta Curti, at mcurti@peregrinefund.org, stating your interest in Neotropical raptor research and conservation.


PAGE 2 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 T T he Brazilian Atlantic For est is characterized by a great di is an important area for bird en demism. However, the process of colonization, occupation and rapid urbanization of land in the State of Rio de Janeiro have reductions in the Atlantic For est and its associated wildlife. In light of this, the green areas of the city of Niteri are increas ingly of greater local and even regional importance, and are true islands of refuge for much na in the region (Lemos 2010). The municipality of Niteri (22 52 S and 43 06 W) encompasses one hundred thirty square kilometers and is located in the micro-region called Grande Rio, in the state APLOMADO FALCON ( FALCO FEMORALIS) BREEDING IN AN URB AN AREA IN NITERI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRASIL By Antonio Carlos da Silva Bressan 1 and Mosar Lemos 2 : 1 Faculdade de Veterinria, Universidade Federal Flu minense (aposentado), 2 Programa Nacional de Ps-Doutorado PNPD/CAPES/Universidade Federal Fluminense email: lemosmosar@hotmail.com of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and is within the Atlantic Forest biome. It has a warm and humid tropical climate, and the temperature ranges between sev enteen and thirty degrees Celsius throughout the year. The altitude varies from sea level to 412 m, Antonio Carlos Bressan


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 3 with the highest point located within the Serra da Tiririca State Park (Wehrs, 1984). Among the more than 200 bird species occur ring in the province, at least 21 are birds of prey, including the Aplomado Falcon (Lemos, 2001; Lemos and Freitas, 2009). The Aplomado Fal con ( Falco femoralis ) is a medium sized falcon birds, rodents, lizards and bats (Sick, 1997). The panied by their young. This species occurs from the United States to Ar gentina and is valued as a falconry bird (Castro, 2005). Aplomado Fal cons usually do not build their own nests, but of ten use those that have been abandoned by oth er birds. In Veracruz and Chiapas, Mexico, nests are found in large arboreal bro meliads (U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service, 1990). The average outside diam 28 cm to 100 cm, and ranged from 6-18 cm in height. The smallest nest was probably built by Black-winged Kite ( Elanus caeruleus ) and the larg est by Southern Crested Caracara ( Caracara plan cus ) (U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service, 1990). Aplo mado Falcon breeding season usually occurs between the months of August and December. The female usually lays 2-4 pinkish-white eggs which are covered with bright or reddish brown spots, and measure 40-48 mm long and 31-36 mm at their widest part (Brown and Amadon 1989; Sick, 1997). Mader (1981) reported an Aplomado Falcon nest in the town of Calabozo in Gurico State, Venezuela. The nest, located in a palm tree ( Copernicia tectorum ), in March the dry season in Venezuela. The author ob served the adults capturing and feeding on bats, which they also used to feed their young. Hector (1985) stud ied the feeding behavior of Falco femoralis in eastern Mexico and found that 97% of the biomass of prey captured by this falcon was composed of birds, although insects made up 65% of prey captured. The average weight of the prey was 65 grams. Except for bats, all oth


PAGE 4 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 the previous year. Granzinolli et al (2002), has tempts in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. He reported that, although no pair was observed building a nest, two individuals carried twigs and branches to their nests. Nest height varied from 5.2 m to 7.2 m. The pairs laid a total of 15 eggs (three in each nest), which produced 8 77 cm wide, 32 cm high and 25 cm deep. Meyer and Williams III (2005) monitored the nests of two pairs of Aplomado Falcons dur ing two consecutive breeding seasons (2001 and 2002) in New Mexico (USA). Incubation began in March and May in both seasons, with one pair beginning reproductive activity later than the oth er in both seasons. The number of eggs varied from 1 to 3, with a total of four eggs produced per year. Three offspring from a single nest were produced in 2002. The incubation period ranged from 31-32 days and the young left the nest in early August, after 38 days of age. The pair nest ed in a yucca ( Yucca elata ). A Case Report During the period from September 25 to Novem ber 20, 2012 we studied a pair of these falcons Caryota sp ) in the urban area of Niteroi, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We were unable to verify the number of eggs in the clutch, but three chicks hatched. The er vertebrate prey were birds. Columbidae birds were more abundant, with 30% of the catch rep resented by the genus Columbina Although insects are present in the Aplomado Falcons diet, rela tively they are not very important. Though they sometimes represent up to 50% of prey caught, they contribute only 3% of total prey biomass (Mader, 1981, Hector, 1985, Jimenez, 1993). In Jacare, So Paulo, Brazil Lencioni Neto (1996) observed a pair of falcons copulating on 8 August used an abandoned Elanus leucurus nest built in Antonio Carlos Bressan


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 5 nest was about 9 meters high, and had been built between the leaves of the palm. The young were ber and remained in the area until 20 November. The adults fed the young mainly Ruddy Ground Dove ( Columbina talpacoti ). Other small birds were captured, including a small young Jacana ( Jacana spinosa their activities around the palm where the nest was located and one about 20 feet away. They remained in the area until they reached indepen dence. Throughout the period of observation we did not seen predation of lizards, bats or rodents. On 11 October, seven days after the young left the nest, we photographed the pair copulating. However, this pair did not lay a second clutch. The information presented here demonstrates the capacity for adaptation that this species has to an urban environment, where the vegetation and bird life is relatively well-preserved. However, the principle prey utilized by this pair was the Ruddy Ground Dove, the most abundant bird in large Antonio Carlos Bressan


PAGE 6 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 cities according to Sick (1997). Contrary to what was reported for Mexico by Mader (1981) we did not observe this pair prey ing on bats; nor on lizards as has been reported by Jimnez (1993); or on rodents (Rojas and Stap pung 2005). The use of Ruddy Ground Dove as their principle prey coincides with Hectors (1985) observation, who, in a study in eastern Mexico, found that among Columbidae species captured by the Aplomado Falcon, 30% were of the species of the genus Columbina The reports of various au thors and our observations support the claim that birds are the main component of the Aplomado Falcons diet. Although this falcon is able to capture birds as large as Cat tle Egret ( Bubulcus ibis ), Plain Chachalaca ( Ortalis vetula) and Columba spp (Granzinolli and Motta-Junior, 2006; U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service, 1990; Hector, 1985), the average weight of their prey varies from 67.0 g to 34.29 g (Hec tor, 1985; Jimenez, 1993; Ro jas and Stappung 2005). If we take into consideration that the weight of Columbina talpacoti may vary from 35-56 grams (mean 45.5 g), and that the pair of Aplo mado Falcons in Niteri fed mainly on this spe cies, the average weight of their prey was lower than that observed by Hector (1985), and Rojas and Stappung (2005) and Granzinolli and MottaJunior (2006), but was higher than that observed by Jimenez (1993). We should note that the sub species found in the U.S. and Mexico, Falco femo ralis septentrionalis is larger and heavier than that found in Brazil, Falco femoralis femoralis thus the former is able to capture larger prey. Antonio Carlos Bressan


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 7 The nesting period matches that documented by Lencione Neto (1996) in the State of So Paulo and Granzinolli et al (2002) in the State of Minas Gerais. The number of offspring per pair, the time spent in the nest and the breeding season also agree with reports by Lencioni-Neto (1996), Granzinolli et al (2002), U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1990) and Meyer and Williams III (2005), although the latter authors observed the nests in the months of March to August. Some reports mention the use of Brazilian Han droanthus sp, (Bignoniaceae) as a nesting site for this falcon (Lencioni-Neto, 1996; Granzinolli et al, 2002), but Mader (1981) found that in Ven ezuela the pair nested in a palm tree ( Copernicia tectorum) which is similar to reports in Niteri, where the nest was also located in a palm tree ( Caryota sp .). Other interesting information is the use of aban doned White-tailed Kite ( Elanus leucurus ) nests in different places in Mexico (U.S. Fish And Wild life Service, 1990) and Brazil (Lencioni Neto, 1996). In Niteri, the nesting pair did not reuse an abandoned nest built by another species, but rather they used the natural cavity formed be tween the leaves and the trunk of the palm. Antonio Carlos Bressan


