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 Design and layout of research...
 A Biology research study
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Title: Research report for the proposed biology building
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100889/00001
 Material Information
Title: Research report for the proposed biology building
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Fearney, E. M.
Publisher: E. M. Fearney
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100889
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Design and layout of research laboratories
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    A Biology research study
        Page 41
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    Animal quarters
        Page 53
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    Research of design and construction of darkroom
        Page 112
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    Integration of structure and mechanical equipment
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Full Text















RESEARCH RE
FOR THE PROPOSED BIOLOGY


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LABORATORY LAYOUT


In planning research labs the question arises as to whether

all principal units should be grouped together in one close-knit

block or dispersed into divisional units (though still as parts

of a correlated whole).

Some directors hold most strongly to the view that close-

knit planning is essential as only by this means can proper control

of the organization be ensured. The validity of this argument is

open to question. The decision in my view should turn on the question

of economics and upon what is the most suitable arrangement to meet

site conditions. The open layout is more appropriate to a hilly

site it avoids expensive under-building, can be moulded more

effectively to the contours of the land, and facilitates future

extension. Among its disadvantantages are longer (and therefore

more costly) roads, oaths and services.

While the single-block plan may be a more economical proposi-

tion on level ground by reason of shorter services and communications,

it presents technical problems which may well involve extra cost in

other directions. The principal objection to this form of planning

however lies in the restrictions which it imposes upon future ex-

oansion.

Whatever form the proposed laboratory may take there is a funda-

mental lesson to be drawn from past mistakes which architect and

scientist alike must heed. This is the supreme importance of pre-

paring at the outset a master plan which lays down the general lines

of development for the future. Such a master plan must, above all,

be flexible; it should not attempt to lay down more than the broad






outline of future development, leaving details to be filled in as

occasion demands. What it does ensure is that development over the

years will follow an orderly path and that mistakes in siting new

buildings, roads and services will be avoided.

There is no all-embracing formula for the actual process of

laying out a new laboratory plan. Technical requirements must

naturally predominate, but size, shape and configuration of the land,

means of access, orientation and various other factors will all in-

fluence the designer in shaping his scheme. Fundamental precau-

tions, such as the siting of noisy workshops, noxious processes,

boiler-house, etc. away from the main body of the laboratory will

be taken as a matter of course. Similarly, laboratories equipped

with balances or other delicate instruments will be located as far

as possible from concentrations of heavy plant or traffic.

In any development scheme, the imaginative designer will be

concerned not only to preserve and integrate existing amenities -

trees, hedges, streams and the like but also to create others,

so far as lies within his power. Careful attention will be directed

to the grouping of the various units, distance between buildings

in relation to their height, formation and layout of permanent open

spaces, tree planting, and so on. It should be mentioned in pass-

ing that much of the value of such amenities will be lost unless

proper care is taken to maintain them in the future. The combina-

tion of well designed and efficient buildings, good layout and plea-

sant surroundings must inevitably exert a beneficial influence upon

the work of the laboratory.





DESIGN AND LAYOUT

OF RESEARCH LABORATORIES


It has been said, with a good deal of truth, that no building

can be a success unless its designer has thoroughly understood the

essential ouroose and function which it is to fulfil. Thus as one

of the first tasks in the planning of any new building the archi-

tect must make a close study of the system or processes involved:

space, plant and personnel requirements; problems of delivery,

circulation, dispatch and the like.

It may be assumed that much of these data will have been pro-

vided by the client in the form of a written brief, but the archi-

tect must supplement the information by personal observation and

enquiry, so that he may build up a clear mental picture of the

essential requirements.

This initial fact-finding process is complicated in the case

of research laboratory design in that there is no firm basis from

which to start. Research is never static; it is constantly chang-

ing in both direction and scope, and a brief based on the immediate

requirements at any given moment in time would almost certainly be

inapplicable when, months or years later, the new laboratory reaches

physical completion,

To overcome this difficulty one should (1) forecast as ac-

curately as possible future developments in the particular field

of research concerned; (2) 'fix' the stage to which research may

be expected to have advanced by the estimated completion date of


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo




-2-

the new laboratory, and (3) base the detailed schedule of require-

ments for the building on (2) above.

Accurate short-range prediction will ensure that the pattern

of research will dovetail precisely with the accommodation and

facilities provided by a new laboratory at the time of completion.

Long-term prediction stated in terms of probable expansion require-

ments provides valuable assistance to both architect and engineer

in planning the overall building and service layouts.

Clearly, only the director can possess the wider knowledge

necessary to forecast the course and timing of research develop-

ment, and it is upon him therefore that the architect must rely

for a brief, not only full and informative in detail but also re-

flecting the forecast developments. The rapid and continual rise

in building and engineering costs brings into sharp relief the need

for economy in design, and the majority of research laboratories -

especially if built with public funds are peculiarly susceptible

to charges of extravagance, however ill-founded. It is the duty

of both architect and engineer therefore to examine critically the

detailed schedule of requirements for a proposed laboratory, and to

put forward for the director's consideration any practical alternatives

whereby economies in building or plant costs might be made. The im-

portance of economy in laboratory design, and some means of contrib-

uting towards it, are touched upon elsewhere in this paper, but it

is perhaps appropriate to emphasize here that real economy starts -

with the director's schedule of requirements, and from the moment

the designer first puts pencil to paper.

Space Required in Laboratories

Sometimes the nature of the work determines the size of the

room required. This is so with large-scale engineering testing,

Richard G. Allen and Emilio Lebolo




-3-

for instance, where the sheer bulk of the equipment needed is alone

the deciding factor. Routine bench work, such as chemical analysis,

can often with advantage be done in large laboratories, but it is

more common in research organizations to find existing large rooms

being sub-divided than small ones being fun together. For most

small-scale work two to four people to a room seems to be the most

general allocation.

Adaptability

With the techniques for building and provision of services"

now available it is possible to obtain a high degree of flexibility

in the movement of partitions, benches and connections to services,

but at a cost of perhaps up to 15 per cent extra if almost infinite

flexibility is demanded. Inflexible, monumental laboratory buildings

are a poor long-term asset and a flexible one a good asset

The Services

In a laboratory whose internal arrangements are unlikely to

change, benches may be set in the required positions and services

brought to outlets wherever they are needed, the pipes and cables

being fixed to bench or structure as necessary. But the fixing

of services to benching adds a formidable difficulty to the business

of moving them, and this applies also to partitions. If therefore

the laboratory is to be easily adaptable, some form of 'ring main'

service run should be contrived, either around or within the per-

imeter walls of the building, or in ducts arranged in the thick-

ness of the floor, with 'heads' for gas, water, electricity, drain-

age and such other ductable services as may be required, arranged at

a regular series of fixed points.

One way to determine quickly and accurately all that is required


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo







of the new building is to form a small committee of the 'key'

laboratory men, under a representative of the director, together with

the engineer who will be responsible for maintenance of the new

building, and if at all possible the architect. At some stage in

the development of the plan, opportunities should be made to visit

any other establishments there may be whose experience of providing

accommodation is likely to be relevant. Such a reconnaissance should

be made not too early, not too late.

Heating and Ventilating

Heating and ventilating go hand in hand. Since they may be

very expensive if exacting demands are made of them, it will be

as well to assess accurately what degree of control is needed to

avoid asking for more than is really necessary. At one end of a

long scale of cost is the full plenum system of washed and heated -

or cooled air, working to fine limits of temperature and humidity;

at the other, ordinary low pressure hot water in pipes and radiators,

and three air changes an hour through the fume cupboards. Apart

from the difficulty that pipes and radiators bedevil the siting of

benches and the running of services, there is little to be said

against them. Put if the degree of flexibility called for in the

internal arrangements allows for the creation of rooms anywhere

they are required simply by moving preformed partitioning, there

is the possibility that a room might be left, or formed, without

any direct heating. This would lead to unevenness of temperature

throughout the building and inevitably, complaints. It may be over-

come by floor, or perhaps ceiling, heating. The method to be adopt-

ed will depend on the advice of the heating engineer and the archi-

tect, but the client mist make quite clear what service he wants.


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo




-5-

In most laboratories an internal temperature of 650 F approximately

provides reasonable working conditions. Any special conditions

should be detailed separately, together with the limits of variation

allowable.

Heating

A wide variety of heating systems has been used in different

types of laboratories, ranging from full air conditioning and warm-

ing to hot water pipes fitted with aluminium alloy reflectors.

Where ledges or dust pockets are unacceptable for example, in

tracer-element or biological laboratories heated floors and ceil-

ings may provide the best answer. A common arrangement is to in-

stall het water convectors behind the rear casing of benches so that

a current of air circulates over the heated surfaces and passes out

through grills in the bench top. (In such cases it is important to

see that the grilles are not placed horizontally in the working sec-

tion of a bench, to avoid risk of accidental spillage of liquids

into the cavities.)

Lighting

The condition which most closely affects the plan form of a

laboratory is that of daylighting. The Division for Architectural
1
Studies of the Nuffield Foundation has recently completed a report

on lighting based on observations made in some of the laboratories

of the Agricultural Research Council. This recommends that the

basic level of illumination should be of the order of 15 lumens

per sq. ft. on working planes, the general lighting being supple-

mented by adjustable local lighting for special tasks. The daylight


1. Unpublished report. 'Lightinglin Laboratories', by J. Musgrove.


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo




6 -

factor recommended is three per cent for close detail, with some

falling off from this for less exacting work, though experience at

the Building Research Station suggests that it should nowhere be

less than 2 per cent. It is however not necessary for this to be

achieved wholly by daylighting, and it may in some circumstances

be beneficial to the plan, and possibly to the arrangement of win-

dows in the facades, to provide for a mixture of day and artificial

lighting as the normal daytime illumination. Light from north-

facing windows is preferred by many laboratory workers. Windows

on other faces should be equipped with adjustable protection from

sunshine, and all windows should be designed to minimize the visual

discomfort caused by sharp contrasts between light and dark areas

within the field of view. Artificial lighting is still a contro-

versial subject about which it is perhaps unwise to dogmatise. Ex-

perience indicates that when a good proportion of the total light

emitted from the fittings is directed upwards onto ceilings and

walls which have been decorated in light-reflecting colours, the

rooms appear bright and pleasant, in contrast to those lit only by

downcast lighting, which tend to be gloomy and somewhat dispiriting.

The fittings should be carefully designed to avoid dazzle; that is

to say, the unshaded light source should not be visible to the eye

at angles of elevation of less than 600.

Artificial Lighting

Artificial illumination in small-scale laboratories is now al-

most universally provided by fluorescent tubes, much of the earlier

dislike of this form of lighting having disappeared as the result

of improvement and development. An intensity of from 15 to 20 lumens

per square foot at bench 1 vel may be regarded as normal in most lab-

oratories, but where precision work is involved the general lighting


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo




-7 -

should be sup 'lemented by adjustable bench fittings.

Specia-lly di'irned lighting fittings are require to meet the

exceptional conditions fo nd in research laboratories. Some of

these must be capable of withstanding high or low temperatures; some,

corrosion from acid fumes; other, extreme humidity or actual immersion.

