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Group Title: University of Florida's Latin American Collection
Title: The University of Florida's Latin American Collection
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100867/00001
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Title: The University of Florida's Latin American Collection a case study of unilateral specialization in Caribbean materials
Physical Description: 21, 24 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Adams, Jennifer Cobb
Phillips, Richard F ( Richard Frederick ), 1949-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 1998
Subject: Latin Americanist libraries -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Abstract: The University of Florida's (UF) Latin American Collection has long specialized in the collection of Caribbean materials. Beginning in the late 1920s, the university undertook extra effort to acquire and organize Caribbean resources in response to the needs of scholars affiliated with the Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) at UF. This emphasis was further strengthened under the Farmington Plan, and continues to this day. The Latin American Collection's current holdings of Caribbean materials are recognized by many scholars as being the largest nationally and internationally, and generate extensive use via interlibrary loan from researchers in the U.S. and around the world. Because of its long-term emphasis on specialized collection development in the Caribbean, the University of Florida's Latin American Collection was selected by ARL and The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation as the site for a case study examining the effects of specialization and whether the UF "model" might be adopted elsewhere. A component of the ARL's Latin Americanist Research Resources Project, this case study pays particular attention to the challenges facing libraries with regard to specialized monographic collections.
Statement of Responsibility: Jennifer Cobb Adams.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 21 1st set).
Additional Physical Form: Also available on the World Wide Web.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Significant assistance for this study was provided by Richard Phillips.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 40625562


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Full Text

The University of Florida's Latin American
Collection: A Case Study of Unilateral
Specialization in Caribbean Materials

Jennifer Cobb Adams
University of Florida
June 1998

The author wishes to thank Richard Phillips of the Latin American Collection and Sam
Gowan of the University of Florida Libraries for their invaluable assistance. David Fuller
of UF Interlibrary Loan and his staff helped tremendously with the data collection, as did
many other University of Florida Libraries' staff members. I thank Dan Hazen
(Harvard), Mary Jackson (ARL), Deborah Jakubs (ARL/Duke), and Eudora Loh (UCLA)
for their comments on several earlier drafts of this paper. Gisela Then assisted greatly
with data collection and entry. However, any errors remain my own.


The University of Florida's (UF) Latin American Collection has long specialized in the
collection of Caribbean materials. Beginning in the late 1920s, the university undertook
extra effort to acquire and organize Caribbean resources in response to the needs of
scholars affiliated with the Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) at UF'. This
emphasis was further strengthened under the Farmington Plan, and continues to this day.
The Latin American Collection's current holdings of Caribbean materials are recognized
by many scholars as being the largest nationally and internationally, and generate
extensive use via interlibrary loan from researchers in the U.S. and around the world.

Because of its long-term emphasis on specialized collection development in the
Caribbean, the University of Florida's Latin American Collection was selected by ARL
and The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation as the site for a case study examining the effects
of specialization and whether the UF "model" might be adopted elsewhere. A component
of the ARL's Latin Americanist Research Resources Project, this case study pays
particular attention to the challenges facing libraries with regard to specialized
monographic collections. As has been well documented in several studies2, there is
evidence that research libraries are engaging in duplication of "non-core"3 monographic
materials. The true economic costs of unnecessary duplication are greater than the dollar
costs of the redundant items; this is because economic costs must consider the
opportunity cost of items not purchased. Items foregone in the collection process, whose
projected use was deemed to be so low that they were not acquired, represent "lost
opportunities" to users. These hidden costs borne by the users need to be considered as
part of the acquisition decision, and it is here that a cooperative arrangement can make a
difference. As the growth of domestic and foreign publication increases and libraries
come under tighter budgetary pressures, increasingly more of the published bibliographic
universe is passed over for acquisition. These items become effectively lost to users of
libraries, and over time, create gaps in collections and a gradual degrading of the depth of
available research materials. If a cooperative collection program captures these "lost
opportunities", the erosion of the research material base can be halted or even reversed.4

Will libraries receive beneficial cost savings from a cooperative agreement to specialize
their acquisitions of Latin American materials? While the instinctive response is
affirmative, the past breakdown of cooperative collection development efforts such as the
Farmington Plan and the Research Libraries Group Conspectus suggest that caution
should be used before making this claim. A more balanced view of the specialization
argument recognizes that specialization represents additional costs that may negate, or

Statement attributed to Dale Canelas, Director of Libraries at the University of Florida, in The Caribbean
Collection at the University of Florida: A Brief Description (1985), by David Geggus.
2 Jutta Reed-Scott, Scholarship. Research Libraries, and Global Publishing (1996) summarizes many of
these studies.
3 The term "non-core" refers to materials that have relatively low frequency of use and are of a higher
research grade than the high demand "core" materials that are necessary compliments to academic teaching
and basic research.
4 A cooperative collection development program essentially "pools" the more research-oriented library
consumers across institutions.

even exceed, in some cases, the foregone costs from duplication. The balanced view of
specialization realizes that the primary focus is on the expansion of the bibliographic
universe and the benefits that this brings to the entire user community. The majority of
these benefits are inherently non-monetary, thus making it extremely difficult to justify
such a program in the face of explicit costs. This case study hopes to illustrate the nature
of the costs incurred in running a specialized Latin American collection, while also
providing feedback from local users regarding the quality of service of the collection and
its impact on their research and teaching. Along the way, we indicate the methodology
used in the collection of data regarding the operation of the University of Florida's Latin
American Collection. We felt this was necessary since many proposals calling for
cooperative collection development require, to some degree, evidence in the form of hard
data showing compliance with the "spirit" of cooperation.5 We hope that a discussion of
the data collection issues will lower some of the barriers to cooperation that inevitably
arise due to administrative costs. In conclusion, we discuss how the Latin Americanist
Project, which calls for a redirection of seven percent of a member library's Latin
American monographic budget into the agreed upon area of specialization, might impact
the University of Florida's Latin American Collection and its users.

A Simple Economic Model of Library Cooperation

In order to highlight the costs and benefits that could accrue to an individual library from
joining a cooperative collection development program, a basic economic model of library
function and interaction was developed. To evaluate whether cooperation is a workable
goal, we need to define the alternative outcome of non-cooperation.

What Does Non-cooperation Mean?

By non-cooperation, we are referring essentially to the situation where a library's
acquisition efforts are derived solely from its local constituents' demands for library
services; the library makes no attempt to collect cooperatively with other libraries. In
reality, libraries have cooperative and non-cooperative elements. There are items for
which libraries will always acquire, regardless of whether or not another library has
already acquired, and may not lend out via interlibrary loan6. These materials comprise
the "core", or non-traded component of the library's collection: those high usage, short
waiting time items which would be very costly to borrow when compared to their
acquisition and management costs. As a result, all libraries will have some duplication of
resources, mainly at the instructional level, but will also want to borrow, through
interlibrary loan, materials whose usage level is so low that acquisition is not cost-

5 For a good discussion of this problem with regard to the Latin Americanist Research Resources Project,
see Dan Hazen's article, The Latin Americanist Research Resources Project: A New Direction for
Monographic Cooperation? (April 1997), at http://www.arl.org/newsltr/191/latin.html.
6 In reality, libraries do lend this "core" material conditional on perceived usage by local users. Heavily
trafficked material will not be lent out so that the local users receive preference. The model tries to
distinguish some of the elements that will result in an item being acquired (or not) and its ILL status. It
does not capture all of these features hence reality is much more complicated than the basic model!

Individual libraries cannot acquire all titles published, even within their declared area of
specialization. Ultimately, libraries are subject to their budget constraints, so materials
that have immediate high-demand characteristics will receive preference in acquisition in
the non-cooperative environment. As a result, library users will be forced to bear the
costs of acquiring that information not collected by their local library. In the best case
scenario, the user is able to locate the desired material at another library and can obtain it
via interlibrary loan. A more pessimistic outcome might be the lack of acquisition of the
material by a library that can lend it on ILL, thus necessitating travel to the acquiring
institution, possibly to the country of publication, in order to complete research. The
ultimate in negative outcomes is the total non-acquisition of materials within the user-
accessible realm; relevant material is not collected by the research library system and
coverage becomes diluted, oriented towards the more commonly used and commonly
collected materials.

Acquisition versus Borrowing

Information is an intermediate good, used as an input in the researcher's production
process. Hence, demand patterns, combined with transaction costs, will lead libraries to
acquire certain materials and not acquire others. The pattern of acquisition should follow
from the specialized research talent employed by the university. The intensity of usage
of a particular item may lead the library to acquire the publication instead of borrowing it
from another library.

Another acquisition issue that must be considered if there is a lack of cooperative
collection effort is the uncertainty factor. After acquiring the high demand, instructional
level materials that they all need for their user community, libraries face the thorny
question, "Do we really want to acquire this research-oriented, lower demand material, if
..." The "big if" is: if the individual library does not acquire the item, can they borrow
the item from another library if a user actually does appear, or will no one acquire the
item? This is a difficult decision. In economic terms, it means { 1 } estimating the
probability the item will be requested in the future (or number of future requests), {2}
estimating the probabilities that another library will acquire, or that the library can buy
the item on the OP market at that time, versus no one acquires, {3} figuring the explicit
and implicit costs under each of the above scenarios, then {4} calculating an "expected",
or weighted average, cost of not acquiring the item, then comparing that to the costs
associated with up-front acquisition.

In reality, librarians "guesstimate" or apply some rule of thumb to the acquisition
decision, but their thought process probably contains elements of the above analysis.
Either way, one thing stands out: the higher perceived local demand for the item, the
more likely that item will be acquired even though the item is also likely to be acquired
by another library. Conversely, even if the probability of no one else acquiring the item
is high and the costs associated with that scenario are very high, if local demand is
predicted to be very low, that item may not be acquired. As a result, collections across
libraries begin to look similar, not just in the basic instructional material, but in their
collection of lower level research material as well. There may be "somewhat

specialized" library collections oriented towards faculty concentrations, but because
libraries in a non-cooperative environment are "hedging their bets" by acquiring a more
diverse research collection, monies are diverted from in depth acquisitions in one area.
To the extent that cooperation removes the uncertainty aspect from marginal items,
libraries can rest assured that they can forego acquisition and still have access via
interlibrary loan. This leaves the acquisition decision contingent on local demand, the
cost of borrowing, and the cooperative collection development agreement.

Determining what items would be acquired or not acquired under non-cooperation is
important. By predicting what publications would not be acquired, we can begin to
construct costs of non-acquisition for the user community. Acquisition entails the cost of
the item, as well as overhead and management costs, and opportunity costs reflecting
alternative uses for the money spent. Borrowing entails delivery costs, processing costs
for both libraries involved, as well as time costs for the ultimate user. When the costs of
acquisition are less than the cost of borrowing, the library should acquire these items.
This leads to the ultimate question: how high do the costs of non-cooperation have to be
such that cooperation pays for itself? Cooperation is not costless; the dissolution of
cooperative agreements suggests that member libraries face sizable costs that make
cooperation prohibitive.

Problems Underlying Cooperation

While cooperation has many appealing characteristics, it imposes special costs on
member libraries as well. Cooperation means sacrificing some local autonomy in
collection management for the greater good of the consortium. In times of budgetary
hardship, or when the local demand for library services changes substantially, it becomes
difficult to maintain adherence to the cooperative arrangement. In fact, beliefs that other
members are not maintaining their designated collection efforts will lead to a breakdown
in the cooperative collection development plan. One way of overcoming this problem is
to develop an intermediary organization that monitors the collection efforts of the
member libraries. This approach is more appealing as the number of libraries
participating in the cooperative program rises.