PAGE 8 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 Brown, L; Amadon, D. Eagles, hawks & falcons 1989, 945p. Castro, M. A. Entendendo o falco-de-coleira. Boletim ABFPAR. Niteri: Associao Brasileira de Falcoeiros e Preservao de Aves de Rapina. v.8, n.1, p.8-19, 2005. Granzinolli, M. A. M; Rios, C. H. V; Meireles, L. D; Monteiro, A. R. Reproduo do falco-decoleira Falco femoralis Temminck 1822 ( Falconi formes : Falconidae) no municpio de Juiz de Fora, sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica, v.2, n.2, p.16, 2002. Granzinolli, M. A. M; Motta-Junior, J. C. Preda tion on the Cattle Egret ( Bubulcus ibis ) and con sumption of the Campo Flicker ( Colaptes campes tris ) by the Aplomado Falcon ( Falco femoralis ) in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia v.14, n.4, p.453-454, 2006. Hector, D. P. The diet of the Aplomado falcon ( Falco femoralis ) in eastern Mxico. The Condor. n.87, p.336-342, 1985 Jimnez, J. E. Notes on the diet of the Aploma do falcon ( Falco femoralis ) in northcentral Chile. Journal of Raptor Research, v.27, n.3, p.161-163, 1993. Lemos, M. Ocorrncia e status de algumas aves de rapina no municpio de Niteri, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Boletim ABFPAR. Niteri: Asso ciao Brasileira de Falcoeiros e Preservao de Aves de Rapina. v.4, n.2, p.6-11, 2001. Lemos, M. Avifauna de Niteri: Um guia para res identes e visitantes. Ornitoaves, 2010. Disponvel em www.ornitoaves.blogspot.com. Acessado em 03.11.2012. Lemos, M; Freitas, A. A. R. Occurrence of the Black-banded Owl ( Strix huhula ) in the urban area of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Neotropi cal Raptor Network Newsletter, n.8, p.10-11, dec.2009. Lencioni Neto, F. Reproduo sincrnica entre Elanus leucurus (Vieillot, 1818) e Falco femoralis Temminck, 1822 (Aves, Accipitridae; Falconidae). Comunicao do Museu de Cincia e Tecnologia. PUCRS. Srie Zoologia, v.9, p.37-44, dez. 1996. Mader, W. J. Notes on nesting raptors in the Lla nos of Venezuela. The Condor, n.83, p.48-51, 1981. Meyer, R. A; Williams III, S. O. Recent nesting and current status of Aplomado falcon ( Falco femoralis ) in New Mexico. North American Birds, v.59, p.352-356, 2005.


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 9 Rojas, R. A. F; Stappung, E. S. C. Seasonal diet of the Aplomado falcon ( Falco femoralis ) in an agri cultural area of Araucania, southern Chile. Jour nal of Raptor Research, v.39, n.1, p.55-60, 2005. Sick H. Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. 1997, 912 p. U. S. Fish And Wildlife Service. Northern Aplo mado Falcon recovery plan. New Mexico: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990, 56p. Whers, C. Niteri cidade sorriso. A histria de um lugar. 1.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Edio do autor. 1984, 366p. *


PAGE 10 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 T A NOTE O N IN CU B ATIO N BEHAVIOR O F RU F OUS-TAILED HAWK ( BUTEO VENTRALIS ) I N SOUTHER N CHILE By Javier Medel Hidalgo 1 Toms Rivas-Fuenzalida 2, 3 Nicol Asciones-Contreras 3 & Ricardo A. Figueroa R 4 1 1 Escuela de Ciencias Biolgicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile 2 Red Conservacionista del Patrimonio Natural de Contulmo, Los Canelos #350, Contulmo, Regin del Bio-bo, Chile 3 Nahuelbuta Natural, Trettel #105, Caete, Regin del Bio-bo, Chile 4 Escuela de graduados, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile T he Rufous-tailed Hawk ( Buteo ventralis ) is a specialized forest raptor endemic to the tem perate forests of southern Chile and Argentina (Ferguson-Less & Christie 2001, Trejo et al. 2006). The species has been listed as rare (Clark 1986, Bi erregaard 1995) and many authors consider that it deserves research and conservation priority (Jak sic & Jimnez 1986, Rottmann & Lpez-Calleja 1995, Ubeda & Grigera 1995, Jaksic et al. 2002, Trejo 2007 Pincheira-Ulbrich et al. 2008). Due to the limited information on its biology, the spe 2004, Trejo 2007), although recently information has been published on its nesting habitat and re productive behavior (Rivas-Fuenzalida et al., 2011, Norambuena et al ., 2012, Rivas-Fuenzalida & As ciones-Contreras, Accepted). To date, the only in formation on incubation behavior comes from a pair studied in Cerro ielol, southern Chile (No rambuena et al 2012). The results of that study suggest that the female is fully responsible for in cubation, while the males role is limited only to providing prey. Here we present observations on the incubation behavior of several pairs of Rufous-tailed Hawks which better clarify the behavioral pattern of the species during this stage of the reproductive cy cle. Materials and Methods Between October and December 2012 we stud ied the incubation behavior of Rufous-tailed Hawks at three nesting sites located in differ ent locations in southern Chile. Nest sites were numerically designated from north to south as follows: Nest 1, Nest 2, and Nest 3. Nest 1 was found in the Andean foothills of the Araucana region, almost 20 miles east of Curacautin (38 28S, 71 39W); nest 2 was located in the area of Pilolcura (39 40 S, 73 20W), Valdivia Coast,


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 11 Los Rios Region; and nest 3 was found in the area of Los Guindos (40 00S, 73 03W), near Pail laco, Los Rios Region. Nesting platforms at these three sites were built on the ledge of a cliff, on the top of Laureliopsis philippiana and Nothofagus dombeyi respectively (see details of nests 1 and 2 in Rivas-Fuenzalida et al. 2011, Rivas-Fuenzalida & Asciones-Contreras, Accepted). We made a total of 18 visits to three nests totaling 117.6 hrs of observation during incubation. Most of the observations were performed between 9:00 to 19:00 hrs and the mean observation time was 6.5 hours daily. In Nest 1 we were able to re cord activities from dawn (07:50 hrs). The obser vations were made either through 10x45 binocu lars, a 20-60 x 80 telescope, or the naked eye. To avoid affecting the behavior of the hawks, obser vations were made from blinds located at > 100 m away. The cup of the three nesting platforms could be viewed in full as there were no branches or other objects that obstructed visibility. The information was supplemented by occa sional observations in three other nests. Two of these nests were monitored during October 2008 in Contulmo (38 02S, 73 13W), Bio-Bio Re gion. One nest was built on top of a Laurelia sem pervirens and the other in a mature Pinus radiata. The third nest was monitored during October 2011 in Cerro Adencul, near Victoria (38 14S, 72 31W), Araucania Region. The nesting plat form in the latter site was established in the top of Austrocedrus chilensis (see details of these nests in Rivas-Fuenzalida et al 2011). To differentiate males from females we rely on reverse sexual dimorphism (Ferguson-Less & Christie 2001), individual variation in plumage coloration patterns (eg, patterns of spots or mar bling, dark morph vs clear morph) and the pres ence of natural markings (eg, damaged remiges or rectrices) (Rivas-Fuenzalida et al ., 2011, No rambuena et al. 2012). ( Buteo ventralis


