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 Appendix B: Letter symbols for...

Guidelines for authors ( FGS: Open File Report 53 ; "Revision of Special Publication No. 23" )
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Title: Guidelines for authors ( FGS: Open File Report 53 ; "Revision of Special Publication No. 23" )
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Lane, Ed
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1992
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
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    Appendix A: Standard formats of typical pages for Florida Geological Survey publications
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    Appendix B: Letter symbols for names of Florida geologic formations
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Full Text


Virginia B. Wetherell, Executive Director

Jeremy A. Craft, Director

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief

Open File Report No. 53
(Revision of Special Publication No. 23)



Ed Lane

Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida

ISSN 1068-1391


Introduction ................................................................... 2
Types of publications issued by Florida Geologcal Survey ................................ 2
Notes to authors ....... ... ....... ..... ............ ...... .................. 4
Editorial review of manuscripts .. ................................................... 5
Guidelines for critical review ........... ................... ... ............. ... 5
Standard format for pubcat ns .... .... ........................ ................
Metric System ........................................................... 7
Contents ........... ...................................................
T tMe of Repot .. .............................................. ......... 9
Letter of Tansmittal .....................................................
Contents and headings ........................ ......................... 9
Acknowledgements .......... .. ...................................... 9
Abstract ............................ .................................. 10
Introduction ............................................................ 10
Text ....... ......... ............................................ .......... 10
Summary and conclusions ............................................... 11
References, selected bibliogrphy, or bibliography ............................. 11
Illustratons ......... ....... ..... ............................. .. .. 14
Appendces ......................... .... .... ........... ........ ..... 15
Index ................................... .............................. 15
Preparation and review of illustrations ................................... .......... 15
Review procedure ................................. ... ........... 15
Standard dimensions ..................................................... 15
Locality and wel numbering system ....................................... 17
Geologic maps, stratigraphic columns, and cross sections ............................... 17
Legends ..................................................... .. 17
Uthologic and stratigraphic symbols ................ ........ ............... .. 20
Co r .................................................................20
Florida systems ............................................................... 20
Letter symbols ................................... ..................... 20
Abbreviations for Florida county names ....................................... 22


1 Layout and dimensions for a standard page ..... ....... ..... ... ..... .......... 16
2 Locality and well numbering system ......................................... 1
3 Map showing necessary legend Information ................................ 19
4 Explanation column for geologic maps ................................ ....... 21


1 Standard conversion factor table .................................. ..... .... 7
2 Abbreviations for Florda county names ..................................... 22


A Standard formats of typical pages for Florida Geological Survey
pubfocatorns ...................................................... 23
B Letter symbols for names of Fkrida geologic formations ...........................38



Ed Lane. P.G. 141


The original version of this guide was published in 1980. The primary intent of that guide was to
provide a standardized approach to the mechanical processes that are necessary for in-house and outside
authors' preparation of manuscripts for printing. Since then, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) has
gone to near-total computer preparation of manuscipts and lustrations. These changes have made it
imperative that the Survey's guidelines be updated and revised to reflect the new techniques and
technology that are available to most authors. The procedures and conventional usages outlined here
supercede those of the 1960 edition.

The editorial standards for every FGS publication excellence of presentation, scientific accuracy,
clarity of meaning, and technical superiority in printing remain as the traditional goals against which
each proposed manuscript wil be measured.

It Is recognized that the final printed products wll be diverse. Much of this diversity is in the
content, the message, the author's style, and the lustrations. By standardizing symbology, procedures,
and materials, It will be possible to decrease production time, thereby saving money. The techniques set
forth herein wil produce dividends for both the FGS and the authors. Such techniques win produce a
standardized format for publications, hence, a more professional look. They wi decrease the labors of
authors, draftsmen, editors, and printers.

This guide speaks only briefly to grammar, writing style, or related topics. It is not intended to
answer every question that may arise as to proper geological terminology or manuscript writing. There
are many authoritative publications that may be consulted on these topics. In fact, i ts recommended that
they be consulted to resolve any questions not answered her. Good references are:

Glossary of Geology, 1967, by R.L Bates and JA. Jackson (editors): American Geological
Institute, Washington, DC.

Suggeeltons to Authors of the Reports of Me Unt&ed Staes Geological Survey, 1989 (7th
ed.), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.


The FGS is concerned not only with geological research, but it also has statutory responsibilities
to make surveys of and explorations for the minerals, water supply, and other natural resources of the
state. It regulates the exploration for and production of hydrocarbons, and Is required to prepare reports
and maps pertaining to these activities. The FGS produces a variety of publications to meet the needs
of its diverse activities and the needs of Industry, the scientific community, other governmental agencies,
and the public. These publications range from classic studies that represent major contributions to the
knowledge of Florida's geology and natural resources, to Interim data publications or general information
reports which Inform the public about various aspects of geology. No matter what their nature, all FGS
publications are subject to critical review. Final assignment of a publication to one of the following series
rests with the Survey Chief.

BULLETINS are comprehensive reports on geological or related studies. The scope of the report
is usually of a broad regional nature, for example: 'Springs of Florida," 'Geology of Jackson County," or
"Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group.' They may be of any length, but are usually a final report
of some phase of a research project and are Illustrated in a manner suited to the subject Subjects may
include, but are not restricted to, county reports, systematic area mapping, water resources reports,
paleontological reports, geomorphological reports, and economic minerals reports.

REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS are comprehensive reports on geological or related studies, but
are narrower In scope than Bulletins. These reports usually represent the results of locaized studies, or
are reconnaissance reports, for example: "Geology of the Western Part of Alachua County, or 'Ground-
Water Resources of the Hollywood Area." Illustrations may be of any suitable type.

SPECIAL PUBUCATIONS are publications not readily assignable to other categories, but which
contain geological or related Information of significant Interest to the scientific community or the pubic.
Examples are: 'Summary of the Geology of Florida and a Guidebook to the Classic Exposures," "Guide
to Rocks and Minerals of Florida.' and 'Environmental Geology and Hydrogeology of the Ocala Area.'
They may be Illustrated in any suitable manner.

INFORMATION CIRCULARS may be reports of a preliminary nature, such as interim reports on
continuing projects, or reconnaissance reports. They may be final to the extent that further work is not
anticipated, such as Inventory reports or tabulations of data. They may be illustrated with maps or figures.
Examples are:

Information Circular 105, 1989: Part I The Industrial Minerals Industry Directory of

Information Circular 106, 199: 1986 and 1987 Florida Petroleum Production and

MAP SERIES are maps consisting of single sheets. Dimensions are optional, depending on the
nature of the material. They may be in color and may be printed on both sides of the sheet. They usually
have a brief accompanying text of an explanatory or summary nature, and may include cross sections or
other diagrams. Examples arn

Map Series 1001980: Environmental Geology Series West Palm Beach Sheet.

Map Series 131, 1990: Mineral Resources of Alachua County, Florida.

LEAFLETS are publications of only a few pages and relate to general areas of interest. Because
the text is usually ofa general, publc-nterest or educational nature, they should be illustrated. Color may
be used. Some examples aret

Leaflet 13, 194: Geologic Guide to the State Parks of the Florida Panhandle Coast St
George Island, St. Joseph Peninsula, St. Andrews and Grayton Beach State Parks and
Recreation Areas.

Leaflet 14, 196: Geology of the State Parks in the Florida Keys.

POSTERS are printed on one side only and vary In size. They may be in color. By nature,
posters are designed for wide distribution, so the best topics are those with broad public interest or
educational content Examples of posters that have been printed are: 'Florida Minerals, and 'Selected
Cenozoic Benthic Foraminifera From Florida.'

