Group Title: The Evolution of military architecture
Title: The Evolution of military architecture (slides)
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100886/00002
 Material Information
Title: The Evolution of military architecture (slides)
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Currais, Jorge L.
Publisher: Jorge L. Currais
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100886
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text




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First ditch
Second ditch
Advanced outwork
Thtdiltch
Outwork protecting keep
nv tow d keep
Easternm ncosure
Western encosurs
Towers

lenJ i gapte's northern flank
"M SlW =thildditch
Kedrnof ancientMrobd
UndU1round, rock-cut maupines
Stai lnd conmmunicatIons tunnel between C and D
Stein Ito undwround geleria
Galley para"ig to third ditch (0)
bat coinMunIcatUs slery between D and Fortress K


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-D The Ipetostem
E B..rbi.n of the .a, .
F TheCUtMe
\ t, The.church
SH The ckoter
\The hall
L Entrancepma
M The tow and th t$r
N The most of ftcwtlo
S 0 Aoftytowr
P BaWrbWn of th patem
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tower, 450 A.O., recon.
struotlon after VlIoet-le.

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54. Ostia Antica, 1485, Baccio Ponteill.


55. Siege, late
fifteenth or early
sixteenth century,
after Viollet-le-Duc.





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FIG. 8.


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Sh otksr er order (MA. Ws).


Faces and Lanks succeeding


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Flanks (V3 of AB) and curtains (EF) also
being of equal lengths, the resultant blunt
angle XYZ was preferred by sixteenth-cen-
tury military architects to the acute angle
A rico. I
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B

The shaded area at B cannot be adequately protected by flanks at D and E



K Lorini recommends that bastions be drawn from a point 3 of the
curtain length removed from its flank. A bastion drawn from center
curtain (C) would permit installation of additional guns between
C and F for its protection, but the angle at X would become too H
acute.
AB Side of basic hexagon
DE Curtain
FE % of curtain
SOP Flank (V3 of OQ) .
P Baseline of orillon
ET "Length of defenses"

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66. Civitavecchia, plan of enceinte, c. 151 Antn da
the Younger. Bramante's fort is the square In upper eft
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Plate 76 The Art of War V


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FIG. 4g.-Fort MolShela, Strnsburg.


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Comparkso of the fort on Roanoke Island with other fort
pla. of the period. (a) The fort on Roanoke Island;
(b) the fort bulletin PuertoRico by Ralph Lane; (c) a
conventional fort with corner bastions. (Author)


V

Sectionle through the original fort ditch and
reconstructed pqapet (Author)


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FORT JOHNSON, 1711
Based on Edward Crisp, A Plan of the Town and Har"our of
Charles Town (London, 1711), and period descriptions.





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ARMY BAR ACKS HUR LY A AAA Y., 194









































SOUTHWEST CORNER OF

Post He


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BARRACKS GROUP, SHOWING SOUTH AND ST PORCHES AND
ENTRANT TO BARRACKS UNIT.
adquarters Porch at Right, Screened for Summer Use.
































OUTI PORCH INTO SOUTH COURT, SHOWING COURT WALL OF


SOUUTHEAS L ninAan -nAc vi,, .
Screened Porch of Post Headqparters at Left.














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-, .,,,PLAN OP AIRAC.S AND . . A-U.


.'' : PLAN OP, B AN BOSrAl,-U, &

ARMY SCHOOL OF MIJTAXY AZKONAUTICS
OHIO STATS UNIVUaSITY. COLUMBUS. OIMX













































RARRACK S EC TION-U. 5&
ARRO)NAUMCSP 03)0 STATE


ARMY SCHOOL qF MLrTARY
uWviaTsrrvT. cOUMWaus. omo.


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FLOOR PLAN OF LATRINKE RU;DING-U. &
ARMY SCHOOL OF MILITARY AERONAUTICS,
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS. 01HIO.


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S|rt of the Ibt Air Depot showing flying
"Utinu('l to the right at (olumbeyy-les-Belles.


field and railroad yard. ,Plate. P ,hows the pfa
Plate K shows photograph oL this layout. ,


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THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD.


31X


Plate C. Diagonal view of airdrome; shown in plate B., The Meuse River is flowing past the little
village on the right of the picture, and the wooded hillsides in the background reach up to the
St. Mihiel salient.