PAGE 12 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 Results In Nests 1-3, the females did the majority of the incubating (83.2 hrs, 81.2% of total incubation time = 102.4 hrs, N = 64, Figure 1), while the males were responsible mainly for bringing prey, although they were observed incubating 29 dif ferent times (19.2 hrs, 18.8% of the total incuba tion time). Incubation sessions averaged 78 min for females (range = 3-360 min) and 42 min for males (range = 4-120 min). During the day, the males took over incubation duties when the females left the nest (Fig. 2) to feed on the prey that the males provided (N = ing or preening on the branches of the trees near the nest (60-80 m approx.). The contribution of prey by the males appears to be stimulated by the constant vocalizations of the females. However, even when no prey exchange took place, females vocalized requesting the presence of males to take over incubation. Males brought food directly to the nest, which was received and carried by the females into the branches of trees near the nest site (<250 m), where it was consumed. After eating their prey, females returned to the nest to relieve the males. On one occasion, after feeding, hour, traveling over 1 km away before returning to replace the male on the nest. On two occasions, at Nest 1, we were able to ob serve the behavior of the adults during sunrise. On both occasions the female vocalized at the Buteo ventralis Toms Rivas Fuenzalida


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 13 start of the day from a perch near the nest (80 m away), while the male remained on the eggs. in a nearby tree. On the second occasion, the fe male vocalized for 5 min from the same perch male who had remained incubating for at least ward his hunting grounds almost immediately af ter. On three occasions we documented the male incubating from late afternoon until dusk (from 1904 2200, once at Nest 2 and twice at Nest 3). During the hottest hours of the day, particularly at noon, incubation was carried out almost exclu sively by the females. They provided shade to the eggs (Fig. 3) by positioning themselves over the nest, standing with their backs toward the sun, their wings and tails semi-extended, their head and neck plumage bristling, and their beaks held open (N = 3). Females also stood on the nest to change their position during incubation (N = 19), at which time they also stretched, preened and turned the eggs with their beaks. On eight occa sions the females left the nest though the males did not take over incubation duties. This usually occurred when temperatures were lower, such as on cloudy days (N = 4) or in the evenings (1800 to 1900 h) on clear days, when the suns rays didnt directly impact the nests (N = 2). It was rare for the nest to be left unattended during hot days or hours (N = 2). Nest 1 was left unattended an av erage of 7.5 min (range 5-10 min, N = 2). Nests 2 and 3 were unattended for 34.76 min on aver age (N = 25), with a maximum of 5 hours during our last visits. At Nest 2 the adults were absent all day on 6 December. We subsequently discovered that the nest had failed, and only the remains of a single egg could be found in the nest. On 11 December, we only observed the male at Nest 3, who visited only occasionally. The female was not seen for the rest of the season. Later we dis covered that this nest (like Nest 2) failed before hatching. We were unable to determine why. The males mostly incubated during cooler parts of the day, during the early morning or late af ternoon (N = 12). However, we also observed males incubating at noon (N = 5), right after they brought in prey. At all three nests, visibility at the nest platforms was occasionally hampered by dense vegetation around the nest trees, so most of the time it was remained in the nest incubating. However, at the three nests we clearly saw the male taking over incubation duties from the female after prey ex changes occurred (N = 5). The behavior we recorded during our study of Rufous-tailed Hawk incubation conforms to


PAGE 14 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 that described for most species of diurnal rap tors (Newton 1979). Although in some species of birds of prey the male apparently does not in cubate at all, and in others both the male and the female incubate in an almost equal amount, the common pattern in most species is for the female to be responsible for the majority of incubation, being replaced by the male only when she leaves the nest to feed on the prey that he has brought (Newton 1979). In a previous study on the reproductive behav ior of Rufous-tailed Hawks, only the female was observed incubating while the males contribu tion was limited to bringing prey (Norambuena et al 2012). By contrast, in our study we observed 22 male-female replacements in six nests during incubation, even without prey exchanges tak ing place. This suggests that in this species it is common that both the male and female incubate, even if the time investment is much smaller for the males. A similar pattern has been observed in three other species of buteoninae in southern Chile and Argentina: i) Black-chested Buzzard Eagle ( Geranoaetus melanoleucus Pavez 2001), ii) Variable Hawk ( Geranoaetus polyosoma De Lucca 2011) and iii) White-throated Hawk ( Buteo albigu la Trejo et al. 2004). It is possible that Norambuena et al. (2012) did not document the males incubating due to the high plant density at the site, which prevented the direct observation of the nest platform (Noram buena et al. 2012). In fact, during our study dense vegetation in some nesting sites did not allow good visibility of the platforms, greatly hindering the observation of the nest and the movements termine the occurrence of male-female replace ments in the nest, especially when both partners have the same morph and general plumage pat rambuena et al (2012) could be explained by the fact that within any species, behavior may vary somewhat among pairs. Each pair of many di urnal raptor species may demonstrate different incubation patterns, and in some cases, the fe male may control the situation and determine the behavior of the male (Newton 1979). Thus, it is possible that the pair observed by Norambuena et al (2012) represents an exceptional case where the female dominated the male and prevented him from incubating. The fact that we repeatedly observed a male in cubating during the early hours of the morning while the female vocalized from a perch near the nest (possibly her roost), suggests that the male may have been incubating all night. This overnight incubation behavior by the males has been described for several species of diurnal raptors (Green 1976, Liversidge 1962, Rowan 1921, Willoughby & Cade 1964, Hengstenberg & Vilella 2005). The excessive time that Nests 2 and 3 were left


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 15 unattended during our last visits clearly indicated that the nests had failed at the incubation stage. Fuenzalida Rivas et al. 2011 indicated that human persecution is one of the common causes of death in adult, nestling and juvenile Rufous-tailed Hawks. Thus, the disappearance of the female at Nest 3 before the hatching of the eggs could be due to direct human persecution, which caused this nest to fail. More detailed studies on Rufous-tailed Hawk breeding behavior would help to more clearly de termine possible variations between pairs and to better understand the role that each sex plays in distinct times throughout the day and night. It is also important to determine the reasons that these nests fail during incubation. Only in this way will we be able to generate better guidelines for its management and conservation. Thanks to Fernando Medel, Marcelo Rivas, Rou gueth Alba, Francisco Rivera, Pascual Alba y Pab Red Conservacionista del Patrimonio Natural de Contulmo, Pablo Lpez and Christian Gonzlez were made possible thanks to Jacinto Angulo, Guillermo Anwandter, Dagoberto Lagos and Juan Contreras who allowed us access on to their property. Finally, we thank Marta Curti for pub lishing our article in this edition. Buteo ventralis Toms Rivas Fuenzalida