Lighting fittings for laboratories dealing with bacteriolopical or

radio-active subjects must conform with the requirement usual in such

conditions, i.e. that all ledges, crevices .nd other lodgments for

radio-active dust nust be eliminated. In situations where there is an

explosive risk, lightin,' fittings are required to be flameproof, or

alternatively placed outside the laboratory, illuminating it through

sealed glass-fronted )orts in the walls or roof. In neither case

should control switches be located inside the laboratory. A recuire-

ment sometimes called for, especially in certain physics laboratories,

is non-stroboscopic lighting provided either by three-phase current

or the two-lamp system. Where for experimental techniques a constant

supply is essential, a stand-by lighting system with automatic cut-

in must be provided.

Finishings and Fittings

When it is realized that the items coming underthis head--olastering,

wall tiling, floor finishing's, decoration, benches, fume cupboards and

the like--may account for over 20 per cent of the total cost of a

laboratory building, the importance of a critical approach to their

design or selection becomes clear. Standards of finish which are

pitched too high serve only to inflate costs without adding in the

least to the facilities or general efficiency of a laboratory. At

the same time standards must not b,, depressed to the point where they


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo




-8-

exercise an adverse psychological effect upon the occupants.

In what circumstances, for example, should walls and ceilings

be plastered? Clearly it would be inappropriate to do so in bulk

stores garages workshoos and the like, but equally clearly there

is every justification for a smooth plaster finish to interior sur-

faces of laboratories concerned with (for example) medical research,

microbiology or radioactivity. Between these extremes lies a range

of laboratories, quasi-laboratories and ancillary buildings where

the ibsue is not so easily decided; where each must be considered

strictly on its merits and 4n the light of processes involved. The

rule should b,? that unless a sound case can be made out for it, plas-

tering ought not to be used; brick or concrete surfaces should be

finished 'fair-faced' and treated with gloss paint, emulsion paint

or distemper as appropriate. 'ven where individual rooms are plastered

it does not follow that corridors or staircases giving access to them

need be similarly finished. These may often be left fair-faced and

painted or distempered.

The average laboratory floor finish is subject not only to nor-

mal wear by personnel, trolleys, etc., but also to attack by split

chemicals. Probably the ideal flooring is teak, but this is not al-

ways possible on account of its high initial cost. Many makes of

jointless flooring (for which it is claimed that they are unaffected

by any but the nost highly concentrated chemicals) are now available,.

and some of these show considerable promise. Few however can compare

in price with good quality linoleum, which meets most of the require-

ments and in the event of serious d mage by chemicals is sufficiently

cheap to warrant removal and replacement of the area affected. Other


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo




9 -

floor finishes in rgneral use are thermoplastic tiling, terrazzo,

g;ranolithic paving and quarry tiling.

Advocacy of restraint in thf- choice of internal finishes is

not to say that the buildings must be dull and uninsoirin- places

in which to work. On the contrary, by bold and ina -inative use of

colour in decorative treatment it i: possible to create an interesting,

stimulating and even exciting atmosphere irrespective of the surface

finishes used.

It is impossible, in a short oaper, to discuss all the various

special finishes rec'-ired to meet the exceptional conditions obtaining

in research laboratories. Suc' conditions include extremes of tem-

perature, high humidity, X-ray emission, radioactivity, chemical fumes

and corrosive liquids--to mention only a few. All these present their

own problems, and call for special techniques in the composition and

execution of the finishings adopted.

Benches developed for laboratories usually finish 3 ft. from

floor level to working plane, and 2 ft. 3 in. (single width). Skirt-

ings 9 to 12 in. high at back of bench form a mounting for s rvice

outlets and instruments. Pipes, wiring and instrumentation cabling

arm accommodated in a cavity behind the skirting, the top of which is

covered by a wood coping arranged (in aporonriate cases) as an ex-

tension to internal window sills. Hot air grilles are fitted either

into the skirting or the wood capping. Independent cupboard and

drawer units can be inserted below the bench tops as required, but

a continuous 12 in. deep cavity is maintained at the back for heating,

drainage or other mains. HaPliators or ccavectors may also be located

in this cavity, spaced between cupboard units.


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo




!n -

P.ench tops are usually of solid oiled teak, which stands up well

to the d-mannnds and hazards of labora,,tory routine, but plastic finishes

on framed or i;olid blockbojrd L.icKi.g are also widely used. A less

expensive finish, suita ile for u;-e in nonchemical laboratories is r;ood

quality linoleum based on blockboard. Fench sinks for normal s.mall-

scale research may range from fireclay to acid-resisting stoneware,

but for phctographic work lead lined sinks and drainToards are provided.

In exceptional cases stainless steel sinks may be required.

Special benches "or balances and o-tical instruments are of slate,

marble or other dense, inert material, supported on brick piers and

based (where necessary) on independent foundation slabs insulated

from the main structure of the tuildinr.

Fume cupboards vary in form and size, but basically consist of

a teak frame having fixed plate glass panels at sides and back, and

cou..ter-balanced sliding sashes at front. (These, when raised, s1Xild

not be less than 6 ft. from floor to underside of sash.) Acid-resisting

plastic strips cover the? internal jointing of the framework; the working

bench--usually of slate and pierced for services and wastes--is set

3 ft. from the floor. Fumes are removed by extract fans in the uoper

uart of the cabinet. These fans, and any Internal lighting fittings,

need to be specially protected against corrosion.


Richard Allen and Emilio Lebolo






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TEACHING LABS FOR GENERAL ZOOLOGY, ANIMAL BIOLOGY,
INVERTERBRATE ZOOLOGY, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, AND EMBRYOLOGY


BASIC LAB UNIT

In developing a basic lab unit it was found that for the 16
capacity labs a room 28'x 32' would be large enough for 2
work tables ( 4 students per side, both sides) or 4 work tables
( 4 students on one side) and work counters around three sides
of the room. A basic unit lab of 26' x 32' would allow the same
table placements and work counters on 2 sides of the room.

The basic unit lab for 32 capacity ( 4 tables, 4 students per
side, both sides) with a counter along one wall would measure
26' x 481 The same table arrangement with counters along 3
sides would measure 28' x 48'. Students seated on one side only
is: necessary in teaching labs where visual aids are used
( BLY 308, 310)

With the standard lab lengths of 32' and 48' an 8' module
cab be used. Stock and preparation rooms are 8' wide.
Mechanical services could be introduced every 8'.


STOCK AND PREPARATION ROOMS

Stock and preparation rooms are located between labs to act as
buffers and for flexibility in servicing the labs. Normally each
lab is serviced by one stock room ( as on the plans for 3LY 217
and 308). When more than one course is taught in a lab or when
additional stock room space is needed then each lab could be
serviced from two to four stock rooms ( as shown for BLY 181)o
In any case each instructor should have a private stock room
adjacent to the lab except when several instructors teach the
same course in the same room.

STORAGE UNITS

The needed cabinets, counters, and storage units could be "plugged
in" along tae lab walls and rearranged to meet changing conditions.
Microscope cabinets could be on wheels to facilitate transfer of
microscopes those trirmsters a lab is not in use.

Stock rooms could be composed of pre fab cabinets acting as
walls. This would increase the flexioility of labs by allowing
the easy shifting of these cabinets to increase or decrease
lab or stock room soace.
























Pre -fab stock room wall units


TEACHING WALLS

All lab walls, especially over work counters, could have
incorporated into them slotted chan:iels to receive knife
brackets for shelves, peg board panels, bulletin boards,
display racks, map and chart hangers, etc. This would allow
all of tie wall surfaces to be used in the instructional
process.


~XL




TEACHING LAB REQUIREMENTS


LABS #1, 2, 3 BLY 181, General Zoology, 32 capacity


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Lab work consists of dissection and microscope use.
Blackboard used infrequently.
Visual aids not used at present time.
Demonstrations an important part of instruction.
Future course content may include chemical analysis
of specimens.


LAB REQUIREMENTS

Work space 2'6" deep X 3'6" wide per student.
Demonstration counter or table.
Counter space for aquaria.
Sinks (4) with disposal units ( washing hands, specimens)
Microscope cabinets (2)
Blackboard


STOCK AND PREPARATION ROOM REQUIREMENTS

Space for specimen containers ( 1 per section, 16" high
14" diameter)
Sink
Preparation counter
Shelves

SERVICES

Water 4 sinks in lab, 1 sink in S&P room.
Electrical outlets 110 4L0"O.C. on all walls,
one outlet per student by work space ( for
microscope light)
Fume Hood possible use in lab.
Gas Demonstration area, possible use at each student
work space
Compressed Air possible use at demonstration area,
aquaria counter




TEACHING LAB REQUIREMENTS


LAB # 4 BLY 217, Animal Biology, 16 capacity


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Lab consists of chemical experiments performed on
selected specimens, some microscope use, dissections,
Blackboard used infrequently, no visual aids.


LAB REQUIREMENTS

Chemical bench 3'6" wide X 2'6" deep per student with
chemical rack above for bottles.
Demonstration counter with sink
Terminal sinks at bench ends (2)
Microscope cabinets (2)
Blackboard


STOCK AND PREPARATION ROOM

Sink
Gas
Live aquatic animal storage tanks
Refrigerator,
Counter
Shelves


SERVICES

Water 4 terminal sinks in lab, 1 demonstration sink in
lab, 1 sink in S & 2 room.
Electrical outlets llOv 4'O"O.C. an all walls, one
outlet per student at chemical bench
Gas one outlet per student at chemical benches, 2
outlets at demonstration counter, 2 outlets
in S & P room.
Fume hood possible use in lab.




TEACHING LAB REQUIREMENTS


LAB #5, BLY 308, Invererbrate Zoology, 16 capacity


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Lab work is the study of fresh and salt water animals.
Use of blackboard and visual aids frequent.
Dissection and microscope use vital part of lao.
Demonstrations and display of prepared specimens an
important phase of instruction.


LAB REQUIREMENTS

Work space 3'6" X 2'6" deep per student. ( students on 1 side)
Demonstration and display counter.
Sinks (2) with disposal units (washing hands specimens)
Water table to set aquaria in ( 2'0" deep, 4A lip,
lined so waterproof with drain)
Table for lecturer ( for notes, books, specimens. May be
rolling type)
Microscope cabinets (2)
Projection screen
Blackboard


STORAGE AND PREPARATION ROCM

Space for specimen containers
Preparation counter with sink
Table ( rolling )
Shelves
Storage space for slide, movie projectors; slides, film strips


SERVICES

Water 2 sinks in lab, l.sink at demonstration counter,
1 sink in S&P room
Electrical outlets llOv 4'0"11 O.C. on all walls, one outlet
per student at work space.
Compressed air possible use at water table for aeration
of aquaria.
Gas, fume hood not needed at present time.




TEACHING LAB REQUIREMENTS


LABS # 6&7, BLY 309, Comparative Anatomy 32 capacity


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Lab work consists of dissection and microscope use.
Blackboard used infrequently, no visual aids.

LAB REQUIREMENTS

Work space 3'-6" wide X 2'-6" deep per student
Demonstration counter or table
Sinks (4) with disposal units ( washing hands,
Microscope cabinets (2) specimens)
Blackboard


TANK ROOM

One door to hall, one door to lab so students may
pick up specimens.
Sinks (2)
Specimen tanks ( 2'6" deep, 3'wide per class section)
Waterproof floor and drain.