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Ja: L View showing the, Nissen huts and demountable wood barracks in the lower part of plate B.
'M'jraplih also shows the slope of the hill at the top of which the flying field was Iobated.
Note plate on next page showing detail of Nissen but.


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ARMORY FOR TROOP C, BROOKLYN. N V
PLCsER, TMOMAS TACHAU. AtRC t ..
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It= TwM Mut X- Iw U UwwTWWW
b range (three hundred feet lon), general
SOr quartermaster's department, bowling
ba rooms, dining-room, kitchen, etc., for
I MM stable and the mechanical plant.


MA4V 1640, ameiFAAWPIA U.M
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uXTWWW- IwIwr u ww9 *ww i Wwuw -9 rW w or r ,
the Bren to the eat of the Third Avens~B levated.
Here Ithbtret is deeeted by the spur of a rooky hill
and this is the site at n I reularly sloping rectaigle
approxitatoly too by 0eo feet. Franklin Avenue is the
stera boundary, and beyond, the
h drolp off abruptly to a street
below like a glatis at the foot of
a fortress. To the mouth on the
higher level is a continuation of
.66th Street.
The problem demanded an un-
usually compact plan. The drill
hall alone was to be more than three.
quarters of the plot in area. In
shape, length rather than width was
desirable, so a hall the extreme
length of the ground seemed
best, and the narrow strip left
*' j, at the side suited the numerous
.. smaller rooms or administra-
tion and receptions, for officers
and men with their showers
Im.. and lockers, for meeting rooms
j and so forth, with no shaft re-
*quired to light them; but it
i .n .. 1 T-- proved awkward in the case of
the wider squad room and
gymnasium on the third floor,
for it eeant the superposition
of roomC 38 feet in width on,








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FLOOR PLANS.
NAVAL BATTALION
ARMORY.
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NAVAL BATTALION

ARMORY,

BROOKLYN, N Y-

LORD & HEWLETT. ARCHITECTS.
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" ja' in.,-** g pvlt piace in the conventional fashion. In mild
, ,, ,,r rt< ts*d finish, the inside surface of the in.
Wwf < ba' E sit -no as the f'nshed wall


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SQU'J R ,OOM FOR 30 MEN
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F5QAD RU;M FOR 13 MEN

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IAM S R.be' e r D o -'rI

IMPORARY BARRACKS CAMP DIX, N. J.

umveruict feature of the Army's .stand-,
Skdwulapiay barracks in most cli-
SisU a w, tenuous hood over the first
Ib wi ows to permit adequate ventila-
is id weather. Platform and ladder
a At d of each building is an emer-
e eumit oly, inside Mairs being pro-
m, i*ter-lor communication. The
Wy building at the right is for the
.i-er df rsw troops; here the draftee"
Wme his civiadn clothing, goes '
r Vioucs stages of inspection, and
his mibtry equipment.


M have proved neceary
w d tie awher regular hlIacks
u eemp t.d rqily enough to
V 1w,, A tind. Tat -hvecn

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4,' lt.1t mo1k imi Ii~~ired, the J)CnnaIiieiil

o toI k~lai ft!,hI4 Idjla niN% li h h avc dmihigc~d
(114, ia.V Lt-cudeut. S,(mic O(' Crt is
140' I4 jol t 1hwr csgiito climatic reciiire-



4\~i~ d',~.~,a1 &J 4 alge l' at cIVita~It (]3') as
.44flA1ai4W ~ aiih' h exa mple at
t~thM~ttitjjE~ thI pge is (pie (if the better
('*i4b eaafor a Naval oixerating IIa&, And
fit A 4idit~io, 1) iuate for li~e Wenl.
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SCALE IN FEET

The barracks, like the subsistence building on the opposite page, is
a standardized unit developed many years ago by the Bureau of
Yards and Docks and subsequently repeated without change. The
plan is in the form of an H. with all elements symmetrically disposed.
The small illustration at the right shows a typical barracks partially
camouflaged with the use of vari-colored roof and wall shingles.
While this type of camouflage does not solve many of the problems
of concealment, it is naturally less conspicuous than the usual white-
painted building below.


TYPICAL


BARRACKS


AUG U & 3


GREAT LA o



NAVY DEPARTMENT,
DESIGNERS


HENRY
GEN'L.