OPEN FILE REPORTS are less fomal In format than the preceding series of publications. They
are reproduced by photocopying, as needed. This format lends itself to the rapid promulgation of
information or data. Although usually only a few pages long, they may be any length. Illustrations can
be any type that photocopy. Some examples ar

Open File Report 30 1990: Summary of the Geology of Glades County. Florida.

Open File Report 40, 1991: Earthquakes and Seismic History of Florida (revision of
Information Circular 93).


in order for any manuscript to be considered for publication by the FGS, or for t to be accepted
for any form of public record, it must be authored by a licensed professional geologist, as required by
Chapter 492 Florida Statutes. This includes any manuscript that makes interpretations of geology or that
draws geological concussions which affect public health or welfare.

Any author who wishes to submit a manuscript to the FGS for consideration for publication should
first review t In light of these guidelines. The guidelines presented here should be considered only as
minimum requirements. Deviations from these guidelines should first be discussed with the Survey's

While this is not Intended to be a manual to dictate styles of writing, authors should note the
following common errors and proofread their manuscripts with an eye towards eliminating them. The use
of slang, trte expressions, buzz-words, or bureauctese is categorically wrong for scientific writing.
Scientific writing has no use for any of the poor grammar that is n everyday use. By Its nature, scientific
writing must be precise. An authors work must be capable of being understood by his peers. Anything
that allows the reader to ambiguously Interpret an authors words destroys the main objective of the
writing, which is to communicate acts. Buzz-words, bafflegab, and bureaucratese create an opposite
effect; they obscure, water-down, or destroy precision. It is not possible to list al such grammatical errors
in this limited space, but a few examples wil illustrate what every author should attempt to eliminate.

The sand overlying the limestone was tv thick." faidv is dimensionless and adds
nothing of value to the description of the outcrop. If the author had examined the
outcrop, he should be able to sate whether the sand was six Inches or six-feet thick)

'Quantties of good rock are available along the river. (good is Interpretive, depending
upon the reader's experience. In this case, perhaps the author should have described
the rock's mineralogy. or other physical features, and then stated, "Quantitles of rock are
available along the river that are god for rp-rp.

A multivariate approach to optimizing the obfuscatorial nature of an author's circuitous
rendition of a manuscript would probably be a non sequitur. (What more need be said
regarding this writing style?)

Buzz-words and bureauctase are prevalent in al types of written, spoken, and visual
communications. The -ise" syndrome s evident everywhere cotwise, procedurewise, optimize, and so
on. Do not append '-ise to any other word.

The use of the first person singular is discouraged: authors should ty to use the passive form.
Instead of 'I discovered that.. ," write, It ws discovered that.. In scientific writing what Is discovered
or proposed is usually more Important than the discoverer.

It is good practice to devote the opening paragraph of each chapter or major section to a
statement of what the section contains.

Avoid internal cross-references using page numbers. The correct page number cannot be
determined and Inserted until the final page-proof stage oftypesetting. Inevitably, a number will be missed
or an Incorrect number will be Inserted.

A company name, trademark, or other proprietary material should not be used in FGS reports
unless there are compelling reasons to do so; and then only after permission to do so has been obtained
from the proper company authority. This rule applies also to photographs of a company's equipment,
property, or operations that are intended as Illustrations.

A convention that is followed by the FGS Is that both singular and plural names of geological
formations, geographical features, and counties are capitalized. For example: ... Ocala and Suwannee
Umestones... ," "...St. Johns and Withlacoochee Rivers... ," "...Leon and Wakulla Counties....'

West-to-east geological cross sections and topographic profiles should be constructed as though
viewing from the south (west is on the left side). North-to-south cross sections and topographic profiles
should be constructed as though viewing from the west (south Is on the right side).

Composite English-metric bar scales must be included on all maps, cross sections, ortopographic
profiles. A north arrow must be shown on al ilustrations, as appropriate.

In paleontological listings or references the formal generic and specific names must be underlined
In the tet by the author. This is necessary because these names will be typeset in italics. Supragenerc
and anglicized names ar not alicized, e.g., the author would write: The genus Spifr is in the family
Spiriferidae which includes the true spirtfen. It would be typeset as: The genus Spkifer is...."


Critical review plays a major role in ensuring high quality of scientific reports. Review should be
thorough and it should address al aspects of a manuscript

All manuscripts submitted to the FGS for publication wil be reviewed by the FGS editorial review
committee. The Survey Chief may request further review by scientists or professionals outside the FGS.
While peer review by FGS staff members is a part of their normal duties, it is customary for the author to
acknowledge them In the Acknowledgements section.

As the last step In the review process the manuscript will go to the FGS editor, who will mark it
with instructions for layout, format, or style.


The FGS has adopted a standard reviewers' check list that Is attached to each manuscript prior
to beginning the n-house review process. This check list is to remain attached to the manuscript through
the first and aN subsequent phases of review, until final typesetting.

1. Drafting is time-consuming and complex. Changes in Ilustrations should be made near the beginning
of the review procedure, not during final proofing. For this reason, a first draft of all manuscripts, with all
proposed illustrations or photographs, will be routed to drafting staff for comments regarding layout, style,
or size. The author will be responsible for modifications before circulating the next draft.

2. A critical reviewer is not a "ghost writer,' and no author should expect their report to be rewrittn for
them. Peer discussion prior to submission of the manuscript may generate new ideas and material, but
critical review should not be expected to substitute for such discussion.

3. All data and factual Information must be presented clearly, concisely, and unambiguously. While
authors and reviewers may disagree on the conclusions which can be drawn from the data presented,
there should be no disagreement about the data themselves.

4. Authors may present new hypotheses or variations of previously accepted points of view. Reviewers
must ensure that such hypotheses are based on and are reasonable Interpretations of the data contained
in the report In some cases the facts may lend themselves to more than one conclusion, and the author
should consider presenting such alternative interpretations. Critical reviewers have a duty to point out
alternative interpretations or hypotheses to authors, if the scope of the report warrants it. However, the
review process is not the place to try to resolve all aspects of differing hypotheses. It is not necessary
that author and reviewer agree on a common conclusion. The author is entitled to state his preference
among different hypotheses, but he must also be prepared to state the basis for his preference. His
preference should be supported by the data presented in the report.

5. Does the report present data or results that would be more suited to a different mode of publication,
perhaps In a technical journal? If so, the reviewer should suggest to the author that this be considered.

8. If the author has made use of material already published, have proper references been given? Cross
check the reference list. It is the responsibility of the author to search out complete references; all the
reviewer need do is point out suspected errors or omissions.

7. Is the report too long? Too short? The reviewer should have no hesitation In commenting on apparent
wordiness or needless repitition. On the other hand, a more thorough discussion of some topic may be
more enlightening to the reader.

8. Pay careful attention to scientific terminology. Do all terms, equations, or analytical procedures
conform to current, accepted standards? If in doubt, a reference should be requested by the review.
It may be prudent for the author to so reference the text

9. The review should not hesitate to question the value of any Illustration. Perhaps the Information
could be better shown in a tabular listing.

10. Does the author present data, locations, or other important Information in the text, which are not
shown on the illustrations? Are data show n the illustrations which are not referenced in the text? The
review should point out suspected inconsistencies for the author to check.


One of the main advantages of following a standard format for publications is that It helps authors
to present their material in a logical and orderly manner. Authors should study recent publications of the
FGS in order to better understand the following discussion.