STOCK AND PREPARATION ROOM

Shelves ( some 2' deep for models)
Counter space

SERVICES

Water to 4 sinks in lab, 2 sinks in tank room
Electrical outlets llOv 4'O'" 0.C. on all walls,
one outlet per student by work space.
Fume hood, gas, compressed air not needed at
present time.




TEACHING LAB REQUIREMENTS


LABS # 8,9 & 10, BLY 310, Embryology, 16 capacity


GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Lab work consists of dissection and microscope use in
the study of tAe development of verterbrate and
inverterbrate animals.
Frequent use of visual aids ( slides, carbon arc projection
of microscope slide)
Some use of blackboard.


LAB REQUIREMENTS

Work space 3'6"wide x 2'6" deep per student ( students on
Demonstration counter with sink side)
Sinks (2) with disposal units ( for washing hands, specimens)
Microscope cabinets (2)
Projection screen
Blackboard


STOCK AND PREPARATION ROOM REQUIREMENTS

Preparation counter with sink
Shelves
Temperature control cabinets (2)
Cola type coolers (2)
Incubator cabinets (2) for chicken egEs
Refrigerators (2)
Drying oven ( for glassware)


SERVICES

Nater 2 sinks in lab, I sink in preparation counter, 1
sink in S & P room,
Electrical outlets ll0v 4'0" 0.C. all walls, one outlet
per student in work space
220v at demonstration counter, double
outlet 4'0" 0.0. on S & P room walls.
Gas one outlet per student in work space, outlets by
demonstration counter, stock room preparation room
counter.




















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FLEXIBILITY THROUGH STANDARDIZATION


The various service outlets hot and cold water, gas, distilled

water, electricity, and the other services in the following proposed

teaching laboratories are carried vertically through a central

shaft, horizontally through a central shaft under the floor in

designated locations in each bay.

Movable partitions consisting of cement-asbestos surfaced insu-

lating board supported on vertical channels may be set in place

or removed in minutes.

At present, the laboratories range in size up to three 15x32'modules.


FLEXIBLE SPACE AND ABILITY TO ADAPT THE BUILDING QUICKLY TO CHANGING

PROGRAMS ARE THE IMPORTANT DESIGN FACTORS IN A RESEARCH BUILDING.

INFLEXIBLE, MONUMENTAL LABORATORY BUILDINGS ARE A POOR ASSET AND

A FLEXIBLE ONE IS A GOOD ASSET.




Each bay contains:


1. 5 sinks

2. one entrance door from hall

3. a continuous hood

4. blackboard facilities.

5. storage space

6. television.



Advantages s

1. Continuous hood on the stack wall eliminates long, complicated
ducts.

2. a 2-bay (16 student) laboratory can be expanded to a 3 bay
(32 student) laboratory with an inexpensive adjustment.

3. a storage room bay may be easily converted into an animal
room, kitchen or cold room.

4. a typical laboratory may be used by any special course.

5. 10 sinks are provided for each 16 student laboratory.

6. secondary horizontal circulation is provided between similar
laboratories and stock rooms.




Major laboratory equipment


1. analytical balance

2. Torsion balance

3. micro torsion balance

4. harvard trip balance

5. biochemical apparatus

6. ph meter

7. burners- gas and oxigen

8. centrifuge and accessories

9. colorimeters

10. distilling apparatus near sink

11. hot plates

12. incubators

13. low temperature incubator

14. microscopes

15. microtomes and accessories

16. pipette washer

17 .pump

18. spectrophotometer and accessories

19. timers

20. tripods

21. water bath constant temperature.





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BIOPHYSICS


flooring vinyl tile
walls and partitions concrete block base covered
by two coats of a vinyl bnee covering
bench tops "teflon"
hoods for radioactive cTrry off stainless steel
sinks stainless steel or a polyetheline sheet
covered sink
ceilings hung ceilings of removable panels, ex-
posed ceiling painted black w/ drop lights
doors hardwood flush panel doors or flush panel
metal-clad doors w/ no door trim
trim-- metal base trim
hardware aluminum and some aluminum alloys or
chrome plate
work benches high quality hardwood or metal clad
desks

LIGhTIG

50 foot candles on working surface requiring dif-
ficult seeinp-g tasks
25 foot candles on working surface for ordinary
detailed seeing tasks

E&UIPiENT

one high speed centrifuge @ c. 6'x2'x5'
free wall space for special apparatus
refrigerator
auxiliary electric gear
constant temperature water baths c. 18"x24"
spectrophotometer 4 c. 2'x2'x2'
balance @ c. lxl1xl1
light scattering device g c. lx2xl--
infra red machine z c. lx2xlJ-
(all optical apparatus in separate room due to sensitivity)
small x-ray machine
isotope counting machines z c. lx2xl1
micro scope
projecting equipment

ACCESSORIES

steam
wa t er
air
ga a
electric outlets: 11C v., 220 v.





16 NAN EXPERIMENTAL EMBRYOLOGY AND
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY LABORATORY


MATERIALS

flooring- vinyl tile
walls and partitions- concrete block base covered
by two coats of vinyl base covering
ceiling- hung ceiling of removeable panels or exposed
ceiling painted black with drop lighting
doors and trim- hardwood flush panel or flush panel
metal clad doors with flush door trim
hardware- aluminum and aluminum alloys or chrome pltte
table tops- stainless steel

ACCESSORIES

water
air
gas
llOv.
220v.
steam
well water

LIGHTING

same as for marine biology laboratory

EUIPMI NT

item no. size

microscopes 32 ----
centrifuge 2 3'x 5'x 3'
water bath 1
balances --
incubator 1
respirometer 1 2-1/4'x 2=1/4'x 3'
ph meters -- ----
drying oven 1 2'x 3'
refrigerator 1 2-2/3'x 3'x 5'




MARINE 3IOLOJY LABORATORY


flooring- Vinyl tile
walls and partitions- concrete block base covered
by two ,coats qf vinyl base covering
bench tops- teflon
benches- high jrulity hardwood
ceilings- hung ceiling of removeable panels or
exposed ceiling painted black with drop
lighting
doors and trim- hardwood flush panel or flush nanel
metal clad doors with flush door trim
hardware- aluminum and aluminum alloys or chrome
plate

AuCCSSORI o

water
saltwater
air
gas
110 v.
220 v.

LIGHTING

50 footcandles on working surface required for
difficult seeing tasks
25 footcandles on working surface required for
ordinary detailed seeing tasks

EQUIPMENT

item no. size

microscopes 16 ..---
counting equipment 2 l'x 12x l-./2'
centrifuge 1 3'x 5,x 3'
spectrophotometer 1 1-1/2 x;-4'x 1-1/2'
spectrometers 2 1 x l'x 1'
ph meters --- ----------
respirometers 2 2-1/4'x 2-1/4'x 3'
water table with sinks 1 4'x 12'x 3'
refrigerator 1 2-2/3'x 3'x 5'
freezer 1 3'x 6'x 2-2/3'
pyrex glass salt water recirculating system with
outdoor 2000 gal. storage tanks











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VA ~IOLO(aY V ________


STAFF OFFICES AND LABORATORIES
for the
BIOLOGY BUILDING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


AE 531


Py
David Boubelik
Sam. Evans


UA^LA.I SiTUDY


A IO L06Y


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Staff Office Laboratory


for

A Biological Research Building



Since the advent of the Atomic Age, new needs and re-

sources have been put into effect taxing our existing build-

ines, and ch':ngin7 the concept of new research building

design. It is evident that new power sources are to be

harnessed by research. The new laboratory conceived pre-

sently must be inherently designed to easily and functionaly

envelope these new sources without major alterations, or

undue spatial or servicing inconveniences. New approach-

es to education in the Biological Sciences have changed the

typical laboratory of the past into an efficient tool of

learning.

These new needs for more and better power in the lab-

oratory have changed the criteria for laboratory design.

These needs should be evident in basic function and appear-

ance in the individual spaces themselves. Louis Kahn, arch-

itect for the Richards 14emorial Research Center at Yale

University, says Architecture is marked by two over-

reaching qualities a harmony of systems a hierarchy of

ennobling spaces this is the sine qua non of true Arch-

itecture.

Today, the largest single building cost is mechanical

equipment and related services. This figure has been known

to go as high as 60 of project construction cost in some

research buildings, particularly where the building funct-

ions not only as a laboratory for research but also as a




facility for Leaching

We have visualized a research building as a space not

too diffornet from the human circulatory system. The core or

heart where the power is either converted or generated has

larpe arteries and veins which distribute this power to

each space. The more efficiently this process can be de-

veloped, the more economically the building will operate

with a correspondingly lower initial cost. These proposals

will be proved in the following reports:

Comparison of Costs of Different Buildinr Systems

Below is a comparison of a typic,-l office-laboratory found

in today buildings and the new mezzanine office plan to

be proposed.

Standard Flan
Office 160 Sq. Ft.

LAB. Lab. 375 "

OFFICE 535 " Total



Net Volume (11 ft. ceiling & I'-O" structure between floors)
12 X 535 equals 6420 cubic feet

Proposed FPlan

16'

LAB. OFFICE


24' Office over --10'-J cleir
10'x16'
LAB.


PLAN CROSS SECTION

Office (160 sq. ft.) plus Lab (384 sq. ft.) = r44 sq. ft.
Net Volume 16 X 544 equals 6162 cubic feet




It should be noted that there Is a saving in the

volume of the proposed space over the standard space with

a comparable net useable area. The advantage of the space

proposed readily apparent as indicated in the "Section

thru Office Mezzanine Laboratory Unit." (See inclosed draw-

ing) The variation of low end higher sr",ces within the

labor atory offers .re+t fl xibility for spatial arranc-e-

,oent of experiment, l projects. The work areas are designed

for efficient and selective arrangement by the individual

professor with all four laboratory walls available for use.

The etir,7ted savin-s in dollars is as follows:

The cubic fe~t saved per lab-office unit-

6420 minus 6162 equals 258 cubic feet

50 units ti-es 25K cubic feet per unit = 12,900 cubic feet.

Applicatio~ n of Poeckh's Fi'u-ires

45;' per c-bic foot times 12,700 cubic feet = 5,605 savin-s

The -ost vital economy of the mezzanine office-lab-

oratory rlan is in the -nechaLical equip-ent arr'.nr-ement.

These figures below illu-strate this saving:

Proposed: 57,600 cu. ft. for m -echanicl er;ui p---rt sheft

5,600 " for 10 x 70 x C' base.-ent

63,200 " Total

StL-ndard: 45,00OCu. ft. for full basement with 8' ceiling

33,000 " (horizontal plenum space between

each floor, 15 inch average depth)

22,000 cu. ft. for floor space used by vertical

duct & pipe chases-(57 of gross floor

area- .05 of 40,000 2000 sq. ft.)

(2000 x 11' ceiling- 22,000 cu. ft.)




100,000 cu. ft. Total (Note: This does not include

any access or work space for ser-

vicing or repairs to equipment,)

Net Savings 100,000 minus 63,200 = 36,800 cu. ft.