PAGE 16 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 Bierregaard, R. O., Jr. 1995. The biology and con servation status of Central and South American Falconiformes: a survey of current knowledge. Bird Conservation International 5: 325-340. Clark, W. S. 1986. What is B uteo ventralis ? Birds of Prey Bulletin 3: 115-118. De Lucca, E. D. 2011. Observaciones del Agu ilucho comn ( Buteo polyosoma ) en el centro y sur de la Argentina. Ntulas faunsticas. Segunda se rie 77: 1-15. Estades, C. F. 2004. Estrategia Nacional para la Conservacin de las Aves. Santiago: UNORCH/ Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bio diversidad (Universidad de Chile). Ferguson-Less, J. & Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors Figueroa, R. A., J. E. Jimnez, C. A. Bravo and E. S. Corales. 2000. The diet of the Rufous-tailed hawk ( Buteo ventralis ) during the breeding season in southern Chile. Ornitologa Neotropical 11: 349-352. Green, R. 1976. Breeding behaviour of Ospreys Pandion haliaetus in Scotland. Ibis 118: 475-490. Hengstenberg, D. W. & F. J. Vilella. 2005. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in Moist Karst Forest of Puerto Rico. Journal of Raptor Research 39 (4): 404-416. Jaksic, F. M., & J. E. Jimnez. 1986. The conser vation status of raptors in Chile. Birds Prey Bul letin 3: 96-104. Jaksic, F. M., J. A. Iriarte, & J. E. Jimnez. 2002. The raptors of Torres del Paine National Park, Chile: biodiversity and conservation. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 449-461. Liversidge, R. 1962. The breeding biology of the Little Sparrowhawk ( Accipiter minullus ). Ibis104: 399-406. Newton, I. 1979. Population ecology of raptors. Buteo Books, Vermillion, South Dakota, USA. Norambuena, H. V., V. Raimilla and J. E. Jimnez. 2012. Breeding behavior of a pair of Rufoustailed Hawks ( Buteo ventralis ) in Southern Chile. Journal of Raptor Research. 46 (2): 211-215. Pavez, E. F. 2001. Biologa reproductiva del gui la Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Aves: Accipitridae) en Chile central. Revista Chilena de Historia Natu ral, 74: 687-697. Pincheira-Ulbrich, J., J. Rodas-Trejo, V. P. Alman za, & J. R. Rau. 2008. The conservation status of raptors in Chile. Hornero 23: 5-13. Rivas-Fuenzalida, T., J. Medel H., & R. A. Figueroa R. 2011. Reproduccin del Aguilucho colarojiza ( Buteo ventralis ) en remanentes de bosque lluvioso templado de la Araucana, sur de Chile. Orni tologa Neotropical 22:405-420.


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 17 Rivas-Fuenzalida, T. & N. Asciones-Contreras. Aceptada. Aguilucho de cola rojiza ( Buteo ventra lis de la Araucana, sur de Chile. Hornero. Rottmann J., & M.V. Lpez-Callejas. 1992. Es trategia nacional de conservacin de aves. Servi cio Agrcola & Ganadero, Ministerio de Agricul tura. Serie Tcnica 1: 1-16. Rowan, W. 1921. Observations on the breeding habits of the Merlin. British Birds 15: 122-129. Trejo, A., Ojeda, V., Sympson, L. & Gelain, M. 2004. Breeding biology and nest characteristics of the White-throated hawk ( Buteo albigula ) in northwestern Argentine Patagonia. Journal of Raptor Research 38: 1-8. Trejo, A., R. A. Figueroa, & S. Alvarado. 2006. Forest-specialist raptors of the temperate forests of southern South America: a review. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologa 14: 317-330. del Estado de Conservacin de la Fauna Silvestre, Regin Patagonia. Secretara de Recursos Natu rales y Ambiente Humano, Consejo Asesor Re gional Patagnico de la Fauna Silvestre. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Willoughby, E. J. & Cade, T. J. 1964. Breeding be havior of the American Kestrel (Sparrow Hawk). Living Bird. 3: 75-96. *


PAGE 18 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 T T he Spectacled Owl ( Pulsatrix perspicillata ) is the largest Neotropical owl in both weight (571980 gr) and size (41 to 48cm) (Stiles and Skutch 1995, Knig and Weick 2008). Its range extends from southern Mexico through Central Ameri ca and parts of South America including Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, the Guianas, eastern Peru, the Brazilian Amazon, and Argentina (Knig and Weick, 2008). It is a relatively common species, though one that is rarely observed. It roosts in branches from between 2 m high to those within the rainforest canopy (Hilty and Brown, 1986). This owl eats a wide variety of prey including in sects, small crustaceans, reptiles, birds and mam mals; and depending on an individuals size it may feed on larger prey such as opossum ( Didelphis sp ) and sloths ( Bradypus variegatus) (Mikkola, 1992; Gmez De Silva, 1997; Bryson et al., 2009). The Spectacled Owl is gener ally considered a species of con tiguous lowland moist forest and foothills, though it utilizes differ ent habitats throughout its distri bution. In Mexico it inhabits ri parian areas, extensive fragments of tropical evergreen forest asso ciated with open areas, and forest edges (Enrquez et al ., 1993; Rive ra et al. 2012); in Costa Rica it is also uses open areas near forests where it roosts, hunts, and nests (Enrquez y Rangel, 1997); in Ecuador it can be found in patches of giant bamboo and bamboo cane (Freile et al. 2011), while in Peru it more often utilizes primary forest with extensive areas SPECTACLED OWL ( PULSATRIX P ERS P ICILLATA ) I N DRY FOREST FRAGME N TS O F VALLE DEL RO CAUCA I N NEIRA, CALDAS, COLOM B IA By Juan S. Restrepo Cardona 1 Alejandro Lpez Betancur 2 & Sergio Crdoba-Crdoba 3 1 Investigador asociado Divisin de Historia Natural, Centro de Museos, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Caldas, Colom bia. E-mail: juansebio@yahoo.com ; 2 Semillero de Investigacin en Ornitologa (SIO-UC), Departamento de Ciencias Biolgicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia. E-mail: lopezboenus@ yahoo.com ; 3 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Guyot Hall R106A, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544. USA. E-mail: sergcordoba@yahoo.com. Pulsatrix perspicil lata


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 19 of bamboo ( Guadua weberbaueri ) (Lloyd, 2003). Though the size requirements for its breeding habitat is unknown (Hume, 1991), forested areas are critical for nesting and roosting (Stiles and Skutch, 1989). In Colombia the Spectacled Owl is found in low parts of the Valle del Cauca, high and middle valleys of Rio Magdalena, in the Orinoquia and toward the Amazonian region, although in the latter two locations few records exist (Hilty and Brown, 1986). In the Department of Caldas, it has been reported up to 1300 masl. In this article, we present a description of Spec tacled Owl habitat in fragmented dry forest in the foothills of the Cauca River Valley (Valle del Cauca), an ecosystem not previously considered for this species in the Central Range of Colom cies in the municipality of Neira, Department of Caldas, Colombia. Methods The study site was located at the Hacienda El Bosque, located in El Bosque (05 12norte, 75 41occidente), on the western slope of the Cor dillera Central, Municipality of Neira, Caldas De


PAGE 20 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 partment, Colombia. The area lies between 800 and 950 meters, has an average temperature of 28 ridge, 1967). The area is a mosaic dominated by grasses, including Cynodon nlemfuensis and Axono pus scoparius destined for livestock consumption (52.5%), small crops of corn primarily on the Cauca River alluvial terrace, and some remaining natural areas (Ideam, 2010 ). The riparian forest (4%) is composed mainly of Gynerium sagittatum and other native plant species such as Psidium gua javas forming small remnants of what was once dry forest on the banks of the Cauca River and the El Cao, El Bosque and La Julia streams. There are also two remaining forest plantations dominated by Cordia alliodora and Cedrela odorata (25.10%) for agro-industrial purposes. In ad dition, other plants such as Guadua angustifolia (2.5%), and three secondary forest remnants in ristic composition, are present in the area. This whole area covers 90 acres. We tracked a pair of Spectacled Owls during the dry season between November and December 2011. On four different occasions, between 1630 and 1730, we observed the pair roosting in Cordia alliodora in a secondary forest fragment (1.5%) located in steep terrain in the foothills near the banks of the Cauca River. The pairs roosting site is located next to a waterfall about 50 m high. Here, the forest has been altered with little new growth occuring. The area is dominated by shrubs and trees such as Anibia barteri, Mucana musticiana, Carludo bicapalmata, Ipomea sp, Piper and uncum, Urtica dioica, Miconia resima, Secropia peltata, Coffea sp., Inga espectabilis, C. alliodora, Ficus elstica and C. odorata On all four occasions when we observed the pair of P. perspicillata both individuals adopted eva plantation of C. alliadora and C. odorata located about 156 m to the south. Once there, we were unable to locate them again. sion In Colombia the dry tropical forest habitat of the Spectacled Owl is considered one of the three most degraded, fragmented and least known eco systems (IAvH, 1998). And though it seems that this species tolerates a certain amount of habi tat alteration (Freile et al., 2011) the Valle del Rio Cauca and its associated dry tropical forests al ready were critically affected in 1957, when the introduction of sugar cane farming became one of the principle causes of forest degradation (Cvc, 1994) in the area. Additionally, much of the remnants of the dry tropical forest that still exist in Valle de Cauca are privately owned (Cvc, 1996) making it impossible, in many cases, for conser vation actions to take place in these zones.