The National Metric Conversion Act of 1975 provided for the ordedy transition of the United States'
system of measurement from English units to meric unit. The metric system is also known as SI
(Systeme International or International System).

The following conventions should be observed in using and citng the metric system.

1. The symbols ae always in Roman type.
2. Symbols re never pluralized, e.g., millimeters mm, not mms.
3. A period is not used after a symbol, except to end a sentence.
4. When a symbol is comprised of letters, a full space is left between the number and symbol, e.g.. 45
kg. An exception is when a symbol such as the degree symbol directly follows a number, e.g.,
32" C.
S. Symbols for metric units should always be used; unit names should not be written out except in
general terms, such as ...sveral meters west of....
6. When a decimal fraction of less than 1.0 is used, a zero should always be placed to the left of the
decimal point, e.g.. 0.78 kg.

In order to prevent much awkvwrd duplication of parenthetical conversions of units within the text
of reports, the FGS has adopted the practice of inserting a tabular listing of conversion factors, as shown
below. If the standard table does not include every unit used in the manuscript, the author must add the
extra units to the table. This table Is placed on the Inside front cover of all printed FGS publications.

Table 1. Standard converon factor table, located on the Inside front cover.
***** Start of Table * ***


This table of the most commonly used conversion factors is provided for readers who may want to convert
English units Into metric units.



inch (In) 25.4 millmeter (mm)
inch (in) 2.540 cntimeter (cm)
Inch (In) 0.0254 meter (m)
toot (f) 0.3048 meter (m)
mile (mi) 1.609 kometer (kmn)
sq. foot (f) 0.09290 sq. meter (m')
sq. mile (m') 2.500 sq. kilometer (km
acre (ac) 0.4047 hectare (ha)
acre (ac) 4047.0 sq. meter (m)
cubic foot (ft) 0.0282 cubic meter (m)

cubic yard (yd) 0.7&W4 cubic meter (m)
gallon (gal) 3.785 Iter (L)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.06308 liters per second (L/s)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.0022 cubic feet/second (cfs)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.00006309 cubic meters/second (mi)
cubic feet/second (cts) 449 galons per minute (gpm)
cubic fet/second (cfs) 0.02832 cubic metas/econd (mi)
pound (Ib) 0.4556 kilogram (kg)
ton, short (2,000 Ibs) 0.9072 megagram (Mg)
ton, long (2,240 Ibs) 1.016 megagram (Mg)
Fahrenheit (F) 5/9 (F-32) Centigrade

Sea Level: In this report, *sea lever refers to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of
1929) a geodetic datum derived from a general adjustment of the first-order level nets of both the United
States and Canada, formed called "Sea Level Datum of 1929 or 'mean sea level (MSL).'Athough the
datum was dedved from the average sea level over a period of many years at 26 tide stations along the
Atlantic. Gulf of Mxidco. and Pacific coasts, It does not necessarily represent local mean sea level at any
particular place.
* * End of Table*****


With the exceptions of map series, posters, and leaflets, all FGS publications have a format that
closely follows the generic Contents page given below. Examples of cover, title page, cabinet listing
page, letter of transmittal, and publication data page are ilustrated in Appendix A.

The generic example below shows the order of presentation.



Abstract (if used)
Main body of text
Subsections (list tis)

Summary or Conclusions

1 ... (list captions)
2 ...
A ... (list tiles)
B ...


Authors need to choose the title of their report with care, and in accordance with the following
requirements. Explicit titles and headings are necessary due to Increasing use of computerized indexing
and Information retrieval systems.

1. The title of the report should state concisely the nature, major discipline, and the location of the study.
2. Chapter headings and subheadings should state all major concepts In their respective sections of the


A letter of transmittal, to the Governor from the FGS Chief, is included in all FGS publications,
except open file reports, map series, posters, and leaflets. It Is not an abstract. Its purposes are: 1) to
introduce the report to the Governor, who sits as Chairman of the Executive Board of the Department of
Natural Resources; and 2) to briefly Indicate the purpose and nature of the study, and how the report
helps to meet FGS or departmental objectives, It is the author's responsibility to provide a draft of the
letter for review by the FGS Chief.


The contents page lists the headings of the main divisions of the report. The authors draft ofthe
contents page of the manuscript must show the hierarchy and the relative Importance of all sectional
headings used. This Is done by successive Indentations, which will be used as a guide in typesetting, as
shown by the following generic example.

Northern Highlands
Tallahassee Hills


These should be collectively at one place in the front of the report. Assistance rendered by
persons regarding scientific contributions or significant editorial review should be acknowledged.
Acknowledgement of review by FGS staff has been discussed above. In some cases, acknowledgement
may be given to a co-author, as discussed in the following sections on joint and contributed authorship.

Full point authorship. Each author named should have made a substantial contribution, both to the
research and writing of the manuscript Names may be ananged alphabetically, or may be by senior
author first followed by others. This might be cited as:

Johnson, J.G. and Smith, R.L. 1967, Geology of Leon Quadrangle: Florida Geological

Survey Bufletin X. 120 p.

Common sense must prevail if there are many joint authors. Hustings on the cover of a publication of more
than three contributors create difficulties for litbay cataloguers and others who wish to cite the work. The
standard style of citation for multiple authors is:

Hatch, W.T., et al., 1978, ...

Con9bued authorship. The leader of a project is normally the senior author and has had the major
responsibility for assembling the text In other cases senior authorship must be decided by mutual

There may be instances where contributions of colleagues or junior authors may warrant citation
in future references. For example, the senior author may wish to acknowledge significant contributions
by student assistants to research projects, such as the compilation or preparation of tables or analytical
data (mineral analyses, fossil determinations, gravity charts, maps). The legend or caption for the
compilation should clearly state where the work was done, the compiler's or experimenter's name, and
the method used. Where possible, such compilations should be grouped together in tabular form or as
an appendix, preferably as a separate item at the end of the report. The caption should have the name
of the persons) responsible, so that t may be cited in other publications.


Abstracts are useful for key-word cataloging, and to give the reader a quick review of the report's
main contents. An abstract should be included in Bulletins and Reports of Investigations Depending on
the nature of the material, they may be appropriate for Special Publications and Information Circulars,

If an abstract Is Included, it should go before the Introduction on the first page of the main text
An abstract should be brief, as the name implies. It should state the main concept or hypothesis, purpose
and scope of the study, and a short recaptulation of results or findings.


The first paragraph of the Introduction should set forth the study's objectives and how the study
contributes to the work of the FGS or Department of Natural Resources. The nature and scope of the
study should be described, as well as investigative techniques used.

Other topics that often are Included in this section are the location and size of the study area, an
explanation of the localty and well numbering system, and references to previous investigations.
Depending on the nature of the study, some other topics that may be included are transportation, climate,
population, economics, geomorphic features, drainage, and any information that is of peripheral value to
the main study.


The arnngement of the sections of the main body of the text wil vary due to the nature of the
report In most cases, however, successive sections of a report will pass logically from general
information (Introduction, General Geology, et.), to specific topics, and back to general (Summary).

The largest subdivision of an FGS publication, the chapter, is designated by a major heading, as
shown by the example in the above section on Contents and Headings. In the example, "GEOLOGY is

a chapter heading. Also, note how in this example the successive subheadings go from general to more
specific topics.


In this section of the report the author brings together al of the notable points or conclusions of
the report which have been scattered throughout preceding sections, and, in a logical manner, uss them
to emphasize important points or findings.

This section is not an abstract to describe why or how the study was done; such information
should be put In the Introduction.


