• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Main














Title: Spizaetus
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100958/00001
 Material Information
Title: Spizaetus
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Portuguese
Spanish
Publisher: Neotropical Raptor Network
Place of Publication: Boise, Idaho
Publication Date: June 2010
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100958
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

00006-2010-English ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
Full Text























































9e "
.9 < *'*
.:a? 'A < "" A


1.1 .~


C~ i,


L" "~'







Dear NRN Members,

Several changes have been made to the latest issue of the
NRN Newsletter. Most notably, we have given it an
official name, one which we hoped would be meaningful
in any of the languages spoken throughout the
Neotropics. Thus, the scientific name of a raptor seemed
an obvious choice. We decided on Spizaetus for several
reasons. First, this genus of raptors is found from
southern Mexico to northern Argentina, so an excellent
representative of the entire Neotropical region. Second,
despite its presence in most countries within Latin
America, we still lack some of the most basic knowledge
about the species within the Spizaetus genus. So this title
also represents the need to continue our efforts in scien-
tific research and environmental education, key tools in
the conservation of all raptor species and their habitats.
Today, there is an overwhelming amount of information
available through the internet on every possible subject. I
hope that the NRN Newsletter will provide raptor
researchers with quick and easy access to relevant
information. Our goal is to continue to produce the news-
letter in Spanish, English and Portuguese. Editing the
newsletter in these different languages takes a huge
amount of effort and collaboration, but we believe it is
worthwhile, as it will facilitate access to this information
to a wide variety of individuals interested in raptor
conservation.
As always, I thank the contributors and guest editors who
have assisted in creating this edition of Spizaetus. I look
forward to continuing to receive articles and photos from
you, the NRN members. Your contributions are what
make this newsletter possible. Thank you.


Marta Curti NRN Coordinator


Neotropical
Raptor
Network


TABLE OF CONTENTS:


A Symbol of our Natural Heritage
(Releases of Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi
in the Dominican Republic)................... 1


Mortality in King Vultures Sarcoramphus
papa in the Southern Yucatan
Peninsula, Mexico...........................6


Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus in
Lambayeque: An Extension of this
Species' Distribution Range West of
the Peruvian Andes.....................10


Electrocution of Black-chested
Buzzard Eagles Geranoaetus melanoleucus
on Power Lines in Calera de Tango,
Chile.................................. ......... 13


Important Literature....................16


Upcoming Conferences.......................17



NRN Coordinator:
Marta Curti mcurti@peregrinefund.org


Articles in this issue were edited and or
translated by Yeray Seminario, Angel Muela,
and Marta Curti


Cover Photo: Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi
released on Grupo Punta Cana property in the
Dominican Republic Dario FernAndez

Back Cover Photo: Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis,
Guija Lake, El Salvador Nestor Geovanni
Garcia


www.neotropicalraptors.org


WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG


PAGE -i










































Ridgway's Hawk Photo C Pedro Genaro Rodriguez



The Species

The Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi is a medium-sized
raptor endemic to the island of Hispaniola, as well as a

few satellite islands. However, due to loss of habitat

and human persecution, this species is now only
found within the Los Haitises National Park in the

province of Hato Mayor in the Dominican Republic.

There are only 313 known Ridgway's Hawks in

existence and it is recognized as a Critically

Endangered species by the International Union for

the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as well as the


Dominican Republic Ministry of the Environment

and Natural Resources. Having disappeared from

most of its former range and extinct in Haiti, we could

be very close to losing this species forever.

But thanks to the work carried out by the Hispaniola

Ornithological Society (Sociedad Ornitologica de la

Hispaniola), The Peregrine Fund, the Dominican

Republic Secretary of the Environment and Natural

Resources, and with the help of the Punta Cana

Ecological Foundation and Central Romana Inc., the

future of the Ridgway's Hawk is not so grim.

Environmental Education

One of the key factors in ensuring the survival of this

species is a strong conservation education campaign in

communities surrounding Ridgway's Hawk habitat.

Currently, the main threat facing them is human

persecution. They are being shot, in large part, due to

a case of mistaken identify. They are being confused

with the much more common Red-tailed Hawk

B. jamaicensis, which occasionally does prey on free-

ranging domestic poultry. However, during our

studies which documented nearly 150 prey items

(personal observation by Lance Woolaver), we did not
see one case of a Ridgway's Hawk feeding on

chickens. They prefer, instead, to feed on lizards,

snakes, frogs and small rodents and are, in actuality,

important in helping to limit the rodent population on

the island.