The development of a coordinated collection that can be shared among libraries creates a
product that has some of the characteristics of a public good. As a result, some libraries
may attempt to free ride on the collection efforts of others without investing in
specialized acquisitions. Both members and non-members of the cooperative
arrangement stand to benefit from free riding. Building the cooperative system yields
benefits to non-members since they now have access to items they would not have
acquired, at low cost. Also, some members may be at relatively early stages of collection
development, and will have a tendency to borrow more than they lend out. The
combined effects lead to some libraries being persistent net lenders while others are
persistent net borrowers. Since libraries do not charge each other (or the final consumer)
the true economic cost of borrowing the material, the acquisition decisions of the libraries
may be affected as well. In particular, a library would want to hold a more general
collection that would satisfy local users' needs (and hold down ILL borrowing) but

would still generate ILL lending. Any non-acquired materials could be obtained from the
specialist library in the cooperative arrangement.

Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Cooperation

Our discussion of the simple model of library cooperation reveals a variety of different
costs and benefits:

A. Benefits of Cooperation

1. Specialization means that library resources are not used inefficiently in
trying to cover a wider scope of materials. Trying to acquire materials
incrementally in all areas may be costlier than focused acquisitions in one
specific area. These benefits come out of the professional relationship
between the Latin American bibliographer and the various suppliers
(jobbers) that locate material for purchase; as libraries specialize, there is
less uncertainty about what types of material will be desired for purchase
and which library would be an interested buyer. These benefits are not
arising from differences in acquisition prices, though we will want to
examine this point, but from the use of resources in areas where their
talents dictate they should be used.
2. Cooperation reduces purchases of certain low demand materials that now
can be borrowed from other member libraries. On net, this means some
other library in the system must make the purchase, but that the per-unit
cost of "producing" the material for borrowing will be lower since
acquisition costs will be spread over all member libraries.
3. More resources will be available somewhere in the system, if not at the
user's local library. One major problem with non-cooperation is the
possibility that materials may not be acquired by any of the libraries. It is
very difficult to measure the benefit to society from the collection of these
items; possible responses to non-collection could range from extra travel
costs to the subliminal diverting of research to areas that are more
thoroughly covered. However, the embracing of cooperative collection
development plans suggest that member libraries are willing to pay, either
through an in-kind mechanism such as monies allocated for their
specialized collection, or in cash premiums, for this "insurance" against

B. Costs of Cooperation

1. Organizational and monitoring costs: What are the costs of maintaining
cooperation between the member libraries involved in a cooperative

7 Cooperation will not guarantee complete coverage; however, it improves the likelihood that low usage
materials will be collected.

collection development program? Such costs would involve the
development of information resources regarding the collection holdings
for each member library and other statistics such as interlibrary loan costs
attributable to the specialized collection, expenditures on preservation, and
acquisition costs. Other organizational costs would be membership fees
for organizing the cooperative agreement, travel costs, costs of meetings to
plan acquisition strategies, etc.
2. Lending and borrowing costs: Delivery fees, cost of labor involved in
processing the material, etc. Specialization will raise the volume of trade
between libraries, so total costs associated with ILL will be significantly
higher. However, due to economies of scale8 in the production of ILL
services, the per unit cost of ILL will decline.
3. The costs associated with extra efforts required to obtain specialized
materials in the designated collection area. As more items are acquired at
greater depth, the acquisition costs will be expected to rise. First, there are
increasing search costs: the specialist library wants to locate materials that
are by nature scarcely held or produced. This increases the cost of
acquisition to the vendors involved in locating the material. Second, there
are economies of scale in the production of books and periodicals. (See
footnote 8 for explanation.) Specialization in acquisition and collection by
libraries means that fewer copies of an item will be purchased; to a
publisher, this means the cost per copy will rise since the fixed costs of
publication will have to be borne by fewer units of output. Publishers can
be expected to pass some of this cost increase on to the final purchasers
(libraries) in the form of higher prices. Whether these higher costs are
greater than or less than the offsetting cost reduction in non-acquired
materials, while taking into consideration the benefits of specialization in
reducing unit labor costs, remains to be seen.
4. Time costs: Some estimate of how long the user has to wait for delivery of
the material to their local library. This should be weighted by some
measure of demand for the item, if possible.

The Latin American Collection at the University of Florida: An Overview

The University of Florida was selected as the site for the monographic specialization case
study because of its long history in acquiring Caribbean materials. This focus on the
Caribbean has been maintained even in the absence of a formal cooperative collection
arrangement such as Farmington. As a result, we hope that statistics derived from an
analysis of the Latin American Collection might form a benchmark to measure

8 The term "economies of scale" refers to phenomenon where proportional increases in all production
inputs leads to a greater than proportional increase in the final product (output). On the cost side, as the
volume of output rises, the per unit cost of producing the output falls. This effect has several possible
sources: the spreading of fixed costs such as computer and networking costs, learning curve effects (as
workers process more ILL transactions, they become more adept and processing time per unit falls), and
specialization via the division of labor.

specialization and its impact. Before a discussion of the quantitative measures that were
calculated, we should emphasize some of the many unique characteristics of the
University of Florida and the Latin American Collection that make this case study of
particular interest.

The University of Florida is the largest of the State of Florida universities, with an
enrollment of around 42,000 students and an annual budget of approximately $2 billion
dollars. The University of Florida is no stranger to the problems that have plagued other
public universities: an ever-increasing demand for higher education and a comparatively
underfunded educational system. As greater numbers of people migrate to Florida and
the "boomer babies" reach college age, the University of Florida, along with the rest of
the state university system, is under increasing pressure to dramatically increase its
enrollment.9 Unfortunately, this pressing need has not resulted in increased spending on
higher education to any large degree, nor has it resulted in dramatic changes in the tuition
subsidy enjoyed by Florida residents. The end result is more demand for the educational
service provided by the University of Florida, but with less funding than is necessary to
adequately maintain the quality of service. This effect trickles down to the University of
Florida libraries and the Latin American Collection. During the period 1990 to 1998, the
Latin American Collection's annual budget averaged $135,396, with 1997-98 being the
peak fiscal year at $224,430 and 1992-93 being the worst fiscal year, at $90,986. Such
large fluctuations in year to year funding play havoc with any plan to maintain collections
in support of a cooperative collection arrangement. During particularly bad budgetary
situations, the Latin American Collection has always sought to maintain its collection and
microfilming responsibilities for Caribbean periodicals; this has meant that available
funds for other Latin American periodicals and monographs was diverted to support this
portion of the Collection.

The University of Florida, as the flagship university in the state university system, also
must consider a statewide clientele. For the University of Florida Libraries, this means
that other in-state universities, colleges and community colleges need to be supported
through extensive interlibrary lending, with UF running a sizable "trade deficit" with
these institutions. The Latin American Collection generates a particularly high volume of
requests to lend, and about 38 percent of requests come from other Florida libraries. The
volume of interlibrary loan lending requests from other in-state institutions for Latin
American Collection materials is sure to rise in the future. Budgetary limitations for all
SUS10 institutions have encouraged limited holdings of low demand items, particularly in
periodicals. In addition, as further economic ties are forged between Florida and Latin
America, and the diverse and ever-expanding student population is educated at distant in-
state campuses, there will be added pressure on the Collection to accommodate these
secondary users.

9 Informal figures that have been cited show projected enrollment by 2005 at 47,000 students,
approximately a 12% increase above current levels.
State University System

Separately housed from the general collection, the Latin American Collection maintains a
separate reading room and specialized reference staff to assist patrons." The Latin
American Collection is estimated to hold over 310,000 volumes, maintains approximately
1,300 current serials, and holds over 50,000 microforms. Eighty percent of the
Collection consists of Spanish, Portuguese, or French materials, with the rest being
primarily English language materials. It also has an expanding collection of computer-
accessible resources. Other materials relevant to Latin American scholars reside in other
collections on the University of Florida campus; the Map Library contains over 50,000
maps of the Caribbean and Latin America, while the P.K. Yonge Library of Florida
History maintains documents relating to Spanish Florida. In addition, UF Special
Collections maintains manuscripts such as the Braga Brothers Collection, the
Rochambeau Papers regarding Haiti's War of Independence, and a variety of official
registry papers from Haiti and other Caribbean nations.12

On the acquisitions front, the Latin American Collection continues to maintain its
emphasis on Caribbean and circum-Caribbean materials. Though local demand13 patterns
have changed over time, the Collection steadfastly maintains acquisition support for
Caribbean materials, and gives priority in cataloging to Caribbean titles. Approximately
30 percent of the monographs pertain to the Caribbean, while about 13 percent deal with
the circum-Caribbean countries. Caribbean acquisitions made through regional vendors
accounted for approximately 20% of total standing order expenditures made by the LAC.
In addition to purchased materials, the Latin American Collection receives a variety of
items through gifts and exchange programs. Of the 407 gift serials that the Collection
receives, approximately 26 percent originate from the Caribbean. The Collection
receives some 156 exchange titles, approximately 20 percent originating in the
Caribbean. It should also be noted that the Latin American Collection donates gift
materials to other institutions, primarily the other State of Florida universities.

The Latin American Collection, with its emphasis on Caribbean materials, has attracted
visiting scholars from all over the United States and internationally. The Center for Latin
American Studies awards Title VI Library Travel grants for off-campus scholars to use
the Latin American Collection and many University of Florida faculty members find the
Collection critical to their research. In addition to on-campus use, there is considerable
demand for Latin American Collection materials via interlibrary loan. Of the 10,569
completed interlibrary lending requests for the fiscal year 1996-97, 1997 (or 19%) were
for Latin American Collection materials. Of these loans to other institutions,
approximately 38 percent were Caribbean materials and about 21 percent were circum-
Caribbean materials.

" The work area for the Collection was renovated in 1997 for a total of $7 million dollars. The renovations
considerably improved climate control, installed compact shelving, added a reading room and installed
network infrastructure for computer hookups.
12 For greater detail on these holdings, see David Geggus, The Caribbean Collection at the University of
Florida: A Brief Description (1985).
13 We use the term "local demand" to refer to students and faculty of the University of Florida.

The Latin American Collection at the University of Florida complements the Center for
Latin American Studies (CLAS), as well as many academic programs around the
University of Florida campus. Traditionally strong in Caribbean studies and in the
disciplines of the social sciences, history and literature, CLAS has gradually expanded its
coverage to all regions of Latin America and many different disciplines. This expansion
inevitably brings pressure for the Latin American Collection to further diversify its
holdings in response.14 There has been more emphasis placed on Andean and Southern
Cone materials, while trying to maintain the Collection's Caribbean and circum-
Caribbean focus in recent years.15 CLAS has also devoted more support to researchers
involved in tropical rainforest conservation, resulting in a shift in demand towards more
science-oriented Latin American publications. In June 1998, the U.S. Department of
Education granted the Warrington College of Business Administration at UF $1 million
dollars to establish a Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER).
This center will specialize in Latin America, industrial infrastructure and agribusiness,
and will promote a master's of business administration with a regional concentration in
Latin America. Terry McCoy, UF professor of political science and former director of
CLAS, says, "This will allow (CLAS) to fill out its portfolio with a business component
that we've never had. We're reengineering ourselves to make our expertise relevant in

A Quantitative Analysis of a Specialized Library

What factors should a library consider before adopting a specialized focus as part of a
cooperative collection development project? What might be the administrative and
"paperwork" costs involved with managing the data needed to verify participation with
the project? In this section, we discuss some various statistics that could be used to show
progress towards broadening the collection of Latin American materials and reducing
overlap, monitoring interlibrary lending and borrowing, and keeping track of acquisition
and other costs. We also discuss the methods used in data collection.