Proper and complete references and acknowledgements are very Important parts of any scientific
paper. Every quotation or use of any part of another's work for reference must be acknowledged. It is
illegal to plagiarize, as well as a breach of professional ethics. The recent revisions in copyright laws
make this a potentially more serious offense than ever before.

To cite references in the text the FGS uses the style with names and dates in parentheses, e.g.,
'...the rocks were found to be 15,000 years old (Roberts. at al., 1987)." However, If the author's name Is
part of the sentence, it should not be in parentheses. e.g., The Floridan aquifer system, as defined by
Parker (1955), consists of limestone.

It is the responsibility of every author to completely acknowledge all sources of data. In cases
of joint authorship, t is the duty of the senior author to ensure that these requirements are met

Nothing is more liable to arouse the Ire of one's colleagues or peers than to make a clumsy or
negligent error in misquoting or misretrencing their work, or to misspell their names.

The FGS uses the Geological Society of Amerca's (GSA) format for reference lists or
bibliographies, as shown by the following examples. Spe out journal tiles. Note that only last names
are spelled out; all other names are Initialed. References are listed alphabetical by author's surname.
For references with two authors, list alphabetically by first author and then alphabeticaly by second
author. For references with more than two authors, list alphabeticaly by first author and then
chronologically, earliest year first. For references that do not match any of the examples given below,
write out al Information that would help a reader to locate the reference.

Authors must submit their manuscripts with the references arranged accordingly, alphabetical
and in this format Do not expect others to rearrange them as this only promotes errors of transposiion.

The foflowng samprls are from the Geoogical Society ofAmerica's brochure Wormaon For Contrbufors
to PubflcafoWn of the Geoogical SocJiet of America

Booth, M.C, 1978, Carbonate formation In Mars-llke environments [abs.: EOS (American Geophysical
Union Transactions), v. 59, p. 110.
Hatin. DE., 1977. Petrology of the Smoky Hil Chalk Member, Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) in the
type ara, westem Kansas: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 9, p. 603.

La Bs, M.J., 1977. Carbonatte-nephelinlte volcansm, an African case history: New York, John Wiley &
Sons, 347 p.

Cebull, S.E., and Russell, LR., 1979, Role of the Melones faut zone in the structural chronology of the
North Yuba River area, wsten Sierra Nevada, Califomia: Geological Society of America Bulletin,
Part I, v. 90, p. 225-227; Part i, v. 90, p. 528-544.
Brabb. E.E., 1976. Paleogene correlated: Geotlmes, v. 23, no. 3, p. 20.
Christiansen, R.S., and Upman. P.W.. 1972, Cenozoic volcanism and plate tectonic evolution of the
western United States Part II. Late Cenozoic: Royal Society of London Philosophical
Transactions, ser. A, v. 271, p. 249-284.

Congressional Report or Law
U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 1949, National resources policy,
Hearings: U.S. 81t Congress. 1st session, 470 p.
U.S. Inter-Agency Committee on the Arkarsas-White-Red River Basins, Minerals and Geology Work Group,
1955. Minerals and Geology, Part 2. Section 16, of Arkarnas-White-Red River Basins Report:
U.S. aist Congress, 2nd Session, section 205, Public Law 516.

Foreign Paper
Godfriaux, I., 1964, Sur le metamorphisme dans le zone pelagonlenne orientale (region de L'Olympe,
Grece): Societe Geologique de France, Bulletin, ser. 7, v. 6, p. 146-162.

Steams, D.W., 1971, Mechanisms of drape folding in the Wyoming province: Wyoming Geological
Association, 23rd Annual Field Conference, Guidebook, p. 125-144.

In Prem
Ritter, D.F., 1982, Complex river terrace development in the Nenana Valley near Heay, Alaska: Geological
Society of America Bulletin, v. 93 (In press).

International Geological Congress
Buek, P.J., 1972, The paleogeographic pattern of Europe and North Anrica around the Paeo-Mesozoic
boundary and Its significance for initial riding in the North Atlantic: Internatonal Geological
Congress, 24th, Montreal, Abstracts, p. 256.

Bayley, R.W., and Muehlberger, W.R., compilers, 1968, Basement rock map of the United States, exclusive
of Alaska and Hawal: U.S. Geological Survey, scale 1:2.50,000, 2 sheets.
Perry, R.K., and others, 1977, Bathymetry of the Norweglan-Greenand and west Barents Seas
Geological Society of America Map and Chart Series MC-21, scale 1:2,333.230 at let 71 N.
Wiliams. J.R., Pewe, T.L, and Palge, R.A, 1959, Geology of the Fairbanks (d-1) quadrangle, Alaska: U.S.
Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map G0-124, scale 1:63,360.
Ztz, I., Gibert, F., and Kirby, J.R., compilers, 1972, Aeromagnetic map of New England: U.S. Geological
Survey Open-Fle Map, scale 1:250,000.

No Author Gven
Oil and Gas Journal, 1952, Where are those Gulf Coast salt domes?: v. 51, no. 14, p. 130, 133-134.

Open-FUA Report
Doe, B.R., 1978, Lead isotop data bank: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-201, 104 p.

Paper In a Government or Univerity Serial Publication
Bailey, E.H., and Blake, M.C.. Jr., 1974. Major chemical charactedstics of Mesozoic Coast Range ophiolite
in Caitomia: U.S. Geological Survey Journal of Research, v. 2, p. 637-656.
Hay, R.L, 1963, Stratgraphy and zeolitic diagnosis of the John Day Formation of Oregon: University of
California Publicaons in Geological Sciences, v. 42. p. 199-262.
Phillips. KN., 1968. Hydrology of Crater, East and Davis Lakes. Oregon, with a secton on Chemistry of
the lakes, by AS. Van Denburgh: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1859-E, p. El-E60.

Paper in a Muttlauthor Volume
Bowin, C., 1972, Puerto Rico Trench negative gravity anomaly belt, In Shagam. R., and others,
eds., Studies In Earth and space sciences: Geological Society of America Memoir 132, p. 119-
Thayer. T.P., 1967, Chemical and structural relation of ultra-malc and feldspathic rocks In Alpine intrusive
complexes, in Wylie, P.J., ed., Ultramaift and related rocks: New York, John Wiley, p. 222-239.

Proceedings from a Symposium or Conference (Include year of conference If It differ from
publication year)
Baar, C., 1972, Creep measured in deep potash mines vs. theoretical predictions, In Proceedings,
Canadian Rock Mechanics Symposium, 7th, Edmonton: Ottawa, Canada. Department of Energy.
Mines and Resources, p. 23-77.
MacLeod, N.S., Walker, G.W., and McKee, E.H., 1976, Geothermal significance of eastward increase In
age of upper Cenozoic rhyolite domes In southeastern Oregon, In Proceedings, Second United
Nations Symposium on the Development and Use of Geothermal Resources, San Francisco, May
1975, Volume 1: Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office (Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory. Universty of California), p. 485474.

Second Edition of a Book
Press, F., and Seiver, R., 1978. Earth (second edition): San Francisco, W.H. Freeman and Co., 649 p.

Single Paper Published In Separate Parts
Johnson, D,W., 1938 (v. 1), 1939 (v. 2). Origin of submarine canyons: Journal of Geomorphology, v. 1,
p. 111-129 230-243, 324-340; v. 2, p. 42-60, 133-158, 213-236.

Saleeby, J.B., 1975, Structure, petrology and geochronology of the Kings-Kaweah maflo-ultramafc bell,
southwestern Sierra Nevada foothls, California [Ph.D. thesis]: Santa Barbara, Univeraty of
Caifomia, 286 p.