ISI KE21 PG


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 1







In 2005 we began an educational campaign which

continues to this day. Our work includes giving

presentations in local communities that focus on the

benefits of having this raptor on the island and

providing identification information to help

distinguish it from other raptors. Our campaign also

focuses on national pride, emphasizing that this hawk

is found only in the Dominican Republic and no

where else on earth. Other strategies include

distributing posters and other educational materials,
and last year we used funds to put together a theater

production dramatizing the plight of the Ridway's
Hawk. We put on this show in 10 communities

around Los Haitises National Park and it was a big hit.

Species Study and Assisted Dispersal


Hack box in La Herradura placed in a Yagrumo tree.
Photo C Jorge Brocca


In 2004 we began studying the basic ecology of the

species and in 2008 began an experimental assisted

dispersal release. This is a technique that is used to

increase distribution of critically endangered species

that are confined to a small area of their former range,

and for the Ridgway's Hawk it may take 10 years or

more to complete.
PAGE 2


Personnel from Central Romana, Inc. assigned to protect
the release area. Photo C Jorge Brocca


The idea is to take one young each from up to five

nests (Ridgway's Hawks normally produce up to three
chicks so removing one chick per nest won't affect

productivity of the breeding pairs in Los Haitises and

may even increase the odds of the survival of the
remaining two chicks as more food resources will be

available to them) and re-release them through a

method known as "hacking" into protected private

lands within their former range where the species

currently does not exist. Hacking has been used by The

Peregrine Fund to successfully release other raptors

including the Peregrine Falcon Falco pereginus and the

Aplomado Falcon Falcofemoralis. It involves placing the

young birds in a specially designed hack box and

holding them for about one week or so until they are

ready to fledge. This allows them to adjust to their new

surroundings and associate the release box with food.

Once they are released they will continue to return to

the hack box to feed until they become independent

and are hunting on their own.

Our first step was to locate a suitable release site one

that was once inhabited by this species and that still
WWW\.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG











































Map showing Los Haitises National Park and the release sites



contains suitable habitat and prey, with little or no

human presence. The site chosen was the Loma la

Herradura, a 3,000 hectare tract of tropical forest

owned by Centro Romana, Inc., one of the largest

private companies in the country. There are many

advantages to releasing birds on private lands namely

the fact that no one is allowed to enter without

authorization and hunting is prohibited.

The first year, we released four young hawks. They did

so well that the following year we released six more

birds three in Loma la Herradura and three in the

Ecological Reserve of Punta Cana. All birds were fitted


with transmitters prior to their release so that we are

able to track their movements and make sure they are

doing well.

Though there have been a few setbacks such as one

of the released birds being shot and killed and only its

transmitter found most of the released birds are

doing well and continue to hunt and survive on their

own. This coming year we plan to do more releases to

help increase the number of birds in the two areas and

eventually, create several breeding populations.


ISI TN 00 AE-


t
I~1


I I Los Haitises N.P. boundary


0 Release Sites


50 0 50 Km
, r


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 3





















































King Vultures in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve,
Campeche, Mexico. Photo U. Nesser


The King Vulture Sarcoramphus papa is a spectacular
bird that plays an important ecological role. However,

this fact has not been enough to attract the necessary

attention for its conservation. As a result, S. papa is

not protected at the global level. The International

Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red
PAGE 4


List categorizes this species as Least Concern due to

its wide range of distribution, although the IUCN

does recognize that their population is in decline

(Birdlife International 2009). In Mexico, the King

Vulture, according to legislation (NOM-059-ECOL-

2001), is categorized as endangered, while the
National Commission of Protected Natural Areas

(CONAP) considers it to be a species of conservation

priority.

In 2007 we initiated one of the first research projects

on the ecology, behavior and habitat use of the King

Vulture in Mexico. Specifically, our objective was to

find and characterize large roost sites, such as the one

that was described by Berlanga and Gutierrez (2000).

Our study took place in southern Campeche, and

included the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. The south-

ern part of this reserve is adjacent to Guatemala's

Maya Biosphere Reserve. In total we found five roost

sites with between 20 to 25 King Vultures at each one,

including adults, sub-adults and juveniles. A few of

these roosts have been known locally for a little over

30 years.