Interlibrary Loan Usage

The largest segment of the this case study involved the tracking of interlibrary lending
and borrowing as it pertained to Latin American materials at the University of Florida.
This was no easy task, since the information we wanted to collect per ILL transaction was
very detailed. Hypothetically, increased specialization across libraries should raise the

14 A survey of CLAS faculty performed in 1985-86 found that while there was modest support for further
concentration in the Caribbean, a few respondents complained about an "overemphasis on the Caribbean."
Most survey respondents felt that more resources should be directed at Central America (excluding
Mexico). Analysis from Glaucio Ary Dillon Soares, Self-Study: Preliminary Report (1986?).
'i Area Studies Program Review, Volume I, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
16 Quote taken from "UF to open international business center", Gainesville Sun, June 23, 1998, page 4B.

volume of lending traffic17, with a sizable component of ILL lending coming from the
member libraries' "specialization." In order to start to quantify this possible effect, we
needed to take a very close look at each transaction and record some of its qualitative
features. These features were encoded in a database using Microsoft Excel, providing a
computer record of each ILL transaction. The appendix contains the list of variables that
were collected for each ILL lending and borrowing transaction. The fundamental
questions of interest for lending requests were (1) which institution is asking for the
material? (2) What is the subject country that the material covers? (3) What is the date of
publication for the material?, and (4) Is the University of Florida the only cited lender for
this item? Similarly, for UF requests to borrow, we looked at (1) what institution lent the
material to the UF patron, (2) what subject country did the material refer to?, and (3) was
the same item borrowed multiple times?

One beneficial effect of having the Latin American Collection at the University of
Florida separated from the general non-science holdings is that it allows the Latin
American bibliographer and his staff a degree of control over what items are lent via ILL.
Items that are very fragile or in high demand are generally not available to ILL patrons,
but most items requested do not fall into this category. The screening of ILL lending
requests gives the Latin American bibliographer valuable information: what do other,
non-local, patrons want out of this collection? Since cooperative collection development
really requires librarians to be conscious and concerned about the broader definition of
patrons, the monitoring of ILL requests will help achieve this goal.

A. ILL Lending18

From July 1996 to June 1997, interlibrary loan requests for materials held in the Latin
American Collection were copied and collected for data encoding. The database of ILL
loans or "exports" (filename: EX-LAC.xls) was created according to the formatting
instructions given in the Appendix on page 2A. While much of the information was
available on the ILL request form, many times further investigation was required into
features such as subject country and source country. In total, 1997 lending requests were
filled during this period. The following are some statistics pertaining to the Latin
American Collection's interlibrary loans:

I. For Institutions Located in the State of Florida

A. Total Requests: 754
B. Total Caribbean Requests: 296 or 39.26%
C. Total Circum-Caribbean Requests: 137 or 18.16%
D. Rest of Latin America Requests: 321 or 42.57%

17 As libraries reduce duplication and expand their holdings, ILL lending will rise as (1) local users find
that their library is no longer acquiring items, and (2) new acquisitions attract users. Note that for the
system as a whole, total ILL lending is the representative figure since borrowing is just somebody else's
18 Includes both photocopy and loan requests.

E. Top Four Countries Borrowed: Cuba (108), General LA (83), Argentina (82),
Mexico (74)
F. Top Three Borrowers: Florida International University (199), Florida State
University (80), and Florida Atlantic University (68)

II. For ARL Project Member Institutions19

A. Total Requests: 360
B. Total Caribbean Requests: 126 or 35%
C. Total Circum-Caribbean Requests: 67 or 18.61%
D. Rest of Latin America Requests: 167 loans or 46.39%
E. Top Four Countries Borrowed: Cuba (41), Brazil (36), Mexico & Peru tied at
32 each.
F. Top Three Borrowers: University of Miami (64), University of Pennsylvania
(35) and Vanderbilt University (22)

III. Other Institutions

A. Total Requests: 945
B. Total Caribbean Requests: 338 or 35.77%
C. Total Circum-Caribbean Requests: 221 or 23.39%
D. Rest of Latin America Requests: 386 or 40.84%
E. Top Three Countries Borrowed: Mexico (114), General Latin America (111)
and Cuba (95)
F. Top Three Borrowers: Emory University (53), University of Georgia (49),
and University of Virginia (28)

Basically, Caribbean materials range from about 35 to 39 percent of total Latin American
Collection ILL lending requests20, with the figure being higher for in-state institutions.
This definitely reflects the role of geography and demographic factors on ILL loan
demand: Florida's sizable Hispanic population, many of whom are of Caribbean origin,
and economic growing ties to Latin America show up as high ILL volume within state.
The major recipient of UF Latin American Collection materials is Florida International
University, a smaller, state supported university located in South Florida that has a high
proportion of Hispanic students and a curriculum oriented towards Latin American
studies. The finding that in-state institutions would demand a sizable amount of
Caribbean materials was a little surprising. Apart from demographic factors, one might
have assumed that in-state institutions might use UF as a "cheap"21 resource for lower
demand Latin American (but non-Caribbean) materials. To a certain extent, this is true:
the main component of in-state demand is for Cuban materials, but other heavily
demanded countries are outside of the Caribbean.

19 This includes the University of Miami, which is also included in the State of Florida figures.
20 For the fiscal year 1996-97, UF had 11,401 lending requests, of which 10,569 were completed. There
were 1997 completed lending requests for Latin American Collection materials. So 18.88% of all
completed ILL lending requests were for LAC materials, and 760 (7.19%) of total ILL lending requests
were for Caribbean materials.
21 UF charges no fees to in-state public institutions and gives priority to these requests.

Circum-Caribbean requests are higher for the non-ARL, non-Florida institutions, with the
most requested subject country being Mexico. The ARL project members have a pattern
similar to the in-state borrowers except for their emphasis on Brazilian materials.22 The
volume of export or loan traffic outside of the State of Florida is predictably to the rest of
the Southeast United States. A breakdown of ILL lending by region to member
institutions of the ARL Project is given in the Appendix on page 4A; data showing the
exact lending by subject country to participating members is given on Appendix pages
5A-7A. ILL lending by subject country to Florida libraries is given in the Appendix on
pages 8A-10A, and ILL lending to all other (non-Florida, non-ARL Project) libraries is
summarized by region and subject country on Appendix pages 11A-13A.

Another way of examining the lending data for evidence of specialization is to look at the
publication date of the material requested. The chart "Distribution of ILL Lending
Requests by Publication Date" in the Appendix on page 14A shows the number of
requests for material of a certain vintage, both for all ILL lending transactions from the
Latin American Collection23 and for those that pertain to Caribbean materials. For
broadly defined ILL requests, the most requests were for the most recent (post 1990)
material, with the highest frequency of transactions occurring for the publication year
1994. Both overall Latin American materials and Caribbean materials have a frequency
"spike" for the 1970s, probably correlated with the economic development of the region
and the expansion of publication. For Caribbean materials, the distribution of publication
dates is significantly different: historical materials play a much greater role filling
requests. While demand is strong for recently published materials, it is comparable to the
level of demand for Caribbean materials dating back to the 1940s. An examination of the
"tail" of the distribution shows that of items published pre-1920, Caribbean materials
make up a sizable percentage of ILL requests. This emphasizes and quantifies the long-
term benefit to having specialization: this material is actually available because UF
followed a path of specialization early. While current demand heavily emphasizes
current publication, there is still a need for older, low demand materials.24

B. ILL Borrowing

We hypothesized that the University of Florida's borrowing requests via interlibrary loan
would show a large percentage of requests for countries and regions outside of the
Caribbean. To collect this data, the University of Florida's interlibrary loan department
made copies of borrowing requests that could pertain to Latin American materials.
Unfortunately, tracking the borrowing transactions is much more difficult than tracking
the lending transactions; it is entirely up to interlibrary loan personnel to make the

22 UF has a secondary emphasis on Brazilian materials in its Latin American Collection.
23 1975 out of 1997 ILL lending transactions had publication date recorded.
24 A cautionary note with regard to these statistics: because of the lag between actual acquisition by UF and
electronic recognition via OCLC or RLIN that UF owns an item, recent publication dates may be
artificially low. However, a sample of the Latin American Collection's recently acquired Caribbean
materials showed that the majority (75%) of items was on the OCLC system.

determination of what is Latin American material.25 In addition, requests for copies of
journal articles and serials were not available after the fact. What we ended up with in
terms of data were a sample of borrowing requests for monographs; the total number of
requests collected for the period July 1996 to June 1997 numbered 105.26
An analysis of the ILL borrowing data reveals that the majority (24%) of requests is for
Mexican materials, an area that the Latin American Collection not made a high priority
for specialized acquisition. The second most requested subject country is Cuba, certainly
a country that the Latin American Collection focuses on and actually generates the
majority of the Collection's ILL lending requests. For details on the source of ILL
borrowed materials and the subject country composition, see the tables labeled "ILL
Borrowing by Subject Country" on Appendix page 15A and "ILL Borrowing by Subject
Country and Lender on Appendix page 16A. Obviously, specialization has not
guaranteed complete coverage of a particularly important country. This also illustrates
that there exists strong local demand for materials from the region of specialization and
that an argument can be made for expanding acquisitions in this area.

Most borrowing requests for Latin American materials are filled by other institutions
within Florida, most notably Florida State University. A sizable component, though, are
filled by out of state from institutions such as the University of Pittsburgh, Tulane
University, and UNC: Chapel Hill, all fellow ARL Project members. Strong collections
at these institutions benefit our users' needs, and this relationship should be strengthened
as institutions move toward cooperative collection development.

Tracking Acquisition Expenditures on Latin American Materials

Participants in any cooperative collection development project need to monitor their
acquisition expenditures carefully and prepare statistics that will demonstrate adherence
to the project's goals. Does the pattern of acquisitions show that the institution is
fulfilling its promise to devote more resources to the area of specialization? Should we be
looking at dollar expenditures, quantities purchased, or both? How can we avoid overlap
given that acquisition decisions are made unilaterally? To help answer these questions
for the Latin American Collection at UF, we collected acquisitions budget data covering
the time period 1988 to 199727 and a sample of invoices for items purchased during the
1996-97 fiscal year. From this, we constructed several measures to track the acquisitions

25 Unlike lending requests, which were easy to identify since the materials were housed separately, the
borrowing requests for Latin American materials were amalgamated with all other borrowing requests. To
identify borrowing requests that could possibly be for Latin American materials, we had to search through
requests by broad call number ranges. Thus, it is very possible that many borrowing requests were missed
in the process.
26 In contrast, for the University of Florida as a whole, 10,569 ILL lending and 5,232 ILL borrowing
requests were filled. To the extent that collected requests reflect qualitatively the unobserved transactions;
conclusions drawn from this sample should be valid.
27 Budget data on acquisition expenditures by major category (firm orders, continuations, approval plans
and standing orders) is available for the period fiscal year 1989-90 to 1996-97. Data regarding standing
order acquisitions by vendor is available for fiscal years 1988-89 and 1989-90, then again for years 1992-
93 to 1996-97.