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 21 The Spectacled Owl is widely distributed through out the Neotropics (Enrquez et al., 2006). It eats a varied diet, and occupies the top level of the food chain. It is important for biologists to un derstand the importance of this species in the management of ecosystems in those areas where it is has been documented, given that the main threat facing the Spectacled Owl is the defores tation of its natural habitat (Knig and Weick, 2008). Detailed studies of its populations are re quired to understand habitat features and how these vary among different habitats and regions (Freile et al., 2011 Chaparro et al. 2013). In addition, given its charismatic appearance, the species (Enriquez & Rangel, 2004) for conserva tion programs that could increase public aware system, to humans as well as to other species of owls. We hope that the information presented here can contribute to the development of guide lines for the management and conservation of threatened ecosystems, such as the tropical dry forest in Colombia. Thanks to Jos Alfredo Baol for your valuable contributions about the vegetation cover in the study area and the photo of the owl, and to Paula Enrquez Rocha for corrections to this manu script. Botero, J.E. 2010a. El Bho de Anteojos esta en Manizales. Merganetta. Boletn Informativo de La Sociedad Caldense de Ornitologa (SCO). No: 032. Botero, J. E. 2010b. El Bho de Anteojos esta en Manizales. Merganetta. Boletn Informativo de La Sociedad Caldense de Ornitologa (SCO). No: 031. Bryson V.J., K. Roland., M.D. Lowman., y M. Wikelski. 2009. Evidence for Three-Toed Sloth ( Bradypus variegatus ) predation by Spectacled Owl ( Pulsatrix perspicillata ). Edentata Journal 8-10:1520. Chaparro-h.S., S.C. Cordoba., J.P. Lopez., J.S. Restrepo. y O.H., Cortes. (in press) 2013. Bhos de Colombia. (en) Enrquez, P.L. (ed.) Bhos Neotropicales: Diversidad y Conservacin. Corpocaldas y Asociacin Calidris., 2010. Estado de conocimiento de las aves en el departamento de Caldas. Prioridades de conservacin y vacos de informacin. Corporacin Autnoma region al de Caldas, Manizales. 105 pp. Cvc., 1994.Informe 90-7. Comparacin de la cobertura de bosques y humedales entre 1957 y 1986 con delimitacin de las comunidades natu Cali. Documento interno.


PAGE 22 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 Cvc., 1996. La conservacin del Bosque seco Tropical, un reto para la humanidad. Centro de datos para la conservacin. Documento interno. Enriquez, P. L., J.L. Rangel., y D. W. Holt. 1993. Presence and distribution of mexican owls: a re view. Journal Raptors Res. 27(3) 154-160. Enriquez, P. L., y J.L. Rangel. 1997. Intra and in 525-532. In J. R. Duncan, D. H. Johnson and T. H. Nicholls (Eds.). Biology and Conservation of Owls of the Northern Hemisphere. 2nd. Inter national Symposium. Winnipeg, MB. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-190. St. Paul, MN: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Re search Station. 635p. USDA Forestry Service General Technical Report NC-GTR-190 Enriquez, P.L., y J.L. Rangel. 2004. Conocimien to popular sobre los bhos en los alrededores de un bosque hmedo tropical protegido en Costa Rica. Etnobiologia 4: 41-53 Enrquez, P.L., D.H. Johnson., y J.L. Rangel. 2006. Taxonomy, distribution and conservation of owls in the neotropics: a review: 254-307 (en) Rodrguez, E. R. (ed.) Current Raptor Studies in Mxico. Centro de Investigaciones Biolgicas del Noroeste and CONABIO. Mxico, D.F. Freile, J.F., D.F. Castro., y S., Varela. 2011. Estado de conocimiento, distribucin y conservacin de aves rapaces nocturnas en Ecuador. Ornitologia Neotropical 23(suppl): 241-250. Gmez de Silva, G., 1997. Diet of the spectacled owl ( Pulsatrix perspicillata ) during the rainy season in northern Oaxaca, Mxico. Journal of Raptor Research 31(4): 385-387. Hilty, S.L., y W. L., Brown., 1986. A guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Holdrige, L.R., 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center. San Jos de Costa Rica. 206 p. Hume, R., 1991. Owls of the world. Running Press. Philadelphia, PA U.S.A. Instituto Alexander Von Humboldt., 1998. El Bosque Seco Tropical (Bs-T). Programa de In ventario de la Biodiversidad. Grupo de Explor aciones y Monitoreo Ambiental GEMA. Ideam, 2010. Leyenda Nacional de Coberturas de la Tierra. Metodologa Corine Land Cover adap tada para Colombia Escala 1:100.000. Instituto de Hidrologa, Meteorologa y Estudios Ambien tales. Bogot, D. C. Knig. C., y F. WEICK. 2008. Owls of the world, second edition. Christopher Helm, Londres, Re ino Unido. Lloyd, H. 2003. Population densities of some nocturnal raptor species (Strigidae) in Southeast ern Peru. Journal of Field Ornithology 74(4): 376-380.


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 23 Mikkola, H.,1992. Wood Owls: 108-140 (en) Bur ton, J. A. (ed.) Owls of the World. Peter Lowe. Eurobook, Italy. Rivera, R.E., P.L., Enriquez., A. Flamenco., y J.L., Rangel. 2012. Ocupacin y abundancia de aves rapaces nocturnas (Strigidae) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Selva El Ocote, Chiapas, Mxico. Revis ta Mexicana de Biodiversidad 83: 742-752 Stiles, F.G. y A. F. Skutch. 1989. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. U.S.A. Stiles, F.G. y A. F. Skutch. 1995. Gua de Aves de Costa Rica. Traduccin al Espaol: Loretta Ros selli. Ilustrado por Dana Gardner. Instituto Na cional de Biodiversidad (INBio). Heredia, Costa Rica. Verhelst, J.C., J. C., Rodrguez, O., Orrego., J. E. Botero., J.A. Lpez., M. V. Franco., y A. M., Pfeif er. 2001. Aves del Municipio de ManizalesCal das, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 2(3): 265-284. *


PAGE 24 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 T NEW RECORDS OF BAT FALCONS ( FALCO RUFIGULARIS ) IN NORTHWESTERN PERU T he Bat Falcon ( ) is a Neo tropical raptor. It is found from northern Mexico south through the lowlands of Central and South America. Its distribution extends from west of the Andes as far south as Peru and east of the Andes through Amazonia to northern Argentina (Misiones) and southern Brazil. It inhabits for ests, forest edges, open habitats, palm savannas, even in urbanized areas (Global Raptor Informa tion Network 2013). By Segundo Crespo 1 Fernando Angulo Pratolongo 1 Alexander More 2 y Jorge Novoa 1 1 Centro de Ornitologa y Biodiversidad (CORBIDI), 2 Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional (NCI-Per) e-mails: screspo@corbidi.org; chamaepetes@gmail.com; jojunoco@yahoo.es; amorewild@yahoo.com


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 25 There are three subspecies of Bat Falcon: F. r. petoensis which is distributed from northern Mex ico south along both sides of Central America to Peru and the western slope of the Andes, through Colombia and Ecuador; located at the base of the eastern Andes from the Guianas, through Colombia, southeastern Ecuador, the eastern Peruvian Andes, northern Bolivia, southern Brazil and northern Argentina; and F. r. ophryophanes, distributed from central Brazil and adjacent Bolivia, Paraguay and north ern Argentina (Global Raptor Information Net work 2013). The species is considered of Least Concern (BirdLife International 2013).