ERICSSON CO.,
CONTRACTOR


39
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b seee: At ,At -.6 .. "d ..pwrp
tllma^ d(et Bftol b rdomuy. opewn p -




BIVI|IM. NOW 00 d* Aw they a wiay be
fbt wigaleth s w oNe ipsvanofg aryins
lo'S tos wa wutit a i r.ungw
S d t.h>e pa. e at w ig dra... ing wth-.
p4 wmad qtp', huianitic Aow th. gcaera





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i lIitary" and Naval retrcnati wn build-
a # t range all the wav fromll the tem-
S.lary m'lOOden l0t1il,11ii,: for a single
(oniq ny ihI .nII at I 'H r ,l:t to the
Sjwrtnmarnct *i M ,irt Marine ]'ost .tishownvI uinr con-
|.'.rurtion at the top of tilhe pac. Also
wli,,l",!d are gynmna'-ia like the one
|i',. while every Army anld Navy
It, hav its chapl,. lar. e or small. 2
; i'aint or tenip)oriry.
I u t m a t-rn.I I,te i (',o t. Q U(4ti( Va.
i 4w,* I, hil. Fort I)u 'it.. D, law~are
I. 3. I h a.l.V, I M\er. Va. 4. (;ym-
.lH, \I l i '(A

RECREATION BUILDINGS


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SOne of the ha -mf;t !*rtioii" utki
lying all m iitttt \ 1,? fhitt-< turte i's t
.,.,-. carefully ntlitta n id o ?(0I bwtwr
the commi..i, l nary soklier. 1 I.-,h : .; en hMouti
this mieanl that d1"JII rtn araIi.ial fa'
tMies and uiit-- bailk .iin: al0aY* b pr
vided, and the ini,.it. if rank am'
trained even in suth k.io ..)r tas
linen and interior *l,, ,r;rt t hl vau
ly. however, do ri ,. r ,. -r-f wa
*-enjoy surrund iII a. p-b is ,:.Islit *
*x-ellent new usiihl- lol, nw t o l t1
facinlg page.
















Aft hl a L p ot **
'. i 'o




NAVAL TRAINING STATION


SOSSSITKNISE SUIT


Among the best-planned buildings in any Army or Navy camp is the mess
hall shown here'. The study given the kitchen and serving counters makes it possible
to serve a meal to over 2,000 men in riineteen minutes without hurrying or crowd-
isg. Secret of the plan is the centralized location of the kitchen and its adjuncts,
and the division of the dining space into four rooms of moderate size.


NAVY DEPARTMENT,
DESIGNERS


HENRY ERICSSON CO.,
GEN'L CONTRACTORS


GPMPLsSFSI



















































large organization, i., i"ra ". l'i" "ach I MA
nent Army .,=t and Na% tal i-n
share of mo,,ern, l J
b e seen frxom the example, ion thu I iw
to make such structure..i'-to 4..t.,
ame...... .











the headquarters buihfilg' onAC"
the Revoluti)nury Army g
else, to sheer bulk. In ItphOir..
ADMINISTRATION VI) OFFICE

HI I~iIJ)IYGS








The paper wrok of ti .ryai t I ~ ,! rtrtv.L
large organization i. t'n m-lrIit aI ~t .h 1
nent Army i(4 Ot and Na o t t 4S ',s h*"






quarters bhtig a rim wh.- t ll ik3, t
share of mode-rn, wrell-cqai I ..I A.aAL
tw l seen from the cxacaall-s -, Isat 14 c i,.g54jru
am~~~mwj~~l = ~to make such strur'tture- i~to),. 'a.. 'l'*
* the headqunarter,, huilsliisg, ,,a,-t 01: nra '1 #i'

else, to sheer hulk. lii it pLo., V!r va ' ""
jr.aring the ,niutnle ana l okoli .iti, !' :,a I' ""
emdifititd by the Iirica'h', ( 1W rli,, K! & t' h'.I ~'
the page---crrnaiidy a intac |itl', .',. .,
mtolertI military .e',i:.Oc- I hav at it s',* ,!o" .s .