Hantzschel, W., 1975, Trace fossis and Problematica (second edition), In Teichert, C., ed., Treatise on
Invertebrate paleontology, Part W, Miscellanea, Supplement 1: Boulder, Colorado, Geological
Society of America (and Univerity of Kansas Press). 269 p.
**** End of Example ** **

The reference sections) follows the main body of the text and may be entitled either "References."
or "Seected Bibliography," or 'Bbliography.' in accordance with the following categories.

1. Every FGS publication requires a referece section titled REFERENCES. Each publication listed in
this section must have been referred to and cited at least once n the text AN citations referenced in the
taxt must be included in this section.

Optional ifeirnce sections may be appended as noted below:

2. The term Selected Bibliography is used when the author adds to a "References" list some other
publications that are directly related to the subject of the report, but which were not cited in the report.

3. The term Bibliography is used when the author has attempted to list all references bearing on the
subject, even If they only Indirectly relate to the report.

Only material that has been published or Is in press" should be cited in a reference list or
bibliography. The term in press' means that a manuscript has actually gone to a printer to be printed,
and copies ae expected to be ready for distribution n a short period of time.

Unpublished material (W.T. Door. unpublished report, 1978) or personal communications (D.
Crockett, pers. comm., 1979) should be identified as such in the text, but they are not included in the
reference list.

Material of limited circulation (theses, open Rle reports, consultant's reports, and the like) may be
Included, but it must be stated where they may be obtained if a reader might desire to inspect the original

If no author's name is given for a publication, the agency responsible for the report should be


Illustrations include figures and plates, either of which may be line drawings or photographs.
Authors should carefully consider the final sizes of their figures during manuscript preparation and the
rough drafting stage. The section on "Preparation of llustrations' should be consulted for guidelines on
planning and layout of Illustrations.

All Individual photographs are referred to as "Figures,' except grouped photographs of fossil or
grouped microphotographs, which are called "Plates."

Illustration titles listed on the Contents page should not be longer than typed mne. Figure
captions that are longer than two typed lines in the manuscript should have a condensed version for ts
contents listing.

Fold-outs, tip-ins, and pocket material should be avoided. They are expensive to print and difficult
to prepare. Planning during manuscript preparation can generally provide alternate solutions, such as
reduced sections or facing-page llustratlons.

In cases where an author uses an Illustration that was published previously, acknowledgement
must be dearly shown, either on the illustration or In the caption. Copyright clearance may be necessary,
in which case the author must obtain t. The following rules apply to acknowledgement of llustations.
An example of a citation is: "Adapted from Gibuly, 1977.

after: possible redrafting, but no changes in Information
modiled: some changes in Information
adapted: radical changes made to basic reference


An appendix Is the place for detailed or voluminous information that will not it readily in the main
text. Such Information Includes analytical procedures, lengthy stratigraphic columns or descriptions of
measured sections, and tabulations of numerical data.


Certain publications may require an Index, such as Bulletins or Special Publications. If an index
t required, the author will need to prepare one after second review of the manuscript Commonly
included subjects are personal names, geographic names, company names, names of rocks and minerals,
geological processes, geological units, formations, or provinces.



The first drafts of all reports are routed to the FGS cartographic section for review and comment.
Any suggested changes should be discussed with the cartographers, and revised figures should be
prepared for circulation with the second draft.

Reviewers should thoroughly check all maps and diagrams to make sure that all captions, titles,
legends, or lettering agrees with and is consistent with the text and table of contents.

Manuscripts that are submitted to the FGS by outside authors should not include final drafted
figures, but rather, figures that are in a highly finished, preliminary state, and consistent with these
guidelines. This will allow for review and comment before the author has to produce final figures.
Photographs should be unmounted, and suggested crop-lines may be indicated in the margins with blue


Dimensions of bound publications of the FGS are 8.5 by 11 inches. The layout and dimensions
for a standard page are shown In Figure 1. The dimensions within the margins of a standard page ar
65 by 9 inches, which allows a one-nch-wide margin on al sides. Al material including captions must
fit within this field. To ensure that llustratons will it this format authors should plan the dimensions of
their original art before doing the first dral of any figure. If In doubt an early consultation with the FGS
editor or cartographers wll preclude later revisions. Legibility after reduction should be a primary
consideration in planning all figures' dimensions and the information to be included.

Photographs may need to be cropped or reduced. This does not need to be done for the first
draft but the author should check with the edr tor cartographers f dealing with oversize prints or slides.

Remember, all figures and tables must have their own caption, to be placed outside the borders
of the figure. A legend on a figure cannot substitute for a caption. Therefore, allowance must be made
for a caption within the margins of the field. Allow for a minimum height of onehalf inch, or more If the
caption will be lengthy.

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Plpumr 1. Ljyout *nd dinw~n~o tof *ondrtd DMW In Flofldr GOologtal Survy publlortlon


Any publication that makes reference to localities or to well locations must Include the standard
explanation of the locality and well numbering system used in Florida. This system is shown in Figure 2,
and the standard explanation to be used In the text is presented below n its entity.
* * Start of Example of Standard Text * * '

There are two numbering systems used In this report One is a well numbering system based on
sample number assignments. The Florida Geological Survey maintains a sample repository of drill
cuttings rom wells. Each well is assigned a unique accession number, such as W-14719, which is used
to Identify samples from that well.

The second numbering system used In this report is a well and locality numbering system based on the
location of the well or locality, and uses the rectangular system of section, township and range for
Identification (Figure 2). The number consists of six parts. These are: 1) a prefix letter designating either
L for locality, or W for well, 2) a two-lelo county abbreviation code, 3) the township, 4) the range, 5) the
section, and 6) the quarter/quarter location within the section.

The basic rectangle is the township, which is 6 miles on a side and encompasses 36 square miles.
It is consecutively measured by tiers both north and south of the Florida Base Line, and an eas-west line
that passes through Tallahassee, as Township north or south. This basic rectangular is also consecutively
measured both east and west of the Principal Meridian, a north-south line that passes through
Tallahassee, as Range east or west In recording the township and range numbers. I is customary to
leave off the T of the township numbers and the R Is left off of the range numbers (e.g.. 7S, 9W). Each
township is divided equally into 36 one-mile-square blocks caled sections, and are numbered 1 through
3,. as shown n Figure 2.

The sections are divided into quarters with the quarters labeled "a through d. In turn, each of
these one-quater sections is further subdivided Into quarters with these quarter/quarter sections labeled
a" through "d" in the same manner. The 'a" through "d" designation may be carried to any extent needed.

As an example, the location of well W-14719 (WGf-7S-9W-12cd) on Figure 2 would be in the center
of the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 12. Township 7 South, Range 0 West, Gulf

S* *** *End of Example * *



Every map must have the following information, as shown on Figure 3.

1. North arrow.
2. Composite bar scale of miles and kilometers, or other appropriate units of measure.
3. A legend that shows the symbols used and that briefly explains the map's function, e.g., county road
map, wetl location map, or cross section location map.

The map's legend may be necessarily brief due to space limiations. In such cases note that the
figure's caption does not simply repeat the map's legend, but is used to expand and clarify the map's

W+ R11W + R 1W -- RSW + RAW








aI --

W-* aT se lo


I a a as I
St as l



Figur 2. Loomtly and wt numbering syrem uwd by the Fltida GeologIal Survy. Each
nurbeod meon In onew-m squre.



I -

1 --
; : S W -'.
. IIl "










r cr uTrrs

Flgor 3. Map showing nce ry lkgend innMton.