PAGE 26 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 In Peru, the species is fairly common and is wide ly distributed in the Amazon up to 1500 masl. However, it is rare and local in the northwest (Schulenberg et al. 2010). On the western slope lished record occurred on 18 May 1978 in Rio Tocto (200 m) in the department of Lambayeque (Schulenberg & Parker 1981) (circle further south in Figure 1). Furthermore, the species has been reported in the towns of Quebrada Faical / El Caucho (450 m), Pozo del Pato (840 m), El Cruce (950 m), Camp Verde (772 m) and Cotrina (800 m) in the Cerros de Amotape National Park and in the northeast of Tumbes National Reserve in the department of Tumbes (Parker et al. 1995, 2011) (Figura 1). The study area is located in the dry forests of the departments of Tumbes and Piura (INRENA 2003a, 2003b) in northwestern Peru. To obtain the distribution of this species in northwestern Peru, we compiled observations made by the au thors and other researchers between November 2006 and December 2011, detailing for each case, the geographic location and site description ob tained in situ.


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 27 Results We describe eleven new areas for the species in northwestern Peru. Of these, six are in the de of Piura (Figure 1). The records of the species were of solitary individuals or pairs, who were nile who was being fed by a parent. The locations are listed from north to south. Departament of Tumbes 1) Quebrada Angostura, Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (03S / 80O; 208m): SC observed an individual on 5 July 5 2010 at 1000 perched in a Ceiba tree ( Ceiba trichistandra ) (Malvaceae) on the Quebrada Angostura road leading to El Caucho. 2) Mirador de Angostura, rea de Conserva cin Regional AngosturaFaical (03S / 80O; 340 m): on 15 and 16 May 2009 FAP y SC observed an individual perched on the top of a branch of C. trichistandra, on a hillside facing the Angostura creek. This individual was photographed by FAP. 3) El Pitn, rea de Conservacin Regional An gosturaFaical (03S / 80O; 360m:) On 18 May 2009 SC observed an individual perched on C. trichistandra at about 12 m above the ground, on the access road that leads to the Angostura look out. 4) Agua Nueva de Pachacas, Reserva Nacional de Tumbes(03S / 80O; 670m.): On 19 junio 2008 SC and AM observed an adult falcon perched high in a Cavallinesia platanifolia (Bombacaceae). This area has dense vegetation and is the most humid area of the south side of the Tumbes National Reserve. 5) Cebollas, Reserva Nacional de Tumbes (03S / 80O; 355m): On 22 May over cattle pastures on the access road to the Ju rupe Creek towards Cebollas. 6) Quebrada Don Pablo, Reserva Nacional de Tumbes (03S 80O / 138 m): On 29 June 2010 at 1600 SC observed an individual perched in a Cochlospermun vitifolium (Bixaceae) at about 12m high. Departament of Piura 7) Los Antiguos, Coto de Caza El Angolo (4S / 802O, 900 m): Diego Garcia observed this species on two occasions. On 25 november 2006 at 1430 on the slope of a hill and on 1 June 2007 along the access road to Los Antiguos. The two records were of solitary individuals perched on an exposed branch. The dry forest in the area is dominated by C. trichistandra although it has a lot of pressure from cattle grazing. 8) Sauce Grande, Coto de Caza El Angolo (4S / 80.60O, 670 m): FAP and


PAGE 28 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 AM saw this species regularly in November and December 2011, perched mainly in C. trichistandra It was photographed and its call recorded on 10 December 2011. 9) Cerro Poto, Suyo ( 4.37S / 79.31O; 500 m): On 28 February 2010 at 1600, SC and JN observed an individual perched on a dry trunk growing among natural vegetation near a stream, dominated by C. trichistandra and Eriotheca ruizii (Malvaceae). This site is under pressure from live 10) Quebrada Caracucho, Morropn (5 7.10S 79.28O; 560 m): On 25 March 2010, SC and JN observed two individuals at 1017 perched in E. ruizii One individual was perched on the highest branch, at a height of about 10m above the ground, and the other in a branch about 8m high. They were observed on two occasions eat ing large insects (approximately 5cm in length) ways returned to the same perch to feed. These individuals were observed for 24 minutes, pho ing. In the area, the dry forest is dominated by C. trichistandra and E. ruizii and is under pressure from cattle and goat grazing. 11) Quebrada La Pea, San Juan de Bigote (05S 79O; 266 msnm): This stream is located in the Dotor Forest which is dominated by trees of C. trichistandra, E. ruizii, C. vitifolium and Geoffroea striata (Fabaceae). On 27 and 28 June 2007, SC and A. Juarez saw an adult perched on an E. ruizii The individual was ob served at the same tree on two successive days. On 23 June 2008 at 17:30 FAP observed and photographed a pair of in dense dry forest. The male was very active, vocalizing and was perched on a C. trichistandra On 10 March 2010 at 0908 SCM and JN observed and photo graphed an individual perched in a C. trichistandra at the junction of the La Pea stream and Jaguey Largo. On the same day at 1424, around 500 m from the previous sighting, we observed, photo being fed by a parent, at about 12 m. from the ground in a C. trichistandra (https://www.you tube.com/watch?v=KreJb0k0Qyw). This site is under pressure from cattle grazing. Locations 1-6 are found within the distribution range described by Schulenberg et al (2010). The the department of Piura in northwestern Peru. in the western slope of the Andes in the depart ment of Piura with three records (9-11) and up dates the general distribution of this species in


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 29 the northwest region of Peru. The records presented here were documented between 130 and 950masl. This is below the known maximum altitude (1500masl) reported for Peru (Schulenberg et al. 2010). However, this refers to the Amazon. On the western slope of the Andes of Peru, the altitudinal range for this species is between 100 and 950 masl approxi mately. With respect to the subspecies of present in northwestern Peru, based on its dis tribution we assume it is petoensis (Global Raptor Information Network 2013). However, in Peru only the subspecies has been reported (Plenge 2013), distributed on the eastern slope of the Andes. Of the eleven locations mentioned, 10 are located in dense dry forest hills. This forest is dominated Two Bat Falcons in


PAGE 30 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 by C. trischistandra Terminalia valverdae (Combreta ceae), E. ruizii, C. vitifolium, with a dense and semi dense understory (INRENA 2003a, 2003b); This deciduous forest usually grows to heights of 20m with a canopy covered with epiphytes. Location 4 (Agua Nueva de Pachacas) and the locations & Sadgrove 2001, Walker 2002) correspond to terized by evergreen dense forests that are much more humid and have trees that grow above 20m, dominated by such species as C. platanifolia, Tri plaris cumingiana (Polygoniaceae), Myroxylon peru iferum (Fabaceae), Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolacca ceae), and Cedrela sp (Meliaceae), among others. ties include habitat destruction for conversion to crops, livestock grazing and selective logging of forest species. Additionally, in the IBA (Impor tant Bird Area), Suyo La Tina, (locality 9), the practice of mining for gold is destroying the for est and affecting habitat continuity. This activity to date there have been no conservation actions in this area. In terms of conservation, in northwestern Peru this falcon can be found in four protected natural areas, located along the Amotapes Range: Cer ros de Amotape National Park (Location 1 in this report and 5 previously reported locations, see introductory paragraph), Tumbes National Re serve (locates 4-6 in this report), Coto de Caza El Angolo (locations 7 and 8 of this report), and the Angostura-Faical Regional Conservation Area (locations 2 and 3 of this report). This con tiguous block of protected areas (around 235,827 hectares) constitutes one of the main refuges for this species and for the raptors found in the northwestern part of the country in general, in cluding endangered and endemic species. This report updates the distribution of F ris in northwestern Peru, based on eleven sightings made between November 2006 and December 2011. This species was found in four protected areas in the region and its distribution is continu ous both in the Amotapes Range as well as the principal range of the Andes. The main habitat of the species is the dense dry forest hills, which are being threatened by conversion to agricultural artisanal gold mining. It is necessary to consoli date the actions that lead to the conservation of protected areas where the species is present, and develop research to increase knowledge of the species in northwestern Peru. 2008 and 2009, to Marshall Reynolds Founda tion and Bird Life Internationals program Pre in 2010 and 2011, as part of the assessment of the distribution, conservation status and threats