All of these roosts are located in forested areas of

well-conserved medium semi deciduous forests in

WWW\.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG







which such tree species as Bucida burseras, Manilkara

#apota, and Lysiloma latilisiquum dominate. They are all
found close to running water and far from human

settlements (Martinez, 2008).

Records of Mortality in King Vultures and

Possible Causes













Parallel with the project's activities, we began to keep

a record of all the dead King Vultures found in the

study area. During our visits to conduct field work in

the region, we began to collect King Vulture remains.

From February 2007 until February 2010 we collected

nine individual dead King Vultures. In three of these

cases, we collected the complete, intact remains; on

three other occasions we collected only skeletal

remains and feathers; and in the remaining three cases

we collected the skull, skeletal remains of their wings,

and feathers.


Eight of these were adults, determined by the well-

defined coloration pattern of the feathers and the

coloration of the head and neck. One was a juvenile,

easily identified by its entirely black feathers.

In six individuals we determined that the cause of

death was associated with man (Table 1). In four cases

we suspected the cause of death to be consumption of

bait laced with methyl parathion. In two cases birds

died from gunshot wounds and in three cases, we

could not determine the cause of death.

All of the collected remains were sent to the

Zoological Museum (Museo de Zoologia de El

Colegio de la Frontera Sur) in Chetumal, Mexico.

The four individuals who died of suspected poisoning

were all found at the same roost site one that has

been in use for at least the last ten years.

Our suspicion that these birds had died of poisoning

was supported by interviews conducted with local

authorities and with some ranchers from the

community where the dead vultures were found. They

told us that a jaguar had killed a calf and a sheep and,

a month later, had also killed two dogs owned by the
ranchers.


I _Table 1. King Vulture mortality and possible causes


Number of
Individuals


Ages


Cause of Death


May 2007

December 2008

February 2009

June 2009
February 2010
February 2010


Adult

Adult

Adult & sub-adult
Adults
Adult
Adults


Undetermined

Gun shot (.16 caliber shotgun)

Consumption of poisoned bait
Consumption of poisoned bait
Gun shot (.16 caliber shotgun)
Undetermined


ISI N 21 AE-


Date


-i ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 5




























The two King Vultures killed by gunshot wounds. Photo C M. Sanvicente.


In retaliation, the ranchers injected the remains of the

dead animals with high doses of the insecticide Foley

(methyl parathion). We hypothesize that the King
Vultures consumed these poisoned carcasses, as the
finding of their remains coincided with the deaths of

the livestock and dogs and the jaguar poisoning.

Methyl parathion is an organophosphate and is widely

used in agricultural areas in Calakmul. It is used with-

out control or regulation by the local environmental

authorities and is widely available for sale in establish-

ments that provide agricultural and farming products.

Its toxicity is known in raptors and other wildlife

species, such as small carnivores. At a high dosage it

affects the nervous system, causing loss of coordina-

tion, paralysis and death (SAnchez-Barbudo, et al.,

2008; Tarralluela et al., 2008).

In another two cases we confirmed the cause of death

to be due to gunshot wounds caused by a .16 caliber

shotgun. After examining the vultures' corpses we

found impact points and perforations caused by the
PAGE 6


bullets in the sternum and head, as well as fractures in

the wings and in other parts of their bodies. We also
found the bullet shells in close proximity to the dead
birds.

In all of those cases attributable to man, the death of

these vultures has been a product of a lack of
knowledge about this species' importance and

ignorance of the consequences of the improper use of

toxic products.

King Vulture Conservation

Their feeding habits and role as "trash collectors" has

not helped to call attention to this species on a local
level. However, the role of the King Vulture and all

scavengers in general is, without a doubt, invaluable
for mankind. The service that they carry out by elimi-

nating carrion from the environment is essential.