Application of Boeckh's* figures

?4.50 per cu. ft. times 36,000 cu. ft.= ^165,000

(Note: This cost saving is in the Office-Labs only.j

This flexible mechanicl-. equipment srace has several

advantages that promote economy and convenience.

1. All ducts and pipes have shorter length and fewer bends.

2. There is easy access to all mechanical equipment areas

and ducts for easy maintenance and service. The equipment

can be serviced without disturbing, the laboritories or traf-

fic flow through the building.

3. All hood installations can be vented on separate vert-

ical ducts. These ducts can be installed at anytime after

the building, has been constructed without difficulty.

4. Future needs 'or more sophisticated equipment can be met.

A complete new system can be installed without disturltinr

other parts.

By using outside corridors a saving can be realized in

upkeer and greater efficiency in access routes are obtained.

By analyzing the needs for traffic, it was found that a cor-

ridor at every office level was of necessity. Outside walk-

ways are more efficient structurally and create abetter trans-

ition srace. In colder climates the outside wall may be

sheathed in class panels to protect t'-em but are not nece-

ssary in Florida.




There are other fringe benefits found in the simpl-

ified structural system and the materials used.

1. Extra strength in floor systems where the needs 're greater

constitute -ateri':ls only where they are necessary. The

laboratory l:cors must c',rry up to 200 rounds p:-r square

foot of live load, where as the offices must support only

O rounds per square foot.

o. A seperste type of floor system is needed in the mechan-

ical eqnurpTent area. It must not. only be fireproof, Put

absorb vibration from the equipment. Therefore, vibration will

not interfere with animal behavior and si.Til:r types of ex-

perementation.

3. The entire mechanical equipment area may be entirely fire-

proof end shielded from the laboratories ,.nd offices.

4. The relative simr-licity of structural system and ar-

range'-ent constitute a savin,-.

5. Since all vents and stacks are concentrated in one area,

the roof is left free and unclutterd for experiments t-,ere.

Following is a Sum'mation Sheet bcsed on estimated costs

and subsequent savings due to using t-e 1c-zzanine Office Lab-

oratory Flan:

A. Possible savings due to proposed Mezzanine Office

Laboratory Building based on initial cost.

1. Office-Lab srace savings ........ 5,605

2. Mech. equip. shaft groupingr ........ 165,600

Total $ 171,205

B. Long term savings

1. A 20C to 50 saviner on servicing Mechanical Equ-

irment.


3 oub/Eav


5/7




2. A 60' to 70 savings on the cost of remodeling

laboratories.

3. An Incalcuable saving on experiments rescued due

to isolated laboratory facilities.

4. A 20, to 30" saving on janitorial service due to

outside corridors and laboratory arran-elent.

5. A 20' power saving since corridor spaces are not

air conditioned.

6, An unestimated savin:.' in time due to location of

rest room facilities near each laboratory space.


Comparative Advantages of Froposed Flan

The proper function and convenience of a space cannot

be accurately Tmeasured in dollars but itFs savings are evident.

If time is lost because of inadequate equipment arrangement,

and if the space is not adaptable to future needs, then dol-

lars have been wasted. Enclosed are drawings of several

combinations of laboratories which will be discussed further

below.

By using separate spaces for office work, privacy is

maintained. Observations from the office can be made with-

out interference with experiments in process. Only author-

ized personnel will be admitted to the laboratories. Stu-

dent conferences can be held in the professor's office with

all information close at hand and with a minimum of confus-

ion and clutter. Visitors can see the laboratory without

the need to enter it by looking through the office viewing

window.

As you can see from the plan, the laboratories along

with the office spaces are very flexible. N ot only arb the




laboratories themselves flexible but their arrangerrent in

groups can facilitate different heio-hts and shapes of build-

ings. (See inclosed drawings.)

The laboratory walls are modularly sraced for removal

or additions. Panels are in four foot sections which are

structurally non-supportin-. These walls can be stored and

re-located in areas needed.

A typical flexible arran;-e -.nt of a two suite ofrfice-

laboratory can be made as follows. One professor with a

small office need aid a large laboratory need occupies two

laboritori)s and one office. Another Trofessor does not

h've any research in Fro-recs and occupies t'-e vacant office.

Or, a professor .ith a larr-e office need occupies a suite of

two offices. In this way the srpces can be altered and ad-

justed by a saI:rle movin.r process making it unnecessary for

expensive re-odelina.

In this report we have offered an analysis of the prob-

lem of rroper srzce allocation for a staff-office-labor-

atory. It is evident that the problem of the relation of the

mechanical e- 2rment to the functioninr- laboratories cannot, be

ignored. To install extra equipment srpces after the build-

ing has been constructed would be costly. ,Ie fully real-

ize that in institutional buildings, economy and efficiency

are the criteria for design; therefore these plan offer to

the professor a space which is not only flexible but pleasing

to work in. If there are further questions rerardlinr- this

report, we are at your disposal and remain your humble servants.
























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Animal 1Qarters




Biology Research Study

UNIVERSITY OF FIDRIDA

Architecture AE 531

October 1962

Heldar Schirazi




Articles have been compiled from various journals on the
design, construction details and general plans for animal
research projects in various countries anc in various sizes.
A cross-section of that summary follows:


"F2cilities for rodical Animal 4parters"
X7.T.S. Thorp, University of :ijnnesota

The ideal location of animal quarters would
be a one-stored 'building at ground level or a
veil ventilated, air-con1t; oned basement area.
Important considerations in incorporating
animal quarters into a research buiAdinL or
hospital area are: odors, handIling of refuse,
food and bedding, supplies, insects, recieving
of animals and their food and prevention of
animal escape. A special entrance for supplies
of the animal area is essential, none of the
animals or their food and bedding should ever
come through a general recieving area, If in-
corporating animal quarters into a imult-storied
me'Ical center, they-ishould be confined to only
one floor. Duplicate supplies would be necessary
on each floor if more th-an one floor were used
and the elevator transport of material would
take approximately 10 per cent more labor and
much more space.
Long range planning for many different species
and types subject to change over the years is
much more practical than cons;'ering only the
design of quarters necessary for species predom-
inant at the time of buil inC. The use of a
refuse corridor at one side of .a bank of animal
rooms, and a clean corridor on the other is
better for the small animal room.
In gene -al, the room sizas shoulC' be limited
to the number of animalss whichh can be c.red for
by one attendant, and this i ll vary in each
situation according to the kind and size of
animal used. A separate entrance to animal
quarters vith a sink and place to change clothes
vll help cut 'idovn on infection and epid-mic.
There are three types of rooms outlined by the
author regarding animal quarters: Experlmental
rooms (240-300 square feet) Breeding rooms (200-
900) and Quarantine rooms.
Large isolation rooms adjacent to a room
made up of several cubicles and ,ork space




could form a useful pattern or system.
Some institutions use movable partitions
for experimental rooms for versatility. This
sometimes produces more of a vermin problem
though, unless partitions are properly sokled.
Fire-resistant materials should be used, you
should P 'vojd wooden structures, cr-cks, recesses
and pockets in the design should be c-'refully
avoided both for cleaning efficiency r.nd for vermin
control. There should be no open commnnic' tion
bet%!een rooms (piping or telephone vire openings)
as each animal room should be a completely isol ted
unit. Shelves, infdov ledges and columns should
be -.voided wherever possible. toisture-resistant
material should be ised for interior wvlls, pre-
ferably rubber or plastic base points or cement
enamel applied to concrete block vlls. One a ay
to :void wall damage by movable racks is curbing
at the floors in the corridors where the r-cke arx
most frequentlyy moved. Doorvays should be 3'
minimum, preferably 3 and 1/2' 1vide. Recessed h?.rc
.'are should be used, photoelectric door openers
should' be used wherever possible.
Iorrden floors ^.re unsatisfactory, concrete
treated with silicone, if very smooth and compact,
is the most satisfictor, mriterial to use. One-
fourth inch per foot is recommended for the floor
slope to drain. In doe' kennels 3/8" per foot.
wuarr7. tile laid with acpi -proof mortar forms an
imp rv-ious surface for animal facilities and should
be laid on well seasoned concrete sub-floor. A
viter-proof material should be laAi under the
floor surfacing and extend up the vall 3" to C".
H-:.ir-traps inr a31 drains will avoid clogging the
plumbing. Ceiling' lights should be recessed for
e-se of cleaning and da.-ljiht flourescent lamps
are goo(1 for animal rooms.
Air condition if osoible in the animal quarter:.
Each room sho-:. have its own vent~-'ti on or heit-
ing control system and air pressure should be
hi',her in the r.djcininc rooms. The introduction
of air into animal rooms should' hfve perfor'-ted
1uctvorl: to prevent drafts. Ten changes of air
per hour are the beat. Sinks should be stainless
steel for easy cleaning and each room should have
a blackboard and drainboard.

"Faci ties for TIedical Res -arch v t1, Animals" .T. ... Thorpe,
University of Minnesota

This article suc-g- sts that the iderl research
buiPd.ng shoi 1d be one-stcry. Air conditioning




is very necessary and the use of floor dr'-ns
is unsu-tisfactory because the author believes it
is r-or'" anitn.r to use floor mops than a central
Brain in the animal rooms.

. i s 'ose-Free Colony of r'ogs" 'en L.Sh-ffy, James A. Baker,
James H. Gillespie, Cornell University

The authors describe the design of kennels in
which ditcse!se-free dogs were ri se' for ten
y -rs. Outdoor run *ys we-re built for excer-
cising the animals and vere pitched with floor
"rains. The p rsonnel h-d a shower room outside
the kennel here they can change clothes and
s over before entering the germ-free area. It
is n separate area from the animal area. The
animal quarterss are screened against insects,
anr the entire building has a seven foot fence
surrouning it to keep stray dogs -way.

"Dogs for 'utritional Research" Victor Heiman, \.averly, NTew: i'ork

i e-,nel design must take -nto consideration the
breed of dog to be used. The size, and type will
make a difference in the size and type of facili-
ties needed. 'Masonry and steel, Mr. Ileiran says
are essential for lov. maintenance co.-t, although
Soocl cp'n be used for the sleeping boxes and 'frames
on vire covered pen floors. iTatural light can
be filtered through fiberglass roof panels and
exhaust fans should be located at each end of the
kennel. Hot and cold water should be run through
the sane pl mbing facilities. HIe'Ating should be
accomplished by heat laps. Fences should en-
close the entire area to ke p out stray animals
an-' keep the research animals in. There should be
central service unit for metabolism room, mater-
nity rronr, hospital room, isolation 'ard, office,
lobby, tcil ts, utility rooms, kitchen and storage.
Eennel ving:s in ti'is bull ing are located north and
scuth of the Tmin service unit. There are 100
insi Ie rens, 4' x 5' 1nm one-hun'red outside r ns
4' x 20'. 'ens hIve wire floors for ease of clean-
ing. Ta.nunlly operate doors are controlled from
the h-,.l1ay an-' self operating metal swing doors ]e ar
to the r'ne.

'Maintenance oV an xnernirental M.ouse Colony in a University medical
2Schfol department" .ober t F. .allman, Department of
,d-'ology, Stanford University School of Medicine.

