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Dear NRN Members,
Several changes have been made to the latest issue of the
NRN Newsletter. Most notably, we have given it an
official name, one which we hoped would be meaningful
in any of the languages spoken throughout the
Neotropics. Thus, the scientific name of a raptor seemed
an obvious choice. We decided on Spizaetus for several
reasons. First, this genus of raptors is found from
southern Mexico to northern Argentina, so an excellent
representative of the entire Neotropical region. Second,
despite its presence in most countries within Latin
America, we still lack some of the most basic knowledge
about the species within the Spizaetus genus. So this title
also represents the need to continue our efforts in scien-
tific research and environmental education, key tools in
the conservation of all raptor species and their habitats.
Today, there is an overwhelming amount of information
available through the internet on every possible subject. I
hope that the NRN Newsletter will provide raptor
researchers with quick and easy access to relevant
information. Our goal is to continue to produce the news-
letter in Spanish, English and Portuguese. Editing the
newsletter in these different languages takes a huge
amount of effort and collaboration, but we believe it is
worthwhile, as it will facilitate access to this information
to a wide variety of individuals interested in raptor
As always, I thank the contributors and guest editors who
have assisted in creating this edition of Spizaetus. I look
forward to continuing to receive articles and photos from
you, the NRN members. Your contributions are what
make this newsletter possible. Thank you.
Marta Curti NRN Coordinator
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
A Symbol of our Natural Heritage
(Releases of Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi
in the Dominican Republic)................... 1
Mortality in King Vultures Sarcoramphus
papa in the Southern Yucatan
Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus in
Lambayeque: An Extension of this
Species' Distribution Range West of
the Peruvian Andes.....................10
Electrocution of Black-chested
Buzzard Eagles Geranoaetus melanoleucus
on Power Lines in Calera de Tango,
Chile.................................. ......... 13
Marta Curti email@example.com
Articles in this issue were edited and or
translated by Yeray Seminario, Angel Muela,
and Marta Curti
Cover Photo: Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi
released on Grupo Punta Cana property in the
Dominican Republic Dario FernAndez
Back Cover Photo: Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis,
Guija Lake, El Salvador Nestor Geovanni
Ridgway's Hawk Photo C Pedro Genaro Rodriguez
The Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi is a medium-sized
raptor endemic to the island of Hispaniola, as well as a
few satellite islands. However, due to loss of habitat
and human persecution, this species is now only
found within the Los Haitises National Park in the
province of Hato Mayor in the Dominican Republic.
There are only 313 known Ridgway's Hawks in
existence and it is recognized as a Critically
Endangered species by the International Union for
the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as well as the
Dominican Republic Ministry of the Environment
and Natural Resources. Having disappeared from
most of its former range and extinct in Haiti, we could
be very close to losing this species forever.
But thanks to the work carried out by the Hispaniola
Ornithological Society (Sociedad Ornitologica de la
Hispaniola), The Peregrine Fund, the Dominican
Republic Secretary of the Environment and Natural
Resources, and with the help of the Punta Cana
Ecological Foundation and Central Romana Inc., the
future of the Ridgway's Hawk is not so grim.
One of the key factors in ensuring the survival of this
species is a strong conservation education campaign in
communities surrounding Ridgway's Hawk habitat.
Currently, the main threat facing them is human
persecution. They are being shot, in large part, due to
a case of mistaken identify. They are being confused
with the much more common Red-tailed Hawk
B. jamaicensis, which occasionally does prey on free-
ranging domestic poultry. However, during our
studies which documented nearly 150 prey items
(personal observation by Lance Woolaver), we did not
see one case of a Ridgway's Hawk feeding on
chickens. They prefer, instead, to feed on lizards,
snakes, frogs and small rodents and are, in actuality,
important in helping to limit the rodent population on
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ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
In 2005 we began an educational campaign which
continues to this day. Our work includes giving
presentations in local communities that focus on the
benefits of having this raptor on the island and
providing identification information to help
distinguish it from other raptors. Our campaign also
focuses on national pride, emphasizing that this hawk
is found only in the Dominican Republic and no
where else on earth. Other strategies include
distributing posters and other educational materials,
and last year we used funds to put together a theater
production dramatizing the plight of the Ridway's
Hawk. We put on this show in 10 communities
around Los Haitises National Park and it was a big hit.