Figure 3 also demonstrates the manner in which additional information may be added to a location
map to enhance Its value to the reader. Locations of cross sections should be distinctively identified. It
is suggested that township and range markings be added around the margins to facilitate locating points
of Interest.

In addition to the minimum Information required in ts title and legend, a geologic map also should
have an explanation column. An example of the conventional format for an explanation column to
accompany a geologic map to shown In Figure 4. This conventional format also may be used on
stratigraphc columns or cross sections.


Symbols and lettering used on Illustrations for FGS publications may be of three general types:
computer generated, commercially available press-on (commonly called "zip-a-tone), or mechanically
produced (such as Merlin). Free-hand lettedng is unacceptable. Free-hand drawings may be used in
special circumstances, but not for technical illustrations.

Criteria used in choosing symbols, patterns, and size of letters should be:

1. CLARITY. Will the letters or pattern drop-out if the figure is reduced? For optimum clarity the author
should carefully consider the type of base map to be used, and how much geological, cultural, or other
details are to be illustrated. Perhaps two or more Illustrations would be better than one cluttered map.
2. STANDARDIZATION. Conventional symbols for common lithologies should be used, e.g., the blocky
symbol for limestone or the use of random dots for sand. Do not invent new symbols for common


Color b a very effective way of depicting information, to show distinguishing characteristics, or to
emphasize some aspect of a report or map. If an author proposes to use color, preliminary drawings
should be submitted to the FGS editor for review. The following considerations should be used in
selecting colors.

If more than one colored diagram or map is to appear in a publication, the colors should be
coordinated. For example, units of the same age or lthology on different llustrations should have the
same colors.

In selecting colors, and in specifying them to printers, preference must be given to eight,
transparent, color values and to pastel shades. Not only are they more aesthetically pleasing than dark,
solid colors, but more Importantly, lighter colors allow for the retention of legibility of overprited legends.
teax contours, and other Information. Special care must be taken with color selection if any map
information is to be printed In a light halftone.



Appendix B shows the letter symbols for the names of geological formations and members that
are in current usage by the FGS. Proposals for new geological names or symbols must be approved by
the FGS. The FGS uses the crtera established by the North American Stratigraphic Code, published by
the North American Commission on Strtigraphic Nomenclature, as a guide for nomenclatural changes.





a l





wM MW" LMr* M
Wid Ky Lwr LhrSew
Cf Fan Thmnvpmn Ftm

S TamnmS F Tp Pnem Samw Member
W Handfhm GMup Tmc Ahis Gew MnmBe


EOCENE p Aon PWrk Fn
To OCldkm Fn.


|o 0 cea | r am

[F Eagle





o sunrnntd Un-rsn
-- Kpe P^Ht Gords act"drhW



Figure 4. Convemronal format for an explanation column to accompany a geology map, a
ottllgrnphlo column, or a oross motion. This Is a pattern explanation, organlzd by age, and In
an Hlustative aeoton only. It s nott mwnt to reprent all strtigraphlo units found In Florida at
any given location, which will vary with each report

. -1

If an author needs to create a new letter symbol, the following guidelines should be used. The
new symbol should be based on practicalty. No symbol should Include more than four (4) letters.
Important factors to be considered in coining a new symbol are the number of unts or members shown
and the rock types of the area under discussion.

The first letter of the symbol Is the geologic age of the formation. The second letter of the symbol
i the rs letter of the formation's name, as In Tt for Tamiaml Formation of Tertiary age. f a formaton
name consists of two or more words, such as Fort Thompson Formation of Quatermay age, there s a
choice of symbols in this example either Oft or Of. If members of the Fort Thompson Formation are
mapped, the first tter of the formation name is commonly used wih the rst letter of the member's name,
as In Ofo, where "c" stands for the Coffee Mil Hammock Member of the Fort Thompson Formation. This
method keeps the symbol from becoming too long and unwieldy. To dispel possible confusion in some
cases, It may be necessary to use more than one letter from each formation or member, as can be seen
from the several members of the Tamlami Formation. For clarity, symbols for the Buckingham Limestone
and the Bayshore Clay Members use the first letters of both words of their names, Ttbl and Ttbc,


When space is at a premium, such as on maps, graphs, charts, or tabular listings, the
conventional abbreviations for Florida county names shown In Table 2 may be used.

Table 2. Abbreviations for Florida county names.

Alashu Aa FlWgie Fg Laky LU Pakn Bach Pb
Bakr Bk Frarnn Fk LA" Lk Pasco Pu
Bay By Gdedeon an Lae LO Pinra"s PI
Brandld I Gilohrit Go Leon Ln Polk Po
BIerd v Glade GI Lwy Lv Punam Pu
Cahoun On Or of lMbny Lb St Johns 8
Chwotto Ch Hiium IHm Madlan Md 8L Lwnde SI
c 0a ardls 1d Moan s a Poan &W
Cay oY Hendry MY Mlon W snooto s
domr Cr Herna dot Moran M Swmine s So
Cduifta Co HlCands M o Wume Mo uwamee Sw
Dde Dd lilsbormgh Nessu N. Sunew Sm
Deeom 0s Han.s. No COnkn.a 08 Tylor Ty
oWd. ox Iun Sw i ve OaClchoube o0 Union Un
Duvl Du Jckcoan j Org or YVoluia Vo
EacebIa Es Jllason .if 0nuola 09 Wakula Wk
Wanm WI
Wahington We



Tom Gardner. Executv Direcfor

Jremy A Craft Drector

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief

Published for the



Flgur Al. Cover I outsided front covr), with tt on spine. [Note that these example of
Figures 1-14 were taken from Special Publication 31, 1991. Peonnel nauw will need to be
changed, as required.]


This table of the most commonly used conversion factors is provided for readers who may prefer to
use metric units instead of the English units given in this report.



inch (in) 25.4 millimeter (mm)
inch (in) 2.540 centimeter (cm)
inch (in) 0.0254 meter (m)
foot (ft) 0.3048 meter (m)
mile (mi) 1.609 kilometer (kin)
sq. feet (ft) 0.09290 sq. meter (n)
sq. mile (mi) 2.590 sq. kilometer (km)
acre (ac) 0.4047 hectare (ha)
acre (ac) 4047.0 sq. meter (m)
cubic foot (ft) 0.02832 cubic meter (m)
cubic yard (yd) 0.7646 cubic meter (m)
gallon (gal) 3.785M ler (L)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.06308 liter per second (Us)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.0022 cubic feeVsecond (cfs)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.00006309 cubic meters/second (m's)
cubic feet per second (cfs) 449 gallons per minute (gpm)
cubic feet per second (cfs) 0.02832 cubic meters/second (m/s)
pound (Ib) 0.4536 kilogram (kg)
ton, short (2,000 Ibs) 0.9072 megagram (Mg)
ton, long (2,40 Ibs) 1.016 megagram (Mg)
Fahrenheit (F) 5/9 (F-2) Centigrade

Sea Lovet In this report, see liver refers to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of
1929) a geodetic datum derived from a general adjustment of the first-order level nets of both the
United States and Canada, formerly called "Sea Level Datum of 1929' or "mean sea level (MSL)."
Although the datum was derived from the average sea level over a period of many years at 26 tide
stations along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific coasts, It does not necessarily represent local
mean sea level at any particular place.

Figure A2. Cover 2 (Inside front cover), comrson factors.