St-nford has seven, four-stcried buildings which
lie in an : shape desEin. ;jith the exception of
to hosprijl vings, each building is arranged




around its ow.., outside courtyard. Radi oloo:y and
nf-ll-t- stc.dies are all together, therapy, iso-
topo .an rs' r 'rch divisions are on the grond' floor
of tvo '0djoinin,: builJin'ns. In.bora-tories and
offices of the .ese-Irch -qivIsion ; bin tvo sides
of a coirty.rc, and, the t]l !s si e is occup.Ied
bby offices of the therapy and isotope divisions.
The tI ird side i s unoccu'jied at present. :Jouse
rooms open into priv te corrjor opposite the
labora.tc.tores, and almost all rese;'rcJ there is
done on the l'bor-atory mouse. They produce all
of their own anijrials to .-.vcl,; contact \.i th coimner-
cial br-eders ;-'(. to insure cou ipletu control ov,.,r
eoreric factors an1 general hyjio.ne. The basic
;nit is the :;s-ended r: c' consistinL of shelves
58 Pnd 1/4 lon& and 22" deep. The shelves are
e" apart. Totl capraci t per rack is 144 small
or 112 1' rge c 8gs. ...ch of the three large animal
rooms houses twelve s- ch rrcks. There art four
racks in two rooms and three r c;.s in the last
rom. M equipment ser-vic;ng anidstor ge arena's are
arranged close to tie corridor. _lach animal room
includes s. work area where personnel can perform
s-pole operations in the room itself. in the
planning of each animal room, the number of racks
per room sile v.ws determined d by subtracting six
feet front th' tot--1 length of the ov;erhe-d tr-c. .
This allows tvo three-foot aisles between any
three adjacent racls. The total number of racks
per grourtin is therefore six, which enables
wor.' to be done sim.ltneousl:y on a maximum of
four raci sides. Space was allowed for specially
des-gned bashing ma-chines c'-nt-ininng tvo t-.nks
.i.th a. chr'in conveyer wL- ch carriies c ees to be
cleaned into tlhe v-ashi-ng rcom directly ad.~ecent
to the storage room for storing- both clean c'- e
'n ciea.n bottles.

'-'e7 cal research 7 rbor:1tor of the universityy of Illinois" 'f. C.
TDolovy, 'nrivcrsity of Illinois

Th- .ical .,es.-rch labor-tory ..unes animals
used by the schools of ,'entistry, medicine, pha-r-
mn c '-, '.uberc losss Tnstit!,te an, the .ent Jile
""e'ical Certer of Chic"gc. It is air-coindi ti rned
h.rs otorm-tic lihtin, which 3\ itches on 14 hours
and off 10C hours in all animal rooms. In the small
rooms used for contagious diseases the 'jr leaving
the rooms is incfn rated at 725 F for th" e seconds
before being expelled above the ground, 'here are
centralized animal areas and closely r elated ihbor-
nt rri S
3' i Irore, Ov-ings and I'errill consulted iith the
aut1 or anr depn.rtr:ent he-,s tc determine the space
req3 iroents for each in jivid:al function of the
center, dor. to the ao nt of snace needed for each
in iviav al animal. They have divided the functions




of the small animal houce into thrue groups:
Service rac li tj9es (ruc(ivinL areas, gener',l
storage anr-a, food storage
area, food p par:tion area,
e. ui mont v-shing and -ter-
ili:zing area, incineration
area, vemen's lockers and
toilets, doctors rooms and
toilets, male caretakers
lockers and toilets)
.'b crat ory Pac j ites (veterinary diagnostic
laboratory, dog preparation
area, sterile surgery, steril-
izing and'. surgery service area,
anesthetic equipmrert storage
area, r-'iograrhic area, tis-
suu laboratory, nonAtorile
worl:rcom, morgue and necropsy
area, reception room, general
office and office storage,
administrators office, super-
visors office, herd animal
caretakers office,
Anial I'ousing '_rea (acute dog units, monkey i..njts,
chicken Groving unit, sheep
and swine large animal unit,
clean dressing unit, and in-
fected animal housing)

Dogs, rcni2eys and other large animals are main-
tained in the basement. The
xroms are '11 x 21' and there
are fcrrteen of there. There
are pens for swine anrd sh:ep
iith -indi('j ual floor drains
for eacL. The small enuimals,
mice, rats, g. inea pigs, rabbi.
are al] kept on the first floor.
The large sterile surgery suite
is in the basement near the a
anest!etizing area. The animal
receiving area is near the ele-
vator and the surgery rooms
all surround thY terilizing
an. s; rgery service ireas so
nurses can enter operating,
rr oms witIout pa-. ,ing through
any other rooms. The small
animal rcoms ar'. 15' x 21' and
h-ve cubicles 3'" x 5'4 for
animal cace racks arl', indivi-
'.ua] vent lat~'on. Jach has a
2' x 2' sin- anJ..' x work-
ing table I, th a gas t tlet,
vacuum, hot and cold v.-ater and




110 volt electricity. All the rooms h-ve con-
trolled teoiiperturc, 100.' turnover anrl no re-
circilrAtion in ani atteimt to prevent croso- con-
taJ.mnati on. All the air entering the boiling
is fil ter rd.

"Design and Construction of Anim'! quarterss for Ie ical idl c ti cn
an,. Rest, arch" ;'. Vernon Barker, Architect, Los
Ang'eles, C-lifornia.

The o.terproof memoranee in multi-storied build-
ings should extend up the val1 2' to insure that
there are no leaks. The floor rains shcLIld not
have less than 4" outlets and electricl, services
should be up 5' above the floor. .t. TU.C. . they
iced -. permanent floor of aci"-proofbrick 4" x 8"
7 1 1/4" t4icl:, embedded iI a l>.yer of red 'or-
naine spread over cement. Joints .:ere filled vith
rgass-like black] material for sealin-. The air
is rotated for tv.Ilve to eIghteon changes per hour.
For r-calti-stcrio build ings it i boet to integrate
tl:e arlma ,l uart.'re floor by floor v.-- t, the ro-
s-'rc: o.n(' t .cLhing .ac'.i i t s. Th i nc'n :r tors
she'" lK. be eslgne-1 so thrAt ,-ste materials are fed
i.to h)ooppners ischn,.rring do\.n'ard onto 9he trr.tes
-t -, lover level. :!on'y- room should. ope off
close corridors no tIe animal can not capep. Air
crn tion ng i mandlatcry.

"'Methor'qs nr P equipment use- for c le aring r'..an1 :an ti isn, an"iral c'.re
at the Iationa. Instit te of 1e; alti f I el :oiley
". ,. of I'. ethesa, :-,rylond

'e r obl e- i anima:i c rtern is outli ned by
r ). ioiley a:o beijn one of k .epin'; tio clean Fre-a.
separate from c.nta.in-,t t areas in the movement
or Interial. The '.T. 'ni .'u{ ng. are conncctdc
by to co-vere oreez' -... One is a "c can'" br, zso-
,vy .nd th, other is a. "refuse" breezena,.. ach
bi l.ing ha.s one cle.,an cer.,i or ir' the, center an'.
t, o ref. oe co-.riIors v-i Ich cnclose the animi.2 rocur.
The refi se corr-: 'ors ccnn ct to the bl -, 'inc at
one and -\ i t. a transverse cor:ri',or vhich, l,;.'os tc
the; ref' se breezev.ay. The isolation. corr-idor is
seo-nr"te fr(on the tr:aoVer;c corr-i or y ,. part t on,
'.13 cle-n c-':es n,. o., ;r. t 43 c-,rte' from the
v shbing Cre', t} r''u; t} e corri 'ors tl-hr .;." the clean
bree .-a:- seppr">ting, the a.nimal- rooms frc.: the
a rv-ico ar a uan-! mteri al. ar"e stripi t'o to c .re-
t--..er in isolation corr '"or center to be t"' er: to
t In' i ,'ual room A ,- ;ia. usoCd i I .bor.t or i.s
fo in the reverse r ,ct nm. Frn t,1c- ro om
thrtug' thc cle a e brece.: out.ccrs for overland




MrK o r:.sport to th. or1 er 1- b uyij .1 r. ALIi

A: -lin t2)5 "n W f-,. -tin 1,) 1 jfli the
refine corric~ors a-a roez~ewa: onUly. G rbage
ceno c or t in4 ng cq e 0.1uannpo Rr Ya: Vo~ by ale-
v~itcr to a Ave r level anO hauloO by trnctor
tr'uin tr the '.ncintra.tor. Irp"tN C~fl5 ore vashod
inl "acLhle3s anH then :c.turrno' to the cE area
for use.

Above nrt~ des n~re noan; taken fro. Ylumies IC ~nl 11 of the,
'" rocoedi-n."0 of t~he ArIgiKI Cre Ponre2 technical journ-I pubJ -lhed
five times a. ye r by z. ncn-profj t cduc-tijonal.
no~soci ot-jon of instit ti cno In erJ LuO ,In the
C-r '<5 sr ti Vy aL labor tory nnIjml' 1. Hgadc-


l~ )"u~-rof 1irmnl lUt sese A, Parkes, AID) Fill, Nudwont


o oruj zin the Ln arl~ h house co1.sluto of two
rnor nrL cons Lrictj on nn equi acet.: ae.sy
int-Va of~ fo" '-nd b Ocirr' ant runov 1 of refuse
'mro the Poot In ort-nt consj:fsrationo. lvtarl, ?20'-
';o-t-nj pra~a of norhalt f'or the~ floan YnO hard,,
FlossN -mrnint on hard pi".ster ialls IS the best.
If refoe~ c o tes are built In, the dw-cirt should
beso ucL thot there is no back-Arnft of centovi-
jn-te& aijr or refuse. Monkeys Wn c to do not
noel open Rjr runems do dogs, bat the- do need
more pri vacy. The ba~t vont-~jr jon foy eljwmjna-
t on of srneJ2. Is s. X'a ch'vrgas per hcur, bloyn
ineto tha: cc. rjdor sC xc Wrcugh lovr into the
roorc Inl whi~ch therc -iu th us a~ eu1jht nobUgLive
presoure or' urj nj th'tt earqga ja .nx No2 nO riot
or :'mr~s. FI2-e& instHJl2o'tlon eqzi mont Is loss
dcsirab) r tbar nr ~le c& i -rer t. 7ntorchca1ge of
a toF for RICffrent usca jo best are t~uta al. ov'
for nmovo iniforn roar; -'-gn i- f t: c-ga &re
all th'e came dimenie-cns.