A. Trends in Acquisition Expenditures by Major Categorv

Since fiscal year 1988-89, total expenditures have risen by 26 percent to their current
(fiscal year 1996-1997) level at an average growth rate of 3.34 percent per year. This
statistic, however, shows the long-term growth in Latin American expenditures, ignoring
the high volatility of budgets on a year-to-year basis. As is evident from the graph of
total Latin American Collection acquisition expenditures over time (see Appendix 17A),
the Latin American Collection has undergone some substantial cuts in its total
acquisitions budget, most notably in the fiscal years 1991-92 and 1992-93. In these
years, acquisition monies declined to about 75-80 percent of their previous levels.28 To
compensate for these dramatic declines, the Collection was rewarded with extra
acquisition monies in the following fiscal years, returning acquisition expenditures to
close to their projected or trend levels pre-1991.29

This volatility in yearly budgets brings up an oft-mentioned problem of cooperative
collection development plans, namely how does an institution cope under times of
budgetary duress? Cooperative plans need to recognize that all institutions are prone to
budgetary problems and that short term fluctuations in acquisitions expenditures should
be treated with concern but not panic. Concern needs to be addressed to these temporary
downturns since libraries will feel added pressure to redirect resources away from the
specialized area to local use. It is for this reason that library management should be fully
aware of the broader commitments to maintain coverage, while bibliographers must make
the hard choices about what items will be acquired or maintained to meet budget.

During the two years of constricted acquisitions budgets that occurred in the early 1990s,
the Latin American Collection at UF had to restructure acquisitions in two ways: (1)
acquisitions expenditures for current periodicals and serials needed to be maintained, and
(2) monograph acquisition should preserve our standing in Caribbean materials, even at
the expense of other regions. We can see these effects by looking at the graphs of LAC
acquisition budgets by order type and LAC standing order expenditure by region (see
Appendix pages 18A,19A). The acquisition budgets by order type graph shows that
continuations have remained consistently funded over the last seven years, and did not
experience a decline in allocation during the recession years of 1991-92 and 1992-93.
During this same time period, other categories of acquisitions (primarily monographs)
took a strong hit, as standing orders in 1992-93 were only about 56 percent of their dollar
value in 1990-91.30 The Latin American Collection has undertaken the responsibility to
microfilm and digitize many current periodicals and serials from the Caribbean; to
support this effort; acquisitions in this area had to be maintained. Failure to acquire these
periodicals would likely mean that they would not be available in the United States, or at
considerable cost to the user.

28 This budgetary fiasco was a statewide event, not specific to the University of Florida or the Latin
American Collection in particular. The recession of 1991 lowered sales tax revenues for the state, driving
across the board cuts.
29 During the last few years, the Latin American Collection has benefited from contingency funds that have
been used to procure unique, rare items. These funds are not total accounted for in the budget history.
30 Standing orders are primarily with small regional vendors that provide materials from particular subject

To track what was occurring to monograph acquisitions, we looked at standing order
expenditures since each vendor covered specific countries and hence could be
categorized into different regions. For most of the seven years of standing order data,
Caribbean standing order acquisition has been lower in current dollar terms than those
standing orders allocated to the circum-Caribbean and the rest of Latin America. There
are a number of reasons for this observation. The production of monographic material in
the Caribbean is relatively small compared to other parts of Latin America, so a smaller
allocation goes a longer way in achieving coverage. The Collection also has history on
its side in the sense that the stock of Caribbean titles is already the largest in the U.S. and
possibly the world. However, when the budgetary crisis hit the University of Florida,
standing orders for Caribbean monographs were kept intact while standing orders for
other Latin American materials took a steep plunge. The Collection had a reputation for
acquiring and maintaining Caribbean materials, and it would be shortsighted to abandon
that, even temporarily. In particular, if the Latin American Collection was to continue its
role as the "Caribbean specialist", it needed to maintain its regional vendor network. The
Collection wanted to keep its vendors scouting for unique Caribbean materials both now
and the future-and cutting a vendor's standing order allocation in half was not going to
provide that incentive.

Since the regional vendors play a very important role in securing items for the Latin
American Collection, disruption in vendor relations can have a big effect on the
Collection's coverage of a particular area. Vendors whose acquisition efforts are
mediocre will result in reallocation of their standing orders to other vendors in Latin
America. There is always vendor turnover over the years, and the Collection adds new
vendor accounts almost every year. During the period 1988-89 to 1996-97, the Latin
American Collection has had at least thirty-one different regional vendors, with six major
vendors in the Caribbean. Since the Caribbean is geographically dispersed and covers a
mix of different languages (English, Spanish, French, and Dutch), it is a difficult area for
the existing vendors to cover. Thus the need for the Collection to scout out new vendors
to ensure acquisitions coverage from all parts of the Caribbean.

Since fiscal year 1993-94, the Collection has dramatically increased its expenditures on
non-Caribbean and non-circum-Caribbean countries in Latin America, particularly
Argentina and Brazil. The dollar increase reflects the fact that these materials have gotten
much more expensive, hence expenditures must rise to keep real acquisitions from
declining dramatically. These acquisitions also complement changes in research interests
that have occurred in the Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) and a focus on
Argentine literature by the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures. [The
acquisition budget data is contained in the Appendix on page 20A.]

B. Sampling Monograph Acquisitions Invoices

We wanted to collect more detailed information regarding the nature of acquisitions, such
as a more precise breakdown by subject country and an analysis of prices. To accomplish
this, we collected a number of invoices involving both standing and firm orders and
tracked each acquisition by title, author, vendor, subject country, price and other features.

This was not a random sample; the difficulty of tracking the invoices precluded the
possibility of having a choice over what invoices to use." In the end, we used those
invoices that were located for some of the major vendors, both in Latin America and in

An analysis of invoices from five vendors that supply primarily Caribbean materials to
the Latin American Collection revealed that the vast majority (53 percent) of these
purchases involved Cuban materials.32 Other areas of heavy buying included Haiti (12
percent), general Caribbean materials (12 percent), Trinidad & Tobago (6 percent),
Puerto Rico (5 percent) and the Dominican Republic (3%). Prices on these materials (not
including shipping) ranged from a low of $6.88 for an item from St. Vincent to a high of
$27.50 for an item from Dominica. A weighted average of Caribbean material prices
from these regional vendors is about $19.30 per item. [See Appendix page 22A for
invoice price information.]

To see the difference between the prices of Caribbean subject materials supplied by
European vendors and those of the regional vendors, we collected a sample of invoices
from six European vendors and broke down the acquisitions using the same format
mentioned above. Most of the acquisitions coming from the European vendors are not
Caribbean in nature; the largest shares involve general Latin American materials,
Mexico, and Argentina. However, European vendors are an important source of material
about the French Caribbean, an area that is not as thoroughly covered by some of the
regional vendors. About 29 percent of the European acquisitions are Caribbean items and
the weighted average price of this material is $27.69.33 [See Appendix page 23A for
details on prices charged by European vendors.]

A comment should also be made regarding Caribbean serials. Although Caribbean
serials prices have not increased dramatically in subscription prices relative to other parts
of Latin America, the total cost of providing serials coverage has gone up due to shipping
costs. As part of the Latin American Collection's commitment to microfilm and digitize
many Caribbean newspapers, timely and certain delivery is essential. Unfortunately, past
experience has shown that unguaranteed delivery, while cheap, results in lost items that
create more headaches and costs. Thus, the only option for a specialist library may be to
pay significantly more for guaranteed delivery services on those items for which it
maintains preservation responsibilities. An example of this for UF's Latin American
Collection is the Trinidad Guardian, which UF microfilms and distributes to other
libraries. The subscription price for the Trinidad Guardian is currently $80.33. For
surface mail, airmail or UPS delivery, add on respectively $230.30, $1033.82, and
$980.04 to the subscription cost. Since cheaper delivery methods have resulted in lack of
delivery of the Guardian, the Latin American Collection will pay for the UPS guaranteed
delivery option. These monies for delivery come out of the Collection's continuations

31 As fate would have it, the Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA) has recently expanded the
tracking of acquisitions by vendor. This should definitely ease data collection in the future.
32 Cuban materials refer to both materials coming from Cuba as well as "Miami" Cuban Diaspora.
33 This figure excludes the purchase of the French Revolution research collection microform for a total cost
of $3,500. Including this item, the weighted average price per Caribbean item rises to $30.73.

budget as a serials cost; they are not covered by other library accounts outside of the
Collection. This type of expenditure is a definite additional cost that would be borne by
libraries attempting to specialize in the serials and periodicals of Latin America.

Another factor we wanted to examine in regard to recent acquisitions was the degree of
overlap that existed with other institutions. To generate some numbers that might
indicate "unique" acquisitions versus those already held by other institutions, a random
sample of 146 recent Caribbean acquisitions was taken from the regional and European
vendor invoices.34 These selected items were then checked on the OCLC database to
determine how many other institutions, both in the U.S. and internationally, held the item
and were ILL lenders as well.35 The results are listed in the table below.

Number of Other Libraries % of Regional Caribbean % of European Caribbean
Acquisitions Acquisitions
Only UF as ILL Library 9% 14%
5 or less other Libraries 41% 29%
10 or less other Libraries 19% 7%
15 or less other Libraries 12% 21%
More than 15 Libraries 19% 29%

The pattern of recent acquisition holdings seems to suggest that materials acquired from
regional vendors are more lightly held than those titles available through European
sources. Without reading too much into this data, this seems to suggest that establishing
and maintaining a network of regional vendors is important in acquiring those items that
are rarely held. This end result is one of the fundamental goals of cooperative collection

The Latin Americanist Project: Is Seven Percent Enough?

The University of Florida's Latin American Collection is a participant in the Latin
Americist Research Resources Project, which calls for member libraries to redirect seven
percent of its total monographic allocation for Latin American materials to monograph
expenditures in a particular collecting area. For fiscal year 1997-98, the Latin American
Collection agreed to increase Caribbean monograph monies by $2,500, or 8.33 percent of
"base" Caribbean monograph expenditures.36 Will this be enough to ensure adequate
coverage of the Caribbean monograph universe?

34 From the regional vendors, 132 Caribbean acquisitions were selected; this is approximately 26% of all
Caribbean purchases coming through these vendors. For the European vendors, 14 Caribbean items were
selected, approximately 37% of Caribbean acquisitions through this channel.
35 This method does contain potential problems, most notably the fact that due to cataloging backlogs,
acquisitions may not appear in OCLC, as well as excluding holding listed in RLIN.
36 Note that this amount is smaller than seven percent of the entire monograph budget; it is about 33 to 50
percent of what could have been allocated.

Remember that the overall current dollar of Latin American acquisitions grew at an
average annualized rate of 3.34 percent over the period 1989-1997. When one adds in
the most recent expenditure figures for fiscal year 1997-98, the average annualized rate of
growth rises to 9.19 percent. For the part of the acquisitions budget that was Caribbean
standing orders, the annual average growth rate over the last five years was 12.5 percent
in current dollar expenditures.37 If monograph prices have increased at a rate less than
12.5 percent, then the Latin American Collection's acquisitions have been increasing in
real percentage terms.

How will the "seven percent solution" impact the Collection's Caribbean acquisitions?
Since year-to-year budget allocations have been very erratic over the recent history of the
Latin American Collection, any forecast would probably be an exercise in futility.
However, a simple exercise using some projections will illustrate the impact of the
additional seven percent given some assumptions about budget growth rates and book
price increases. [See Appendix page 24A for Scenario Analyses calculations.]