Peter M. Dobins, Admin. Ass
Jessie Hawkins. Custodian

Water Schmdt Chief
I. All
Vanessa Allred, Ubrary Asst

ce Jordan. Ubrarlan
indie Ray. Admin. Secretary


Thomas M. Scott, Senior Geoogist/Administrator
Jon Arhur, Petrologist Ted per, Cartographer
Paulette Bond. Geochemist Nancy LaPlace, Research Asst
Dianne Brien, Research AssL Milena Macesich. Research Asst.
Ken Campbell. Sedmentologist Met Martinez, Research AssL
Cindy Coiller. Secretary Ted Maul. Research AssL
Mitch Covlngton. Bostraugrapher Robert Mince. Research Asst.
Joel Duncan, Sed. Petrologist John Morril, Driller
Bob Fisher. Research Asst. Larry Papetti. Research Asst.
Rick Green. Research Ass. Albert Phillips, Asst. Driller
Mark Groszos, Research Asst Frank Rupert, Paleontologist
Kent Hartong. Research Asa. Frank Rush. Lab Tech.
Jim Jones, Cartographer Tom Seal, Research Asst.
Clay Kelly, Research AssL


Jacqueline M. Uoyd, Senior Geologist/Administrator
Ed Lane. Env. Geologist Ron Hoenstine. Env. Geologist
Steve Spencer, Economic Geologist


L David Curry, Administrator
Brenda Bracldn, Secretary Scott Hosklns, DIst. Coordinator
Robert Caughey, Dist Coordinator Barbara McKamey. Secretary
Joan Gruber, Secretary Marycarol Rely. Geologist
Don Hargrove. Engineer Koren Taylor. Research Asst,
Charles H. Toote, Pet. Engineer

Figure A3. Cover 3 (Inlide back cover), FGS personnel list

Tom Gardner, Executive Director

Jeremy A. Craft, Dlector

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief


Ed Lane and Ronald W. Hoenstine

Published for the



Figure A4. Inalde tl pegs.



Secretary of State

Attorney General

State Treasurer

State Comptroller

Commissioner of Education

Commissioner of Agriculture

Executive Director

Figure AI Cabin t 0U1ng pgse.



June 1991

Governor Lawton Chiles, Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Chiles:

The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource Management, Department of Natural
Resources, Is publishing as Special Publication No. 31, Environmental Geology and Hydrogeology
of the Ocafa Area, Florida, prepared by staff geologists Ed Lane and Ronald W. Hoenstlne. This report
presents data on the geology and hydrology of the Ocala area, which is one of the fastest growing
urban areas in Florida. This report is timely because of the growth rate, and the information will be
of significant use to local, county, and state planners, as well as to the private sector. The data will
assist these groups to develop and implement long range plans to effectively manage this growth.


Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey

Figure A. Letter of transmttl.

Printed for the

Florida Geolgical Survey


ISSN 0085-0640

Figum A7. "Prntd for page.



Acknowledgements ......................
Introduction and purpose ...................
Location and transportation .................
Clim ate........................... .. .......
Map Coverage ................ ...........
Well and locality numbering system..........
Previous Investigations .....................
Geology ...................................
Geologic history ................ .........
Water Resources ........................
The Hydrologic cycle.....................
Surface water .......... ................
Aquifers ................................
Florldian aquifer system ...............
Intermediate aquifer system............
Surficial aquifer system ................
Evolution of karat terrain ...................
Chemical weathering of carbonate rocks ....
Karat in the Ocala area...................
Water quality .... .........................
Potentlometric surface .....................
Water usage ..............................
Mineral resources .........................


Limestone .............................................................
Sand ................ .. .............. .................................
Undifferentiated resources ................ .............. ...... ......
Land Use ...................... ...................... ..... ......... ... ...
Environmental hazards associated with karat....... ............................
Solid waste disposal ............. ...................... .................
Summary ......................... ..............................
References.......................................................... . .........



Location map ........................ ................................
Transportation map for Marion County ...............................
Average monthly air temperature at Ocala ............................
Monthly rainfall distribution for Ocala................................
Annual rainfall for Ocala .............................................
Topographic map coverage of Marion County .........................
Locality and well numbering system .................................
Geomorphology of Ocala and Marion County .............................
Terraces and shorelines of Ocala and Marion County ......................
Stratlgraphic column........... ................. ........ ........
Cross section location map............................................
Cross sections A-A' and B-B' ...................... ...................
Hydrologic cycle ...........................................
Surface water of Marion County.....................................

Figure A. First page of Contents.


.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
... .. ... .. .. ... .. ..

.... .... ... .. .. . ..

... ... .... ... .... ...

.. .. .. . . .. .. .

.... .... ... .... .... ...



I ..........


The authors wish to thank the following people and organizations who gave freely of their time
and information. Their assistance provided a firm foundation for this study. Gary Maddox, Depart-
ment of Environmental Regulation, who provided land use data and water quality data; Earl
Blankenship, Solid Waste Administrator. Marion County Board of Commissioners, for information
on the Marion County landfill; Philip Cosson, Planner, City of Ocala, for statistical data for Ocala;
Dennis G. Thompson, Planning Director, Division of Planning, Marion County Board of Commissioners,
for statistical data on Marion County; the Economic Development Council of Ocala.for business and
economic Information: and G. C. Phelps, U.S. Geological Survey, for information on the aquifer systems
In the Ocala area. In addition, the authors appreciate the efforts of Ken Campbell. Richard Johnson,
Jim Jones, Ted Kiper, Jackie Lloyd, Frank Rupert, Walter Schmidt, Tom Scott, Steven Spencer, and
Bill Yon in reviewing this report.

Figure A. Aomwledgenmme.




Ed Lane, P.G. #141 and Ronald W. Hoenstine, P.G. 957


Florida Is experiencing phenomenal population
growth. A significant part of this growth is occur-
ring In the Ocala area, which Is one of the fastest
growing urban areas in the nation. Ocala, which
had a 1987 population of 44.980, is projected to
have an annual growth rate of 4.64 percent
through 1995 (Thompson, 1968). Rapid urban
growth places unusual stresses on the environ-
ment due to the demands of energy, construc-
tion, transportation, water supplies, and waste
disposal. This report Is designed to help local
governments mitigate the Impacts of society's
pressures on the environment.
The principal objectives of this report are to
Interpret and summarize available cultural Infor-
mation and scientific data. By integrating
cultural, climatological, geological, and hydro-
logical data the report will illustrate the Impor-
tance that geology plays In land-use planning for
the Ocala urban area. Graphics are emphasized
as a means of presenting data in a format that
can be readily used by the public, scientists,
planners, water managers, and public policy


The City of Ocala is located In north-central
peninsular Florida. approximately In the center
of Marion County (Figure 1). The air-mile circles
on Figure 1 show that Ocala also lies about
equidistant from both extremes of the state's
extent, from Pensacola In the western panhandle
to Miami near the southern tip of the peninsula.
This central location makes Ocata a natural
hub of Marion County's transportation system
(Figure 2). Several of the state's major roads
pass near or through Ocala: Interstate 75 US 27,
US 41, US 441, US 301, and State Highways 40
and 475. A beltway encircling Ocala utilizing
existing and new roads is currently being

considered. CSX Transportation (formerly the
Seaboard Coast Lne Railroad) has several
routes that branch out of Ocala, eventually
connecting to Gainesville, Jacksonville and
points north, and south to Tampa, Orlando, and
Miami. Several airlines have scheduled service
to Ocala Municipal Airport.