2) "2o~ ivll iYnjr-' VnIt' 2. Itz, it'er -pstitube2~Le htree
n' E2 and

Tiea conotrL.ctlor of the btjldint, shorY be
p- rnrouc't, invc~v~n n! r i-Amtmi crinj to) cos~t.
It a- ou" beu built w*ith n view to r.;'nt-'ining
n~- hIV ctra of h'-i .ene. ::atori als shouJJ be
I --ervj OU c t o Yn tor an j urih-a-rmad by I z nf, c t t s.
"Thterin-lo L15O( should be Indestruct-!ble by vei~afl
'mr- 71-. T~hj Ins~:tjitute onecO a brick constr ctj cr
y~th t' rublJ aternal mille an! cm ni~a jntornctl xall
for eo rnrj~, "urqW14 nj i ~ thorioc'. Invua'tjon.
rnofn u.-re fi't, m"'2o Q~ -ohalt an" :'r-' of
Pr22 on corcrety bepor for M'4 a n? verojn. Kntrql
Yr nt's anl dcors -mrp uuel' throughout, tihe




eocrs mqje~ i-ith loropc obsorvnti or p~nels for
Coo 1IIC tn inr W nsectI en oF Lhe nnimnle.
jr~ovs ar- hopfler-tyne ni thout hinC~eo to
olJlov th- wcKI p~ne to L re-rov& I f ircessn>ry

covero- vClth MYr r Jcvter, x-shable vri; ImpervioGus
qfter Li~h gloss pqjnti ng. Grqx oijthlc concrete
-Ys aprpjcl to x"-12l in thy' x 'sing roams v.hcre
Y-er is ernru:ol DUsh3"il-shcc. The floors of'
tic armrvl rooms are coierr with ai rzsl strnt
tyreofc rsph~.t coptirnr Tall on felt over v,
o icruerLu 1'oe. Thlo forms an enwil La\osh"Ol
r-vl rep-ired p.J'sti c tQ e surf-ce. Qrbanu-
AitI ic ccrorate floorc vrr- In the stuor PiW.f
,ashrc'or -ve'is for dur"'billity, inK each floor Is
s2ore' for erainng-. The denlL'l cr-nuf~ers ccenomMy
of rnit-nncc ,rj ci rcOLJtj cn of f' Lctjion (suich
nos olearwln, feedinU .-tc.) TZhe upj e of roo=;.

tr ba houseOF ree< ng -n! ctoc'c anfirmns are
kept ns fOr fror; th~e ceq;n' n~~
"Ousibl W no 9-01 f r lol of servlcc:2 to onc,
fru- ciin servi ce h~ in (e:jrnblcJ.
All R ro ~ bet':eon h,h houses are surf-ce& vjt
ecnerc tu to vnermInt fr- ucn e of trolley.a
nnc;riton" nco vi-th mIxj~imv lo Pbar. 3r2Cvic 00 j.rO,)
thare n22 cj-Ev are nmr-tje anH va1 uhsf to 14 x 20 '.
Tic v.-sinC bvy is '1 Yj Ve iith v*allu 51 Lfth on
thn Wi es W~ 21 Lj h in th.. frnnt. it i~s like
n Orge sln sith Yfloor P-2rum. Floors a~re Erun-
01t~ic mc onemt, s~ rpM, to tho h"KL$ chanriut E-ullays
0cav rcs -it! Prf ornted n'ctq. Fr[IKc runninYL; the
fe 13 lengcth of theoom ion the ccc Ler of The floor.
"M Vi"OWN' flat roof l j gts provided li~Igting.

3) HFotAes ori Li; r o? vi -:teri ') i for ;.-urf-?ceo. of On:.P
.. S, 7thews (loot, re to tha iAcyan. M3cletn of


:r. -tjievs sugr:ests th' L the valls of the
anmq house shovin b: rnovb o IC~ possible, nn:1
hy-enic m-iterinjo ora jEpnrqrtjve for se. Plastics
are Cc&' for Lhis mir osa, -Rz they vre %ashabJle
-en i ocrv4 cus. N-Bs is pr o" for ;ilnK sri c-
ti r-'l v -'Js as It Is w-, rv~rus, OlJn2', 2V n,
lore -reA car3) n be c overe & it2 i t uit iLout 0 xe-c s q
to0 -' o'Clloww less C'M~i J'tio cc; O~*rL. The cell-
1gs s! oi Y b- smooth, 'nn& vl-sti cL -ru roK for
thlo purnros- too, uThe floor sMo h. 4" scurnres
of cc' e:' x itl net-2 str!- b--ti ee to nrq-vent
sl'lln A r nd crvc7InL-.




4) "Ar'ir"* Cuses: ;one aspectss of the Desigr, Construction and
Layout T. St-'ange, 'Limfr4 es, -gland

T',;TGr- The types, number anr temperaim nt of
t',e -.anim ls in question shoi.l. b; the
first ccysi,eration of the design, along
xith their feeding m-thor s, cleaning and
type of research ocr- to be done with
th em.
1 .R-jT-.'GC The steril1zing room should have
two-vay :terilizing i:nits fitting into
the vaill so that the vau~hae c {es c.n be
placed in the sterilijer from the outside
an(', ex.tr-cte( into the sterilizing room
so that crnly terili.e articles are
taken into th anirmn.l roa.
*V:.:.. T'-" ?OM1I This rcom is for newly pur-
choserl animals and sh'oulr be loct(te' as
close as rnossible to the w a1} an, ster-
ilizin. r oras an'7 in pos- ticn aay
from the mjr:-'in section of tI' unit to
pr,-vei.t possible cont"r.ination.
I1 T The plar shoul-_' br' simple: apart.rento on
each si 'e of anl opening onto a common
corT'iror which r; ne the full lenLth of
the building ,vi th a .-i-or at both efds.
CO .'O l Animan,ls are very susceptible to noises
anri. changes in L i:-peratL-e as vell as
drafts, so the plan soulnl. e m,:c,.de
accor.!ingly. The builjring shol-, be fire
resistant, have the highest sound aind
thermal insulation possible.
S 2 TTOI.- Both heating an' humidity control
are extremely important. The mo..it com-
plete answer to these problems is air
condi ti oning and should be use0 if at
all possible. To prevent harboring
insects, opening parts of viindoovs and
pipe entr-'e sl"ould be inuect proofed.
C:. '" G Ceiling and floor surfaces should be
as free as possible from corn rs, cra,.cks
or crevices. Doors an,'d xr'dos should
have a minimum of joints \ forever poss-
ible, all ittin; s shou]r be imtal.
Floors should' Loe smooth for easy care,
wa ter p oof ind aci"'-resistinL,. :aterial:
involving joints and cover strips for
internal vwalls anf ccillin finishes
shoi-ld be ::!v idc v oodrlor. should be
Lept to a. mnijmum. Met wl vindo0.
screens sl-ould be fitted in frames
e-sily re,'cved for cleaninL. Care
slo ],- be t-.,keni th-"t screens do not
interfere vi th the ventilating system.




.CT2-C I 'ITT2Tl-(- These should be w'.ter-
proof an-1 all switches sho .d bUe con-
trolled fro; corrin ors.
C. r'CT 'i TJL. ,. inc .licud r in the ,.'rinb .s.hould
be infr r.-red and g-rmrnicTidal outlets.
-nier- round service ducts should be
providedA along the outer *11 to accom-
crdate he-ting systems.
CO .-.DO:HS- All hall,'ays must be vide enough for
two persons to pass at once, even 'hen
carrying a c-ge or trolley. (sot less than
4 35" ar nd not more than 6')
C .: -Sh nu not exceed 8'.
ROO'MS- The recns should not be less than 7' in
wi dth in order to accomod.Jte the c' Les.
length sho 1:1 not exceed 18'. Glass
brick for natural lighting is preferable
on external -\nls.
Ct.'-ST!RUCTTO1:- Outer and corridor alls .ill be
load bearing and th: partition v.alls
should be subst-:Atial ei ough to support
the weight of mot'.l c .;: race.s. Cor-ridor
and partition xalls coul.f be of 4" rick
for all pl rooseo. Outer walls should be
hollow for insulation pur: oses, an' sho 1.
be either stone or concrete block.
FLOOI- Construction for ins, lation purposes s
should be 21 or 3-/ agr;c_ lturl tiles
laij' loosely together on a thin bed of
ashes or sand. layr of clean ashes,
1 1/2" thic:,c spre-d on top of the tiles
and covereAd v.'ith 2 1/: of concrete to
corr 'c falls an.n f ni shed i th t. o 3/"'*
coats of aci res- st'ng -,.spalt I which is
co-ri ed up thb-, calls IC" and into 'r-i.n
on)eninL-s in thu outervalls. Alis ecl'-
tion to the insulate on problem in flooring
has been ued by the a-uthor after e number
of y -rs of .X-perjimnt tion ".n! is str'"n<-
ly rectrunenlde( by .-r:. ,Jugestat-d fall for
the drains is 71/8" per 3'. ITU reco-mmon 's
hollow, prec ct concrete '.n!ito-, fijni.jhLi
or the out r s,.rf--ce ith rock asphalt
and. hello.o for concearlr.er't of electrical
C (, Y1 -1U 4 t S.
"O)l S- Flush doors are b'eut, ith louvers at the
bottom, for venr t':i-tion. There should be
5/8" minimum betx.een the louve.rs for easy
clearifng and they should' s lo-e do, nw ar1
into the r. rm .':ich ;s bemn va.nt.'late .
Outer doors should ? have Jouv.. r sloping,
to th- outst1.'-, and all lo-v rs s l)oi'ld
h"ve met.l fly-screens bohiin them.
rit-l roller can be ;nointed at the bottom

of e-ch dcor to exclude insects from the




unit anr cti 11 have an eaoil movable iloor.
"T. ;':-- 3ter, ] i :'ing, an- l food storage rcor:s .ill
be roisy -n' shnul't be apart ac fas a.s
pou. b3 e from, an.nimal rooms.

5) "--osital l.anm in<" by Charles ;',utlcr, Cornell ,univerSity

An i ma urters-
Biological cher._-stry often includes
experiments on animals. Therefore in
these lnboratories, animals of whatever
in', jis n .c,.;ssary for particul:r exper-
im nits arc generally house on the ground
floor or basement of a large laboratory
brviL nL:, v-: e small n. ina 'igs, rabbits,
rice, tc., are housed on the roof or top
atrry. Animal oqufrterc -:i;.st be vcntil.t-:d
vith a system i. sep-.r-te from th- t of the
r st of tl-e buiJling Er.' isrlr-ted by air
locks so thnt odors or noise :jIll not
nermeate the re t (f tI.e buil.'ing. it is a
rood feat: re to have a high parapet on
the roof, so that the larger animals
housed on the top story can be eyercjsedr
in s-'fety.

jjAimran.1 C"ees-
IFor sr:aller ari'nals there are manny types
o! cages in _use, but the b :Qt seey: to be
entirely of x.ire resh vit h a wire t: sh
floor, an.i. e-rov-ble p-n bone--th v.'hi ch
cann be claernecd withoutt '"iot-:rbing, the
aniialsT n rs: T .n y C -'.es it is .v! s'ble
to h ve ch".ge; i t uoli4r' met 1 silefl to
vc d croes-infection. IIjt<.l for these c :g
s-oml) bp' wot-p eiro lva'iszer .foer
f- 'ric' cr on. 'h;: i'.et:! I::e '.n,' si;.e of
tM, r:sh \ ul' n-aturally *'enene. on the
nin' of ai im -.. to be c-,gerl.


er the *anira.l op ra2tin 7 room there
V.o, 1 be ., r Oi, for t li.ir b'.i.l n'r ).n',
Sryi 1.-' cih 0-., lso boe -e)! as a". rocrv-
ery rnoomi. c:gi-1 as1:ing ron, i ;j necessary ,
Sth o. til I l.arg- erugh tc L -.ke the c';e._,
-.,;upplied ti tl steai-n o s vell as hot :nd
col'! water; also a t`iht i tr atI; in
cagro .;tM-r l zt,:i.t on. A coelin' tracd: .ith
a hoist faci 3- ta.t s the h -e'lin,: of ca. s.