Species Study and Assisted Dispersal
Hack box in La Herradura placed in a Yagrumo tree.
Photo C Jorge Brocca
In 2004 we began studying the basic ecology of the
species and in 2008 began an experimental assisted
dispersal release. This is a technique that is used to
increase distribution of critically endangered species
that are confined to a small area of their former range,
and for the Ridgway's Hawk it may take 10 years or
more to complete.
Personnel from Central Romana, Inc. assigned to protect
the release area. Photo C Jorge Brocca
The idea is to take one young each from up to five
nests (Ridgway's Hawks normally produce up to three
chicks so removing one chick per nest won't affect
productivity of the breeding pairs in Los Haitises and
may even increase the odds of the survival of the
remaining two chicks as more food resources will be
available to them) and re-release them through a
method known as "hacking" into protected private
lands within their former range where the species
currently does not exist. Hacking has been used by The
Peregrine Fund to successfully release other raptors
including the Peregrine Falcon Falco pereginus and the
Aplomado Falcon Falcofemoralis. It involves placing the
young birds in a specially designed hack box and
holding them for about one week or so until they are
ready to fledge. This allows them to adjust to their new
surroundings and associate the release box with food.
Once they are released they will continue to return to
the hack box to feed until they become independent
and are hunting on their own.
Our first step was to locate a suitable release site one
that was once inhabited by this species and that still
Map showing Los Haitises National Park and the release sites
contains suitable habitat and prey, with little or no
human presence. The site chosen was the Loma la
Herradura, a 3,000 hectare tract of tropical forest
owned by Centro Romana, Inc., one of the largest
private companies in the country. There are many
advantages to releasing birds on private lands namely
the fact that no one is allowed to enter without
authorization and hunting is prohibited.
The first year, we released four young hawks. They did
so well that the following year we released six more
birds three in Loma la Herradura and three in the
Ecological Reserve of Punta Cana. All birds were fitted
with transmitters prior to their release so that we are
able to track their movements and make sure they are
Though there have been a few setbacks such as one
of the released birds being shot and killed and only its
transmitter found most of the released birds are
doing well and continue to hunt and survive on their
own. This coming year we plan to do more releases to
help increase the number of birds in the two areas and
eventually, create several breeding populations.
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0 Release Sites
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ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
King Vultures in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve,
Campeche, Mexico. Photo U. Nesser
The King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa is a spectacular
bird that plays an important ecological role. However,
this fact has not been enough to attract the necessary
attention for its conservation. As a result, S. papa is
not protected at the global level. The International
Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red
List categorizes this species as Least Concern due to
its wide range of distribution, although the IUCN
does recognize that their population is in decline
(Birdlife International 2009). In Mexico, the King
Vulture, according to legislation (NOM-059-ECOL-
2001), is categorized as endangered, while the
National Commission of Protected Natural Areas
(CONAP) considers it to be a species of conservation
In 2007 we initiated one of the first research projects
on the ecology, behavior and habitat use of the King
Vulture in Mexico. Specifically, our objective was to
find and characterize large roost sites, such as the one
that was described by Berlanga and Gutierrez (2000).
Our study took place in southern Campeche, and
included the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. The south-
ern part of this reserve is adjacent to Guatemala's
Maya Biosphere Reserve. In total we found five roost
sites with between 20 to 25 King Vultures at each one,
including adults, sub-adults and juveniles. A few of
these roosts have been known locally for a little over
All of these roosts are located in forested areas of
well-conserved medium semi deciduous forests in
which such tree species as Bucida burseras, Manilkara
#apota, and Lysiloma latilisiquum dominate. They are all
found close to running water and far from human
settlements (Martinez, 2008).