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 31 of three endangered species in northern Peru. Thanks to the Headquarters of Protected Areas in Tumbes and Piura (SERNANP) for the facili tion. Thanks to Renzo Piana, Manuel Plenge and Marta Curti for reviewing the manuscript and their comments, and thanks to Diego Garcia for providing registration information and to Alex Juarez for guiding us in Dotor Forest. BirdLife International. 2013. Species factsheet: Fal http://www.birdlife.org (Acceso el 15 de marzo del 2013). Global Raptor Information Network. 2013. Spe cies account: Bat Falcon http:// www.globalraptors.org (Acceso el 21 de abril del 2013). Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRE NA). 2003a. Mapa de los bosques secos del depar tamento de Tumbes. Lima: Ministerio de Agricul tura & INRENA. Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRE NA). 2003b. Mapa de los bosques secos del depar tamento de Piura. Lima: Ministerio de Agricultura & INRENA. Parker, T. A., T. S. Schulenberg, M. Kessler, & W. H. Wust. 1995. Natural history and conservation of the endemic avifauna in north-west Peru. Bird Conservation International 5: 201. Piana, R. P. 2011. Las rapaces diurnas del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape y la Reserva Nacio nal de Tumbes. Boletn Informativo de la Unin de Ornitlogos del Per (UNOP), 6 (1): 4-8. Plenge, M. A. Versin [26 Marzo 2013] Especies y subespecies de las aves del Per. Lima, Per. Dis ponible en: https://sites.google.com/site/boleti nunop/subespecies Schulenberg, T. S. & T. A. Parker III. 1981. Sta tus and distribution of some northwest Peruvian birds. Condor 83:209-216. Schulenberg, T. S., D. F. Stotz, D. F. Lane, J. P. ONeill, y T. A. Parker III. 2010. Aves de Per. Lima: Centro de Ornitologa y Biodiversidad. Walker, B. 2002. Observations from the Tumbes Reserved Zone, dpto. Tumbes, with notes on some new taxa for Peru and a checklist of the area. Cot inga 18: 37. Project. The threatened birds of Cerros de Amo tape National Park and Tumbes Reserved Zone, northwestern Per. Final rep. Sullana: ProAves Per. Wiedenfeld, D. A., T. S. Schulenberg, & M. B. Rob bins. 1985. Birds of a tropical deciduous forest in extreme northwestern Peru. En: Buckley, P. A., Foster, M. S., Morton, E. S., Ridgely, R. S. & Buck ley, F. G. (eds.) Neotropical ornithology. Ornitho logical Monographs 36: 305-315 *


PAGE 32 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 H THE FIRST HAWK MIGRATION FULL-SEASON COUNT IN EL SALVADOR By Ricardo Prez 1 ; Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza 4 ; Geovanni Garca 2 ; Jorge Ramos 2 and Keith Bildstein 3 1 Environmental consultant. El Salvador. Email: perez_leon@yahoo.com; 2 Environmental consultants; 3 Sarkis Acopian Director of Conservation Science, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary. Pensylvania, USA. Email: Bildstein@hawk mtn.org; 4 Field Museum H awk migration, one of the most spectac ular movements in nature, can be used to moni species (Bildstein 2004, Hoffman & Smith 2003, Zalles & Bildstein 2000). Raptor monitoring ef forts in Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Pan the magnitude and timing of raptor migration along the Mesoamerican land corridor (Bildstein 2004, Bildstein y Zalles 2001). In addition such initiatives have developed an opportunity to edu cate the public on hawk migration in Mesoameri ca (Bildstein 2004, Bildstein y Zalles 2001, Zalles & Bildstein 2000). That said, there remains a need for similar counts in other parts of the corridor including El Salvador and neighboring countries (Bildstein 2004, Bildstein & Zalles 2001). Records of hawk migration in El Salvador are limited (Bildstein 2004). Dickey & Van Rossem (1938) observed thousands of Swainsons Hawks ( Buteo swainsoni ) and Turkey Vultures ( Cathartes aura ) during the fall and spring migration in the early 1900s. Since then bird watchers and biolo gists have recorded migratory raptors country wide (Thurber et l. 1987, Komar et l. unpub lished data). However, there is no general feeling regarding the geography of migration within the country. Here we describe the results of a full season count conducted in autumn 2005 at the Suchito to hawk watch site, where migrating raptors had been seen passing in previous years. Our hawkphenomenon of migration to introduce raptors to locals and tourists. Buteo albonotatus


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 33 The hawk watch site was established in Suchitoto, a small town in the north-central valley of El Sal vador, at 13 56 N and 89 01 W and 400 meters asl. The area includes mountains and low hills, valleys and wetlands. A diverse agricultural ma trix includes sugar cane plantations and different farms and pastoral PNOT 2004). The climate is repre sented by a tropical dry season from No vemberMarch, and a rainy season from May-September. In general, El Salvador is exposed to north east winds gener ated in the northern hemisphere, and is warmed by the Gulf of Mexico during October and November (SNET 2007). Methods In August 2005 we held a training workshop for biology students that introduced them to raptor cols. At the same time, we gave presentations to local adults and school children to inform them about the hawk migration season as well as to invite them to visit the watch site. The site was located on the roof of the Hotel Posada Alta Vista (13 56 14.7 N and 89 01 33.3 W), at 410 meters asl. Full-day counts were made from September to November, coincid ing with the bulk of raptor migration through the region. The site coordinator and servers, assisted by one or more vol unteers, conducted the counts. They remained at the site for 70 days, and completed a total of 1,561 hours of observation. Daily counts typi cally began at 0800 and ended between1500-1800, depending on the occurence of afternoon rain showers. Participants recorded weather conditions hourly, including maximum visibility, barometric pressure, temperature, cloud condition, and wind speed and direction. We also collected information on the estimated height and direction of each migrating raptor, along with the numbers of individuals of each species ob


PAGE 34 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 served. Data were recorded on HMANA (Hawk Migration Association of North America) hawk migration count sheets using HMANA protocols (Fuller & Tutus 1996). Observers used 8 bin oculars to scan the sky for birds and a 40x scope to identify distant birds as necessary. cluding maximum visibility (estimated by measur ing distances of mountains from the observatory the percent of cloud cover in the sky), and the codes to assist with estimation). Results Weather systems and atmospheric factors Over these three months, the maximum visibility average ranged from 35-78 km, however, during September and October -the end of the rainy seasonfoggy and hazy conditions were com mon. The daily temperature average ranged from


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 35 30 to 32 C, with warmest periods from 1000 to 1600. A tropical storm in October forced us to shut down the counts for 3 days. At the beginning of November a cold front brought cooler tem peratures. Cloud cover was almost constant in September and decreased through the end of the rainy season in late October. November was mainly clear with little or no clouds and no haze. Hawk migration magnitude and timing Counts began on 1 September and ended on 22 November. A total of 327,313 diurnal raptors and new world vultures, representing 21 species, were counted. The greatest number of individuals rep resented three species: Turkey Vultures ( Cathartes aura ), Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), and Swainsons Hawks ( Buteo swainsoni ), which passed through mainly in October and November. The lowest counts were for White-tailed Kites ( Elanus leucurus ), Common Black Hawks ( Buteogallus an thracinus ), Harris Hawks ( Parabuteo unicinctus ), and Merlins ( Falco columbarius ). Species richness was lowest in September, when Pan dion haliaetus ) passed over the site, and increased through the end of the month and stabilized in October before decreasing again in November. Peak migration occurred in the third and fourth of birds passing at a time.