As there vjill be many different animals
to be ta!:er core of, a: liberal space muut
be a.lloted for stor-' ,:e a prrp'ration of
food. Tt is a 'visable to have one room for
its stor:g i. binu an refrit orotor,
on l1 anot':cr r ocyi for its t.,ctcLal preparat4ot


11.




TSr eltion Ur'ite-
Losices a. 1 the room mentionec( in
the animall qu..rt. rs, there must be a9
nv'mber of isr.lation units for animals
that have bo-n iniocul".t '.

.jbrove *:rt cl s :\.r noteu t'- on fro,-: the Inbor tor: i :...s
L, -. "c llec te .pcrs" 11 54, Vol. m. II on "The "aesi^-n of
.'ji'':l Vo s-S: ub-:l e r.,bi t n1oly i ll, I~ l[ tenY,', LP.non.




-10o 'A7. -rr,. *.V -


Dr. Tn.rry Stoljker, Chief of Animal quarters at the universityy
of Florida IIe-.lth Center

afterr several mnet-* ns vwitLh Dr. Stclik:;r L '-t-ered
the fclloving i.'cas reg-'rcdlng thi.:- 1al situation
for aiuml care in hosplttlo or bi'lo y buj1ling's.
In either instance 'the s-.mae conoi'er'ti on v'ill
be tn.ken in account, as thu ruquisites for either
Losr. it -'l or biology building are the sua.Ite.

The 1 e,1 bui Iring for animals is *iece-se-free.
This ir'an tht the :, *LmIa s mu-st be ; -iase free
before et;terJng the bui, 16ng. Tho buiji'ing should,
be coch th-t we can control 100,j the -poosibility
of entr mnce of ail -isese. Pirst, v'indoviw are
not ''esiranle oc'use they co not completely pre-
vent th enr--nce of bacteria and terms. .econcd,
vindows are nnt !esi.ra.ble becm:.us, of light control
which for .;nimrls is essential. Walls should be
as ,.rmcoth cis -ossible and -washable, i.th no cracks
-hich .,oul'l allo 'J-irt and bacteria to .cc .late.

The b)i ld ng L-ho: I,1 be built so that none of the
.lnre \ c::1'' be tc other who di. not belong to the
siMe -rnup .- : no r.to vitI! -- ice, .oes i th cats,
tc. 'r ccns!ierin- constrncti on of animal w rtere
ve chcul 1 :-... n tha t t. e .i;..l ing could h,'ve .ll
4 fl-n8 of n.'-i .nls. itore.'r.c space i s veir: I;. ort'.nt
aT.' in ':q.ny ol'7 or r'.'" b;ii n s this ,. o n- l ct 1,
1 "-ing a 1l"rge source of -isc-,'su ievl].opment
ecavuse of transunition of -earnso on c ce-, etc. from
room r 0 o2. in a l3 c.' .o stores. --. should be
ren e .rat- 'fr the t ,nri:("vi 2u',rters -r, pur. The
hall]] s ot' ]' vi-- ;i :.s pJ possible for t'frC tr-r..s-
nort,.tj on of c o'.::;, food etc. 2The 0oor,; should
h:ovo a :mnimum ha"-,t of an"' bc 40" ,.i 'e to
a.ccOcmi >at. equipment sizes. The c]],'.in-Ln ; rooms nare
ver: i:;portant, a.lthoug te? re often neglected
-*in "'V: ny ol ar-' lnew b 1- n n '.he C:use of od or
in the arin'l r. om,, is oor cleesninL; ;ic i tics,
,''ran t ec, thre Lohere s.houl( 1e deiU;t j pl. m in' in
the rooms to er.voxid is.

The tcrmer: turc i. very i., ort nt, p.rt culrly for
srllr r on of tr a ',.. Varat for os.U:.0ll
a.rimls shou], not be ror- ti.-in 2 eruen, so -oec'al
care shcu "- L t,-':. ; in the "'si to :. llo for 0 -.
cu:.te ter-ro.rature control.


13.




Dr. ... C. ranz Gauer, professorr of Anixmal ehavi or 'et the
TUnive'rsity of Florida i oloLy uilfing

Dr. 3auer has a corlilc'.t d solution to the
problem of "esi. nng .raniral behavior quarters.
-...ny of hi s requirements are the (irect oppo-
slto of T'r. Stcol;lkcrs, -.n vlll require sep-
n.rate f-ct ItlIes. For example, _Dr. Sauer vants
the outer a-'ls to bc glass doors .ith a minimum
of one in each room so thrft the animals c-an go
in ann~ outsi''e .as they v.:ant. This i the
opposite of t,' c principle of n, cisease free
b Jc1ng because the animal cqurters cannot
be 1ise:se free if the animals are constantly
ern'os':' to the outside .'orl,. thereforee an
oytr= space apart frc-m the other co;.I' be b.Ilt
for s c' exp.Jr-:zents in animal behavior.

General professors in the biology de.epart3 ent
(asi !e front Dr. Saucr) fully sipporb tjhe jiea
of a 'ise se free building as suggested by
rT. St liker.


14.




In conclusion T W.'oul-' like to state that thedesign of the

an.mal quarters should( allow for a breezeway or stairhall to sep-

arnte it from the biology building itself, if it is not possible

to separate the t t.o building completely. Tne connection should

be sIch thrt the traffic oetveen hboratory -nd animal quarters

c-n flow easily and directlyy It is desirable that the qLuarters

be on ore floor because of traffic f!.-cilities, but if the biology

b j3dl'ngis ore des-' noi as m.ltistoried b. i Id6n^.s, then ve need a

-pol-.store, quarters vwhich t would al.lo., one animal area adja.cpnt to

e.oc, lr.bor-tor' thout cl.angCng levels. There are >Many advantages

to this separate arrangement, such as being able to bring the

exhaust ducts intc, one general exhaust route which vcaul' s-pply

only the animal bi ild-ing; prevent-ing cors from it to the main

bui ldifig; free sxanin; of the ani ..1- building (vindoi,-less, higher

or lover levels etc.); havjin;,. bettor te:.-o r- ture anda' .in strative

crntrol over the building; h-.ving biettar tr'.ffic cc.ntrol (stu, ents

val]inr to class, vcrrc- a'-, c-'f: transport in th-- halls) and

less di .'-se probalbi J. t: ; provi 4,' -njL better n'oo' ".n l c' ; sup-li e

an- refi e di sposal r'. s t'-.c ossibi ]it. oevent.al e:
or -. n: to the b i l''ing itself.













,.....- REFUSE--*. ..*...-* CORRIDOR-* ..........- -- ..
FS-E--I---
ANIMAL RCMS I LE
r-1 1 I r l r 1 rTI r -' _
-- ---- ---- ---- --- ---iSOLATION CORRIDOR

ANIMAL RCDMS

......-. REFUSE-.......- CORRDOR- ..........






L- -- -- -- CLEAN--CORRIDOR-- -- 50 LFD. *C,


G E** r'


EI FEED STORAGE I


OFFICE


CO RR R D 0 R


V/ NDOWV


VESTi bULE


NON 'LIP (Q


HERSi RIPED


r~
7-(::. 7


UJN F


K E Y:

CLEAN FDD BEDDING
EQUIPMENT ANIMALS
ANIMAL RDM PERSONNEL

REFUSE SOILED EQU1PM
DEAD AND MORIBUND
ANIMALS PERSONNEL
IN REFUSE AREAS


ANMC' Q EKT I b1 .T--.


ANIMAL QUARTERS MATERIEL TRAFFIC IN CLEAN AND REFUS%- CORRIDORS ANiMA. T' A H. E 0...'... -:..,._


45jW


STRIPPED


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1,,


































FROM TEACH. LAB


BIOLOGY RESEARCH STUDY
AE 531


OCT ;962 H SCHIRAZI


4) AMIMAL O~rl'.0,"' UP P--R I-


DEP


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BIOLOGY REERCH STUDY
AE 531

ANiMAL QJAR7'ERS ANIMAL FACULTIES AT NATIONAL INSTITUTES ,-. 1H U. E ARCH. DEP OCT. 1962 H. SCHIRAZI


I I r I r 1Z3 11 I t I-(-7, ~


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KENNEL


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FROM TEACH LAB


BIOLOGY RESEARCH


STUDY


AE 53

;, IIAL JA K AKK N+N7 A 1A A jAM T!E VI T H. VJ'K i APH. DEP OC T. 1962 H. CIP I


I

























CRATES
DEAD ANIMAL'S I


RECEIVING AND
PROCESSING AREA


I I


IIPR,
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S CLEAN]I CORRIDOR I I I |


Mil-E RAV, N(AJNFA P -f \';, BBLITK EFT,.


* Rt-iE KR R ID0R


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HOLCINL- RDMS FOR
D'06S. 0AT1D.MONKEL ETE Lk


SANmI ZED A.. E




AREA


DlkR FY AF
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ELEVATION -- II
WALLSTRAP
BRACKET FOR ANIMAL CAGES


SSPLAL
42 SCALE I/4 = 1 INCH 4


v-P I'.


a


L2N~.I7'~!-.FT(


PLAN WALLSTRAP bET
PLAN (D WALLSTRAP


AIL WALLCTRAP. AND BRACKETS
FOR ANiMAL CAGE..)


SI O(~ rL~R 1 ~T Df


ANIMAL QUARTER., SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM $ TRAFFIC FLOW IN AN ANIMAL HOLDING FAUiT- U.O .: A-rH. D-- OCT.. 192 H. CHIRAZI


FOR
DOGS, CATS, SHEEp
ETC.

i iA


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DEPARTMEMFAL OFFIES

Joel Channing



GENERAL

The departmental offices house the administrative

facilities for both the BioloUgy -nd C-6 departments. This

report has considered them frora the viewpoint of the many

overlapping as well as the strictly imique aspects of each.

The study of each function will include the basic requirements

and the desirable optimum facilities.



RECEPTION-SECRETARY AREA ..:.. -, ',.

This grouping consists of an executive secretary and

eight secretaries whose duties are as follows

Executive Secretary

1. Keep salary budgets, government grants, appointments

and payrolls for departments.

2. Keeps files.

3. Makes biennial reports for department.

.'. Handles payroll checks.

5. Operates thermofax machine.

6. Receptionist for department head.




The reception-secretary area will function as the

reception area for the administrative offices sa well as

the entire building.



OFFICES OF THE E~AD AMD ASSISTANT HEAD OF THE BIOLOGY

DEPARTMENT AND THE C-6 DEPARTMENT Apx. 150 sq. ft. ea.

The duties of these men are strictly administrative.

The offices of the assistant heads should have direct access

to the offices of the heads of the departments, and both

should have access to the reception-secretary area.

Toilets may be included .in thAs grouping. In addition,

the offices of the department heads should have separates

access to the outside corridor. i The offices of the

dep d*tment heods should have provisions for se ting

three to four people around the desk. Bookshelves should

generously be provided for each room.



CONFERENCE ROOM ApX. 400 sq. ft.

This room should accommodate 16 people. It should be

easily accessible through the reception- secretarial area.

HLackboard and tackboard for displays or illustrations

during conferences should be provided& There are strong

possibilities for combining the functions of this room

and those of the faculty lounge or perhaps even the

department reading room.


JoEL CAANMJK(r AE rm




PFbl Secretaries

1. Correspondence for entire department.

2. Operate ditto machines.

3. Type tests.

4, Reoeptionits.

5. Answer phones.

6. Order and store office supplies for entire

department.

7. Keep files (correspondence, meoranda

and requisitions ).

8. tZpe manuscripts for professors.

9. Librarian for deprtmsentel reading room.


gTuipment Required;

1. 5-6 steel closets.

2, 10-12 five-drawer legal files.

3. 6-8 letter-files with small drawers.

4, Book shelves.

5. Dictaphones,

6. Typewriters.

7. 30" x 54" desks.

8. Vault.

The possibility should be explored of building in

all the above items, or possibly incorporating some

of them in a separate file room.




STORAGE AND DUPLICATING ROOM

Equipment:


Apx. 220. sq. ft.


1. 3 ditto machines.

2. 2 thermofax machines.

3. 80 sq. ft. of slide storage trays ( 1' deep)

for biology slides.

4. Counter space for working duplicating

machines.

5. Storage of supplies for departmental offices.

This area should be accessible directly from the

reception- secretarial area.



DEPARTMENT READING ROOM Apx. 600-800 sq. ft.

Requirements:

1. Apx. 300 sq. ft. of bookshelves.

2. Tables for study.

3. Lounge chairs.

This room should be accessible through the reception-

secretary area, with possible access to the storage )nd

duplication room.


FACULTY LOIUGE Apx. 400 sq. ft.

Equipment:

1. Conversations groupings with lounge chairs.

2. Coffee making facilities

3. Refrigerator

4. Possible toilet adjacent.

Aceess id desirable through the reception- secre-
JoEL- CkA.WAiM4 "&-551




trial area as well as from the corridor.


LIGHTING

Natural lighting iL not necessary in any of the

foregoing but my be desirable in the offices of the

departmental heads, assistant heads, conference room and

faculty lounge.



PARTITIONS

The implementation of movable, freestand4ing partitions

deserves great consideration. Interior curtain walls are

available made of met 1, wood, glac~ and plastics. They

may be supported by wood or metal uprights that are se-

cured to floor *nd ceiling. In some standard production

models -he hollow posts are designed to *heathe telephone

and other electrical wiring. As logical replacements for

block and plaster partitions the assets of these partitions

are manifold in terms of space saving, flexibility, time

and labor saving, and ease of installation, versatility of

design and function, and salvageability.

The typical 1/2" to 3" jos;t thickness Jr these partit-

ions as versus 4" to 6" for typical block and plaster construct-

ion'indicates significant space saving where large areas

are involved. The daparative cleanness aid simplicity of


JOEL 4A4MMlNC A1-6) A




installation offers a parallel caving in time a. well as

labor costs. The ea.y removability of the partitions

permits complete salvage of the investment.

It i: flexibility that in their most important

feature. New private offices, larger or smaller existing

ones, new work spaces ean be obtained overnight withoutt

disruption of ork routine.

Some are delineated .;ith hanger strips that take brack-

ets to cantile er a good deal of an office's furnishings,

from coatrack to desk.













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A -53 1 JOEL CA-HAQlMiM6
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ACOUSTICS FOR SPECIC1


The acoustical approach to the solution of three small lecture
halls for a biology building.


A) Discussion of the meaning of some acoustical terms used in this
essay.

1) Musical sound is different from noise
2) Speech as composed by musical sound
3) Speech intelligibility, frequency, wavelength

B B) Sound as it is produced, built up, reflected and absorbed

1) Reflection and reverberation time conditions for speech
2) Absorption and types of absorbents used for different
frequencies

C) Acoustical goals and principal defects of a small lecture hall

1) Reverberation time considerations
2) General recommendations
3) Defects

D) Proposed solution for three practical exan.ples with different
approaches

1) Design process
2) 300 capacity lecture hall
3) 100 capacity lecture hall
4) 50 .capacity lecture hall




A) Discussion of the meaning of some acoustical terms used in this
essay4
1) Musical sound is different from noise


Sound is produced by a vibrating
body which imparts a portion of
its energy to the surrounding air.
These vibrations produce pressure
variations in the atmospheric
pressure which travel in the form
of sound waves. Fig. I explains
graphically the compressed and
decompressed layers by means of
concentrated and scattered points.
It also shows the mathematical
expression of a simple sound wave
for comparison.

Sounds can be musical or noisy.
There are two kinds of sounds
called musical. The first is a
definite frequency (Fig. IIA);
the second, a series of simply
related frequencies (Fig. IIB).

The unpleasant sound (noise) does
not have a definite frequency or
simAply related frequencies, but
a series of disordered and unre-
lated sounds (Fig. IIC).


2


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A) Discussion of the meaning of some acoustical terms used in this
essay,
2) Speech as composed by musical sound


SPEECH: An intelligent succession
of musical sounds and noises ori-
ginate speech. Vowels are sounds.
Each vowel has a characteristic
set of overtones given by the shape
of the mouth cavities in producing
it. The overtones make the vowels
distinguishable. Consonants are
noisy produced by the positioning
and movements of the lips and tongue
in speaking. The fundamental tone
of the speaking voice is determined
by the rate of vibration of the
vocal cords and normally has a fre-
quency around 125 c/sece in men and
200 c/sec. in women (Figs. III and
IV).


Piano
Bass Viol
Cello
Violin
Flute
Oboe
Bb Clarinet
Singing Voce
MAle
Female


P~EOu~P4cY


MANG.S (cp3)
27 -41865
41 Z46
65 659
196 2093
261 -- 2093
253 1568
S73- 698

82 466
196 1046


AWANG6 OF

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A) Discussion of the meaning of some acoustical terms used in this
essay.
3) Speech intelligibility, frequency, wavelength


A coefficient expressing how well words will be under-
stood in the considered space. It is based on per-
centage of articulation tests, previously tabulated
by experts for similar conditions. Larger 70% of
P. A. (Percentage of Articulation) means that in
100 words 70 were easily understood and will be the
lower accepted, 90% is considered excellent.


FREQUENCY:


Number of round trip excursions (to and fro
the air layer in one second (Fig. I),


movement) of


WAVE LENGTH: The length of the mathematical expression wave.


REV. T I~AE~ 55 COt.4~
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REV TirME- SECONDS


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INTELIGIBILITY:




B) Sound as it is produced, built up, reflected and absorbed
1) Reflection and reverberation time conditions for speech


Whenever a sound arrives at a
,' big obstacle, part of the sound
4 will be reflected and part will
be absorbed and transferred.
Everyone who has driven his car
through a subway has noticed
that the noise produced by the
car is louder than in an open
space. The direct noises from
the car are now being reflected
in the subway walls and are con-
tributing to make the direct
sound louder and longer.

The first of the two results is
always desired. The reflected
sound has been added to the
direct sound making it stronger.
It has contributed to the sound's
build-up.

The second result has to be con-
trolled and is more obvious in
short sounds. The same added
sound has contributed to make
the sound longer,

1When many short sounds are pro-
duced very quickly, the relation
of these sounds must be under-
stood. In the case of speech
the independent sounds cannot
be very long because they mix
together and confuse one another.

Reverberation time is the time
that it takes sound to decay
some degree of loudness.


?34.




B) Sound as it is produced, built up, reflected and absorbed
2) Absorption and types of absorbents used for different
frequencies


The reflected sounds behave differently depending on their frequencies.
The fast, high frequencies are very similar to light in the reflection
laws. The strong, long wave, low frequency, is not so obedient to the
reflection laws of light.

For practical purposes it is accurate enough to plan carefully the
reflection of sound as light reflection in general, but the absorption
nust be treated by different types of absorbents.


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The small, high frequencies are caught in between the intercommunicated
pores of some materials making the Pir vibrate within the pores and
wasting energy.

The strong, low frequency waves smash against flexible panels thereby
transmitting the vibration to them and losing energy.

In either case absorbents stoal energy from sound waves and transform
it into heat.





C) Acoustical goals and principal defects of a small lecture hall
1) Reverberation time considerations


In accordance with the reverberation
time considerations in the preceding
pages, in order to understand the
words of the speech, the reverbera-
tion tiime should be short. In con-
sideration of how short it should
be, Figures VII must be considered
and Figures V. A, B, C, D, too.
Figure VIIB is the reverberation
time for some musical halls for
comparison.


a-3.


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C) Acoustical goals and principal defects of a small lecture hall
2) General recommendations


---The room must not be too dead, moaning that the reverberation time
must be 0.7 or higher.

---A strong, direct sound must be encouraged, uninterrupted and pre-
served.

---Visibility must be preserved.

---No visual angle greater than 1400 should be permitted.

---Good first reflections (30' path differences) are considered useful
for build-up and short reverberation time.

---The ceiling should not be too high (long reflected waves).

---The hall should not be too wide long reflected waves
bad diffusion of sound
---The location of the absorbent should be accessible to the sound
which must be absorbed.

---100 150 cubic feet per person are considered design figures to
obtain the least absorbents to meet reverberation time conditions.

---DIFFUSION is always desirable for the best sound distribution.





C) Acoustical goals and principal defects of a small lecture hall
3) Defects


RESONANCES: The room will resonate \ \\ / V //
as an organ-like instru- /
ment to some special I / \
frequencies that have \ /i 1/
lengths comparable to //
any of the room sizes.

Rooms with sizcs related
to simple numbers should
be avoided. For example:

dimensions

FLUTTER ECHO: Will occur between
parallel reflecting
surfaces and must be
avoided.

FOCUSING: Curved surfaces will reflect
the sound into one point
thereby creating dead points
and other irregularities
which must be avoided or \ I
treated carefully. Curved 'i \ /
rear walls are dangerous / \
and must be covered with ,
absorbents. \ i \\ ,


ECHOES: Are produced by long, delayed
reflections which repeat the
sound as a separate, repeti-
tive one. They must be
avoided.




D) Proposed solution for three practical examples with different
approaches
1) Design process


1) The volume of the room must be calculated according to
100 150 cubic feet per person.

2) Reverberation time must be estimated (Pigures VII and VIII).

3) Minor architectural variations of the space are adjusted
to fit the design and acoustical conditions,

4) Geometrical acoustics are considered to obtain the strong,
first reflections.

5) Calculation of reverberation time in terms of the following
formula will be approximately equal to the first estimated.








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BIDLIOG APHY




Acoustics, Noise and Buildings (Parkin nnd Himphreys)

loss Noiso, Better Hearing (The Celotcx Corporation)

M*an's World of Sound (Pierce and David)

Acoustical Design in Architecture (Knudsen and Harris)

Theory and Use of Architectural Acoustical Materials (Paul Sabine, Ph.D.)
Acoustical materialss Association AIA No. 39-A.

Sound Absorption Coefficients (Acoustical Materials Association)
AIA No. 39-D


















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