.:,. 11 H A I C H I I Ii .1 U, It A L, o '










































STORAGE BUILDINGS






Supply, always the critical factor in military organi-
lation, in this day of mass, mechanized warfare takes
Wn the proportions of a large scale industry. The sup-
ply divisions must grow in direct proportion to the
)rowth dous amount of build ig construction, ranging from
huge, centrally located freight terminals and ware-
h bouss to the individual Company storehouses which
dot each army post. Added to this are storage facili-
tit' for equipment, which must be ready before the
huge nuimblers of guns, tanks, and trucks now on order
ea actually be used by the armed forces. Tradition-
aIly. Such buildings are utilitarian in character-- fact
which probably accounts for their better-than-average


1Zd2 Y pyut. Navajl Opatin Be%, Norfolk. V. L Industril
N.vy Ysad. Motor Park, Calif. 4. Waehous.
9 *0 CaI. 5. Motor Park, Oort Madt, Md.*6. ComuiBisary
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40


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NAVAL MEDICAL CENTER, BETHESDA, MD.
PaI P. Crct, Consuhing Architect


HOSPITALS


NAVAL HOSPITAL, MARINE POST, QUANTICO, VA.
Upham' and Adams, Architects

One of the great shortcomings of the Army construction program in
World War I was the failure to provide base hospitals adequate for the
needs of the inducted troops. If this is to be avoided in the present
emergency it is essential that new hospitals be built as rapidly as can-
tonments are made ready for occupancy, and that they be sufficiently
well constructed and equipped to care for the sick load which invariably
results when large numbers of men are housed in confined quarters.


IWSPENSARY. TERRITORIAL NAVY YARD







































































CONSTRUCTION PHOTO SHOWS BARRACK BEFORE COMPLETION OF PLANTING



THE RECRUITS SHARE DOUBLE BUNKS ARRANGED IN FOUR SINGLE ROWS


S 1





NAVAL TRAINING STATION
EAST COAST




















S-* EXPOSED WO

* I "' .






















HOSPITAL facilities include a -sh o o for
he *hospital corps-nen w ho later act as male. nurses






therapy, are provided. The hospital staff is quartered
MEIT HALL EQUIPME PLANT IS THE INEST AVAILABLE










THE BAKERY


HOSPI'TA-L facilities include a school for
-the hospital corps-men who later act as male nurses
aboard ship. All cases on the reservation are handled
by the medical staff, which includes a number of
specialists. Four special treatment buildings, for
X-ray, surgery, eye, ear, nose and throat and physio-
therapy, are provided. The hospital staff is quartered
within the group area and has its own recreation unit.

HOSPITAL EQUIPMENT IS THE FINEST AVAILABLE


>OD MEMBERS ARE PAINTED CREAM TO BRIGHTEN INTERIOR


IS EQUIPPED-TO TURN OUT 20,000 LOAVES OF BREAD A DAY


WARD INTERIORS ARE SOUND ABSORBING PLASTER BOARD
. vo .. -"- :,


I





























NATIONAL GUARD ARMORY, MOMISTOWN, N. J. HUGH A. KELLY, ARCHITECT





Vic









Armories are customarily b~ilt hv the Stati
for the use of their Nat iuial (;mard uits.
During the past few ye'ar.. a .,rat numlnwr
theme structures have jluan put ni.p with WPA
fuNd& and labor, although t ill under State
.....ii. .Io6. Illustrated on t h 4%- paSt' at
7,t m- .P

. . . . . . . . . .... .- .
r~ Pt 4... ..t~
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F1

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NATIONAL GUARD ARMORY,. BOISE. IDAHO

thre: recent ,.i samples. The Morristown armory is.Colonial
in 4isin with a very handsome interior of rigid frame I
Construction. Other views show the equipment racks, stalls,
a1id the liungec.
In. planning armories at the present time, flexibility of
arrangement is an important requirement, since there is
n' doubt that armories now set up for cavalry or infantry
training will in. many cases be used for new types of units,
*ch ais mechanized cavalry, chemical defense, .anti-aircraft
reimients, etc. Obviously, with the organization of the
anmy and its reserves Undergoing swift changes, the struc-
tun- built to serve tFem should be equally capable of
adaptation t& new uses.


o.* a 94






'It,'


bs~.e. aNpsohd W. a"ed


Lomelia type roof, one of the largest
J; kind n the country, ;i entirely
piported except by the side walls.


-f, t completion showing the roof of the drill hall in 'the background.


pw of the b6i .3




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uAlNIII sIp


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0C^PN CRAMK


STORAN FOR
fs TON CRANE


TRA C FOe
5 TwO CANO


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