Ocala's location In north-central peninsular
Florida Is reflected in its humid, subtropical
climate. Its annual average temperature Is
71.1F, varying from low averages of approx.
Imately 58F In December and January to high
averages of about 820F during July and August
(Figure 3).
Rainfall distribution for Ocala Is shown in
Figures 4 and 5. Summer is the "wet" season,
caused by an Increase In thunderstorm activity
(Figure 4). Figure 5 shows substantial fluctua-
lions above and below annual average rainfall,
with the widest extremes for the period occurring
within two years of each other, in 1982 and 1984.
The high rainfall of 1982 was due mainly to a
series of April thunderstorms that struck north
central Florida from Marion County southward
to Brevard County. Hall the size of golf balls
covered the ground in many areas. On April 8,
thunderstorms dropped up to 12 Inches of rain
over Marion County, and additional rains of
April 9 produced storm totals up to 20 inches,
causing flooding and 150 sinkholes, with
heaviest damage in the Ocala area (NOAA, 1982).
This incident Is discussed in more detail in the
Environmental Hazards section.


A total of 32 U.S. Geological Survey topo-
graphic maps are required to completely cover
Marion County (Figure 6). These maps, which
were used as base maps to plot field data, are
7% minute quadrangles drawn at a scale of

Figure AlD. Flirt page of ext



6 5 4 3 2 1
7 8 9 10 11 12
18 17 16 15 14 13

19 20 21 22 2324
30 29 28 27 26 25
31 32 33 34 35 36

f v-1'M
alb a b
c d c d





Figure 7. Locaty and well nmbeing system.

Pqgur Al. Fulp.rg amtigh amtratlon.




Figr w A12. Sldmwayu ontatlon of flgum.


- ---

r *~~**36

*1- -- ^i ^ t h-,<

. .
- *-*

-- -- .. ,-,..-.
-t a -

Figure 1. City dra g wee in bottom of a la le 8omoctng s to he upir Floridan
*qWgw sysm This type weo is ued to control flooding by the ting tba nwmol
unto on commos Mto- equNer. Frida eMtogie Suswy photograph.


There ai maety of kst featums in the
Ocala aree Figure 22 shows the exen to which
the are's topography has been dissected by
krt features, Siver Springs s a spectacular
example of a cavernous spring, as shown In
Figure 9d. It s the source of Silver River, and
a major dicharge point for water from the
Floridan aqufer system wth flows ranging fsnm
539 to 1,290 cubc feet per second 834.000,000
to 1,070.00000 gallons per day) (Rosenau tat a
1977). These quantities of water can dMesove and
carry away in solution as much as 541 tons of

One of these wells is located west of the city
of Oca, at the Ocala Airpot actionn 19b,
TownmsMp 155 Range 21E). This six-nch well is
drilld to a depth of 90 feet below land surface
int o te u Floridan aquifer system. Table 3
lists the specific prametrs analyzed and their
respective values or this well. All of the values
are within established U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) units for potable water.
In addition to the ambient network welts DER
and the St Johns Rivr Water Management Dis-
trct (SJRWMD) are n the process of establishing
a Very intense Study Area (VISA) network within
the city of Ocada. This VISA is located In the east-
central part of the study area (Figure 27) and is

Figure Al Hallfpege figr showing placemrwt or tet

c ,r~



-in --O

W LWcA tLuoMAtII mN PPMwOMMpa Y i2l VtS

~ PS *

0 I4 iES
sc~IC#u t

OCLma O werum t_---
i-17--, A I *"
m tor AVON PAM
rAN PAM roams"e AoA- S

Figure 12- Cross secMons A-A' amd W-8'.

fln ikflO
rooLm" I*


-1U -2@0







undifferentiated units Qu
SLake Flirt Marl OI
Pamlico sand Qp
U Anastasia Formation an
I- Miami Umestone Qml
Key Largo Limestone Qkl
0 Fort Thompson Formation Of
Coffee Mill Hammock Member Ofc
Okaloakoochee Member Ofo


Caloosahatchee Formation To
Ayers Landing Member Tca
Bee Branch Member Tcb
Fort Denaud Member Tcf
Cypresshead Formation Tch
SCitronelle Formation Tci
SMiccosukee Formation Tm
Jackson Bluff Formation TJb
Tamiami Formation Tt
Ochopee Umestone Member Ttol
Pinecret Sand Member Ttp
Buckingham Umestone Member Ttbl
Ava Clay Member Ttac
LaBelle Clay Member TtV
Ortona Sand Member Ttos
Murdock Station Member Ttms
Bayshore Clay Member Ttbc


lntracoastal Formation T1
Red Bay Formation Trb
Yellow River Formation Tyr
Alachua Formation Tal
Hawthorn Group Th
Statenville Formation Tst
Coosawhatchie Formation Too
Chariton Member Tcoc
Marks Head Formation Tmh
Penney Farms Formation Tp
Peace River Formation Tpr
Bone Valley Member Tprbv
Arcadia Fomation Ta
Tampa Member Tat
Nocatee Member Tan
Torreya Formation Tty
Dogtown Member Ttyd
Sopchoppy Member Ttys
Bruce Creek Umestone Tbe
Pensacola Clay Fomnation Tpc
Escambla Sand Member Tpce
i Shoal River Formation Tsr
4 Oak Grove Member Tsro
Chipola Fomation Tc
W St. Marks Formation Tsm
- Chattahoochee Formation Toe


Suwannee Limestone Ts
Duncan Church beds Tsd
Byram Formation Tb
Bucatunna Clay Member Tbb
Maranna Umestone TmI
Chickasawhay Umestone Tch


Ocala Limestone (or Group) To
Crystal River Formation Tr
Bumpnose Member Tcrb
Steinhatchee Dolombit member Tors
WillistFo Foration Tw
Inglis Fonnation Ti
Avon Park Formation. Tap
Usbon Formation TI
Lake City Formation (now combined with Tic
Avon Park Formation)

Tallahatta Formation Tta
Hatchetigbee Formation The
Bashi Mad Member Theb
SOldsmar Formation To


Cedar Keys Formation Tck
Midway Formation Tm

Selma Group Ksg
Pine Key Formation Kp
U) Lawson Lmestone KI
O Eutaw Formation Ke
U Atkinson Formation Ka
0. Tuscaloosa Formation (or Group) Kt
C Pilot Sandstone Member Ktps
Upper member Ktu
0 Middle member Ktm
Lower member Ktl
Massive Sandstone Member Ktms

Big Cypress Group Kbc
Dollar Bay Formation Kbod
Gordon Pass Formation Kbcg
Marco Junction Formation Kbcm
Ocean Reef Group Ko
() Rattlesnake Hammock Formation Korh
Lake Trafford Formation Kolt
. 0 Sunniland Limestone Kos
Glades Group Kg
0 Punta Gorda Anhydrite Kgp
I Lehigh Acres Formation KgI
Able Member Kgla
Twelve Mile Member Kgit
West Felda Shale Kgis
Pumpkin Bay Formation Kp
Bone Island Fomuation Kbi
Ft. Pierce Formation Kfp
Hosston Formation Kh

Cotton Valley Group Jcv
Haynesville Formation Jh
SBuckner Anhydrite (Lower Haynesville Fm) Jba
Smackover Formation Js
Norphlet Formation (or Sandstone) Jn
Louann Salt J1
Wa Wemer Anhydrite Jwa
Wood River Formation Jwr

SEagle Mills Formation Trem

Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks are known from a few wells, but their ages and systemic affinities have
not been established. In these cases, the author may assign them standard systemic letter symbols as
research data Indicates, in accordance with the section entitled "Letter symbols for geologic systems."