PAGE 36 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 Ictinia missis sippiensis ), which numerically dominated the mi gration during this month. Species richness was highest from 0900 to 1100. part of the day (1000-1300); whereas in October and late afternoon. Birds passed along four main pathways : (1) to the south following the ridge line of the Cerro Guazapa (a mountain located to the southwest from Suchitoto town), (2) within 1 km 2 around


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 37 theg the watch site, (3) along the shore of Suchit lan Lake, and (4) across the northern hills, prin Education potential for the watch site A total of 104 people visited the observatory in cluding locals, tourists, school children, and biol ogy students. On-site talks were developed with visitors, educating them about the importance of monitoring hawk migration, maintaining natural habitats for these birds survival, their role in the ecosystem, and the necessity to establish a moni toring site in El Salvador. Public visitation was highest in October, when the observers invited the public to watch the mi days. At the end of November, the hawk watch crew members gave a talk to local people from Suchitoto to share the hawk count results, as well as to emphasize the importance of continuing to monitor hawk migration at the site. Of the 104 raptor species moving seasonally in the Neotropics, at least 40 have been sighted in Mexico and Central America (Bildstein 2004, Bildstein & Zalles 2001, Zalles & Bildstein 2000). About 5 million raptors representing 32 species use the Mesoamerican land corridor during fall migration (Bildstein 2004, Bildstein & Zalles 2001, Ruelas et l. 2000).


PAGE 38 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 observations. There are notable exceptions how ever. The Black Vulture ( Coragyps atratus )has been considered a resident species (MARN 2005). This species migratory movements have been recorded in different locations countrywide, but no clear numbers are reported. During our count through with Turkey Vultures. In the 2007 check list of the birds of El Salvador (Komar et al un published data), the Black vulture is considered a partial migratory species. The Harriss Hawk is considered a resident spe cies in El Salvador (Komar et al. unpublished data). Despite this, a few individuals were seen migrating at the site in 2005. Probably, this spe cies migrates in the country, but additional obser vations are needed. The same is true for Whitetailed Kite and Common Black Hawk, both of which were seen migrating at the site in 2005. of Mississippi and Plumbeous Kites ( Ictinia plum bea ), which passed through mostly during Septem ber. The observation of Plumbeous Kite (an in tratropical migrant species according to Bildstein 2004) in early September was surprising as the species migrates toward South America in early August in Mexico (Ruelas et l. 2000). Coopers Hawks ( Accipiter cooper i) and Merlins are considered visiting migrants. At Suchitoto, both spe cies were seen in low numbers, mainly in Octo ber. The peak of fall migration at the site in 2005 occurred between 11 and 25 October, and was prolonged irregularly until 8 November, mostly due to weather. Our count provides a sugges Salvador, but information from other locations in the country is needed to know more about the The full season count offered an opportunity to educate the public and to share our experiences with them. It is important to continue leading these initiatives to promote the importance of conserving raptors and their habitats. Doubt lessly, more information is needed to provide a better estimate of the magnitude of hawk mi gration over El Salvador, as well as to know the importance of the countrys topography for these species. Future efforts are needed to improve the value of information we collected in 2005. The hawk migration count would not have been ed by Hawk Mountain Sanctuary and the sup port of the Fundacin Zoolgica de El Salva dor (FUNZEL). Also, important equipment for hawkwatching and taking weather information was donated by the Birders Exchange Program (BEX) from the American Birding Association


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG PAGE 39 of North America (ABA). The local support for the education talks at Suchitoto was provided by Magdalena Recinos, director of the local Tourism was designed by Karla Prez and Erwin Aguirre, and posted by Roxana Snchez in Revista Pixeles Cuscatlecos. Thanks to Josiph Asenn, Oscar Bolaos, Enrique Fajardo, Emerson Flores, Car los Fnes, Jorge and Ricardo Herrera, Roselvy Jurez, Iris Prez, Luis Pineda, Diana Quijano, Hugo Rivera and Iselda Vega, who volunteered during the hawk count. Special thanks to Via Bal anza Restaurant who provided the food of the crew and to Hilda Len, who kindly offered the housing for the observers. Bildstein, KL. 2004. Raptor migration in the neo tropics: patterns, processes, and consequences. Ornitologa Tropical 15: 83-99. Bildstein, KL; Zalles, JI. 2001. Raptor migration along the Mesoamerican land corridor. In Hawk watching in the Americas. Pensylvania, USA. p. 119-141. Dickey, DR; Van Rossem, AJ. 1938. The Birds of El Salvador. Field Museum of Natural History. Chicago, USA. p. 95-140. Fuller, MR; Titus, K. 1996. Sources of migrant hawk counts for monitoring raptor populations. Avian population trends. p. 41-45. Komar, O; Herrera, N; Girn L; Ibarra-Portillo, R. 2007. The 2007 list of birds of El Salvador, with an assessment of national conservation sta tus. Avian Conservation and Ecology. In press. MARN (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recur sos Naturales). 2006. Mapa de uso del suelo de El Salvador: versin shape para ARCVIEW. San Salvador, El Salvador. MARN. 2005. Lista de aves de El Salvador: ver sin actualizada. 18 p. Consulted 4 March 2006. Disponible en: http://www.marn.gob.sv/areas_de_conserva cion.htm PNOT (Plan Nacional de Ordenamiento Terri torial). 2004. Catalogo de espacios naturales (en lnea). Consulted October 1st 2006. Available at: http://www.marn.gob.sv Ruelas I, E; Hoffman, SW; Goodrich, LJ; Tingay, R. 2000. In Raptor at Risk. Chancellor, RD; Mey burg, BU (eds). p. 591-596. SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territo riales). 2007. El clima en El Salvador. Consulted September 10th 2006. Available at: http://www. snet.gob.sv/meteorologia Thoms, A. 1999. Aves de presa del Parque Nacio nal El Imposible, El Salvador. SalvaNATURA. (Unpublished document). 33 p. Thurber, W; Serrano, JF; Sermeo, A; Bentez,


PAGE 40 ISSUE 15 JUNE 2013 M. 1987. Status of uncommon and previously unreported birds of El Salvador. In Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zool ogy Vol. 3(3) 293 p. Zalles, JI; Bildstein, KL. (eds). 2000. Raptor match: a global directory of raptor migration sites. Cambridge, UK & Pennsylvania, US. Bird Life International, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary. 419 p. *


http://www.aav.org/resources/index.php?content=grants Funds are available for research projects which focus on clinical aspects of exotic and wild birds. Diagnostics, prac tice management and bird conservation. Funds are limiited to up to $10,000.00 US for individual projects. A http://rggs.amnh.org/pages/academics_and_re search/fellowship_and_grant_opportunities Small grants, up to $2,000 US, support ornithological soci eties and their activies including training of ornithologists, and activities which build strategic alliances in the western hemisphere. http://www.afonet.org/grants/index.html The objective of this prize is to promote the study of birds, http://www.fbbva.es/TLFU/tlfu/esp/areas/medio amb/novedades/index.jsp Grants to support biodiversity conservation and research on ecology and conservation. Grants Neotropical Raptor Network www.neotropicalraptors.org Issue 15, June 2013 Conferences http://www.raptorresearchfoundation.org/conferenc es/current-conference This international conference will take place from 21 to 24 Otober 2013 in the heart of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Bariloche, Ro Negro, Argentina. This conference will be a wonderful opportunity to meet and collaborate with raptor researchers throughout the region.