Without them, the risks that certain enteropathogenic

bacterial diseases, such as E. Coli, anthrax, and

salmonella would spread to other species of wildlife

and to humans would be higher.
WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG







In those areas in which King Vulture habitat (namely

tropical forests) is being lost to ever-growing agricul-

tural activities, there is a two-fold danger. On one

hand, the loss of habitat especially large trees which

are used in the logging industry reduces the number

of available perches or nests. At the same time this

loss of forest habitat to cattle pastures, logically,

equals an increase in livestock, which has implications

for the conservation of the King Vulture. When

these vultures consume livestock that die in the field,

whether by snake bite, disease, or predation, the risks

are high because of the common practice of treating

cattle with pharmaceuticals and toxic chemicals, which

may have negative health effects for scavengers. Sadly,

one example of this is the use of an anti-inflammatory

drug, diclofenac, and other agro-chemicals which have

caused the decline of scavenging raptors in Spain,

France, and India (Gil et al., 2008; Green et al. 2004).

For a rare species like the King Vulture, with slow

development and a low reproductive rate, the death of

even a few individuals can have negative repercussions

for maintaining a genetically and ecologically healthy

population in the long run.

The use of poison to control "harmful" fauna should

be discouraged by the local environmental authorities

and, at the same time, they should do an analysis of

the use of these agro-chemicals in Calakmul.


References

Berlanga, M. & R. Gutierrez. 2000. Aves de Calakmul,
el zopilote rey (Sarcoramphuspapa), observaciones en
un sitio de descanso comunal. Informe final.
Pronatura Peninsula de YucatAn AC. M6xico. 40 p.

BirdLife International. 2004. Sarcoramphus papa. In:


IUCN 2007. Red List of Threatened Species.
. Revisado 18 de abril de 2010.

Convenio Intemacional Sobre el TrAfico de Especies
de Flora y Fauna Silvestre. 2010. .
Revisado 15 de abril de 2010.

Gil, J. A., & de Frutos, A. 2008. Revision de los
envenenamientos de quebrantahuesos (Gypaetus
barbatus) en los pirineos (Espafia-Francia) 1994-2007.
In: Actas del seminario Mortalidad por intoxicaci6n en
aves necr6fagas. Problematica y soluciones. Ainsa,
Huesca.


Green, R., I., Newton, S. Shultz., A. Cunningham., M.
Gilbert, D. Pain & V. Prakash. 2004. Diclofenac
poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines
across the Indian subcontinent. Journal of applied
ecology. 41 (5):793-800.

Martinez, M. 2008. Caracterizaci6n a multiples escalas
espaciales de dormideros de zopilote rey
(Sarcoramphus papa) en el sur de la Peninsula de
YucatAn. Tesis de Maestria. El Colegio de la Frontera
Sur. 76 p.

Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT
2001-Protecci6n Ambiental. Especies de Flora y
Fauna Nativa Silvestres. Categorias de Riesgo.
www.semarnat.gob.mx. Revisado 15 de abril de 2010.

Tarralluela, A., G. Gallus & A. De la Fuente. 2008.
Presencia de plaguicidas t6xicos y peligrosos en las
cooperativas agroganaderas dos comarcas de la
Provincia de Huesca y su impacto en el
quebrantahuesos (Gypaetus barbatus). In: Actas del
seminario Mortalidad por intoxicaci6n en aves
necr6fagas. Problematica y soluciones. Ainsa, Huesca.

SAnchez-Barbudo, S., P. Camarero, L., Monsalve, M.
Taggart & R. Mateo. Casos de envenenamiento en
fauna silvestre en Arag6n. 2006-2007: T6xicos
detectados en el Area de distribuci6n del
quebrantahuesos (Gypaetus barbatus). In: Actas del
seminario Mortalidad por intoxicaci6n en aves
necr6fagas. ProblemAtica y soluciones. Ainsa, Huesca.


ISI TN 00 AE-


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 7







































Light morph Short-tailed Hawk, Lambayeque, Peru 26 June 2009 (right); 25 August 2009 (left). Photos C Fernando Angulo


The Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus has been

documented in the western slope of the South

American Andes within Colombia, Ecuador and the

extreme north of Peru in the Piura and Tumbes

Departments (Hilty & Brown 1986, Schulenberg etal.

2007, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Vasquez & Justo

2009).

In Peru, the species is found only in the Amotapes

Range (Walker 2002, Vasquez & Justo 2009), a branch

of the Andes which heads northeast and southwest

paralleling the coast and which separates from the

main branch at 790 30' degrees south latitude. Here,

the species is uncommon in semi deciduous forests


from 0 to 750 m above sea level (Schulenberg et al.

2007).