Records of Mortality in King Vultures and
Parallel with the project's activities, we began to keep
a record of all the dead King Vultures found in the
study area. During our visits to conduct field work in
the region, we began to collect King Vulture remains.
From February 2007 until February 2010 we collected
nine individual dead King Vultures. In three of these
cases, we collected the complete, intact remains; on
three other occasions we collected only skeletal
remains and feathers; and in the remaining three cases
we collected the skull, skeletal remains of their wings,
Eight of these were adults, determined by the well-
defined coloration pattern of the feathers and the
coloration of the head and neck. One was a juvenile,
easily identified by its entirely black feathers.
In six individuals we determined that the cause of
death was associated with man (Table 1). In four cases
we suspected the cause of death to be consumption of
bait laced with methyl parathion. In two cases birds
died from gunshot wounds and in three cases, we
could not determine the cause of death.
All of the collected remains were sent to the
Zoological Museum (Museo de Zoologia de El
Colegio de la Frontera Sur) in Chetumal, Mexico.
The four individuals who died of suspected poisoning
were all found at the same roost site one that has
been in use for at least the last ten years.
Our suspicion that these birds had died of poisoning
was supported by interviews conducted with local
authorities and with some ranchers from the
community where the dead vultures were found. They
told us that a jaguar had killed a calf and a sheep and,
a month later, had also killed two dogs owned by the
I _Table 1. King Vulture mortality and possible causes
Cause of Death
Adult & sub-adult
Gun shot (.16 caliber shotgun)
Consumption of poisoned bait
Consumption of poisoned bait
Gun shot (.16 caliber shotgun)
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ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
The two King Vultures killed by gunshot wounds. Photo C M. Sanvicente.
In retaliation, the ranchers injected the remains of the
dead animals with high doses of the insecticide Foley
(methyl parathion). We hypothesize that the King
Vultures consumed these poisoned carcasses, as the
finding of their remains coincided with the deaths of
the livestock and dogs and the jaguar poisoning.
Methyl parathion is an organophosphate and is widely
used in agricultural areas in Calakmul. It is used with-
out control or regulation by the local environmental
authorities and is widely available for sale in establish-
ments that provide agricultural and farming products.
Its toxicity is known in raptors and other wildlife
species, such as small carnivores. At a high dosage it
affects the nervous system, causing loss of coordina-
tion, paralysis and death (SAnchez-Barbudo, et al.,
2008; Tarralluela et al., 2008).
In another two cases we confirmed the cause of death
to be due to gunshot wounds caused by a .16 caliber
shotgun. After examining the vultures' corpses we
found impact points and perforations caused by the
bullets in the sternum and head, as well as fractures in
the wings and in other parts of their bodies. We also
found the bullet shells in close proximity to the dead
In all of those cases attributable to man, the death of
these vultures has been a product of a lack of
knowledge about this species' importance and
ignorance of the consequences of the improper use of
King Vulture Conservation
Their feeding habits and role as "trash collectors" has
not helped to call attention to this species on a local
level. However, the role of the King Vulture and all
scavengers in general is, without a doubt, invaluable
for mankind. The service that they carry out by elimi-
nating carrion from the environment is essential.
Without them, the risks that certain enteropathogenic
bacterial diseases, such as E. Coli, anthrax, and
salmonella would spread to other species of wildlife
and to humans would be higher.
In those areas in which King Vulture habitat (namely
tropical forests) is being lost to ever-growing agricul-
tural activities, there is a two-fold danger. On one
hand, the loss of habitat especially large trees which
are used in the logging industry reduces the number
of available perches or nests. At the same time this
loss of forest habitat to cattle pastures, logically,
equals an increase in livestock, which has implications
for the conservation of the King Vulture. When
these vultures consume livestock that die in the field,
whether by snake bite, disease, or predation, the risks
are high because of the common practice of treating
cattle with pharmaceuticals and toxic chemicals, which
may have negative health effects for scavengers. Sadly,
one example of this is the use of an anti-inflammatory
drug, diclofenac, and other agro-chemicals which have
caused the decline of scavenging raptors in Spain,
France, and India (Gil et al., 2008; Green et al. 2004).
For a rare species like the King Vulture, with slow
development and a low reproductive rate, the death of
even a few individuals can have negative repercussions
for maintaining a genetically and ecologically healthy
population in the long run.
The use of poison to control "harmful" fauna should
be discouraged by the local environmental authorities
and, at the same time, they should do an analysis of
the use of these agro-chemicals in Calakmul.
Berlanga, M. & R. Gutierrez. 2000. Aves de Calakmul,
el zopilote rey (Sarcoramphuspapa), observaciones en
un sitio de descanso comunal. Informe final.
Pronatura Peninsula de YucatAn AC. M6xico. 40 p.
BirdLife International. 2004. Sarcoramphus papa. In:
IUCN 2007. Red List of Threatened Species.
. Revisado 18 de abril de 2010.
Convenio Intemacional Sobre el TrAfico de Especies
de Flora y Fauna Silvestre. 2010. .
Revisado 15 de abril de 2010.
Gil, J. A., & de Frutos, A. 2008. Revision de los
envenenamientos de quebrantahuesos (Gypaetus
barbatus) en los pirineos (Espafia-Francia) 1994-2007.
In: Actas del seminario Mortalidad por intoxicaci6n en
aves necr6fagas. Problematica y soluciones. Ainsa,
Green, R., I., Newton, S. Shultz., A. Cunningham., M.
Gilbert, D. Pain & V. Prakash. 2004. Diclofenac
poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines
across the Indian subcontinent. Journal of applied
ecology. 41 (5):793-800.
Martinez, M. 2008. Caracterizaci6n a multiples escalas
espaciales de dormideros de zopilote rey
(Sarcoramphus papa) en el sur de la Peninsula de
YucatAn. Tesis de Maestria. El Colegio de la Frontera
Sur. 76 p.
Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT
2001-Protecci6n Ambiental. Especies de Flora y
Fauna Nativa Silvestres. Categorias de Riesgo.
www.semarnat.gob.mx. Revisado 15 de abril de 2010.
Tarralluela, A., G. Gallus & A. De la Fuente. 2008.
Presencia de plaguicidas t6xicos y peligrosos en las
cooperativas agroganaderas dos comarcas de la
Provincia de Huesca y su impacto en el
quebrantahuesos (Gypaetus barbatus). In: Actas del
seminario Mortalidad por intoxicaci6n en aves
necr6fagas. Problematica y soluciones. Ainsa, Huesca.
SAnchez-Barbudo, S., P. Camarero, L., Monsalve, M.
Taggart & R. Mateo. Casos de envenenamiento en
fauna silvestre en Arag6n. 2006-2007: T6xicos
detectados en el Area de distribuci6n del
quebrantahuesos (Gypaetus barbatus). In: Actas del
seminario Mortalidad por intoxicaci6n en aves
necr6fagas. ProblemAtica y soluciones. Ainsa, Huesca.
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ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
Light morph Short-tailed Hawk, Lambayeque, Peru 26 June 2009 (right); 25 August 2009 (left). Photos C Fernando Angulo
The Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus has been
documented in the western slope of the South
American Andes within Colombia, Ecuador and the
extreme north of Peru in the Piura and Tumbes
Departments (Hilty & Brown 1986, Schulenberg etal.
2007, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Vasquez & Justo
In Peru, the species is found only in the Amotapes
Range (Walker 2002, Vasquez & Justo 2009), a branch
of the Andes which heads northeast and southwest
paralleling the coast and which separates from the
main branch at 790 30' degrees south latitude. Here,
the species is uncommon in semi deciduous forests
from 0 to 750 m above sea level (Schulenberg et al.
On 24 June 2009, I observed an adult Short-tailed
Hawk (Fig. 1, right) soaring at 1500 m.a.s.l., in the
"Palacios" Ravine (60 02' 18.2" S / 790 32' 12.5"),
approximately 20 km. northeast of Motupe, in the
Lambayeque Department. Three days later I saw
another individual, approximately 3 km. southwest
from the first sighting, at 1100 m.a.s.l. (Angulo 2009).