Suppose that overall Latin American Collection acquisitions budgets grow by 3.34
percent as they have over the last seven years. Further assume that Caribbean monograph
acquisitions budgets grow by 12.5 percent per year. The Latin American Collection
augments the base Caribbean monograph budget by 7 percent each year. In addition,
Caribbean monograph prices increase by 7 percent every year.38 We start out in 1998
with hypothetical total expenditures at $200,000, base Caribbean expenditures at
$40,000, and average Caribbean monograph price of $22.

The estimated effect of this project, if continued through 2003, is given in the Appendix
as Scenario Analysis 1. The impact of the additional seven percent creates a "level
effect" on acquisitions: Caribbean monograph acquisitions expenditures grow at the same
rate as before the project (12.5 percent per year), and the number of Caribbean
monographs acquired increases at an average annual rate of 5.1 percent. If the additional
7 percent came out of total Latin American monograph acquisition funds, the project
result would be the table given in Scenario 2. Here the seven percent solution creates a
significantly higher level of Caribbean acquisitions, with the growth rate in real
acquisitions edging up at 0.002 percent every year. Note that if any of the underlying
assumptions changes, these figures will not longer be valid. For example, increases in
the price of Caribbean monographs, reductions in either total monograph acquisitions or
base Caribbean monograph monies will cause real acquisition growth to slow or even
become negative. Also, we have not factored in the growth in monograph output in the
Caribbean. Though real acquisitions appear to be rising, and this is certainly better than

37 This is the annual trend growth rate over the last five years since data from 1990-91 and 1991-92 were
not available due to a change in accounting procedures.
38 This number was used as a figure based on the 1995-96 SALALM "Number of Copies and Average Cost
of Latin American Books Purchased by Seven U.S. Research Libraries" which showed that the average
Latin American book price increased by 7.4%. Obviously, for different regions, the rate of increase may be
significantly different from this.

in other areas of Latin America, if output rates are growing even faster, we are still losing
some coverage.39

The effects of the Scenario Analysis indicates that there would be growth in the percent
budgeted towards Caribbean monographs out of total monograph expenditures. The
seven- percent solution increases this effect quite significantly in Scenario 2, with a
difference in Caribbean share of 7 percent. Scenario 1 is more modest, with a difference
in percentage share of about 1.4 to 2.14 percent. Over the six year period projected, the
share of Caribbean material expenditures in terms of total LAC current dollar
expenditures will rise from 20 percent to 32 to 37 percent, depending on the exact
implementation of the plan.

In Scenario 3, the overall monograph acquisitions budget of the Collection is assumed to
grow at an annual rate of 9 percent, the growth rate in Caribbean monographs budget is
assumed to be 27 percent40, and Caribbean book prices are assumed to grow by 7 percent.
Seven percent is added to Caribbean monograph monies off of the original Caribbean
base. The effects on real Caribbean acquisitions are very rosy, almost too optimistic;
actual Caribbean acquisitions would grow at a rate of 18.7 percent per year. It is doubtful
that such growth rates in dollar expenditures could be maintained over time.

Scenario 4 sets up a more conservative situation, where growth in total LAC expenditures
and those expenditures allocated to the Caribbean grow at the rates given in Scenario 1,
but Caribbean book price inflation is set at 12.7 percent.41 In this scenario, actual
Caribbean acquisition growth declines over time by about 0.2 percent per year, showing
that price inflation is eroding LAC's purchasing power. The effect of the seven- percent
plan in this scenario is to slow the erosion in purchasing power somewhat, but still actual
Caribbean acquisitions on a year to year basis are declining over time.

In order to have real acquisitions growing over time instead of falling, one of two things
needs to occur: (1) the inflation in book prices needs to slow, or (2) we need to be
spending more money on the specialized area of acquisition. Since option (1) is not
something we can control, option (2) is the best hope for acquiring more Latin American
materials. The rate of growth in acquisition expenditures has to equal (or be greater than)
the sum of the growth rate of prices and the growth rate in output in order for libraries to
capture a greater share of the regional materials produced. As Scenario 4 illustrates, even
if output growth was zero percent, if the degree of price inflation is high enough, the
Latin American Collection would still face problems acquiring an increasing share of the
Caribbean publication universe even with the Seven Percent Solution.

The University of Florida's Latin American Collection has managed to maintain its
Caribbean focus in the face of budgetary disasters, increasing student usage, changes in

39 In order to keep acquisitions in pace with price inflation and output growth, the growth rate in dollar
acquisitions expenditures should equal the growth rate of prices plus the growth rate in output.
40 These figures are based on growth rates in acquisitions budgets since 1992-93, including the most recent
expenditure data from 1997-98.
41 The percent increase in Caribbean monograph prices was based on SALALM figures for 1994-95 and
1995-96 using UF 1996-97 acquisition weights.

faculty and department research orientations, and supplier uncertainty. The Collection's
efforts, augmented by the Latin Americanist Research Resources Project, should allow
for expansion in Caribbean monograph acquisitions, but whether it will reverse the
negative trend in monograph purchasing power remains unclear. It would be interesting
to examine other libraries' attempts to maintain their areas of Latin American
specialization and their interlibrary loans relating to Latin America. Further studies
might reveal whether ILL lending patterns reflect areas of specialization at other
institutions and how "young" specialized collections fare under the Seven- Percent


Area Studies Program Review, Volume I, Center for Latin American Studies, University
of Florida, 1990.

Baker, Shirley K. and Mary E. Jackson, "Maximizing Access, Minimizing Cost: A First
Step Toward the Information Access Future". ARL Committee on Access to Information
Resources. February 1993.

Berg, Sanford V., "Planning for Computer Networks: The Trade Analogy", Management
Science, Volume 21, No. 12, August 1975.

Geggus, David, The Caribbean Collection at the University of Florida: A Brief
Description, 1985.

Guevara-Castro, Lillian, "UF to open international business center", Gainesville Sun,
June 23, 1998, page 4B.

Hazen, Dan, "The Latin Americanist Research Resources Project: A New Direction for
Monographic Cooperation?", ARL, April 1997.

Ordover, J.A. & R.D. Willig, "On the Optimal Provisions of Journals qua Sometimes
Shared Goods", American Economic Review, Volume 68, No. 3, June 1978.

Reed-Scott, Jutta, Scholarship. Research Libraries, and Global Publishing, Association of
Research Libraries, 1996.

Soares, Glaucio Ary Dillon, Self-Study: A Preliminary Report, unpublished paper, 1986.

Schauer, Bruce P., The Economics of Managing Library Service, American Library
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Weimer, David L. & Aidan R. Vining, Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice, Prentice
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Appendix Table of Contents

I. Format for ILL Lending Database 2A
II. Country and Regional Codes 3A
III. UF's ILL Lending to ARL Project Members 4A
IV. ILL Lending to ARL: Caribbean Materials 5A
V. ILL Lending to ARL: Circum-Caribbean Materials 6A
VI. ILL Lending to ARL: Other Latin American Materials 7A
VII. ILL Lending to Florida: Caribbean Materials 8A
VIII. ILL Lending to Florida: Circum-Caribbean Materials 9A
IX. ILL Lending to Florida: Other Latin American Materials 10A
X. ILL Lending to Other Institutions: Caribbean Materials 11A
XI. ILL Lending to Other Institutions: Circum-Caribbean 12A
XII. ILL Lending to Other Institutions: Other Latin America 13A
XIII. ILL Lending: Distribution of Requests by Publication Date 14A
XIV. ILL Borrowing: By Subject Country 15A
XV. ILL Borrowing: By Subject Country and Lender 16A
XVI. Total LAC Acquisition Expenditures 17A
XVII. LAC Standing Order Expenditures: by Region 18A
XVIII. LAC Acquisition Expenditures by Order Type 19A
XIX. LAC Allocated Acquisitions Budget 1988-1998 20A
XX. Monograph Sample: Prices by Country 21A
XXI. LAC Acquisitions by Regional Vendors: by Country 22A
XXII. LAC Acquisitions by European Vendors: by Country 23A
XXIII. Scenario Analysis 24A

Format for ILL Lending Database
EX-LAC.xls file
Date of most recent revision: June 27, 1998

A. Record: Indicates the monthly record number.
B. Year: Indicates the year.
C. Month: Indicates the month.
D. Borrower: 3 to 4 digit alphabetical code for borrowing institution.
E. Name: Borrowing institution's name.
F. ARL: =1 if member of project, =0 otherwise.
G. FLA: =1 if institution is in FL, =0 otherwise.
H. Queue: =0 ifUF only lender cited, =1 if first lender cited, =2 if second lender (only
for OCLC utility coded transactions).
I. Utility: =1 ifRLIN, =0 if OCLC.
J. Count: The number of other lenders to which the request could be forwarded. Only
for those transactions coming over RLIN ILL system.
K. Subject: 2 digit alphabetical code indicating subject country.
L. Source: 2 digit alphabetical code indicating source country.
M. English: =1 if material in English, =0 if other language.
N. Date: Date of Publication.
O. Serial: =1 if request was for a serial, =0 if otherwise.
P. Maxcost: indicates in US$ the maxcost on ILL request.
Q. Call: Call number of item.
R. Patron: =1 if faculty request, =2 if grad student, =3 if undergraduate.
S. Carib: =1 if pertains to Caribbean, =0 otherwise.
T. Circum: =1 if pertaining to circum-Caribbean, =0 if otherwise.
U. General: =1 if pertaining to general regional issues or many countries, =0 otherwise.
V. NonLAC: =1 if country is not in Caribbean or Latin America (source countries).
W. Country: Full name of Subject Country.
X. Merge: A tracking code from merger of exfile4.dta and linker.dta in STATA.