Observations

On 24 June 2009, I observed an adult Short-tailed

Hawk (Fig. 1, right) soaring at 1500 m.a.s.l., in the

"Palacios" Ravine (60 02' 18.2" S / 790 32' 12.5"),

approximately 20 km. northeast of Motupe, in the

Lambayeque Department. Three days later I saw

another individual, approximately 3 km. southwest

from the first sighting, at 1100 m.a.s.l. (Angulo 2009).

On this occasion, we were able to photograph and

film the bird:

(htto: //www.voutube.com/watch? v=C50EWxEaGr8).


PAGE 8 \VW\~ .NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG


PAGE 8


WWW.NEOTROPICATLRAPTORS.ORG

















































Localidades conocidas
SNueva localidad
Limite departamental
Curves de Nivel
0-250 hiayo
250 500

750- 1000
S1000 1500
/1500- 2000
/ 2000 3000
/ 3000 4000

Map 1. Previous sightings of Short-tailed Hawk (dark blue) and the sighting
reported in this article (light blue).


On 25 August 2009, we observed

another Short-tailed Hawk (presumably

the same individual) very close to the

location of the second sighting (1 km. to

the north, Fig.l, left). We photographed

this individual, as well. It is important to

mention that all observed Short-tailed

Hawks were light morph individuals.

We identified these raptors as Short-

tailed Hawks due to the pure white color

of their breasts and wings; their

distinctive facial pattern (a black mask

that covers the upper part and sides of

the head); and their tail markings, which

include thin dark bands that are

conspicuous in flight. In the region, it

could be possible to confuse Short-tailed

Hawks with a light morph adult male

Variable Hawk (Buteo polyosoma),

however the latter is much larger and

has an overall white tail with a thick

black sub-terminal band.

When we observed these individuals,

they were seen flying over hilly areas

mostly covered with dry, semi-dense

forest (Proyecto Algarrobo 1993) with

some areas of degraded vegetation due

to agricultural practices and some road

construction.

Discussion

These records constitute the first for

Buteo brachyurus in the Lambayeque

Department in Peru and demonstrate an


ISI TN 00 AE-


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 9







extension of their range as described by Schulemberg

et al. (2007) by 230 km. (linear) toward the southeast.

Additionally, these observations represent the first

record of this species within the main chain of the

Peruvian Andes, outside of the Amotapes Range (see

map 1). Equally, the altitudinal range of the species in

Peru is between 750 and 1500 m.a.s.l., although in

Ecuador it has been reported below 1600 m.a.s.l. and

in Colombia up to 1800 m.a.s.l. (Hilty & Brown 1986,

Ridgely & Greenfield 2001).


Acknowledgements

Thanks to Segundo Crespo and Pablo Venegas for

their assistance in the field; to Renzo Piana and Marta

Curti for their support duing the revision of the

manuscript; to Alex More for the map, and to KfW for

financing the trip.


References

Angulo, F. 2009. Informe Omitologia: Palacios:
Diagn6stico y Elaboraci6n de Expedientes Tecnicos en
las Areas Prioritarias para la conservaci6n en los
Bosques Secos de Tumbes, Piura y Lambayeque.
Informe de Consultoria PRFNP-C-CON-042-2008-
PAN PROFONANPE, KFW, SERNANP.


Hilty, S. L. & W. L. Brown. 1986. A Guide to the Birds
of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton,
NJ.


Proyecto Algarrobo. 1993. Mapa e inventario forestal
de los bosques secos de Lambayeque. Memoria
explicativa. CEIMAD-Proyecto Algarrobo, Chiclayo,
Peru.


Ridgely, R. S. & P. J. Greenfield. 2001. The Birds of
Ecuador: Field Guide. Volume II. Cornell University


Press. Ithaca, New York.


Schulenberg, T.S., D.F. Stotz, D.F. Lane, J.P. O'Neill,
& T.A. Parker III. 2007. Birds of Peru. Princeton
University Press. New Jersey.


VAsquez P. & M. Justo (Editores). 2009. La fauna
Silvestre del Coto de caza El Angolo. Guia para la
identificaci6n de la aves. Centro de Datos para la
Conservaci6n Universidad Nacional Agraria La
Molina. La Molina, 202 p.