On this occasion, we were able to photograph and
film the bird:
(htto: //www.voutube.com/watch? v=C50EWxEaGr8).
PAGE 8 \VW\~ .NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG
Curves de Nivel
/ 2000 3000
/ 3000 4000
Map 1. Previous sightings of Short-tailed Hawk (dark blue) and the sighting
reported in this article (light blue).
On 25 August 2009, we observed
another Short-tailed Hawk (presumably
the same individual) very close to the
location of the second sighting (1 km. to
the north, Fig.l, left). We photographed
this individual, as well. It is important to
mention that all observed Short-tailed
Hawks were light morph individuals.
We identified these raptors as Short-
tailed Hawks due to the pure white color
of their breasts and wings; their
distinctive facial pattern (a black mask
that covers the upper part and sides of
the head); and their tail markings, which
include thin dark bands that are
conspicuous in flight. In the region, it
could be possible to confuse Short-tailed
Hawks with a light morph adult male
Variable Hawk (Buteo polyosoma),
however the latter is much larger and
has an overall white tail with a thick
black sub-terminal band.
When we observed these individuals,
they were seen flying over hilly areas
mostly covered with dry, semi-dense
forest (Proyecto Algarrobo 1993) with
some areas of degraded vegetation due
to agricultural practices and some road
These records constitute the first for
Buteo brachyurus in the Lambayeque
Department in Peru and demonstrate an
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ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
extension of their range as described by Schulemberg
et al. (2007) by 230 km. (linear) toward the southeast.
Additionally, these observations represent the first
record of this species within the main chain of the
Peruvian Andes, outside of the Amotapes Range (see
map 1). Equally, the altitudinal range of the species in
Peru is between 750 and 1500 m.a.s.l., although in
Ecuador it has been reported below 1600 m.a.s.l. and
in Colombia up to 1800 m.a.s.l. (Hilty & Brown 1986,
Ridgely & Greenfield 2001).
Thanks to Segundo Crespo and Pablo Venegas for
their assistance in the field; to Renzo Piana and Marta
Curti for their support duing the revision of the
manuscript; to Alex More for the map, and to KfW for
financing the trip.
Angulo, F. 2009. Informe Omitologia: Palacios:
Diagn6stico y Elaboraci6n de Expedientes Tecnicos en
las Areas Prioritarias para la conservaci6n en los
Bosques Secos de Tumbes, Piura y Lambayeque.
Informe de Consultoria PRFNP-C-CON-042-2008-
PAN PROFONANPE, KFW, SERNANP.
Hilty, S. L. & W. L. Brown. 1986. A Guide to the Birds
of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton,
Proyecto Algarrobo. 1993. Mapa e inventario forestal
de los bosques secos de Lambayeque. Memoria
explicativa. CEIMAD-Proyecto Algarrobo, Chiclayo,
Ridgely, R. S. & P. J. Greenfield. 2001. The Birds of
Ecuador: Field Guide. Volume II. Cornell University
Press. Ithaca, New York.
Schulenberg, T.S., D.F. Stotz, D.F. Lane, J.P. O'Neill,
& T.A. Parker III. 2007. Birds of Peru. Princeton
University Press. New Jersey.
VAsquez P. & M. Justo (Editores). 2009. La fauna
Silvestre del Coto de caza El Angolo. Guia para la
identificaci6n de la aves. Centro de Datos para la
Conservaci6n Universidad Nacional Agraria La
Molina. La Molina, 202 p.