C:\My Documents\latam\Format for EX.doc

Latin American Collection Databases

Country Code Carib Circum General NonLAC Country
am 1 0 0 0 Anguilla
aq 1 0 0 0 Antigua, Barbuda & Nevis
ag 0 0 0 0 Argentina
aw 1 0 0 0 Aruba
bf 1 0 0 0 Bahamas
bb 1 0 0 0 Barbados
bh 1 0 0 0 Belize
bm 1 0 0 0 Bermuda Islands
bo 0 0 0 0 Bolivia
bi 0 0 0 0 Brazil
vb 1 0 0 0 British Virgin Islands
cj 1 0 0 0 Cayman Islands
cl 0 0 0 0 Chile
ck 0 1 0 0 Colombia
cr 0 1 0 0 Costa Rica
cu 1 0 0 0 Cuba
dq 1 0 0 0 Dominica
dr 1 0 0 0 Dominican Republic
ec 0 0 0 0 Ecuador
es 0 0 0 0 El Salvador
fg 1 0 0 0 French Guiana
gd 1 0 0 0 Grenada
gp 1 0 0 0 Guadeloupe
gt 0 1 0 0 Guatemala
gy 1 0 0 0Guyana
ht 1 0 0 0 Haiti
ho 0 1 0 0 Honduras
jm 1 0 0 0 Jamaica
mq 1 0 0 0 Martinique
mx 0 1 0 0 Mexico
mj 1 0 0 0 Montserrat
na 1 0 0 0 Netherlands Antilles
nq 0 1 0 0 Nicaragua
pn 0 1 0 0 Panama
py 0 0 0 0 Paraguay
pe 0 0 0 0 Peru
pr 1 0 0 0 Puerto Rico
xk 1 0 0 0 Saint Lucia
xm 1 0 0 0 St. Vincent/Grenadines
sr 1 0 0 0 Surinam
tr 1 0 0 0 Trinidad and Tobago
tc 1 0 0 0 Turks & Caicos Islands
uy 0 0 0 0Uruguay
vi 1 0 0 0 US Virgin Islands
ve 0 1 0 0 Venezuela
zc 1 0 1 0 General: Caribbean
zb 0 1 1 0 General: Circum-Caribbean
zg 0 0 1 0 General: Other Lat. Amer.
be 0 0 0 1 Belgium
cn 0 0 0 1 Canada
ur 0 0 .0 1 Former Soviet Union
fr 0 0 0 1 France
gw 0 0 0 1 Germany
is 0 0 0 1 Israel
it 0 0 0 1 Italy
ne 0 0 0 1 Netherlands
nr 0 0 0 1 Nigeria
sg 0 0 0 1 Senegal
sp 0 0 0 1 Spain
sw 0 0 0 1 Sweden
uk 0 0 0 1 United Kngdom
us 0 0 0 1 United States


Country and Regional Codes

General Profile of the University of Florida's Latin American Collection
ILL Lending to Participants in the ARL/Mellon Project on Cooperation and
Resource Sharing in Latin American Collection Development

Institution Caribbean' Caribbean Circum- Other: Other: Total
General" Caribbean Country General
1ii Specifici"


Brigham Young University 0 0 0 3 2 5
Columbia University 4 3 2 5 0 14
Cornell University 3 0 1 0 4
Duke University 15 0 4 5 0 24
Harvard University .1 0 1 0 0 2
Michigan State University 0 0 2 0 0 2
New York Public Library 4 2 0 0 1 7
New York University 8 1 1 6 0 16
Princeton University 5 0 2 8 2 17
Stanford University 0 0 0 4 0 4
Syracuse University 2 0 1 1 0 4
Tulane University 5 0 2 7 1 15
UC-Berkeley 5 0 1 5 .2 13
UC-Los Angeles 7 0 4 2 1 14
UC-San Diego 3 0 2 1 0 6
UC-Santa Barbara 1 0 2 2 1 6
UNC-Chapel Hill 6 0 1 7 0 14
University of Arizona 1 0 0 3 0 4
University of Connecticut 0 0 0 0 2 2
University of Illinois 6 1 0 3 1 11
University of Kansas 1 0 0 1 0 -: 2
University of Miami 13 0 9 31 11 64
University of Minnesota 1 0 2 2 0 15
University of New Mexico 3 0 3 1 0 7
University of Notre Dame 0 0 0 1 0 1
University of Pennsylvania 11 0 10 13 1 35
University of Pittsburgh 3 0 3 1 0 7
University of Southern 0 0 2 0 0 2
University of Texas Austin 2 0 0 0 0 2
University of Toronto 3 0 0 1 0 4
University of Wisconsin 6 QP ... 3 3 0 12
Vanderbilt University 3 0 7 8 4 22
Yale University 2 0 2 1 0 5
Total for ARL Members 124 7 67 138 29 365

'The following countries are classified as Caribbean: Anguilla, Antigua, Barbuda & Nevis, Aruba,
Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Martinique, Netherlands
Antilles, Puerto Rico, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos Islands, British Virgin Islands, U.S.
Virgin Islands, Saint Lucia, and St Vincent/Grenadines.
" The term "General" indicates materials that referred to many countries within the region or had an overall
regional interest theme.
' The following countries were classified as circum-Caribbean: Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala,
Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela.
i This category indicates borrowings from the Latin American Collection that do not fall within the
Caribbean and circum-Caribbean classifications; these are primarily South American materials.

ILL Lending 1996-97

ARL Member Libraries

Caribbean Materials

LAC-EX xls

arl 1.00 Code "arl"=1 indicates ARL institutions '
fla (All) Code "fla"=all indicates that both Florida and non-Florida institutions are featured.- ....
carib .1.00 Code "caib"=1 indicates that materials from Caribbean nations are featured... .. .
circum 0.00 Code "circum"=0 indicates that no circum-Caribbean materials are featured. ..

Count of subject subject
name Barbados Bermuda Cuba Dominica Dominican Rep. Guyana Haiti Jamaica Martinique Puerto Rico Surinam Trinidad & Tobago St. Vincent General Caribbean Grand Total
Columbia University 1 1 __ 2 3 7
Cornell University 2 1 3
Duke University 1 1 8 1 ".....1 8 1 11
Harvard University 1 -
New York Public Library 1 2 2 1
New York University 5 __ 2
Princeton University 4 5 ---_
Syracuse University 1 21 . 2
Tulane University 4 1 5
UC: Berkeley 2 I 1 ..1 5
UC: San Diego 1 1 -1 -- 3
UC: Santa Barbara _
UC: Los Angeles 1 ___1 __ 1 1 1 7
UNC: Chapel Hill 2 4 6
Univ of Miami: Law School 1
Univ of Minnesota 1I 1
Univ of Wisconsin: Madison 1____ _1 ___ 3 5
University of Arizona 1 1
University of Illinois 1____5 __ ~ -- -- 1 7
University of Kansas 1 1
University of Miami 7 1 1 1 2 12
University of New Mexico 1 __1 2 -- 3
University of Pennsylvania ____. 5__ 3 1 1 ~1 1
University of Pittsburgh ___2 1 3
University of Texas at Austin 1 1 2
University of Toronto __ 2 3
Vanderbilt University 3 3
Yale University 1 2
Grand Total I 1 41 1 7 91 261 71 11 141 2 7 2 71 126

ILL Lending 1996-97


arl 1.00 Code "arl"=l indicates ARL institutions .......
fla (All) Code "fla"=all indicates that Florida and non-Florida institutions are featured.
carib 0.00 Code "carib"=0 indicates that materials from Caribbean nations are not featured.
circum 1.00 Code "circum"=1 indicates that circum-Caribbean materials are featured.

Count of subject subject
name Colombia Costa Rica Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Venezuela Grand Total
Columbia University 2 2
Duke University 3 1 4
Harvard University __ 1 1
Michigan State University 2 2
New York University 1 1
Princeton University ... 1 1 2
Syracuse University 1 1
Tulane University 1 I 1 2
UC: Berkeley 1____ 1
UC:- San Diego 1_ 1 2
UC: Santa Barbara_ 2 2
UC: Los Angeles 1 3 4
UNC: Chapel Hill 1 1
Unlv of Miami: Law School 1 1
Unlv of Minnesota 1 1 2
Univ of Minnesota: St Paul I 1
Univ of Pennsylvania: Biomedical 1 1
Univ of Southern California 1 1 2
Univ of Wisconsin: Madison 2 f1 ~ 3
University of Miami 2 1 4 1 8
University of New Mexico 3 3
University of Pennsylvania 3 2 4 9
University of Pittsburgh 3 3
Vanderbllt University 1 5 1 7
Yale University 1 ______ 1
Yale University: Medical Lib. I1I 1
Grand Total 13 3 11 1 32 1 3 3 67

ARL Libraries

Circum-Caribbean Materials

Other Latin American Materials

ard 1.00 Code "arl"=1 indicates ARL institutions _
fla (All Code "fla"=all indicates that Florida and non-Florida institutions are featured. ____
carib 0.00 Code "carib"=0 indicates that materials from Caribbean nations are not featured.
circum 0.00 Code "circum"=0 indicates that circum-Caribbean materials are not featured.

Count of subject subject___
name Argentina Brazil Boliva Chile Ecuador El Salvador Peru Paraguay Uruguay General Latin America Grand Total
Brigham Young University 2 1 2 5
Columbia University 1 1 3 5_
Cornell University 1 1______ _
Duke University 2 1 1 1 5
New York Public Library _1 1
New York University 2 2 2 6
Princeton University 4 1 1 1 1 2 10
Stanford University 2 2 4
Syracuse University 1 1
Tulane University 2 3 1 1 1 8
UC: Berkeley 3 1 1 _2 7
UC: San Diego 1 1
UC: Santa Barbara 1 1 1 3
UC: Los Angeles 1 1 1 3_
UNC: Chapel Hill 1 1 2 3 7
Univ of Miami: Law School 1 1
Univ of Minnesota 1 8 3 12
Unlv of Minnesota: St Paul 1 1
Unlv of Wisconsin: Madison 1 2 3
University of Arizona 1 2 3
University of Connecticut 2 2
University of Illinois 1 1 1 1 4
University of Kansas 1 1
University of Miami 3 9 3 1 15 10 41
University of New Mexico 1 1
University of Notre Dame 1 1 2___ 2
University of Pennsylvania 4 6 1 2 1 14
University of Pittsburgh 1 1
University of Toronto _1
Vanderbllt University 1i 1 2 1 -1 2 4 12
Yale University 1 1
Grand Total I 281 361 101 17 51 2 32 4 4 29 167



ARL Libraries

ILL Lending 1996-97

ILL Lending 1996-97

Jachua County Libray
lary University
Irevard County Library
reward County Library
:oler County Public Lbrary
FiU: North Camrnnu


111Noh -----

U: Univerity Parknt

lorida Atlantc University
tlorida Southem CnCo e

"rif-1 Indicates ARL institutions
"la'=alIlndicales that both Florida and non-Florida inslltullons are featured.
carlb=1 indcates that materials from Caribbean nations are featured.
"circuamr Indicates that no circm-Cadbbean materials are featured.
-I -1 :. I-


range County Lbrary System 2
Drmond Beach Public Library
Dsceola County Llbrary System
Pasco County Library
Pensacola Jr. Colee
Santa Fe CC

USF: New College ___
IPF: Rt. P.al.rih.m

ipp IauyMna nal


1 1
1 1 2

2- -





-r -- --



2 1081 7 361 4 381 121 5 2



.4--- ---

General Caribbean

.-__.-- -.^-





~-1-K--- __ __ I 1



1 I I I

------ -2

LAC-EX )ds


Caribbean Materials

Grand Total
___ 1








r l: University Pan'<




-- --

t ,_-. -. _



Florida Libraries

ILL Lending 1996-97

arl (All) Code "arl"=all indicates ARL and non-ARL institutions are included.
fla 1.00 Code "fla"=1 indicates that Florida institutions are featured......
carib 0.00 Code "carib"=0 indicates that materials from Caribbean nations are not featured.
circum 1.00 Code "circum"=1 indicates that circum-Caribbean materials are featured.

Count of subject subject
name Colombia Costa Rica Guatemala Mexico Nicaragua Panama Venezuela General Circum-Caribbean Grand Total
Alachua County Library 1 1 -
Barry University 21 2
Boca Raton Public Library 1 ___
Broward Community College 1_ 1
Clearwater Public Library 1 1
FIU: North Campus 2 1 3
FIU: University Park 1 4 1 11 1 2 3 23
Florida Atlantic University 1 1 2 9 19 4 18
Florida Institute of Tech 1 1
Florida State University 2 1 6 1 1 11
Jacksonville University 1___ 1
Miami-Dade Public Library 2 5 1 8
Palm Beach C.C. 2__ 2
Palm Beach County Library 1 1
Pasco County Library _1_ 1
Putnam County Lib 1__ 1
Rollins College 1 1 2
Saint Leo College ____1 1
Unlv of Miami: Law School 1 __ 1
University of Central Florida 3 1 6 3 13
University of Miami 2 1 4 1 8
University of North Florida 2 1 1 3
University of South Florida 1 8 8 8 17
University of West Florida 1 1 4 6
USF at Sarasota 1__ 1
USF: New College 3 3 1 1 8
USF: St. Petersburg __ 1 1 ---
Grand Total 141 141 5 74 121 3 141 1 137


Florida Libraries

Circum-Caribbean Materials

ILL Lending 1996-97

arl (All) Code "arl"=all indicates ARL and non-ARL institutions are included.
fla 1.00 Code "fla"=1 indicates that Florida institutions are featured." .-----
carib 0.00 Code "carib"=0 indicates that materials from Caribbean nations are not featured.
circum 0.00 Code "circum"=0 indicates that circum-Caribbean materials are not featured.

Count of subject subject
name Argentina Brazil Boliva Chile Ecuador El Salvador Peru Paraguay Uruguay General Latin America Grand Total
Alachua County Library 1 2
Broward Community College 1 1 1 1 4 .
Broward County Library _..... i. --- ... 1
Central Florida Comm. Coll 1 ...1__ .....
Central Florida Regional L 2 2
FlU: North Campus 4 4
FIU: University Park 43 6- 1 21 1 3 11 19 105
Florida Atlantic University 1 10 ___ 4 111 26
Florida C.C. at Jacksonville 1 1. ---_
Florida Institute of Tech ~ 1 1_ --
Florida Southern College 1 5
Florida State University 7 1 1 9 5 10 4 37
Fort Walton Bch. Public Lib. 1 1
Lake Worth Public Library 1_ ______ I
Lakeland Public Library 1__ .......
Largo Library 1 I.. ... 1
Leon County Public Library 2 ...... 2
Miami-Dade Public Library 7 2 2 2 4 17
Orange County Library System 1 _1 3__
Rollins College 2 1 3
Rutenberg Branch Library 1 1_
Saint Leo College 5 5
St Johns County Public Lib 1 1
Stetson University 1 1 .1 3
Suwannee River Regional 1 1
Univ of Miami: Law School 1 1_
University of Central Florida 1 1 1 5 8
University of Miami 3 9 3 1 15 10 41
University of North Florida 1i 1 I 8 11
University of South Florida 3 2 8 13
University of West Florida_ 1 2
USF at Sarasota 1__ __ 1
USF: New College 1 2 5 3 1 12
USF: St. Petersburg 2 2
Venice Public Library 1 1
Grand Total 821 29 71 45 12 11 37 11 141 83 321


Florida Libraries

Other Latin American Materials

Non-ARL, Non-Florida ILL Loans: Caribbean

U.S. Virgin Isl.
Trinidad & Tobago
Turks & Caicos Isl.
0.3% "
Puerto Rico
Netherlands Antilles

General Caribbea


2% Belize
/ 3%
!t /
Barbado. /
4 /, B
4% --
.- -



Guyana ...... -
Guadeloupe ...., Grenada
2% 1%

-- .... Dominican Rep.
"- -- 10%

'" French Guiana


e Barbados i Bahamas D Belize D Bermuda l Cuba
* Dominica i Dominican Rep. E French Guiana U Grenada i Guadeloupe
O Guyana i Haiti U Jamaica U Martinique i Netherlands Antilles
* Puerto Rico E Surinam 3 Turks & Caicos Isi. 0 Trinidad & Tobago E U.S. Virgin Isl.
O General Caribbean


Non-Florida, Non-ARL ILL Lending: Circum-Caribbean Materials

General Circum-Carib.

4% A

..Costa Rica




8 Costa Rica
a Mexico
0 Venezuela

N General CircurmnCarib.

0 Colombia
0 Honduras
i Panama

- .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. ---- -- - --- -- --- -

Non-Florida, Non-ARL ILL Loans: Other Latin America


General Latin Amer.

Uruguay ..


El Salvador Ecuador 5
1% 7%
. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .

M Argentina
D Chile
* Peru
L General ..atin Amer.

M Brazil
* Ecuador
0 Paraguay

0 Bolivia
M El Salvador
l Uruguay

... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. ... .. ... .. .. .. - --- -- --

Distribution of ILL Lending Requests by Publication Date

500 -r--- ------------ -------- - -



350 ....



150 -

100 0 ------- -.

so -- -------

earlier 1800- 1850- 1900- 1920- 1940- 1980- 1970- 1980- 1986- 1991-
than 1849 1899 1919 1939 1 195 1969 1979 1985 1990 1997
14A 1800

i Total Number of Requests
I Number of Caribbean Requests

UF's ILL Borrowing of Latin American Resources by Subject Country

Gen. Caribbean
Gen. Circum-Carib.
Trinidad & Tobago
1% \ /
Nicaragua _
Neth. Antilles

Gen. Lat. Amer.


Argentina / /
5% ~ /


il Bolivia
/Coo 1%
/ Colombia
S ........ 1%

- ."" .5 %


Dominican Rep.

i Guate

M Arqentina M Barbados
U Clo mbia U Chile
16A 1Guatemala M Guyana
M5e r Nicaraoua MXsi Pferu

O Bahamas
E Cuba
I Haiti
D Panama
Ftl'orn I at AMmar

0 Brazil M Bolivia
I Dominican Rep. 8 Ecuador
a Mexico Neth. Antilles
STrinidad & Tobago E Uruguay

1------1_- -. ...............

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .

MA- r'JrM~* xF1-rar"h. MIpf- ca-ibhean



! .................

UPs Latin American ILL Borrowing 1996-97

Copies (All) I -

Count of Source Country Source Country
Univ. or Borrower Name Argentina Barbados Bahamas Brazil Bolivia Colombia Chile Cuba Dominican Rep. Ecuador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Mexico

Akron-Summit o0. Lib
Auburn University _
Claremont Colleges
Columbus Mem. Lib.
Duke University
Emory University
FIU: Univ Park
Florida A&M Univ
Florida Atlantic Univ
Florida State University
Indiana University
Library of Congress
Louisiana State Univ
Michigan State Univ

New Mexico State Univ


1 ___



i -------4 --1-




I--t- -I- 4- I- -




1 1 1 2


1 _________





II ------------- - i 1 --

Ne Meio tteUi

Northwestern University 1
Ohio State Univ
St. Mary's College
SUNY: Binghamton
Tulane University
UC: Berkeley
UC: Riverside
UNC: Chapel Hill
Univ of Alabama 1

Univ of Arizona
Univ of Central Florida

Univ of Chicago
Univ of Georgia
Univ of Illinois
Univ of Louisville
Univ of Miami
Univ of North Florida
Univ of Pittsburgh
Univ of South Florida
Univ of Texas: Austin
Univ of Utah
Univ of Virainia

Univ of West Florida
Univ of Wisconsin

Univ of Wisconsin:Madison
Vanderbilt University
Virginia Commonwealth Univ
Washinaton Univ

__1_ 2__IIt-=-

. -I 4 4 -I -



-- -I-- -- e~----4 --4 -I -I -I I-.


iI* 7 __-1--




Grand Total 5 1 I 1 10 1 1 6 14 1 2 3 1 1 26


-~~--~~- ~-~~~~

1 _____








By Library and Subject Country


UFs Latin American ILL Borrowing 1996-97

Copies _

Count of Source Country
Univ. or Borrower Name Neth. Antilles Nicaragua Peru Panama Trinidad & Tobago Uruguay General Clrcum-Carib General Carib General Latin Am Grand Total

MUonllUEIummIlt co. LIb
Auburn University
Claremont Colleges
Columbus Mem. Lib.
Duke University
Emory University ____ __
FIU: Univ Park
Florida A&M Univ
Florida Atlantic Univ

Florida State University
Indiana University
Library of Congress

Louisiana State Univ
Michigan State Univ
New Mexico State Univ
Northwestern University
Ohio State Univ

St. Mary's College _
SUNY: Binghamton
Tulane University
UC: Berkeley
UC: Riverside
UNC: Chapel Hill
Univ of Alabama
Univ of Arizona
Univ of Central Florida
Univ of Chicaao

Univ of Georgia
Univ of Illinois
Univ of Louisville
Univ of Miami
Univ of North Florida
Univ of Pittsburgh
Univ of South Florida
Univ of Texas: Austin

Univ of Utah
Univ of Virginia
Univ of West Florida
Univ of Wisconsin
Univ of Wisconsin:Madison
Vanderbilt University
Virginia Commonwealth Univ
Washington Univ



I-- - I

1 ~ If 1 -:

1 _________






- _-


I _I 7


1 3



IGrand Total I 1 1 8 1 1 6 3 I 1 12 I 105









1: -





By Library and Subject Country

LAC Total Expenditures

-*- Total Expenditure

88-89 89-90 90-91

91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98









70000.00 - -......-

60000.00 ----------------

LAC Acquisition Expenditures: By Region

S-------- ----- -------------- -----------

50000.00 ---

40000.00 ...........

30000.00 ............................


SOther LA Spending
-- Other Circum Spending
Other Caribbean Spending I
------ -- -- -- -


10000.00 1......


-4 .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .

88-89 89-90* 92-93 93-94 94-95


96-97 97-98

LAC Acquisition Budget: By Type of Order

140000 00 ........................................ ....................... .... .......................................................................................................







..........__________ .... ................................................................................



0.00 --- ............... ....... .................... .-- --
88-9 89-90 90-91 91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98

--- Firm Orders EBLCOO
- -Continuations ESLC03
Approval Plans ESLC07
--X- Standing Orders:

Allocated Budgets 1988-1998

Latin American Fund: Allocated Budgets

Firm Orders
% change In Firm Orders


Continuations EBLC03
% change In Continuations

Approval Plans EBLC07
% change In Approval Plan

Standing Orders:
% change In Stand. Orders

Total Expenditure
% change In Acq. Exp.

88-89 89-90 90-91 91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 Description
24245.00 32197.00 24876.00 26374.00 51634.00 41735.00 13022.00 21342.08 65000.00 Vendors from Europe
32.80 -2274 6.02 95.78 -19.17 -68.80 63.89 204.56

27748.00 31931.00 34328.00 37329.00 36765.00 40136.00 38648.00 38622.94 32755.00 Serials
15.07 7.51 8.74 -1.51 9.17 -3.71 -0.06 -15.19

0.00 10010.00 2979.00 0.00 0.00 7984.00 12584.00 9659.97 8361.00 Domestic Jobbers
-70.24 -100.00 57.62 -23.24 -13.45

59058.00 48549.00 39909.00 27294.00 48509.00 61574.00 74909.00 70181.65 118314.00
-17.79 -17.80 -31.61 77.73 26.93 21.66 -6.31 68.58

111051.00 122687.00 102092.00 90997.00 136908.00 151429.00 139163.00 139806.64 224430.00
10.48 -16.79 -10.87 50.45 10.61 -8.10 0.46 60.53

Standing Orders by Vendor

Berenguer EBLT07BER
Garcia Camb General EBLTO7GGE
Inca (Boliva) EBLTO71NB
Inca (General) EBLTO71NG
Ituriaga EBLT071TU
Linardi General EBLTO7LGE
Maury Bromsen EBLTO7MBR
Vientos Trop General EBLTO7VGE
Total LA Spending
% change in LA Standing

BKS from Mexico EBLT07BMX
DF Documents
Inca (Colombia) EBLT071NC
Inca (Venezuela) EBLTO71NV
Lat Am Bkstre EBLTO7LAB
Libros Centro. EBLTO7LCA
Mexico Norte Gen EBLTO7MGE
Total Circum Spending
% change In Circum

Alan Moss EBLT07AMO
Caribbean Imprints EBLT07CIL
Gavillanes EBLTO7GVL
Howard Karno EBLTO7KAR
Lib Dominicana R EBLTO7LDR
Universal EBLTO7UNI
Total Caribbean Spending
% change In Carib

Circum Carib

88-89 89-90* 92-93 93-94 94-95
0 2581.00 2324.00 5695.00
0 1717.00 1350.00 231.00 1399.00 1299.00
0 1505.00 4731.00 12260.00
0 0.00 0.00 2028.00 1529.00 1499.00
0 2842.00 874.00
0 2970.00 3793.00 583.00 2596.00 4871.00
0 0.00 0.00 1051.00 1269.00 583.00
0 1608.00 2258.00 383.00
0 0.00
0 348.00 287.00 327.00 477.00 422.00
0 4250.00
0 2232.00
10729.00 14743.00 4220.00 10112.00 34368.00
37.41 -71.38 139.62 239.87

0 803.00 616.00 502.00 74.00 1000.00
0 0.00 494.00

0 0.00 0.00 943.00 1629.00 1504.00
0 3169.00 2214.00 296.00 1887.00 1536.00
0 1406.00
0 5396.00 4540.00 2094.00 4987.00 3630.00
0 3723.00

0 5768.00 1490.00 2573.00 710.00
9368.00 13138.00 5325.00 11150.00 14003.00
40.24 -59.47 109.39 25.59

1 1117.00 2500.00

1 10016.00 3691.00 5958.00 5522.00 4170.00
1 1999.00
1 666.00 744.00 687.00
1 2585.00 2151.00 2051.00 1481.00 3335.00
13718.00 5842.00 8675.00 7747.00 12691.00
-57.41 48.49 -10.70 63.82

95-96 96-97 97-98 *Data from 1990-1991 was not in comparable form.
13373.00 9827.00 12900.00 Brazil

1227.00 978.90
9234.00 11775.90
1214.00 1128.55
2437.00 1450.40
3947.00 1564.45
1834.00 456.00
2120.00 2498.50
4000.00 3500.00
433.00 132.85
974.00 1060.10
3623.00 4029.50
44416.00 38402.15
29.24 -13.54

724.00 932.00
190.00 46.15

1497.00 1634.65
1500.00 3142.10
1853.00 848.90
3859.00 4753.50
3709.00 2970.50

4748.00 3535.00
18080.00 17862.80
29.12 -1.20

2466.00 4120.50

2382.00 2076.75
2284.00 2847.85
1865.00 1985.00
0.00 0.00
3418.00 2886.60
12415.00 13916.70
-2.17 12.10

1310.00 Chile
12227.00 Argentina
3581.00 Bolivia
5835.00 Amazon
1533.00 Peru
1374.00 Ecuador
1867.00 Uruguay
15790.00 Fine books: South America
0.00 El Salvador
671.00 Chile
5156.00 Central America

663.00 Honduras
0.00 Mexico
3430.00 Mexico
2839.00 Colombia
2623.00 Venezuela
2901.00 Mexico
4075.00 Central America
4235.00 Mexico, Gulf Coast
3073.00 Guatemala, Belize
2925.00 Southern Mexico

5535.00 Caribbean: Barbados, Haiti, Dom. Rep.
6865.00 Caribbean
2263.00 Caribbean
6538.00 Cuba
4440.00 Fine books: Cuba, Mexico, Caribbean
0.00 Dominican Republic
3665.00 Cuban (Miami)


Latin American Fund


Monograph Acquisitions: Invoice Sample

Subject Country Number of Titles: European Mean Price ($): European Number of Titles: Regional Mean Price ($): Regional
Argentina 15 $20.87 3 $18.43
Barbados 0 5 $20.00
Brazil 7 $30.43 0
Colombia 2 $23.50 2 $12.25
Chile 5 $19.80 1 $24.95
Costa Rica 0 1 $12.00
Cuba 12 $24.75 272 $17.14
Dominica 0 1 $27.50
Dominican Rep. 1 $25.00 18 $21.94
Ecuador 2 $43.50 0
French Guiana 2 $34.00 0
Guadeloupe 2 $34.00 1 $25.00
Guatemala 2 $25.00 0
Haiti 9 $28.67 64 $23.38
Jamaica 0 6 $17.50
Martinique 1 $45.00 0
Montserrat 0 2 $16.25
Mexico 26 $26.46 4 $15.85
Nicaragua 2 $25.00 0
Peru 2 $67.50 0
Panama 1 $25.00 1 $20.00
Puerto Rico 1 $25.00 24 $27.28
Trinidad & Tobago 0 33 $17.92
Venezuela 1 $18.00 0 $0.00
U.S. Virgin Islands 1 $84.00 1 $30.00
Santa Lucia 0 5 $23.50
St. Vincent 0 4 $6.88
Gen. Circum-Carib 1 $25.00 1 $25.00
Gen. Caribbean 11 $35.73 61 $22.39
Gen. Lat. Amer. 26 $26.73 8 $18.60


Mean Price by Country

LAC Acquisitions by Regional Vendors: Fiscal Year 1996-97

General Circum-Carib

St. Vincent/Grenadines

General Latin Amer.

\ QGeneral Caribbeai


1.0% .. Colombia Chile
/ 0.4% Chile
\Argenti.a / ,-- 02%
S0.6' /, Costa Rica
n i --". 0.2%

Saint Lucia_ ...
U.S. Virgin Islands Triniand Tobago
0.2% 6.4%

Puerto Rico ...-
Panama ---- .....
0.2% ,-

Mexico /
0.8% Montserrat //
0.8% ...


Jamaica /

/ D
Dominican Republic_/



M Argentina U Barbados 0 Colombia 0 Chile
* Costa Rica W Cuba N Dominca 0 Dominican Republic
* Grenada I Haiti G Jamaica I Montserrat
* Mexico U Panama U Puerto Rico U Trinidad and Tobago
8 U.S. Virgin Islands 0 Saint Lucia 0 St. Vincent/Grenadines 0 General Circum-Carib
SG General Caribbean 0 General Latin Amer.



erG nada

LAC Acquisitions from European Vendors: Fiscal Year 1996-97

General Latin Amer.

General Caribbean

General Circum-Carib
Venezuela ,'
1.2% o /
Puerto Rico /
1.2% '
Nicaragua J



Haiti /

/ 72%


Dominican Republic
i French Guiana

:------------------------------- 2.4
f Argentinr Brazil Colombia Chile
sCuba i Dominican Republic 8 Ecuador 0 French Guiana
I Guadeloupe IGuatemala 3 Haiti U Mexico
SNicaragua DPeru U Puerto Rico Venezuela
WGeneral Circum-Carib General Caribbean D General Latin Amer...


Scenario Analysis

Scenario 1: Total Acquisition Rate=3.34%, Caribbean Acquisition Rate=12.5%, and Caribbean Book Price Inflation=7%.The 7% solution is off of Carib base expenditures.

Year Total Acq. Exp. Carib. Exp. Carib. +7% Carib/Total Exp. Carib+7%/Total Book Price Books Acq. % change Books Acq.w/7% % change
1998 $200,000.00 $40,000.00 $42,800.00 20.00% 21.40% 22.00 1818.18 1945.45
1999 $206,680.00 $45,000.00 $48,150.00 21.77% 23.30% 23.54 1911.64 0.051 2045.45 0.051
2000 $213,583.11 $50,625.00 $54,168.75 23.70% 25.36% 25.19 2009.90 0.051 2150.59 0.051
2001 $220,716.79 $56,953.13 $60,939.84 25.80% 27.61% 26.95 2113.21 0.051 2261.14 0.051
2002 $228,088.73 $64,072.27 $68,557.32 28.09% 30.06% 28.84 2221.84 0.051 2377.37 0.051
2003 $235,706.89 $72,081.30 $77,126.99 30.58% 32.72% 30.86 2336.04 0.051 2499.57 0.051

Scenario 2: Total Acquisition Rate=3.34% Caribbean Acquisition Rate=12.6 Caribbean Book Price lnflation=7%

Year Total Acq. Exp. Carib. Exp. Carib. +7% Carib/Total Exp. Carib+7%iTotal Book Price Books Acq. % change Books Aca.w/7% % change
1998 $200,000.00 $40,000.00 $54,000.00 20.00% 27.00% 22.00 1818.18 2454.55
1999 $206,680.00 $45,000.00 $59,467.60 21.77% 28.77% 23.54 1911.64 0.051 2526.24 0.029
2000 $213,583.11 $50,625.00 $65,575.82 23.70% 30.70% 25.19 2009.90 0.051 2603.48 0.031
2001 $220,716.79 $56,953.13 $72,403.30 25.80% 32.80% 26.95 2113.21 0.051 2686.48 0.032
2002 $228,088.73 $64,072.27 $80,038.48 28.09% 35.09% 28.84 2221.84 0.051 2775.50 0.033
2003 $235,706.89 $72,081.30 $88,580.78 30.58% 37.58% 30.86 2336.04 0.051 2870.77 0.034

Scenario 3: Overall acquisition growth is 9%, Caribbean growth is 27%, and Caribbean book prices grow at 7%. Additional 7% is from Caribbean base.

Year Total Acq. Exp. Carib. Exp. Carib. +7% Carib/Total Exp. Carib+7%/Total Book Price Books Acq. %change Books Acq.w/7% % change
1998 $200,000.00 $40,000.00 $42,800.00 20.00% 21.40% 22.00 1818.18 1945.45
1999 $218,000.00 $50,800.00 $54,356.00 23.30% 24.93% 23.54 2158.03 0.187 2309.09 0.187
2000 $237,620.00 $64,516.00 $69,032.12 27.15% 29.05% 25.19 2561.40 0.187 2740.70 0.187
2001 $259,005.80 $81,935.32 $87,670.79 31.63% 33.85% 26.95 3040.16 0.187 3252.98 0.187
2002 $282,316.32 $104,057.86 $111,341.91 36.86% 39.44% 28.84 3608.42 0.187 3861.01 0.187
2003 $307,724.79 $132,153.48 $141,404.22 42.95% 45.95% 30.86 4282.89 0.187 4582.69 0.187

Scenario 4: Same as Scenario 1 but Book Price Inflation is 12.7%

Year Total Acq. Exp. Carib. Exp. Carib. +7% Carib/Total Exp. Carib+7%/Total Book Price Books Acq. % change Books Acq.w/7% % change
1998 $200,000.00 $40,000.00 $54,000.00 20.00% 27.00% 22.00 1818.18 2454.55
1999 $206,680.00 $45,000.00 $59,467.60 21.77% 28.77% 24.79 1814.96 -0.002 2398.47 -0.023
2000 $213,583.11 $50,625.00 $65,575.82 23.70% 30.70% 27.94 1811.73 -0.002 2346.78 -0.022
2001 $220,716.79 $56,953.13 $72,403.30 25.80% 32.80% 31.49 1808.52 -0.002 2299.13 -0.020
2002 $228,088.73 $64,072.27 $80,038.48 28.09% 35.09% 35.49 1805.31 -0.002 2255.18 -0.019
2003 $235,706.89 $72,081.30 $88,580.78 30.58% 37.58% 40.00 1802.11 -0.002 2214.61 -0.018

6/26/98,latam forecast.xis

LAC Project

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