Walker, B. 2002. Observations from the Tumbes
Reserved Zone, dpto. Tumbes, with notes on some
new taxa for Peru and a checklist of the area. Cotinga
18: 37-43.


PAGE 10 WW\X .NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG


PAGE 10


WWW.NEOTROPICATLRAPTORS.ORG























Species Background


The Black-chested Buzzard Eagle Geranoaetus

melanoleucus is the largest raptor of the Accipitridae

family found in Chile (Brown & Amadon, 1968). It

has a wingspan between 175 and 200 centimeters and

weighs approximately 2,000 grams (del Hoyo et

a/.,1994). It is widely distributed in South America

and is found from Colombia to Tierra del Fuego,

along both slopes of the Andes Mountain Range

(Alvarado, 2006). This species inhabits open areas of

shrub and mountain ranges where it has easy access to

prey, however it is also considered an accidental
species in forests (Trejo etal., 2006). For this reason,

the Black-chested Buzzard Eagle is found in a variety

of environments and is found nesting in sites highly

impacted by humans. Their nests are usually built in

cliff faces, on cactus, high tension towers or trees

(Alvarado, pets. obs.).

In general, the Black-chested Buzzard Eagle has been

described as an opportunistic species that consumes a

wide variety of prey (Schlatter et al., 1980; Pavez et al.,

1992; Hiraldo et al., 1995), but concentrates on prey

with a higher biomass, such as rabbits and large

rodents (Jim6nez & Kaksic, 1989). Its main diet


Juvenile Black-chested Buzzard Eagle perhced on a power
line post in Cerro Lonqu6n. Photo C Sergio Alvarado



includes: European Rabbit Ogyctolagus cuniclus, Long-

tailed Snake Philodgyas chamissonis, the Degu, or Brush-

tailed Rat Octodon degu and a wide range of other
rodents and birds.

The Eagles in Calera de Tango

Calera de Tango is a rural community located to the

southwest of Santiago de Chile. Within its limits are

the mountain islands of Chena and Longquen, which

are considered priority sites for biodiversity conserva-

tion (CONAMA, 2004). Both sites serve as natural


ISI TN 00 AE-1


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 11






































Black-chested Buzzard Eagle perched on a mid-tension power line post. Photo C Makarena Roa


refuges for the wild flora and fauna, which are

representatives of the Mediterranean eco-region of

central Chile. The Black-chested Buzzard Eagle stands

out among the wildlife here, and in fact, Cerro Calera,

which is part of the Longquen Hills, is a nesting and

breeding site for this species.

Electrocution of Raptors

In Cerro Calera, there are few high trees or cliffs that

serve as observation perches for resident raptors. So

instead, these birds use the power lines installed to

provide energy to a cell phone tower owned by

ENTEL PCS. This installation consists of a mid

tension three-phase system of 12,000V, made out of

115 structures built on 11.5 m. high concrete poles,

PAGE 12


with wooden cross beams, ceramic insulators and

13.3mm2 bare copper conductors. This system

corresponds to a distribution network which is in use

throughout Chile, for electric company networks and

cell phone antennas.

Sadly, between November 2009 and January 2010, 16

dead Black-chested Buzzard Eagles were found

beneath electric posts owned by ENTEL PCS, of

which 14 were juveniles and two were adults. The

pathological studies carried out by Dr. Carlos

Gonzalez, Veterinarian and Pathologist from the

school of Veterinary Medicine, Andres Bello Univer-

sity, concluded that these animals died due to cardio-

respiratory failure brought on by electrocution, with

WWW\.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG











































Black-chested Buzzard Eagles electrocuted on mid-tension electrical lines owned by the ENTEL PCS company.
Photo C Maria Jos6 Esquivel


vascular pulmonary, cerebral and cardiac injuries, as

well as non inflammatory edemas.

Due to the fact that electrocution was determined as

the cause of death of 16 Black-chested Buzzard Eagles

the local government of San Bernardo Community

penalized ENTEL PCS, under the law against cruelty

to animals, and as a prudential measure, they

requested that this company present a project to

modify their installations to avoid more deaths by

electrocution. In the end, the company decided to

completely remove the existing power line and install,


within the telecommunications antenna enclosure, a

system of hybrid energy which included the use of

solar energy, obtained through photovoltaic panels,

and a diesel generator.