Walker, B. 2002. Observations from the Tumbes
Reserved Zone, dpto. Tumbes, with notes on some
new taxa for Peru and a checklist of the area. Cotinga
PAGE 10 WW\X .NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG
The Black-chested Buzzard Eagle Geranoaetus
melanoleucus is the largest raptor of the Accipitridae
family found in Chile (Brown & Amadon, 1968). It
has a wingspan between 175 and 200 centimeters and
weighs approximately 2,000 grams (del Hoyo et
a/.,1994). It is widely distributed in South America
and is found from Colombia to Tierra del Fuego,
along both slopes of the Andes Mountain Range
(Alvarado, 2006). This species inhabits open areas of
shrub and mountain ranges where it has easy access to
prey, however it is also considered an accidental
species in forests (Trejo etal., 2006). For this reason,
the Black-chested Buzzard Eagle is found in a variety
of environments and is found nesting in sites highly
impacted by humans. Their nests are usually built in
cliff faces, on cactus, high tension towers or trees
(Alvarado, pets. obs.).
In general, the Black-chested Buzzard Eagle has been
described as an opportunistic species that consumes a
wide variety of prey (Schlatter et al., 1980; Pavez et al.,
1992; Hiraldo et al., 1995), but concentrates on prey
with a higher biomass, such as rabbits and large
rodents (Jim6nez & Kaksic, 1989). Its main diet
Juvenile Black-chested Buzzard Eagle perhced on a power
line post in Cerro Lonqu6n. Photo C Sergio Alvarado
includes: European Rabbit Ogyctolagus cuniclus, Long-
tailed Snake Philodgyas chamissonis, the Degu, or Brush-
tailed Rat Octodon degu and a wide range of other
rodents and birds.
The Eagles in Calera de Tango
Calera de Tango is a rural community located to the
southwest of Santiago de Chile. Within its limits are
the mountain islands of Chena and Longquen, which
are considered priority sites for biodiversity conserva-
tion (CONAMA, 2004). Both sites serve as natural
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ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
Black-chested Buzzard Eagle perched on a mid-tension power line post. Photo C Makarena Roa
refuges for the wild flora and fauna, which are
representatives of the Mediterranean eco-region of
central Chile. The Black-chested Buzzard Eagle stands
out among the wildlife here, and in fact, Cerro Calera,
which is part of the Longquen Hills, is a nesting and
breeding site for this species.
Electrocution of Raptors
In Cerro Calera, there are few high trees or cliffs that
serve as observation perches for resident raptors. So
instead, these birds use the power lines installed to
provide energy to a cell phone tower owned by
ENTEL PCS. This installation consists of a mid
tension three-phase system of 12,000V, made out of
115 structures built on 11.5 m. high concrete poles,
with wooden cross beams, ceramic insulators and
13.3mm2 bare copper conductors. This system
corresponds to a distribution network which is in use
throughout Chile, for electric company networks and
cell phone antennas.
Sadly, between November 2009 and January 2010, 16
dead Black-chested Buzzard Eagles were found
beneath electric posts owned by ENTEL PCS, of
which 14 were juveniles and two were adults. The
pathological studies carried out by Dr. Carlos
Gonzalez, Veterinarian and Pathologist from the
school of Veterinary Medicine, Andres Bello Univer-
sity, concluded that these animals died due to cardio-
respiratory failure brought on by electrocution, with
Black-chested Buzzard Eagles electrocuted on mid-tension electrical lines owned by the ENTEL PCS company.
Photo C Maria Jos6 Esquivel
vascular pulmonary, cerebral and cardiac injuries, as
well as non inflammatory edemas.
Due to the fact that electrocution was determined as
the cause of death of 16 Black-chested Buzzard Eagles
the local government of San Bernardo Community
penalized ENTEL PCS, under the law against cruelty
to animals, and as a prudential measure, they
requested that this company present a project to
modify their installations to avoid more deaths by
electrocution. In the end, the company decided to
completely remove the existing power line and install,
within the telecommunications antenna enclosure, a
system of hybrid energy which included the use of
solar energy, obtained through photovoltaic panels,
and a diesel generator.
In general terms, the electrocution of birds on power
lines is a result of the rapid growth of the electrical
infrastructure a product of the expansion of real
estate and telecommunications markets along with
the lack of regulations that take into account the
protection of birds. One example of the impact that
these power lines can have occured in Spain, where a
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ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
power line was installed in the middle of a park, which
caused the deaths of some Spanish Imperial Eagles
(Aquila adalbertz). The company responsible was made
to take down the power line, and as a result the
survival rate of the eagle chicks increased from 17.6%
to 80% within the first six months of their lives
(Ferrer and Hidalgo, 1991).
One hopes that, as a consequence of what has
occurred in Calera de Tango, the governmental
authorities will regulate, in the near future, the
telecommunication and electrical transmission
companies. To achieve this, we will present the
government with a strategy and request that
regulations be put in place for the installation of
electrical distribution networks, which will help
mitigate electrocution of birds in
throughout the country.
Alvarado, S. 2006. Inusual caza area de una gaviota
capucho cafe (Chroicocephalus maculipennis) y posible
muerte de un aguilucho comin (Buteo polyosoma) por
un Aguila mora (Geranoaetus melanoleucus). Revista
Brown, L. & O. Amadon. 1968. Eagles, hawks and
falcons of the World. Mcgraw-Hill Co., New York.
CONAMA. 2004. Estrategia para la conservaci6n de
la biodiversidad en la region Metropolitana de
Del Hoyo J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal.. Eds. 1994.
Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol 2. New
World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Editions,
Ferrer, M. y F. Hiraldo 1991. Evaluation of manage-
ment techniques for the Spain imperial eagle. Wildlife
Society Bulletin 19(4):436-442.
GonzAlez, C. 2009. Informe de necropsia n08.461.
Fac. de Ecologia y Recursos Naturales, Escuela de
Medicina Veterinaria. Universidad Andres Bello.
Hiraldo F., J. Donazar, O. Ceballos, A. Travaini, J.
Bustamante, & M. Funes. 1995. Breeding biology of a
grey eagle-buzzard population in Patagonia. Wilson
Bulletin, 107: 675-685.
Jimenez, J. E. & F.M. Jaksic. 1989. Behavioral ecology
of gray eagle-buzzards Geranoaetus melanoleucus, in cen-
tral Chile. Condor, 91: 913-921.
Pavez, E., C. GonzAlez & J. Jimenez. 1992. Diet shits
of black-chested eagles (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) from
native prey to European rabbits in Chile. Journal of
Raptor Research, 26:27-32.
Schlatter, R., J. YAfiez, & F.M. Jaksic. 1980. Food
niche Relationships between Chilean Eagles and Red-
backed Buzzards in Central Chile. Auk, 97: 897-898.
Soriano, M. & P. Martinez-Garcia. 2000. Muerte por
electrocuci6n. Cuadernos de Medicina Forense 32:71-
Trejo A., R. Figueroa, & S. Alvarado. 2006. Forest-
specialist raptors of the temperate forests of southern
South America: a review. Revista Brasileira de
Ornitologia 14 (4) 317-330.
PAGE 14 WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG
There has been a great surge in our knowledge of the
flora and fauna of the Neotropical Region during the
past two decades, thanks to the efforts of increasing
numbers of capable field workers. At the same time, it
has become more difficult for researchers to keep
track of all of the useful publications that have
appeared because so many people in so many
countries are involved in their production. Two
important accounts on the birds of Guatemala and
Argentina, respectively, which may not have come to
the attention of NRN participants are the following:
1) Eisermann, K., and C. Avendafio. 2006.
Diversidad de aves en Guatemala, con una lista
bibliogrAfica [Avian diversity in Guatemala, with
a bibliography]. Pp. 525-624 in E.B. Cano (ed.),
Biodiversidad de Guatemala, Volumen I
[Biodiversity of Guatemala, Vol. 1].
Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala
City, Guatemala. 674 pp.
2) Di Giacomo, A. G. 2005. Aves de la Reserva El
Bagual [Birds of El Bagual Reserve]. Pages 202-
465 in A.G. Di Giacomo and S.F. Krapovickas
(eds.), Historia natural y paisaje de la Reserva El
Bagual, Provincia de Formosa, Argentina:
inventario de la fauna de vertebrados y de la
flora vascular de un area protegida del Chaco
Humedo [Natural history and landscape of the
El Bagual Reserve, Formosa Province,
Argentina: inventory of the vertebrate fauna and
vascular flora of a protected area of the humid
chaco]. Aves Argentinas/Asociaci6n del Plata,
Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Both of these chapters are parts of larger books that
treat many aspects of the flora and fauna of their areas
of coverage in detail. Although these volumes are not
confined to raptor topics, they will still be of great
value to any naturalist working anywhere in the
Neotropics. The chapter by Eisermann and Avendafio
is the first comprehensive treatment of Guatemalan
birds since the field guides of Land and Smithe,
respectively, which were published more than 40 years
ago. In addition to basic information on the
abundance, status, and habitat preferences of each
species, there are more detailed notes on rarer species,
including 10 raptors. The chapter also includes an
amazing 48-page bibliography of publications on
Guatemalan birds. These authors also produced the
useful "Lista Comentada de las aves de Guatemala"
(2007), one of several Latin American country
checklists published in the last decade by Lynx
Edicions, and it contains additional notes on the
status of the most scarce raptor species in Guatemala.
Regrettably, the latter volume is now out of print, but
perhaps an updated edition will appear in the future.
The Reserva El Bagual volume is particularly
ambitious, with detailed chapters on the flora and
PAGE 15 WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG
each of the vertebrate groups occurring in the reserve.
The avian species accounts are among the most
comprehensive found in any general publication on
Neotropical birds, with details on seasonal status,
habitat selection, diet, breeding biology (particularly
extensive and useful!), and conservation. The accounts
for raptors draw heavily upon the senior editor's
earlier paper, Di Giacomo, A. G. 2000. Nidificaci6n
de algunas rapaces poco conocidas en el Chaco
Oriental Argentino [Nesting of some little known
raptors in the eastern Chaco of Argentina]. Homero
15:135-139, which will be of interest to all Neotropical
The great advantage of compilations of this type is
that they provide good baselines for evaluating the
significance of our own observations, and these
authors are to be congratulated for providing us with
such splendid building blocks at this stage in our
knowledge of Neotropical birds.
VI INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIAN RAPTORS 23 -27 June 2010, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
For more information visit: http://www.mos.mn/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6:arrcn-
ASSOCIATION OF AVIAN VETERINARIANS CONFERENCE 31 July -5 August 2010, San Diego, Cali-
fornia, USA. For more information visit: http://www.conferenceoffice.com/aav/
25th INTERNATIONAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS 22-28 August 2010, Campos do Jordio, Sao
Paolo, Brazil. For more information visit: http://www.ib.usp.br/25ioc/
CONSERVATION OF THE SAKER FALCON IN EUROPE 16-18 September 2010, Hungary For more
http://www.sakerlife.mme.hu/uploads/File/2nd_Call forConfSakerConf in_Hungary_16_18_09_2010.pdf
COLOMBIAN CONGRESS ON ZOOLOGY 21-26 November, 2010, Medellin, Colombia.
For more information visit:
GYRFALCON AND PTARMIGAN IN A CHANGING WORLD 1-3 February 2011, Boise, Idaho, USA For
more information visit: http://www.peregrinefund.org/Gyr_conference/
IX NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS 8-14 November 2011 Cusco, Peru.
For more information visit: http://www.neotropicalomithology.org/
ISIE9 WN 00PAE-1
ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010
About the Neotropical Raptor Network (NRN)
The NRN is a membership-based organization. Its goal is to aid in the research and conservation of Neotropical
raptors by promoting communication and collaboration among biologists, ornithologists, raptor enthusiasts, and
other conservationists working in the Neotropics.
To join the NRN please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org, introducing yourself and stating your
interest in Neotropical raptor research and conservation.
-. THE PEREGRINE FUND
WO rkng to Conserve Birds of Prey in Nature Ne ropical
PAGE 17 WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG