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FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL : .
E. H. SELLARDS, STATE GEOLOGIST



No. 1






A PRELIMINARY REPORT

ON T


Underground Water Supply

OF


Central Florida


)


BY

E. H. SELLARDS


PREPARED IN CO-OPERATIOH WITH THE
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


UNITED STNrES


CAPITAL PUBLTRHING CO.. Stt Printer,
Tallah aea, Fla.
1 QBo

















LETTER OF TRANSM TAL.


To His Excellency, Hon. N. B. Broward,
Governor of Florida.
Sir:-
I have the honor to submit herewith for publication as
bulletin No. 1, of the Florida State Geological a
report of the underground water supply of
central Florida. This bulletin has grown out of the
co-operative between the State and the Na-
tional Surveys made in accordance with plans approved
byyou at thebeginning of the The plan of co-operative
work provides for -an -* of the water supply
and of the .' geology of the entire This pre-
liminary bulletin is based upon the field work done by the
Survey during the fall of 1907, and is issued at this
time to meet the needs of the citizens of the State who
desire the information obtained at as early a date as
possible.

E. H.
State Geologist.
T;: .. Florida,
July 1, 1908.


















CONTENTS.



Page
Introduction and acknowledgments. ........................ 7
The area treated .............. ........ .............. 8
The topography of central Florida .. ............. .... 9
Rolling high lands ...... ........... ............. 9
Fatweds ...................................... 9
Hammock .................... .................... 9
Scrub ...................... ..... ............ 9
The geology of central Florida............................. 10

Underground water: General discussion ................. 12
Source ........ ....... .................... 12
Annual rainfall ................................... 12
Disposition of rainfal.................................. 13
Water evaporated without entering the earth ........... 13
Surface run-off ............... .................. .. 14
Rainfall entering the earth ........................... 15
Amount of water available for the underground supply..... 16
Underground circulation of water........................ 17
Cause of movement ................ ................ 17
Rate of movement .......... .................. 17
Porosity of the material ............................ 18
Sle of pores in water bearing medium .............. 18
PreE ure ........................................... 18
Temperature of the water ................. ........ 18
Depth of underground water............................ 18
Hydrogen sulphide in underground water ................. 19
Sulphur water not evidence of beds of sulphur............ 21
Sulphur dposits formed from hydrogen sulphide .......... 21
Absence of hydrogen sulphide from certain waters i la. .. 22
Amount of hydrogen sulphide influenced by pressure...... 22

Underground water of cetral Florida...................... 24
Water of the surface formations .......................... 24
Character ........................................ 24
Shallow .wels ....................................... 26
Contamination ...................................... 26
Water of the deep formations........................... 27
Water of the Vicksburg Limestone ....... ............ 27
Source .................. ...... .................. ... 27
W after level .................................... ..... 29
Quantity .......................................... 31
Other water-bearing formations ........................ 81















CONTENTS.


Page.
Quality of the water of the deep formations ........... 33
Movement of water of the deep formations ................ 33
Direction of movement .......................... 34
Rate of movement....... ..... ... ........ 34
Underground streams ................. ......... 34
Escape of water of the deep formations ................ ... 35
Springs .......... ........ ... ......... 35
W ell ................................ .. .... 38
Contamination ............... ... ............. 42
Artesian prospects ........................ .......... 44
Geological results of underground circulation .............. 46
solutionn ................. ............... ............. 46
Amount of mineral solids removed.................... 47
Underground cavities .... . ..... ........... . .. 48
Sink holes ................... ........................... 49
Disappearing streams ................................. 53
Solution basins ......... ............... 55
Deposition and replacement............... ........... 56

Drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp lands by deep wells.... 58
Natural drainage wells .......................... ...... 58
Drainage of Lake Jackson.............................. 58
Drainage of Alachua Lake ................ .......... 59
Bored well .................... ................... ... 60
Sie of well ............ ........ .... 61
Structure of wells ....... .. ............ 61
Depth of water above mouth of pipe................. 62
Distance from top of pipe to underground water level.. 62
Drainage by wells at Orlando...................... ... 62

Disposal of sewage by bored wells ......................... 64

Water analyses .............. ........................ 68
Spring .................. ... ... ... .............. 70
W ells .............r .................. .............. 76

Water supply table ................ .................. 83
General water resources ............... .......... 83
Spring ........... .. .............. 86
Wells ............. ....... ...... ........... 88
Public water supply ............... ................ 94

Index ............ .... ... .............. 97

Corrections .................. ........ ......... ...... 104














CONTENTS.


PLATES.
Facing page
I Silver Springs, in Marion County .............. Frontispiece
II Blue Springs, in Marion County............... 38
II Map of area of artesian flow in Florida......... 44
V Limestone sink near Sumterville, Sumter County 50
V Limestone sink near Sumtervllle, Sumter County 52
I Weekiwachee Spring in Hernando County and
Alachua sink in Alachua County............ 60


Page.
1 Sketch illustrating the relation of the under
ground water level to Silver and Blue Springs.. 32
2 Sketch : the relation of underground
water to surface contour in Suwannee and
Columbia Counties ......................... 32
3 Sketch illustrating surface contour and under-
ground water livel through a part of Alachua
and Levy Counties ......................... 40
4 Sketch illustrating surface contour and under-
ground water level through Marion County
from Citra to a point four miles south of Ocala 40
5 Sketch illustrating the varying depth of wells
entering the limestone.................... 41
6. Sketch : danger of contamination of
a well by impure water entering through a











A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE UNDERGROUND WATER
SUPPLY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA.

BY E. H. SELLARDS.

The of the underground water supply of Florida
was begun by the writer, while acting as field assistant
to the United States Geological 'Survey in the summer
of 196. This work was interrupted oh the part of the
National Survey in November, 1906. During the winter
of 1906 and 1907, however, it was continued by the writer,
then acting as Geologist of the Florida State Experiment
Station. A preliminary bulletin on the underground
water supply of the State was published in
1907.* With the organization of the State Geological
S this work was continued. Florida investigations
were renewed by the National Survey in the fall of 1907,
and the work is now being carried on as co-operative work
between the State and the National Geological Surveys.
The report now issued on the central peninsular section
is in the nature of a report of progress in the study of the
underground water resources of the State, and is based
upon the work of the State during the fall season
of 1907.
Mr. Herman Gunter has acted as the writer's assist-
ant in work and to him is due the credit of obtain-
ing much of the detailed information contained in the
water supply tables. Mr. E. Peck Greene has obtained
for the .. most of the photographs which accompany
this bulletin.
The water analyses have been obtained from various
sources, credit being given in connection with each analy-
sis. A number of the samples have been analyzed in the
laboratory of the U. S, Geological ... forming a part
of the co-operative work between the State and the Na-
tional Surveys. The Director of the State Agricultural
Experiment Station has kindly supplied several analyses,
*Occurrence and Use of Artesian and Other Water,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin 89. E. H.
Sellards, Ph. D.










. FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


while other analyses have been made especially for this
report in the oilce of the State Chemist.
The writer is indebted to authors of a number of pub-
lications both of general and of special nature for data
utilized in the preparation of this bulletin. Credit is
given in the text wherever practicable. Among publica-
tions consulted relating especially to central Florida ae
the following: Supply and Irrigation Papers.
U. S. Geological No. 102, 1904; 114, 195;
No. 149, 1905; Bulletins U. S. Geological Burvey No. 84,
; No. 264, 1905; No. 298, 1906; Florida Agriextu al
Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 89, 197. The report
on the underground water of the adjoining Stats of
Alabama and Georgia, made by the respective State Sur-
vey-, have contributed to'an understanding of the under-
ground water conditions in Florida.
The thanks of the Surey are due to the many well
drillers of the who have kindly furnished data
regarding wells drilled by them. To many well-owners,
superintendents of city water supply, and other citizens.
the Survey is indebted for information and as-
sistance.
It may be added that this .' is introductory
and is not final, even for the limited area treated. Much
\detailed information that is is lacking. An im-
3ortant part of this information can be supplied in the
co rse of time from well a and Complete
sett, of samples from deep wells in various parts of the
State will do much to determine doubtful questions of
geological structure. The assistance of well drillers, which
has been of much benefit in the past, will be appreciated
in completing this data in the future.

THe AREA THaATP.

The area considered in detail in this bulletin comprise
the following counties: Alachua, Columbia, Citrus, Ham-
ilton, Hernando, Lake, Levy, Marion, .. and
Suwannee.* The section as a whole extends in a north
*For the location of these counties in the see m ~ainng
page 44.











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


south direction a distance of about 175 miles fom the
northern line of the State, and is from 50 to 75 miles in
width. The western boundary is formed by the Withla-
coochee and ........ rivers and the Gulf coast. This
section is the principal large area of peninsular Florida
having Oligocene limestone at or near the surface. This
is best exposed in the central part of the area,
although even here it is not continuously b- but is
covered locally with deposited clays, and by a
surface mantle of sand. To the south, east and north,
the limestone disappears beneath later formations consist-
ing of clays, and
ToroGRAPHY OF r PENINSULAR FLORIDA.
In its general central Florida is for the
most part rolling. The topographic types may be grouped
under the heads of rolling pine lands, flaitoods, ham-
mocks, and scrub lands.
The rolling pine lands are underlaid by pervious de-
posits and are well drained. This type includes by far the
largest part of this section. It is characterized by rounded
hills and solution basins.
The term "flatwoods" is applied to the level section
underlaid by impervious clay formations. These flatwoods
are often covered with water during the rainy sea-
son and are popularly supposed to consist of low lands,
There is, however, no relation between surface
elevation and this type f land. Not infrequently flat-
woods lie at the top of plateaus. This is the case in north-
eastern Alachua County, where flatwoods occur at an ele-
vation of from 150 to 175 feet. Central west Alachua
County, on the other hand, with an elevation of not more
than 70 or 80 feet, consists of rolling pine lands.
The hammocks are underlaid, as a rule, by
and marls or other calcareous materials. The scrub
growth occurs usually in deep sand, often covering low
sand dunes.
In regard to surface elevation, much of this area
below the hundred-foot contour line. With the exception
of some of the hills, the greatest elevation reached witlhii
the area 200 feet.
2-GeoBull










FLOIIDA& GEOLOGICAL 8URVEY.


GEOLOGY.
The geology of the section treated in this bulletin will
be given only in so far as is necessary to an understanding
of the underground water conditions. A more detailed
account of the geology is rendered unnecessary at this time
by the fact that the State will have for publica-
tion at an early date a special bulletin on the geology
and stratigraphy of the State, the bulletin on this sub-
ject forming a part of the co-operative work between the
State and the National Geological Surveys.
A thick limestone of Lower Oligocene age forms the
foundation rock of the peninsula. This limestone is part
of an extensive formation which reaches from Louisiana
through southern Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia to
Florida. It in ..: publications the name of the
Vicksburg Limestone from its typical exposure at Vicks-
burg,' : In character this limestone is, as a
rule, soft and friable. It contains, however, large masses
of flint, either irregularly bedded or occurring in the
limestone as horsebackks" These flint masses often form
the backbone of local ridges and hills. This is due
to the fact that the flint masses resist wear very much
longer than the surrounding limestone, and hence stand
out as ridges. The thickness of this foundation lime-
stone is undetermined. The most distinctive feature of
this limestone is the abundance of Foraminifera occur-
ring in it The limestone, as typically developed, is in
fact made up largely of the shells of Foraminifera, esp-
cially of the genus Orbitoides Along with the Foramin-
ifera occur other marine invertebrates, among which
bivalves, mollusks and corals predominate.
The formation known as the Ocala Limestone lies above
the Vicksburg and resembles it in character. It has not
been fully demonstrated that the Ocala Limestone may
not be a local phase of the Vicksburg. As a matter of con-
venience the term' as used in this report in-
cludes the Ocala Limestone.
These - form a mild anticline, the crest of
which runs in a north and south direction through the
center of the The arch of this anticline rises










UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


from the west coast to the center of the I the slope
of the top surface not exceeding one or two feet per mile.
From the broad top of the in the center of the
the limestone dips rapidly to the east. A similar,
although less rapid dip occurs to the south. Well ree-
ords have not been obtained in sufficient detail to deter-
mine whether or not the Vicksburg also dips to the north
tin north Columbia County. A mild dip in that direction
is although the .. comes to the surface
again in Georgia. The top surface of the limestone is
irregular, due to erosion. It is difcult on this account to
determine its dip even approximately. Moreover, it is un-
safe to assume that the present surface slope of the Vicks-
burg Limestone represents the dip of the formation. It
is probable that erosion has been more rapid along the
crest of the anticline than at the low lying and partly pro-
tected sides. The original dip may, therefore, have been
somewhat greater than the present surface slope.
Following the formation of this : limestone, a part
at least of the area was sufficiently elevated to become dry
land. The land as first formed appears to have been an
island or 'hain of .- .... .occupying central peninsular
Florida, including probably parts of Columbia, Alachua,
Levy, Marion, Sumter, Citrus and Hernando Counties.
Subsequently marine deposits Were formed around the
edge of this land area, not only to the south and east, but
also to the north and northwest. Upper Oligocene lime-
stones, probably a northward extension of the Tampa
Limestone, are reported from northern Columbia and
Counties.* The formation of Upper
Oligocene age occurs in northeast Alachua County, and to
the south in Pasco Water-bearing Miocene beds
follow the Oligocene and have been identified from east
Alachua and Lake Counties. Pliocene clays occur irregu-
larly over central Florida, lying usually beneath a sur-
face deposit of sand probably of Pleistocene age.
*Dall, W. H.-Bull. U. S. Geol. Sur. 84, p. 121, 1892.













UNDERGROUND WATER: GENERAL DISCUSSION


Rainfall:-The chief source of underground water is
the rainfall. Water vaporized through the energy of the
sun passes into the atmosphere and is precipitated over
the land as rain or condensed as dew or fog. The vapor
is supplied to the atmosphere by evaporation, principally
.from the ocean, which, occupying .three-fourths of the
earth's surface, is continuously exposed to the sun's rays.
To the vapor from the ocean is added that arising from
inland .. .- from the dry land surface of the earth, and
from the leaves of plants.
Other Sources:-The underground water depending
directly upon the rainfall is added to by water escaping
from streams during high water stages. The water ir
streams during flood seasons not infrequently rises above
the water level of the surrounding country. In this case
water : from the streams and joins the undgr-
ground water supply Springs which flow into the rivers
may, during high water stages of the river, reverse their
flow and'conduct water with great rapidity into the un-
derground water horizon. The amount thus added under
the conditions existing in Florida is sometimes very con-
siderable. This phenomenon is described in more detail
in connection with some of the springs along the Suwan-
ne; River (p. 38).
Small to the. underground water may
come through any one of a number of other possible
sources, but the total amount thus added is relatively
small and may be omitted in a general
ANNUAL 'ALL.
The annual rainfall is the measure of the column of
water that would accumulate at any spot in the course of
a year, if all that falls should be preserved. The measure-
*A recent discussion of possible sources of underground water
other than rainfall will be found in Bulletin 319, U. B. Geol. Sur.,
by M. L. Fuller.











UNDatGROUN) WATER SCIPLY.


ment is commonly stated in inches The average ranfall
for the State as a whole for the fifteen from 1892
to 1906, inclusive, as deduced from the U. S. Weather
Reports, wa 53.17 inches, annually. The year 1907 was
a year of less than average rainfall, 49.15 inches, and if this
year is included the average for the sixteen years, 1892
to 1907, falls below 53 inches, being 52.92 inches. If longer
periods be considered the variation from this average is
not sufficient to materially hang the result.
Te average rainfall at Jacksonville for the 33 years
ending with 1904, was 5321 inches, annually; at Jupiter
it was for the 17 years ending with 1904, 5949 inches
annually; at Pensacola for the 25 years ending with 1904,
it was 56.33 inches, annually; at Tampa, for the 15 years
ending, with 1904, it was 53.99 inches, annually; at Key
S the station of lowest rainfall, it was for the 34 years
ending with 1904, .. .' inches, annually.* The area cov-
ered by this bulletin lies in, a part of the State supplied
with about the average rainfall, and 53 inches may be
safely assumed as a close approximation to the annual
rainfall fQrthis section.
DISPOSITION OF RAINFALL.
Of the total rainfall of any area (1) a part is rturne
as vapor to the atmosphere without having entered the
earth; (e). a part is carried off by stream and rivers to
the ocea penetrating the earth; (3) a part in
absorbed ito the,earth.
(1) WATER EVAPORATED WITHOUT ENTERING THE EARTH.
Immediately ftlloing a rain the atmosphere is nearly
or quite saturated. The ev i ation at this time is slow,
and the part : to the atmosphere directly from
the land is an most negligible amount. This is especially
true of a soil into which the water e-ters quickly. Some
of the water clinging to the leaves of plants is re-evapo>
rated, as well as a part of that which falls into-lakes,
and pools. While an estimate of the
*Deduced from the U. S. Weather. Precipitation: Aver-
age, Greatest and Least Amounts, from the Establish.
ment of Stationso the End of 1904. Wm. B. Stockman.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


amount evaporated must be regarded as only in the rough-
est way approximate, yet it is probably safe to assume
that not more than 2 or 3 per cent of the total rainfall
is returned to the atmosphere by direct evaporation with
out having entered the earth.
(2) SURFACE RUN-oFF.
The relative proportion between the surface run-off and
the surface in-take of water is dependent upon the char
aeter of the surface and the deeper formations and upon
the topography. The former affects of in-take of
water into the earth; the latter the rapidity of surface
run-off.
reg rd to topography, central Florida is either
fiat or rolling. Rarely can a locality within this section
be described as hilly. The elevation increases gradually
from sea level at the coast to a maximum of scarcely more
than 200 feet inland, while large sections are so flat as to
present no perceptible slope. Topographically the condi-
tions are, therefore, very unfavorable to surface run-off.
On the other hand, the condtonins are exceptionally
favorable to large surface in-take. A mantle of sand,
forming the surface deposit, is almost universally present.
This sand receives the rainfall with great readiness. It
is true that the sand is underlaid in certain limited areas
of the flatwoods type, by a clay sub-stratum .. as a
result of its impervious nature, checks the downward
movement of water. For the most part, however, the un-
derlying formation is either porous limestone, or a sandy
*. clay with the limestone just below. Locally, the
sand may be largely absent, the impervious clay lying
near the surface. From these localities and from other
flatwoods come such surface run-off as this .
plies. The flat woods country, however, is small in pro-
portion to the combined extent of rolling pine, '
and scrub lands.
The effect of these conditions on the drainage is very
evident. Over considerable sections, involving in some
cases whole counties, surface streams are lack-
ing. The large steams bordering or entering this sec-
tion are supplied .. by springs, rather than by surface











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


run-off. Wherever the Vicksburg or other porous lime-
stone is the surface formation, or wer it is covered only
by a surface mantle of and, or of sandy pervious clay,
surface streams are absent, and surface run-off practically
nothing. Such small surface streams as are formed, run
often only a short distance, when they disappear through
one of the numerous thus gaining entrance to,the
underground water horizon. Examples of ... dis-
appearing streams are common to almost every section of
inland Florida They are described in more detail in the
later pages of this bulletin.
It is sometimes estimated that in the presence of a
sandy soil 3 to 4 per cent of the rainfall passes off as sr-
face run-off. For the area treated in this bulletin having
both a sandy soil and a pervious limestone sub-formation,
the surface run-off probably does not exceed this amount.

(3) RAINFALL ENTERING THE EARTH.

From the estimates already given, it would appear that
approximately 95 per cent of the total rainfall over cen
tral Florida enters the earth. It will be recognized that
as the geologic and topographic conditions vary from
place to place, so will the relative proportion between ur-
face run-off and surface in-take vary. Owing to certain
conditions already specified, a few limited localities have
a relatively high surface run-off.
Of the water wich enters the earth a part is ultimately
returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. The water
retained in soils is slowly given up through evaporation
during dry weather. As the evaporation takes place near
the surface, capillary attraction draws a new supply from
beneath, thus miainaining to some extent the moisture
content of the soil. The amount of water thus brought
to the rfae and evaporated, while varying with climate
and with soils, is, in the course of a year, considerable.
To the evaporation from the surface of the soil must
be added that fom the leaves of plants. his in turn
vari~ greatly with the different plants and with different
climatic conditions. King, in 1892, in one experiment,
found that a, crop of peas evaporated 477 pounds of water











16 FLORIDA GEOOI CAIL SURVEY

for each pound of dry matter formed, while corn under
the ame conditions evaporated in one instance 238
pounds of water per pound of dry matter. Assuming that
a citrus tree evaporates approximately as much as the
European oak (Quercus cerris), the water evaporated
from the leaves of a fifteen-year-old orange tree is esti
mated by Hilgard at 20.000 pounds a year, or about 1,000
tons of water per acre of 100 trees.' This is equivalent to
about 9 inches annual rainfall over the same area. Water
is the chief vehicle for conveying plant food absorbed from
the soil by the roots. This enormous evaporation from
the leaves is in part for the purpose of disposing of the
water thus taken up by the plant. It serves chiefly, how-
ever, the purpose of preventing, through the conversion of
water into vapor, an injurious rise of temperature during
the hot sunshine and dry weather.
It is impossible to estimate within even approximate
the loss of water by evaporation from the surface
of the ground, and from the leaves of plants in the area
under consideration. The atmosphere in Florida is rela-
humid. On the other hand, the temperature through-
out most of the year is high. Much of the country Is un-
cultivated, and practically all of the soil is of medium
coarse texture.
It is probable that almost one-half of the rainfall enter-
ing the earth is re-evaporated from the surface of the
ground and from the leaves of plants, and that not more
than one-half of the total rainfall in Florida passes
through the soil and surface material to join the under-
ground water supply.

. AMOUNT OF WATER AVAILABLE FOR THE
SUPPLY.
SAn annual rainfall of 53 inches is found by computa-
tion to amount to gallons per square mile. Of
this amount it is that one-half, or
120th Ann. Report Wis. Agriculture Experiment Station,
p. 320, 1904.
2Based on weighing made by R. H. Loughridge of the leaves of
a citrus tree at Riverside Calif. Soils, by E. W. Hilgard, p. 263,
1906.











UNDERGBOU :.D WACLR SUPPLY.


gallons per square mile, is added each year in central
.to the underground water supply.

CIRCULATION OF WATER.
Underground water is found usually to be in motion,
threading its way through pores, breaks, crevices, joints,
and other openings in the rocks. Its movement is ordi
narily slow and varies with different rocks and under df-
ferent conditions.
CAUSE OF MOVEMENT.
The chief cause of movement of underground, as of sur-
face water, is Capillarity is an additional force
which under special conditions may become the controll-
ing factor. The water returned to, and evaporated from
the surface of the ground, as well as that carried to and
evaporated from the leaves of plants, is moved by capil-
larity in opposition to gravity. Gravity, however, is the
controlling force in the movement of water through the
deep zones of the earth. Pressure, which is an important
secondary cause of movement in the earth, is the expres-
sion of ---- in the case of capillarity, the
movement of water apparently in opposition to. *, is,
upon closer observation, found to be in reality, movement
in response to gravity. The water which rises in a boring
or flws from an artesian, well or spring is forced up by
pressure due principally to the weight of water lying at
a higher level. The familiar observation that water seeks
its own level has the same explanation.

RATE OF MOVEMENT.
The chief factors affecting the rate of movement of
water through a porous medium as given by Sehlichter are
as follows ::*
(1) Porosity of the material.
(2) Size of the pores in the water-bearing medium.
(3) Pressure.
(4) Temperature of the water.
*Water Supply Paper, U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 67, p. 17, 1902.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


(1) Rocks contain pores which, in the absence of a
liquid, are ordinarily filled with air. The relative propor-
tion of these spaces in the rock to the whole volume is the
measure of the porosity. Thus if a cubic foot of sandstone
will hold in its pores one-fourth cubic foot of water, its
porosity is 25 per cent The greater the porosity, the more
water absorbed by the rocks.
(2) The size of the pores in the rock ..:. the rate of
flow. Rocks having large pores receive and conduct water
many times more rapidly than those having small pores.
(3) The greater the pressure, other conditions remain-
ing the same, the more rapid the flow A pressure of one
pound per square inch is required to support each 2.31
feet of a column of distilled water at the temperature of
60 degrees F. The weight of water from the deep zones is
increased by solids in solution and in suspension, and is
affected by changes in temperature. Something more than
a hundred pounds pressure to the square inch is required
to cause a low from the bottom of a well 231 feet deep.
Something more than 500 pounds pressure to the square
inch is required to cause the rise of water in a boring a
distance of 1150 feet. .. ..- of this magnitude must
materially assist in forcing water through the rock.
(4) The temperature of the water is found to influence
the rate of flow. Schlichter finds that a change from 50 to
60 degrees F. increases the capacity to transmit water
under identical conditions by about 16 per cent.*

DnrPH OF -: WATER.

The limit of the downward extent of water has not been
reached byborings or tunnels, some of which exceed a
mile in depth. Water, while thus known to penetrate to
a depth greater than a mile, probably does not reach
beyond five or six miles at the most. The movement, as
has been stated, is through natural openings in the rock.
Pressure increases in the earth with depth, and it is esti-
mated that at a depth of -:-.:---.--' six miles, the
*Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, U. S. Geol. Sur No. 14,
p. 13, 1905.











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


pressure is so great that the pores and cavities of even the
strongest rocks, are completely closed., making it impos-
sible for water to penetrate beyond this depth. Most of
the water, however, returns to the surface after a com-
paratively short underground course, only a small part
of it reaching to this great depth.

%: SULPHIDEE IN WATER.

The underground water of Florida is very generally im-
pregnated with hydrogen ulphide (HIS) also known as
sulphuretted hydrogen, and hydro-sulphurie acid. Water
containing hydrogen sulphide is commonly known as "sul-
phur water" Sulphur water is especially characteristic
of the areas of artesian flow. In those sections in which
open porous limestone is the surface formation, hydrogen
sulphide is usually absent from the first water encoun-
tered, although even here it is found to exist in the water
from the deep wells, and in some springs.
Souree:-Hydrogen sulphide may originate in nature in
any one of several .. -- The following have been sug
gested: (1) The decay of organic matter containing sul-
phur; (2) the reaction of organic matter upon sulphides
or sulphates; (3) the reaction of acids upon sulphides;
(4) partial oxidization of sulphides; (5) steam passing
over sulphur.
The decay of organic matter is an obvious source of
hydrogen sulphide in the underground water of Florida.
Ohemrical : shows that sulphur is very generally
present in Florida soils, and apparently invariably pres-
ent in muck soils. Two samples of Florida peat which is,
like muck, a vegetable accumulation, were found to con-
taji .05 and .08 per cent of sulphur respectively. Hydro-
gen sulphide is formed in connection with the decay of
eggs. In this case the albumen of the egg, according to
L. Hoskins, 16th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Sur., Part 1, p. 869,
1896.
'Bulletin 43, Florida State Experiment Station, pp. 653, 657,
659, 1897.
SBulletin U S. S. No. 332, ge 77, 1908, Analysis of bog
sample from Orlando.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


Ostwaldeontains the sulphur. B28 is also found escaping
from sewer drains and cesspools, and is formed during the
decomposition both of animal and vegetable substances
The HgS occurring in shallow springs from marsh lands
is doubtless supplied largely from organic material.
The sulphur in soils is probably often present as sub
S Thorpe states that the decay of organic matter
in contact with sulphates results in the formation of
H.S. 2 The reaction in this case probably results from
reducing properties of decaying organic matter, the sul-
phates being first reduced to sulphides according to the
following reaction: S 0,+ C, (carbon of organic
matter) + The ulphide is then acted upon
by the carbonic acid to form i .i as follows:
HCO=H The reaction of organic matter
upon the sulphides is regarded by Van Hie as.another im-
portant source of . in underground water.
SThe formation of hydrogen sulphide as a result of the
action of acids upon metallic sulphides is one of the most
familiar of experiments. This .. the poe-
of the formation of this gas as the result of the
action of acids upon metallic sulphides contained in the
rocks. Sulphides. those of iron, are
scattered in the crust and occur in sufficient quan-
tity to account for the formation of BHS in water.
Hydrogen sulphide is a weak acid and its salts are decom-
posed by a stronger acid. Sulphuric and other mineral
acids should certainly react upon sulphides liberating
: acid when abundant reacts upon alkali
sulphides to produce hydrogen sulphide. It is true that
the alkali sulphides are normally not abundant in the
crust of the earth. Stokes has shown, that
reaction of sodium carbonate within the earth upon pyrite
or marcasite produces sodium sulphide. The reaction
.given by him is as follows:
+ 0, )3-_ 0,~O+1
Principles of Inorganic page 274, Ostwald, 1904.
Dictionary of Vol. III, p. 697, 1900.
'sA Treatise on Metamorphism, Mon. XLVII U. S. Gool. Survey,
page 1112, 1904.
P From Van :i L. C. page 1107.











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


It Is a well-known fact that the carbon dioxide which
unites with water to form carbonic acid is abundant in
the deep waters, especially in the limestone formations,
the existing at considerable depth enabling the
Water to hold great quantities of carbonic acid The series
of reactions given by ": ::. . for the presence of
alkali sulphides in solution in the deep waters. It may
be added that all sulphides are soluble to some extent in
and in that condition may be acted upon by ear-
bonic acid.'
The partial oxidationofsulphides is, according to Van
Hise, a possible additional method of the formation of
hydrogen sulphide, the reaction being as follows:2
S+4H,O+:- ~ 3,+.:T. :
The oxidizing .. are the most rapid near the sur-
face, especially above the underground water level, and
derived from this source supplies relatively
shallow, rather than deep waters.
The formation of H8 Sby steam over sulphur
which occurs i connection with volcanoes, may be dis-
missed in considering the sulphur waters of Florida,
since, as previously '.... Florida has no volcanoes
and'no indications of'volcanic
WAT Ne~ OF Bass ors' uLPHu.
is a widespread belief that the of sul
phur water must necessarily indicate the existence of beds
of the mineral sulphur. This conclusion does not follow.
The probable sources of the ..'.' -- in sulphur waters as
indicated above is organic matter together with metallic
sulphates and sulphides scattered through sedimentary
rocks.
SULPHUR FraOM H'YDOGEN
As stated' in the last paragraph, sulphur .waters- are not
to be regarded as resulting from beds of pure sulphur. On
the .- ., it is t r. true that these waters may, in
SInorganic Chemistry. International Library of. Technology.
Sec. 12, p. 11.
2 L. C: p. 1113.










FLRID1 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


some instances, result in the formation of such deposits.
Hydrogen sulphide when acted upon in the water by oxy-
gen breaks up, forming water and sulphur, the reaction
being HS+O-=H It is thue possible that HS, in the
underground water, or escaping from the underground
water, may become dis-associated, forming depots of
pure sulphur. Such deposits of economic value have not
been reported in Florida. It is a noteworthy fact, how
ever, that one large mass of sulphur has been found under
neath phosphate beds in Oitrus County.* The formati
of this mass of sulphur is probably due to hydrogen ul-
phide.
ABsENCE OF : SrULPHIDE FROM CERTAIN WATERS IN
FLORIaDA.
The absence of hydrogen sulphide from the first water
obtained from areas in which the open porous limestone is
the surface formation, has already been stated. It is a
well-known fact that if sulphur water is allowed to stand
in the open air the gas will escape. This method of free-
ing water from an excess of H1g gas is a common practice
wherever sulphur water is used fot domestic purposes
Wherever porous limestone lies at or near the surface the
sulphur gas which the water may have contained will find
a ready means of escape In other parts of the State
where compact and impervious formations rest upon the
limestone, the gas is prevented from escaping and sulphur
water is obtained.

AMOUNT or HYDROGEN ... ..: i ... BY a
The of H S gas which the water is able to
hold in solution under these conditions, is determined by
the pressure. The law of the solubility of gases in liquids
is as follows: The quantity of the gas which a liquid is
able to dissolve is directly proportional to the pressure on
the gas. In the open, porous limestone with no confining
stratum above, the water at the top of the underground
water level is merely under atmospheric After
.. the underground water level, however, the prea-
*First Annual Report, Florida State Geological Survey, 1908.










UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY,


sure increases rapidly. The increase of pressure is not
simply that due to the atmosphere, but that due to the
weight of the overlying column of water plus the atmos
here. According to Van : ... pressure which
really is determinative as to the amount of gas which may
be held in solution is that of a column of water extending
to the free surface, plus the atmospheric pressure." From
this law it follows that water at a great depth and under
great pressure is capable of holding a large quantity of
hydrogen sulphide in solution. When brought to the sur-
face the pressure is relieved and the gas rapidly escapes.
The artesian waters in the flowing areas of the State are
under considerable pressure, thus enabling them to hold a
large quantity of hydrogen sulphide as well a a high pro-
portion of mineral solids in solution.
In order that the deep waters may hold large quantities
of H'S in solution it is necessary that the gas be availa-
ble. This implies that the gas in the atesian and other
deep waters originates at some considerable depth rather
than at or near the surface.
*L. C., page 70.













UNDERGROUND WATER OF CENTRAL FLORIDA.

The underground water supply of central Florida avai
able for general purposes may conveniently be discussed
under the two divisions: (1) Water of the surface forma-
tions; (2) and water of the deep formations.
The water held in the interstices of the soil and other
surface materials, while of great importance to the growth
of vegetation, is not usually included in a consideration
of the underground water for commercial and general pur-
poses. Movement of water in soils is controlled by capil-
larity and'this water is often referred to as
water of soils." Capillary water, although of great impor-
tance in soils, is not available as a source of supply for
wells and will not be considered further in this report.
WATER F H -
The water of the surface formations, often known as
shllow or surface water, is that occurring nearest the
surface and is available for shallow wells. The water in
the surface formations is supplied by comparatively local
rainfall. Its occurrence depend upon the permeability of
the surface material and upon the existence of an imper-
vious sub-statum. The sue src material may be made up
of sand, sandy clay, or other porous substance. The im-
pervious sub-stratum is usually a clay or shale. Both of
these conditions are necessary. In the absence of an im-
pervious sub-stratum the water entering the earth will
pass through to a deeper zone. It is ,. : possible to
determine from surrounding conditions the probability of
the existence of water in the surface formations. Thus if
in any locality the surface formation consists of sand or
Sporous clays underpaid by an impervious stratum of
any kind, water may be expected. If, on the other hand,
an impervious sub-stratum is absent, permitting the rain-
fall to pass directly into the deeper formations, water in
the surface formations will be lacking.
CHARACTER OF THE WATER OF THE SURFACE FORMATIONS.
Owing to great variation in surface deposits from
to place, a similar variation in the character of the water











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


must be expected. Thus, if the the surface formations con-
sist largely of sand and clay with little or no calcareous
material, the water mty be expected to be soft, while if the
surface material is highly calcareous the water is usually
found to be hard. Since the water in the surface forma-
tions is supplied by local rainfall, it travels a compaxa-
tively short underground course, and its opportunity for
taking mineral solids into solution is proportionately lim-
ited. The water from the surface formation is, in ..:.
characterized by a relatively small amount of total solids
in solution. The following analyses may be taken as rep-
resentative These were made during 190l by Professor
A. W. Blair, Chemist of the Florida State Experiment
Station, and have been kindly supplied by the Director:


Ingredients. Parts per
I 1 2 3I 4
Hardness. .9 13.87 28.32 1 4.85
Chlorine 23. 11. 111. 6.
. .71 .83 8.84 .
.... trace none
Free ammonia .08 .02 .005 .0051
Albuminoid
ammonia none .0114 .010 none
Total


5 6
4.62 1.156
5.00 11.
.312 1.
none none
.00

.00'
46.


No. 1. Water from pump at the Miller residence. Lake
City, Columbia County.
No. 2. Water from Hensley place, Lake City.
No. 3. Water from pump on Perry's corner, Marion street,
Lake City.
No. 4. Water from pump at Dormitory, Lake City.
No. 5. Water from pump at north end of Foster Hall,
Lake City.
No. 6. Water from 30-foot open dug well ending in clay,
San Antonio, Pasco County. "Water clear, but con-
taining brown-white sediment, floculent,
musty odor. On residue blackened de-
cidedly, indicating organic matter."
of Water from the Surface :-The
water from the surface .. .. escapes principally
through seepage and surface springs, and by percolation
downward into the deeper formations. Some of it is
up again by capillary attraction into the zone
3-GeoBull










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


above, and some is by the roots of such plants
as penetrate to this zone. The flow from the springs
off into streams, some of it being evaporated into
the while the remainder reaches the ocean.
The water escaping downward ... the deeper forma-
tions.
SHALLOW WELLS.

Water is obtained from the surface formations by shal-
low, dug, or driven wells. The water reaches these wells by
seepage through the surrounding material, and is likely to
vary in amount with the wetness and dryness of the sea-
sons. This water is often desirable for boiler use owing to
the small amount of encrusting material present. When,
S the water reaching the well passes through de-
caying vegetation or muck deposits, it usually contains
acids which corrode the boilers. Shallow wells can not be
relied upon as a rule for a large and unvarying supply of
water. Only occasionally and under favorable conditions
will they .. sufficient water for irrigating purposes.
Contamination :-When shallow wells are used as a sup-
ply for purposes, the greatest care should be
exercised to prevent contamination. The conditions under
which this water occurs, render it readily susceptible to
pollution. Such wells should never be placed near a barn
or other outbuilding; nor should the ofal from the "
or other organic material be thrown near them. The
water, from the immediate surroundings,
may impurities into the well. A well, for instance,
through sand and in an impervious
clay gathers water from the .. area for a
erable ,- cases of typhoid fever have been
traced directly to wells. The fact that the
water has been used for ears without fatal results
does not i of
into the in the very near future.
N when properly located, -_ wells often
yield an excellent of soft, pure water.
Open dug wells are much more to contamination
in this way driven The dug are often sub-
ject to thus admitting unfiltered surface water.











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


Unless .---*-..:'.- cemented they also receive water by
seepage along the sides.
WATER OF THE DEEP
When water is obtained in the deep formations it is,
as a rule, more permanent and occurs in larger quantities
than that in the surface formations. There may be more
than one zone of deep water at any locality, depending
upon the structure and arrangement of the underlying for-
mations. The term "deep .. is applied in this report
to waters which are permanent and ordinarily inexhausti-
ble by pumping, and which do not conform to local surface
topography. This water is not necessarily obtained only
at a great depth. In many cases the water level is near
the : This is so since the surface de-
scends gradually to sea level or to the springs which serve
as an outlet for the deep waters.
WATER OF THE VICKSBURG LIMESTONE.
The Limestone is the most important water-
bearing formation of central Florida. After passing
through the surface deposits, wells throughout most of the
section treated in this bulletin enter this formation. The
thickness of the surface material and the depth to the
limestone varies from a few feet of sand and soil in some
to several hundred feet in others. The area in
which the .. lies near the surface includes parts
of Suwannee, Columbia, Alachua, Levy, Citrus,...
and Hernando Counties. The top of the limestone, how-
ever is everywhere .'. -` ".- irregular. Occasionally wells
within this section penetrate for a depth of one to two
hundred feet before reaching the limestone. These places
mark the location either of the deep solution
holes in the or of ancient or basins sub-
sequently filled by sand or clay.
Source.-The source of water in the Vicksburg lime-
stone is the rainfall. This statement would scarcely call
ifo'r '. comment except for the fact that the abund-
ance of water in the limestone and the conditions under
which !it occurs have led to a belief that the
is replenished by underground streams from some











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


deep or remote source. The conditions are most simple
and the conclusion that the water in the .... is sup-
plied by rainfall is most obvious in those parts of the
State in which the limestone lies near the surface. West
central Alachua County serves admirably to I the
local origin of the water in the limestone. Throughout
this area. surface clay deposits are either of but slight
or ' the often ap-
', or quite to the surface. streams
are absent, and practically the entire rainfall enters the
earth. The ground water level (water line) in the lime-
stone, lies at an average depth of from 30 to 40 feet. Nu-
merous wells are put down in this section for the purpose
of obtaining water for phosphate mining. The plan of
construction of these wells affords an especially favorable
opportunity for .. the effects of rainfall on the
underground water. A large pit, ten to twenty feet in
diameter is dug down to, or almost to, the ground water
level. From the bottom of the pit a. boring is put down
until a of water is obtained. The pumps
are lowered into the pit, thus enabling pumping by direct
pressure. It is observed without exception that heavy and
continued rains the water level. The effect, however,
is not immediate as in the case of shallow wells ending in
the surface The rise in the water comes
sowly, following the beginning of the rainy season, some
time being for the downward percolation of the
water. The ''. level of the water table is reached
some time after the close of the rainy season. That the
in the level is considerable is demonstrated by the
fact that pumps lowered into the pits during the dry sea-
son may be under water by the close of the rainy season.
That the rainfall is the source of the water supply is
obvious although no less certain in those of the
in which later formations rest upon the
Limestone. These later formations are often thin and per-
vious, permitting water to pass readily into the
beneath. occur which inter-
fere the passage of water. 1Under these
S the water entering the surface is checked in its
downward movement, but ) and may











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


ultimately reach the limestone in any one of several ways.
Such impervious deposits are often of local extent, and the
lateral spread of the water may carry it beyond their bor-
der and into pervious material, thus permitting further
downward movement. Occasional sinks formed in the
manner described on a later page afford openings through
the clay, permitting seepage water entering the sink to
find a passage-way to the deeper formations. Not every
sink, however, affords such a passage. Some, as elsewhere
explained, become clogged at the bottom and remain filled
with surface water.
of surface water gaining direct entrance
to the underground supply through sinks are too numer-
ous to require special mention, as disappearing streams
are common to all sections of the State in which sinks
occur. Falling ( - and High Falls, in Columbia" 7,
and Alachua Sink, in Alachua County, described on pages
54 and 56, serve as Another illustration is
found on the grounds at Gainesville. The
greater part of the surface run-off from the
tract finds its way to a small stream which enters the hill
near the south side of the In addition to the
surface run-off, seepage water supplied by springs from
the surface formations is also off through this
stream. .. .. this stream formerly flowed to Lake
Alice, and at a still earlier stage to Hogtown
Creek. The sink formed near the bed of the stream divert-
ed it from its earlier course. An illustration of the sink
which carries off the water received by springs is
afforded by the "Devil's Mill Hopper," near
Florida. This sink is located on the highlands six miles
northwest of i surface elevation at this
S is about 180 feet above sea level. The sink, although
of considerable depth, does not reach the deep water level.
An opening at one side near the bottom, however, permits
the of the water. The water from the surface and
shallow formations enters this sink from a number
of small around the sides, and reaches a deeper
formation, the Vicksbnrg Limestone, through the open-
ing at the bottom of the sink.
Level.-The water level in the limestone is ap-












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


proximately uniform over considerable areas, its level
being not materially affected by local changes in elevation.
Otherwise expressed, the water level in the limestone is
independent of local surface This fact is
illustrated by the deep wells at The records
of these wells are as follows.
Loaton Surface Water Level of
Owner of well. from P.O. elevation level from water
above sea. surface. above sea.
Diamond Ice Co..3 blocks n.w. 176 ft. 121 ft. 55 ft.
B. F. Williamson 1 mi. n. 180 ft. 128 ft. 52 ft.
City of Gain'ville 2 m. s.e. 82 ft. 31.32 ft. 50 ft.
The measurements for both the surface level and the
water level for the city well at were made with
care by Engineer G. D. Cairns.* The surface eleva-
tion of the other wells in the above table is taken from the
topographic map of the Gainesville area. In estimating
surface elevation from topographic maps, a limit of .
ble error of a few feet must be recognized. the
measurements to the water level were made in different
years and at different seasons of the year. The variation
with seasons in the water level amounts, as previously
explained, in some sections, to several feet. In 19'06 the
writer made more exact measurenmects for the S. Geo-
logical at Orlando. are reported in Bulletin
89, of the Florida State Experiment page 102,
and are as follows:
Water Level
Well. Depth. Surface level from of water
elevation, surface, above sea.
San Juan well.. ... 487ft.. 111.12 ft. 45:1 ft. 66.02 ft
School house well.... 260 ft. 110.36 ft. 44.77 ft. 65.59 ft.
Lockhart's well...... 210 ft. 107.93 ft. 41.83 ft. 66.10 ft.
Well in ditch m. e. 340 ft. 78.95 ft. 13.9 ft. 65.05 ft.
SControlling the e Level.-The controlling
factors in determining the water level are location of outlet
plus the friction of flow to that outlet. This is best shown
by considering in some detail two of the largest ...
The following sketch is constructed with a view of show-
ing the relation of the level of the underground water to


*Levels kindly
Water Supply.


by B. F. Miller, Superintendent City












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


the level of the water in Silver Springs and Blue Springs,
the two largest springs in the - The sketch
represents a section from Silver Springs to Blue Springs
in Marion County, a total distance of 27 miles.
The dotted line (2) represents the underground water
level. The surface contour shown in. the sketch is obtained
from the topographic map of these sections and is drawn
to scale. The line representing the underground water
level is constructed from the well records. The water, as
will be seen from the sketch, practically on a level
with these two large .' An apparent variation of
a few feet in the records is within the limits of error since
the elevation of both springs and wells are - from
the topographic maps and since the measurements of depth
to water in the wells were not all made at the same time,
but at different seasons of the year. The sketch through
Suwannee and Columbia Counties further illustrates the
relation of outlet to water level. See fig. 1-2, p. 32.
Quantity.-The quantity of water contained in the
Vicksburg Limestone is large. The limestone is for the
most part porous. In addition to the ordinary pore space
in the rock, there are numerous solution cavities .The
limestone is saturated by rainfall to the water level, and
the supply which it contains is, for ordinary purposes,
inexhaustible.

OTHER WATER-BEARING FORMATIONS.

The dip of the Vicksburg Limestone to the east and to
the, south carries it to such a depth that it is not reached
by medium deep wells of northeast Alachua, east Marion,
Lake,and parts of Pasco Counties. In these localities water
is obtained from the .. Oligocene and forma-
tions resting upon the Vicksburg. The water from these
later formations contains, as a rule, a smaller proportion
of solids in solution and is not so hard as that from the
Vicksburg.













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UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY,


QUALITY OF THE WATER OF THE DE EP
Limestone water is usually hard; that is, it holds in
solution certain particularly salts of calcium and
magnesium. The salts commonly present are the carbo-
nates and sulphates. Calcium carbonate, CaCOg, while
but slightly soluble in water, becomes in the - of
an excess of CO, much more soluble, the salt being then
held in solution in the form of bicarbonate Ca( ) .
For boiler use softening of the limestone water by chemi-
cal treatment is often : .. . are
given preceding the tables of well records. From an exami-
nation of these it will be observed that the total solids, in
a very general way and with occasional exceptions, in-
crease with the depth of the well. The hardness of the
water determined principally by the amount of calcium
and:... -.-:-. : salts present, also increases, as a rule,
with depth. This increase in mineral solids in solution
with depth is accounted for partly by the fact that the
water from the wells has traveled a longer
journey underground than has that of the less deep wells.
In doing so it has had a greater opportunity to take solids
into solution. Pressure, as elsewhere explained, is also an
S factor. The amount of carbonic acid and other
gases which the water can hold in solution is : .
ate to the pressure, while the pressure, as elsewhere ex-
plained, increases with depth.

SOF THE WATER IN THE DEEP
T The' annual rainfall and the large surface in-take
necessarily implies movement of the water in the lime-
stone. The general direction of movement, it may safely
be assumed, is from the central interior region toward the
coast on either side. Locally the water is no doubt de-
flected from this general direction of flow. The rock
through which the water moves is not of uniform texture.
Local flint masses interfere with the flow. :: in one
part of the formation may move readily through open
porous ... or through solution cavities.
the movement is interfered with by compact areas such











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


as occur irregularly in the limestone. Large springs
through which the water finds an outlet draw upon the
surrounding area, resulting in the convergence of the
flow to the point of escape.
Information regarding the rate of movement is difficult
to obtain. It is doubtless true that the rate of movement
varies from place to place in accordance with the varia-
tion in the texture of the rocks, the proximity of springs,
or other point of outlet, and the depth of the water in the
earth. Such data as it has been possible to obtain indicate
that, generally speaking, the water moves slowly through
the many winding and inter-connecting solution cavities
and through the porous rocks.
A considerable percentage of the wells drilled are
reported to have encountered underground streams. The
idea commonly conveyed by these reports is that these
are streams in the ordinary sense of the term confined to
definite channels and moving rapidly through the earth.
It is possible that variation in the texture of the rock.
may result in forcing the water through established chan
nels forming locally underground streams. The number
of such streams is, however, necessarily limited. If under.
ground streams occurred as numerously as reports would
imply, the total rainfall would be very quickly carried
away and the streams cease to flow until the next season
of heavy rains. The annual escape of water clearly can
not exceed the annual in-take. If the water moved through
the rock with a freedom approaching that with which sur
face water flows, it is obvious that the total rainfall would
be quickly carried ., and the springs, instead of being
.: .' would flow intermittently. Near the outlet of
large springs the water doubtless moves in channels which
become in reality underground streams. It is probable
that the .: to which underground water is usually
subjected causing a vertical rise in the boring when the
Sis reached, is mistaken in many cases for the flow
of a stream.











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


EsCAPE Or WATER OF THE DLEP
SPRINGS.
The large annual in-take of water into thd limestone
continuing through a long period of time implies an
equally ready escape. The natural outlet is through
springs. These are extremely numerous in Florida and of
unusual size. The list given in tabulated form on a later
page includes the largest of those occurring in the coun-
ties covered b this report.
In addition to these, numerous large springs come up
in the ocean, while many others occur along the sides and
in the channels of rivers, bordering or entering this sec-
tion, or in swamps or lakes under such conditions that an
estimate of the flow is difficult or impossible. The most
impdrtant of these rivers are the Suwannee, Santa Fe,
Withlacoochee, and Ocklawaha, all of which receive a con-
siderable part of their supply from
The view is occasionally expressed that the large springs
are fed by underground streams that originate in some
remote section and flow at a great depth; and that the
springs do not serve as an outlet for the local underground
water supply, and are not affected by rainfall. Silver
Spring (the largest of these springs), was closely
by the writer during the first half of July, 1906. The rain-
fall during this month was unusually heavy, amounting
for the first seventeen days of the month to 10.27 inches.*
The water level in Silver Spring rose steadily, the total
rise during this half month of reavy rains amounting to a
little more than one half foot (.65 feet). The rise in the
spring does not follow immediately upon the rains. The
greatest advance is observed a day or two after the heavy
rains, indicating that some days are required for the
water to percolate through the overlying rocks and to
reach the springs. is the spring made turbid by
the rains since the water filtering through the sand and
rock is freed from clayey sediment. A similar variation
*Data on rainfall kindly supplied by W. L. .. recorder of
the Ocala Weather Bureau Station.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


in water level in wells with the rainy season has been
described on a previous page.
The area of drainage of each spring can not be closely
outlined. The circulation of underground water is so
complicated, and affected by so many factors that it is im-
to determine from just how large an area a spring
draws. So far as amount of rainfall is concerned, a com-
small area would each of the
On the basis of estimates already given the in-take of a
surrounding area of 421 miles, or about one-
fourth of" ., is sufficient to the flow of
Silver a smaller area would supply each
of the other springs listed. The fact that the springs are
not affected more by the seasons is due to the
slowness with which water .- through the overly-
ing rock or moves through the deeper zones. This slow
movement results in distributing the total flow with ap-
proximate uniformity throughout the year.
These and other observations establish the fact that the
springs receive their water supply from the rainfall of the
surrounding ..
Silver be taken as of the limestone
water --. .-- of Florida. The basin of the spring has a
depth of from 30 to 36 feet, with a total flow from several
vents estimated at gallons per minute. Professor
John Le Conte : this spring in 1859 for the purpose
of its optical phenomena, *.. '. to the
spring he :*

"The most remarkable and interesting phenomena presented
by this spring, is the truly extraordinary transparency of the
water; in this respect surpassing anything which can be imag-
ined. All of the intrinsic beauties which invest it, as well as
the wonderful optical properties which popular reports
have ascribed to its waters, are directly or :: refer-
able to their almost diaphaniety. On a clear and
calm day, after the sun has obtained sufficient altitude, the
view from the side of a small boat floating on the surface of
the water near the center of the head-spring, is beautiful

*Amer. Journ. Sci., Vol. XXXI, p. 3, 1861.












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY


beyond description, and well calculated to produce a powerful
impression upon the imagination. Every feature and conhgu-
ration of the bottom of this gigantic basin is as distinctly visi-
ble as if the water was removed, and atmosphere substituted
in its place!"

"My observations were made about noon, on the 17th and
again on the 20th of December, 1859. The sunlight ilbUminated
the sides and bottom of this remarkable pool as as
if nothing obstructed the light. The shadows of our little
boat, of our overhanging heads and hats, of projecting crags
and logs, of the surrounding forest, and of the vegetation at
the bottom, were distinctly and sharply defined; while the
constant waving of the slender and delicate moss-like algae,
by means of the currents created by the boiling up of the
water, and the swimming of numerous fish above this minia-
ture subaqueous forest, imparted a living reality to the scene
which can never be forgotten. And if we add to this picture,
already sufficiently striking, that objects beneath the surface
of the water, when viewed obliquely, were fringed with the
prismatic hues, we shall cease to be surprised at the myst-ri-
ous phenomena with which vivid imagination have invested
this enchanting spring, as well as at the inaccuracies which
have been perpetuated iu relation to the wonderful properties
of its waters. On a bright day, the beholder seems to be looking
down from some lofty airy point on a truly fairy scene in the
immense basin beneath him, a scene whose beauty and mag-
ical effect is vastly enhanced by the chromatic tints with
which it is invested."

The prismatic hues seen in this and other clear water
S of Florida, Professor LeConte' to be due
to the refraction of light : through the water. He
finds that white objects on a dark background when im-
mersed in the water are fringed with blue at the top and
orange and red at the bottom, while the color of the fring-
ing is reversed for dark objects on a white background.
The remarkable of the Florida due
S to the fact that the water has been filtered and
decolorized in its through beds of sand, is prob-
ably augmented, in the opinion of LeConte, by the lime in
solution in the water.
Among other springs resembling Silver .. in the
manner of and in the mineral character and










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


clearness of the water may be mentioned: Blue Spring
in Marion County; Ichatucknee, Spring in Columbia
County; Blue, and Manatee Springs in Levy
River and Chesehouiska Springs in Citrus
County; Weekiwachee in Hernando County, and
Newland in Suwannee- .. These springs form
the source of streams, many of which, as in the case of
Silver Spring, are navigable to the source. Newland
Spring is exceptional in the fact that the water coming
up as a boil from a circular depression or sink, after flow-
ing as a stream for a distance of about 200 yards, again
disappears into the earth. This spring is distant only
about three miles from the Suwannee River. The static
head of the underground water in the vicinity of Newland
Spring is affected by the river. During high water .
the river frequently rises above the after level in the sur-
rounding At this time the flow of the
Spring is reversed, the water then rising in the sink in
which it ordinarily and disappearing -
the sink from which under ordinary conditions it rises.
The water of Sulphur Spring and Suwannee Sul
phur Spring is impregnated with hydrogen sulphide gas.
Perrian or Salt Spring, in Marion county, is exceptional
in the high proportion of solids, particularly of chlorides,
which it carries.
WELLS.

In locating wells in the area two
points should be considered: : I the depth at which a
Sweater .' is likely to be obtained; and sec-
ond, the level at which the water, when obtained, will
stand in the boring.
Level at .. Stand in Completed
Boring:-The that water may be expected to
stand from the surface in the completed boring is a matter
of more than the of the boring; for,
while the of the boring terminates with the initial
cost, the of the water to surface con-






















'-4'


d








*rI













w










UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


tinues indefinitely. If it is known that the water will rise
near enough to the to admit of pumping by direct
pressure, the cost of pumping is reduced. The
of using water for irrigating purposes often
turns upon this point, and in any case each additional foot
that the water must be lifted involves an additional cost.
In short, the expense of water is largely .... by
the cost of pumping.
The tables giving the general water resources, and list-
ing wells for each county,togetherwith the sketches
the underground level in several of the counties
will enable those who wish to put down to deter-
mine in most cases how near to the
the water will rise. The water level in the limestone as
indicated above ( does not conform to local variations
in the surface level, but on the contrary, stands at a prac-
tically uniform level over considerable areas, regardless
of surface (See -. pp. 32 and 40.)
Depth of Boring.-In the .. limestone the depth
necessary to go to obtain water cannot be determined from
surrounding wells. Ordinarily some water is obtained
immediately upon passing the water line. For large quan-
tities of water, however, it is usually necessary to pene-
trate the limestone until a cavity of some considerable
size and extent is encountered. The effect of the cavity is
apparently to serve practically as a collecting basin. Al-
though not enough water to supply -the pump enters the
small .' by .. yet when the boring is connected
with the very much larger opening of the cavity or solu-
tion channel, this larger collecting area is sufficient to'
afford a practically inexhaustible supply of water. Porous
layers as well as cavities are of irregular occurrence.
may be located within a few feet of each other and
yet differ in depth. The depth is illus-
trated by the Orlando wells. The four wells at the "sink"
one mile east of Orlando reached a water cavity at the
depth of 140 feet. in the one-half mile to
west, start' at approximately the same surface level,
no cavity of .... '- '. size, but reached, at












































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Cd Cd
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rm V
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U0




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fe r-





C4)

SS "
0 0 0 S


g o



s8 Jl
i- Cf
(3 g C




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0 00
4)-*











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY


the depth of 340 feet, a porous layer with an abundance of
water. The "school house well," the surface level of which
is approximately 31 feet higher than that of the well at
the ditch, entered a porous water bearing layer at a depth
of 260 feet. The "San Juan" well, less than one-ourth
mile to the northwest of the school house well, was put
down to a depth of 487 feet before teaching a layer con-
sidered sufficiently open. The "Lockhart" well, one-half
mile west of town, terminates in a cavity at a depth of 210
feet. The static head of the water obtained in these wells
i. practically the same for all (p.30). Another striking
illustration of varying depth is afforded by the two wells-
at the Marion Farm, near Ocala. These wells are not more
than six feet apart. One of them goes to a depth of 140
feet, while in the other it was necessary to go 175 feet in
order to obtain sufficient water
















Fig. 5.-Sketch illustrating the varying depth of wells entering
the limestone. In order to obtain a large supply of water it is
necessary to penetrate the limestone until either a solution cavity
or a porous stratum is reached. The breaks in the limestone
represent irregularly occurring solution cavities, two of which
are reached by wells.


4-GooBull










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CONTAMINATION.
The deep waters are in much less danger of contamina-
tion from organic sources than are the shallow. The
organic material, and with it the disease-producing germs,
is filtered out as the water penetrates through the surface
sands and the porous rocks. The comparatively deep
waters may, however, under certain conditions, become
contaminated. Many of the sinks occurring in the lime-
stone area are passageways directly through to the lime-
stone water horizon. It not infrequently happens that
small streams flowing through a town find entrance into
the limestone through these sinks. These streams often
receive trash, rubbish and filth of various kinds. The im-
purities carried by the streams often reach the under-
ground water supply without having been filtered or suffi-
ciently exposed to the sunshine. The water in such streams
should be kept as free from organic impurities as possible.
Wells from which a large amount of water is pumped nec-
essarily draw on the water supply from the surrounding
area to some considerable extent and thus receive
contaminated "water carried into the limestone by these
streams. The accompanying sketch illustrates the relation
that may exist between a sink and a nearby well.

-: .,,'i -, J


Fig 6. danger of contamination of a well by im-
pure water entering through a sink. The water flowing into the
sink enters a in the limestone and spreads through the
open spaces in rock, some of it probably reaching near-by
wells.












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


The danger of contamination from the bored wells used
to carry off sewage is discussed on pages 64 to 67.
Contamination as used refers to organic con-
tamination. Water also takes minerals into solution
which may be considered as mineral contamination. For
drinking purposes the minerals thus dissolved may be
beneficial or injurious, according to the minerals dia-
solved and the amount in solution. For irrigating pur-
they are usually not injurious and may even be
beneficial as many of the waters contain from a trace to
one or two parts per million of phosphoric acid. For
boiler and household purposes the mineral solids in solu-
tion are detrimental The amount of minerals in solution
in the water increases, as previously stated, in a general
way with the depth of the well. The deepest well in cen-
tral Florida of which an has been made is the
well of the Pearson Oil Co., in Citrus County. This well
has reported depth of 1900 feet. The solids in solution
amount to 6474 parts per million, the water being unfit
for use. The second deepest well is that of the Ocala
SCo. at Oeala. This well has a depth of 1250 feet,
and is cased to the bottom. The mineral solids in solution
amount to 659 parts per million. The City well at Live
Oak has a depth of 1080 feet, and yet supplies water rela-
tively low in mineral solids (219 parts per million). The
casing in this well, however, is reported to reach only a
short distance into the limestone and this fact doubtless
explains the relatively low proportion of solids. Water
imay, and doubtless does, enter the bQring from all depths
below the termination of the and notwithstanding
the considerable depth of the well the principal water
supply in this case probably comes from no great depth.
The mineral solids in solution in the wells of medium
depth in central Florida usually range between 125 and
parts per million.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


ARTESIAN PROSPECTS.

The conditions which exist in central Florida are not
favorable for obtaining flowing wells. The crest of the an-
ticline lies not far from the center of the peninsula. The
dip from the crest is most rapid to the east. Under these
conditions pressure sufficient to cause a flow along the
side of the .. would result from the presence of
an overlying relatively impervious stratum acting as a
confining agent, and preventing the .- of the water.
In the absence of this confining stratum a flow may still be
obtained, provided the resistance to the passage of the
water through the inclined stratum is sufficiently great.
The dip to the east carries the limestone beneath impervi-
ous stratawith the result that a flow is obtained along the
St. Johns River and along the east coast. To the south
: later formations rest upon the Vicksburg. To
the west, however, the Vicksburg limestone lies at or near
the surface to the coast, such deposits as rest upon it
being thin and of local extent.
The shading on the map r parts of the
State in which wells may be obtained. There are
as will be seen, two principal artesian areas: the East
Coast area and the Southern Gulf Coast area. Flowing
wells on the east coast have been obtained as far south as
Paulm Beach, although the water in the well at .. last
was too for use. The Gulf -. : area ex-
tends rather farther north than is indicated on the map,
flowing wells at or near the sea level having been
along the Pinellas Peninsula. wells occur locally
in some sections not indicated on the map, as at Kissim-
mee and along the Gulf coast of west Florida. The loca-
tion of a number of these wells is indicated on the map by
a cross.
Of the counties covered by this bulletin, two, namely
wLa and extend .- -- into the St. Johns
River area of artesian flow. On the west coast a flowing
well, the Pearson Oil Co. - has been obtained in Citrus

















FLOR!oA ( EULOGIcAI. ~URV FY. BULLEHN No. 1, PL. III.


AREAS OF ARTESIAN FLOW IN FLORIDA.


FL.ORIDA (GEOLOGICAL SlURVEY.


BULLETIN NO. 1. PL. III.











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY. 45

County. The water, however is too salty for use. A flo
has been obtained in a few instances from wells at low
surface elevation in the lake region of Lake County. These
depend apparently upon local conditions.
Of the deep wells that have been drilled, some have not
been properly eased, and hence do not afford a test as to
artesian flow. One deep well of the interior, that of the
Ocala city water supply, however, is asked the full depth
of 1250 feet. The surface elevation at this locality is be-
tween 100 and 110 feet above sea-level and the water
S in this well 65 to 70 feet from the - A
flow from this depth is therefore not to be expected in
central Florida, since in this action the average surface
elevation is from 60 to 150 feet.











GEOLOGICAL RESULTS OF UNDERGROUND
CIRCULATION,

The topography of a region is the product of all the
agencies that have acted upon the land since its formation.
Sedimentary deposits when formed usually lie horizontal
or nearly so. Such deposits when elevated, unless vio-
lently distorted or folded, form dry land areas, which are
either level, with minor ir lati or have a uniform
alope. As soon as exposed, however, eroding agencies
begin to develop irregularities in the land surface. Evi-
dence of violent upheaval, distortion or folding, other than
very mild flexures, is lacking in Florida. The topographic
features of the State are thus mainly the result of the
combined action of the eroding agencies which have been
working since the first appearance of the peninsula as
dry land.
Among these agencies of erosion, underground water
has acted in Florida under exceptionally favorable condi-
tions. In areas of considerable slope, and with relatively
impervious formations, the urface run-off is large. Under
these conditions those features of topography determined
by the rapid downward cutting of the surface streams and
their tributaries predominate. In Florida the surface
slope is slight The open nature of the soil and rock per-
mits the greater part of the water to enter the earth,
establishing subterranean rather than surface drainage.
The rocks are prevailingly calareous and soluble. Under
these conditions the work of the underground water pre-
dominates over surface erosion. In central Florida the
topography, soil, and general surface features are deter-
mined to a large extent by the work of underground water.


Solution is the most apparent, and geologically the most
important result of underground water circulation. Rain
water, while passing through the air, takes into solution
a small amount of COz gas. To this is added organic and
mineral acids taken up while through the soil.
Increased pressure, as the water descends into the earth,
enables the water to hold in solution greater quantities of












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


gases, acids and salts, all of which greatly increase the
dissolving power of the water.
That underground water is efficient as a solvent is evi-
dent from the analyses of well and spring waters. Rain
water entering the earth with almost no solids in solution,
returns to the surface through springs and wells with a
load of mineral solids in solution determined by the length
of time it has been in the ground, the distance
ad the character of the rocks and minerals with which
it comes in contact.
AMOUNT OF SOLD IN
The mineral matter thus taken into solution is carried
along with water, and, while some of it is re-deposited, a
large amount is removed annually.
An estimate of the total mineral solids thus removed is
difficult. A conception of the largeness of the amount
removed is obtained from a consideration of some of the
individual springs.
The water of Silver Springs contains, as shown by
analysis, 274 parts solids per million parts water. Other-
wise expressed, each million pounds of water is
with it 274 pounds of solids in solution. Silver Spring is
estimated to flow a little more than three million pounds
of water per minute (368,913 gallons). The interior of
Florida is thus being carried into the ocean through Sil-
ver Springs at the rate of more than 840 pounds per min-
ute, or about six hundred tons per day.
The total solids removed in solution through six other
springs of central : expressed in tabular formr
gives the following results:
Total solids Est. flow Solids re-
Name of Spring. County, parts per (gals. per moved lbs.
mil.*) min.) per day.
Blue ..i....... Marion 112.1 349166 469,698
Blue ........ Levy 196.8 25000 59,040
Ichatucknee. .... Columbia 311.6 180,00 457,056
Newland ........ Suwannee 233.5 75,00' 210,150
Weekiwachee.... Hernando 227.8 100,000 273.360
White Sulphur... Hamilton 166.6 32,400 64,774
uwannee ....... Suwannee 332.7 207,605
*Organic matter is deducted from the total solids as given for
Suwannee Sulphur and White Sulphur Springs. The orgaic mat-
ter occurring in the other springs is of small amountsand war
not separately determined.












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVYT.


As the basis of an estimate of the total solids removed
annually from the interior, let it be assumed, (1) that the
total solids in spring water amounts to as much
as 219 parts per million, this being obtained from
eight of the typical large of central Florida; (2)
that the annual escape of the underground water approx.
mates the annual in-take, amounting, as previously esti-
moted (p. 16), to 460,536,689 gallons per square mile.
Upon these estimates the mineral solids removed amount
to a little more than four hundred tons annually per
spuare mile.
Of the minerals thus removed, calcium carbonate or
limestone greatly predominates, exceeding the combined
of all other minerals. From the analyses it ap-
pears that magnesium carbonate, magnesium and calcium
sulphates are present in variable, although usually lim-
ited, quantities. Chlorides are normally present in small
amount, although occasionally, as in the case of Perrian
Spring, they are exceptionally high. Silica is present in
amounts varying from 5 to 25.5 parts per million. Traces
of phosphoric acid and of iron and alumina are usually
present.
The several undetermined factors which enter into the
above estimates of mineral solids removed make it diffi-
cult to formulate a concrete statement of the rate of low-
ering of the general surface level. - .' .- such state-
ments are desired and have a comparative value. .. ....
for the rock removed, most of which is limestone, an aver-
age specific '- - of 2.5, a layer one foot thick over one
square mile should weigh about two and one-sixth million
tons. The calculated rate of removal of this rock is b uiit
four hundreds tons per mile per year. From these
estimates it would appear that the '. level of the cen-
tral peninsular section of Florida is being lowered by
solution at the rate of a foot in five or six thousand years.

CAVITIES.

The estimates given on the previous page, even allowing
for a wide margin of error, indicate the very great amount











'UN(REGROUND WATER SUPPLY


of mineral solids that is being removed in solution from
the interior of the State annually. The indications are
that this process of solution has : uninterrupt-
edly throughout a period of time counted by thousands of
years. The effects are everywhere apparent. Solution cavi-
ties are exceedingly numerous in the underlying limestone;
so much so that it is unusual for a boring to go to any
considerable depth without a cavity. In some
cases the rock is truly honeycombed with cavities, and no
boring has reached a depth beyond the zone of their occur-
rence. It is possible that .. : too soft to support the
drills are occasionally struck and are sometimes mistaken
for cavities, but that many of these wells actually end in
cavities is not to be doubted. Shaler maintains that the
presence of these cavities at a great depth in the limestone
necessarily implies a considerable elevation of the penin-
sula at the time of their formation.* The writer agret
with the view that oscillations in the level of the peninsula
have occurred, a former greater elevation being indicated
by certain old .' now filled with sand and clay. How-
ever, he believes it unnecessary to assume elevation to
account for the cavities. It is doubt true that
solution goes on more rapidly in the zone above the under
ground water level. That solution continues below the
water level is sufficiently evident, however, from the fact
already noted that the total mineral solids in the water
increases on an average with the depth from which the
water comes. Although the return circulation is slow,
there is no doubt that some of the water from great depth
returns through springs and otherwise escapes into the
ocean, .... with it its load of mineral solids, thuf
forming and enlarging cavities.

SINK HOLES.
The surface of the interior of Florida is dotted with
sink holes of all sizes, from a few inches to several rods in
diameter. Their circular outline and often great depth,
render them features of the landscape. They
*Evidences as to the Change of Sealevel. Geol. Soc. Am., Bull.
VL., 1895, p. 155.











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


occur irregularly and are not distributed. Cer-
tain sections underlaid by readily soluble limestone are
particularly liable to sinks.
An account of the manner of formation of these sinks
has been given by the writer in a previous publication.*
This account is, in part, as follows: "When first formed,
the ' 'sink throughout this area (interior of Flor-
ida), is an opening leading from the surface through the
superficial deposits to or into the limestone below. Many
of these sinks are perfectly cylindrical, not funnel-haped.
This is especially true of the smaller sinks. As a result of
the subsequent caving of the banks, the bottom usually
becomes clogged and the sides sloping. The formation
of these sinks is practically instantaneous and results
from a sudden caving of the earth. In size they vary
from a few feet to many rods in diameter. So frequent is
their formation in certain sections, notably the phos-
phate mining area of Alachua and Columbia Counties
that one must be on the lookout in driving through the
country for '- formed sinks. Indurated layers exposed
along the sides of the sinks are rough-edged and bear evi-
dence of fracture due to the sudden giving away and
breaking under the weight of the load above. The depth
of the sinks is probably quite variable. As a rule, they
reach through and connect with the ..-. ...... under-
ground water horizon. Some reach much below the water
line."
"A sink of this type was examined by the writer within
a few hours after its formation about one mile south of
Juliette, in Marion county, in 19r05. This was a small
sink, not more than eight feet in diameter, and of the
usual cylindrical form. The sides down to the water level
were, so far as could be determined, entirely of clay. The
sink, which had formed directly under the railroad track,
was caused possibly by the jar of a passing train, the
engine of which had safely over. The water rose
immediately in the sink to the static head of the water in
that- .
"The writer recalls having often seen similar tubular
*Science, Vol. XXVI., p. 417, 1907.

































r1




















dz











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


openings reaching from the surface to the runway of
abandoned coal mines, the : .- occurring in these
cases through a thickness of forty or fi: feet of
and sales. From analogy it seems probable that
the formation of the sinks in question results from a
gradual caving of the clay from the bottom, assisted, per
haps, by the removal mechanically of a part of the mate-
rial by underground water. Finally a point is reached at
which the entire remaining mass suddenly gives way.
While some of these sinks are in clay formations entirely,
others break through a considerable thickness of lime-
atone."
Sink holes are characteristic of that part of the State
in which soluble limestone lies at or near the surface. If
the limestone is covered by too great a thickness of clays
or other impervious formations, sink holes do not form.
Nor do sinks occur in areas of artesian flow, since the im-
pervious strata which retain the artesian water likewise
prevent the downward percolation of surface water neces
sary to the formation of a sink.
Sinks after being formed tend to fill up by the caving
of the sides, and as a result of the debris washed and
blown into them. All ages of sinks, from the new to the
old and almost obliterated, are to be observed. The new
sink is recognized at once by its almost perpendicular
sides, and by the fresh appearance of such
rocks and clays as are exposed along the side. The some
what older sink is recognized by the beginning of a growth
of hard wood vegetation along its sides. The appearance
of the sink at later : *- in its history will depend upon
local conditions and especially whether it is in a clay or
in a limestone region. Sinks located in a clay region, of
which those on the grounds of the State at
Gainesville are good examples, will usually become
clogged at the bottom by the clay and mud washed into
them. The banks then slump and wash down, the slope
becoming less steep. Surface water forming
a pond and in the course of time the sink is filled, leav-
ing hardly more than a depression. Sinks located in a
limestone --..... or with surrounding rock strong












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY,


enough to prevent rapid wash and falling of the sides
resist filling up longer. Under these conditions the sink
remains open at the bottom, that is, retains its connection
with the deep water horizon indefinitely, the water that
runs into it from the sides passing out though the bot-
tom. An illustration of such a sink is the DeviPs Mill
Hopper, near Gainesville. This large sink is rather old,
as indicated by the vegetation along the sides and in the
bottom. Some mud and clay has washed in, but the outlet
through the bottom is still sufficiently open to permit the
water to escape. In its last stages a sink i '
as a depression and is finally obliterated. The location of
an old sink or solution hole is occasional discovered in
the course of well drilling.
A description of the formation of a sink contained in
Bartram's Travels (179I ) may serve to illustrate the im-
pression made by this unusual occurrence upon early
English travelers and upon the Indians. The account is
given as related to Bartram by a trader, who was an eye
witness to the occurrence, and is confirmed, Bartram
states, by one or two other traders and by the Indians.
The account is as follows:*
"This trader being near the place (before it had any visi-
ble existence in its present appearance) about three years
ago (as he was looking for some horses which he expected
to find in these parts) when, on a sudden, he was astonished
by an inexpressible rushing noise, like a mighty hurricane
or thunder storm, and looking around, he saw the arth o ver-
flowed by torrents of water, which came, wave after wave,
rushing down a vale or plain very near him, which it filled
with water, and soon began to overwhelm the higher grounds,
attended with a terrific noise and tremor of the earth; recov-
ering from his first surprise, he Immediately resolved to pro-
ceed for the place from whence the noise seemed to come,
and soon came in sight of the incomparable fountain, and
saw, with amazement, the floods rushing upwards many feet
high and the expanding waters, which prevailed every way,
spreading themselves far and near: he at length concluded
(he said) that the fountains of the deep were again broken
up, and that a universal deluge had commenced, and
*Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and
West Florida, by William Bartram, Philadelphia, 1791, p. 239.


























































C












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


turned about and fled to alarm the town, about nine miles
distance, but before he could reach it he met several of the
inhabitants, who, already alarmed by the unusual noise, were
hurrying on towards the place, upon which he returned with
the Indians, taking their stand on an eminence to watch its
progress and the event: it continued to jet and flow in this
manner for several days, forming a large, rapid creek or
river, and following the various courses and wind-
ings of the valley, for the distance of seven or eight miles,
emptying itself into a vast savanna, where was a lake and
sink which received and gave vent to its waters."
"The fountain, however, gradually ceased to overflow, and
finally withdrew itself beneath the common surface of the
earth, leaving this capacious bason of waters, which, though
continually near full, hath never since overflowed."
This sink, known at that time as "Alligator Hole," is
located, as shown by the text, in the northwestern part of
Levy County in the vicinity of Springs, and not
far from the ancient Indian village and trading station of
Talahasochte. The account by Bartram is doubtless some-
what embellished. The least reliable feature, perhaps, is
the amount of water reported to flow from the opening.
It is true, however, that the static head of the under-
ground water of this part of the .county is sufficient to
bring the water within a few feet of the general surface
level. -' conditions a flow doubtless
occurred, due to the rebound of the water following the
caving of the earth.

DISAPPEARING STREAMS.

The abrupt disappearance of small or
streams into the depth of the earth is a not uncommon
feature of inland Florida. * rise occasionally to no
little wonderment. The streams enter the earth through
sinks of the character of those above.
After the formation of a sink it invariably happens thu t
some part of the rainfall from the immediately surround-
ing area, as a result of natural flows over
the edge and into the sink. In doing so the water will
begin the cutting of a ditch across the edge.
The deeper the ditch is cut the more is the water











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


enabled to enter the sink. The farther the ditch is extended
headwards from the edge of the sink the more water it
receives. This small start is the beginning of the develop-
ment of a disappearing stream. The subsequent history
of the stream is determined by the character of the rock
through which it has to cut, and the length of time it is
allowed to operate. Given sufficient time, the rivulet cuts
headwards, its drainage area, gathering more
water, and attaining to the respectable size of a stream.
The kind of a valley cut by the stream, whether with
steep or sloping sides, with waterfalls or without; with
uniform or with interrupted grade; is determined by the
kind of deposits through which or over which it fows
The stream in these respects develops as do other stream
S back from their origin. Thus, if the deposits
through which it is cutting are of uniform hardness the
bed of the stream will have a uniform slope. If, on the
other hand, the deposits are made up of alternately hard
and soft layers, the stream crossing the edg of the hard
: and falling onto the more easily erded softer lay-
ers forms waterfalls.
High Falls, about nine miles south of Lake City, in
Columbia County, illustrates a stream which, originating
from a sink, has cut back a half mile or so through vari-
ous kinds of "' : .. and has developed a deep canyon in
which are found rapids, many small pot holes, and other
features more or less out of the ordinary for Florida
streams.
A second type of disappearing stream, or rather of a
stream having a different history, in that it becomes a
disappearing stream by accident, is illustrated by Falling
Creek, in Columbia County. stream flowed originally
into the Suwannee River. In the course of time, however,
a sink formed in or near its bed. The sink was of large
size and of considerable depth, and resulted in deflecting
the course of the stream. The time since the
of the sink and the deflection of the stream is measured
by the depth and the length of the canyon that has been
cut. The ": .strata of hard and soft rock at this
locality have resulted in the formation of a waterfall, and











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


a measurement of the average recession of this waterfall
obtained by observations running through a series of
years, would, perhaps, afford a basis for an approximate
estimate of the time which has since the form,
tion of the sink. At this waterfall was located at
the edge of the sink. by little the waterfall '
receded until it has reached its present position,
nearly a mile above the sink. The fact that Falling Creek
has a deeper and a longer canyon than has High 'Falls
does not necessarily indicate a greater age for Falling
Creek sink. The stream which enters Falling - was
an established stream carrying a regular supply of water
at the time the sink was formed, hence began the cutting
of the falls with full force at once. High .. on the
contrary, had to commence its "*. under very different
conditions. At the time of the formation of the sink there
was no ready established stream. On the .., the
stream itself had to be developed, and still carries much
less water than does Falling High Falls sink may,
therefore, be actually older, notwithstanding the shorter
canyon cut, than is Falling Creek sink.
The subsequent course of streams entering sinks is a
matter of conjecture, one of two I may prevail.
It is impossible that after entering the limestone the
stream is confined to a restricted channel, and hence
forms in a real sense an underground stream. This condi-
tion probably prevails in the vicinity of large springs or
other point of outlet for underground water. of the
streams, however, after passing below the ground water
level, probably lose their :" as streams and mingle
with the general supply of underground water.



Associated with sinks and disappearing streams are
solution basins. lThe basins, like the sinks, are due to the
more rapid solution of the rocks underlying one loo
than those of another. The is similar in either
case, the lowering of the basin being in fact attended by
the formation of sinks. The occurrence of many sinks











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


indicate a locality that is being carried down by solution
more rapidly than the surrounding area. This rapid sol-
tion oontinues until the basin is reduced almost or quite
to the underground water level.
Upon approaching the underground water level the rate
of solution is checked, owing to the fact that solution goes
on more rapidly above than below the water level. From
this time enlargement of the basin continues through for-
mation of sinks at the sides, the formation of each sink
enlarging the total area of the basin.
Basins of this type are very common in the State. When
dry they are known as "prairies"; when filled with water
they become lakes. Numerous illustrations may be found
in the interior of the I .. Prairie," at Gaines-
ville, together with surrounding small basins, . be men-
tioned as a typical example. This basin in the sutheast-
ern part of Alachua ...-' ,1 a "- -'- :. ': a section in which
underground solution has greatly reduced the original sur-
face level. At an earlier stage the drainage from this part
of the county passed off through Orange Lake and the
Oklawaha River to the St. Johns River, the tributaries of
the drainage '. taking their origin in what is now
the plateau region of northeast Alachua County. The
soluble '" .. Limestone underlying this section was
removed by solution more rapidly than the less soluble
rocks to the east, with the result that the basin has now
been lowered to a level of from 60 to 65 feet This is equal
to or below that of the former through
Lake. The drainage from ,this section now .. off
through Alachua If for any reason the flow of water
into the sink is checked, the - becomes a lake.
Under extremely heavy rainfall the lake would probably
rise to a level permitting through its former outlet.

AND .. .. T.
The work of underground water is not confined to solu-
tion. The mingling of water in the earth may be .
as a chemical experiment in which many ingredients are
' together. Under these chemical reae-
tions take place. In calcareous rocks solution











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY,


nates; but deposition and replacement also occur. Shells
and corals in the limestone, originally calcareous, have in
many instances become silicifled. This is invariably true
of the shells imbedded in the flint masses, indicating that
the flint itself has been deposited by underground water
since the formation of the limestone. Locally, the lime-
stone has become very compact and the destroyed,
a result also brought about by the underground water In
the case of the flint masses the process has been, appar-
ently, replacement of the calcium carbonate (Ca COa)
by silica (SiOQ) held in solution in the water.
these conditions the form a: d structure of the shells are
retained, although the substance of the shell is changed
from calcium carbonate to silica. A similar process ap
parently accounts for the formation of certain rock pho-
phates, calcium phosphate in this case replacing calcium
carbonate.
These changes due to the underground water ultimately
affect the topography. The flint masses resist erosion and
stand out as ridges while the limestone erodes in some
localities more rapidly than in others. The resulting
topography is characterized by the rounded hills and the
solution .- seen in much of central Florida.


5-GeoBull













DRAINAGE OF LAKES, PONDS AND SWAMP LANDS BY
DEEP WELLS.

The low elevation of the Florida peninsula, the result-
ing general flatness of the country, together with the
rolling topography, leads in many localities to
the formation of lakes, ponds, swamp and marsh lands.
The drainage of the ponds and marshes, and indeed even
of the lakes, becomes, under certain conditions, a matter
of the first importance to the healthfulness and develop-
ment of the locality. Not infreuently lands valuable for
cultivation are rendered untiailable by overflow during
the rainy season. Ponds are often unsightly and a menace
to health, while the lakes, ordinarily desirable, may, under
certain conditions,-require partial drainage to avoid over-
flow of the surrounding lands. of the ponds and
lakes lie in depressions below the general surface level,
rendering surface drainage impossible or impracticable.

S WLLS.

Ponds and lakes of this character are not infrequently
drained by sinks occurring in them. The existence of a sur-
face pond or lake is dependent upon the occurrence of a
relatively impervious sub-stratum which prevents the
downward percolation of the water. The sinks afford an
opening through the impervious stratum. The manner of
t~ formation of sinks has been already described. As
result of slow solution a cavity of considerable size is
formed in the underlying rock, the cavity gradually en-
larging until the overlying deposits break and cave sud
denly. When such a sink forms, the water rushes through
rapidly, enters the pervious rock below and is conducted
away !to join the underground supply. Illustrations of
drainage through sinks in this way may be taken from
almost any county of the interior of Florida. :
Prairie, or Alachua Lake, near Gainesville, and Lake
Jackson, near Tllahassee, will serve as illustrations of
large lakes drained in this way. Lake Jackson was thus
drained in 1907. This lake is of irregular shape and has











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


an area of several thousand acres. In April, 1907, a sink
formed near the southwestern side of the basin, rapidly
draining the lake. In June a second sink, formed to the
south of the old sink, carried off the water in a local de-
pression surrounding it. .: : and surface material were
carried into the sink, with the result that the underground
outlet was soon clogged, preventing further escape Seep
age from the sides, together with the rainfall of the fol-
lowing summer, converted the basin into a lake again.
SPrairie at Gainesville, has an area of 18 or 20
square miles. This section was visited by William, Bar-
tram in the summer of It was then known as the / 7
"Alachua avanna," and afforded pasturage to large
herds of horses and attle belonging to the Alachua tribe
of Indians. With regard to the sinks, Bartram says:
"We alighted in a pleasant vista, turning our horses to
graze while we amused ourselves with exploring the borders
of the Great Sink. In this place a group of roeky hils almost
surround a large basin, which is the general receptacle of the
water, draining from every part of the vat savanna, by lat
eral conduits, winding about, and one after another joining
the main creek or general conductor, which at length delivers
them into this sink; where they descend by slow degrees,
through rocky caverns, into the bowels of the earth, whence
they are carried by secret subterraneous channels into other
receptacles and basins."
i *
"There are three great doors or vent holes through the
rocks in the sink, two near the center and the other oe, near
the rim, much higher up than the other two, which was cena
spicuous through the clear water,
Although the two large sinks were in existence then as
now, the above description appears to refer more particu-
larly to the. Sink, the first approached by Bartram
When visited by James Pearc in 1824 this basin was still
a dry land area. Pearce says of it:2
"In a section of the hilly district of East Florida called
Alachua, I visited a sink filled with water, covering an acre
It is the outlet for a mill-strea that winds through a hand
some prairie, and plunging into the rocky basin take a sub-
terranean course."
'Bartram's Travels, L. C,, p. 208.
2 Am. Jour. Se., Vol. IX, 1825, p. 125.










9'WRIdA OEIOI~GICAL 5Ulf13t,


for nearly fifty years after Pearce's visit the prairie
was used for cattle grazig and to some extent fo farm-
Ang. About 1871,1 however, the sink became clogged. When
seen by Professor Eugee Smith in 1880, the basin was
filled with water, forming a lake. Smith ays of it ?
"A small creek flowed through this basin, disappearing
near its northern edge ito an underground chanel. During
the great storm of 1871 this outlet was closed and the
"prairie" has become a lake several miles wide and from
fifteen to twenty feet deep."
The body of water thus formed was known for many
years as Alachua Lake, and~e ported to have been navi-
S gable for small steamers. The lake continued until the
summer. of 1891, when it was gradually lowered and
drained through a sink. Since this time it hos, with the
exception of temporary overflows, continued as dry land.
Levels were made under the direction of the State Sur-
vey in October, 1907. The water level in the sink at that
time, was found to be feet above sea. The actual
level of the underground water above sea was then, as
shown by the water in the aineville city well, 50.66 feet
above sea. Te water of the prairie was thus lowered at
that tie practically t tthe underground water level. The
illustration give in plate VI (facing this page) is made
from a photograph taken at North Sink at low water stage
in 1891. The waterof the sink at the time the photograph
was taken in 1891, was several feet lower than when ex-
amined in 1907.
Bos' WTELLS.
A bord well in 'the bottom of a pond or lake serves as
n artificial opening through the impervious strata and is
ective for drainage purposes only when it reaches a
porous or cavernous stratum. Such artificial openings
conduct water in the same -nanner as a sink. It is not to
be assaed that every lake or basin within the : can
be drained- bored wells, or that this method of drain-
age is practicablefor all swap lands. It is ---.---- nee-
'The date of the clogging of the.sink is sometimes given as
1873. (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 84 p. 94.)
2Am. Jour. Sel., Vol. XX, 1881, p. 298.
















I O


WEEKIWACHEE SPRING, IN HERNANDO COUNTY.


ALACHUA SINK, LOW WATER STAGE, 1891.


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


BULLETIN NO. 1, PL. VI.











UND5RAOUND WATBR SUPPLY


esary to tate that this me~td of dranage can not be
applied in areas of artesian flow or other sections in
which the static head of the water is such as to bring it to
or above the surface level. Many of the basins of the
interior have been carried down nearly to or quite to the
underground water level. Under thee conditions, it is
obvious that they can not be drained by wells.
The possibility of drainage by wells is dependent, first
of all, upon the geological structure of the underlying for-
mation. If the water-conducting power of the formation
reached by the well is slight, a limit is thereby .
upon the effectiveness of the well. '- - the flow at thL
bottom of the well ie free and ready, the in-take of water
is necessarily limited. Many of. the wells entering the
limestone reach cavities or porous strata sufficiently open
to permit of very free movement of water in the rock,
either from or into the well. As a general statement, it
may be said that if the water level in a well is unaffected
by pumping it may be expected to carry water away rap-
and ., if a well carries away water read
ily it may be expected to supply large quantities to the
pump. The principle *.. is the same, namely, the
free movement of water in the underground formations.
free movement of the water at the bottom of
the well, the rapidity of in-take and hence the efficiency of
the well is influenced by (a) size of well; (b) construction
of well; (c) depth of water above the mouth of the pipe;
(d) distance from the top of the pipe to the underground
water level.
(a) The of a drain pipe increases rapidly
with increased diameter. The area of the section of the
pipe is proportionate to the square of the diameter. Thus
the area of the cross section of a 12-inch well is nine times
that of a 4-inch well. Moreover, for a given the
friction of movement is less in a large than in a small
pipq.
(b) The construction of a well also .... its rapidity
of in-take. When the pipe is cut off squarely at the top
according to the usual custom, the full capacity of the
well is not realized. The rapidity of in-take may be ap-










PLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


preciably increased by the use of a flared or bell-shaped
mouth at the top of the pipe.
(c) If the underground water level lies some distance
from the surface, and if there is free discharge at the bot-
tom of the well, siphonage or draft-tube action increases
the rate of flow. When the distance from the top of the
pipe to the underground water level is 33 feet or over, the
maximum possible draft-tube head of 32.8 feet may be
available.
(d) The influence of the depth of water above the
mouth of the pipe is as follows: .'. -. ." that there is
free discharge at the bottom of the well, the in-take at the
mouth of the pipe will be proportionate to the square root
of the depth of the water above the mouth of the pipe.

SB WaL AT' ORLANDO, FLORIDA.

The drainage of surface water through bored wells ha-
been used to great advantage by the citizens of Orlando,
Florida. A very considerable land area south and east
of Orlando, embracing possibly fourteen square miles, lies
in an irregular basin with many lakes, marshes, and
ponds. The overflow from this area originally drained to
and disappeared through a natural sink about'one mile
east of the city. This sink became clogged in April, 1904.
Unsuccessful efforts were made to re-open this sink, first
by removing hyacinths accumulated around the
and later by the use of dynamite. In the meantime, heavy
and continued rains formed a lake around the sink, over-
flowing the surrounding lands. In August, 1904, efforts
were made to dispose of the water through drainage wells.
The first well put down was a two-inch test well. The well
reached a porous stratum and was thought to '. the
expense of a larger and deeper well. Difficulty and delay
were experienced in the drilling, but by .' 1905, two
wells, one eight-inch and one twelve-inch, put down at the
side and near the original sink, had been completed. Two
other wells were started and abandoned owing to the difi-
culties in drilling. The two successful' wells were run-
ning at full capacity. It was thought probable that the
two wells already put down would prove sufficient. Heavy











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


rains followed, and by January, 1906, a considerable area,
including some cultivated ground, was flooded, practically
all county roads leading into Orlando were partly under
water and impassable. The colored settlement known as
Jonestown in the suburbs of Orlando was partly under
v.ater and uninhabitable; the water was approaching the
city of Orlando itself and the situation was becoming
alarming. Levels taken by the county authorities ndi-
cated that drainage through surface canals was impossi-
ble or impracticable. Two additional 'twelve-inch wells
were bored in November and December of 1906. The effect
of these was evident at once, the lake beginng to fall.
By February a third twelve-inch well had ben completed,
making in all one eight-inch well and four twelve-inch
wells running at this time. By the end of March the water
had returned practically to its normal level and has since
been kept under control.
Four of these drainage wells are located near the orig-
nal sink and have a uniform depth of 140 feet, a cavity
several feet in diameter having been reached at that depth.
The fifth well is located one-half mile wet of the sink, and
termites in a porous stratum at a depth of 340 fet.
The statement previously made regarding of
avoiding contamination of dreams entering sinks (p. 42)
applies with equal force to drainage well The drainage
from surrounding residences should not be permitted to
find its way to lakes and ponds thus drained.














DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE THROUGH BORED WELLS.

The question of disposal of sewage is at present sei
ously confronting some of the rapidly growing inland
towms of Florida. A difficult in the application of meth-
ods ordinarily in use arises from the prevailing general
flatness of the country, together with the almost, or
locally complete, absence of surface streams. This diff-
ulty is felt scarcely at all by the residents of the country
districts and of the small villages. The soil is prevail
ingly sandy and porous. Sewage in restricted quantities
is therefore very readily and purified. With the
increased growth of the village, however, there results a
time when the amount of sewage is so considerable that
a sewerage system becomes a necessity
The disposal of sewage through bored well has been
practiced to a limited extent at a few localities of inland
Florida for many years The wells in use receive usually
the drainage from private dwellings, or the combined
drainage from two or tx dwelling. Occasionally pul
lie buildings, as the court house, city hall, hospital and
hotels, are connected up with thee wells. With the rapid
growth of the inland towns during the past few yer, the
number of these private wes in the towns in which this
method is used, have been very greatly increase
The principles and conditions which permit of disposal
of sewage through bored wells are precisely those already
explained in connection with drainage well and natural
sink-holes. The sewage is conducted by means of the well
either to a cavity or to a porous stratum and is carried
away by the underground water circulation.
The depth of the wells intended for :. exceed
ngly variable, in this respect resembling the water wells
of the same locality. Practically without exception they
reach and enter the artesian water supply. Extreme range
in depth is from 35 to 500 feet. In size the wells may vary
from two to twelve inches. A cemented cesspool is usually
provided, which in the more carefully constructed wells
is divided into two divisions. The first division receives
the solids; the second is for liquids only, and is separated











UND RGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


from the first by a screen. The drainage wll leads from
the second division, the opening :. :: guarded by a
secren.
The question of possible contamination of the water
supply through sewage wells is worthy of careful consid-
cation. As previously stated, most of these wells peter
the limstone and depend for :' un reaching a
cavity or a porous layer in the limestone Water for
drinking, household, and general purposes is in some
cases taken from the same limestone formation. Both
sewage and water wells are of variable depth. It is the
custom in the construction of both water and sewage
wells, however, to case the well only t tthe limestone, or
to the first hard stratum in the limestone. Under these
conditions a well may receive water from any or all depths
below the termination of the casing. The limestone is
traversed by solution cavities, and is for the most part, of
porous texture, thus permitting circulation of under-
ground water. The belief is often expressed that the cavi-
ties entered by these wells represent moving un-
derground streams, and tha these quickly carry away any
and all refuse entering them. If this condition prevailed,
the case would be but slightly altered, since the rapid
removal of contaminated water from one locality would
merely endanger a neighboring locality that happened to
bh on the course of the steam The information obtained,
however, fails, as already stated (p. 34), to give evidence
of such rapidly moving streams. On the contrary, the
water apparently moves slowly through inter-connecting
solution and through the porous rock.
Regarding the inter-connection of solution in
the limestone, Mr. M. L. Fuller states that "The intimate
connection of the making to all practical pur-
poses a network, has been brugh out t several points in
this country by the experiments made for the United
States Geological by S. W. McCallie at Quitman,
Georgia; by E. H. Sellards at Ocala, Florida, and by G.
*Bulletin Geological Society of America. Vol. XVIII., page 22T,
'1907.











~LORI1A BIOLOGICAL suva.


. Matson at Georgetown, Kentucky, at each of which
localities salt i rted into sinks or brings fouden-
trance into wells some distance away. In none of the in-
stances, however, was the movement direct from the point
of insertion to the well, for the salinity, .:*.* of in-
creasing enormously, as it would have done if such had
been the case, showed only relatively moderate fluctua-
tions. The three limestone, although'of widely different
types, showed the same phenomena in each ease, suggest
ing that it is a normal characteristic of this class of
rocks."
In addition to -direct tests, it has been found that
in the Florida limestone the waer in the sewage wells
and that in the water wells of approximately equal depth
is under the same static head. This fact, while not oi
itself proving inter-connection, lends support to that con-
clusion.
The cesspools in use with most of the sewage wells serve
as septic tanks. The efficiency of the septic tank for re-
moving the greater part of the solids from sewage has
been abundantly demonstrated. It is also known that the
bacteria originally present in the sewage are also reduced
in number during the process of fermentation in the cess-
pool. It has not been shown, however, to what extent the
disease-producing bacteria, and particularly Bacilcus ty-
phoosC the germ of typhoid fever, is reduced in this pro-
cess. On this point Professor L. P. Kinnieutt, head of
the Department of Chemistry of the Worcester Polytech-
nic Institute, and Consulting Chemit of the Connecticut
Sewage Commission, stated that "very little work has
been done with reference to the effect of the septic tank
on bacterial life. The second report of the royal commit
sion on sewage .-: .... of Great Britain quotes experi-
ments made in Manchester, England, showing that the
coli commtnis diminishes during the septic
period, and the same effect must be felt by the similar and
more delicate bacteria such as that of typhoid fever. Simi-
lar results are shown at Leeds. The witness's opinion was
that the septic tank reduces the number of B. coli and the











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


more delicate pathogenic germs, and that the total num-
ber of bte is diminished by 10 or 15 per ent
In addition to the reduction of disease germs which
may be assumed to take place in the receiving chambers in
use in connection with most of the wage wells, it is
apparent that the quantity of water contained in the lime-
stone is large, and that the inter-eonnection between the
wells is indirect. The result is that polluted water intro-
duc3d through a sewage well is enormously diluted before
reaching a water well. One would : --:. --'- maintain,
however, that partial reduction of the number of disease
germs, together with great dilutin of . is a sufi-
cient guarantee against the transmission of disease.
The sewae system which seems to have met with most
success in the inland towns is partial removal of solids by
means of the septic tank with subsequent further purifi-
ation of the liquids by air and sunlight. This method of
ewage purification is being used by ake Oity in Colum-
bia County and by Gainesvile in Alachua County.

*Digest of the testimony taken in the ase of the State of Mis-
souri v. the State of linoe on Pollution of Illnois and Missl
ippli Rivers by Chicao Sewag Water Sup. Paper, U. Gel.
Sur. No. 194, p. 285, 1907.














WATER ANALYSES.


Water analyses are made for the purpose of determin-
ing either the mineral constituents or the sanitary quality
of a water, or both. A minral analysis differs from a
anitary analysis both in the objects sought and in the
methods employed. The merits of a water for use in
boilers, laundries, and for general commercial and house
hold purposes are determined by a mineral .. ." The
determination of the merits as well as the healthfulness
of a water for drinking purposes may require bth a
mineral and a ... -" analysis.
When a quantitative mineral analysis is made the
individual mineral constituents in solution in the water
are tested for and determined in the form of base and
acid elements. The results of the analysis are frequently
expressed by the in the form in which the ingr
dients are supposed to exist combined in the water. The
combinations thus expressed, however, are based upon
theoretical considerations chemists are of the
opinion that a more exact expression of results is secured
by listing eparately the ingredients determined, without
attempting to express their probable combination. Of the
analyses which follow, some, including those made
especially for the Survey work, are expressed according
to the ingredients determined. Those obtained from
various sources are published as given by the
several of which are recorded according to the probable
combinations of the ingredients.
The interpretation of a mineral analysis is an essen-
tially different matter from the interpretation of a sani-
'ary analysis. If the mineral : ... indicates a hig
proportion of calcium and magnesium salts, the water is
recognized as a "hard" water, or a water requiring much
soap to produce a lather, hence less satisfactory for
laundry and household purposes than a "soft" water.
Similarly the water may be found, on account of encrust-
ing, corroding, or other constituents present,
tory for boiler use, while a high percent e of iron renders
the water unfit for certain manufacturing : A











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


mineral analysis may also indicate the presence of con-
stituents either desirable or undesirable in a water intend-
ed for drinking purposes, and may have an indirect bear-
ing upon the q quality of the water. Thus, if con-
t]minatf n from human habitation is reaching a ...
chlorine will be found to be relatively high. A high per-
centage of chlorine, tihoever, does not necessarily imply
organic contamination, since chlorine may have been
taken in solution from the rocks through which the water
irculates, and hence not indicate contamination.
In making a saniary the chemist determines
the amount of organic matter present, the nitrates, the
nitrites, the albuminoid and free ammonia, the chlorine,
and usually th total solids. Other mineral constituents
may or may not be tested for. An estimate of the number
of bacteria present is also frequently made. The conclu-
sionss to the fitness of the water for drinking purposes
are arrived at by indirect methods. The ingredients deter-
mined are not of themlve harmful, but are significant
as suggesting the possible presence or absence of disease
germs. In a .:....".. ..... .:. the local conditions sur-
rounding the well or spring from which the water comes
are important factors in an interpretation of the results.
Te presence of organic matter, accompanied often by
ammonia, nitrates and nitrites, is ordinarily
3The number-of bacteria parent is of signiiane chiefly
from the fact that when non-dlisase producing bacteria
are numerous some of the disease producing forms are
likely also to occur.
The analyses which follow are -: mineral
andwere made for the purpose of determiingthe average
minerl character of the water of the different geological
formations of central Florida. A few of the
listed, however, include a determination of the nitrates,
nitrites, free and albuminoid ammonia while several
record the amount of organic and volatile matter pres-
ent in the water.












F. I)ID1 GrOLOGICAL SURVEY.


SPRINGS.

Boulware Spring, Gainesville, Alathua County, Fla
Analysis by H Herzog, Jr., 1898.*

Ingredients (according to probable combination) Parts per
million.
Calcium arbonate .............................. 4.81
Magnesium arbonate ........................... 21.44
Sulphuric acid ................................ none
Silica ......................................... 5.21
Alkaline chlorides (Chlorine 4.08) ............. 8.68
Alumina .................... ........ ...........3.71
Nitrates ..................................... trace
Nitrites ........................................ none
Free ammonia ................................ .043
Albuminoid ammonia .......................... .06
Oxygen required to oxidize organic matter...... 1.45
Organic matter ................................ 2.97

Total solids .................................. 76.80


Magnesia Spring, Hawthorne, Alachua County, Fla.
Analyis by W. Dickoie.*

Ingredien (according to probable combination) Parts per
million.
Calcium bicarbonate ........................... 110.1
Magnesium hirbonate ........................ .33,.
Sodium bicarbonate .... ................. .. 12.6
Silica ................................ ......... 7.7
Magnesium chloride ........................... 16.2
Sodium chloride .............................. 14.0
Potassium chloride .......................... .. .8
Lithium chloride .......................... trace
Ammonium ...................... .:....... tre
Phosphates and Sulphates ................... trace

195.0
Total solids .................................. 241.5
Organic matter and loss on ignition.............. 42.7

Inorganic nonvolatile .......................... 198.8

*As given in Water Supply Paper U. S. Gel. Sur. No. 102, 1904.












fLORIDA EOLOGiCAL SURVI .


Iron Spring, Hawthorne, Fla. by W. Dickoie.*

Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Solid matter ................................ 51.3
Organic matter and loss in ignition ............ trace
Inorganic non-volatile ........................ 51.2

"The iron was originally present as ferrous carbonate, which
oxydizes by exposure to air and drop s ferric hydrate. In the
solution are left traces of alumina ferrous oxide, potassaum, sodi-
urn, some calcium, magnesium as the predominant metal, and some
organic matter. The metals are in combination with chlorine and
carbonic acid. The reaction of the water sl slightly acid (from
carbonic acid), but after boiling turns alkaline, indicating the
presence of carbonate of an alkali (soda) an that calcium and
magnesium are partly present as bicarbonate which precipitate
. partly on boiling."

Sulphur Springs, Hawthorne, Fla. Analysis by W.
Iickoie.A

Ingredients Parts per mill.
Total solid matter .......................... 273.6
Organic matter and loss in ignition ....... .. 4

Total inorgani ............................ 252.

"The sulphuretted hydrogen. in same had already evap
orated. Reaction acid: turns alkaline after the fre carbonic
acid is driven out. Contain alkaline ear rates, alcium (pre-
dominant), magnesium (little), potassium, sodium traces r iron
and alumina. Some of the calcium is present as carbonate, some
as chloride or nitrate. The acids in combination with the metals
are carbonic, chlorine, nitric, sulphuric (trace) and sillicc."


Ford Spring, Melrose, Fla. Analysis by the State Chem-
ist of Florida 569), 1906.

Total solids 48 parts per million.
Composed of calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, and
sodium chloride.



*As given in Water Supply Paper U. S. Geol. Surv. No. 102,
p. 270, 1904.












72 PiODA l OI cAL sUR Y.

Ichatucknee Springs, Columbia Co. Analysis for State
Survey by the hemist, 1908.

Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcium oxide (CaO) ....................... 89.3
MagnEsium oxide (MgO) ....................... 9.7
Carbon te (CO ) ....................... 27.6
Bicarbonate (HCO) ...................... 420.9
Sulphate (SO1) ....................... 9.5
Chlorine ( 1C ) ....................... 5.8
Silica (SiO )) ....................... 5.0
Volatile matter ................................ 48.1

Total solids ................................. 211.8

White Sulphur Springs, Hamilton Co. Analysis by N.
A. Pratt.
Ingredients. Pats per
million.
Lime .................. ........................ 44.0
Magnesia ..................................... 8.51
Potash ....................................... 7.13
Soda ......................................... 18.20
Carbonic acid ................................ 44.18
Sulphuric acd ................................ 17.02
Chlorine .................................... 12.24
Phosphoric acid with oxide of iron .............. trace
Silicic acid (soluble)......................... 14.40
-rganic mat r ......... ..... .................... 21.32

Total solids .................................. 188.
Note.-In addition the water contains Free Gases, viz: Hy-
drogene sulphide, Carbonic acid, Oxygen, .
The constituents probably combined as follows:
Calcic carbonate or bicarb ..................... 80.50
Sodie carbonate ............................... 20.91
Magnesia sulphate ............................. 25.53
Potassic chloride .............................. 11.32
Sodic Chloride ................................ 11.23
Ferrous oxide (Phosphoric acid trace) .......... 1.40
Silicic acid (soluble) .......................... 14.40
Organic matter ............................... 21.32













UNDERGROUND WhATE SUPPLY.


Weekiwacheq Spring, He7nando Co. .'. by N. P.
Pratt. 1904.


Incrusting constituents.

Carbonate of lime ...........................
Carbonate of magesia ..........o...... .......
Sulphate of lime ...........................
Silica .......................................
Peroxide of iron and alumia................
Non-incrusting constituents.
Magnesium chloride ..........................
Magnesium sulphate ........................
Calcium chloride .............................
Sodium chloride ............................
Sodium sulphate ............. ............

Total solids by .., ..............


Blue Spring, Levy Co. Analysis for the State
the State Chemist, 1907.


Parts per
million.
119.78
12.07
4,65
6.77
trace

none
19.62
6.54
2.88
11.97

227.8


Ingredients.

Calcium oxide (CaO)..............
Magnesium oxide (MgO)..............
Sulphate (SO ) ..............
Chlorine (Cl )..............
Silica (SIOv) ..............

Total solids .. ........... ...

Blue Spring, Marion Co. fo
by the Chemist, 1908.


Ingredients.

Calcium oxide
oxide
Sulphate
Chlorine
Silica
Carbonate
Bicarbonate

Total solids
6GeoEul-1


(CaO ) .....
(M ) .....
(SOs ) ......
(Ce ) .....

(HCO) ......
(HCO,) ......


Parts per
million.
..... 49.0'
10.59
..... 64.40
..... 3507
..... 5.70

.... 196.80


r the State Survey


Parts per
million.
.... ............ 33.0
......... ........ 8.7
... ... ....... .. 9.0
................ 4.3
5.3

................. 115.9

. . . . 112.1













74 LORIDA EOALOGICAL SIURVC.

Salt or Perian Springs Marion Co. :-. for the
State by the State Ohe t. 1907.

Ingredients Part per
million.
caleum oxide (CaO ) ..................... 3200
Magnesium oxide (MO) ..................... 15.90
Sulphate (SO ) ..................... 295.50
Clorine (CI ) ................... 1928.48
Silica (SiOg ) :.................... 10.00

Total solids ................ .............. 4908.00

Salt or Perrian Spring. Sample No. 2. 1907.

Calcium oxide (CaO) ..................... 151.50
Magnesium oxide (MgO) .................. 193.30
Sulphate (SO ) ..................... 360.44
Chlorine (Cl ) ..................... 1238.97
Silica (SiOs) .... .......... 30.00

Total solids ............. ............... 5322.70

Salt or Perrian Spring. Sample No. 3. Analysis by A.
W. Blair. 1901.

Hardness ........ ........................... 1491.24
Nitrates .................. .. .............. none
Nitrites ............... .............. ......... none
Chlorine .............. ........ ............... 2840.
Free ammonia .................................. .0000
Albuminold ammonia ........................ .265

Total solids ............................ 6073.

Silver Springs, Marion Co:. mae by the U. B.
Geological Survey. 1907.

Ingredients. Part per
million.
Calcium ................. ...................... ..
Magnesium .................................... 9.2
Sodium and potassium ........................ 9.8
Iron and alumina ............................. trace
Carbonate ...................................... 0.0
Bicarbonate ................................... 219.













UNDSROUND Wr ThR UpFLYi,


Sulphate .............. ... .. : ................. 44.
Chlorine ........ ...................... 7.7
Nitrate ....... ................................. 0.20
Phosphate (POa ) ........................... trace
Silica (SiO ) ............................ 18.

Total solids .................................. 274.

Newland Springs, Suwanne Co. Analysis for the State
Survey by the State Chemist. 1908.


Ingredients.

Calcium oxide
Magensium
Carbonate
Bicarbonate
Sulphate
Chlorine
Silica
Volatile matter


Parts per
million.
(CaO) ....................... 90
(MgO) ....................... 19.0
(CO, ) ......... .............. 22.8
: . ............ ........ . 284.8
(SOs ) ....................... 12.8
(CI ) ....................... 2.9
(SiO0) ....................... 27.5
........... . .. ....... 34.5


Total solids .... ........................... 233,5

Suwannee Sulphur Springs, -Suwannee Co.
made by C. H. Chandler, and C. E. Pellew. 1893.

Ingredients (according t? probable ombia tion~ ) Parts er
million.
Bicarbonate of lime ................... ...... 18.91
Bicarbonate of magnesia ....................... 9.70
Bicarbonate soda ......................... 16.47
Sulphate of lime ............................. 80.46
Sulphate of pota ........................ 1J.33
Chloride of sodium ........................... 10.62
Oxide of iron and alumina .................... .
Silica ........................................ 79
Organic and volatile matter................... 87.49

Total solid matter.... ...................... 370.3.











76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURiET.



Alachua Ice and Water Co., Alachua, Alachua Co.
Depth 216 feet; use, ice manufacture. Analysis by tate
Chemist. (M 436, 1905.) Record p. 88, No. 1.
Total solids 320 parts per million, consisting of carbonate of
lime, silphate of magnesia and sodium chloride.

City Well, .. Alachua Co. Depth 194 feet;
use, city water supply. .. ..: for State Survey by
tate Chemist. Record p. 88, 1908.

Ingredients. Part per
million.
Calcium oxide (CaO) ....................... 49.8
Magnesium oxide (MgO) .............. ........ 5.3
Sulphate (SO ) ....................... 5.5
Chlorine (Cl ) ............ .......... 610.
Carbonate (CO,) ............. .......... 7.2
Bicarbonate (HCO) .......... ....... ...... 255.5
Silica (SiO2 ) ....................... 3.8
Volatile matter ............... ........... 24.3

Total solids ................. ........ ... 139.6

Diamond Ice o., Gaineville, Co. Depth 316
eet; use,, ice manufacture. ' by U. 8.
Survey. Record p. 88, 5. 1908.

Ingredients. Parts per
million.
Calcim. (Ca.) .......... .. ....... 52.
Magnesium (Mg) ............................ 11.
Sodium and Potassium (Na K)... ............ 11.
Iron and Alumina (Fe Al) ...... ......... 0.02
(CO) ............... ............ 0.00
Bicarbonate (HCO,) ................... .... 210.
Sulphate (SOC ) .......... .... ...... 8.1
Chlorne- ( l ) ............................. 8.3
Nitrate (NO,) ............................. 2.2
S (P04) ............................ trace
Silica (SiO ) ............ ............ 17.
Total solids .............. ......... ..... 212.













UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


B. F. Williamson, Gainesville. Depth 276 feet; Us,
manufacture. Analysis by H. Herzog, Jr. Record p. 88,
No. 7.


Parts per
million.


Calcium oxide (CaO) (Calcic carbonate 16.05)..
Magnesium oxide (MgO) (Magnic carb. 74.46)..
Iron and alumina oxides (FeA) ............
Sodium oxide (Na) (Alkalies) .................
Chlorine (Cl) (Na Ci 979) ......... ............
Silica (SiO5) ...................... ...........
Sulphuric anhydride (Calcic sulp. 19.23)........
Hydrogen sulphide (HiS) .................
Organic matter (loss in ignition except CO;)....
Mineral matter ............ .. ....... .. .


Total solids


.78.61
35.62
1.70
3.86
5.93
31.90
11.31
1.72
28.00
168.93

306.00


Well, Lake City.
made by the U.
ord p. 88, No. 24,

Ingredients.


Depth 400 feet; use, city well.
S. Geologica' Survey, 1907. Ree


Parts per
million.


Calcium (Ca) .. ...... .......... .
Magnesium (Mg) ...........
Sodium and Potassium (Na K)..................
Iron and alumina (FeAl)...................
arbonate (rO ) ...... .... ..............
Bicarbonate (HCO) ............................
Sulphate (SO ) ..............................
Chlorine (Cl ) ..... ...........
Nitrate (NO) ..............
Silica (SiO ) .... ...........

Total solids .....


47.


14.


0.00
11.
215.
10.


Old Well, Lake City. Depth 400 feet; use, formerly
oed for city supply. Analysis made by the State (hemiist


d M. 417,


. Record p. 88, No. 25.


Total solids 200 parts per million, consisting of carbonate of
lime, sulphate of magnesia, chloride of sodium and silica.


Ingredients.












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


Pearson Oil Well, Crystal River, Citrus Co. Depth -
ted about 19( feet. Analysis made for State Survey
by State Chemist 1907. Record p. 88, No. 11.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Calcium oxide (Ca) ...................... 1885.0
Magnesium oide (MgO) ...................... 4806
Sulphate (S ) ....................... 2 84.0
Chlorine (C ) ...................... 903.9
Silica (SiOd) ....................... 30.0
Total solids ................................. 6474.0

Hoopes Brothers and DarlingtonI Brooksville, Her-
nando Co. Depth 226 feet. Use, sawmill purposes. Analysis
made by State Chemist, 1907. Record p. 90, No. 42.
Tptal solids 278 parts per million, consisting of calee carbon-
ate, sdium chloride, and magnesium sulphate, set down according
t the relative preponderanuco No organic matter present

A. A. Thompson, Astor, Lake Co. Depth 82 feet; use,
hotel purposes. ." for the State Survey by the
State 1907. Record p. 90, No. 51.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Calcium oxide (CaO) ......................... 28.0
Magnesium oxide (gO) ........................ 89.6
Sulphate (SO ) ........................ 107.5
Chlorine (C ) ........................ 801.9
Silica (SIOt) ....................... 11.0
Tortal solids ...... ..... ............. .. ... 1938.0

)ibble and Earnest, Eustis, Lake Co. Depth 173 feet.
Use, domestic purposes. Analysis for the State Survey
by the State Chemist, 1907. Record p. :, No. 52.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Calcium oxide (Ca)........................ 82.
Magnesium oide (MgO) .................... 6.88
Sulphate ( .SO ) ......... ............. 11,52
Chlorine (Cl ) ....................... 7.00
Ferric oxide (FeO,) ...................... 0.30
Silica (SOi a) ....................... 19.00
Volatile matter .... ......... .. ............. 9.00
Total solids .................................. 123.00











UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY


Leesburg Ice Co., Lebrg. Depth 98 feet; use, city
supply Analysis made by Fidelity & Casualty Co., N. Y.
cord p. 90, No. 56.

Ingrediente. Parts per mill.
Carbonate of lime ..................... ........ 85.91
Sulphate of lime................ ......... ... trace
Sodium and otassium suphate...... .......... trace
Nitrate of lime ..................... ........... 5.62
Sodium and Potassum chlorides ................ 34.97
Oxide of aluminum and iron ................... 3.18
Total encrusting slids ......................... 129,02
Total non-enrusting solids .................... 1.17


Total solids


170.20


Otter reek Lumber Co., Otter Creek, Levy Co. Depth
85 feet; use, awmill purposes. A:.- .by I. Herzog,
Jr., 190. Record p. 92, No. 71.

Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Carbonate of lime ......... .................. 237.95
Carbonate of magnesium ..................... 6.8
Chlorine ......... ................ ........... .00
Ferric oxide ............. .. ............... 7.88
Alumina ....................... ............. 1.88
Silica ....................................... .00
Organic matter ............ .. ........... 37.88
Mineral matter ........... ................ 281.15


Total solids


319.21


Williston Mfg. Co., Williston, Levy Co. Depth 60 feet;
use, ice manufacture. Analysis by Iroquois Co. T. L.
Crowbaugh, Chemist, 1907. Record'p. 92, No. 12.

Ingredients. Parts per mill
Carbonate and sulphate of lime ............ 123.43
M agte ia ................................... 51.43
Sulphuric acid .............................. 152.58
Chlorine ........... ......................... 36.00
Oxide of iron and alumina ................. ome
Silica ..................................... not detrm ined


Total so


lids ............................ 534.88












80 1RIDA GEOLOGICAL SRVEY.

S. H. Gaitskill, Mentosh, Marion Co. Depth 54 feet;
use, general purposes. Analysis by State Chemist,
(M 1006, 1908.) Record p. 92, No. 77.
Total solids 145 parts per million, consisting of sdium chlo-
ride, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulphte. Orgnic matter,
slight.

Ocala Water Co., Ocala, Marion Co. Depth 1250 feet;
ue, "supply. Analysis U. S. Geological Survey, 1907.
Record p. 92, No. 79.


Ingredients. Parts
Calcium (Ca) ......... ..... ...... .
Magnesium (Mg) ............. .......
Sodium and Potassium (Na K)..................
Iron (Fe) ............... ... ......... .
Carbonate (CO ) .......... ....
Bicarbonate (HCO,) ............................
Sulphate (S ) ..................
Chlorine ( 1 ) ................
Nitrate (NO ) ..............................
Phosphate (P ) .... ....
Silica ( iO ) ........... . ...........
Total solids ................... ..............


per mill.
151.
25.


0.22
trace
21.

659.


Ocala Water Co., Ocala, Marion Co. Depth 190 feet;
use, city reserve supply. Analysis for State Survey by
State Chemist. Record p. 92, No. 78.
Ingredients.. Parts per mill.
Magnesium oxide (CaI) ..................... 171.00
Sulphate ( .gO) ...................... 37.33
Chlorine (SO) ....... ............. 179.40
Ferric oxide (C ) ....................... 19.85
Volatile matter (Fe0O5) ................... absent
Alumina oxide (A'r00) ............... 12.00
Silica (Sio ) .................... 66.00
Non-Volatile matter ........................ 584.00


Total solids


652.00












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


Public Well, Dade :: Paso Co. Depth 53 feet; use,
public, A by A. W. Blair. 1900. Record p. 92,
No. 83.
Ingredients. Parts per mill.
Hardness ................................ 98.28
Chlorine ..................... .......... 12.00
Nitrogen as nitrates ...................... .. 1.44
Nitrogen as nitrites ........... ................ none
Free ammonia .............................. .000
Albuminoid ammonia .......................... .015


Total solids ..


Muller and Zinsser, Dade City, Pasco Co. .. 45
feet; use, ice manufacture. Analysis by U. S. Geological
.Record p. 92, No. 84.


Ingredients.


Parts per
million.


Calcium (Ca) ............................... 58.
Magnesium (Mg) ................................ 4.2
Sodium and Potassium (Na. K) ................. 9.1
Iron and alumina (Fe Al).................... trace
Carbonate (CO,) ............................... 0.0
Bicarbonate (HCO,) ........................ 191.
Sulphate (S04) .............. ... ..... ........ 2.2
Chlorine (Cl ) ..................... ......... 13.
* N itrate . ............... ............ 0.55
Phosphate (PO) ............................. trace
Silica ( IO ) ........................ .... 20.


Total solids ................................... 204.

Atlantic Coast Line R. R., Trilby, Pasco Co Depth 31
feet; use, boiler purposes. Analysis by UT. Geological
Survey, 1907. Record p. 92, No. 93.


Ingredients.


Parts per
million.


Calcium (Ca) ............................ 39.
Magnesium (Mg) .............................. 1.2
Sodium and Potassium (Na K) .................... 6.6
Iron and alumina (F Al) ................... 0.49
Carbonate (CO,) ............................. 0.0
Bicarbonate (HCO,) ............................ 113.


i












FRLOIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


Sulphate (SO,) ............................... 2.8
Chlorine (Cl ) ............................... .4
Nitrate (NO',) ............................... 1.6
Phosphate (POI) ............................. 2.0
Silica (SiO ) .............................. 16.

Total solids ................................... 136.


Oity Well, Live Oak,
ue, city wa er supply
Survey, 1907. Record p.
Ingredients.


Calcium (Ca) ................................
Magnesium (Mg) ................................
Sodium and Potassium (Na K)....................
Iron and alumina (Fe Al)....................
C rbonate (CO, ) ...............................
B carbonate (HCO,) .............................


Suwannee Co. Depth 1080 feet;
Analysis. by the U. 8. Geological
94, No. 107.
Parts per
million.


68.
5.7
7.2
0.04
0.00
224.


GO lphate (SO ) ............................... 8.9
Chlorine (Cl ) ............................... 8.9
Nitrate (NOV) ............................... 0.6
Silica (Si0i) ............ ................. 17.

Total solids .............. ................ 219.

R. L. Dowling, Live Oak, Suwannee Co. Dept 200 feet;
use, formerly used for saw il purposes taken
from : : ppy Paper U. eol. ur. No. 102. Ana-
lyst not given record p. 94, No. 108.

SIngredients Part per
million.
Calcium carbonate ............................ 163.2
Lime, calecim sulphate. ........................... 25. .
Magneksiu carbonate ........................... 14.9
Na. & Potass. sulphaes ............. ......... trace
Na. & Potas chlorides ....................... 17.2
Iron & Aluminum ........................ 2.5
Silica ................. ....................... 12.9
Total solids ..... ............................ 237.2












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.

WATER SUPPLY TABLES.

WAT REsouaR ES
ALACHUA COUNTY.


S feet.


Alachua ..... ..
Archer l....... killing
Arredonda .... Level .
lark ........ Rolling
Dutto ....... Rolling
vinston .....Hilly
Gainesville
Hague ......
Hawthorn ..
High Springs.. Rolling
Island 1 ::-
Micanopy .....Rolling
Newberry ....Rolling
Rochelle ...... Level .
SWaldo ... .


Crystal River.. R
Floral City..
Hernando ..
Holder ..... :
Invernes .
Lcanto .....


SWells ..
Wells
e. lls
.. Wells
W.. '.

.. Wells
Wells
Wells ..
Wells
Wells


.... .Limestone
Som claysmestone
Some clays limestone
.. Some clays mestone.
.Somea cy Limestone
SSome clays Lmeston

lays. ... .:. ...
Clays
Clays ...
SSome
Some clays Limestons
Clays


216

125


126
347





151


wells .... I 123
Wells .... Sandy
Wells .... Clays .... Limestone 55


CITRUS COUNTY.
rolling .. Wells ....Some clay limestone
rolling ... Wells .... Some clays Limestone
... Wells .... Some claysimestone
Wells .... Some lay Limestone
.. Clays .... estne
..: ..... iClays ...


C(OLUMBIA COTUTY.
WClays or
t. White ....Rolling,. Wells ... estne Limestone;
Lake City ... Level..... Wells .... .... Limestone 400
Watertown ... Level..... Wells .... Clays .... Limestone
Winfeld .....Level... Wells ...Clays ....Limestone 121
HAMILTON COUNTY.


Jasper ......
Jennings ..
West Lake...


. hollii


S.. Wells .... Sandy clay Limestone
.. Wells .... om lays Limestone
ig... Wells .... lays .... Limestone
rWls ln d


Whi.. s .. .. Limestone 236
1 " spring ...
*The principal water-bearing beds believed to occur but not
actually reached by wells ar placed i italics.













FIW4BIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


WAtEa R souRes-.'

HERNANDO COUNTY.

TOopographic Principal Burface
TOWN. location, source water formation.

Brooksvlle... Hilly..... Wells ...Clays ...
Room ....... Rolling... Wells .... |Some Cla
LAKE COUNTY.


DIepth
Principall deep'st
water bed. well
(feet).
Limestone 226
Limestone 70


Altoona....... Level..... Wells
Astor ......... Level..... Wells
Eustis ........ Rolling... Wells
Grand Island. Wells
Leesburg...... Rolling... Wells
Mount Dora... Hilly....Wells
Okabumpka... Rolling... Wells
Sorrento...... Rolling... Wells
Tavares....... Level..... Wells
Umatilla ...... Rolling.. Wells


.... Clsys....
.... Clays....


...Clays...... .
..Clays..... Limestone
Limestone
.... Limestone
C. lays ... Limestone
..lays..... imetone
Clays.... Limestone
..Clays.... Limestone


LEVY COUNTY.


Albion........ !Rolling. Wells ....
Bronson...... .Level..... Wells ....
Cedar Key ... lly..... Wells ....
Ellzey . .. Level ... Wells
Judson........ Rolling... Wells
Levyville ..... L.vel..... Wells..
Otter Creek... Level.. ....
Williston...... Rolling.. ,


Anthony ....
Belleview....
Boardman...
Calvary....
Citra........
Dunnellon...
Early Bird..
Eureka......
Ft. McCoy...
Juliette....
Martel......


Some clays Limestone
Clays..... Limestone


Clays.....
Some clays
Some clays
Clays ....
Some clay:


Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
Limestone


MARION COUNTY.
. Rolling..
. Rolling... Wells .... Clays..... Lmestone
.. Wells .... Clays..... Limestone
.. Rolling... Wells .... Clays..... Limestone
SRolling... Wells.... .... Limestone
.. Level..... Wells.... Limestone Limestone
. Ro-ing... Wells......Some clays Limestone
. .iL~vel..... W ells ....
.Rolling... Wells .....Clays.....
l Rolling... wedi .A .._ ..
.. W ells .... .... ..


*The principal water-bearing beds believed to occur but ndt
actually reached by wells are plIaed in italics.


726
72


. jl


..
. .
. .


.. .












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


GENERAL ATE~ R : .


MARION COUNTY


Ocala........ Rolling..
Orange Spring. Level....
Reddick...... Rolling..
Rock Springs.. Rolling..
Silver Spring Level....
Sparr........ Rolling..


. Wells....
. Wells....,
- Wells....
. Wells....

. Wells....,
. Wells....


Clays..... Limestone 1250
LinLestone
Clays..... Limestone
Some . .. 78
SLimestone. 507
. Some clay, Limestone 132


PASCO COUNTY.
Dade City.... -- ... ..... one
Hudson....... Lvel..... Wells..... Clays..... Limestone
Lacoochee ..... Rolling... Weis ..... Some clays Limestone
Pasco ........ Rolling... Wells.... Some clays Limestone
Richland ...... Wells.... clays Limestone
San Antonio... Hilly..... ells Limeston
St. Leo...... ..... ells ..... Cays ..... Limestone
Trilby........ Level ..... Wells..... Clays..... Limestone
SUMMER COUNTY.


Center Hill.. Rolling..
Coleman...... Rolling..
..... Rolling..
ranasoffkee ... Level....
Sumtervllle... Rolling..
Webster ..... bevel....
Wildwood..... L vel....


Wells.
v ells.
Wells.

Wells.
Wells.
Wells.


. ...Some
Some
.... Some clays Limestone
.... Some clays fimnstone
.... Some ......
... Some clayslLimestone
.... Some clays! Lmestone


SUWANNEE COUNTY.
Branford..... Rolling... ne
Dowling Park. Rolling... Wells. .... Limestone
Falmouth ..... Rolling.. Wells .. .... Limestone
Live Oak..... .. Wells... Clays.. Limestone
Luraville ..... We .... Clays .... Limestone
O'Brien....... :Rolling... Wells.... Clays ..... Limestone
Pinemount.... Rolling... Wells.... Clays... Limestone
Suwannee..... Rolling... Wells.... Clays.... Limestone
Welborn ...... Rolling... Wells .. ... Limestone


110






60
Ito
100
96
1080
106

108

63


The principal water-bearing beds believed to occur but not
actually reached by wells are placed in Italics.














SFLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


SPRINGS


Gainestvlle. .
Hawthorn...
High Sp'gs...
Melrose.....
Crystal vr..
Homosassa ,,
Ft. White...
WRite Sp'gs,
Bay Port....


Bay Port....
lOkahumpka.
Sorrento ....
Bronson.....
Otter Creek.
Otter Creek.
Levyville ....
Jullette......
Norwalk.....
Silver Spring
Sumtr llle..
Suwannee.. .
Falmouth....


2 mtse,
4 mL aw.
3 mi. w..
Smi. se..
mi ...
7 mi. a...
SmiL nw.
Near....
8 mi. se..
2 m. ne.
Smi. n..
2m m. ne
3j ml. w.

10 mi e..
12 mi. w
Near ....
3 mi. w..
Near....
mi. n..
1 mi. ne.
Near,...


Bouwre ......... 175 andy ..
agnes .... 2,0 Sw py........
Poe ........... 44,76 Hammo ......
Ford p ........ ...... Low h
Crystal lRer..... 210,0000 Swampy......
Cheehous a ..... .... .. .. ..... .......

Ichatucknee...... 180,000 Hamm ......
White Sul. Sp... 32,400 Bank f rivr..
Weekiwachee Spg l100,000 Sandy scrub.....
Sulphur........... ...... Swampy.........
Bug........ ...... 1,00 Sand .........
Sem ole .......... 5,2001Snd ..........
Blue............... 25,000 Swampy bayhea
Wekiva........... 5,395 Pine woo t.....
Sulphur.......... ,000 Swapy........
Manatee.......... ...... Rolling ..........
|Blue.............. 349,166 Rolli.g. ..R......
Salt.............. .. 84,000 Rolling..........
silver prng...... 68,913 vl..........
Branch Mill Spg... 21,759 Rolling, roet...
lawanKee Sulphur 19,747 Rollanghammoek
Newland ......... 75,000 Rolln. .........


County.


Alachua..
Alachua..
Alachus.a.
llachtus. .
Citrus ....
Citrus. ...
Columbia.
Hamilton.
Hernando
Hernando,
Lake. ...
Iake,.....
Levy....
Levy .....

Levy.....
Marion...
Marion...
Marion...
Sumter..
Suw fnnee
Suwannee


The measurement of flow of Iehtucknee, Silver, Blus, ud
recorded In Water Supply Papers 8. Geool Survey No 102 An
mated by B. F. Miller. The flow of the remaining springs Is e


_












UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


SPRINGS.


Use of Spring. Owner of Spring. Crater of

City supply City............... Partly soft....
lDlnking... C. Brown ........ Some sulphur.

Drinking . . . . . . . . Some sulphur.
Ice mg.. .. Navigable water... Hard, clear...
N ot used ...................... .. ": cl r
Not used. . . . .. . . .. . . . Hard clear.
ot nsped....................... Hard, clear.
Resort .... M. M. Jacson...... Sulphur......
Not used.. Wilder & McClure. Hard, clear..
Not used.. V. Varn.......... .......


Nature of Stream.

Enters branch, I
Small.
Flows into Santa Pe.
Flows into Meilrose ake
Head of Crystal River
Head of Chesehoulska IlV
Head Ichatucknee River
S. Suwannee River.
Hed Weekiwachee River


Not used... .................. clear .. .. ... ... .... ... .....e
Not used.. Wilson Cypress Co.. Patly hard... Stream t Lake Harrs.
Nt used... W. I Colter ...... Hard, clear... Small stream.
Not used.. W. R. Colter....... Hard, lear... H Wekiva Rver.
Not used.. Cummer Lbr. Co.... ulphur...... str
Not used. ............... rd, clear... nter wannee r.
No ed .. .................. r cle... Head Wki Creek
Reort .... W. C. Townsend .... ~tneL......ke George
Resort ... Hrd, clear.. Head Silver Springs R.
ill dam D. Belton ....... Hard, clear... Small trem.
R1esort..... Suw ee Spgs. Co. Sulphur....... .nter. Suwa e Ri
Not used... Davi.............. Hard, clear.

Suwannee Sulphur Springs were de by M. R. Hall, and are
No. 204. The flow of Boulware .... at Gainesville was esti-
upon estimates made by the State Survey.













FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.


ALACHUA


earnest Town Direction
or Pe o. and Owner of Well Driller.
Distance.

Alachua ..... ml .... lachua Ice Co... W. F. Hamilton....
Alachua ..... j m. s.... F. E. William ...... W. Young.......
Archer...... Near..... S. A L............ Hancock..........
Clyatt ..... ........ F. H. Clyatt........ .: D. Lewis........
Gaineville... 2 mi. se.. ................ J. D Allen..........
Gainevlle blks. Ice Co..... W. F. Hamilton....
Gaineaville.. mi.n.... B. F. Williamson..,. J. D. Allen.........
Micanopy.... 4 mi. n... C E. Melton....... Dibble & Earnest..
Newberry.... Near... D M .......... G. W. Livlngston...
Rochelle ..... Near ..... C. L. ...... ...... .....

CITRUS


11 Crystal River. 2 mi. n... Pearson Oil Co......
12 Floral City... 1 mi. w... Bradley Phos. Co....
13 Floral City .. li mi. w.. Phos Cos...
14 Floral City .. m. ne.. D. A. Tooke .......
15 Hernando.... mi . Dunnellon Phos.Co...
16 Hernando.... 1 mi. w.. Dutton Phos. Co....
17 Holder...... mi. ne. Buttgnbh P. Co...
18 Holder...... mi. e... . P. Co...


19 Inverness.... It ml. w..
20 Lecanto...... 1 mi. n....


21 ...
22 Brown.......
23 Ft. White....
24 Lake City....
25 Lake City...
26 Lake City..
27 Lake City....
28 Winfleld.....
29 Winfleld.....
30 Winfleld.....


Near.....

m mi. n...
Near.....
2 mi. w...
10 mi. a...
2 mi. s..

2 mi. w..


A. C. Johnson......
A. C. Johnson.......
D. A. Tooke ........
Mcver McKay....
J. O. Edaon..........
J. O. Edon.........
J. O. Edson........


Mutual Min. Co..... J. O. Edon ....... .
W. A. Allen......... Owner.............

COLUMBIA
C. M. Ray ........
W. H. Allen........ C M. MRay.........
M. Parsonage..... C. M, Ray ..........
City .............- W. F. Hamilton ...
City................ ...
J. A. Coombs....... C. M. Ray.........
H. W. Lamb......... C. M. Ray.........
J. L. Roberts....... E. H. clvane......
D. G. Rivers ....... C. M. Ray........
Church ..... C. M. Ray.........


HAMILTON
.... 1 ml i. ..Frank Bamberg...
S .... mi: w:. Jim Bird.........
33 Jasper....... Near..... City Power Co....


R F.F Conine......
. F. Conine......
Hugh Partridge....










UND~ E OUND WATER SUPPLY.


COUNTY.


80 40
LOO- 82
82- 31.32
L76 121
180 -128
. .. 38
76- 40
80 10


Flows....
- 35
- 40
- 36
- 50
- 35
- 45
- 54
47
- 89


Use of Well


Ice mfg........
Household....
General.........
Irrigation......
City supply.....
Ice mfg........
Mfg. supply.....
Saw mill.......
Household.....
Boiler use......


Mineral an
Character N o.
of Water. -


.Hard ......
SHard ....
. ard .....
. Hard ......
. Hard ...
. Hard ....
. Hard ......
SHard .....

SHard .. ...
. Hard ......


COUNTY.
781 11
Phosphate mining Hard sulph'r 121
Driflking Hard ...... 13
General ....... Hard ...... 1
Phosphate mining Hard ...... 15
Phosphate mining Hard sulph'r 16
Phosphate mining Hard ...... 17.
Phosphate mining Hard ...... 18
Phosphate minlnk Hard .... 19
Household....... Hard ...... 20


COUNTY.


.... 1881-
51 1061- 55
2 .... 61
100 200 -134
.... .... -120
122 .... -11
134 .... -128
115 115 70
.... 126- 60
80 .... 85


General........ Hard
Household....... Hard
City supply ...... Hard
City supply...... Hard
General ......... Hard
General......... Hard
General.......... Hald
General.......... Hard
General.......... Hard


sulph'r1 77
77i
...... 77
...... i


COUNTY.
lousehold....... Hard ......
Household....... Hard .....
City supply...... Sulphur ..


104 2 . . .
4501 8 .... I.
7GeolBul-1


216 6 ....
60 2 ....
61 2 ....
62 3 ....
194 12 ....
316 8 160
276 8 150
151 6 110
113 2 ....
225 6 ...


50 ....
126 ....
73 ....
70 70
.... 65
42 ....


1900 ...
140 8
130 2
73 2
152 12
142 10
100 12
12
10
2


75 2
62 2
68 2
400 10
400 ...
122 2
: 2
2
108 2
92 2


) I










PRLOIDA GBOIOICAl SUR W.


HAMIIUON


Nearest Town Direction
No. or P. 0 and Owner of Well.
Distance.

34 i ...... S. Hall .... ........
35 White Springs Near ..... Dr. B F. Camp ....
36 WhiteSprings 1 mi. .... .. .. Lbr. o........
N. Adams...........
38 WhiteSpring mi. n.. G. Mobley........
9 Whiteprng Near ..... Morgan.......
40 White spring mi. s... W. B. Telford .......

HERNANDO


41 Brooksville. m. s...
42 Brooksville.. i mi. s..,
43 Brooksville.. 4 m. n..
44 Brookaville.. 4 mi. n..
45 Brooksville.. I mi. e..
46 Brooksville.. 2 mi. e..
47 Brooksville.. 2-5 ml. e.
48 Croom....... Near....
49 Istachatta... 13 mi. w..
50 Rural........


Driller.


Henry Rateliff......

Owner.............
C. M. Ray.........
C. T. Lowe.........
C. T Lowe.....
E. H. Mcllvane.....


Brooks. Ice Co...... J. D. Allen..........
. Hoopes Bros. & Dar.. J. D. Allen.......
W. A. Fulton....... J. D. Alien.........
W. A. Fulton....... J. D. Alien..........
Mercer-Muller Lbr. ( J. D, Allen..........
SPole & Tie Co....... J. D. Allen..........
SL. B. Varn......... J. D. Allen..........
A C. L......... .... J. D. Alien ....
SW. A. Fulton....... J. Allen.........
J. J. MDonough... J. D Allen.........

LAKE


51 Astor........ lNear..... |A .. S. H.
52 Eusti ....... :s. se.. Dibble & Earnet ... Dbble & Earnest...
53 Grand Island ....... Fla. Fertilizer Co..... Dibble & Earnest...
'54 Lesburg.... Near..... City .... ....... Padgett.........
.55 Leesburg..... 2 ml. w... J. T. Egbert. ..... John Heaton........
S .... mi. s.... Leesburg e Co...... John Heaton........
57 Mt. Dora.... I ml. nw. S. M. Weld .......... Dibble& Earnest ...
58 Sorrento ..... 1 mi. se. L. B. Jones......... Owner ........... .
59 Tavares...... mi. e... Oseceola Hotel....... Sears ..............
60 Whitney..... I mi. w... Z. Spinks. ......... J. Heaton...........

LBVY
61 Albion....... J. Medlin........... Jas. Hancock......
62 Cedar Key... Near..... Cedar Key Town Co.. Owner...........
63 Double Sink. ear .... Public School....... James Hancock....
...... mi. n.... T. W Shand & Co... James Hancock....
65ILebanon ..... li mi. nw Tom King........ E. L. Freyermeuth..











UNDERGROU-ND WATER SUPPLY.


WaELL--C o~nued.

coUNTYr-Continued


40 .... -


110 126 -103
79 128 -108
50 .... 8 to 10
50 .... ........
80 .... .....
40 .... 60
-126
40.... 16
8
40 .... 20


...~ / II c:i
.E? B


Mineral
character
of water.

Hard
Hard sulp'r
Hard sulph r
Hard .
Hard ......
Hard .....
Sulphur ....


Use of Well.



Houiehold .......
awmill ........
Household .......
Household.......
General..........
Hotel purposes...

COUNTY.
ice mfg........
Sawmill purposes
Drainage.........
Drainage........
Sawmill.........
General.........
'ffousehold.......
R.R. boiler use..
Phosphate mining


82 3 75 15 + 14
173 5 .. 62
186
550 2 ... 18
175 4 84....- 16
S4 95 87- 20
180 6 114 60
103 2 67 .... 70
124 2 66
24 3 .... 11




'.. . ... 6 11
2 .... .... 36
63 2 .... .... I- 10
90 2 40 .. 9


COUNTY,
Hotel ........... Hard sulnh'r


Domestic.......
General..........
Sublic..........
Irrigation........
General..........
Smfg. City sup'y
Household......
Hotel ............
Brick plant.....


Part soft..
Soft .......
Har ..
Hard ......
Hard ......
Hard ....
Part hard
Part soft ..
Hard .....


781 51


COUNTY.

61
Abandoned ....... Brackish 62
Drinking........ Hard ...... 63
Turpentine still.. Hard ..... 64
Sawmill purposes Hard ...... 6


Hard ...
Hard ...
Hard ..
Hard
Hard .
Hard
Hard .
Hard ..
Hard ...
Hard
. .d









LA)RIDA GEOLOGICAL BLURVB


WELLs--Continuwd.

LEVY


Nearest Town Di eftion
No. r p. and Owner of Well. Driller.
Distance.

66 ILvyville.... Near rter............ Owner...........
67 Montbrook... S. Blitch ........... James Hancock.....
68 Morriston.... P. King ........... ames Hancock.....
69 Morriston.... A. C. L. R. R ........ James Hancock.....
70 Otter Creek.. 8 mi. e... Fisher & Shands .... James Hancock .....
71 Otter Creek.. Near..... OtterCreek Lbr.Co...
: ... Near ......Willitton Mfg. Co... John Acre..........

MARION
...... J, D. Allen .......
o.... Hughes Spec.Co ...
S........Near ..... Public ............ ... L. Freyermeuth..
76 Mclntosh.... Near ..... W. Allen ....... Furgeson.......
77 McIntosh.... Near.... S. H. Gaitkill..... Furgeon.........
78 Ocala ........ 4 bike. se. Oeala Water Co..... ................
79 Ocala ....... 4 blks. se. Ocala Water Co... .. F. Joyce........
80 Ocala........ mi. n... Oala I & Pack. Co F. Hamilton.....
I81Rock Springs Near..... ffert & Maynard.. EL.Freyermeuth...
82 Silver ....: mi. e... E.P.W.Rentz Lbr.Co.. H. F. Lloyd.........

PASCO
83 DaadeCity ... Near .... City ..............W. W A. Sparkman....
84 Dade City.... m. se... Muller & Ziner .... W A Sparkman....
85 Fivay........ Near..... Aripeka Sawmill.... J. D. Allen........
86 Pivay........ ..... Aripeka Sawmill.... J. Allen..........
87 Odessa ....... Near..... Gulf Pine Co........ T. J. Zimmerman..
88 Pasadena.... Near..... The Spencer Well.... N. C. Bryant......
89 Port Richey.. 4 mi. n... Stubbs Bros. & Co... D. Allen........
90 Richland..... Near..... A. C L. R ......... J D. Allen.........
91 San Antonio. 5 mi aw... .J S. Flanagan...... W. A. Sparkman....
92 St. Leo ..... Near..... Dr. J. F Corrigan... Owner..........
....... Near..... WA. C. L. R. R ........ W. A. J. Prescott...

SUMMER
94 CenteHill Nearl.. .... N F. D Smit ...... .J H. Robbins.....'.
95 Center Hill ... 'Near ..... Venable & Harkness. J. H. Robbins.......
96 Oxford....... I mi. nw.. H. 0. Collier........ E.L.Freyermeuth..,
970Oxford....... Near..... iJ. F. avine........ E.L.Freyermeuth...

















UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.


W'Vlu -Continued.

CO


.... -- 11
23

18
-7 to 8
29- 8
20


15 6 90 20
796 14 280 90- 54
46 2 .. 85 42
2 77 40
S2 65- 27
190-12 ... .... 1- 72
12501 8 .... 1001-70
172 42 172 65 21
78 21 78 70 30
507 2 .... 5


2 50 35
6 45 88 17
6 40 ...- 6
6 40. 8
1041 4 35 7 11
3001 8 i 170 .... -- 86
1471 6 30 ... 14
90 8 ... 93 30
85 5 82.. 80
75 3 191 32
31 10 29- 5


Use of Well

General ........
Hard .
Hard
R. R. boiler ue.. Hard
Turpentine still.. Hard
Sawmill......... Hard
ice mfg.......... Hard .

COUNTY.
City bupply...... Hard
Phosphate mning Hard
Public........... Hard
Domestic.......
Domestic....... Hard
City suppl..... Hard
City supply...... Hard su


-ce mfg..........
Sawmill and still.
Sawmill purposes

COUNTY.


Hard
Hard
Hard su


.... 80
..... 80
ilph'r 801


ilph'r I


Public........... Hard ..... 81
Ice mfg......... Hard ..... 81
Sawmill purpose Hard ......
Sawmill purp Hard......
Sawmill purposes Hard ......
Hard .....
Turp. still supply Hard .....
R. R. boiler u e. Partly hard.
Irrigation........ Hard ......
Domestic ........ Hard.....
R. R. boiler use.. Hard..... 81

COUNTY.


46 91- 10 Irrigation....... Hard ......
4 40 93 -14 Public ........... Partly hard.
2 80 100- 50 General.......... Hard ......
* 2 60 100 52 General.......... Hard ......
















94 FLRIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVY.

.W-

SUMTER


-o Nearest Town Directicn
Nr O. and Owner of Well. Driller.
Distance.

98 Oxford ...... I mi. s.... J. S. Reese..........
99 Oxfordr ....... ear..... Sunset Crate&Lbr.Co W. F. Hamilton....
100 Sumterville.. Near..... City.... ........ .. B. .........
101 Sumterville.. 2 mi. s.. Pearron Oil Co......
102 Webster.... Near.... W. ussell....... C. L. a .......
103 Webster .... f mi. w... W B. Kimbroug... J. Robbins......

SUWANNEE
104 Branford..... Near ..... Vernan Ginning Co.. W. AA. Gaston....
105 Dowling Park Near.:... H. J. Cannon........ P. W, Warren......
106 Falmouth.... mi. sw.. F. W. Millinor & Co. W B. Hick......
107 Live Oak..... 4 blks. s.. City ................ ....
108 Live Oak..... 1 mi. nw.. R. L. Dowling.........................
109 Live Oak .... 9 mi. nw. W. W. Jenkins...... W. B. Hicks.....
110 Live Oak..... 7j mi. nw W. A. Nobles....... Tucker........
111 Luraville..... 1 m n. Netral Mining Co... S W. Young..:.....
112 Pinemount... Near ..... r F. M. Green ........ H. Clanton.........
113 Welborn.. .. 7 mi. s ... B. Howell ....... CM. M. ay........

PUBLIC WATER ...


COUNTY.

Alachua .
Columbia.

Hamilton.
Lake ....


TOWN. Source. Ownership.

ain'sville Well, Spg. Public... 1
Lake City Well... Public.. 1

Jasper.... Well.. Private.. 1
Leesburg. Wells. Private... 3


Marion... unnellon .. e
Marion... Ocala.... Wells..

Buwannee Live Oak. Well... Public.


R elation Stndpip'
to Town. capacity.
194 90 ft. lower none
400 samf level none

450 ame level 50,000
98 same level 20,000
to
101
155i same
190 same
112501
1080 same level 85,000
















UNDERGROUND WATER SUPPLY.

WELLs-Continued.


Gen. mill purpose Hard
General.......... Hard
Hard
General .......... Hrd
Irrigation ........ Hard


COUNTY.
purposes
r stable.....
Turpentine still..
City supply......
Sawmill.........
Sawmill purposes
General.........
raosphate mining
Mill purposes....
Household.......


Hard
Sulphur
Hard ..
Hard .
Hard .
Hard .
Hard
Hard .
Hard
Hard


PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES.


St j i Character of Water.

92 11 Hard, soft.......
. 6 to 8 Hard, slightly
Ssulphur.........
10 1 Sulphur, hard....
12 2i Medium hard.....


91 9 Hard.............
5 2 Hard.............

37 ,


I Notes and
Sewage Disposal. Analyse.

Septic tank ............... I 70, 76

Septic tank .............. P. 77
No sewage system.......
No sewage system........... P. 79


No sewage system. ........
Bored wells and cesspool... P 92

Bored wells and ceespools... P. 82


43


110

67 ...
85 ...
47 ....
87 ....
70 ....


- 25
-25
- 65
50
-44
- 60
- 63
-32
- 73
- 68


o10
105.
106.
10T
2 108
109
110.
111
112
113
'is3


83 1

















INDEX.



PWse
Alabaa, Geological Survey of, referred to.................. 8
Acids, foraton of hydrogen suphde by ................. 20
Aahua County,sketch swing wateevel in............. 40
general water resources o ............................... 83
springs of ............................................. 86
w ells of ................................................ 88
public water supply of, ................................ 94
Alachua Lake .......................... ...... .......... 60
Alachua savanna, described by Bartram,. ................... 59
Alachua sink, described ............................... 56
level of water in......................... ... 60
Alumina removed in solution............................... 48
Annual rainfall of Florida.................................. 12
Artesiau areas, map of, (facing) ........................... 44
Artesian water, hydrogen s ide in,... ..... .......... 23
Bacteria, effect of septic tank on ............................ 66
Bacillus tyvhoS s, effect of septic tan on .................. 66
Bartram, William, cited on formation of s ..........52, 59
Blair, A. W., water analyses y ...................... 25, 74, 81
Blue Spring, Levy Co..................................... 38
analysis of water from .................................. 73
amount of mineral solid removed by ...................... 47
Blue Springs, Marion County, relation of, to underground
water level, ....................................... 30
m ention of .............................................. 38
amount of mineral solids removed by ................... 47
analysis of water ....................... ............... 73
Boulware Spring, analysis f water from................... 70
Cir, G. D., levels made by, ............................. 30
Calcium carbonate removed n solution .................... 48
Capillary attraction, water returned to the surface by........ 15
Capillary water in soils .................................... 24
Carbon dioxide, abundance of, in deep waters ............... 21
effect of, on solubility of calcium carbonate .............. 33
Cavities, formations of, .................................. 50
inter~onneetion of, ................... .................. 65
Central Florida, topography of.......... .................. 9
elevation of ... ..........................
geology of .............. ............... ............ 9
annual rainfall of ................... ............. .... 12
underground water of, ................ .... ........... 24
















INDEX.


Page.
Chandler, C. H., water analysis by.......................... 75
Chesehoule ka Sprin ..................................... 38
Citrus County, general water resources of ................. 83
springs of .............................................. 86
wells of ................................. ........ ..... 88
Columbia County, sketch illustrating underground water level
of ............. ............. ................. 31
general water resources of,................ ............. 8.
springs of ..................... .. .............. 86
wells of .............................. ............. 88
public water supply of ............................... 94
Chlorides removed in solution............................. 48
Contamination, organic ............. .. ............. 26, 42
m mineral ................................ ... ....... 43
by sewage wells .......................................... s8
Corn, evporation from te leaves of, ................ ... 18
Crowbaugh, T. L, analysis of water by..................... 79
Crystal River Spring ...... ... ...................... 88
Dall, W. H., cited on Tampa Limestone ..................... 11
Deposition and replacement .......... ........... ........... 56
Devil's Mill Hopper, d esribed.. .................. ........ 29
Dickoie, W., analyses of water by ............ ............ 70, 71
Disappearing streams, described............................ 53
Erosion, rate of ....................... ......... ... .... 48
Evaporation, from the surface of the earth .................. 13
from the leaves of plants ............... .... .........14, 15
Falling Creek described .. ....... .. ...... ..... 54
Flatwoods, described ........ .- ........ ............ 9
Florida, annual rainfall of ........................ ........ 12
Florida State Experiment Station, water analyses supplied
by, .................................................. 7, 25
Foraminifera in Vicksburg limestone ....................... 10
Ford Spring, analysis of water from,...................... 71
Fuller, M. L., cited on sources of underground water........ 12
cited on interconnection -f cavities in the limestone ...... 65
Gainesville, well records of................................. 30
analysis of water from ..................... ..... 76, 77
Georgia, Geological Survey of, referred to.................... 8
Greene, E. Peck, assistance ............................. 7
Gunter, Herman, assistance ................ ............. 7
Hamilton County, general water resources of................ 8
springs of ................ .. .. ....... ................ 86
w ells of ................................ ..... ....... .
public water supply of ............. .. ............... 94















INDBX.


Page.
Hammocks, described ....................... ........... 9
Hawthorne formation ...... ................... ......... 11
Hernando County, analyses of spring water from ............ 73
general water resources of .............................. 84
springs of ............................... .......... e6
w ells of ................................ . ........ 90
Herzog, H. Jr., water analyses by ........................77, 79
High Fall, describe ......... ................. ........ 54
Hilgrd, ited on evaporation from plants ... ........ 16
Hosins, cited on depth of underground water .............. 19
Hydrogen sulphide, in underground water ................ 19
sulphur deposits formed from............................ 21
amount of, influenced by pr ure ............. ...... 22
Iron removed in solution .......... ..................... 48
Iron :.. 'analysis of water from ......................... 71
Itchatucknee Spring, analysis o water from................ 72
amount of mineral solids removed by ..................... 47
Jacksonville, annual rainfall of ............................ .13
Jupiter, annual rainfall of .. ............................ 13
Ky West, annual rainfall of ................... ........... 13
King, cited on evaporation from the leaves of plants........ 15
Kinnicutt, L. P., cited on effect of septic tank on bacteria.... 66
Lake City, analysis of water from .......................... 25
sketch illustrating underground water level at............ 32
Lakes, drainage of, by wells, ........... ............... 58
Lake County, general water resources of ................... 84
springs of ........................................ .... 86
wells of .............................................. 90
public water supply of............. ..................... 94
Lake Jackson, drained by sinks ............................ 58
LeConte, John, description of Silver Springs................ 36
Levy County, sketch showing water level In............... 40
sink formed in .......................... .......... 53
general water resources of ............... ........... 84
springs of .................. .................. 86
w ells of ............... .................. .... .. ..... 90
Loughridge, cited on weight of leaves of citrus trees......... 16
Magnesium carbonate, removed in ;olution................. 48
Magnesia Spring, analysis of water from. .. ............ 70
M natee Spring ........................................... 38
Marion County, sketch showing water level in.............. 40
general water resources of............................ 84
springs of ............................ ........... 86
wells of .................. .. .......................... 92
public water supply of ......... .... ................ 94
















INDEX.


Pgage.
Matson, George C.,.cited on inter-connection of cavities...... 66
McCallie, S. W., cited on interconnection of eavities.......... 66
Miller, B. F., levels supplied by.......................... 30
Mineral solids removed n solution ..................... 47, 48
Miocene deposit ......... .... .......... ... ... 11
Newland Spring .............. .......... ......... 38
analysis of water from ......... ....................... 75
amount of mineral solids removed by ................ ... 47
Ocala Limestone, described ............................. 10
Oligocene limestone, anticlinal structure of .................. 10
Orbitoldes, in Vicksburg limestone ....................... 10
Organic matter as a source of hydrogen Eulphide .......... 19
Orlando, drainage by wells at.............................. 62
records of wells at ..................... ................ 34
Ostwald, cited on formation of hydrogen sulphide........ 20
Pasco County, general water resources of ................... 86
wells of ........... .............. .............. 92
Payne's Prairie ................. ...................56, 59
Pellew, C. E., water analysis by....... .......... ....... 75
Pensacola, annual rainfall of............................ 13
Pearce, James, cited on Alachua sink................... .... 59
Peas, evaporation from the leaves of ................. ..... 15
Phosphoric acid removed in solution ........................ 48
Plants, evaporation from the leaves of ...................... 13
Pleistocene dep ts ................. .............. 11
Pliocene clays ........................... ............ 11
Ponds, drainage of, by wells, ............................... 58
Pratt, N. A., analysis of water by. .............. ......... 72
Pratt N. P., a alysis by.................................... 73
Quercus cerris, evaporation from the leaves of............... 16
Rainfall entering the earth, estimate of .................... 16
Salt, or Perrian Spring ........................ .......... 38
analysis of water from .................................. 74
San Antonio, analysis of water from........................ 25
Scrub lands, described .................................... 9
ellards, B. H., cited on formation of sinks ............ .. 50
cited on inter-connection of cavities................... 65
Septic tank, efficiency of ............... ................ 66
reduction of bacteria in ............................... 66
Sewage, disposal of ... .......... .................. .. ..... 64, 66
Shaler, N. S., cited on formations of cavities ................ 49
Shallow wells, danger of contamination of................... 26
Silica removed in solution ....... ............ .. ...










INDEX. 101

Page.
Silver Springs, relation of, to underground water level...... 31
affected by rainfall .................................. ... 35
area of drainage of ..................................... 36
description of ........ .......... ... ......... .... .... 36
analysis of water from ................................. 74
amount of mineral solids removed by................... 47
Sink holes, formation of .................................. so
clogging of, at Orlando .................................. 60
Smith, E. A., cited on Alachua sink ....................... 60
Solution ................................................ 46
Solution basins, described.................................. 55
State Chemist, water analyses by........... 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 80
Stokes, cited .............................................. 20
Sulphates as a source of hydrogen sulphides............... 20
Sulphides as a source of hydrogen sulphides ................ 20
Sulphur Springs, analysis of water from.................... 71
Sulphur water, not evidence of beds of sulphur ............. 21
Sulphur, occurrence of, In Florida ......................... 22
Sumter County, general water resources of ................. 85
springs of ..... .. ................................... 86
wells of ................... ............. ......... .... 92
Superintendents city water supply, asstanc of ............ 8
Surface formation, character of water of,.................. 24
analyses of water of ........ .. ....... .. ............... 25
Surface run-off, affected by topography ..................... 14
SSuwannee County, general water resources of................ 85
springs of ............................ ............ 86
public water supply of .......... .......... .... ..... 94
wells of ............ ..... .............. ............... 94
Suwannee River ................................... .35, 38
Suwannee Sulphur .............. ............... 38
analysis of water from ............... .. ........... 75
amount of mineral solids removed by................... 47
correction of solids removed by........................ .102
Swamp lands, drainage of, by wells........................ 58
Tampa, annual rainfall of .................. ............ 13
Tampa Limestone ....................................... 11
Thorpe, cited on formation of hydrogen sulphide ........... 20
Topography, effect of erosion on ........................... 46
effected by and replacement .................... 56
Typhoid, effect of septic tank on germs of................. 66











102 x.

Page.
Underground water, source of ................... ......... 12
ovement of ...................................... 17, 32
depth of ............................. ................ 18
hydrogen sulphide in ..................... .... ........ 19
quantity of ............... ......................... 31
quality of ........................................ .24, 33
geological results of..................................... 46
United State Geological Survey, Florida invetgtios by .... 7
water analysis by, ..........................7, 7, 76, 77, 80, 82
levels at Orlando by ..................................... 30
University of Florida, drainage from grounds of ............ 29
sinks on grounds of ..................................... 51.
Van Hise, cited on formation of hydrogen sulphide ....20, 21, 23
Vicksburg Limestone, dscrbed ......................... 10
surface exposure of................ .. .............. 27
source of water of ..................................... 27
water level in ........................ ............... 29
dip of .................... .. ...... .. .... ..... 31
Water analyses ....................... ............. 25, 68
Alachua Ice & Water Co. Alachua. ...................... 76
Atlantic Coast Line R. R., Trilby. .. ... .......... .. ... 81
Blue Spring, Juliette ... ......... .... ... .. ...... 73
Blue Spring, Otter Creek ......... ..... ............... 73
Boulware pring, Gainesville............. ......... ..... 70
City Well, Gainesville, .................. ....... .... 76
City Wel, ake City .................. ............... 77
City Well, Live Oak, .......... ...... ................. 82
Diamond Ice Co., Gainesville, ....................... 76
Dibble & Earnest, Eustis ................. .......... 78
Dormitory, Lake City, ...... .... ................. 25
Dowling R. L., Live Oak .............................. 82
Ford Spring, Melrose ................... ................ 71
Foster Hall, Lake City, ................. ............. 25
.. S. H ., .. .:. .. ........ .. .. .. .... ...... 80
Hensley Place, Lake City, ............... ............. 25
Hoopes Bros. & Darlington, Brooksville, ................... 78
Ichatucknee Spring, Ft. White .................. ..... 72
Iron Spring, Hawthorne, ............. ............. 71
Leesburg Ice Co. ........ . .. .......... 79
Magnesia Spring, Hawthorne, ............................ 70
Miller residence, Lake City, .............. ... ....... .. 25
Muller & Zunsser, Dade City, .............. ........... 81
Newland Springs, Falmouth, ............... ..... ........ 75










INDEX.


Ocala W ater Co., Ocala ................. ........... .. 80
Ocala W water Co., Ocala, ................. ................. 80
Old City W ell, Lake City, ....... ..... ..... ......... 77
Otter Creek Lumber Co., Otter Creek, .................... 79
Pearson Oil Well, Crystal River .......................... 78
Perrian Spring, Norwalk, .............. ............. 74-
Perry's Corner, Lake City ............... .... ........... 25
Public Well, Dade City, .......... .. ............ 81
Salt Spring, Norwalk, .......... ..... .. .......... 74
Silver Springs, Ocala, .................. ................ 74
Sulphur Springs, Hawthorne, ........................... 71
Suwannee Sulphur Springs, Suwannee .................. 75
Thompson, A. A., Astor......................... ....,.. 78
Weekiwachee Sprngs, Bayport, ........................ 73
White Sulphur Springs, White Springs, ................ 72
W illiamson, B. F., Gainesville ............................ 77
W illiston Mfg. Co., W illisto ,. .......... . ... ........ ..... 79
Water level, factors controlling ............................. 30
Weekiwachee Spring ..................................... 38
analysis of water from............. ......... ...... 73
amount of mineral solids removed by..................... 47
W ekiva Spring ................. .. .............. ...... 38
Wells, water level in .............. .. ............... 38
depth of ........... ...... ................... 39
cavities reached by ......... .. ... ............. 41
drainage of lakes, ponds, and swamp lands by............ 58
natural drainage, .............. ... ...... .............. 58
construction of, for drainage purposes.................... 61
drainage by, at Orlando, ............ ............... 62
disposal of sewage by ................................... 64
Well drillers, assistance of ..... ........... ........ 8
White Sulphur Springs, ................................ 38
analysis of water from ................... ............... 7
amount of mineral solids removed by ..................... 47


































Buwannee Springs-
flow of, for 52,000, read 19,747 ........................... 47
solids removed by, for 207,605, read 78,816................ 47




Geology and ground waters of Florida
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100866/00001
 Material Information
Title: Geology and ground waters of Florida
Series Title: Water-supply paper
Physical Description: 445 p.; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Matson, George Charlton, b. 1873
Sanford, Samuel, 1865-1927
Vaughan, Thomas Wayland, 1870-1952
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1913
Copyright Date: 1913
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Groundwater -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00271113
lccn - gs 13000967
oclc - 271113
System ID: UF00100866:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Frontispiece
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    Title Page
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Full Text






































jl


~
---~







DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
SOGEORGE OTIS SMITH, DIrzCTOo

WATaR-SUPPLY PAi a 819



GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS

OF FLORIDA



BY

* GEORGE CHARLTON MATSON
AND
SAMUEL SANFORD


PreparM d in cooperation between the United 8tate Oeological Survey andthe Florid
Geological Surey, under the direction of Thomas Wayland Vaughan


- .8.


WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFIOB
1918


L




































671 (j12



























S S S
S S"























SRODUC ION......................................
r I.---GOCIAPHY ...............................
North and central Florida, by G. C. Mtn...
Nature of country...........................
R elief ................. ... .. ... ..
Dr nage ........................ ........
River................................
ak and wnp......................
Topographic provinces....................
Characteristic feature -.


Soils.


Upland or lake region............ ... .. ..-....1 _..........
Underground drainage................ ..................
Caverns............................... .........
Sink holes............... ........................
Natural bridges.....................................
Spring ..... ......... ...... ..................
:. ..... feature ........... ..... ..........
Lakes........ ....... ......... .... .........
Sand dune ............. ..... .. ........ .........
Iowland....................... ..... .....
St and ponds......... .............................
idg ..... ........... ........................
nddune................ ........ ................
Terraces................... .......................
General feature....................................
ewbe y ter ............. .. ....... ...........
ala pop terrace.................................
Penacola t e.e............ ................
The coast................................. .................
Coral reef-................... .. ........................
Submerged continental border ................ ..........
Bar ..........................................
Sounds............... .............
Inlet ............... .... ... ................
Tidal runways..........................................
Cape .............................. ......... ..........


Origin and character................... ............
Soil types.................. .........................
th Florida, by auel Sanford ........................
Lo tion a d ................ ................ ......
G e l feature .................................. .......


. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

. . . . . .


1


Pags.
17
21
21
21
21
23
23
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
28
29
30
30
s0
o30
31
31
31
31
31
32
33
34
35
35
35
37
37
38
38
38
39
39
40
42
42
42


...






2 OONENTS

PARr I.--GnoonGA r-Continued.
southern Florida, by Samuel Sanford--Continued.
The mainland ............ ...............-- -----....-----... -- 4
Subdivisio.ns .................. .. ...... ................--- 4
Pineland ..................... .. ....................... 4
rea and dis t ........................... *...... 4
Dunes.......................... ......... ......----- .... 4*
Chara te.. ..... .... . ....... - .... 4
Distribution .. ............. ....... ----..--- --. 47
Rolling snd plains............... -- ...- --...... --
Fla .la d .. .......... .............. ........... - - -
ock ri~d ....... ..............................- ..... -
s e........... ... ..... - ........................
Controlling condition.....................................
CE glad s .......... ............. ................ - - -
Extent........................ ...... --............- .....- -
Elevation and drainage.............. ..................
TeF ori r ...............................................
Bedr ck... ............ .. ...... ..... ................- -
Oc rigin ....... ........ .......... ...............--.

N e l F o ..............rd................................. ..........
Cypress wamps ............. -................ -5 -

C tl e ....mp............. .............................. -----
The keys ..... ......... .....-- -- -.......... -- --.. .-----. .-
neral character............... ... .......... *------ -
The orida reef............ .... ... ... ........... 1

The uhore line. .............-.....- ---- --.. -------
Ocean currents.. .......... -. --- --- - -
ParT II.-GEOLOOY ............----- -------*- *...**........***-
Northern d central Florida, by G. t .........................
Geologic record.......... -.....--........... .-.-..---.- 6
Geer ucc on of formations ...... .....................
Tertiry sysem................... ................ 71
Ohlgocene re....... - - - - - se- - - - - - - e - - 71
oSubd ivis iones..... ....- .... - - - - .. 71
Viclbug group.............--..-...---.....-... ----. .. 71
Nomenlature ....................................... 71
Maiannand Peninular" limestones................. 73
Stratigraphicposition............................ 73
Litholie cha e ............................... 73
Thickness.................... ................... 73
hy ph expr on ........................... 74
aleotologi character............ ... ........ 74
tr ctu ......... .. .... .....--- -....... ...... 74
Aral distribution ............... ... -........... 7
Ocala limestone........-..--------.--... ----- ------... 79
Nomenclature ................ ---- ----------..... 79
Stratrap position ........- - - - - --- ..... so
logie character............- - ....... 81
Thicees. ....... ....----- ------.----. -.... 81
hyographi expreion.......................... 81
P~aleontoloi.cha ..cter.........- - - - -....... gg
truture..........--...------------- -- --... 82
Areal distribution...........-..-..--- -----........ 8
"Miliolite limestone" .,......--.-...-..--...... a






CONTENTS.


PAar Il.---GoLooY--Coltnue
Northern and central Flrida, by 0. Matson--Ontinued
Tertaia sytem-Oontinued.
Ohgocene aerce-~-Continued
ion group......................................
o enclature.......................................
wthrn i for tion................................
General character.............. ...........
tigrphic potion...............................
Lithologic character...............................
Thiknes i ...............................
Paleontologicarac.. ...........................
S curer .......... ...........................
Areal distribute ....... ........ .............
athoohee formation..............................

Nomenclature..................................
tratigraphic potion...........................
Litolgic c arac.... ............ .................
Thicknes..... ..............................
Phyiographic exre ......... ................
Paleontologic character...........................
Structure... ...... ............... ..........
al dtribution ................................
Tampa formation........................... .....
C ctr and nomenclature ........................
Aiphc position.............................
Lithologic character............................
Thick;n~ .....e........... .. ..... ..............
Phlysographic expr on ..........................
aleontologic charaer............... ..........
S~tulcture ................... .................
trl dteri........................................
Alu Bluff fo ti ................... ..............

S rtigraphic position................. ...........
Lithologic charactr............... ...........
e kneh .. ....... .......... . ..............

Physiographic expre son.........................
aleontologic character............................
r .......... ........ ..........
Structure. ...................................
Area distribution................................
Chipola marl member............... ...........
Oak Grov d memb ..........................
Shoal River marl menmber..... .................-


scene ar.............................
Nomenclature and abdivi ..........
a~nuville formation....................
Sra phc potion................
Lithole ch mter..............
hicka e .... ...................
Phyj grphie expreion.............
leontologic charact..............
Stiucture........ .................
Sdribution ...................


85
86
87
87
88
89
89
89
89
90


95



108





108
98
94

96
95
96
98
96
102
102

105
108
104
104
104

105
108
108
108
109
110
111
111
111
111
117
119
120
121
121
123
128
128
126
125
126
126
128


..................
...... -............-
..................-
...... ............ -


..................-
..................
I ...............
.................. -
........ ........





4 CONTENTS.

PART II.--GtocLo--.Continued.
Northern and central Florida, by G. C. Mato--ontinued
Tertiary sytem-Continued.
iocene ei--Continued. P
Choctawhatche marl .................................... 127
Stratigraphic position .................................. 127
Lithologic character................................. 128
Thickne ....... ......... ... ............... ...... 129
Phyiographic expr on............................... 129
Paleontologic character .............................. 129
Structure............................ ............ 130
Real distribution................... .............. 130
iocene erie.......................... ......... ....... 133
Calooeahatchee l...... .....................a.... 134
Nomenclature....................... .............. 134
Stratigraphic position ................................ 134
Litologic character................................. 135
Thicknee ........ ....... ... .. .............. 135
Physiographic expreion.............................. 135
Paleoto c character............................... 135
Structure................ ....... ................ 135
eal di ribution ................ ..................... 136
Nahu mar....................... .............. 138
Discrimination ........................................ 138
Stratigraphic position ................................. 139
Lithologic character.................................. 139
Thickno e ........ .... .. ..................... 139
Physiographic expreion ............................ 139
Paleontologic character............................ 139
Structure................................. .... 140
Aral ditribution ................. ................. 140
Alachua clay .............................................. 141
Depo tion .......... ........................... ... 141
Stratigraphic position ................... .......... 142
Lithologic character ................................... 142
ThicLk ea ................ ...... ............ .... 142
Physiographic expreion.............. ............. 142
Palontologic character.. .......... ............ 142
Structure........................ ........... .......... 143
Areal distribution ..................................... 143
Bone' gravel........................................ 144
Nomenclature..................... ................ 144
Stratigrphic poitio...... ..... ............ 145
Lithologic character................................ 145
Thicknes........................... ............... 145
Phyogrphic expre ............................. 146
Paleontologc cha racter..... ....................... 146
Structure... .................. .. ....... ............ 146
Areal ditribution.................................... 146
Pliocene (?) erie .............................................. 146
afaytt (7) fo ation...........-....-.....- .......... 146
Correlation.............. ........ .............. 146
tratigraphic position.................---............ 147






CONTENTS.


PART I I.-G-EOLOG, -Continued.
Northern and central Florida, by C. Matn---Continued.
Tertiary ystm--Continued.
Plicene (?) seris--Continued.
Lafayette (?) formation-Continued.
Lithologic character.................................
Thickn es ... .......... .... .......................
Phyiographicexpression.............................
Pal~ontologc character ................... ..........
Structure...... .......... ... .... ...............
Areal distribution..................................
u atera ry system ................................................
Subdiviions........................... ..... ...............
Pleistocene ri............... .........................
Subd vision ...................................... .......
Fo liferou marls....... .......... ................
Gray nd .......................................
"Planorbi marl" ................................
Coquina..... .............. ..............
"Venretiu rock ...............................
Yellow clay...................... ... ...........
Stratigraphic position ..............................
Thile ....l.. ................... ...............
Phyiogphic expression..............................
alontologie character ................ .. ............
structure. ..............................................
eent eies .. ........................................
Alual deposits................ ... .. ..........
ncustrine deposits............... .....-_.

"Veretu rock".......................................

Coter reefs................ ...... ...................
Coral e ............ ... ........ ...........
Baho l deposit. ................... .................
E ian dep .. ......... ........ .... ................
Human remains... -- -- ------


Structure........................................
Early ivet ................... ..........
General character................................
Southern Florida, by Samuel Sanford...................
Str igr phy.................. ....................
Peitocene formation......................
haractr and dtribuion ...................
Well records.................. ........
Distribution of wells...................
Palm Beach...........................
Indian Key Channel.....................
Key V ................ .............
nigh Key ..........................
Big ine Key............................
Key Wet................. ...........
Buck ey..............................
Oligocene series............................
Miocene and Pliocene series..................


Page.
147
148
148
148
148
148
150
150
151
151
151
1564
165
156

156
156
157
158
158
158
158
159
159
160
160
160
160
160
161
162


..... 163
........ 163
........ 165
........ 167
........ 167
........ 167
........ 167
........ 167
........ 167
........ 168
........ 168
........ 169
......... 170
........ 170
........ 170
........ 172
........ 173
.... 173






CONTENTS.


PART II.-- soL--oor---ntinued
southern Florida, by Samuel -nord-Continued.
Stratigrphy---Continued.
Pleitcene erine ............... ................. ..........
Unexposed formation ...............................
Exposed fornation.............. ...... .............
General character....................................
Pal Beach limetone.................................
Synonymy........................................
S raphi position..............................
Lithologic ha ter.............................
Thickneee.. ............... ..................
Physiographic expresion...........................
Paleontologiichara r................... ........
Areal ditribuion...............................
Structure. ................. .... .... .........
Miami oolite................ ......................
ynonymy.................... .................
~tratiS phic p~ition ..............................
Lithologic charcter..............................
Thlicrmne


Phyaig .p .... ........... .......
Physiographic expremion....................
Paleontologic character.....................
real ditri . . ution.. . . . . . . . .
SCrreationu ............................
Correltion..................................
Origin ............. . .......
y WeOt polite ...............................


itol . . . . ........................
Thickness............................. .....
Phyiogrphic epreeiion.....................
aleontologic character ..............
Origin. ...................................
Chemical character ..........................
Key Largo linmetone..........................
Synonymy... ............... ...........
trataphic iion .................... ..
Lithologic character....... ..............
Thicl .............. ............
Phyographic exp ion..................
Paleontologic character.....................
Areal distribution................. ......
tma River etone........................
Synonynmy.................................
tratigrphic iion .......................
Lithologie character.........................
Thicknl e ...................... ........ ...
Areal ditribution........................
Origi ... ............ ........ ..........
orrelaion of Pleistcne fo aon .......... ....
Lithology of Pleistocene beds.......................
Coq ina........................................
Sand. ..........s........ ......... .........


Pa4.
174
174
175
175
175
175
176
176
176
176
177
177
177
177
177
178
178
171


.... 179
...... 179
.... 180
...... 180
...... 180
...... 180
...... 180
...... 180
...... 18

...... 184
...... 181
...... 181
...... 182
...... 18
...... 182
...... 184
...... 184

...... 18

...... 186

...... 186

...... 187
...... 1



...... 190

...... 191
19......
189





...... 191
...... 191
... .. 19






CONTENTS.


Pr II.--- oLooT-Continued
southern Florida, by Samuel Sanford-Continued
tiraphy---Continued.
Pleistocene aerie-Continued.
Lithology of Pleiatocene beda--Continued. Pte.
Malde................. .......... 194
M .ara.......................... ....................... 194
Bume aryri .............. ........... ........ ... 19
Thner l of there .............................. 194
Recent seri.. .............. ...... .. ................... 195
General cha.. ct....... .......................... 196
eat ............. ~..... .... .................. 19
r .... ................... ........... ...... ... .. 196
Sad c ............................................ 198
Cora ............................ .. ............ 19
m .rock.. ............... ....... .. ............... 198
Outer b. ................. ...... .................... 198


Geolic history, by G. C. aton and Samuel Sanford.................... 199
Data ........................................................... 199
Oligcene epoch. ........................ ...... ............... 199
Vickburg epoch............................................. 199
Emegence........................... .. ..................... 201
Aplchicol epoch ................. ................... 202
ioene epoch....................... ......... .............. 203
Phyogphic changes........................................ 203
Depo ition..................... ......... ...... ............ 204
PlH ne epch................................................. 205
Phyographic changes........................ ............. 205
Deposttion......................20.. ........... 20
leitoene eoch ................................................ 207
Uplift ................................... ................. 207
Subo.rgnen ............... ......... ................... 209
Terrace....................... .......... ........... 210
Southern Florid........................................... 211
ecent epoch.. ... ............ ........ ...... ................... 212
Northern and central Florida ................................... 212
herFlorida........................................... 214
To.pc.ap.hi ch. n.............. ..... .............. 216
PA R III.--U B OE n wATEIn ...................................... 219
Gnel featur, by G. C. aton................... ............ 219
Soure............................................. ....... 219
Amount......................................................... 221
In the erth a whole......................................... 221
In Florid............ ................................... 221
Evap .... ............................. ...... .......... 222
epth ... ... .. .... ..................... ... .............. .. 224
W ate tble...................... ... ........ ................ 224
Depth of able p ....................................... 225
Cicuatio ......................... . ... . ............. 227
Reov ry ........................... ......... ... ............... 228
Natural recover......................................... 228
eepage..................... ....... .. ..... ....... 228
paing....................................---- ...........--- 228





8 CONTENTS.

PAur II. UNEc RGROUND WAe -Continued.
General features, by G. C. Maton--Contnued.
Recovery--ontinued. .
Artificial recovery ........ .................... ............. 229
W ells.......................... ... ........... ..... .... 229
Typest............................................ 229
Position........... ........... ... ........... 230
Methods of well making................................. 231
Dug wells....................................... 231
Bored wells....................... ............... 231
Driven wells ...................................... 232
Drilled well ...................................... 232
Methods of raising water .............................. 233
Central and northern Florida, by G. C. Matson........................... 234
Artesian water.................................................... 234
Artesian requisites ............................ .............. 234
Head.................... ......... ...... ..... 235
Controlling factors............................. ........... 235
Head in Florida ............................... .......... 236
Eat coast .............................. ............ 236
Interior ............................... ................ 237
Southern Florida ...................................... 237
W et coast.................. .... .. .............. 237
Chang.... ............ ....... .... ................ 237
Natural causes...................... .............. 237
Artificial causes ................. ........... 239
Artesian fallacies .......................................... 241
Occurrence ................... .... ................. 242
Water-bearing materials ..................... ................ 242
Character ............ .. ..... ................ 242
Sand and gravel ............... ..................... 242
Clay........... .................... .............. .. 242
Shell ma.rl .............. .... .............. 243
Limestone................ .... .................. 243
Wter-beaing formations ..................................... 243
Governing conditions...................................... 243
Oligocene seri e............. ................... 248
Importance 4......................... ........... 248
Limestones of the Vickburg group ..................... 248
Chattahoochee formation......... .................... 249
Hawthorn formation................................. 249
Tampa formation....................................... 250
Alum Bluff formation ............................... 250
Miocene series ..................................... 251
Chaacter.............. ............................ 251
ksonville formation.................................. 251
Choctawhatchee marl................................. 251
Pliocene seriea......................................... 252
General conditions................................. 252
Nahua and aloo atchee ma ....................... 252
Alachua clay.......................................... 252
Bone Valley gravel.................................... 253
Pliocene (?) series...................... ............... 253
Lafayette (?) formation............... ............. 253
Pleistocee and cent series ............................ 253






CONTENT8S9

PAr III--UNDEROuND WATr -Continued.
Cental and northern Flord-Continued. Pag
Public water sppli ........................................... 254
8urfe and undrgrond waters of southern Florida, by Samuel Snford.. 25
ource ........ ..... ......... .... ...... ..... ................ 255
Water bl................................................... 255
Spring .............. .... ...... ........ .............. ... .. 256
Water-bearing fo tio ......................................... 258
Oligocene.............. .. .... ........................ 258
iocene and Pliocena ............... ................. 258
Pleitocene ........................ ......... ....... .... 258
rtean water ..................... ........................ 259
Quality......................... ................. ............. 259
laios of sh and alt water underground...................... 261
PAr IV.--CorUmr D o rI N ..................... .............. 263
Alchu County, by G. Maton...................................... 263
General features,..... ............. ... ....... ............. 263
Geology ....................... ............... 263
Water supply............... ..... ........................ 285
Source ................................. ................ 265
uality............... .............. ...... .... .......... 2
Development ............................................... 26
county, by G. C. Matson.................. ............... 267
General fe ture .................... .............. ........... 287
Geology...... ........... ............ 267
Water upply............................... .................... 268
Source. ........ ........ ........... .............. 268
Quality...................... ................ 268
Development................... ............... 268
Bradfod County, by G. a n................... ........... 269
General features ............... .......... ... .............. 269
Geologic fo on ............................................. 269
Water supply....................................2.............. 270
urce ..................... ............................ 270
Quality................... ........ ... ................. 270
Development .................................. ............... 270
Brard County, by G. C. M on.................................... 273
General ftur ................... ........... ............. 273
Geology .. ............. .... .... ............................ 273
Water upply................................... ............... 275
ySurce.................................... ............. 275
Quality................ .............. ...... ......... ......... 275
Dvelopmnt.. ................................................. 275
un County, by G. Matson.................................... 277
General feature................. ........ .................. 277
ter...................................................... 278
a upply..................................................... 278
Source...................................................... 278
Qu ... ..... .... ... ... .......................... ........ 278
Development .................... .............................---- 279
iru County, by G. C. Matson...... ................................- 280
Gen rl featr .......................... ....... ..... ..... ....... 280
Geology........................................................... I...280






1l CONITNTh.

PART IV.-COUNTY DESCRIBE rONS--Continued.
Citrus County, by G. C. Matson--Contnued p
W after supply ............................................ ..... 281
Source.............. ...... ............ ... ... ......... 281
Quality .............................................. ....... 281
Development ................................. .............. 281
Clay County, by G.. C Mton.............................. ......... 283
General feature ................................... .............. 283
Geology ............................................ ............ 283
W after supply.. ..... .... ................ ........... .... 28
Source.................................................. 284
Quality ..................................................... 284
Development ..................................................
Col County, by G C. Matso.................................... 2
General feature....................... ..................... 28
Geology................ .................................... 28
aterupply................................................... 287
DSource. ...................n............................. 287
Quality ....................................... ............... 287
Developmentt.................................................... 287
e County, by S el Sanford....................................... 288
General featuree........................ ....................... 288
Geology ...................................................... 288
ter supply ........................................ ............ 289
e Sur.ce ....... ... ......................... ........... 289
Sprin ...... .................... .... ....... 289
W ell.......... ....... ........... ..... .... ................. 289
Artesian prospect............................................. 292
De oto County, by .. .Matson..................................... 294
General featule................. ............. ............... 294
G ology..... .......... .. ...... ............. ............ 294
atr pply...................... .................... ......... 295
oure................... .... ............................... 295
evelopmey.................................................... 295

etelomen ..................................................... 29
uv outy, by C. ... ......................................... 2. S

Sources....................................... ....... 29
quality ......................... ...... ............ ..
Dever lyopm.......................................... ......
a iaount......... ......M....................................... 0
General fat................................................... 0
Devoyelopment.......... .................................... 0.
E ol uty, by C. ............................ ................. 01
W.er upy. ...................................... ......... 0.
e ogy ................ .................................... ...
Water lu .................................................. 34
o ................... .................. ................. 304
Quality... .................... .......................... 304
Development.............. ............................... 304
Franklin County, by G. Matson .................................... 05
General f ur ................... .............................. )5
Geology ........................ ....................... .......... 805






CONTEN~. 11

PAEr IV.--CorTnt pnlaaflro-s-Conti ued
P in County, by G. C. Mataon--ontinued. ge.
Wtrupply................................................... 30
Source........ ........ .................. ............... 306
Quality .... ............. .... ..... ...... ... ............ 306
Development......... ............ ..................... 306
en County, by G. Maton...................................... 308
Generfatur ...................... .......... ........ ...... 308
Geology ................................... ...... .............
ter supply ........................... ........................ 310
Source...... ........ .. ..... .. .. ........ ........... 310
uality.......................... ............................. 310
Development................................................ 310
H iton County, by G. C. on.................................. 312
Gene ftu ................................................. 312
Geology .... ............. ....... .... .. ... ...... ............... 312
Water supply........................ ....................... 313
Sour e........................... .......... ................ 313
Quality........................... .......... .............. 313
Development......... ....... .......... ............ 313
ndo County, by G. C. Mt ............... ... ............ 316
G eral featu .................................................. 316
Geo.logy. ..... ........................... ................ 316
ter uppl........................ ....... ................ 317
orce.................... ....... ...................... 317
Quality................................ ...... ............. 317
evelopment........................ ........ ............... 317
l o Couty, by G. C. Maton................... ............... 319
General .u ................. .. ...... ..................... 319
og............................ .............. 320
after upply................................... ................ 322
Source ............... ......... ....... ............ 322
Qualiy....... .......................... ................ 322
Development..... ....................... ................. 322
So ty, by ..... ...................................... 325
ral featu ........................................ ........... 32
Gology ..................... .......................... 326
water pply................................................. 326
oure ................ ................................... 326
Qulity... .................................. ................... 326
Development................................. ..... ....... 326
SCounty, by G. C. Matson.................................... 827
General u ..................................... ........... .. 327
l y ...... ... ... ............ ......... ........ ... 327
Wter supply........... ......... ....... ... .............. 328
source ................................................... 28
Qur ity..................................................... 328
Development........................... ................ 328
efferson County, by G. C. .................a.................. 30
General feature..................... ......... ...........
Gology .......................... ..... ............ 330
t y ................................................... 331
Water upply........ ..... 1
ource ......................... ............................ 831
Quaity ................ ..................... ...........-... 31
)evelpen,,,....,...,..,......,,.,..,..,.v.,...,,.......,-, Q3,






12 co1VNT~ S

PAST IV.---CONTY DEscOR los--Continued. P
Laayette County, by G C. Matson .......................... ....... 335
General feature.................... ..... ....................... 335
Geology. .................................. ........... ......... 335
Water supply.............................. ................ 335
Source ................. ................... .............. 35
Quality.......................................... ....... ... 335
Development ............ .......................... 335
Lae County, by G. C. Matson ......... ............. .. 338
General features .................................... ......... 33
aGeology.. ........... ....... ........ 338
Water supply..................... ............... ....... 341
Source....................... .............. .......... 341
341
Development........... ............. ........... 341

General feature .............. .......................... .... ... 344
T -)cc .............. ........ ................................. 344
Ge ou ey a ............................................. 344


Source and quality .................. ... ....................... 344
Development ..... ................................. 345
Arteiaprospects ........ ...... ................ ........ 350
Leon County, by G. C. Maton ................................ ..... 350
General feature ................... ........................ 350
Geology-...... .. ... .. ..... ..... ......... 350
Water supply ............................. ...... .. 351
Source .................. ................ .......... 351
Quality .............. ....... ..... ..... .. 352
Development .............................................. 352
Levy County, by G. C. M ........M.......................... ... 354
General l futures ................................... 354
Geology.............................. .... 354
W water supply ..................................................... 354
Source......... ............ .......... ................. .. 354
Quality.................. ........... ....... 354
Development.............. ................... ....... 55
Liberty County, by G. Matsn ................. ............. .... 357
General featu ................................. .... ........ 357
Geology ............. ... .................. .................... 357
Water supply............................... ........ 358
Source ...... ....................... 358
Quality ...................... ........... 358
Development................................ ............. 358
Madison County, by G. C. Matson...................................... 359
General features............................ .. ....... ........ 359
Geology............................... .......... .. 359
Water supply.............................. 359
Source. ...................... .. ....... ....... ........... 359
Quality................ .... ................................. 360
Development .............................. ..... 360
Manatee by G. C. Matson .................. ......... ..... 362,
General features.............. ..... ................... ........ .. 362i
Geology .......... ...... .. ...- ....... ....... ...... 362







CONTENTS.


Prr IV.----CouNT DEsCRIPToN-Continued.
Manatee County, by G. C. Matson-Continued.
Water supply..................................
Source........... .... .....................
Quality ................... .......
Development............. ..................
Marion by G. C. Matson ......................
General features ......................................

Witter upply.~........................................
Water supply.........
Source ................ ......... .......
Quality........ ...... ...............
Development.......................
Monroe County, by Samuel Sanford ............ .......
General features.................... ......
Geology ........................
Water supply ............... ..... ....... .....
Source and quality .............. ..........
Development..................... ...
Na u County, by G. C. Matron ............ ....
General feature .......... ......... ... ..
Geology........ ......... .. .. ......
Water supply .............. .....................
Source................... ..............
Quality............. .
Development............... ......... .
Ora by G. C. Matson.......................
General feature ................ ........ ..
Geology. .............. .
W after supply.................... ........
Source......................... .......
Quality........., .................
Development .............. .. ....
Osceola by G. C. Maton.............................
General feature .......... ...... ...... ........
Ge oloy........ ..... .................
Water upply------ ....... ......
Source ....... ....... ...... .....
Quality.............. .........................
Development ................. .. ..............
Palm Beach County, by Samuel Sanford...................
General features................. .......
Geology ..... .............
Water supply .......... ..... .. ....... ...
Source......... ........ .. ..........
Artesian prospects ...........................
Pasco by G. C. Maton............................
General feature...................................
Geology- ..... ..........
W after aupply...................................... ...
Source................ ................... .......
Quaty.......... ..................... .. ...
Development ........... .................
Pinellas County........................................


Page.
............ 363
............ 363
. ......... 363
.... .... 363
.. ..... 365
........ 365
365
.. ..... 366
............ 366
........ ... 366
............ 366
....... ... 370
. ...... ... 370
........ 370
..... . 370
............ 370
... 371
....... 373
........... 373
............ 373
.. 374
....... 374
S......... 374
....... 374
....... 376
...... 376
... 376
........ 377
......... 377
.. ...... 377
.......... 377
......... 379
....... 379
..... . 379
....... 380
............ 380
........ ... 380
S........ 380
........... 381
... 381
..... . 381
........... 382
...... . 382
....... ... 384
.. ...... 385
........ 385
385
. .......... 386
...... 386
. .......... 386
..... .... 386
......... 387






14 CONTETS.

PART IV.-Coi~r DEox roN e---Continued. P
Polk County, by G. C. Maton ......................................... S
General fature................. ... ................. ......... 388
Geology ............... .. .... ..... ...... ....... ........ 38
Water eupply.................................................. 38
Source................... .................. ............. 3.
Quality....................................... ............ 39
Development....................... ..................... 39
Putnam County, by GC.. aton ..................................... 3)1
General fet ................................. ........ ... 91
Geology................. ........... ..... ............ ... 31
Water supply......................... ......... .......... 3
Source.. ..................... ..... ...... ...... 3
Quality......................................................... 3
Development ................................................ 3
St. John County, by G. C. Matson ............... .............. .. 394
General feature ................ ............ ...............
ecology .............. .. ............ ............ 3
W after supply....................... ............................. 3
Souce ....................................................... X39
Quality.................. ................... ..... 397
Development ............... ............. ............... 39
St. Lucie County, by G. C Maton................... ............... 3
neal featu ................................................ 39
Geology ......................................... ............... 39
W after supply ....................... .............................. 39
Source ................. .................. .. ............ 3
Quality........................ ........... .... ........... 399
Development ................................................ 39
Sant Rosa County, by G. C. Maton ................................... 401
General feature ................................. ................. 401
Geology................ ............................. 401
Water upply............... ... .... ............................ 401
Source.................. ... ..... ....... 401
Quality................. ........................... .......... 401
Development................................. .... .......... 401
umter County, by G. C. Matson ...................................... 40
General tur.... ......... ........... .. .......... .. 440
Geology.... .. ............. ............. ............ .. 404
W after supply .................. .................................. 406
Source .................................... .... ............... 406
Quality ......... .......... ... ......... .. -... .......... 406
Development...... ................................ ....... 4
Suwannee by G. C. Maton ................... ............. 40B
general features................................ ............ 408
Geology............... ....... ........ ............ .... ..
Water supply...................................................... 48
Source ..................--.. ..-.. ..........-................. 40
Quality ....... ... ..... ..... .............................. 408
Development ........................... ...................... 40
Taylor County, by G. C. Matson ...................................... 415
General features..................................... ......... 413
Geology................. ........................................ 413






CONTE TS. 15

PARr IV.--Cou r r D7scR oN--Continued
Taylor County, by G. C. Mal-on- n~u e.
Water supply..................................... .......... ..... 413
Sourc ..... ........................ ... 9 .................... 413
Quality.............. ..................... ................. 413
Develop en .................................................. 414
Voli unt, by G C. Maton........................................ 416
General feature ................................... ............ 416
Geolagy........................................... ............. 416
W te pply..................................... ....... ....... 418
Sourc........... ........................ ............... 418
Qudity.............. ..................................... 418
Develop nt.............................................. 418
Wakulla County, by G. C. Mat.on.................................... 420
Genea f ur .......... ............. . . . . ... ... ......... 420
Ideology ................................ ................... 420
Water supply..................................... ............. 421
Source...................................................... 421
Quality ....................................... 421
Development........................ ..................... 421
Walton County, by G. C. Maton................................... 422
General ftur............... ......... ........ ............ 422
eol ............ .................................... ... 423
after uppl ... ............................... .... ............ 424
ource.......... ......... ....... .... .... .............. 424
uaelty....................................................... 424
Development................................ ............... 424
W ington County, by G. C. Maton.................................... 426
General featuret.. ................................... 426
Geolo ................ ................................... 426
Wate supply ............................... .... .............. 428
Source......................................................... 428
Quality....................................................... 428
Development ......................... ... ............... 428
IND X ........................................................................... 431


Inss (tables) facing p~es 254, 266, 27, 282, 284, 288, 294, 300, 304, 322, 328, 42,
348, 366, 80W, 384, 308, 378, 880, 890, 892, 406, 418.


76884-wa 319--13--2









ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLT I General topogrphi and geologic map of Florid ............ In pocet
II. Map of part of Wlliton quadrangle, showing ink hols..........
III. A, nk hole, Alachua County; B, ink hole containing pond, 10
mil ut t of Vernon, hington County.................. 2
IV. A, Sink of Sata Fe River; B, e ink f Oclahatchee Lake,
7 or 8 ilesouthof Le Prk, ........................... 2
V. Generlid ap of Pletocene terrace of Flori............ In pocket
VI. A, Pleistocene te ad escpment boring St. Mars River
on Florida ide, opposte Tradr Hill, Ga.; B, Old well of Spansh
type, St. Augustine............... .............. ...... 32
VII. A, Beach ridge of coral and shell nd, Knighta Key; B, Calareous
nd on reef rock........................... .............. 6
VIII. A, Mangrove key, waters edge; B, Root groth of magrovs south
d of Key Vaca.............................. ... ....... 63
IX. A, etin in quarry aa Lime Co. at Ocala; B, QuarryofOl
Lime Co. (old Phil quarry), mile southeast of Ocala........ 80
X. A, iestneof Tampa ormation expose along Smile Creek, a
quarter of a mile below Atlantic Coast Line Railway bridge, Hills-
borough County; B, Limestone of Chattahoche formation on
Withlacoochee River at New Bridge (or Horn Bridge), 3 miles
below Georgia & Florida Railway bridge, Lowndes County, Ga.. 94
XI. A, Contact of Nashua marl and Plestoene sand, a quarter of a mile
below Nashua, on St. Johns River; B, Clay unconformably over-
lying Nashua marl in pit about half a mile south of De Leon
Spring ttio.............................................. o M
XII. A, Congloerate of Lafyett (7) formation, rstg on andstone
of uncertain ge, top of Rock Hill, Wahingtn County; B, Rock
c in coquina quarry, Anataia Island...................... 148
XIII. A, Coquina rock on Gulf sde of Key; B, Turtle Mound,
an ancient hell mound on North Indian River.................. 15
XIV. A, Reef rock, Key limestone, showing erion; B, Quarry in
Mimi oolite .................................................. 178
XV. A, eef rock, Key Largo limtone, coral head; B, Mud cracks in
cr tl ye of Key West oolite .............................. 14
XVI. A, Well at Quincy, illstrting type of bored well and bucket in use
in Gadedn County; B, Flowing well at New Smyrna, with pro-
on for shutng off water when not in u.................. 2
XVII. A, Waterwheel for pumping wtr, Calooslache River; B, Wekiva
Spring, showing prig d bthho ............ ........ 234
FIro v 1. Section nea edge of Everglades west of Fort uddale........ 58
2. Relatn of undergroundwater level to Silver and Blue srng.... 224
3. elation of underground-water level to surface contour in Buwannee
and Columbia counti.................................... 22
4. Profile acros peinsula of Florida in latitude 29 N.............. 25
5. Diagra showing importance of choosing proper locaons for well.23
6. Condition governing the occurrence of artan water in ome pats
of Florida ....... ................................. 234
7. Vari n of water level in Johnson well ner Sa Bernardino, Cal.. 240












GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


By G~CzO CHARuLTON MAT ox and SAMUEL SANFORD.


INTRODUCTION.
The geology of Florida has been a subject of investigation for many
yes, for the delightful winter climate of the State early attracted
to it many scientists who attempted, with varying degrees of success,
to solve some of the geologic problems The investigations however,
have thus far resnlted i only one comprehensive stratigraphri
report, although many papers have appeared in scientific journals,
notably in the transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science
and the American Journal of Science.
Te print report, like all similar reports covering large areas,
contains data derived from many sources. The authors have care-
flly stud the earlier literature and have compared the different
views presented, which are here summarized, credit being given to the
several investigators. The work of W. H. Dal, of the United States
Geological Survey, has been especiay helpful. Mr. Dall made ex-
tnive investigations of the pleontology of the Stat and, in 1892,
published a treatise covering nearly a hundred pages, in which he
outlined the conditions as they were then known, A later report
by Mr. Dall is primarily paleontologic, but contains also a summary
of the geology and the stratigraphy of the State.
The paleontologic studies of T. Wayland Vaughan, of the ...
States Geological Survey, under whose immediate supervision this
report has bn prepared, in connection with the work of Mr. Dall,
have also been of great value, because they have formed a basis for all
subsequent work. Mr. Vaughan examined and identified the fossils
collected during the progress of the work, and he has very generously
placed at the disposal of the writers his own extensive notes, accumu-
lated during many years. The work of other geologists, prominent
among whom are Dr. Eugee A. Smith, Prof. Angelo Heilprin, and
Prof. Alexander Agassiz, has added much to the writers' knowledge
of the golog of Florida.
'urrltis pBrs-o 1. U aOl. Burvey No. 84, 1a89, pp. 8-157
' Co rati to tr TIrtisry auna of rForida: Trans. W e r Inst. ., vol. 3, pts. 1-4, 189-10.
17






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA


After the discovery of phosphate in Flrida George H. Eldridge
was sent by the - States Geological Survey to make detailed
investigations of the deposits. He obtained much valuable data
but unfortunately did not live to prepare his final report. His note-
books have been available, however, and have occasionally been
drawn upon by the writers.
Aside from incidental references to underground waters in Florida,
brief summaries of the water resources have been published by the
United Geological Survey and by the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station. -of the scattered references to Florida waters
are of historic interest only, but some of the records of deep-well
boring are important. Four lists of these are worthy of special
mention The first two were compiled by Darton,' the third by
Fuller, Lines, and Veatch, and the fourth by Fuller and Sanford.
Summaries of the underground-water resources of Florida have been
published by Fuller and Sellards. A report on the ground waters
of central Florida has bee published by the State Geological
Survey.~
The investigations leading to the present report were made possible
primarily by the passage of the act incorporating the new s' sur-
vey. The United States Geological Survey was then engaged in mak-
ing a systematic investigation of the geology of the Atlantic Coastal
Plain of the United Stats and with the financial cooperation of the
new survey was enabled to make a more comprehensive study than
could have been carried out in a single season by either bureau alone.
In October, 1907, F. G. Clapp, then employed by the Federal ur-
vey, began a field' *:~ of the stratigraphy and underground water
resources of northern and central Florid. In November of the same
year he was joined by G.. Maton, andthe two remained in the
continuously until May 1, 1908, visiting nearly every town in the
northern and central sections and gathering as much data as time
would permit At the same tie Prof. E. H. Sellars, State geolo-
gist, and his assistant, Herman Gnter, visited 16 counties in central
Florida and gathered data on the water supplies.
The funds available for field expenses having been exhautd,
Clapp and Matson returned to the office about May 1, 1908.
1 Darton, N. H., Pr inary li t of dep borngs n the United States Water-Supply Paper U . Gel.
survey No. 67, pt. 1 ,, 1pp. 21-22; and Waterupply Paper No. 149, 1905, pp. 25-26.
Fuller, M. L, Line E. F., and Veatch, A. C., Rord ofdpwe d- killing for 1904: Bul. U. 8. GeoL
ury No. 2r, 1906, pp. 44-45.
SFuller, M. L., and Snr, Sarel, Record of deep well drilling for 1901: Bull U. eol. Survey No.
2O, 1906, pp. 47-60, 19-199.
SFuller, M. L., Contributions to the hydrology o eastern United State, 19i: Water-Supply Paper
U 8. survey No 02,1904, pp. 18, 2, 38-275; and Underground water of eastern United States:
Water-Bupply Paper U. 8.ol, urvey No. 14, 1905, pp. 159163.
ellard, E. H., GOouartnc and ae of artefn water: Bull. Florda Ar Ex. Station No. 59, 19H, pp.
1-13.
S ellard, E. H., A prelminry report on toh underground waer supply of central lorida: Bull. Florid
eta. I rvy No. 1, 1908, pp. i 103.





ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.


On July 1, 1908, Mr. Clapp resigned from the United States Geo-
loi Survey, anId the work of preparing the manuscript for the
report on the northern and central pats of the State was intrusted to
Mr. Matson. Before tendering his resignation Mr. Clapp prepared
the topographic mp of the State and drew up a tentative outline of
the paper published in the Second Annual Report of the Florida Ge-
logical Survey.
Shortly after the appearance of the State report Thomas Wayland
Vaughan published a paper . "A contribution to the geologic
history of the Floridian plateau,"' containing a r6sui6 of the geo-
logic history and valuable information concerning the influence of
depth and temperature of ocean waters, and the action of ocean
currents in the development and history of the peninsula of Florida.
The geologic information contained in the earlier papers has been
incorporated in the present report with such revisions as were
deemed essential to make it stable for a Water-Suppl Paper. The
remIts of field work by Mr. Matson while in the employ of the General
Land Office during the winters of 1909-10 and 1910-11 have been
utili in the preparation of additional discussions of the Pleistocene
geology. Some important changes in both the text and map of the
earlier report have also been made possible by Mr. Matson's recent
field work. The base map accompanying both reports was prepared
by the United Sttes Geological Survey.
At the time when the field workfor thi report was begnI Samuel
Sanford was engaged in geologic work for the Florida East Coast
Railway, and the task of investigating the geology of the keys and of
the southern end of the State was intrusted to him.
The interest and cooperation of the people of Florida have rendered
thi work a pleasure, and the authors wish here to make public
acknowledgment of the numerous favors and courtesies extended
them in the field and office. Several persons deserve particular men-
ion, among them being Dr. J. N. MacGonigle, of Miami; Mr Goff
and several other officials of the Florida East Coast Railway,
for affording opportunities to visit the extension of the rairoad
during the process of its construction. Mr. Frank Clark, of Gaines
ville, f wished introductions which greatly facilitated the investiga-
tions; Dr. DeWitt Webb, of St. Augustine, and Dr. Crill, of Palatka,
hwae interest themselves in the work. Many well drillers have
furnished logs and records, adding valuable data to the knowledge of
te stratigraphy. Capt. Alexander : of Eau Galli; Mr. H C.
Haven, of De Lan; Mr. W. D Holcomb and Mr. Edward Pettigrew,
f Manatee; Mr. H. W. Pearce, of Arcadia; Mr. H. Walker, of St.
'sa C., and Clapp, F. 0., A peinary report on the eoltogy of Florida, with special refeh
ato th araphy: eond Ann. Rept Florida Oeol. Svey, 10, pp. 28-173.
;Pk C ie InsittAon of Whgto No. 13, 110, ppM 9-186.





20 GEOLOGY AD GROUND WATERS OF FLORA

Augustine; Mr. Wnm. E. Hughes, of Charleston, S. C.; J. E. Ingraha,
of the Florida East Coast Railway; J. C. Merdith, forerly constuc~
ing engineer, and W. J. Krome, constructing engineer, of the Key
West extension, rendered special assistance.
Many others, who can not be mentioned on account of lack of space,
have given substantial assistance. A number of citizens have inter-
ested themselves in acting as guides and in furnishing speimns and
samples from wells. The officials of the Atlantic Coast line Railroad,
the Seaboard Air Line Railway, the Florida East Coast Railway, and
the louisville & Nashville Railroad, in Jacksonville, Wilming
Norfolke,and uiille, have allowed access to their profs and other
records, which gave valuable information for use in the construction
of the topographic map of the Stat. (See P. I.)











PART I.- -)EOGRAPHY.


NORThRN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.
By G. Ma~on.
NATUBR OF CO TRY,
The area described in this report comprises all the State of Florida.
(See PI. I, in pocket.) It forms a part of the province commonly
known as the Coastal Plain-a broad tract of relatively low land
which extends from New York to Mexico, rising gradually from the
coast to a height of a few hundred feet and for the most part appear
ently flat or gently rolling. In Florida the shores are low and
swampy, variations in the altitude amounting to only a few feet
several miles. Farther inland the surface is more rolling, and is in
some places hilly, but the ref is nowhere great. Most of the sur
face is sandy, though in a few localities the soil contains consider
able clay. The sandstones, clays, sales, and limestones of the older
formations are nearly everyhere only a few fet beneath the surface.


Although Florida is a region of comparatively slght relief, its sur-
face presents considerable diversity, ranging frm a nearly level
plai in the coastal region and the Everglades to a deeply dissected
upland in the northern part of the State, where it is trenched by
steep-walled valleys, and to a highland in the peninsula, where it
shows many more or less rounded depressions separated by narrow
divides Altitudes within the State range from sea level to more
tha 200 feet above at places on the ridge that forms the center of
the ula and to about 300 feet above, at the western end of the
State near the northern boundaries of Gadsden, Walton, Santa Rosa,
and Escambia counties.
The topographic map (Pl. I) is intended to show the approximate
areas of land which lie above and below certain altitudes. The
datum plane is mean sea level, and the contour lines connect points of
equal altitude at intervals of 50 feet. The map bodies the results
of the earlier topographic surveys, the river surveys of the United
States Army Enginers, and the several railroad surveys, together
with a large number of barometric determinations made dung the
field work Although the exact location of the contours is in places
more or ls uncertain, it is believed that they are sufficietly accu-
21





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORDA.


rate to give a good idea of the relative area of decent titudes and
to present a general plan of the broader topographic ftur of the
Stat. The small scale of the map made it necessary to omit such
minor detail as sink hole, valleys of small streams narrow ridg,
and small more or less isolated elevations. The United States Geo
logical Survey has already published detailed maps of seven contigo-
ousU quadranglee (Arredondo, t, OitrDt Dunnellon, Oeala, Paunsoffke
Tsala Apopka, and Williston), comprising an area of about 1,800
square miles, situated in the central part of the peninsula, and to
these the reader is referred for lcal information
The southern part of the peniula, comprig an area about 150
miles long and over 100 miles in average width, lies in general ss
than 50 feet above sea level. Narrow strips of lowlad also borde
the tlantie and Gulf coasts. The valleys of the streams do not rise
above the 50-foot contour for a considerable distance from the cost,
and one of them (St. Johns River) i nowhere more than 30 feet
above tide.
The uplands of the peninsula and the adjcnt part of north Flor-
ida are separated into two more or le distinct parts by Ocklaw~
River. Begining southwest of Arcd, a belt of high land, very
irregular in shape, extends northward o Smm o the Atlntic
Coast Line Railroad, and separates the Kissimmee River drainage
basin from that of the stress bt to the wet. At Lakeland, Broos-
ville, and several other points this upland rises more than 200 feet
above sea level.
Another broad, irregular upland, stretching northward from Ockls-
waha River to the Georgia line, includes a considerable tracr tmor
than 150 feet above sea level and forms the divide between the
Atlantic and Gulf drainage basins. Its narrowest part is along the
western boundaries of Clay and Duval counties, where it forms the
long northsouth divide known as Trail Ridge. This upland included
Lake City, at an altitude 201 feet above sea level, and Highland on
Trail Ridge at an altitude of 210 feet. Near the Georgia line the
upland broadens into the Okefenokee swamp, which occupies a large
areain Georgiaandextends a short distance into Florida. The wtern
slope of the highland is cut by Santa Fe River and its tributaries, and
its eastern slope is deeply dissected by the tributaries of St. Johns and
St. Mays rivers.
Near the State line in the northern and western part of Florida Ii
a narrow upland which has been deeply dissected by several streams.
On its seaward side this highland in many places descends rather
abruptly to the low coastal region. Its highest points are near the
northern line of the State, where considerable areas rise above the
250-foot contour Notable examples of this upland are seen in
Gadsden County and in the counties west of Choctawhaches River.





GEOGnAPHY OF ORTH ERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


T"allhassee, the ecpital of the State, stands about 205 feet above sea
leIvl, on a remnant of the upland which has been isolated by erosion.
East of Apalachicol River the railroad stations at Monticello, Mid-
way, and Q y are all reported to be over 200 feet above se level,
and west of this river are some of the highest points in Florida.
Between Argyle and Deerland, and at several points north of Cret-
view, all on the Louisville & Nashille Railroad, the profiles show
that considerable tracts rise above the 200-foot contour. Argyle,
DI IFuiak Springs, and MIb head are also above 250 feet It ap-
per probable that at some localities near the Alabama line the
sudrfae may be somewhat higher. According to the list of altitudes
furnished by the Seaboard Air Line Railway, Mount Pleasant is 301
feet above sea level. This is the highest accurately determined point
record in Florida



The change in relative positions of land and sea which have affect
the drainage of Florida are so closely interoven with the general
geologic and physiogrphi history that their full discussion is left
tiller. (Se pp. 199-218.) Heret t is only necsry to note the
general eharacer of the streams and to state briefly the factors which
have produced existing conditions.
Some of the rivers ae confined to the coastal lowlands, where they
uassmed their courses in consequence of the initial slope of the land
as it emerged from the sea, they are therefore known as consequent
stores. The channels of many of them are winding. herever
there were depressions in the sands lakes were formed, and some of the
consequent stream consist of a chain of such lakes joined by more or
less welldefined channels. To this class belongs the Kissimme-
Caloosahatchee system with its numerous lakes
Consequent streams that have removed the thin mantle of surficial
sand and cut into the older formations belong to the class known as
superimposed streams. Thus Caloosahatchee River, which in parts
of its coupre has eroded a channel through the surface formations into
the underlying Plioene marls, is superimposed upon these older
formations. In like manner St. Johns River north of Sanfor has
been superimposed upon the PlioEene and probably the :.' ... rocks.
manatee and Aucilla rivers have in parts of their courses been super-
imposed upon the Oligocene formations In Florida there are many
other examples of consequent and superimposed streams and many
rivers which, like the St. Johns, are in part consequent and in part
snperimpoeed.
The rivers that cross both the older and younger geologic formations
existed before the sands that form the surface of the lowlands were





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA


deposited, and originally they entered the sea at the edge of the
present highland belt Where they crossed the highland these
streams now have broad, deep valleys floored with a deposit of
alluvium and bordered by many prominent bluffs. In their course
across the upland they take directions determined by the slope of the
surface, but in most places they have removed the srficial formations
and cut deeply into the r rocks upon which they are super~nm
posed. As the coastal belt emerged from the sea by successive addi-
tions to its landward margin, these streams gradually extended their
channels across this new land and hence became in part what is
commonly known as extended streams. On the Coastal Plain they
flow in broad shallow trenches bordered by low bans of sand, a in
some places they have removed the Pleistocene sand and eroded
channels in the underlying limestones and marl. The most impor-
tant extended streams of the State are Escambia, Blackwatr, Yellow,
Choctawhatchee, Apalachicola, Ochlockonee, Aucila, Withlacoochee,
Hillsboro, Peace, and St. Marys rivers. With the possible exception
of Eseambia River, all these streams are in part superimposed upon
the Pliocene or older geologic formations.
after the deposition of the younger gologic formations and the
extension of the streams across the newly emerged land, slight sub
mergence caused a shortening of the streams and permitted the sea
water to ascend the river channels for several miles from the coast
In this way the lower parts of the stream valleys were transformed
into estuaries which contain bracsh water and are affected by the
tides. The exact length of those estuaries or tidal portions of the
riers differs in different streams, and even in a single river it may
change with the strength and direction of the wind, strong onshore
minds raising the height of the water and forcing the sea water farther
upstream and offshore winds having an opposite effect.

LAKEs AND SWAMPS.
Although the State of Florida is crossed by many large riv it
contains numerous tracts of land which are very imperfectly drained
and are occupied by lakes or swamps, some of them being of consider-
able size The most noteworthy undrained area is in the southern
part of the peninsula where the Everglades and adjacent lowlands form
a nearly impenetrable wilderness. In ts lowland tract lies Lake
Okechobee, one of the largest and most interesting lakes in the south
tlantic States. According to Sanford the Everglades nowhere rise
more than 25 feet above sea level, and the slope of the surface is so
gentle that much of the water which falls during the rainy season is
held for a time in broad, shallow ponds and marshes that carry excel-
let growths of saw grass and other aquatic plants. These plants,





GEOGRAPHY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA


by their partial decay under water, have formed extensive peat and
muck deposits several feet in thickness.
Smaller swamps and marshes are found in all parts of the State
but are especially numerous in the belt of lowland that borders the
coast. In the highlands occupying the northern portion of the State
they are smaller and less numerous. In the coastal belt there are also
many small laks andI ponds, some of them permanent but most of
tem lasting only during the raiy season. Few exceed 2 or 3 feet in
depth.
In the central part of the peninsula and in some localities near the
northern boundary of the State are lakes and swamps which appear
to be the result either of unequal depression of the surface sands or of
solution of the subjacent limestone and consequent lowering of the
surface. (See p. 74.) Some of the lakes are shallow and resemble
the of the coast belt, but others are deep basins partly or holy
enclosed by a rm of rock Many of the smaller swamps contain peat
or muck, but few of the depois attain any great thickness and many
of them form only a thin coating of partly decomposed vegetable
matter mingled with more or less sand.


CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES.

Florida may be divided into thr topographic provinces-the
upland region of the peninsula (commonly known as the "lake"
region), the lowland, and the coast Lakes, of cure, are not con-
fined to the upland or "lake" region Generally speaking, however,
they are grouped in two more or less distint areas, those lying in
rock basins occupying the upland and those lying in shallow depres-
sions in the sand in the coastal and southern lowlands, though many
in the highlands lie in depressions in the sand and some small ones
in the lowlands are known to occupy rock basins. The highland
area of the peninsula, however, where rock basins predominate, has
commonly been known as the lake region, and for convenience this
designation is retained.

UPLAND OR LAKE REGION.


The lke region comprises a type of topography common to all
lnestone areas that have been sufficiently elevated to permit the
formation of large underground stream. The character of the
surface well shown by Plate II, which s a part of the Williston
sheet of the topographic atlas of the United States. The numerous
depresons shown in the plate are known as sink holes, and in order





26 GEOLOGY AND OBOUN WATBS OF FLOIDA.

to understand their origin it is nece.y to consider the veop
of the underground drainage.
Cavrn.-Ths region is underlain at no gret depth by sev~
hundred feet of porous limetone of Vckburg age. W re r
water bearing carbonic acid derived from decaying organic matt
enters thi rock, it gradually dissolvesthe limetone and foe
underground channel. A large part of the mineral attr th
removed by the undergrund watr is carried to the surface and
entering the river, is tranported to the sea. Selards est
the amount of slid mater removed in thi manner, baking his c
culations on the amount of mineral mattr contain in o iio
the waters of eight of the large sprigs of the State. The sp
emerge from caverns in the underlying limestone and are fed by t
rain falling on the surrounding areas. The percentage of mine
matter in solution was detrmied by analysis and the volume
flow was etimated. By this method Sellards estimated that Sklv
Spring brought to the surface 340 pounds of mineral matt
minute. The figures for the other springs were different, but
were large. With a conservative etiate of the average miner
content of the spring water (219 parts per million) and the assui
tion that about one-half the rainfall of Florida entered the
and removed this amount of material, Sellar reached the conclu-
sion that the amount of solution was sufficientto remove about
400 tons per square mile each year. If evenly distributed this would
lower the surface of the limestone about a foot in 5,000 or ,000
year. The concentration of this solution along certa beds or
channels of active circulation would permit the formation of large
underground passages cotmparatively brief geologic tiae, and it
has dissolved out man cnnelse known as cerns, which are already
hundreds of feet in diameter and several miles in length kA levd
surface and a porous soil, such as that of the lake rion, favor the
development of caverns because most of the rainfall sinks into the
earth instead of flowing off over the surface
Snk holee.-As solution progressed the cavern roofs became
weakened at numerous pointe and collapsed, forming the depression
known as sink holes. (See P. II.) In some areas these depression
are so numerous that they occupy a large part of the surface an<
give the region its charateristic topography Splendid example
of ancient sinks, such as the Devils Mill Hopper, are to be found i
different parts of the State, and the formation of sinks in differei
parts of the lake region by the collapse of cavern roofs is within th
memory of persons now living. A good example of a recently former
SBlrdt H., A prallmtay report on then wnadtrth ilay oiccntl Florida;: Bull. Flar
Geol Survey No. I, 198, pp. 47-48.
a Idem, p. 1.




























I


~


~












:."

~



~
~
~
~
~


~
~



~


~


~
~


0i


3o
3,


II
II
11
,13.

I







WATER-SUPPLY PAPER 819 PLATE III


A. SINK HOLE, ALACHUA COUNTY.


B. SINK HOLE CONTAINING POND, 10 MILES SOUTHEAST OF VERNON, WASHINGTON
COUNTY.


U. L GEOLOGICAL SURVEY










WATER-SUPPLY PAPER 819 PLATE IV


A. SINK OF SANTA FE RIVER.


B. DRAINAGE SINK OF OCLAHATCHEE LAKE, 7 OR 8 MILES SOUTH OF LAKE PARK, GA.


U. & GEOLOGICAL SURVEY






GEOGRAPHY Op NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


sink is to be een on the road between High Springs and the "sink"
of Santa Fe River. A second example is a new sink near Alachua
sink, Alachua County, where a action of the surface 100 feet in
diameter has recently dropped over 30 feet, leaving an open hole
filled with water. (See P. III, A.) In the phosphate region, a
large quantity of water, which has been used in mining operations,
is allowed to enter the ground. That this water may have a notice-
able effect in wekening the roofs of the underground-drainage chan-
nels is shown by the following quotation from the unpublished notes
of George H. Eldridge:
ice the mining of phophate h been underken many sinks have been formed
near the settling ponda or along the line of drainage from the mine washers The
writer has in the morning ped over a stretch of appF ntly firm road which on
hi return at night had given way to a chasm 40 fet acres, in which earth, shrub,
and te had ben engulfed and into which watr was pouring down to an under-
ground p ge in the weird conceivable way. At one of the Southanpton mines
the floor of the old pit and an adjoinig ar of overlying sand has sunk A verl feet,
Saving rift in the rh 4 or 5 f acr
If the bottom of the sink does not contain an opening the water
that accumulates after rainfall will in most places escape to the
underground stream by seepage, but if the amount of rainfall is
too great to be carried away in this manner it accumulates in lakes
or ponds The level of the standing water in such ponds fluctuates,
rising after each rainfall and gradually sinking during dry weather.
Hundreds of lakes in Florida belong to this class. Soee sinks
have openings in the bottom which connect .. t under
ground streams, and into these openings the surface streams plunge,
carrying loans of sedinent and other dbris. This sediment probably
aids the underground stream in enlarging its channel by mechanical
wear, but sometimes it accumulates in such quantities as partly or
wholly to close the passage, causing the surface water to form
a l e or pond. (See l. HI, B.) Examples of open sinks receiving
thedischarge of surface streams are common, conspicuous among
thm being the sink of Santa Fe River (PI. IV, A), the sink of Chipola
ier, the lake sink in Jefferson County, the sink of Oelahatchee
S(PI. I, B, and the Alachua sink ner ainesville.
SAachu sink is important because it illustrates some of the
e which sink holes unro. n the erl d of the State,
sink, which receives the drainage of a large stream crossing
e Prairie, appears to have beeninabout the same condition
i to-day; later, owing to the closing of the outlet," perhaps by
Sand other rubbish, a a l lake was formed. About 1891 the
sink reopened and the basin was drained, effectually ending the
steamboat traffic that had developed on the lake
rtrasi, WRlia, TMveis, 1791, pp, 187 t q. -
D o; w. H.,COrrlaitn pmpe-eoo Bull. U.B. GBo. dvoy No. 84, IMB, pp. 94-8.





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WAT~ S OF FLORDA


In some parts of the averns the water enters through the ope-
ings in the limestone and evaporates, leaving a deposit of calcium
carbonate. By gradual accretion these deposits may form lamg
pendants (stalctites) hang from the roof or wall. Wen the
water falls to the floor of the cavern and evaporates, it remaining
carbonate builds up projections known as stalagmites. The deposits
in caverns are frequently highly ornamental and form the chief
attraction for visitors.
Sometimes the underground stre'-ams form new passages and
abandon portion s of their old channels, andit i the abandoned
channels that are commonly visited by traveler. In Florida only
a few caverns have been explored and none are reported to be high
ornamented. The most important caverns noted during the field
work are located near Marianna, Ocala, and Alachua. The one near
Alachu is known as Warren Cave and is said to be well worth
visiting.
NaLtural" bridges.-Where the underground s t ammerges, it form
a spring, and as the roof of the cavern falls it leaves an open chann
through which the spring drains to some surface stream. By a
continuation of this process, the underground stream is transformed
into a surface stream Where a segment of the roof of the under
ground channel remains after the parts above and below have fallen,
a natural bridge results ..: ... bridges may also be foredin
another manner where the river water gradually works its way
to an underground passage, establishing an underground stream
beneath the floor of the surface channel. As such a channel is
gradually enlarged by solution and mechanical wear, more river
water passes through it. Finally, the surface channel may be
unoccupied except during high water, or if the underground passage
is large enough the surface channel may be entirely abandoned
A surface channel may also be produced across a natural bridge
whenever the underground passage is partly obstructed
There are many natural bridges in Florida, small ones bing
reported near Homosasa, north of Clarksvie, in northern Walto
County, and in many other localities. Large natural bridges occur
on Chipola River above Marianna, on Santa Fe River northeast of
High Spring, and on several other rivers The natural bridge on
Chipola River is submerged during high water, and a broad shallo
surface channel crossing the natural bridge near High Springs
said to carry a portion of the flood waters of Santa Fe River (PI.
IV, A). The breadth of the surface channel near High Spring
suggests that the natural bridge of Santa Fe River may have been
formed by the second method outlined above. The natural bridge
of Chipola River was submerged at the time the field work was done
in that vicinity, so that no obse~ nations could be made. However,





GEOGRAPHY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORMDA


the broad valley of the river above the bridge indicates that the
upper part of the rivr has been a surface stream for a long period
As natural bridges in such rocks are not apt to endure for long
periods, it appears probable that this one may also have been formed
by the second method.

The great development of underground d nage in many parts
of the State has given rise to many springs at places where streams
emerge from subterranean chIannels The number of suh springs is
very gret. In sz they vary from mere seeps to discharges which
give rise to creeks and rivers large enough to float good-sied passen-
ger and freight steamer. The best known and large is the Silver
Spring in Marion County, which gives rise to a large stream of
remarkable cleaess and beauty. The water emerges from a basin
over 35 feet deep in a stream (Silver Spring Run) that is about 50
feet in ::. :. width and more than 9 feet in minimum depth in the
center of the channel The water is so lear that objects lying on
the bottom are distinctly viible.
Among the other large springs of the region are Weldva Spring,
the source of the river of the same name; Sulphur Spring, near
Tampa; Suwannee Sulphur Spring, near Suwannee; Blue Spring, near
Juliet Stcation; Blue Sprig, near Orange Juncion; Green Cove
pring, on St. Johns River; Ithatu ee Spring, near Fort White;
Poe Spring, near High Sprin; Crystal River Springs, the source of
crystal River; Weekewachee Spring, near Bayport; and Newland
Spring, near Falnouth. A these springs are well known and
many of them are very large. They are supplied with water by
the lneseones of the Vicksburg group, which are everywhere porous
and in many places cavernous.
A spring at Tarpon Sprigs is worthy of special mention because
it appear to be in part supplied with water from a small lake. The
water emerges at the bottom of the bay a few feet below mea tide
eveL On the opposite side of the town is a small lake which is with-
ut surface outlet and apparently occupies a sink hole. Usually the
low of this spring is comparatively insignificant, but at times the
discharge is enormous. Observations made upon the lake ust
before and aIftr one of these outbursts of the sprin appear to show
.at the lake discharges water into the spring through some under-
pound channel, for the surface of the lake is said to have been
owered several inhes while the spring was flowing rapidly.
Aside from tlhe large springs mentioned many others yield large
quantities of water, and springs of moderate size exist in nearly all
parts of the State. Some of the smaller springs are supplied with
water from the superficial sands, but many of them derive their
mpplie from the limestone..





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLO A


zzIONAL FZTURZS

In west Florida and in parts of pn ular and north Florida the
surface confguration has been largely determined by the erosion of
surface streams. However, sink hole topography is common as far
west as Walton County, and many of the depression are occupied by
small lakes.
From Leon County westward the major streams cross the upland
in wide, level-floored valleys bordered by well-defined bluffs. The
depth of these valleys is due to the erosive action and the width to
the meandering of the streams. Most of them contain a deposit of
sand and mud, which rises but little above the level of the streams
ad is partly overflowed when the lattr are high.
The small streams of the uplands flow in narrow valleys with
step walls and high gradients. In most of these valleys erosion has
not extended far from the main streams and many of the divides
between the principal rivers are comparatively level. Near the
rivers the areas of level land become smaller and the number and
depth of the valleys increase until the surface is largely reduced to
steep slopes. It is also worthy of note that the amount of dissection
increases toward the south. Thus most of the largest level tracts of
upland are found near the northern line of the State. At its southern
edge the upland in places descends quite abruptly to the coastal
belt bordering the Gulf of Mexico. In some places, however, the
transition to the coastal lowlands is by a gradual slope.


The uplands are for the most part covered by a few feet of gry
sand, wlich masks the minor inequalities of the erosion topography
Moreover, it is in many places d cult to determine whether shallow
depressions are sink holes or are merely irregularities in the surface
of the sand However, the sinkhole origin of deep depression such
as the lake at De Funiak Springs appears to be unquestionable.
BAND DUNME.

Sand dunes and ridges are common, especially along the souther
edge of the uplands, but few of them are more than a few feet in
height. Wind-blown sands are probably much more widespread
than is indicated by the surface topography, the heavy precipitation,
together with the abundant vegetation, preventing the development
of extensive dunes.
LOWLAND.
The coastal region of Florida comprise a belt of lowld little of
which rises above the 100-foot contor and much of which is only a
few feet above high tide. Its emergence from the sea took plat






GEOGRAPHY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


after the drainage of the uplands had been well developed and the
rivers gradually extended their channels across it as new areas were
added to the land.
sTREAM ANWD POND8.
The Pleiocene sands, which form a large part of the surface in the
coastal region, slope gently toward the sea and are in places crossed
by small streak flowing in shallow valleys. Minor irregularities in
the suEace of the sand have resulted in the shallow lakes and ponds
that cover large areas during the rainy se n The difference in
elevation between the bottoms of many of these ponds and the
surface of the surrounding ares is less than 2 fet.
artea-o
Scattered throughout the coastal region are small areas of higher
land which in some places resemble sand ridgs anin other places are
ve irregular in form. Some of them contain a core of rock covered
by a thin mantle of sad, but many appear to be composed entirely of
sand. These areas represent the higher parts of the original sea floor
and their positions were determined by the inequalities in the surface
of the underlying rock or by unequal deposition of the sands.


A large part of the surface of Florida is covered by a few feet of
gray sand. Along the coast this sand has in some places reduced the
original inequalities of the surface and in others has increased them
by forming sand dunes and ridges. However, few of the dunes and
ridges are more than a few feet in height and hence they have ittle
effect on the topography.

General fe res -Bordering the coast and extending into the vl-
leys of all te large streak are a series of terraces resenting generally
level surfaces bordered by low, seaward-faci scarps. These plains
have been grouped into three divisions and as they represent succes-
sive stages in the Pleistocne physiographic history of Florda they
will be discussed at some length They form brad plain but little
diseed by stream valleys and are so poorly drained that marshes
and lake are common. The surface of the lowermost terrace ranges
in altitude frm sea level to about 40 feet abo it, and includes both
ecent and Pleistocene deposit; the second terrace ranges from 40
to 60 ft above sea level; and the third from 60 to 100 feet above
the sae datum plane. They are own, respectively, as the Pen-
acola, the T"ala Apopka, and the Newberry terrace, the firt-named
ng the youngest. (See P1. V, in pocket.)
These terraces are for the most part constructed of lithologically
similar materials, and this fact together with the absence of char-
76E -wSP 819-18--8





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


aeristic fossils makes it necessary to rely on the topography for
their discrimination. The general distribution of the terraces
shown on Plate V. This map doe not show their occurrence in
detail, for, in the absence of suitable topographic maps, it is in any
places difficult to decide on the correlation of more or less isolated
plains. The failure to delineate narrow terraces along some of the
stie s is nectss~ because of the small sc~e of the map.
The Pleitoene terraces were formed during submergence of
portions of the land beneath the ea. The maximum amount of
submergence was sufficient to permit the sea to encroach on
the land less than 100 feet above the present level of the sea. The
relations of the land and water remained nearly uniform at some
stages long enough to permit the waves to erode and redeposit the
materials from the underlying formations. The erosive action of
the waves of the Pleistocene sea produced low seaward-facing carpa
(see PI. VI, A) and at the same time the materials eroded from the
older formations were redeposited in the form of plains that T
locally several miles wide. The surfaces of these plains ae not
everywhere level, but few inequalities exceed 2 or 3 feet, except
where subsequent erosion has changed the topography
The Pleistocene terraces were originally slightly irregular and the
result of unequal deposition on an eroded surface. The mot strik-
ing topographic features are the sink holes in the limestone that lie
near the surface in the west-entral part of the peninsula. Some of
the minor variations are the low sand ridges, lying nearly parallelto
the coast, which were built by the waves of the Pleistocene sea
Their recognition is exceedingly difficult because in most places they
rie less than 5 feet above the ladjaent surface Depreions of
varying size and shape are numerous, but they are seldom noticed
except during the rainy season, when they are transformed into
ponds and imarshes.
The Pleistocene terraces extend up the river valleys, where they
are composed in part of estuarine ad in part of fluviatile mteralI;
the two types merge into each other and are not everywhere dis-
tinguishable. Inasmuch as the deposition of fluviatie sediments
shifted seaward during freshet and landward when the rivers were
low and sluggish, the fluvitile deposit should dovetail with the
estuarine.
New berry terace.-The Newberry terrace, which is composed of
ight-ghray or yellow sand with local deposits of clay, forms a plain
rising from about 70 feet to more than 100 feet above sea level. Its
formation was brought about by an encroachment of the sea upon
the land and its size depends upon the amount of erosion and deposi-
tion accomplished during that submergence, less whatever portion
ha been subsequetly removed by erosion. Before te me of











WATER-SUPPLY PAPER 810 PLATE VI


A. PLEISTOCENE TERRACE AND ESCARPMENT BORDERING ST. MARYS RIVER ON FLORIDA
SIDE, OPPOSITE TRADERS HILL, GA.


B. OLD WELL OF SPANISH TYPE, ST. AUGUSTINE.


U. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY






GEOGRAPHY OF NORTHE-N AND CENTRAL FLORIDA


this eneroachment Florida had suffered considerable erosion and
the Tertiary forations had been subjected to some tilting and
folding, so that the materials composing the terrace rest on the
eroded surfaces of formations ranging in age from the Vicksburg to
the Pliocene, and their relation to the Tertiary foratons is every-
where unconformable.
eathering had been active before the invasion of the Pleitocene
sea, and the terae consists largely of the weathered portions of the
subjacent rocks. Limestone is generally absent, the prevailing
aterals being sand wth some clay and a little chert, especily
where the underlying rocks belong to the Vicksburg group. No
fossils have been found in the posed portions of the Newberry
terrace, and it is doubtful if it contains many. Some of the Pleisto-
cene shells obtained from well borings at Ki nsimmee probably came
from the layers near the base of this terrace, but they are not unle.
those found in the younger Pleistocene terraces. The fluviatile por-
ions of the ternace are somewhat coarser than the marine portions and
contain a much larger proportion of colored sands and clays, especially
in the northern part of the State.
The Newberry terrace encircles te Tertiary formations, forming
an almost unbroken band about them. Its presence at several
points i northern and southern Aachua counties has led to
the belief that a Pleistocene strait separated the higher portion of
the peninsula from the upland to the north, thus transforming the
central portion of the peninsula into an island Other smaller areas
to the west wre probably separated fro the central area by narrow
straits. However, these conclusions need to be confirmed by more
deiled observations than have as yet been possible. At the Georgi
boundary the materials of the Newberry terrace and probably those
of the Tsala Apopka terrace, merge into the deposits of the Okefenokee
formation.
Few exposures give adequate sections of the Newberry terrace
and well records rarely shed much light on its thckess A few
exposures in the phosphate rock region show that the sands range
from 1 to 20 feet in thickess. However, the maximum thickness
of the sands and clays forming this terrace may exceed 100 feet in
some of the valleys where considerable erosion preceded the Pleist-
cene submergence.
Tsla Apopika terrae.-The Tsals Apopka terrace is composed
chiefly of sand, with clay at some localities. These deposits, resting
unconformably upon Tertiary formations, form a plain rising 40 to
60 feet above sea level. The encroachment of the sea at the time of
SVe~tch, Otto, and S hnon, L. W., GOeoy of th coastal in of Georgia: BuB. eorgia GeoL
re 5 io.2B, i, p. .






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


the formation of the stla Apopka terrace was not so extensive
during the development of the Newberry terrace. The stratigraphic
relations of the materials compried in the two terraces have not
been observed, though the materials composing the Tsala Apopka
terrace may rest upon the eroded edges of the Newbey terrace.
The Tsala Apopka terrace materials have been observed resting upon
eroded surfaces the of ertiary age at the type locality, in
the Tsala popka lake region, and at many other places. As in the
cas of the Newberry terrace, the underlying beds include the differ
ent formations from the Oligocene to the Pocene.
Sand is the principal constituent of the Tsala Apopka terrace,
although some clay is found in places and fragments of chert occur
where the underly beds are of Oligocene age. In general, the
sands are gray, but in northern Florida red and yellow hands are
found in many of the stream valleys. The deposits composing the
Tsala Apopka terrace probably average 25 to 30 feet in thickness but
this; t is uncertain beuse ood exsus are rare.
The Teala Apopka terrace is well developed in the icinity of the
lake of that name, and it extends southward nearly to Punta Gord,
thence east and north along the west side of St. Johns River valley
An area of the terrae lies east of St. Johs River, but its outlines
are very imperfectly known. The Payne Prairie plain, as well as
the plain partly occupied by Orange Lake, are regarded as portions
of this : and a broad branch extends up Ocklawaha Rive.
The upland portion of the State is surrounded by this terrace, and it
probably extends beyond the State line in the valleys of the princi-
pal streams.
Pensacola terrace.-The Pensacola terrace is a broad plain, rising
less than 40 feet above sea level, and apparently including two dii-
sions, one being less than 20 feet above, and the other from 20 to 40
feet above sea level. There has been no attempt to differentiate
these two subdivisions, and on the map (Pl. V) they are not spa-
rated from the deposits. This terrace merges with the plain
that forms the surface of the Satilla formation in Georgia The Pen
sacola terrace presents topographic conditions similar to those of the
Satilla plain, but the composition of the materials entering into the
construction of the two plains are unlike
The Pensacola terrace is largely constructed of sand with local
beds of clay but in the southern portion of the State includes im-
portant limestone beds, several of which are described by Sanford.
A large amount of coquin underlies the sand that forms the sur-
face of the terrace from St. Augustine southward. Aside from the
limestone the terrace materials are sand, except at a few localities
I Veatoh, Otto, and Bphan, L. W., OGology of the Coasta Pi o Georgia: BulL Georgia Od.
Survey No. 26, 1911, p. 4.






GEOGRAPHY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL LORIDA,


where they include mar containing shells of land and marine animals.
The '.''. -.... of the sands and limestone is variable, ranging from
less tan a foot to more than 100 feet, the average being probably
greater than n any other Pleistocene terrace. Where the base of
the terrace materials is exposed, it is found resting unconformably
upon the older beds, but good exposures are rare
The Pensacola terrace occupies a wide belt surrounding all the
older formations,. t extends the entire length of St. Johns River
valley and ocupies uan area nearly 150 miles long in the southern
end of the peninsula. The Eveglades and adjacent marshy lowlands,
together with the depressions occupied by numerous lakes, lie within
the area included in the Pensacola terrace. The area occupied by
is terrae on the west side of the peninsula is smaller than on the
east because the winds and currents of the west coast are less favor-
able for adding to the land area than those on the east coast. On the
southern edge of western Florida terrace broadens near some of
the large streams and in areas where the direction of the winds is
favorable to the extension of the land seaward. The estuarine and
fluviatie portions of the Pensacola terrace are so narrow that it is
not practicable to show it along the river valleys except near the
coast Along some of the larger streams this terrace may extend
beyond the northern boundary of the State.
THE COAST.

The extensive coast line of Florida a great .'. of topo-
graphic forms, for the most part shaped by waves, tides, shore cur-
rents, and living organisms, chiefly corals. The configuration of the
shore is dependent on the relative importance of these agencies.


Coral reefs are restricted to an area near the southern end of the
peninsula, and it was to ths area that much of the earlier geologic
work was devoted Sanford discusses the formation of the Florida
keys and the adjacent portion of the mainland in the light of his
recent studies in that region. Here it is only necessary to call atten-
tion to the fact that coral reefs have been of minor importance in the
development of the peninsula; in fact there appears to be no reason
to suppose that reefs have been on the west coast or north
of the north line of Dade County on the east coast.
SW BERGRD CONTMITAL, BORDER.
Reference to the charts of the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur-
vey shows that the depth of the water along the Florida coast is in few
place more than 10 fathoms. Submarine contours (P1. V, in pocket)
which have been compiled from the charts previously mentioned,






GEOLOGY AXD GROUND WATERS OP FLORIDA.


show the general relations of the submarine portions of the Floridian
plateau to the lad surface. In 1910 these relations were fully. dis-
cussed by Vaughan d and consequently only a few facts will be con-
sidered in this report. From the present shore line the sea bottom
slopes gently to a depth of 100 fathoms, and at that depth the descent
becomes abrupt. The submarine area less than 100 fathoms in depth
is regarded as a portion of the continental mass, and is more
closely related to the land than to the deep-sea bottom beyond the
100-fathom line. An uplift of 600 feet would add to the land surface
all the area inclosed by the 100-fathom curve. Reference to Plate V
will show what a large increase in the land area would result from
such an uplift.
Within the area circumscribed by the 10-fathom contour are large
areas where the water is shoal It would take an uplift of only 60
feet to bring the land enclosed by this curve above sea level. rom
soundings this submerged ara is known to have a gentle slope sea-
ward, and its outer margin is comparatively regular. This would
give to the land surface a much more regular outline than it now has,
and, according to Vaughan,2 would increase the area of the land about
one-third.
A study of Plate V shows that the position of the present land sur-
face is excentric on the Floridian plateau as outlined by the 100-
fathom curve. The 100-fathom curve is farther offshore on the west
side of the peninsula than on the east side Not only does the land
lie near the east edge of the plateau but in the vicinity of Jupiter and
thence southward the land actually extends nearly to the 100-fathom
contour. Two factors a r thought to be rI ponsble for the excentric
position of the peninsula upon the continental shelf. First, there has
been differential movement resulting in a depression of the west coast,
carrying some of the land beneath the sea. This is shown by the
narrowing of the belts of outcrop of the younger formations and the
apparent absence of other formations on the west side of the penin-
sula. Second, the east coast is being rapidly extended by the large
amount of sediment supplied to it by waves acting under the influence
of the strong northeasterly winds The effect of this is well shown
by Cape Canaveral, as well as by the numerous bars that are trans-
forming the coastwie straits into lagoons. Evidence is not wanting
to show that such processes have been active in the past, for ancient
bars and lagoons that have been filled wth sediments may be recog-
nized at numerous places.
I Vaughan, T. W., A contribution t ib geoo~ history ol the Floridian plateau: Pub. Carneg It.
Washington No. I 1 910 pp. 07-4.
* Id m, p. 109.






GEOGRAPHY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


In the shallow water at some distance from the shore the waves
graduy build bars which rise nearly to the surface. As the material
is derived from the sea bottom the bars vary it the character of
the latter. At present te prevailing material on both the east
and west coasts is sand, often considerably admixed with shells, and
the bars now being formed consist largely of sand with a small pro-
portion of shell fragment. In comparatively recent geologic time,
the beach materials on some parts of the coast appear to have been
largely shlls, which were built into bars and afterwards cemented to
form coquina. Some layers of sand and a considerable percentage
of silica in the coquina show that terrigenos material was never
entiely absent, though it was often of minor importance. In the
shallow water along the exposed shores, both of the mainland and the
islands, currents are formed which transport the beach materials
and build them into numerous forms. Among these are the bars
which are found across the entrance of all the bays, constituting one of
the important obstacles which confronts the Army engineers in their
endeavor to make the rivers and harbors accessible to steamers.
On the east coast where the prevailing currents move southward,
the bars are commonly extended by additions to their southern ends.
On the Gulf coast, the dominant currents appear to be in the opposite
direction and the bars are usually building by successive additions
to their northern ends, though an eastward current of some importace
may be inferred from the position of the bar at the entrance to St.
Andrews Bay.

Behind the shore bars are narrow bodies of shallow water which,
on the east coast, are commonly known as rivers though they might
more appropriately be termed sounds. To this class long such
bodies of water as Hali and Indian rivers. As the sounds become
more nearly surrounded by the growing bars they change into lagoons
which are in turn gradually filled with silt and ths transformed into
marshes. Mosquito Lagoon and Lake Worth on the east coast are
examples of lagoons, and marshes are numerous along both
the east and west coasts.
About 20 years ago an attempt was made to open a passage for
steamship navigation by deepening the sounds and lagoons. This plan
ias successful, but in recent years the channels have been allowed
to bec obtructed by sand bars and oyster reefs In the last few
years intret in this "inside" channel has been revived, and it is
nw proposed to extend the passages northward to .. Jersey.






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WAThS OF FLORIDA.


Where drainage from the land nters a sound or partly inclosed bay,
the water ecapes through a narrow passage in the bar known as an
inlet As the bars are built under the influence of a prevailing cur-
rent, the inlet is gradually shifted in the direction of growth, and after
a t hne opening becomes so obsetuced that a ew inlet is forme
during high water. Usually the lets are formed near the head of
the bar and their direction of movement on the tlanc cost is
southward and on the Gulf coast northward or westward. At
Jupiter, on the east oast, an opening is somethes dredged near the
north end of the bar and this opening gradually shifts toward the south
It has been found that the inlet remains open much longer when the
opening is made oward the northern end of the bar than when it is
made farther south.
TIDAL RTZWAXE.
At ordinary high tide the level of the water in the bays and sounds
is raised from 1 to 2 feet above the normal low-water level. If at
the same time a strong wind is blowing toward the land the water
rises much higher. When the tide recedes, a seaward current is formed
which scours the bottom and sdes of the channels. Frequently the
water pours through some low gap in a shore bar, thus elping to
form a passage. Many of the inlets across the Florida bars are formed
in this way. To the erosive action described above the name
scour" is applied. Gulliver thinks that the channels near Cedar Keys
present an example of tidal runways produced by tidal scour, and
he designates them the "western Florida type." At the mouth of St.
Johns River and elsewhere along the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts,
the Army engineers have constructed dams to narrow the runway so
that the effect of tu e tidal scour will keep open a channel deep enough
to permit the entrance of large vessels.


Many of the important capes of Florida appear to have be built
of sand deposited by currents moving along the shore. Cape Cana
veral on the east coast was formed where the easterly trend of the
current caused the southward-moving current to move outward
from the coast into the deeper water where the of the water
was checked, causing it to deposit some of its load of sand. Fromthe
outward end of the cape there projects a long narrow spit of sand,
which rises nearly to the surface The seaward end of this spit is
often bent into a hook by the action of the current.
On the west coast the northward-moving current encounter the
islands near the west end of St. Vincent Sound, and turning westward
SOulliver, F. P., Shore-ln topography PIo. Am. Acadl Art and el., vol. 24, 18p9, pp. 1801.






OROGRAPI-7 OF NORTHERN A'-D CENITRL FLO -IdA


forms Cape San Blas. Cape St. George at the western end of the
island of the same name, and Southwest Cape, west of Apalachee
Bay, appear to have been formed in a similar manner All of these
capes are gradually being extended seaward by the continual addition
of material transported along shore by the currents. Many minor
projections usually known as points have ofiinated in practically
the same manner as the larger capes In 1898 Gllver studied the
origin of Capes Canaveral and San Bias, and designated the current
cuspate forelands."
SOIL.
ORIGIN AND CHARACTER.

The soils of Florida are almost all derived from the sandy Tertiary
and Pleistocene formations; and, since the gray Pleistocene sand is
the most widespread of the surface deposits, it naturally gives rise
to the so over the greater portion of the State. The sols of the
Lafayete (9) formation occupy considerable areas in northern and
weern Florida, and they form the subsoil in many localities where
the Pleistocene sands are thin. Both theAlachua clay and the Piocene
marls are so thinly covered in some parts of peninsular and west
Florida that they form part of the subsoil. In some areas, where er-
ion has been especially active, Pliocene and Pleistocene have both
been removed, leaving the older geologic formations exposed to form
the sis; but such areas are confined to the uplands of the penin-
sula and west Florida On the uplands residual materials formed
by the weatheriCg of the Olgocene formations lie so near the surface
that they become a more or less important part of the soil or subsoil
or both
Peat and muck soil occupy a large area in the southern part of the
peninsula and smaller areas in several parts of the State. Their
greatest development is in the Everglades, but they are found in
many oter localities where swanips exist. They consist of organic
matter mixed with more or less inorganei material, such as sand and
clay. These sois are of recent origin and are still being formed,
especially over a large area south of Lake Okechobee, where the sur-
face is very low and flat and the drainage imperfect.
Pleistocene sands form the soil below the 100-foot contour in nearly
all of pninsular Florida and extend to the margin of the uplands in
northern and western Florida. The soils of the :.:.: .. (?) forma-
ton are largely confined to the upland areas near the northern
boundary of the State. hey do not form large unbroken tracts
but occur in more or less isolated areas where the post-Pliocene sands
are abset. In many localities the overlying sands are so thin that
O -llver, F. P., op. cit., p. 180.






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


the Lafayette (9) deposits form an essential part of either the soil or
the subsoil, even where the surface materials are younger.
Plcstocene marls and coquina, in a more or less decomposed state,
form the suboil at numerous places along the east coast and along
the west coast south of Bradentown Areas where these Pleistocn
marls lie near enough to the surface to be considered part of the
soil are much moe restricted than is their geologic distribution.
In the central part of the peninsula, especially of Gaines-
ville, the Alachua clay lies so near the surface that it forms a part of
the subsoil, but so far as is now known it does not enter into the
formation of the surface soil. Over much of the area where thi
formation occurs it is too deeply buried to be considered a part of
the soil.
On the north bank of Manatee in the vicinity of Ellenton,
there are some areas of land, valuable for truck gardening, wherethe
residual lays left by the solution of the limestone of the Tampa
formation form very good soils. In some places these clays contain
more or less Pleistocene sand and numerous fragments of angular or
subangular chert. Doubtless other localities exit where the residual
products of this limestone lie near enough to the surface to form
part of the soils, but the real distribution of these soils is not yet
known.
Decomposition products of the limestones of the Chattahoochee
formation and the Vicksburg group form parts of the soils in locali-
ties where younger deposits are absent, but over large areas
they are too deeply buried beneath the younger geologic forma-
tions to be important in soil formation It is the proximity to the
surface of marls or residual products of the rocks of the Vicksburg
group which is regarded as the source of the fertility of many of the
"hammock" lands near the west coast, and it is doubtless the
presence of such material near the surface which accounts for the
excellent growth of timber in places on the peninsula where the sur-
face soil is very poor.
SOIL TYPES.

In 1897 Whitney made a general examination of the Florida
soils. He says:
The principal type of soils examined were the first, second, and third quality of
high pine land; the pine flats or so-called "flat woods"; the light hammock, the gray
or heavy hammock, the mixed land, the heavy marl hammock; the pineapple land;
the Etonia scrub, the spruce-pine scrub; and the Lafayette formation.
Since the publication of Whitney's report, detailed soil surveys
have been made in the vicinity of Gainesville and in Escambia County.
1 Whitney, Mlton, A p ly port on the so of FIrida: Burl Sos No. 13, U. S. ep
Agr., 15 p. 7.






OCOG Y OP 1--- --- A-M CENTRAL PFLORDA.


In ths detailed work the soils were classified by their physical prop-
ertie, origin, and topography, texture being considered the most
important characteristic. The principal types recognized were sands,
ine sands, sandy oarns, and fine sandy loams. Subordinate types
were loams, silt loams, clays, mucks, and meadow. These types
have, with some exceptions, been grouped into three series and cor-
related with similar soils elsewhere in the Coastal Plain. Aside from
thee general types are the Gainesville and Gadsden sands, so named
by the Bureau of Soils of the Department of Agriculture, and some
other types which have not yet been correlated.
The ay and loam soils of Florida cover a very small area and are
not of great important The clay soils are chiefly small tracts in the
neighborhood of stress and are not tiled; in this connection it
should be borne in innd that much of what is commonly called clay
in northern and western Florida is to be classified as a sandy loam, be-
cuse, though more or less plastic, it contains sand as its most impor-
tant constituent. The sand or sandy loam soils, which cover the
greater part of Florida, may be subdivided into a large number of
al of which have certain general characteristics. When brought
under cultivation their natural productivity is commonly low, but they
sspond quickly to proper treatment and can be made to produce
rge crops, which grow rapidly and mature early. These chara-
ristics, when linked with a subtropical climate, make the produc-
ion of early fruits and vegetables very profitable. In order to pro-
cure the best results it is necessary to exercise skill and judgment in
the treatment of the soils, and in some places to expend considerable
money for fertilizers. There is apt to be a deficiency of moisture on
some of the sands and sandy loams, and hence irrigation is. sometimes
practiced.
are used in nearly all parts of the State, the amount and
ind used in the different localities being governed by the nature of
the crop grown and the experience of the most successful farers. A
striking example of the productivity of a sandy soil properly tilled
s furnihed by the yield of pineapples from a ridge of sand near Fort
Piere. The value of barnyard refuse and legumes as fertilizers is
reogniz in some localities, but their use should be much more
extnsve. Some recent experiments of the Department of Agicul-
ture1 are of interest, as they show that lime, which is not generally
ed on Florida soils, may add greatly to the productivity of certain
types of the sand and sandy loam soils.
The peat and muck soils of Florida have not been extensively used
because tey are in swampy areas, which require drainage. Exten-
sive drainage operations are in progress in the Everglades, and if these
ar continued large areas of peat soil will be available for cultivation.
disumy of fmb County, Florld: Field Operations Bur. Bois, U. S. Dept. Agr., 190, p. 38.






G0L860Y AtID OROUbD WAERs OF FLOtRIbA


The natural productivity of the peat and muck soils of Florida has
seldom been determined, but, judging from the experience of farmers
in other States, it is safe to predit that the gla so are destined
to take rank among the best lands of the State for the production of
certain crops. Moreover, experience in several other States has shown
that such soils seldom require the addition of complete fertilizers,
such as are used on sandy soil. In fact, the addition of small quan-
tities of salts of potasim should usually be sufficient to cause a peat
or muck soil to produce good crops, though possibly in some areas the
addition of phosphates would be necessary These facts are i-
portant, because it will cost much less to fertilize the peat and muck
soils than is now being expended on the sandy soils.
GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.
By SAMUEL SANFORD.
LOCATION AND AEA.
The erm southern Florida is here made to include, for convenience
of description, the portion of the peninsula with its bordering islands
or keys lying south of a roughly northeast-southwest line extending
from the north line of Palm Beach County on the east coast past the
south end of Lake Okechobee to the mouth of San Carlos Bay on the
west coast. The piece of mainland thus arbitrarily cut off is 140
miles in extreme length, north and south, and 120 miles in maximum
width, east and west. Its area is about 7,300 square miles, of which
6,000 square miles are swamp or land so low as to be covered with
water during the rainy season, from June to October, or, near the
coast, by unusually high spring tides. The total number of the keys
is unknown, but their area is here estimated at 300 square miles.
(See P1. I, in pocket.)
GENERAL FEATURES.
Growing coral reefs extend along the Florida coast for over 200
miles and are found nowhere else in the continental limits of the
.Because of the reefs and the teeming marine life of
the surrounding waters, southern Florida has attracted attention for
over 50 years and has been visited by a number of eminent scientists
who have described and discussed the main features of the keys and
the southeast shore of the mainland. Owing to the difficulties of
travel in this region and its comparative remoteness and inaccessi-
bility before the building of the Florida East Coast Railway, these
visitors confined their observations' to the -' the shore line
of the keys, and the edge of the mainland in the vicinity of Biscayne
Bay.
In 1907 and 1908 the writer had an opportunity to study in detail
some features of the topography and geology and their relation to






GEOGL AHY OF SOUTHERN FLOBIDA.


underground waters that were not so evident in former years as they
are today. Between 1896, the year of two important contributions
to the geology of the region-the papers by Alexander Agassiz on
the elevated reef and by Griswold 2 on the southern Everglades-and
1909, when the geology was described in detail in the second annual
report of the State geologist, the railroad had been completed
from Palm Beach to Miami and from Miami to Knights Key. At
the mouth of Miami River, where only a few houses stood at the time
of Griswold's visit, there is now a city of over 5,000 inhabitants, from
which radiate miles of excellent macadam roads. What was then a
barren wilderness now includes thousands of acres of truck farms and
and grapefruit plantatios. The result to the geologist from
this transforation is a great increasing te eaily obtainable rock
evidence. Wells, quarries for road metal, and railroad borrow pits
make the compiling of geologic data along the east coast vastly
easer than it was in 1895. Even on the ."'. '" remote west
cost, from Cape Sable north, there are more settlements to-day than
there were then, and with the coming of the motor boat the exploration
of the shallow and tortuous passages characterizing that coast has
been much facilitated.
The larger portion of the interior is included in the great saw-grass
swamp of the Everglades. Though repeatedly crossed by troops in
the Seminole War and well known to many white men, hunters of
sligators and plume birds, living on its borders, this expanse of
water and sedge-covered muck had until 1907 been visited by few
geologist and traversed by none. Griswold's account of what he
saw toward the south end of the Everglades remained for years the
best description of the more noteworthy features of the topography
and geology of the region. Now, however, the drainage and recla-
marion work carried on by the State is yielding evidence that the
individual explorer, from the physical difficulties to be overcome,
could not possibly hope to obtain.
In a general review of the salient of the topography of
souther Florida it is convenient to consider the mainland, the
keys, and the shore line separately.
Taken as a whole the topography of the Florida mainland has all
the aspects of "- :. Drainage is defective; sloughs, shallow ponds,
and lakes abound. Most of the interior is a swamp; no well-defined
river systems nor stream valleys exist; and some of the short river
that flow from the Everglades into the Atlantic are, where bedrock
comes a few feet above sea level, characterized by rapids in their
upper courses,
Ii, Alexander, The elevated reef of Florida: Bull. Mus. omp. Zool. Harvard Coll., vol. 28, No. 2,
, pp. 2-51.
Griold. L, Notes on the gOology of 8o n FIord: Bull Mm. Comnp. Zol. Hv ,d coll.
S, o. 2, ISM, pp. 5-I.





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATRS OF FLORIDA


This infantile aspect is due to two causes, one the actual recency
of deposition of the beds, consohdated and unconsolidated, that con-
stitute the land surface, and the other the slight elevation of the bed
above sea level since deposition. The rocks have had relatively
little time to decay, and there has been no elevation of the land high
enough or long enough to give streams an opportunity to erode vT
leys and establish well-marked drainage systems.
The shoreline topography is more varied in places its forms a
those of infancy and in places those of youth or adolescence, the
differences in aspect being determined by the influence of opping
factorsthose that tend to extend the land's edge irregularly and
thos that smooth shore lines into long sweeps and easy curve.
The relations between land and water on any coast are inconstant
and ever varying only is the shore a line of battle between the
forces that destroy and those that build up the land but geologic
history shows that changes of level are the rule, that the lands or the
oceans slowly rise or fall during long periods of time, parts of tese
bottom becoming dry land and parts of the land being invaded by the
ocean. In places these movements are rapid enough to be proved by
human records. : :.... highlands border the ocean invasion is slow;
where coasts are low it is relatively swift. The transitions of coast
lines and the changes resting from slight elevations or deprens
of coast are factors of high importance in contemplating the prnt
shape of the land mass of southern Florida.
As has been pointed out by Agassi D and others, the presen
Florida mainland is but the top of a vastly greater submarine plateau,
the southeastern and southern edges of which are near the present
shore line, and the western edge many miles t tthe west. Hence, e
may regard the present outline of the Florida mainland as a mer
accident Though stable enough when measured in terms of human
life, its ephemeral when compared with the duration of a gelog
period. A -'--. : -- of 50 feet would cover all the area wondered
in this except the tops of a very few sand hills and ridges; an
elevation of 50 would extend the shore line bu little on the east,
though making dry land of Biscayne Bay; on the south it would dry
the Bay of Florida; and on the west it would extend the land for 30
miles west of the entrance to Shark River and 20 miles wet of Cape
Romano.
The keys orislands that fringe the coast of southern lorda, or fo
the great arc that ends in the Tortugas, are of several types, but for
the roger part re alihe mainland.
Except for some beach ridges and dunes, the general elevation of the
keys is less than 10 feet, and hundreds of keys are merely mud lat
hidden by mangroves.






GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


SUBDIVISIONS.

Although the surface of the south Florida mainland has slht relief,
it yet shows considerable variety of type. A detailed study of its
forms is beyond the province of this paper, but certain .surface
features will be discussed at some length because of their intrinsic
importance, because of the attention given them by previous writers,
and because a. general understanding of the topographic types is
essential in the study of the recently deposited formations and is nec-
esary to a consideration of underground-water supplies.
Southern Florida lies low. The average elevation of the surface
is below 20 feet and over long stretches the ground is almost a dead
level. The general slope of the surface is south, though elevations
along the east coast may average 10 feet higher than along the west
coast This is shown by the drainage of Lake Okechobee, the greater
length of the west coast rivers, and the trend of the river courses,
features that are considered individually on succeeding pages.
In consequence of the slight relief, the imperfect drainage, and the
resulting accumulation of surface water during the rainy season, small
differences in elevation have a marked effect on vegetation and make
it possible roughly to divde the mainland ito pineland and swamp.
The pineland includes the hammocks, isolated patches whereon grow
hardwood trees of several genera, and many of the prairies or grassy
tracts; the swamp land includes the coastal swamps with their char-
acteristic growths of sedges or black and red mangroves
Owing to the low relief the line of demarcation between swamp and
pinelad is extremely irregular. In many places it is not a line but a
variable width of prairie, which may be 2 feet under water at the end
of a rainy season, but which in most year gets so dry during the
winter months that tomatoes and other garden truck can be grown
on it at a profit without artificial drainage.
As Maton has stated (p. 35), practically all of southern Florida
lies witin the boundaries of the lowest of the three trraces or
terrace plains that may be differntiated within the State. This
lowest terrace, whih has a maximum altitude of 40 feet, Matson has
designatd the Pensacola terrace.

PINELANDS.
AREA AND DISTRIBUTION.

The pinelads of southern Florida are not remarable by reason of
the size of the trees, the thickness of gowth, nor the yield of good
timber per acre, but as they include the larger portion of the surface
lying above wha may be termed normal water ev they are impres-





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


ive from their extent. Their total area is a matter of conjectur for
though the pinelands have been surveyed by the United States Land
Offce, the township maps give an perfect idea of the actual extet
of the tiber. In round figures perhaps 1,300 square are to
be regarded as pineclad
The pinelands of the eastern coast extend for the mot part s a
narrow belt betweenthe Everglade and the coastal swamp from the
north line of Palm Beach County to 12 miles outhwest of Homet
This belt is widest at the north, where it may be 20 miles across, and
i much narrower south of Jupiter Inet, where it is about 6
wide, varying in width from 2 to 8 miles and tapeg to its soth-
western :.- ----!'. West of the Everglades the pinesare mor
irregularly distributed; at Naples they grow to the shore of the Gulf;
along the north line of Monroe County they grow in more or less
disconnected areas separated by narrow and broad strips of cypre~
between Cape Romano and the mouth of Lostmans River they lie
from 5 to 15 miles back of the outer face of the network of keys that
constitute the apparent shore line South of Lostmans River ther
is no pineland.
As the trees grow on areas of very different ]pographic aspet,
the pineland of southern Florida may be divided according to the
character of its relief into dunes, rolling sand plai, rock ridges, and
flat lands.
DUNES.
..-Dunes as here considered are purely eolian accumu
nations and do not include deposits of sand that owe their relief
wholly or in part to the action of water, whether that of current
or of waves. Dunes are sharply differentiated from beach rdges,
those coastal accumulations of sand and other loose material in the
shaping of which waves and ind-driven spray took part. Thus some
of the ridges facing the ocean at Palm Beach are not considered to be
true dunes. Moreover, in this discussion the term dune is applied
to ridges that are at least 4 or 5 feet higher than the general level of
the sand near by.
The dunes are composed of medium fine quartz sand, varying in
tint from pale yellow to orange or to light reddish brown. Th
sand is rather angular and some of it can be broken down to finr
grains by rubbing between the fingers. Fossil sells are rare, if
at all; none were seen by the writer in a rather careful inspect
tion of sections through several dunes. The different tints of the
sand are not, according to the writer's observations, arranged in dis
tinct bands, nor is the sand everywhere plainly stratifid. However,
the color tends to increase with depth below surface, thus causing
the gradation seen in a section through a dune to follow the suace
contours. In many places the shades of yellow and brown are mottled






GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA


or blotched. Streak of gray sand, possibly caused by the decay of
pine tree roots, extend from the surface to varying depths into the
yellow and reddish sands below. In some dunes the sands toward
the center have been so cemented by iron oide as to form irregularly
rounded masses of hard rock.
perhaps the most noteworthy feature of the dunes of southern
Florida is their quiescence. If cleared of pine timber and palmetto
Esrub they grow good pineapples, but even when bare their sands are
little moved by the prevailing winds. The blasts of a hurricane may
affect them somewhat, but certainly nowhere in southern Florida is
there any such movement as is characteristic of dunes in active
growth; no leeward march overwhelms trees and threatens dwellings,
and no such drift is in progress as can be seen at Cape Henry, Va.,
and at other points on the Atlantic coast Instead of burying
forests the dunes of southern Florida, where not cleared, are covered
with scrub or large pine trees. In short, they are quiescent.
Evidently, therefore, the dune were formed during a time when
conditions were different from those now prevailing-a time when
the topographic and the climatic conditions favored sand drift.
Though near the coast the dunes are not directly related to the present
shore line, but, as shown by the ^ of swamp and the off-lying
keys, to another shore line now below sea level. The significance of
these facts as bearing on the post-Tertiary history of southern
Florida wil be discussed later.
Di-tri on-In southern Florida the larger dunes lie near the coast.
East of the Everglades and Lake Okechobee they reach south to
River as a discontinuous series of irregularly distributed mounds and
ridges, in places separated by considerable intervals of flat or gently
rolling country or by stretches of shallow water; but in few places do
they extend more than a few miles inland and in few do they face
the open ocean. South of New River there are, so far as the writer
knows, no true dunes; certainly there are none on the 150-mile chain
of keys that extends from Biscayne Bay to the Marquesas, the nearest
approach to them being many low indistinct idges and mounds,
nowhere 8 feet above mean sea level. These are most pronounced
long stretches of beach facing breaks in the living coral reef, par-
tiularly where the water near the shore has more than average
depth, or rather where the seaward slope of the bottom is greatest.
These low heaps of sand, from their position, may be the work of the
waves quite as much as of the wind, and in fact most, if not all, of
them are true beach ridgs. Their outlines may probably have been
modified slightly by wind-borne sand, but their main features are
cerly due to wave action, particularly to the waves that break on
the exposed beaches during a hurricane, when tides 4 feet or more
768-warc 319--1--c-4





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATE~B OF FLORIDA.


above mean high water mark inundate the keys and facilitate the
formation of unusually high inshore waves.
Along the east coast the position of the more prominent dunes near
the shore is indicated on the Coast Survey crts. A noteorthy
succession of ridges extends in an approximately northnorthwst
direction from 2 miles north of the dune on which stands Jupiter
lighthouse, at the north side of Jupiter Inlet, to and past Hobe
Sound station on the Florida East Coast Railway; just back of the
staton the summit of one has a height of 63 feet above sea level.
Back of the lighthouse at Jupiter the top of one dune is perhaps 45
feet high. North of Hobo Sound station the dune belt veers to the
westward and dies away within 3 mles. There are no large dunes
along the railroad from Hobo Sound to the north line of Pal Beach
County, and, according to report, no large ones north of the northern
end of the Hobe Sound belt and o high ground between it and
Kissimmee.
South of Jupiter Inlet dunes are numerous but occur as disconnected
mounds or riges and not as continuous or ntiguous ridges A
typical dune, 47 feet high, at West Pan Beach, according to report,
contained masses of rock. There are dunes 20 feet high near Palm
Beach. Isolated dunes and ridges near the shore between West
Palm Beach and Jupiter are shown by the Coast Survey charts.
South of West Palm Beach the dune belt lies farther inland, though
generally parallel to the seashore, and the more prominent dunes
have not been mat ed. There is a fine dune ridge near the east side
of Lake Oborne, bout a mile west of Lantana station. Isolated
dunes of dinihing height occur to the south, the southernmost
one of any prominence known to the writer being Pine Island, in the
Everglades back of Fort Lauderdale 6 miles from their eastern mar
gin. The belt of country containuig the prominent dunes south of
West Palm Beach probably in no place exceeds 5 iles in width.
On the west coast of southern Forida, dunes are not nearly so
numerous as on the east coast and are more irregularly distributed;
like the east-coast dunes they are found near the shore rather than
inland.
The best-developed dune system seen by the writer on the west
coast i the one that covers parts or the whole of several islands near
Caximbas Pass. It extends east from the south end of Caximba
Island in a disconnected line having somewhat the shape of the
Greek letter 8, the total length being about 8 miles Just back of
Caximbas post office, at th west end of the ste, there isa dune
about 35 feet high. A ile to the northeast another ridge, having
a maximum height of 60 feet, is said to be the highest in the system.
There are no dunes on the islands near the muth of Caloosahatchee
River, where from the coniuration of the present coat line they






GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORTDA


might be epecte, although a high beach ridge forms the backbone
of Captiva Island. Between the mouth of the Caloosahatchee and
Caximbas there are said to be two dunes, one on a small inner key
near stereo, the other, much larger, on the mainland about halfway
between Marco and Naples.
South of Caximbas there are no dunes, not even back of the 10-mile
stretch of sandy beach at Cape Sable, and there are none along the
southern edge of the mainland from Cape Sable eastward.
From this review it appears that though the distribution of the
south Florida dunes is in some way related to the present coast line,
the rlation is not a definite one. The high ridges lie back from the
ocean and from the Gulf, yet extend only a few miles inland Those
lying on keys rise out of mangrove swamps where dune building is
now impossible; those near open water, like the dune back of Jupiter
Light, general lie back of a protecting key and back of a fringe of
mangroves.
ROLLtNG BAND PLANI.

By rolling sand plains is here meant sandy stretches of the main-
land undulating in broad sales and low ridges. In the swals are
shallow lakes or lagoons, wet prairies, or cypress swamps On the
east coast these sand plains form a belt that extends, with a maximum
width of 6 miles, from the north side of Palm Beach County nearly
to Miami River. Out of this belt rise most of the dune mounds and
ridges Inland the rolling sand plains merge imperceptibly into the
monotonous level of the flatlands and the prairies bordering the
Everglades; seaward they are bounded by swamps or by open water.
On the west coast south of Caloosahatchee River the rolling sand
plains are of relatively slight importance, though in them may be
included the arable land, a succession of beach ridges back of the
present shore line at Cape Sable, and the sandy keys, many of them
not pine clad, that fringe the coast from Cape omano northward.
Near the shore on the east coast the higher ground and the ridges
of the sand plains are in many paces covered with a straggling
growth of sprce pine. In the hollows are many fresh-water lakes,
some several miles long. Most of these are less than 10 feet deep,.
and some are so shallow that they disappear entirely for months
during a period of defiient rainfall such as prevailed from November,
1906, to May, 1908. A few of the lakes may be over 10 feet deep,
and the writer was told that Lake Osborne had a maximum depth
at the end of a normal rainy season of 30 feet, extending some feet
below sea level. However, the lakes, as a rule, are so shallow and
the slopes of their banks so gentle that a survey of the rolling
sand-plain country made in or shortly after a summer of normal
rainfall would show vastly different relations of land and water from






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


one made in early spring following a year of deficient precipitation.
This accounts in part for lakes appearing on maps of souther Floida
at many places where the visitor may find none
The sand grains, like those of the dunes, are angular rather than
rounded. They are gray at and near the surface, but become yd-
lowish a short distance below, except in places where water stands
during most of the year The decoloration of the sands near the
surface is to be explained by the decay of lant roots, the action of
soil bacteria, and the leaching effect of rain.
The character of the sands and the elevation and prevailing trend,
parallel to the coast, of the ridges indicates that the rolling sand plains
are in part beach deposits and in part the work of the wind and that
they are related to the dunes.
FLATLANDS.
The term "flatlands" is applied to the imperfectly drained pinlands
lying between the rolling sand plains and the Everglad or thi
bordering prairies and forming a dicontinuous strip of count
which on the east coast extends from the north side of Palm Beach
County to the vicinity of New River, in Dade County. Its greatest
width back of Hob Sound is about 10 miles
The flatlands have a soil of lightgray sad, resembling that of the
rolling sand plains, and bear a thin growth of pine trees separated in
places by expanses of prairie a mile or more wide, a difference of a
foot in elevation determining the character of the vegetation In
the rainy season prairies are shallow lakes. In the flatlands
lie also exceptional sloughs or pond holes, some of which are a fourth
of a mile or more across, and which, being 3 to 5 feet below the
general level of the are never dry. In places these
deeper hollows support good growths of cypress, and as the region
of relatively permanent standing water, the Everglades, is approachd
the pine and the cypress growths intermingle in most irregular
fashion. In some places pines grow up t the edge of the prairie
bordering the Everglades; in others a fringe of dwarf cypress separate
pineland and swamp; and in still others considerable areas sup-
port good growths of cypress.
On the west coast the surface of the country between the Everglade
and the Gulf is even more monotonously level than that of the east
coast and the relations of swamp and dry land are more.irregular
of the pine grows in patches and strips, in places miles in
extent, separated by cypress swamps. In consequence, the tiber-
clad flatlands of the west coast are described as pine islands and
cypress strands. Prairies are scattered through or fringe the pine
lands, and toward the Everglades and north of the Big Cpress geat
stretches of prairie make excellent cattle ranges.






GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


ROCK RIDGES
The absence of rock outcrops over the greater part of that portion
of the mainland included under the term southern Florida is striking,
and indeed remarkable when one finds that in many places solid
rock lies only a few feet below surface. To outcrops of any extent
the term rock ridge is here applied, though it should be understood
tat these rock ridges may not rise more than 2 feet above the level
of the s undng country and probably nowhere have an elevation
exceeding 25 feet bove sea level.
The rock ridges of the east coast comprise the prominent otcrops
of oolitie limestone that extend from 5 miles north of Miami to
Homestead and separate the great saw-gras swamp of the Everglades
from the fringe of mangrove swamps and salt prairie along the western
shore of Biscayne Bay. This rocky country forms part of the Bis-
cayne pineland The are of these outcrops is estimated at 200
square miles, but is really a matter of conjecture. The relations of
rock ridge and prairie along the western edge of the pineland are
extremely intricate, the elevation of the outcrops falling gradually
to the level of the Everglades and the pineland tapering off in a serie
of rocky keys or islands (of which Long Key is the that extend
fully 15 miles beyond the southwest corner of the main body of the
pineland. Over many square miles between Miami and Long Key
and about Long Key the limestone forms the surface. ... :. of
Miami the outcrops are mantled by sand before the elevation of the
rock surface has become as low as 6 feet above mean sea level.
North of New River, between the sea and the Everglades, except
for the coquina near the beaches, outcrops of rock are few and scat-
tered. In the Everglades some of the keys have a rocky foundation,
such being reported nearly to Lake Okechobee, but so far as known
the only ones that form bare rock ridges are Long Key and the keys
related to it, none of which reach as far north as the latitude of

On tJ west coast of southern Florida hard rock outcrops are more
scattered than on the east but cover a much wider area. Throughout
the pine island and cypress strands, limestone projects here and
there through the sands and is found along the roads from Fort Myers
to Fort Shakelford and from Fort Myers past Immoka to the head
of Alens River. Moreover, narrow interrupted strips of bare rock,
some of them several miles in width, run through the pinelands.
A peculiar feature of the rock outcrops of southern Florida is the
erosion of the surface. On the west coast, where the limestones are
denser and finer than on the east coast, the rocks weather irregularly
into rounded kobs and lumps a few inches to a foot above the general
level of the surrounding sands, making it difficult to drive a wagon






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLOIDA.


across bare expanses. In the rocky area of the east coast the softer
oolitic limestone weathers into angular shapes, producing extremely
rough surfaces and making walking a task that requires constant
watchfulness. The ground is strewn with loose, sharply angulrr
fragments (products of weathering and of the disruptive power of
tree roots), and fixed angular masses a foot oro high, withre
pointed summits and jagged outlines, vaguely suggest miniature
pagodas.
Hand in hand with this surficil erosion has gone underground
solution. Next to the bristling rock surface, te most striking feature
of the Bisayne pineland south of Miami is the .of innumer-
able holes and hollows. The holes, which communicate with under
ground solution channels, are of all sizes, varying from not over an
inch across to 20 fet or more in diameter Besides the sharply out-
lined holes, there are throughout the pineland countless shallow hol-
lows 1 to 3 feet deep and 10 to 100 fet across.A fewof these hollo
owe their origin to original conditions of deposition, some may be due
to the overturning of trees and conequent upheaval of the rocks by
roots, and others have been caused by the falling in of the roofs f
subterranean watercourses.
Few of these holes and hollows are large enough to be termed sinks.
The large vertical-walled holes running down to permanent watex
level form natural ells; the shallow hollows are best denominated
potholes. Deep, or Devils, Lake, near the west eoast, 12 miles north
of Everglade post offle, is, so far as the author knows, the only rock-
rimmed opening n southern Florida that resembles the great s
in the country to the north. It is about 500 feet across, is nearly
circular in outline, and its reported depth is 90 feet.
Although there is danger of exaggerating the activity of under-
ground and surface water in eating away the soft limestone of the east
coast, yet there are plentiful evidences of solution. The pothole
and the hollow-sounding areas of rock, perhaps 25 feet across, wit
as many as six or seven holes a foot or so in diameter showing the
water beneath, that are found along te edges of the southern Ever
glades; the springs below tide level at Cocoanut Grove and other
points on the shore of Biscayne Bay; the Punch Bowl, a spri basn
the deep holes in New River; and the shallow gorge of Arch Creek
with its low rck bridge-all bear witness to the work that is being
done.
SWAMPS.
OONTROLUNG CONDITION.
As before stated, the swamp land of southern Florida includes the
great saw-grass morass of the Everglades, the cypress swamps and
strands around its edges or intermingled with the pinelad, and the
salt meadows and mangrove swamps of the coast. The very sligh






GeOGRiAPIY OF SOUTHERN ILORIDA.


differences in elevation over long stretches of the mainland, the
gradual slope of the rock surface below sea level, the rock rdges on
the southeast, the confirmation of the upper surface of the bedrock,
and the rapid growth of grasses and sedges are all factors in the
distribuion of land that i permanently wet and of that which is,
for a part of every year, dry.
EVERG IA S.
Aent.-It is difficult for a person who has not seen the Everglades
to form even an aproimate idea of that far extending exanse of
sedge, with its stretches of shallow water, its narrow wndig channels
of deeper water, its scattered clumps of bushes, and its many islands.
Photographs fail to convey the impressions of distance, of remotenss,
and of virgin wildness which strike the visitor who for he first time
looks out across that vast expanse.
The Everglade the greater portion of southern Florida.
They reach from Lake Okechobee on the north to the vicinity of
hitewater Bay on the south and may have a maximum width of
60 es. They have not been surveyed and their exact area is
undetermined, but it is estimated at 5,000 square miles The relief
of the drier land is slight and the actul dividing line between saw
grass morass and cypress swamp, prairie, pineland, and coastal
swamp is extremely intricate. A difference of 2 feet in water level
means the fference between shallow lake and dry land over hundreds
of square miles. Hence, the relation between land and water shown
on a particular map is not necessarily to be taken as absolute or
ven general; it may only show the reaction as determined in the
month or months and year of the survey.
On the north the main body of the Everglades reaches tohe south
er and southwestern sides of Lake Okechobee Arms extend
farther north, but much of the eastern and most of the northern
shore of the lake is bordered by cypress swamps, some of these con-
taning the tallest and cleanest cypress to be found in Florida.
East of the lake t Everglades fade away irregularly in the Alla-
pattrah Flats, a region largely under water at the end of each rainy
season, where intending strips of saw-grass swamp and grassy
priie, set with patches of cypress and, more rarely, with hammocks
of hardwood, stretch away in an almost dead level. Farter south
the Everglades are bordered by praise and cypress swamp or at a
few places reach nearly to the cost rocky pine-lad islands
that extend southwestward from the main body of the Biscayne pine-
land nearly to Whtwater Bay have a fringe of prairie, but east of
them lies a saw-grass strait and to the south lie wide expanses of saw
grass dotted with keys that disappear seaward among thickets of
dwarf cypress or mangrove. On the west the Everglades from





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WAThER OF FLORIDA.


Whitewater Bay to Lostmans River reach the mangrove swamps tht
fringe the coast. North of Lostmans River an arm of the Ever
lades runs up between the mangrove swamp and the prairie board
ing the pine islands and gradually disappear before reaching Ae
River. Cypress swamp and prairie form the western bound of the
maln body of the Everglades from Lostmans River to Caloostc
River.A narow strip of small cyprs is said to exend along the
western edge of the Everglades for 60 mis south of Sam Jones town
legion and drainage erences in elevation are slit; few
of the islands are more than 2 feet above hgh-waer level, and the
slopes are so gentle as to be detected only by the movement of the
water or by leveling The general slope south but, in spit f the
water seen everywhere in the rainy season, i not uniform. w,
ir ar rises, measured 2by inches only, serve to divernfy the watr
and sedgecovered peat in thee r ot of t year. Thre a
also sloughs-narrow winding strips of open water through the sedga-
some of which extend for mies Often it is not posble to detect
a perstent current in thee h pasag, wlhih, for the most p~
seem to lie north and south along the west side of the Everglade and
nororthnrthwest and south-southeast along the east side.
The water brought down by Kissinmee River escapes from lke
Okechobee through a canal connecting with the Caloosahatchee and
through the saw grass. The short streams around the southern edge
of the lake, shown on most maps of Florida, do not flow into the lake
but from it They close up within a few miles and the tick grot
of saw grass makes the movement of water in any given direction
very slow. Some of the water entering the lake reaches the Gul
and some the Atlantic, the water moving as a mss slowly sout
ward When the lake rises to about 22 feet above mean sea level
it is said to overflow into the Everglades along its whole souther
border.
As evidence of the flatness of the Everglades, residents of the east
coast state that when the canal leading from the lake was darnd
at Lake Hicpochee in the year 1904, racing the level of the water
above the dam 3 feet, more water came down the east coast rivem
as far south as New River, and the marginal prairies were under
water so late in the fall as to hinder seriously the growing of
vegetables, but whether the dam caused all the trouble complained
of is doubtful.
Since Lake Okechobee overflows to the south and the waters e c;
ing from it may reach either the Atlantic or the Gulf, the elevatin of
its surface is in a way a measure of the elevation of the Everglade.
Several determinations of its level have been made by Covernment
engineers and surveyors. An elevation of 20.4 feet was found by a
party of engineers in April, 1901, but an even lower level-19.8 feet-






GEOOGRPHY OF SOUTHERN FLOIDA.


Reported to have been found in March, 1908. High-water levels
published by the Unite States Chief of Engineers are 22.4 feet in
1886 and 23.4 fet in 1878. Comparatively few determinations
alongthe edges have been reported. Some determination along the
stern margin are: West of Lantana, 18 feet; west of Hillboro Inlet,
14 fet; west of Fort Lauderdale, 3 to 9 feet; at the pool at the
head of Miami River, 6.2 feet. South of the Biscayne pineland and
Long Key the height of the Everglades is less than 6 feet. Wright1
says that the mean water level of the lake is 20.5 feet, that the low-
water level is about 19 feet, and the greatest depth at low water is
22 feet, making the bottom at that point 3 feet below sea level.
Willoughby in his trip across the Everglades from Harney River
to Miami River found that the water on the west side had a slow move-
ment southwest, aInd on the east side a similar movement southeast
Ingraham, who crossed the Everglades from Fort Shackelford to
Miami, found a southerly movement in a creek connecting Okaloa-
koochee Slough and the Big lCpress but little current in the sloughs
W. J. Krore, who made a careful survey of the southern Everglades
for the Florida East Coast Railway, found a slight southerly current
in the slough that forms the headwaters of Taylor River between the
mainland ad Long Key. The writer, however, found no perceptible
current in this slough near Paradise Key in June, 1908.
Evdenly at times of high water there is a perceptible movement
of the water of the Everglades down the slight slopes toward the
nearest outlets. At times of extremely low water the sloughs may
be so separated that except in the immediate vicinity of a river no
current is perceptible.
The normal difference between high and low water in the Ever-
gdes is about 2 feet; the maximum difference may be twice as great.
In the spring of 1908 it was possible to travel by wagon fror the
Biseayne pineland to and about Long Key, whereas in the early
winter of 190-7 one could cross the southern Everglades in a power
boat. During the Seminole War successful pursuit of the Indians
depended on a depth of water sufficient to permit the use of ship's
boats.
Bedrck.-The Everglades have been variously called a lake in a
rock-jrim ed basin and a vast sik In the light of the facts accu-
atd by of the War Department, the Disaton Co., the
Florida Eas Coast ailway, and the -.:.: of Florida, and by the
explorations of Ingraham, Willoughby, and others, both these design
nations appear inexact.
Bedrock apparently lies at or near the surface around the edges
of the Everglades. Along the east side from Jupiter River to Hillsboro
3 0Wght, oJ 0., poirtf the Spoil t the Aegitlatuire of Florida on the Evergodes
f Pitda, p h, 1i0.g





GEOLOGY AND BOUND WATERS OF FLO1 DA


River outrops are few. South of New River they are more numerous
and from just north of Miami to Homestead the rock forms ba
ridges with a maximum elevation of 15 feet aboe mean water level
in the Everglades. This line of ridges bens at its southern end to
the west and gradually disappears as a series of rocky keys running
west and southwest and reaching nearly to Whitewater Bay. South
of this rock idge, from Cutler on Biscaye Bay around the southern
end of the mainland, past Cape Sable, Whitewater Bay, Ponce de
Leon Bay, and the Ten Thousand Islands, there e no outcrops of
bedrock above the ea level; nor are there any along the shore south
of Sanibel Island. On the southwesen side of the Evergldes rock
comes within a fot of low-water level in Rock Creek, an ar of of of
the series of bays that together make up much of the lower 12 mil od
Lostmans River Three miles northeast of this point rock outcrop
in a pine island. hence northward many rock exposures are scat-
tered through the flatlands. They can be seen at the head of Allens
River and 11 miles to the east on the property of the Deep Lke
Fit Co. The belt of country in which rock is exposed widens north
ward and at Naples is fully 40 mies wide from east to west his
region is monotonously level and the rise of the rock surface inland is
slight. In short, bedrock outcrops around the main body of the
Everglades from Jupiter River to For Shackelford with no important
interruption except between Lstimans River and the west st
of the rocky keys beyond Long Key. n this break rock does not on
the average lie more than 5 feet below the level of low water.
If allowance be made for the general slope of the water level toward
the drainage channels on the east and west coasts, the hydraulic
gradient amounts to 0.3 foot per mile for 30 miles northwest of Miam
It is evident that the actual depth to bedrock in the middle of the
Everglades is only 3 to 4 feet below a level line extend from rock
rim to rim. As these points might be 40 miles apart, and s
the depth below the line at the latitude of. averages less than
5 feet, the inappropriateness of theterm basin for the southern por-
tion of the Everglades is evident.
Nor is the term sink more accurate. The area is too large; the o
floor too flat Potholes and small sinks are common in the rocky
prairie south and southeast of the main body of the Everglades, and
large sinks fied with mud may exist in the main expand, but their
existence is not proved. Possibly, also, sinks of some size may exist
between the line of rocky keys and the north shore of the Bay of
Florida. Certain features of Bear and other lakes back of Flamingo
suggest that they are sinks.
Although the rock floor of the southern Everglades is nown to be
amost flat, yet it is altogether possible that farther north there are
true basins of considerable extent. The preliminary surveys for the






G*OGBAPHY OF 80UTHr RN FLORA


drainage work undertaken by the State at New River showed that
bedrock slopd off more steeply at that place than to the south or
the north, and a depth of 20 feet to bedrock improbable in a strip a
few miles wide. Reports are current of an east-west rock ridge
8 or 10 mile south of Lake Okeehobee within 6 feet of the surface
but are probably without substantial basis A rock ridge rises
north from Long Key, reaching as far north as Miami, but according
to report, sounding with a 10-foot pole on a line from Fort Shakelford
to Miami, found no rock ti within 15 miles of Miami Hence there
is a probabili that the Everglades cover a series of shallow rock
hollows. Whether these hollows were as deep when first occupied
by the Everglades as they are now, whether they represent original
inequalities of deposition of the lime rock, or whether they are
buried shallow valleys can not be determined from the evidence at
hand It is probable, however, that the deepening and enlarging
effect of underground solution has been exaggerated.
Bedrock lies 10 feet below low-tide level at Jewflsh Creek, 18 fet
below at Flamingo, 5 to 10 feet below in Whitewater Bay, 13 feet
below at the mouth of Shark River, 13 feet below at the mouth of
Lestnans River, 12 feet below on Chokoloskee Island, and 5 to 10
feet below at Everglade.
Dredging in the canals west of Fort Lauderdale show rock (not
oolite) near the surface 7 to 10 miles west of the town. Regarding
the rock ridge reported in the Evergades south of Lake Okechobee,
R. E. Rose, State che t, who is filiar with the results of the
Disston surveys, in a letter to the writer says that no rock was
found at 12 feet, the leng of the sounding rod, between a point 20
miles south of the lake and the lake, and that he has never found rock
with a 10-foot rod near the south side of the lake. According to
his recollection rock was found at 8 feet 20 miles south of the lake.
The South Canal survey approaches the rock reef on the west (in
T. 48 ., R. 35 E.) farther east the muck is deeper
The light westward slope of the larger part of southern Flrida,
to which reference has been made, is due to a recent tilting and to
deeper accumulation of sand along the ocean than along the Gulf
shore rather than to variations in bedrock level. The latter is
effective only along the southeast side of the Everglades.
Ogin of the Everg~ades.-The Everglades owe their existence
primarily to an abundant rainfall and to the slight elevation of
southern Florida. Even were there no basin-like structure whatever,
and were the bedrock surface absolutely flat along an east-west line,
the present rainfall, the slugs drainage, and the luxuriat growth
of vgetation would result in a swamp forming aross the center
of the peninsula from Lake Okehobee. In short, the Everglades
emb le in origin the Dismal Swamp of North Carolina and Virginia.





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATEM OF FLORIDA


The peat found throughout a large part of t Everglades reso on
rock, sand, or marl In places sounding indicate more than one
peat bed, with sand between. The relations of peat and sandto
bedrock west of Fort Lauderdale are shown by a section along te
drainage canal the. (Se fig. 1.)
CYPRESS SWAMPSO

Most of the many tract of cypress scattered over southern Florid
all for no especial notice. Probably te finest cypress grows north
east of Lake Okechobee, but the largest tract of good timber ae
west of the Everglades; Okaloacoochee Slough and the Big Cyprt
are the two most important. Both have extremely irregular outline
with numerous arms forming strands among adjacent pine islands or
prairies The southern boundary of the Big Cypress is not
on most maps of southern Florida and on many its extent is greatly
exaggerated, the name being printed across a region where cypre
swamps, prairies, hammocks, and pineland are intermingled During










the Everglades to the Gulf north of Cape Romano. The maximum
east-west width of the swamp may be 40 miles. Ten miles east of the



Cypress.
Waters Sand Muc Ui.estone
(Miami polite)
fItU 1-Eection na edg of Eergtr swa weat of Fort tnites wde-, st Iw rlL
Vertical scale, Inc 36 teet; hortiontal sde,1 at It

-Iperiod nnof high water bostern pass through the rs fBti






COASTAL SWAMPS.
As a consequence of the low relief and the gradual slope of the
east-west width of tie may be 40 mils. Ten mils Of the



land below sea level, southern Florida has wide areas of coast




swamp. These areas include (1) wet lands along lagoons or rivers
lying back of the barrier beaches of the east coast, covered party by
open marsh and partly by scrubby growths of mangrove, and (2) the
more extensive swamps of the south and southwest coast, which die
away in a network of channels and islands. On the west coast
these mangrove covered islands and the mangrove swamps behind
extend from Whitewater Bay, the southernmost arm of whi: c
Cypress.
COASTAL 8WAMP8.





is separated from the Bay of Florida by less than 5 miles of wet
prairie and swamp to Cape Romano North of arco the coastal
I(The iel ) or river-;
1. ack of the of the partly by
ol -mrsh and r fy by i -,ru D-t' iof v and (2) the
1r extensive Swampsg Of Lte and soL it coast, which die
I i a net of On d islar tOnhi west iIt

a j from ay, the -i-of
is )d from the y Morida by 1, i than 5aile of wet
prai a rjnd swamp, to Cape Romano. North of Maro the cosa





GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


lands and the swamp land include pine islands, and in places north
of Naples pines grow to the Gulf shore.
The red manrove most frequently grows as a bushy tree, under 20
feet hih. The swamp that forms te southern fringe of the main-
land from Chi Gut to 6 miles east of Flamingo has such low trees,
as have many islands in Whitewater Bay and most of the patches of
swamp along the main line of the Florida Keys from Biscayne Bay to
theMarquesas. But in the Shark .: .. .. archipelago and the southern
portion of that unmapped maze of land and water, the Ten Thousand
Islands, the mangrove forms a noble forest, the trees growing to a
height of 60 feet or over with clean smooth trunks 2 feet or ore in
at the butt and without a limb for 30 feet from the ground.
They rise from the Gulf like a agree wall and are one of the most
string features of the shore line of southern Florida The majestic
appearance of these trees compared with the look of those in White-
water Bay can not be explained by any local peculiarity of climate.
Rathr does it result from the aeration of the thick bed of soft gray
mrl on which they grow by the swing of the tides, which here have
amplitude than anywhere else on the whole coast of the
peninsula, fully 5 feet. Northward, toward Cape Romano, the trees
become smaller and along te inlets back of Caimbas they are as
bushy as in Whitewater Bay.
The maximum width of coastal swamp in southern Florida is un-
known, since the boundary between coastal swamp and Everglades
is a matter of After a season of' . rainfall the chan-
nels leading from the latter carry fresh water and after a dry season
salt water. Thus in May, 1908, the writer found sat water in Lost-
ma River within the Everglades, 17 miles from the mouth of the
river, while in October of the same year, after the heavy rainfall of
the summer and early fall, the water was fresh to a point within 5
nile of the Gulf.


GENERAL CHARACTER.
The keys or islands that fringe the south Florida mainland differ
greatly in sie shape, and surface features. Some are typical barrier
beaches, long, narrow, lowlying banks of sand, crowned with coco-
nut palms and buried in mangrove swamps to landward. -:'. are
true mangrove islands, shoals formed by the efforts of tidal and wind-
nduced currents where mangroves were able to take root and arrest
a lterial thrown up by the waves. Other are sand banks so low-
ying or so exposed as to support only a scanty growth of beach
ses and weeds; and still . notably those in the main chain
hat extends from Virginia Key opposite Miami to Key are of
rock or hav a rock foundation reaching to or above mean sea level




GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA


and covered with various scrubby hardwood trees, palms, and even
pines.
Within this chain, fringing the mainland or dotted over the Bay of
Florida are many keys in all stages of growth, from banks below sea
level to banks just bare at low tide on which mngroves have got
foothold and by their entangling roots are catching seaweed and drift
wood, arresting the movement of calcareous sand and mud, and e-
tively pushing out the shore line. Whitewater Bay, which lies bind
Cape Sable and has an extreme northwes~outheast length of perh~
20 miles, is full of these mangrove islands.
.. of Whitewater Bay the Ten Thousand islands form a
network of channels and of marl banks supporting a heavy growth of
red and black mangrove. From Big Pass to Sanibel island an
almost continuous beach of siliceous sand, broken only by narrow
inlets, such as Johns Pass, Gordon Pass, Big Hickory Pass, and Big
Carlos Pass, faces the Gulf. These passes lead to inner "bays" dottd
with islands of many sizes, but with few features of especal interest.
Though the islands along the coast of southern Florida may be
readily divided into definite types, as barer beaches, rock islands,
and mangrove islands, it is not possible to state from present infr-
mation the relative importance of these types
The decided differences of surface of the keys-bare rock or rock
with a very thin veneer of leaf mold, sand, and marl-and the light
differences of elevation above high tide, have resulted in great differ
ences of vegetation.
Near the water's edge and on flats or on rock beaches beow high-
tide level grow mangroves; on the beach ridges coconut palms, not
indigenous, flourish. Inland the low marl flat support grss
sedges, and salt meadow weeds. The higher ground, caled hammock,
supports a dense growth of scrubby hardwood trees, buttonwood,
ironwood, and madeira, little of which attains a height of more tha
20 feet. Three of the keys,..' :....... Little Pine, and Big Pine,
notably the .:.: carry patches of pine.
The rock outcrops along the keys differ from those of most of the
bare rock in the Biscayne pineland or in the flat lands of the west
coast between the Everglades and Cape Romano. They are
weathered, hence more even, and not jagged looking, except on spray-
worn beach slopes. Angular blocks, disrupted by tree roots or by
temperature changes, are scattered over them, but in places the sur-
face is comparatively smooth over areas of 20 to 100 square yads
Holes and hollows resembling those found in the Biscayne pind
and formed in the same way abound, but the rock itsef has a ook
of newness; its major inequalities are not the result of subaerial decay.
It is like that of some of the low keys in the Everglades west of Lo
Key.





GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA.


Since the keys were elevated to their present height they have
been subjected to forces tat ted to advance the shore line and to
those that tend to push it back. The easily winds have played an
important part in giving the eastern and southern faces of the keys
teir present forms. Dferenes in time and height of tides in Florida
Strit and the Bay of Florida, together with te area of the bay, reslt
in trong current sweeping through the p asages between the keys,
rticularly the openings wnt of Long Key. When northern blow
the shallow waters of thee b ar milk-whit over large areas from
the y stuff in suspenion. This is depoted, to be picked up with
a change of wind or tide, or is carried to sea in such quantii as to
show in the blue waters of the Gulf Stream 10 mes ousde the keys
The bars and banks about the keys and in the Bay of Florida, the
areas of marl ad calcareous sand above sea level, show the activity
of waves and currents and ndcate how much material they have
recently handled
THE FLORIDA REEF.
The shores of the main line of keys, extending from opposite Bi-
cayne Bay to Key West and Boca Grande, are in plaes rocky and
in oer places are bordered by flats of soft marl or calcareous sand
On some keys the surface is bare rock; on others it is sand or marl;
on very few do wide strips of land stand as muchas 6 feet above the
highest spring tides (See P1. VII, A, B.)
The longest key-Key Larg~ -is 30 mile in extreme length, buis
nowhere over 3 miles wide, and its maximum width above the high
spring tides is considerably less Big Pine Key is 10 miles long and
high ground is nearly 2 miles wide with a greatest elevation of 10
fee. Key West is 4 miles long by 1 mile wide and its highest ground,
which is near the center of the city of Key West, has an elevation of
13 feet. The highest measured points in the whole chain of keys are
two small knolls 18 feet high, one on Windleys Island and the other
on Plantation Key, just to the north. The knoll on Windleys island
was quarried for fills and bllast along the railway line to Knih
Key.
The Florida Keys are separated by Bahia Honda Channel into two
distinctly differentiated divisions. East of the channel the islands
are narrow and le along a sweeping are cured toward the southeast.
Outside this arc is the Florida Strait; ide it are the Bay of
Florida, Barnes Sound, Blackwater Bay, Card Sound, and, Bicayne
Bay. The western end at Bahia Honda is 35 miles from East Cape
on Cape Sable, the nearest point of the Florida mainland. The rock
uidge of Key Largo is not 2 miles from the edge of the mangrove
swamp that fringes the end of the peninsula and from there northward
the keys are within 8 miles of the mainland,




GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORDA.


West of Baia Honda the keys form an archipelago rou trian-
gular in outle. In this group, the westward prolongaton of the
arc in which lie Bahia Honda and the keys to the east and northea
is found in the southern shore ine of the keys; but the keys themsves,
instead of lying parallel to this arc, have a prevailing north-northwaet,
south-southeast arrangement, perpendicular to the arc. The caue
of t striking dissimilarity in position are twofold, a difference in
rock structuIre and a difference in the direction of the force which
have shaped the islands.
Bahia Honda and the keys east of it represent an uplifted cora rd
more or les covered with sand and marl; hence their basement roc
ridges have the trend of the cora patches of the old reef. The ke
west of Bahia Honda consist of an oolitic limestone formed from depoe
its in a broad expanse of shallow water hence thee was no orial
ridgelike upbuilding, no pronounced trend to the rock structu Dif-
ferences in resistance to erosion have resulted in irregularities of the
rock surface, which, as along the old reef to the east, have been more
or less covered with marl and alcareous sand. The prevailing north
south trend of the passages separating the keys, hence the end of the
keys themselves, is due to tidal currents, which owe their power to
differences in time and height of the id of e Gulf and the Strait
of Florida.
The shaping of the great arc of the keys is the joint production of
several factors. The old coral reef that forms its greater part
built up from the bottom in water of a certain depth along a line that
had the general direction of the outheastern and southern edge of
the submarine plateau of the Florida peninsula. The cue of its
western end was controlled more or less by the eastward flow of the
Gulf Stream against the westerly movement of the prevailing ds.
The writer did not visit the Tortugas, which have been describe
by :. ... and by Vaughan, nor the Marquesas, an atol-like group
of beach ridges and mangrove islands that s presumably under
by the Key West oolite not more than 10 to 15 feet below sea
The Marquesas are of Recent age, and according to Vaughan
Tortugas are also.

TOPOGRAPHY.
The-shaping of the shore lines of any region is the joit work f
tidal and wind-made currents, waves, and winds. he share of each
of these agencies is determined by the efficiency permitted through
antecedent conditions of coastal topography, the character of the
shore-line materials, and the circumstances controlling the general
of ocean currents and winds, and the work being done at
any given time is in a measure controlled by the rise or fall of th
land with reference to sea level. Thus shore-ine features have the
aspects of infancy, adolescence, or maturity, according to the length









U. S. G~OLOG3CAL SURYYY WATER-SUPPLY PAPER SIR PLATE VII


A. BEACH RIDGE OF CORAL AND SHELL SAND, KNIGHTS KEY.


Ar


B. CALCAREOUS SAND ON REEF ROCK.


WATER-SUPPLY PAPER 819 PLATE VII


U LGEOLOIMCAL SURVEY


NEW



A








WATER-SUPPLY PAPER 319 PLATE VWI


A. MANGROVE KEY, WATER'S EDGE.


B. ROOT GROWTH OF MANGROVES, SOUTH END OF KEY VACA.


-1


U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY





GEOGRAPHY OF 8OUTHERE FLORIDA.


of time the waves and currents have been working at a certain level
and the effectiveness of their attack on the land. In the same region,
s in southern Florida, adolescent features may be found where the
attack i strong, and infantie where the attack is weak or ineffective.
The south Florida mainland is low, its coasts dip gently beneath
the water, and the shore-ne materials are nearly eve here uncon
olidated. Under these conditions slight changes of level can swing
shore lines over long distances, and the effectiveness of wave attack
is easily modied by agencies, such as coral, which tend to build up
and, or agenies, such as maroves, which tend to push out the
shore. (See PI. VIII, A, B.)
The region has no welmarked valleys and no large rivers; hence
atnteeent drain ge has been of minor niportance in deter
the work of waves and currents The streams are clear, they bring
down little matter in suspension, their waters are not heavily miner-
alzed, and they contbute comparatively little to the sea bottom;
hence delta builin is inienifcant. At the same tine an intense
amount of limy material is supplied by the remains of marine organ-
iss, the agitation of the shallow near-shore water facilitates the depo-
sition of calcium carbonate, and the effluent swamp waters contain
organic compounds that may act as precipitants; hence banks of
narl form near river entrances or outside of passages leading from
lagoons, and where the banks are protected mangroves gain a foot-
hold and iterrupt the sequence of forms that would reult from the
unopposed action of waves and currents.
Maps of the east coast show a shore line with adolescent features,
such as uspate forelands, weildeveloped bay bars, and long beaches
with gentle curves. The offsets and overlaps of the bars and beaches
sow that the movement of sand is toward the south. This move-
ment is ver marked at Jupiter Inlet. When the bay bar at the
outh of the inlet is cut through at its north end to make a navigable
nel, the drift of the sands makes the channel travel southward,
as it approaches the south side of the inlet it shoals up and the
ater flows over the bar in a shallow sheet.
OCEAN CURRENTS.
Vaughan has~ summarized the action of the forces that produced
a Flridian Plateu and has called special attention to the or-
ne of ocean currents, as follows:
Importance of curenta in shaping the land area of Florda has been emphasized
real eecone of the preceding dircuon. Before the history of the current of
a n an be thoroughly undertood it i necessary to know the history of the Hat-
azi of TNorth GCarol. The present Flonda countercurent seem due partly to
nping~ement o the Gulf Srem nst the attem projection, resulting n a
A rBn to the history of th FidI Plateau: Pb Carngie h Wihldgton No. 13, 1910.
. 319 -6
765340-wsr 31O~--6






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


portion of the waters being deflected southward along the coat d of continung
their northward journey. The Hatrter axi has existed as a dividing line between
depitional areas apparently since Middle Cretaceous time, and it has been eitr
region of sho water, or occasionally a land area, since later Eocene time. The Vick
burn and Apalachicolan seas were both warm, tropical or subtpical in tempe
ture. It is not definitely determinable at parent whether the warmth of these wa
s due to currents directly from the Tropics or to wam return currents produced by
the northward-flowing Gulf Strem having a portion of its waters diverted southard
by impinging agat t a laient from the more northerly land area.
In Miocene time it ia definitely known that a cold inshore current found its way
southward to Florida and westward to Penacola. This current may be due to the
Miocene submergence of the Hateras area sufficiently lowering the sea bottom off lht-
terato permit the Gulf Stream to continue its course unobstructedly northwrsd
Should this hypothesis be correct a reexamination of the faunas of the Miocene dept-
it of northern North Carolina nd Virin and those of outh rn North Carol (the
Duphln marl), South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, with reference to synch~ny
may be necemitated The Miocene outhwad current transported quantities ter-
rigenous material and deoited it on the astern border of the Floridia Plateu.
Sine Mocene time there have been constantly return currents of arm water (how-
ever not so warm the Gulf Stam), and they, aided by wids and ides, have
deit terrigenouh material on the eastward ide of the land areas wee
ing a portion of it to the southern end of the Plateau. Thee current were active
during Pliocene and Pleistocene times, and are still active to-day.
The shape of the upper surface of the Floridian Plateau, the land areaof its ester
side, the arrangement of the geologic formations of suceeessive ages, the directions of
the st cou and the contour of the present coast line owe their peciii
and characteristic to the concomitant operation of the forces producing dformtion
and to oceanic current.
The writer does not share Vaughan's view as to the exstnce of
great return eddies of the Gulf Stream and their effectiveness in
modifyig coast lines, either to-day or in time long past. The sand
grains along the east coast of Florida have traveled southward not
at great depths but in shallow water, along beaches and bars Such
being the case, their travel as determined by the inshore waves
and current, which are mostly tidal or wind induced. The anle
of inidence of the waves along a stretch of beach is chiefly a mater
of wind diection. Were the near-shore currents and waves to move
material northward rather than southward, a return eddy of the Gulf
Stream, a mile or more offshore, would have very little to do with
the shaping of the shore line. Moreover, the writer doubts the
stence of a great eddy of the for that Vaughan's words imply.
Of course, the movement of such a body of water as sweeps through
Florida Strit must be accompanied by eddying, but the writer in
his observations along the keys saw no sign of any general, persistnt
return eddy. The drift of sand and mud, as indicated by beaches,
banks, and bars along the great are of the main line of the keys, is
the work of local inshore currents that change continually in dire-
ton and strength but are controlled by the tides and the
more effective winds. A balance of effect is shown in the Marquesas,
where waves from the east and waves from the west seem to be of
nearly equal strength in piling up sand and mud.











PART II.---GEOLOGY


NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.
By G. C. MAoN.
GEOLOGIC R CORD.
The processes which formed the ocks comprising the State of
Florida have changed from tie to time, but they have always
ben similar to those now operating along the coast. That the
rocks are largely of marine ori is shown by the presence in
many of them of shells of marie animals similar to those that live
along the coast to-day When the sea was clear animal ife abounded
and the shells accumulated to form limestones, but when the water
was muddy sand and clay predominated in the deposits. Thus the
roks of Florida record the conditions which existed during their
deposition. I some places accumulations of clay, sand, and gravel
appear to have taken place on land or in rivers and lakes, giving
rise to nonmine formations, but these deposits are only a minor
portion of the whole.
Although the rocks of Florida may appear to indicate continuous
sedimentation there is good evidence that deposition has at times
been interrupted by periods when the land emerged from beneath
the sea and was subjected to erosion. During these periods the
action of air and water removed part of the materials already de-
posited and left an uneven surface. When the land was again
submerged beneath the sea other materials wre deposited upon
the eroded surface. Such breaks are known as unconformities.
The same forces which caused the land to rise above sea level
sometimes operated to produce a slight compression of the strata.
In this manner the peninsula was raised in the form of a broad
ah several hundred feet above the floor of the deep sea This
fact is not readily apparent, because the land surface represents only
the higher portion of the arch. Minor folds of the strata are also
nown in Florida, but they are mostly inconspicuous and are recog-
nized with difficulty.
GEEAL SUCCESSBBION OF FORMATIONS.
The time that has elapsed since the oldest known rocks were
formed in the New World is so long that any attempt to estimate
its duration in years would be futile. The rcks deported during
that time have been divided into several systems, of which only
85





GEOLOGY A"D GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA


the last two are represented in Florida. Of these two the most
recent is known asthe Q te d the one immediately pre-
cedigas the Tertiary. The rocks belonging to the Quatern
system are subdivided into two series, known as the Recent and
the Pleistoene.
In Florida the Pleistone began with an uplift that carriedthe
surface higher above sea level than it is at the present day Th
uplift was followed by an interval of extensive erosion, which was
terminated by a sinking of sufficient extent to carry the lowlands
beneath the sea The degree of bmergence vared. Later another
emergence raised the surface of the State somewhat above its present
altitude. This change in level is regarded as the closing event of
the Pleistocne epoch. During the Recent epoch slight chang
have occurred, none of them being of sufficient magnitude to be
compared with the movements during the Pleistocene. Duing
both the Pleistocene and the Recent epochs sand, peat, marl, and
coquina accumulated over nearly the entire State.
The rocks blongig to the Tertiary system are commonly grouped
into four series, of which the youngest is the Pliocene. The Pliocene
of Florida has been subdivided into five formations which differ
more or less from each other. They are known as the Lafayette (1)
formation (Pliocene ), the Nashua and Caloosahatchee marl, the
Alachua clay, and the Bone Valley gravel. The Lafayette (I) form-
tion is commonly composed of red and yellow sands ad sandy
delays, which cap the ls and uplands of north Florida The Nash
and Caloosahatchee marla consist of sands and marls which contain
shells of marine organisms. The Alachus clay is commonly sandy
and locally cntainns many bones of large land animnas. The Bone
Valley gravel is a phosphatic gravel, which is known as land pebble
phosphate. Subsequent to the preparation of this manuscript some
evidence was obtained that seems to warrant the tentative inclusion
of the Bone Valley gravel in the Miocene. Though these formations
are described separately and are represented by three different color
on the geologic map (P1. I in pocket), it is probable that all of them
except the Bone Valley gravel are largely contemporaneous.
Next older than the Pliocne are rocks belonging to the Miocene
series. These are divided into two formations, known as the Choc-
tawhatchee marl and the Jacksonville formation, though probably
deposited at about the same time. The former, which is a shell
marl, is well exposed in north and west Florida; and the latter con-
sists of limestone, delay, and sand, known chiefly from well records
at Jacksonville and farther south along the east coast.
The oldest rocks known in Florida belong to the Oligocene series.
They comprise several formations arranged in two groups, known as
the Apalachicola group and the Vicksburg group. Of these groups,






GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


the younger (Apalachieola) contains four formations-Alum Bluff,
Chattahoochee, Hawthorn, and Tampa. The Alum Bluff formation
is the youngest, but the other three are believed to be largely con-
temporaneous. The Alum Bluff formation comprises the typical
sands and delays which characterizethe formation along Apalachicol
River and elsewhere, together with the Chipola marl, Oak Grove
sand, and Shoal River marl members. The Vicksburg group includes
three formations, known as the Ocala limestone, "Peninsular"
limestone, and Marianna limestone. The limestones of the Vicks-
burg group are especially important because they underlie the entire
State, and furnish the artesian water in all the large areas where
flowing wells are obtained. They are exposed in many of the build-
ng-stone quarries and phosphate mines. The rocks belonging to the
oldest epoch of the Tertiary (Eocene) are not exposed in Florida,
but tey occur at the surface in the adjoining States and they doubt-
les unerlie the limestone of the Vicksburg group.
The following tale shows the general succession and character
of the geologic formations of Florida.
'The nme of thi frn atos printed on the nmp (P, I) as Hawthorne, th spelling d in some
grisly poblihed port, but a the gerphrt m~me f which It It derived s polled Hawthorn,
t flnalte sb bmn dropped in the text.





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.








I
,i








I I


TM .
A2A


I I '.


11 _4

*inc~rodinuoolni(i pd ui

|S i S 8







GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL PLORIDA.


*LmR.iAw




70 GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLOBRDA.

: I Ipt J: p



00
oo 56 "B







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Le I qo i
Ba j
0. ~






GEOLOGY OF rORTIERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


OLIGOCENE SERIES.


The Oligocne rocks may be separated into two groups, called
here the Vicksburg group and the Apalachicola group. These two
groups were formerly regarded as Eocene and Miocene, respectively.
As early as 1846 Conrad referred the ocks exposed at Ballast Point
near Tampa, together with the prevalent rock of the peninsula, to the
uppe division of the Eocene; and for many years the rocks here
included in the Vicksburg group continued to be called Eocene by
numerous writers, including Bailey,2 Tuomey," Smith,' and Dall.
The deposits here called Apalachicola group were first differentiated
from the Vicksburg in 1887, when Langdon 6 examined the Oligoeene
beds of Apalachicola River and reported that they were Miocene.
This name was retained for some time but it was modified by the
use of "old or ubtropical Miocene" to distinguish it
from the later Miocene. In 1896 Dall7 published a brief statement
of the reason for regarding the socalled Eocene and the so-called
"old Miocene" of Florida as Oligocene; and this designation has
since been followed in many but not in all publications dealing with
southern Coastal Plain geology.


NOMENOLATURE.
After the setting apart of the "old Miocene," there rem ned a
considerable thickness of rock which was still regarded as Eocene
and was known as the Vicksburg limestone.' This name had been
used to include all the older Tertiary rocks of the peninsula, com-
pring both the Vicksburgian limestone and the deposits here caled
Apalachicola group, but with the increase of knowledge of the
geology of the State it was gradually restricted to the older lime-
stones. Subsequent study indicated that this group of older lime-
stones, though presenting but slight ithologic variation, was divisi-
ble on paleontologic grounds into two parts, the lower division (here
i Conrad, T. A., O a on the geology of a part of east Florida, with a catalogue of recent shells
ftb coast: Am. iour. Be., d sr., vol. 2,, -, pp. -4.
SBailey, W, Am. Jour. Bt, 2 ser., vol. 10, 18, p. 282.
*Tomeey, ., A noto of the geology of the rida kys: Am. Jour. Sel., 2d sr.,vol. 11, IM0, pp. 390
Smth, E. A., On the geoy Florida: Am. Jour. Sea., 3 sr., vol. 21, 1l81, pp. 28-I9.
* D', W. H, d ., ad a, D., C pap: Bull U. eol. Survey No. 84, 12,
SI~gdon, Dil, r Soe F a Moe: Am. Jour. Bl., Sd sr, vol. 38, B, pp. 322-3
' Dall, W. H., Deeriptio of Tertry fasls from the Antll rn Proo U. Vt. Nat Mms., vol. 19,
No. u, 1B96, pp. 3-05.
SBull U.. G. eol. Surey No. 84,1843, pp. 101-104.
E. A., On thegeology of ord Am. Jour. Sol., ad ser., vol. 21, 1881, pp. 202-301.






GROLOGY AND GROUND WATEhB OF PLORIDA.


lled "Peninsular" letone) being de ntd the "Vicksburg"
limestone and the upper the Ocala limestone Still later, Dal pro
sed the abandonment of the name Vicksburg as apple to
stones of the peninsula of Florida and the substitution of the te~n
"Peninsular" for the lower division above described. He stat:
From the obserions on the typical Vicburgan by Col. Cy it e
ble that the Orbitoidal limetone which forms the mam of the Floridian Pate, rd
which hal been, in this work and m the literature generally, called the Viclua
limestone may really form different horion together f the typic .
ian and be intermediate between the latter and the nuimmulitic Ocals lmtone
In order to promote cleaned nnd avoid confu~on, it is probably advable to adop
a distinct name for the Orbitoidal phase or formation, for which I :.would :
term Peninslar limestone. This is intended not as a permanent formation e
but as a general trm for the fundamental platu leone of Florida, in whic
close and thorough study may reslt in he dicinaton of more than one houo
or zone,
The reason for the change suggested by Dall is the fact that the
fossnln which have been regarded as charact~rist of the Vicksbuar
have been found to occur at other horizons, and hence their occ1p
rence in the limestones which underlie the numutic rock of the
peninsula can not be regarded as proof of equvalence of that ime
stone with the limestone at the type locality at Vicksburg, Miss.
The question of the correlation of the Florida formations is further
complicated by the fact that two horizons are represented in the
bluff at Vicksburg. To avoid further confusion, however, the lower
Oligocene rocks in Florida, originally known as the Vicksburg
stone, are here designated the Vicksburg group. The group is thought
to comprise thre formations, here called the Ocala limestone, the
"Peninsular" limestone, and the Marianna limestone.
The "Peninsular" and Ocala limestone were recognized by Dal;
and the name Marianna limestone was later given to the soft,
porous, light-gray to white limestone of western Florida, which are
characterized by an abundance of Orbitoides mantellt and other Foram
inifera and many other fossils, prominent among which are F da
poeudoni and P. perpZanua. At the type locality (Marianna, Jack-
son County) this limestone is so soft that it can be cut into
wi tha saw. It contains some beds of chert and many of the
are slieci.ed. Lithologically the rock at Marianna resembles the
Oeala limestone at Ocala and the "Peninsular" limestone but it
differs from the former in the character of its fauna, especially in the
absence of nummulites, and it is believed that it may represent a
horizon below the "Peninsular" limestone of Dall. The close lithe
S. WanrFress Inst. t, ol. 3, Ipt. 0, i 1h54.
aseo, 0. C., ad clawp, Q., scn Ann. Rpt. Florida GaoL Survey, 190, p. B.






GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


logi resemblance between the Marianna limestone and the "Penin-
sular" limestone, however, makes it possible to combine much of
the discussion concerning these two formations.
MAIANN A AND "PENINSU IR" LE mTONES.
8traiaph pot&ii. -The base of the "Peninsular" lestone is
not exposed in Florda and there is no satisfactory evidence jt it
has been reached in drilling wells hence the character of the sub-
jacent formation is not known. Reference has already been made
to the uncertainty concerning the exact correlation of the "Peninsu-
1ar" limestone of Florda. It wil thus be seen that no satsfatory
conclusions can be drawn cocerning the relation which the "Penin-
sular" limestone bears to the underling beds. Its relation to the
overlying formations will be discussed in connection with those
formations.
The Marianna limestone is thought to be the stratiraphic equiv-
alent of the upper part of the bluff at Vicksburg, Miss. Some well
in west Florida enter beds of sand and clay that probably represent
older formations, but the tratigraphic relation of the Marinna to
these older beds can not be determined. In west Florida, where
this fo action is recognized, it is unconformably oerlai by beds
belonging to the Aptlachicola group or by post~Plocene formations
it c caraoer-The M anna and the "Peninsular" forma-
tions consist of soft, porous, white or lightgray limestone, in some
places resembling marl, especially when partly decomposed. Some
bands of darker-colored dense limestone are reported in wells, and
nodules and layers of chert are common; chert beds are especiay
prominent at certain horns. For the most prt the cherty beds
are dker in color than the linestoe and range in thickess from a
fraction of an inch to 15 feet. In some localities as many as six or
seven successive beds of chert have been encountered in a single
well, the heavier layers being, in general, the more persistent. It is
usually chert which forms a nearly water-tight cap to the artesian
water beds in these formations. Certain beds are abundantly fos-
siliferous, containing innumerable specimens of Orbitoides and
shells of mollusks, such as PeCten po1dloni. At several localities the
rock is so soft that it can be cut into blocks with a saw. On exposure
to the weather these blocks harden rapidly, making a building stone
of very fair quality. Beds of sand, some of them 10 feet or more in
thickness, are reported in some of the wells that penetrate this for-
mation. In general these sand beds appear to be most numerous in
the northwestern part of the State, but even there they are a minor
part of the formation.
Thik s.--The thickness of the "Peninsular" limestone and the
Marianna limestone appears to be exceedingly variable. The






74 GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORDA.

sickness given by Foerate, from his investigations in southwestern
Georgia and the adjacent part of Florida, s 220 feet, and probably
this should be regarded as the approximate measure of the Marianna.
The thitciess of the Vicksburg group is reported by Dall' to be 140
feet at Salt Mountain, Ala., and, on the basis of well borings, is esti-
mated by the same wrier to be over 350 feet at Gaieville, 212 feet
at Lake Worth, and 1,068 feet at St. Augustine. From recent exam-
inations of well boring by Vaughan and Bassler limestone of Vick~
burg age is known to have a thickness of over 225 feet at Qncy,
250 feet at Alachua, and 325 feet at Bartow; apparently it thickens
markedly southward from its exposures in Georgia and Alabama.
It is hard to estimate just how much reliance can be placed on well
records, because the drill may penetrate some distance into a formal
tiion before characteristic fossils are obtained, and it is posibl for
folks to drop from the side of the bore and thus ontiue to apple~
in the rilli far below the bae of the formation to which they
belong. Of all the estates gien above the one at Ginville
probably the most reliable, because the well is eaid to be asedto
the bottom.
PhyEl ographc ezpres~ .The "Peninsular" limestone ad the
Marianna liestone are characterized by a topography due to slu-
tion and marked by numerous underground streams, natural bridg~,
ink holes, and large irregular depressions. That the underound
streams in these formations attain considerable size is shown by a
number of large springs which emerge apparently from definite
channel&. The most noted natural bridge of the Marianna lie-
stone is on Chipola River near Marianna but there are many other
of smaller size, both in this formation and in the "Peninsular" lie-
stone. Wherever the limestone lies near the surface, rounded hills
and sink holes characterize the topography; the sinks form many lake
basins in the central part of the peninsula.
Paeonologi chaacte Both the "Peninsular" limestone and
the Marianna limestone are characterized by an abundant fauna,
the most prominent fossil being Orbitoides manelli, with which is
associated Pelet poulEotzi and P. perphlua. Dall* says that the
fauna of the "Peninsular" limestone includes about 222 species, of
which 102 are restricted to it. With the imperfectly known fauna
of the Ocala limestone it has 15 species in common; 9 species continue
into the "silex bed" and limestone of the Tampa formation, and
continue into the Miocene and down to the Recent fauna.
Struure.The "Peninsular" limestone and the Mainnna lime
stone have been affected by the earth movements which have pr-
1 oete, A. ., Am. Joa r. bL, 3d ser., vol. 48, 1890, p. 46.
Bull. U. a. Ge Survey No. 84, 1S2, p. 103.
Tr. Wer Free Int. Sol., voL 3, pt. 6, aLO, pp. 16 .





GEOLOGY OF NORTH N AND CENTRAL FLORIDA 75

duced the present structure of the State. Their major structural
feature consists of a broad anticline. The dips are low and are
generally seaward. Local variations in altitude of the surface of
these limestones are so pronounced as to suggest that there has been
considerable local warping as well as a general arching Toward the
southern end of the State the "Peninsular" lmestone dips southward
beneath the Everglades, where it is probably buried under some
hundreds of feet of younger sediments. Along the east coast this
formation shows marked variations in depth; nowhere, however,
does it rise to within less than 175 feet of the surface, and at Jackson-
vle it lies at least 525 feet below the surface.
At Tampa, on the west coast, the "Peninsular" limestone probably
lie somewhat more than 100 feet below the surface, but farther
north along the coast it may be exposed Apparently the dip of the
Marina limestone toward the southwest in the long western exten-
ion of the State is very rapid, for at Pensacola this limestone is
buried more than 1,100 feet beneath younger sediments.
Real disfriution..-As early as 1849 limestone of Viksburg age
was noted by J. WW.Bailey, who obtained some "Orbitulites" from
a cher at Pyles plantation, about 40 miles west of Palatk. The
locality where these specimens were obtained is only a few miles
south of Ocla. The same writer mentions the occurrence of similar
rock at several points between Palatka and Tampa, but in no case
does he give the exact localites.
While collecting statistics for the Tenth Census, Smith gathered
much valuable information relating to the geology of Florida. He
presented evidence to show that limestone of Vicksburg age under
lies nearly the entire peninsula of Florida, giving in part its real
outcrop and noting the occurrence of Orbiltides masteli, Pe"em
o i, and other characteristic fossils in exposures of the lime
stone here called Marianna a few miles southeast of Campbellton,
at the Bi Spring, east of Marianna, and at other localities which he
does not name. From a limestone collected by him 6 miles from
St. arks, in Wakulla County, Hilprin identifed Orb6iide maei,
and pronounced the roc t be o Vicksburg; but the rock at St. Marks
belongs to the Apalachicola group instead of to the Vicksburg group.
Smith examined a marl which occurs at various points along the
Gulf coast and decided that it also was of Vicksburg age. He states
that it forms the basis of the "gulf hammock" land in the coastal
counties from Wakul~as County nearly to Tampa Bay in fllaborough
County. In describing the real extent of the Vicksburg, Smith
included in it large areas of rock which are now known to belong to
the upper Oligocene or Apalachicola group; for example, the lime-
1 EBa, i. W., Amn. Joir. BLt, 2 aer., vol. 2, 1i1, p. 88.
tntih, E. A., On the elogy of Florida Am. Jounr. Sol, 3d se., vol. 21, 11i, ipp. 20-0.





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLO A.


stone extending along Suwannee River for many miles and the ime
stone at Tampa. He called attention to the fact that the limeston
of the Vicksburg group prevail in the vicinity of Gaineville and that
in many places they are composed largely of O ade ....
Other localities included in the Vicksburg were ayn Pririe and
Ocala.
In addition to the locatie mentioned above, Smith reports lime
stone of Vicksburg age at Live Oak and Lake City,in the northern
part of the peninsula. At these localities, as in many other parts of
the peninsula, the formation is overlain by a few feet of younger


It is impmcticable with the data yet printed to determine exactly at how many of
smith's localities the country rk belongs to the Orbitoide horion om o the,
double, will eventually be own to be of later age, as wll be indicted later in i
summary. Only those whee no doubt seems to exi will be species here. In
Alachua County it is widespread, having been observed by Smith and Dll at Gainms-
ville andwestward to and about Archer, though in many places overlain by solution
ay residuum, rennantw, or even beds oflater age but moderte thckne Ii had bee
identified at Silver Spring, 6 miles eat fom Ocala, by Le Conte,'as erly as 1861,' and
subsequently the observation has been confirmed by Smith. Specimen of th rock
have been collected by Willcox at Martin station, Marion County, abou8 miles noho
Ocala, where the rock is very cherty; and at Jarve's spring, on the other border of
Psco County; at Fort Foster, on the North Fork of the Hillsboro River, where, as in
many other places, reli of the old Miocene beds overlie it. eve of the loli
referred to by Heilprin must remain for the present on the doubtful list, but among
them should hardly be counted the islet at the mouth of Homsam River, om which
Mr. Wilicox obtained the Pygorhw hua (Raneli) goudi Bouv4, a nall echinode
originally described from the buhmone (ante-Claibornian) of Georgia.
It will be seen from this quotation ha later investigation indicate
that the limestone at some of the localities mentioned by Smih is not
of Vicksburg age. However, this should not be regarded as d
treating fro the value of the earlier work, for with the increase of
knowledge it is inevitable that formation lines should be shifted and
that new formations should be discriminated.
Miss Maury's summary of the Vicksburg indicates that it forms a
large part of the country rock in north-central Florida, and she cits
many of the localities mentioned by Dall and Bailey She mention
especially the exposures seen in the vicinity of Gainesville, which are
surrounded by rocks belonging to the divion here ca d Apalachi
cola group. Attention is also called to the ocurrence of psum,
which is regarded as the result of the action of sulphur on calcium
carbonate, and the occurrence of phosphate rock, resulting from an
analogous chemical action.
1BLll. U. S. Owl survey No. 4, IMBS, pp. 102-103
SAm. Jour. Sol., 2d ser., vol. 21, 181, pp. 1-12.
SManury, C. The Oiligooene of western Europe and southern United States: Bull. No. 1 Am. Plotol-
00, voL a, 19a, pp. 4-O.






GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA.


During the progress of recent field work the occurrence of the Mari-
anna limestone was noIted at Natural Bridge, in north-central Walton
County, but there is no indication that it reaches the surface west of
this county; indeed, from well records and exposures of other forma-
tions, there is every reason to believe that in Escambia and Santa
Rosa counties this formation lies some hun s of feet below the
surface of the upland.
East of Marianna the formation is exposed at several localities
where it presents considerable variation in its lithologic characters
tic. At some of these localties it is a soft porous white limestne,
and at others it is a tough dense gay limestone However, some of
this difference in texture may be accounted for by the fact tat the
rock hardens on exposure to the air, and it is perhaps significant that
the hard gray limestone is usually seen at natural exposures and the
soft porous rock at quarrels
Near the east edge of the town of Marianna a small exposure affords
the following section:
Se~ion No. 1, ear east edge of M anna
Lfyette (?) formation: rst.
Clay, red, andy; some bed8 of aand and gravel ..................... 25
aianna limestone:
Clay, white, marly....... ............... ............. 5
Li e, hard, earthy, gray.................................. 2
Marl, blue, ith many ecten .......................... ........ 8
Lim tone, hard, gray............................ ............ 4
Stin No. (approximaely 0 feet below section No. 1).
Limestone, had, gray, very fmiliferous; contains Orbttide man Feet
telli, Pecn poulont, etc........... .. ........ .......... 5
Chert, dark gray...............................................
Limestone, soft, porou, white; a few Orbitoids and other foeils... 30
The white limestone of this action is exposed in a quarry, where it is
obtained by sawing. It is used locally for building, especially in the
construction of chimneys. Upon exposure to the weather the rock
hardens until it resembles the hard meber at the top of the section
A well drilled at Marianna penetratd limestone, marl, and clay
to the depth of 265 feet, where a bed of quicsand was encountered.
An incomplete log of this well is given below
Log of well at Marianna.

ThlicknLs Depth.

Feat. Fee.
d n d y m (Plsto ee).............................. .....
Cay, red and yellow, amdy, nd nd (Iyettte(?))....................... 2B 21
fe, hir, d mril, lten gi btde; doubtl-s Ineludes action No. I at the
at e d otf e l n... ........................ .................. ........ 45 661
Hurd rock (chrt); towed by a a bed of marl and limtone with
cart (Mariann Ilimtnert (t))... 200 2664




78 G- EOLOGY AND GON WA; S OF FLOXR

The log of this well does not afford any means of judging at wht
depth te base of the M a limestone was reached, but it is
possible that an underlying formation was entered some distance
above the bottom of the wll
At a locality 2 miles southeast of Chiply, the Marianna limestone
outcrops in the edge of a sink, and about 6 miles southwest of Chiple
and 1 mile north of Duncan it is exposed in some small quarries wha
it had been obtand for buildingto t one of these qu1- es,
belonging to F. G. Owens, the rock hs also been burned for lie,
which was reported to be of oodquality. This quarry shows a
20 feet of porous white limetone, r ambling the rock in section
No. 2 at Marianna. Near the surface it is very hard and durabk,
but at greater depths it is much softer.
Fossils occur throughout the section, but they are especiay
numerous in the upper 5 feet, where the rock appears to be large
composed of AOrbitides mate. A welldefined ridge at the quarry
appears to consist of the Marianna limestone covered by a few feet of
white Pleistocene sand and .. -.. lon, the presence of the Marianna
being indicated by numerous boulders containing charactexrisi
organic remas.
A few miles northeast of unan, at Faling Water, a large ink
exposes several feet of llght~gray limestone, probably belonging to
the Marianna. At thi locality there appears to be a well-defin
system of underground drainage, which is indicated at the
by numerous sink holes. The bet exposure is seen where a sm~
stream plunges into one of these sink holes with a reported fall of
over 70 feet. The rock, however, forms a nearly perpendicular cif
and is not easily accessible
At Natural Bridge, near the north line of Walton County, a light
gray to yellowish-gray marl forms the arh ich spans a sm
stream. The width of the channel is probably 20 feet and the..
of the bridge about one-fifth mile. The height of the exposure abov
the level of the waer in te creek was estimated by Vaughan' to
be 35 to 40 feet. When fresh the rock is soft and crumbles readily
in the fingers, but when exposed to the weather it hardens rapidly
and assumes the yellowish color mentioned above. It is quarried
by sawing, and is locally known as "chimney rock," because it s
used in the construction of himneys. A considerable percentage of
clay, which occurs in fine particles distributed through the rock,
indicates that the material is a marl rather than a limestone. Pee
poulsoni is the most abundant fossil. From the lithologic characts
of the rock, together with the occurrence of numerous specimens of
the species mentioned above, the rock is considered to belong to the
Marianna limestone.
V 1hghan, T. W,unpubUishd noto.






GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL PLORA.


A quarter of a mile south of Bride, near a turpentine
still, a silar marl outop in the bed of a small stream with a
thicness of about 20 feet. This rock is slightly more compact than
that described above and has a distinctly grayish or bluish color.
Thee differences, however, are probably due to the fact that it has
not suffered so much weathering as the rock at the '.. :.... Bridge,
and its substantial equivalence with the latter can hardly be ques-
~onedL Numerous concretions of nearly pure carbonate of lime are
scattered throughout this marl, but they do not appear to have any
relation to the occurrence of the fossils.
About 7 miles southwest of Marianna and nearly 1 mile from
Kynesville, a number of fragments of limestone were obtained from a
field, where they were said to have been turned up by the plow. They
represent a very cherty phase of the Masanna limestone and are
probably residual products of weathering. They consist of boulders
up to 2 or 3 feet in diameter, which contain innumerable specimens
of Orbitidc e madtelli and Pecten p~oni.
At the phosphate mines in the vicinity of Groom, where a number
of specimens of Orbitoides mantelli were collect, the rock has the
lithologic characteristics of the "Peninsular" limestone. The collec-
tion was made from boulders dredged from a mine, and it is difficult
to decide whether it is "Peninsular" or Ocala limestone. The pres-
ence of a number of specimens of Cassidulus suggests that limestone
belonging to the Apalachicola group is also represented. In the
absence of characteristic Nummulites in the collections, it appears
not unely that the limestones of the Apalachicola group may here
rest upon the "Peninsular" limestone. However, this conclusion is
made subject to revision in case future collections from this locality
should reveal the presence of fossils belonging to the Ocala limestone.
The "Peninsular" limestone is known to outcrop throughout the
central part of the peninsula, where it may be observed in numerous
natural and artificial exposures. It has been encountered in many
of the hard rock phosphate mines from Croom northward nearly to
the north line of the State. It is also known to underlie a large part
of the central lake basin of the peninsula, and it is encountered in
wells along the east coast from Fernandina southward to beyond
Palm Beach and'along the west coast south of Tampa.
OCALA LD3rErONE.
onmenclature.-The Ocala limestone was formerly regarded as part
of the "Orbitoides limestone," but in 1882 Nummulites derived from
waste products of the limestone were described by Heilprin. The
specimens were obtained by Willcox from Chassahowitzka River,
1~Hpr Angdl, On the oc~acr of nummuliti depots to Florda and the ah~olation of Num-
witsh a freh-water fauna: P. Phadeiphia Aciad Nat. Be., 1, pp. 189-195.
7~60-war 319-13---6






GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORIDA.


and their association with fresh-water forms of recent shells was
rightly interpreted to mean that the Nummulites had been trans-
ported from some other locality and redeposited with the younger
shell. In 1884, Wilcox announced the occurrence of the nuini u-
litic rock in place some distance above the original locality on Cha
howitzka River, and Hefilprin, in commenting on the announcement,
stated that the beds belonged to the Oligocene.
The rock occurs at the old confederate iron works in Levy County
where it was given the name "Lvyviile formation" by Johnson,'
who described it as consisting of about 20 feet of soft porous building
stone. He believe that it had been partly removed by erosion in the
western part of the peninula, where it is much thinner than farther
east, but expressed doubt to its having been deposited over the
entire surface of the underly "Peninsular" limestone.
Johnson mentioned several other localities where o this formation
was recognized, among them being Paynes Prairie. He reported t~hast
at a quarry on the Noonanville road near Santa Fe River the
formations rested dictly upon the "Peninsular" limestone, the
nummulic rock (Ocals limestone) being absent. Johnson's Levy-
evil formation has usually been regarded as the substantial equivalent
of the Ocala limestone; but it is not possible at present to verify the
determination of the nummultes, and the rocks at Leville may
really belong to some other formation.
In subsequent publications by Hlprin this rock was called
"Nummulitic" lm tone but in 1892 Dall proposed the name
Ocal limestone. He states:
Among th rock which until recently were not discriminated om the Orbitoides
limese, and which appear in central Florid directly and conformably to ovrlie
the latter, though no one hs dered their contact, i a yellowih riable rock con-
Smany Foraminifer, conspicuous among which are two species of Numulites,
N. til ozii and N. flortna Hp Thfis rock was first brought to notice by Mr. Joeph
Wlllcox, and to Prof. Heilprin we owe a description of it which discriminates between
it and the Vickbug or Orbitoides rock. The rock was early recognized as Eocene,
though not di ted from the elier bd It is beet displayed at Ol, Fa.,
where it forms the country rock, and has been quarried to a depth of 20 feet without
coming to the bottom of the beds.
Stracigrapic position The Ocal limestone lies stratigraphically
between the "Peninsular" limestone and the beds here designated the
Aalachicola group. Lithologically, it bears a strong resemblance
to the underlying "Peninsular" limestone, with which it also has
close faunal relation. These facts have led to the conclusion that he
two formations are conformable, and it has also been suggested
that the Ocala limestone is a local phase of the "Peninsular" lime-
1 ene, new ser., mvol. 3, 1884, p. 907.
J ohbon, L. C., Am. Jour. S, 3d ser., vol. 26, 18s, pp. 280-2i.
Rl. G8o. Survey No. 4, 1802, pp. 10-104.








WATER-8UPPLY PAPER 3a1 PLATE IX


A. SECTION IN QUARRY OF OCALA LIME CO. AT OCALA.


B. QUARRY OF OCALA LIME CO. (OLD PHILLIPS QUARRY) I MILE SOUTHEAST OF OCALA.


U. L. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY






GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN A- D ONTTAL FLOBIDA-


stone. Although the two formations are probably conformable, the
extensive distribution of the nummulites of the Ocal limestone
shows that it represent a wideprad change in condition and is
not to be classes as a mere local phase of the underlying beds.
The Ocala limestone, as already note by Johnson, is in places
wanting, so tt the overlying formations ret directly upon the
"Paninsular" limestone.
Lidogeic c~harater,-The Ocala limestone consists of a soft,
porous, light-gray to whit limestone which bears a strong lithologic
resemblance to the underlying 'Peninsular" limestone but is dis-
tinguished from it by the included fossils. When slightly weathered,
the rock becomes light yellow, and owing to its granular appearance
soften rewarded as a sandstone The removal of the calcareous
material by the leaching action of underground water leaves a pale
yellow, more or less incoherent sand, containing a small percentage
of calcium arbonate. When fresh, the Oeala limestone is so soft
that it i easily broken, but many o surfaces become hardened
by the deposition of calcium carbonate by water emerging along
the outcrop. For this reason the rock locally appers to be hard and
firm. Its porosity and ready solubility permit the formation of
numerous underground channels which appear in som of the out-
crops and are elsewhere inferred from the numerous sink holes. (See
PI. IX, B.) The rock contains an abundance of organic remains
which are commonly preserved as csts. Nodules and large masses
of chert are also common and in some localities a large part of the
rock has been slfi (e P X, A.)
Thickess.-No defiant determination of the maximum thickne
of the Ocala limestone has been made, and as yet no exposures have
been observed which show the contact with the underlying "Penin-
sular" limestone. All the information now available indicates that
the thickness is variable and that the variation is probably in con-
siderable measure due to subsequent erosion rather than to the
inequalities of deposition. Dall states that at the type locality the
Ocala limestone has been quarried to a depth of 20 feet without reach-
ing its contact with the underlying "Peninsular" limestone. The
greatest thickness noted during the recent field investigation was in
a sin hole near Ocala, in which the formation is exposed to a depth



re to a topography haractrzed by low hills, gentle slopes, sink
holes, sinking streams and natural bridges. This limestone has
had an important influence in the development of many of the lake
Da, W. H.,ra ar e Ist. SoL, TOL a, pt. 6, 190, p. iMIt





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLOBXA.


basins, and it forms the nature bridge over Santa Fe River
High Spring. In the central portion of the peninsula underound
streams are common and many large spring emerge from the Ocal
limestone.
PaneoologZc carter.-The Ocal limestone, like the underlying
''Peninsular" limestone, is characterized by a gret number of
Foraminifera but it differs from the latter in the prince of Num-
muliteso A few mollusk are said to be retrite toh formation,
but as yet the fauna is very imperfectly no and future study may
add to the number of fossils nown to be peuliar to it.
Stritre.---The Ocala limestone shows the sae structural fear
as the underling "Peninsular" limestone, both formations having
doubtless been subjected to the same deformation sine their dposi
tion.
AreaL d~ iti .--It was in 1882 jhat Joeph Wilox dicove
a rock in the vicinity of Chasahowitzka River which he submitted
to Heilprin for idtification. The presence of Nummulites wsy
regarded a an indication that a new fonsation had been dscovered.
In 1886 Helprin added to the pulled list of locaities where the
nummulitic fauna was known to occur a spot near Arredonda, about
6 miles southwest of Gainesville, where Nummadife8 floridamus had
been collected by G. A. Wetherby and Joseph Wilcox.
In 1902, after summarizing the results of previous investigations
Dall* mentions certain new localities of the Oeaa limstone, as follows:
Since then Mr. Willcox has obtained the rock in place 15 mile northeast of the
original locality, from the shore of Wcss Bay, near Cedar Keys, and alo from
, le banks of Wacama River, Levy County; from a "sink hole" at Pembeon
erry on Withlcohee River, boup 10 mile ~et from Brookville, td ro at
Bayport, rnando County, and at various places about Ocala f. Wetherby hps
also sent specimens from a well 5 miles southwest of Gainesville, Alachus County, and
Mr. L. C. John reports it from an old Confedte iron furnace, 3 miles north of
Levyville, Levy County, where it is only 20 feet thick and is covered with a bed of
bogiron ore, formerly worked. Pembe~ns terry is the most southern point t which
it has been recognized at the sufce but at Bartw Polk County, it occurs covered
by about 6 feet of later strtas
From the character of its included organic remains the exposure at
Martin stations regarded by Dall* as equivalent to the Ocala lime
stone. At this locality the rock is more or less silieified and has been
found useful for railroad ballast, road metal, and other purposes where
durable material is needed.
The Oeala limestone is extensively exposed at the type locality,
where it has been quarried for the construction of roads and the
SHeIlprin, Angelo, Pro.hadelphia Acadi NaT. SLt, 1882, pp. 18-1B. Abtract ton Am. Jour. Sch
3dse., vol. 24, 1882, p. 2.
Heflprin, Anglo, Nohs on the Tetlarty galogy and peleontology of the ~outhen United 8tut: Am.
Jour. S Ul., 3d ser., vo. 29, IS S, p. 4.19
Bu. U. 8. Gaol. Surrey No. 4, 1i0, p. 10(.
STrans. W Free inst. Bel., vol. 3, pt. 1i08, pp. 115-1157.






GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL PLORIDA.


manufacture of lme. Some eposursre e seen in the wallsof sinks,
and its presence may be inferred by the appearance of numerous
bowlders containing Nummlites. These scattered fragments are
frequently found resting upon surface sands and are mostly rather
firmly cemented, probably by an accumulation of silica and iron.
A thin deposit of sand, commonly found resting upon the uneven
sure of the limestone, appears to be largely the result of disnte-
ration of the country rock, and is there residual. The residual
sands constitute the impurities of the original rock and may have
formed only a small percentage of the whole.
Since the publication of Dal's report quarrying at Ocala has bee
carried to a somewhat greater depth. The quarry of the Ocala Lime
Co., situated near the southwest corner of the city, now shows the
following section:
Sector in quarry of Ocala Lime Co., Ocala.
Feat.
L-a-n, sandy, with more or le organic matter (Pleistocene or
Pliocene) ....................... ........................ 1
and, ple yellow, reidul................................... 1-4
Lisne, light gray to white, nummlitic (Ocala)............. 25-
In this quarr the fossils occur throughout the greater portion of
the limestone but are especially numerous near the top, where the
removal of the calcium carbonate has loosened the casts of the organic
remains. Chert nodules occur in various parts of the section, and in
places two sets of vertical siliified bands were noted. These cherty
bands are locally approximately at right angles to each other and
probably represent planes of silicification along vertical joints.
A good section of this limestone is exposed in another quarry sit-
uated on the north side of the road to Silver Spring, about one-half
mile east of the town. At this locality the rock, which is considerably
decomposed, has been quarried to a depth of 40 feet and contains an
abmudance of Nummulites.
About 20 feet of Ocala limestone is exposed in a third quarry
situated one-fourth mile north of Ocala, and about 15 feet of the same
rock was seen in a quarry 24 miles southwest of the city. One of the
most important sections may be seen about 3 miles southwest of
Ocala in a sink hole approximately 40 feet deep, which affords
entrance to a small cavern which may be penetrated for a short dis-
tance. Clapp reports that Nummulites occur down to the base of
this exposure but are not so numerous a at some of the other local
ities Lithologically this rock is essentially the same as that exposed
at the quarry of the Ocala Lime Co., and the section shows the maxi-
Imum observed thickness of the formation.
S thi mansript was p Ipred it has ben learned tIat the vertebrate 1os from the Ocola
entsod on p. 1i3 were obtaind from thit tndy loom.





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF FLORDA.


A section at the old "Philip" qury, a mile southeast of O ,
shows about 25 feet of soft, porous, lightgray limestone, which con-
tains an abundance of chert dieminated throughout the seon.
As this rock contains many Nummulites, its identification as the Oeal
limestone can searely be questioned. Solution cavi~t are common,
and along certain vertical crevices the rock has been removed, for-
ing passages 2 to 3 feet in width, which have been file by the
settlig of the overlying sady clay.
On Anclote River, about a ile from Taron Springs, n expcsuo
extending some distance up the stream shows from 2 to 3 feet of
Ocala limestone. The rock here lies near the surface over a consid
erable area, and bolder containing Nummulites are common A
similar exposure of Ocala limestone wa noted near Port Richey on
Pithlachascotee River, where the rock is said to outcrop over a con-
siderable area. At the mine of the Fort White Rock Phosphate Co.,
one-half mile southwest of the railroad station, the Ocala limestone
is well exposed In the north pit belonging to this company the
following section was observed:
section in quarry of Fort White R CPhop o., cer FPort Wfite.

Lo n, light gray, sandy (Plestocene)........................... 4- 8
d, ne, evn grned, yellow (redual)....................... 20
Limetone and phophat rock (Ocal).......................... 2
In this pit the Ocal lestone occur i irregular ledges sepaatng
the phosphate rock, which appears to be in part the result of replace~
ment of the Oeala. The limestone ledges commonly form two di-
ontinuouh series at approximately right angles to eac other, the
intervening space being occupied by the irregular bodies of phos
phate rock. In general, the limestone bands thcken toward the base
of the pit and the phosphate deposits become smaller. Both th
limestone and phosphate are more or less cherty, but the silicifica-
tion appears to be in the form of nodules and small bowlders rather
than to constitute an extensive replacement. Fossils are very abun
dant in the mestone, prominent among them being the charter
istic Nummulites of this formation. At the mine of the Cuiner
Lumber Co, 4 miles west of Iigh Sprins, the Oela lies much
nearer the surface, the total thickness of overlyng sand being in few
places greater than 10 feet There i the same characteristic an
ment of the limestone and phosphate rock as at Fort White.
Similar relations between the Oeala limestone and the phosphate
were observed at the mine of the Union PhosphatO Co., 7 miles east
of Newberry. The Alachua sink was visited by Clapp, who reports
an exposure of about 10 feet of soft white limestone containing many
tfint nodules. From the collections made at this locality it is evi-
dent that the Ocala limestone forms part of the walls of the sink,






GEOLOGY OF NOIRTHERI AND CENTER FLOBIA


and it also appears probable that the overlying Hawthorn foratin
is present. On the island opposite Melbourne, Sellards reports the
occurrence of the Oeala limestone at a depth of 222 feet, baking ti
determination on a large fragment containing Nummulites, which
was obtained in drilling a well; although the specimens were not sp~
ifically determined, the occurrence of the genus appears to warrant
the correlation of the rock with the Oeala limestone. ThI is a point
of special interest, because it shows the Ocala limestone to be n
the surface in that part of the State than would have been inferred
from previous publications.
The Ocala limestone is known to be well exposed at various point
in the region where rock phosphate is being mined. Nummulites
have been collected from various mines in the vicinity of Hernando,
Citrus Countyo In a pit in aec. 10, T. 18 S., R. 19 E., a section wa
observed consisting of 2 to 3 feet of yellow sand, wit phosphatic
gravel anond brown and yellow elays, and phosphatic white and gray
cnd, in pla gree the whole unde li by osphatic bl
gray days, containing some hard sandstone with bowldere of hard
rock phosphate containing Numulites. The ent section prob-
ably represents altered and weathered phosphatic Ocala limestone.
Nummulis were also obtained by Edrdge from a stone quar
on the Burns place, 1i miles southwest of Owensboro, Citrus Ounty,
and from Mr. Clement's mine No. 8, on the east side of Blue Sprns,
T. 16 S., R. 19 E.
"Miliolite imeton.'In 1887 Heiiprin noted at Wheeler, on
Homosassa River, the occurrence of a porous and cavernous lime-
stone whWih he called "Mlolite limestone" because of the preence
of many Forainifera belonging to the iliolid. Dall' reports sii-
lr rock 6 miles southwest of Lake City; he think the "Miliolite
imestone" belongs wit the other foraminferal liesones but does
not express an opinion as to whether it belons with the "Peninsular"
or the Ocala limestone. The "Miliolite limestone" is here placed
with the Vicksburg group and is tentatively referred to the OCal
limestone, to which it probably belongs.


lNOMENCLATURE.

Prior to 1887 the rocks belonging to the subdivision of the Ol r
cae, here designated the Apalachicola group, from its exposures along
Apalachicola River in western Florida, were inclu< ed with the ocene
and were regarded as part of the Vicksburg. In 1887, however,
'Hp Arino, ABo xplotkraon on th t of Fioida: Trns. Wanr Fre aist. aL, rol. I,
1K, p. S7.
,s W. L, B.L U iB. o. la. ry No. 84, m10 pmp. I0iOL





GEOLOGY AND GROUND WATES OF FLOA


Langdon described beds occurring on Apalachicola River, referring
them tenttivly t tthe lower Mioene and desinating t the
Chattahoochee group. With the Miocene beds, DalU, in 1892, in
eluded not only the Chattahoochee group of Lngdon but the Hlaw
thorn formation, the "Waldo formation," the "Tampa limestone,
the "Tampa silex bed," the Chipola marl, the Alum Bluff formation,
and certain sands, gravels, and ays which he did not specfiecly

The use of the name Miocene to designate the group here called
Apalachicola continued for a number of years, the Oligacene beds being
often called "old Miocene" or "subtropical Miocene," to distinguish
them from the "new Mioene" or "cold-water Miocene." In 1896
Dall' discussed the faunal reasons for regarding the "old Miocene"
as Ol ne, and in his publications e that date he has restrict
the term Miocene to later beds (here called Jacksonvile formation and
Choctwhatchee marl). However, the Chattahoochee formation
still included in the Miocene by both Smith* and McCalie in their
latest publications.
The Apalachicola group was formerly designated "upper Oligocese
or Chipolan stage"* and "Chipola group," but these names are
abandoned because the name Chipola has been used to designate a marl
belongings t the upper formation of the group
The Apalachieola group includes a number of b which diffe
widely in lithologic character but which are recognized by thei
fossils as integral parts of a single group. Limestones and marls
predominate, but the group also includes beds of nearly pure sand and
clay. The enti period of deposition appears to have been chara
tried by the accumultion of more or less tcrrigenous m~terls,
rendering most of the limestones impure by admixture of clay and
sand. At certain times the conditions appear to have been especially
favorable for the development of organic life, and some member,
such as the Chipola marl member of the Alum Bluff formation and the
"silex bed of the Tampa formation, contain very large faunas.
Owing to the ithologic variations and daely separated exposures,
the exact correlation of the formations of the group is dependent on
the organic remains they contain; and, although the paleontologic
studies, specially those of Dai, have shed much liht on the strat-
I D I~ D. W., fr., Some a ioe Am. Jour. SB d sr., vol. 8, 1, pp. 8
SBull U. 8. Gel. SurveyNo. 84, 1, pp. 106
Dtcri~ton of Tertiary l the ntl Pro. U. INt. Muf, vol 19, 1o.i1, Ipp.
Bmith, E. A., The undergrond water resouro of Aln: Geol. Survey Alabama, 1907, p. 81.
*McCellte, I. W, Preilminary report on the iumndeund wate of Georgia Ge eol. B Geoy Girah IB,
pp. SIal nd a.
'Dali, W. H., A table of North Ameiomn Tertiery haorone: Eighteenth Ann. Rept. U. 8. Geol. 8or.
vey, pt. 2, 188, p. 834.
I Foerste, A. H., Stdles on the Chipola t Mien of Bar G., and of Alum Bluff, Pla.: Am. Jor.
Sd, 3d ear., vol. 46, 9s3, p. 244.






GEOLOGY OF NORTHEN AND CENTRAL FLOBnDA


graphic relations of the different beds, many pointare as yet unde
cided. For this reason it seems best to retain the old names of certain
formations and to indicate as far as possible their relationships. The
Apalachicola group, therefore, is described as consisting of four formal~
tions, the Chattahoochee, the Hawthorn, the Tampa, and the Alum
Bluff. There i some reason for bdieving thatthe mt three are, inpart
at least, synhronous, but exact equivalence is difficult to determine


formation, upon which it rests.
The name Chattahoohee group was ft applied by Langdon*
to the beds occurring at a series of outcrops along Chattahoochee and
Apalachicola rivers The localities examined by Langdon extend
from the final outcrops of the Vicksburgian, 9 miles by water above
River Junction (Chattahoochee), to where the Oligocne outcrops
give place to the overlying sands and mar of younger formations.
The outcrops amined are at Alum Bluff, Rock Bluff, Ocheese and
River Junction.
In 1893 the section along Apalachicola River was examined by
Foerste," who recognized the presence of three dissmlar groups, to
which he gave the name Chattaoohee, Chipol, and Chesapeake
His paper gives considerable attention to the character of the materials
comprising his Chipol and Cheapeake groups, with a view to corrt
lating them with the nonmarine deposits grouped under the name of
"Grand Gulf and Lafayette formation" The major portion of the
discussion, however, deals with the conditions of sedimentation during
the deposition of the rocks belonging to the various groups.
In 1892 Da*ll divided the formations here included in the Apa-
lachicola group into two groups, retaining the name Chattahoochee
group for the limestones and marsa, which are extensively developed
in the northern part of the State, and applying the name Tampa group
to the beds which he called Chipola marl, Alum Bluff sands, Sopchoppy
limetone, Tampa limestone, and Tampa silx bed. In his later paper
on the Tertiary faunas of Florida, Dall place the "silex bed" at
Tampa in his Chttahooche group. The discovery of the character
tic species of the genus Orthaulax in the basal portion of the Chat
tahoochee formation led to this change in the correlation
HAWTHOIRN FORMATION.
Gene chara1ter-In 1892 DBall* described, under the name
Hawthorne beds, some limestones, sands, and clays extensively
erposed in the interior of Florida. These beds are here designated
SL gd D. W, r., or lorid e Am or.S r., vol. 8, 8p. 22.
orate, A. H., op. dt, pp. 241-254.
Bll. U. B. ol. re No. 84, 182M, pp. I0-128.
BL U. B. Go. S oy No. 84, lNs, pp. 107 et seq.






OGOLOGY AND GROUND WATERS OF PLORIDA.


the Hawthorn formation. At the tie of the publicaon of Dall's
report, the Hawthorn formation was being quaried and had
aroused considerable interest because of the presence of phosphoric
acid in the rock. The formation consists of clays, sands, and pho-
phatic limeetones and lies stratigraphically between the limestouI
of the Vickhburg group and the Alum Bluff formation. I is appsur
ently the stratigraphic equivalent of the Chattahoochee formation
but diffe from it theologically and is therefore given a separate
name.
tratigr~P ic pouiion.---The stratigraphie relation of the Hawthorn
formation to the underlying Vicksburg group has been obseved at
several localities in the interior of th peninsu It is b ved that
the deposition of the Vicksburg group was followed by widespread
eme ence, which permitted expense erosion and the formation of
hills and valleys. There is no doubt t ha such emergence and
consequent erosion affected the central part of the peninsula, when
the Hawthorn formation s wel pod, for thin formation rst
unconformably upon either the Ocala or the "Peninsular" limestone.
This relation is emphasized by the lithologic character of the beds
there being an abrupt change from the sof figrained limestone
of the Vicksburg group to the days, sands, and phosphatic e
stones of the Hawthorn formation.
At numerous point in the peninsula of Florida the Hawthorn
formation is found resting unconformably upon limestone of Vicif
burg age, and in the vicinity of Hawthorn thin beds of conglomer-
ate occur in the bas of the group. At many of the phophat
mnj min central Florida the lii tone of the Hawthorn formation
are found overlg either the Ocala limestone or the "Peninsular"
limestone with an apparent unconformity which has permitted
the deposition of sands and some limestone beds along channel
developed in the upper surface of the Vicksburg formation. It
should be said, however, that in many of these places the materials
belonging to th Hawhorn formation appear to have been more
or less disturbed sine their deposition, and it is possible tha at
some localities the apparent unconformity may be due to the falling
of the roof of caverns developed near the contact of the two forma-
tions.
The relation of the Hawthorn formation to the Alum Bluff
formation has not yet ben accurately determed, though, at De
Leon Springs, ChiGpola fossils have been found in a marl overlying
phosphate rock which belonged to this formation.
The relation of the Hawthorn to the other formations of the
Apalacicola group is somewhat uncertain, but there is no doubt
that its deposition was in part contemporaneous with the Tampa
and Chatahoochee formations. In fact, although the absence of






GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN AND O(fTRAL FLORDA.


aleontoloc information makes it possible to relate thee
formations on biologic grounds, there is no doubt tat they were
deposited during an extensive submergence which succeeded the
nergeenc of the rocks belongig to the Vicksburg group. On
physical grounds therefore, there is good reason for regarding theee
formations as synchronous.
Li c charge At the request of Mr. aughan te typ
locality of the Haworn formation was recently visited by Sellards,
who reports that the rock is no longer quarried According to
Sellards, the rock is a lightcolored, soft, porous limestone. The
original building-stone quarry near Grove Park station, about 3
miles west of Hawthorn, is badly overgrown, so tat the thickn
of the limestone can not be determined. At the old phosphate
mine, which is at least a mile southwest of the stone quarry, the
rock is a phosphatic conglomerte
At many localities the limestones of the Hawthorn formation are
ilicifed, forming bowlders and beds of he. (S P. IX, p. 80.)
This is a very common condition in the rock-phosphate region, where
these Jlmestones rst directly on those belonging to the Vicsburg
group. (See P. X, p. 94.) Beneth the phosphatic liestons of
the Hawtor formation t some localits are beds of sand, sandstone,
or gravel, which are underlain by several feet of clay. The snd
beds contain iron oide, which forms a coating on the grains of siliea.
The ays are gre h and local are sucienty calreou to be
caled mar.t
Thie.~The thickness of the Hawthorn formation varied
greatly, in places aggregating approximately 95 feet. The three
members of this formation with their maximum observed thick-
nesme, according to Dall,1 consist of greenish clay 70 feet, ferrugi-
nous yellow sandstone 4 feet, and phosphate rock 20 feet. The
maxImum thickness of the Hawthorn formation, as given by the
same author, is 125 feet. However, over a large part of the penin-
sula, where the sole representative of the Hawthorn formation is
the phosphatic or ailiceus rock, the thicknes is but a few feet.
Py6igraphwi expression. The Hawthorn formation in few
places has much influence on the configuration of the region
which it underlies. Locally, however, the cherty beds protect the
underlying rock from erosion and thus give rise to ridges, and
where the days lie near the surface they are characterized by an
erosion surface of moderate relief. Most of the cherGt capped ridges
are inconspicuous, but in some parts of the sposphate region they
form distinct topograplhic features.
Pal eon~tloic clharacter.-The fauna of the Hawthorn formation
has received but little attention and is practically unknown. The


SBuB . .GeoLBurv No. 84, 1i, p. 1M0.


2 Ia, p. 8.