In general terms, the electrocution of birds on power

lines is a result of the rapid growth of the electrical

infrastructure a product of the expansion of real

estate and telecommunications markets along with

the lack of regulations that take into account the

protection of birds. One example of the impact that

these power lines can have occured in Spain, where a


ISI N 21 AE-1


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 13







power line was installed in the middle of a park, which
caused the deaths of some Spanish Imperial Eagles
(Aquila adalbertz). The company responsible was made

to take down the power line, and as a result the
survival rate of the eagle chicks increased from 17.6%

to 80% within the first six months of their lives
(Ferrer and Hidalgo, 1991).

One hopes that, as a consequence of what has
occurred in Calera de Tango, the governmental

authorities will regulate, in the near future, the
telecommunication and electrical transmission

companies. To achieve this, we will present the
government with a strategy and request that
regulations be put in place for the installation of

electrical distribution networks, which will help


mitigate electrocution of birds in


natural areas


throughout the country.

References

Alvarado, S. 2006. Inusual caza area de una gaviota
capucho cafe (Chroicocephalus maculipennis) y posible
muerte de un aguilucho comin (Buteo polyosoma) por
un Aguila mora (Geranoaetus melanoleucus). Revista
NuestrasAves, 53:14-15


Brown, L. & O. Amadon. 1968. Eagles, hawks and
falcons of the World. Mcgraw-Hill Co., New York.


CONAMA. 2004. Estrategia para la conservaci6n de
la biodiversidad en la region Metropolitana de
Santiago.


Del Hoyo J., A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal.. Eds. 1994.
Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol 2. New
World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Editions,
Barcelona.


Ferrer, M. y F. Hiraldo 1991. Evaluation of manage-
ment techniques for the Spain imperial eagle. Wildlife
Society Bulletin 19(4):436-442.


GonzAlez, C. 2009. Informe de necropsia n08.461.
Fac. de Ecologia y Recursos Naturales, Escuela de
Medicina Veterinaria. Universidad Andres Bello.


Hiraldo F., J. Donazar, O. Ceballos, A. Travaini, J.
Bustamante, & M. Funes. 1995. Breeding biology of a
grey eagle-buzzard population in Patagonia. Wilson
Bulletin, 107: 675-685.


Jimenez, J. E. & F.M. Jaksic. 1989. Behavioral ecology
of gray eagle-buzzards Geranoaetus melanoleucus, in cen-
tral Chile. Condor, 91: 913-921.


Pavez, E., C. GonzAlez & J. Jimenez. 1992. Diet shits
of black-chested eagles (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) from
native prey to European rabbits in Chile. Journal of
Raptor Research, 26:27-32.


Schlatter, R., J. YAfiez, & F.M. Jaksic. 1980. Food
niche Relationships between Chilean Eagles and Red-
backed Buzzards in Central Chile. Auk, 97: 897-898.


Soriano, M. & P. Martinez-Garcia. 2000. Muerte por
electrocuci6n. Cuadernos de Medicina Forense 32:71-
74.


Trejo A., R. Figueroa, & S. Alvarado. 2006. Forest-
specialist raptors of the temperate forests of southern
South America: a review. Revista Brasileira de
Ornitologia 14 (4) 317-330.


PAGE 14 WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG















There has been a great surge in our knowledge of the
flora and fauna of the Neotropical Region during the
past two decades, thanks to the efforts of increasing
numbers of capable field workers. At the same time, it
has become more difficult for researchers to keep
track of all of the useful publications that have
appeared because so many people in so many
countries are involved in their production. Two
important accounts on the birds of Guatemala and
Argentina, respectively, which may not have come to
the attention of NRN participants are the following:

1) Eisermann, K., and C. Avendafio. 2006.
Diversidad de aves en Guatemala, con una lista
bibliogrAfica [Avian diversity in Guatemala, with
a bibliography]. Pp. 525-624 in E.B. Cano (ed.),
Biodiversidad de Guatemala, Volumen I
[Biodiversity of Guatemala, Vol. 1].
Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala
City, Guatemala. 674 pp.

2) Di Giacomo, A. G. 2005. Aves de la Reserva El
Bagual [Birds of El Bagual Reserve]. Pages 202-
465 in A.G. Di Giacomo and S.F. Krapovickas
(eds.), Historia natural y paisaje de la Reserva El
Bagual, Provincia de Formosa, Argentina:
inventario de la fauna de vertebrados y de la
flora vascular de un area protegida del Chaco

Humedo [Natural history and landscape of the
El Bagual Reserve, Formosa Province,


Argentina: inventory of the vertebrate fauna and
vascular flora of a protected area of the humid
chaco]. Aves Argentinas/Asociaci6n del Plata,
Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Both of these chapters are parts of larger books that
treat many aspects of the flora and fauna of their areas
of coverage in detail. Although these volumes are not
confined to raptor topics, they will still be of great
value to any naturalist working anywhere in the
Neotropics. The chapter by Eisermann and Avendafio
is the first comprehensive treatment of Guatemalan
birds since the field guides of Land and Smithe,
respectively, which were published more than 40 years
ago. In addition to basic information on the
abundance, status, and habitat preferences of each
species, there are more detailed notes on rarer species,
including 10 raptors. The chapter also includes an
amazing 48-page bibliography of publications on

Guatemalan birds. These authors also produced the
useful "Lista Comentada de las aves de Guatemala"
(2007), one of several Latin American country
checklists published in the last decade by Lynx
Edicions, and it contains additional notes on the
status of the most scarce raptor species in Guatemala.
Regrettably, the latter volume is now out of print, but
perhaps an updated edition will appear in the future.

The Reserva El Bagual volume is particularly
ambitious, with detailed chapters on the flora and


PAGE 15 WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG







each of the vertebrate groups occurring in the reserve.
The avian species accounts are among the most
comprehensive found in any general publication on

Neotropical birds, with details on seasonal status,

habitat selection, diet, breeding biology (particularly

extensive and useful!), and conservation. The accounts
for raptors draw heavily upon the senior editor's
earlier paper, Di Giacomo, A. G. 2000. Nidificaci6n

de algunas rapaces poco conocidas en el Chaco
Oriental Argentino [Nesting of some little known
raptors in the eastern Chaco of Argentina]. Homero

15:135-139, which will be of interest to all Neotropical


raptor biologists.

The great advantage of compilations of this type is

that they provide good baselines for evaluating the
significance of our own observations, and these

authors are to be congratulated for providing us with
such splendid building blocks at this stage in our

knowledge of Neotropical birds.


VI INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASIAN RAPTORS 23 -27 June 2010, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
For more information visit: http://www.mos.mn/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6:arrcn-
6th-conference&catid= 1:latest-news


ASSOCIATION OF AVIAN VETERINARIANS CONFERENCE 31 July -5 August 2010, San Diego, Cali-
fornia, USA. For more information visit: http://www.conferenceoffice.com/aav/


25th INTERNATIONAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS 22-28 August 2010, Campos do Jordio, Sao
Paolo, Brazil. For more information visit: http://www.ib.usp.br/25ioc/


CONSERVATION OF THE SAKER FALCON IN EUROPE 16-18 September 2010, Hungary For more
information visit:
http://www.sakerlife.mme.hu/uploads/File/2nd_Call forConfSakerConf in_Hungary_16_18_09_2010.pdf


COLOMBIAN CONGRESS ON ZOOLOGY 21-26 November, 2010, Medellin, Colombia.
For more information visit:
http://www.iiicongresocolombianozoologia.org/portada/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49&
Itemid= 126


GYRFALCON AND PTARMIGAN IN A CHANGING WORLD 1-3 February 2011, Boise, Idaho, USA For
more information visit: http://www.peregrinefund.org/Gyr_conference/


IX NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS 8-14 November 2011 Cusco, Peru.
For more information visit: http://www.neotropicalomithology.org/


ISIE9 WN 00PAE-1


ISSUE 9 JUNE 2010


PAGE 16















































About the Neotropical Raptor Network (NRN)

The NRN is a membership-based organization. Its goal is to aid in the research and conservation of Neotropical
raptors by promoting communication and collaboration among biologists, ornithologists, raptor enthusiasts, and
other conservationists working in the Neotropics.

To join the NRN please send an email to mcurti@peregrinefund.org, introducing yourself and stating your
interest in Neotropical raptor research and conservation.


-. THE PEREGRINE FUND
WO rkng to Conserve Birds of Prey in Nature Ne ropical
Raptor
Network


PAGE 17 WWW.NEOTROPICALRAPTORS.ORG




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs