Title: Hunting effort analysis in northeastern Peru
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Title: Hunting effort analysis in northeastern Peru the case of the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Puertas, Pablo Eloy
Publisher: State University System of Florida
Place of Publication: <Florida>
<Florida>
Publication Date: 1999
Copyright Date: 1999
 Subjects
Subject: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation thesis, M.S   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Wildlife Ecology and Conservation -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: ABSTRACT: This study investigated the impact of hunting by using catch per unit effort (CPU) analysis in the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo (RCTT), northeastern Peru. The objectives of the research were to determine the relationship between CPU per hunter over time inside and outside a community reserve and to determine the hunting strategy used by local hunters. These objectives compared hunting activity inside and outside the community reserve to evaluate if the reserve is working as a subsistence zone and if the local people are overharvesting the game mammals. Likewise, this study examined if CPU can be used to evaluate overharvesting. The study was conducted in the Tahuayo-Blanco area of the RCTT. Hunting registers were collected with the help of local hunters called hunting inspectors. The information registered included the number of hunters, time out hunting, catch of hunt, and species hunted, in order to estimate the number of kills per man-days of hunting/year. Mapping of hunting zones was done with the help of local hunters to determine the hunting system and its functionality. Information collected on the trails, camps, time of residence, distance by using Global Positioning System (GPS), and accessibility to the hunting sites. The total CPU of individual animals hunted is larger inside than outside the reserve.
Summary: ABSTRACT (cont.): Among species, the two peccaries (Tayassu pecari and T. tajacu) and titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) were statistically significant. This indicates that animals are easier to hunt inside the reserve and the effort/animal harvested is less inside the reserve than outside. This should also indicate that the abundance of animals is greater inside the reserve than outside. Likewise, the total CPU of Biomass of animals hunted is larger inside than outside the reserve. The total harvest inside the reserve was larger in the wet season than in the dry season and this reflects differences in the access to hunting sites. From the 33 game mammals hunted ungulates and rodents were the most preferred species. Therefore, the subsistence use zone of the reserve is a very important protein source for local people. The hunting strategies of local people included two common strategies, 1) hunting from the house outside the reserve and 2) hunting from canoes when inside the reserve. Analysis of these two methods suggests that immigration of animals from unhunted to hunting sites (source-sink) should be considered in the harvest models. It also suggests that periodic monitoring must be done and that a controlled access of local hunters is needed. Finally, further research needs to focus on the improvement of the co-management system. One suggestion would be to incorporate CPU analysis by the local communities. Secondly, the current management needs to take into account the zonification of hunting areas, rotation of hunting, and reduction of unsustainable harvesting.
Summary: KEYWORDS: Ecology, Peru
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 1999.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 58-64).
System Details: System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details: Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility: by Pablo Eloy Puertas.
General Note: Title from first page of PDF file.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains ix, 65 p.; also contains graphics.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100728
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 45265900
alephbibnum - 002484129
notis - AMJ9743

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HUNTING EFFORT ANALYSIS IN NORTHEASTERN PERU: THE CASE OF
THE RESERVE COMUNAL TAMSHIYACU-TAHUAYO













By

PABLO ELOY PUERTAS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1999





























Copyright 1999

by

Pablo Eloy Puertas



























In eternal gratitude to my father Pablo for providing me empirical lessons on

Amazonian wildlife during the first sixteen years of my life living as a riberefio.



To the memory of Dr. Jaime Moro Sommo who gave me the first opportunity to

conduct research on Amazonian wildlife















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I especially acknowledge Dr. Richard E. Bodmer, who helped me do work on

community-based conservation in the Peruvian Amazonia, for his valuable support

during this study. I am grateful to Dr. Joe Fragoso and Dr. F. Wayne King, members

of my committee, for their critical comments and suggestions to this study.

I also acknowledge my colleagues and friends who provided me their valuable

input in the collections and interpretation of my field data including Cesar Reyes,

Etercit Pezo, Victor Cabrera, Rolando Aquino, Filomeno Encarnaci6n, James Penn,

Eduardo Naranjo, Olga Montenegro, Alfredo Begazo, Javier Barrio, and Jorge

Hurtado. Dr. Robin Mukerherjee provided statistical analysis of the field data. I want

also to express my gratitude to Hanna Covert, who patiently reviewed my writing.

I am grateful to the Centro de Investigaciones Veterinarias y de Altura (IVITA)

de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), the Instituto Nacional

de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), and to the Ministry of Agriculture, Peru, who

authorized the fieldwork.

I am also grateful for the institutional support of the University of Florida's

Program for Studies in Tropical Conservation in the Department of Wildlife Ecology

and Conservation and the Tropical Conservation and Development Program in the

Center for Latin American Studies.










Funding for my graduate studies at the University of Florida was provided by

The Amazon Basin Environmental Program sponsored by LASPAU (Academic and

Professional Programs for the Americas) and supported by the Fulbright Commission.

Field work was partially supported by the Biodiversity Support Program (BSP),

Rainforest Conservation Fund (RCF), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia

(CONCYTEC), and the Fondo de Desarrollo Universitario of the UNMSM as a

research professor.

I am in indebted to the invaluable support provided by the local communities of

the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo, and also to the Asociacion para la

Conservaci6n de la Amazonia (ACA), which gave me the facilities required to work

with local communities.

Finally, my gratitude goes to my wife Daisy who helped me check and input

the field data in the spread sheet and to my son Ricardo for his kind companionship.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

A CK N O W LED GEM EN TS ................................................................ ........... iii


ABSTRACT ....................................................................................... vii



CHAPTERS
1 IN T R O D U C T IO N .................................................................................................1

Hunting Systems and Sustainability through Community-based Conservation................................ 3
Long-term Studies of Wildlife Populations: Is Community-based Co-management Conserving
A nim al P populations? .......................................................................... .................................... 7
Conservation of W wildlife habitats................................................... ... ......... ......... ... 8

2 STUDY AREA ........................................................ 10

Study Area in the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo ........................................................ 10
D description of the H hunting A reas ........................................................................... ................. 15

3 CA TCH PER U N IT EFFO R T ..................................................... ............................................... 19

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 19
M ethods ............................................................................................... .............20
Data Collection, Sampling and Hunting................................................. ............... 20
Species Preference .......................................................................................... .. 22
R results ................................................................................................ .............. 23
Hunting Area Outside the Reserve....................................................................23
Hunted species ......................................................................................... .. 23
Seasonal variation ............................................................................... .. 24
T total harvest com parison.................................................... ............................................... 27
Hunting Area Inside the Reserve............ ...................... ............ ......... ... ......... 27
Seasonal variation.......... ....................................................... ...... ................ 28
Total harvest ............................................................................ .............. 28
Comparison Between Hunting Areas ....... ................................................. .. 28
Hunting species .................................................................................... .. 28
C atch per unit effort per species............................................ .......................... ................ 29
Catch per unit effort in relation to biomass...... ....... .... .......................... 30
D iscu ssio n ............................................................................................................ 3 6












4 H U N T IN G STR A TE G Y ................................................................................................. 42

Introduction ............................................. ............................................ ....................... 42
D description of H hunting Strategies ............................................................................. ................. 43
Case Studies ............... ...................................................................... ................. 47
A access to a C closed System .......................................................... .................................................. 48


5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CO-MANAGEMENT OF WILDLIFE WITH
COM M UN ITY PARTICIPATION .............................................. ........................... ................. 50

In tro d u ctio n ........... .. .................. ................ ................. ................................ ................................. 5 0
Strengthening of a Community Co-management System............................................................ 52
Closed Hunting Areas .......... ............................................................................. 56
H ab itat Im prove ent .............................................................................. ..................................... 56
LIST OF REFERENCES........... ............................................................................... 58

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ET CH ........................................................................... .................................. 65












Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science


HUNTING EFFORT ANALYSIS IN NORTHEASTERN PERU: THE CASE OF
THE RESERVE COMUNAL TAMSHIYACU-TAHUAYO

By

Pablo Eloy Puertas

August 1999

Chairperson: Richard E. Bodmer
Major Department: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation

This study investigated the impact of hunting by using catch per unit effort

(CPU) analysis in the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo (RCTT), northeastern

Peru. The objectives of the research were to determine the relationship between CPU

per hunter over time inside and outside a community reserve and to determine the

hunting strategy used by local hunters. These objectives compared hunting activity

inside and outside the community reserve to evaluate if the reserve is working as a

subsistence zone and if the local people are overharvesting the game mammals.

Likewise, this study examined if CPU can be used to evaluate overharvesting. The

study was conducted in the Tahuayo-Blanco area of the RCTT. Hunting registers were

collected with the help of local hunters called hunting inspectors. The information

registered included the number of hunters, time out hunting, catch of hunt, and species

hunted, in order to estimate the number of kills per man-days of hunting/year.

Mapping of hunting zones was done with the help of local hunters to determine the

Viii










hunting system and its functionality. Information collected on the trails, camps, time

of residence, distance by using Global Positioning System (GPS), and accessibility to

the hunting sites. The total CPU of individual animals hunted is larger inside than

outside the reserve. Among species, the two peccaries (Tayassupecari and T. tajacu)

and titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) were statistically significant. This indicates that

animals are easier to hunt inside the reserve and the effort/animal harvested is less

inside the reserve than outside. This should also indicate that the abundance of

animals is greater inside the reserve than outside. Likewise, the total CPU of Biomass

of animals hunted is larger inside than outside the reserve. The total harvest inside the

reserve was larger in the wet season than in the dry season and this reflects differences

in the access to hunting sites. From the 33 game mammals hunted ungulates and

rodents were the most preferred species. Therefore, the subsistence use zone of the

reserve is a very important protein source for local people. The hunting strategies of

local people included two common strategies, 1) hunting from the house outside the

reserve and 2) hunting from canoes when inside the reserve. Analysis of these two

methods suggests that immigration of animals from unhunted to hunting sites (source-

sink) should be considered in the harvest models. It also suggests that periodic

monitoring must be done and that a controlled access of local hunters is needed.

Finally, further research needs to focus on the improvement of the co-management

system. One suggestion would be to incorporate CPU analysis by the local

communities. Secondly, the current management needs to take into account the

zonification of hunting areas, rotation of hunting, and reduction of unsustainable

harvesting.












CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION



Wildlife plays an important role in the lives of Amazonian people as a source

of protein, ornaments, raw materials, and in their world view (Aspelin 1975, Flowers

1983, 1994, Yost and Kelley 1983, Vickers 1991, Dufour 1994). People also harvest

wildlife for skins, leather, pets, zoos, biomedical use, sport hunting and tourism, and

use wildlife as a source of domesticated animals (Redford and Robinson 1991).

However, wildlife resources in tropical forests can be easily overexploited and species

can become depleted or extinct (Robinson and Redford 1994, Robinson and Bodmer

1999). Subsequently, hunting produces changes in game populations and in turn, the

human community.

Hunting yields can be evaluated using catch per unit of effort analysis or catch

per licensed hunter, which is often used in temperate areas (McCullough 1987,

Schlueter et al. 1997). The most extensive data on hunting yields (measured as kg

meat per man-hour of hunting) in the Neotropics is from a native Siona-Secoya

community in northeastern Ecuador (Vickers 1980, 1991). Most studies have

attempted to estimate the impact of hunting to sustain current levels of game harvest

and combining hunting success with distance from the focal hunting community

(Hames 1980, Robinson and Redford 1991, Alvard 1994, Towsend 1996, Hill et al.

1997, Bodmer et al. 1997, Leeuwenberg 1997, Mazurek 1997, Fragoso et al. 1998).










There is an scarcity of information available in the literature about hunting effort

analysis from nontribal people known as "riberefos" (Beckerman 1994).

Rural inhabitants in Amazonia exploit many mammalian species by

unmanaged game hunting (Bodmer 1994). Although, some communities have started

to take on responsibilities to conserve wildlife through community-based co-

management of hunting. One such case occurs in the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-

Tahuayo (RCTT) where local people have begun to manage wildlife as an alternative

for conservation (Bodmer and Puertas, in press). However, implementation of

community-based wildlife management requires field data that matches with the

concerns of local people. Hunting is one of the main activities of local people living in

uplands or "terra firma" forests in both the reserve and surrounding areas. Therefore,

they spend days looking for game mammals for subsistence use and obtain cash money

by selling meat in the local markets.

This study provides information on the impact of hunting by local communities

living in and around the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo by using hunting

yield per unit effort (catch per unit of effort). The specific objectives of this study are:

1) to determine the relationship of catch per unit effort per hunter over time, and 2) to

determine the hunting strategy used by local hunters inside and outside the reserve. In

addition, this study examines whether species used as a game meat are being

overhunted between wet and dry seasons during 1994, 1995 and 1996.

Results from this study will help local communities set up more sustainable

hunting through wildlife and policy management programs by supplying them with

relevant biological information .










This first chapter presents an overview on the hunting system and sustainability

of hunting from previous studies. The second chapter provides a description of the

study site and describes the two catchment areas used by hunters, both inside and

outside the reserve. The third chapter presents analyses on catch per unit effort in

relation to seasonality, total harvest, and biomass, and compares the results between

the two catchment areas. The fourth chapter looks at the hunting strategies used by

hunters in the catchment areas. Finally, chapter five gives recommendations for

wildlife and policy management in relation to the use of the catchment areas, habitat

improvement, and empowerment of the community-based co-management.



Hunting Systems and Sustainability through Community-based Conservation

Community-based conservation approaches the conservation of species and

ecosystems by appreciating the fundamental role that rural communities play in

managing and using wildlands (Little 1994). Local communities living around coastal

estuaries, and in tropical forest, savannah, and mountain ranges have begun to take on

responsibilities for conserving and managing natural resources (Maltby et al. 1992,

Bodmer 1994, Poffenberg 1994). Community-based conservation has arisen from the

realization that rural people not only dwell in wildlands, but have a meaningful long-

term stake in their surroundings and an interest in the continued well-being and

production of these environments (Western and Wright 1994).

Wildlife is an important resource for local people living in wildlands,

especially in the tropics. However, conserving wildlife usually requires management

that regulates its use and usually takes more than grass roots community-based










initiative to attain wildlife management that concurs with conservation (Rettig et al.

1989). Thus, community-based wildlife management is likely to function best if it is

co-managed with researchers, NGO's and government authorities (Pinkerton 1989).

The real impact of community-based co-management can only be accurately analyzed

through long-term studies. Long-term studies allow for a better understanding of 1)

the actions and events that initiate and maintain community-based co-management and

2) the biological limitations of resource populations and their response to management.

Community based management of the RCTT began long before the legal establishment

of the reserve. Environmental actions taken by communities of the upper Tahuayo

were a major influence to create the reserve. Communities realized the extent of

natural resource degradation occurring in the forest and undertook local community

initiatives to protect natural resources (Bodmer 1994).

Communities of the upper Tahuayo have implemented a series of community

management rules for the extraction of natural resources. Rules for land use and

extraction of resources are determined by consensus in each community.

Communities also have signed formal agreements between themselves regarding

access rules and vigilance posts. Yet, communities and extension workers often are

unclear on the best management techniques and this is where a strong link is necessary

between extension and biological research (Bodmer and Puertas, in press).

Game hunting is one of the main extractive activities occurring in the

subsistence zone of the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo. The first wildlife

management employed by communities was with government officials and focused on

one type of hunter. In Tahuayo, lumbermen were contributing over 50% of the










hunting pressure on mammals during the 1980's (Bodmer et al. 1988). These small

scale lumber operations supplied their workers with shotguns and cartridges instead of

basic foods, thus decreasing their operational costs by using game meat. As a result,

lumbermen were overhunting many wildlife species. Communities expressed their

concern to government officials who promoted the area as a "reserve in study". This

legal classification made it possible to end timber concessions in 1988, and decrease

overexploitation of wildlife by lumbermen. Subsequently, in 1991 communities

observed that many commercial meat hunters were beginning to enter the area. With

the help of extension workers, communities of the upper Tahuayo began to implement

a vigilance system that prohibited city-based hunters from entering the area. This

system of community-based co-management has resulted in the development and

setting up of management practices in the RCTT. For example, communities restrict

access to the subsistence zone, with access permitted only to people who live in nearby

villages. Professional hunters from urban centers, such as Iquitos, are not permitted to

enter the subsistence area. The communities have also set up game registers and

appointed game inspectors who are responsible for noting the number of animals

harvested by each family (Bodmer and Puertas, in press). In addition, the communities

have experimented with a game tax system, a quota system, and a male-directed

harvesting program (Bodmer 1994).

Setting up wildlife management with communities requires integrating

information on the biology of game species and economics of sustainable use with the

desires of local communities. Therefore, strong links must be developed between

scientists, extension workers and community representatives (Pinkerton 1989). The










co-management side of this management system involves all of the stakeholders,

which include 1) local communities, 2) researchers, 3) NGO extension activities, and

4) government agencies. The latter three stakeholders are not usually present during

community voting on management and resource use issues, however, decisions are

influenced by extension activities, researchers, and government programs. The

stakeholders influence management because wildlife extension workers and

researchers link results from wildlife research back to the community. Indeed, wildlife

extension workers are responsible for communicating technical findings of research to

the communities with researchers themselves often getting involved with extension

activities (Bodmer and Puertas, in press).

Biomass comparisons and reproductive data of game species in the RCTT

suggest that deer, peccaries and large rodents are sustainably hunted (Bodmer et al.

1994). In contrast, large-bodied primates and lowland tapir are not sustainably hunted

in the RCTT, and their populations appear to be declining. According to Coomes

(1992a) the economic value of game mammals is probably the major factor for

overhunting; suggesting that game meat is the most valuable product extracted from

the subsistence zone of the RCTT.

Bodmer et al. (1994) suggest that a more sustainable hunt would require

cessation of hunting on primates, lowland tapir, edentates, marsupials, and carnivores.

Hunters would incur a 26% reduction of economic benefits if they ceased to harvest

the overhunted wildlife species. However, this restricted hunt would reduce the

extraction of mammalian biomass by 35%.










Long-term Studies of Wildlife Populations: Is Community-based Co-management
Conserving Animal Populations?


Long-term studies conducted on the harvests and populations of game

mammals in the RCTT examined the impact of community-based co-management.

Programs in the RCTT established community participation in wildlife management

through wildlife research and extension. As mentioned previously, these programs

developed management practices that restrict access to hunting grounds, set up game

registers, appointed game inspectors and experimented with a game tax system, a

quota system, and a male-directed harvesting program (ACA annual report 1998).

Research played an important role in determining the thrust of extension.

Through numerous studies on animal populations that included comparative density

analysis, age structure analysis, harvest models and sustainability models it became

clear that primates and tapir were overhunted and artiodactyls and large rodents were

apparently not overhunted (Bodmer 1994, 1995; Bodmer et al. 1994, 1999). The

information conveyed to communities by extension workers stressed the need to

decrease harvesting of primates and lowland tapir and maintain current harvest levels

on artiodactyls and large rodents.

A preliminary analysis indicates that over a four year period, spanning pre and

post management, harvests of artiodactyls showed a slight, but not significant

difference between 1991, 1994 and 1995, measured as the number of animals

harvested/100km2 per year. Similarly, harvests of large rodents and tapir showed no

significant difference between 1991, 1994 and 1995. However, hunters harvested










significantly less primates between 1991 and 1995 which appears to be due to

community-based co-management (ACA Annual Report 1998).

Harvest of lowland tapir should also be decreased. While the first several years

of community-based co-management did not result in a decrease in tapir harvests, a

greater effort by extension workers has resulted in a recent declaration by communities

of the upper Tahuayo region not to allow community members to sell tapir meat to the

city markets. This new management strategy was a consequence of research results

being communicated through extension.



Conservation of Wildlife Habitats

Management of wildlife habitat in RCTT involves agroforestry programs

designed to benefit both wildlife and the local communities. Palms are often felled in

the reserve to obtain the fruits. Game animals also feed extensively on palm fruits.

Depletion of palm resources lowers the carrying capacity of game animals, which in

turn will lower the number of animals that can be sustainably hunted (Bodmer et al.

1999). Research findings conveyed to community members have also played an

important role in agroforestry. The destruction of the aguaje palm (Mauritiaflexuosa)

concerns most of the people on the upper Tahuayo, because of the economic

consequences of losing both wildlife populations and fruit. Since 1992, more than

twenty families on the upper Tahuayo have planted and managed large numbers of

aguaje palms. Habitat recuperation in the reserve may now be possible if more

families continue to plant and manage aguaje palms (ACA Annual Report 1998).










Extension efforts are helping local people plant palms in their swidden-fallow

agroforestry systems, and researchers are monitoring the growth of these plantings.

By planting and managing palms on their own lands local people maintain palm

ecosystems in the reserve, which are important wildlife habitats (Penn 1994). Indeed,

some palm ecosystem in the reserve are already severely depleted of mature fruit-

bearing trees and will need time to recuperate (Bodmer 1990). People of the RCTT

have taken community-based actions by taxing the extraction of palm fruits and other

non-timber forest products from non-private lands for over half a decade, and have

been planting palms and other important tree species in agroforestry systems since

1991 (Penn 1994).












CHAPTER 2
STUDY AREA

Study Area in the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo

The study areas are located along the middle and upper portions of the Blanco

River, a tributary of the Tahuayo River, and comprises an area with human settlements

and an area of subsistence use within the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo (Fig

2.1). The RCTT is located in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, and covers a

continuous forest of 322,500 ha comprised predominantly of upland forest (>75%) and

flooded forest (Bodmer et al. 1997). The city closest to the reserve is Iquitos, located

about 100 kilometers northwest of the reserve with approximately 300,000 inhabitants.

The reserve is bordered on the west by the upper Tahuayo and Blanco rivers, the south

by the upper Yarapa River, the east by the upper Yavari Miri River, and the north by

the upper Tamshiyacu River.

The RCTT and adjacent lands are divided into three distinct land zones. These

comprise 1) a fully protected core area of approximately 160,000 ha, 2) a buffer zone

of subsistence use of approximately 160,000 ha, and 3) an area of permanent

settlement which has no definitive boundaries (Bodmer et al. 1997). The fully

protected and subsistence areas fall within the official limits of the reserve and have no

human settlements. The fully protected zone does not have extractive activities,

whereas the subsistence zone is used by local residents of the permanent settlement

zone for extraction of natural resources. Residents cannot set up permanent settlements

or clear land for agricultural uses within the boundaries of the subsistence use or fully










protected zones. The zone of permanent settlements along the Tamshiyacu, Tahuayo,

Yarapa, and Yavari Miri rivers is adjacent to the reserve. This area encompasses the

villages and is for intensive land-use activities such as agriculture. The permanent

settlement zone was not officially incorporated into the reserve in order to avoid

conflict over land-use practices, but is an important part of the RCTT management

plans ( Bodmer et al. 1997).


I y -TaruavoBlPan Fully Protecte6ione
| K a # StudV Area ^__

Figure 2.1: Location of the study area in the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo,
northeastern Peru.


The Yavari Miri, Tamshiyacu, Yarapa, and Blanco comprise the major rivers of

the RCTT. All of these rivers are white water rivers, which consist of muddy water

that has an abundance of fine suspended inorganic material. In most cases the

suspended matter of whitewater are marine sediments rich in minerals, particularly










calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus (Junk and Furch 1985). The whitewater rivers

of the RCTT, however arise from non-Andean soils in the upland formations that

divide the Yavari and Amazon valleys, which suggests that the soils of the RCTT are

richer in comparison to many other Amazonian sites (Bodmer et al. 1997).

The other major river in the RCTT is the Tahuayo, which runs parallel to the

Amazon inside the varzea (channel bars) floodplain (Bodmer et al. 1997). Through

most of the year this river has a blackish color, which results from organic breakdown

of the leaf litter that releases humic and fulvic acids (Junk and Furch 1985). The water

chemistry of Tahuayo is not a pure black water river but, like many varzea lake and

rivers, is a mixture of white and black waters (Coomes 1992b, Ayres 1993). The

Tahuayo originates from a large lake situated on the edge of the varzea and terra firme

forests and therefore does not have the high nutrient runoff from the upland forests

(Bodmer et al. 1997).

Principal types of vegetation in the reserve are whitewater floodplain

vegetation of lakes, lagoons, islands, levees (restingas), blackswamps, and varzea

(Furch 1984, Pires and Prance 1985) and upland nonflooded terra firma vegetation

(Bodmer et al. 1997). In addition, there are smaller specialized areas of plant

communities within the RCTT such as nutrient-poor leached white sand campinas, and

the relatively monospecific stands of the association of Mauritiaflexuosa palm known

as "aguajals" (Kahn 1988, Bodmer et al. 1997). Descriptions about the types of forest

in the reserve have been described in detail by Bodmer (1989).

The RCTT has a high diversity of faunal and floral groups (Castro 1991,

Puertas and Bodmer 1993). This diversity is due in part to the RCTT having a










combination of terra firma with rich soil composition and varzea habitats, and is part

of the biogeographic pattern of high species diversity of western Amazonia (Gentry

1988). For example, at least 14 species of primates are found in the RCTT, the

greatest diversity of primates reported for any protected area in Peru (Puertas and

Bodmer 1993). The high diversity of anthropoid primates in the terra firma between

the Yavari and Amazon probably arose from a combination of factors including

Pleistocene refuge, river dynamics, and diversity of flora (Ayres and Clutton-Brock

1992, Puertas and Bodmer 1993, Bodmer et al. 1997).

The majority of rural inhabitants who use the reserve are nontribal people

known as "riberehos" (Puertas and Bodmer 1993, Bodmer et al. 1997). These rural

folk commonly practice fishing, agricultural production, game hunting, small-scale

lumber extraction, and collection of minor forest products such as fruits, nuts, and

fibers (Coomes 1992a). Riberefios have different origins and include detribalized

Indians, and varied mixtures of Indians, Europeans, and Africans (Lima 1991). The

transformation of the Amazon from tribal groups to riberefios began with the earliest

European immigrations and continued with detribalization imposed by missionaries,

expansion of the slave trade, and influx of immigrants during the rubber epoch

(Bodmer et al. 1997).

Riberefios, like Amazonian Indians, have a great knowledge of forest plants,

agriculture techniques, and hunting and fishing methods. However, riberefios differ

from most Indian groups because of their intricate involvement in the market on both

regional and international levels. Indeed, products harvested by riberefios, such as

spices, rubber, and furs, have traditionally been marketed in European countries and










North America. Riberefios are renowned for their ability to switch product

exploitation as markets change, which is one reason for their wide geographic mobility

(Padoch 1988).

The first colonist entered the Tahuayo River basin shortly after the construction

of a naval base in Iquitos in 1862 (Coomes 1992a). However it was the rubber boom

of 1880-1920 that brought a large influx of colonists to the area. With the crash of the

rubber boom the area experienced net emigration. Communities of riberefios

consolidated during the recession of the 1930s that saw an influx of people of

Cocama/Cocamilla Indian origin. With the rise of market-oriented agriculture and an

increase in extraction of forest resources after 1940, the Tahuayo River basin increased

in population and continued to do so until the end of the 1980s. Indeed, the Tahuayo

basin was considered to be rich in forest products and to have an abundance of

agricultural land, which stimulated immigration (Coomes 1992a).

Communities of riberefios in the RCTT are currently organized around political

units, often with an elementary school and several health officials. Rules for land use

and extraction of natural resources are determined by the consensus of inhabitants

within each community. These rules not only govern titled land owned by community

members and land officially recognized as being communal property, but also forest

and fisheries resources of neighboring areas (Bodmer et al. 1997).

There are 32 villages in the Tahuayo, Tamshiyacu, Yarapa, and upper Yavari

Miri river basins, with a total population of approximately six thousand inhabitants.

These inhabitants use resources of the RCTT to varying degrees. Family income in the

Tahuayo basin during 1988-89 ranged from US$0-$15,727, with a mean annual










income of US$798 and a median of US$326. Incomes were skewed toward the lower

end with 37 percent of households earning less than US $200/year, 68 percent earning

less than US$600/year, and 89 percent earning less than US$1,600/year (Coomes

1992a). Virtually 100 percent of 541 households surveyed in the Tahuayo basin

practiced some type of agricultural production, whereas 42 percent were involved in

fishing as a major financial activity, 19 percent in wildlife hunting, 23 percent in the

commercial extraction of nontimber plants, and 6 percent in the extraction of timber

(Coomes 1992a).



Description of the Hunting Areas

The study site, situated on the Blanco River, contains two hunting areas. The

first area is located in an area of 284 km2 with human settlements. The second is

located in the subsistence area in the interior of the RCTT and is 292 km2 in area (Fig.

2.2).

The extraction of natural resources in the past century has had similar impact

upon the study site on the Blanco River as it did along the Tahuayo River and other

areas in the Amazon region. The main products extracted from the Blanco River area

were: rubber between 1880 and 1920, wildlife and pelts from 1940 until 1973 (Bodmer

1994), a vegetable substitute for ivory called tagua (Phytelephas macrocarpa) palm

seeds from 1940 to 1950, latex from a plant called leche caspi (Couma macrocarpa) in

the early 1950s, a tree called palo de rosa (Aniba rosaedora) from 1958 to 1960

(Hilario Pezo, personal communication), and finally, timber from 1970 until 1984

(Bodmer et al. 1988).












































mu O2rsi.e: azth Kma I I
I Iaside:29. Km.

Figure 2.2: Localization of the catchment areas in the Tahuayo-Blanco zone.


The hunting areas gradually became populated in the 1940s when people came

to the region during the extraction boom of leche caspi. The area along the lower

course of the Blanco River was also utilized as a reserve for the inhabitants of the

lower course of the Tahuayo River. Hunters, locally known as mitayeros, came to the










area to obtain meat and, depending on the international market, to obtain pelts.

However, permanent settlements were not established in the area until 1953.

Settlement of the area coincided with the killing of Mayorunas Indians by the Peruvian

military in the early 1950s. These killings were carried out to facilitate extractive

activities and protect economic interests by ending any resistance from indigenous

peoples to the gradual taking over of their territory (Mateo Ahuanari, personal

communication).

In the 1990s, the Blanco River area underwent a process of in-migration

encouraged by the Peruvian government. The new settlers received government credit

support to engage in agriculture. At the same time, inhabitants of the Tahuayo River

began to migrate to the area with the intention of farming.

Currently, the main community in the hunting area located outside the reserve

is called San Pedro del Rio Blanco. San Pedro del Rio Blanco has a population of 75,

but also includes an annex, named 7 de Julio, which has a population of 57. 7 de Julio,

which is located close to the subsistence area of the RCTT, depends politically on San

Pedro for its communal organization and participatory communal management.

During the wet season fishing is the main activity in San Pedro, followed by

hunting, and small scale agriculture. However, during the dry season, agriculture is

the main activity while fishing and hunting have a secondary role. In 7 de Julio,

hunting is important throughout the wet and dry seasons, followed by agriculture.

Fishing is only done on a small scale for subsistence or local consumption.










There are no permanent settlements in the interior of the reserve. Rather, there

are small dwellings constructed of local materials called "campamentos" or camps.

These camps are used only for short periods of time when hunters are in the area.

People have used the subsistence zone of the reserve since the 1940's for the

extraction of natural resources. Currently, people use this area almost solely for

hunting.

Hunters use shallow canoes to reach hunting areas. Navigation of the Blanco

River depends upon water level. In the subsistence zone, most hunting occurs in the

wet season between the months of December and May (Kalliola and Puhakka 1993)

and navigation is possible. The least amount of hunting occurs in the dry season, from

June to November, when the Blanco River is low. The lack of rain during this time

makes navigation of the Blanco River difficult. However, some hunters from 7 de Julio

enter the reserve on foot and stay at camps.














CHAPTER 3
CATCH PER UNIT EFFORT

Introduction

Wildlife hunting is one of the main activities of Amazonian inhabitants,

whether they live in flooded forest and tierra fire (Beckerman 1994, Bodmer 1994).

One of these areas is the Tahuayo-Blanco area of northeastern Peru. The local people

in this area, as in other neotropical forests, preferentially exploit large and mid-sized

game mammals, providing them protein sources and contributing to their economies

through the sale of meat (Redford and Robinson 1991, Bodmer 1994, Bodmer et al.

1997).

This chapter examines the importance of hunting inside and outside of the

Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Community Reserve. Information about hunting effort is

presented by examining the relationship of animals killed to time spent hunting during

the years of 1994, 1995, and 1996. I determined which species were exploited most

intensively by hunters both inside and outside the reserve.

Catch per unit effort examines the relationships between effort and yield, in

this case the relationship is presented as animal per hunter-days. Changes in the catch

or harvest per unit of effort is assumed to indicate whether a species is overhunted or

not overhunted. A decrease in the catch per unit effort would suggest overuse (a

decreasing population), a constant catch per unit effort would suggest a stable










population, and a increase in catch per unit effort would suggest and increasing

population (Vickers 1991).

This chapter presents information about hunting effort both inside and outside

the reserve. Hunting effort is presented in terms of seasonality, total harvest, and

biomass. This information is used to establish a sustainable management plan based

on community participation for the reserve.



Methods

Data Collection, Sampling and Hunting

Information about game species and variation in kills in relation to seasons

were used to interpret the dynamics of hunting and to evaluate the impact on hunted

populations both inside and outside the reserve. Hunting yield data were obtained as

number of kills per man-days of hunting per year during 1994, 1995, and 1996. The

kill data for outside the reserve is presented in numbers of kills per 120 man-days of

hunting per year. Hunting effort is based on informal interviews of eight local hunters

living close to the subsistence use zone of the reserve. The interviews focused on the

hunter days and hunter sites. This information also is used to compare the animal

populations in the area, because kill rates are a function of encounter rates, which in

turn are a function of the population abundance (Vickers 1991) and also a function of

animal behavior and other ecological factors.

Data used in this study comes from both direct observations and game hunting

registers. Mapping per hunter zone was used to elicit information on hunting yields,

location, time expenditure, and number of hunters. Hunting registers were part of










participatory method of the community-based co-management program in the reserve

started in 1991.

The participatory method relies on building interest in community-based

wildlife management by having researchers work with hunters when evaluating the

impact of harvests (Bodmer and Puertas, in press). One of these methods is the

hunting registers which involves hunters and their family in data collection. This

participatory method helps researchers, extension workers and hunters find common

ground to discuss wildlife issues.

The community of 7 de Julio, situated on the Blanco River, was the starting

point for recording hunting activity for both hunting areas inside the reserve and

outside the reserve. Direct observations were made with local hunters that live along

the middle section of the Blanco River. Three hunters with their respective families

were trained as hunting recorders knowing how to record hunting activity in 1993

(hunting recorders). However, only two families collaborated with the project in an

effective manner. The homes of these hunters were strategically located along the

banks of the Blanco River so they could see and record with ease hunters as they went

up or came down the river. During the first six months of the study, the hunting

records were checked continually in order to evaluate their usefulness and to make any

adjustments. Later, the records were checked monthly and compared for uniformity.

The recorders' wives continued to record hunting activity when their husbands were

hunting or when they went to Iquitos to sell products.

When hunters were not checked immediately after their return, they were

checked indirectly through information provided by local inhabitants or key










informants. The key informants were those who testified to having personally

observed the number and sex of the hunted species. Also, these key informants

reported the sale of game meat that was not reported.

The hunting record included information about the quantity of individuals of a

species, the species, the sex, and dates of departure and arrival of the hunter. This last

item of information was collected to determine hunter-days.

The majority of the hunted animals were identified by direct observation in

accordance with the steps described by Eisenberg (1989), Emmons (1990), and Nowak

and Paradiso (1983). In some cases, identification was made by examination of

specimens at the Zoology Museum of the National University of the Peruvian Amazon

or the Peruvian Project of Peruvian Primatology "Manuel Moro Sommo" in the city of

Iquitos.



Species Preference

The criterion for species preference used in this section follows Vickers (1991).

This means, the register of the species most commonly hunted during a certain period

of time. This criterion was used to understand population abundance and to evaluate

the impact that hunting has on wildlife populations both inside and outside the reserve,

as well as source-sink areas during the dry and wet seasons.

The most preferred species are shot at first sight by the hunter. The least

preferred species are selectively hunted either for local consumption, because of their

relative abundance in some hunting zones or to replace the consumption of preferred

species at hunting camps. In this last case, hunting does not necessarily occur in










relation to the density of the game species but to the behavior and ecological factors

that determine their presence and are circumstantially easier to hunt than other species.

On the other hand, the hunting of preferred species is directly related to the density of

the game species. At the same time, choosing a species for hunting is also a function

of the overall economy of the area and the goals of the hunter. Selective hunting

varies in relation to the supply and demand of the markets in Iquitos.



Results

Hunting Area Outside the Reserve

Hunted species

A total of 4,200 man-days were recorded during 1994, 1995, and 1996 outside

the reserve from the communities 7 de Julio, San Pedro, El Chino, and from the city of

Iquitos (Table 3.1). The hunters' homes were all located near the reserve, with the

exception of hunters from the city of Iquitos. Hunters from Iquitos were usually

invited by inhabitants of the area and the majority were family members or former

inhabitants who periodically returned to their previous hunting sites. No dogs were

ever observed accompanying hunting activities outside the reserve.

Of the total 2,270 animals hunted both inside and outside the reserve, 994 were

hunted outside the reserve from 1994 to 1996 (Table 3.2). The ten most killed species

overall, in order of importance, were: Tayassu pecari, T. tajacu, Agouti paca, Mazama

americana, Dasyprocta fuliginosa, Pithecia monachus, Callicebus cupreus, Nasua

nasua, Tapirus terrestris, and Dasypus novemcintus. Results of the hunted species

expressed in square kilometers were similar to the total animals hunted (Table 3.3).










This means, that artiodactyls, rodents, primates, carnivores, and perissodactyls are the

most important orders for local people hunting outside the reserve.



Table 3.1. Register of hunters per community during 1994, 1995, and 1996 inside and
outside the reserve.


Community


Esperanza
Cunshico
Buena Vista
El Chino
San Pedro
7 de Julio
Iquitos


Hunting
Trips

3
3
15
47
40
51
14


1994
In

0
3
10
13
8
9
3


Frequency of hunting trips
1995 1996
Out In Out In

0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0
0 2 0 3
2 15 3 14
1 14 3 12
8 12 4 9
3 4 0 4


Total 173 46 14 47 10 45 11 173


Total hunter-days 1252 1680 1118 1200 988 1320 7558


Seasonal variation

Seasonal variation of catch per unit effort between the dry and wet seasons from

1994 to 1996 were not statistically different (One way Anova F=0.168, p=0.703).

This suggests that the abundance of species was similar during the dry and wet season

outside the reserve.


Total


Out

0
0
0
0
2
9
0












Table 3.2. Total species
1994, 1995, and 1996.


hunted (wet and dry seasons) in and out the RCTT during


Scientific Names
Artiodactyls
Tayassu pecari
Tayassu tajacu

Mazama americana
Mazama gouazoubira

Perissodactyls
Tapirus terrestris

Primates
Pithecia monachus
Callicebus cupreus
'3..'*il"i \ r,g..*ili ... hi i,
Cebus apella
Cebus albifrons
Ateles paniscus
Cacajao calvus
Alouatta seniculus
Saimiri spp.
Aotus nancymae
Saguinus spp.

Rodents
A ig.-, paca
Dasyprocta fuliginosa
Myoprocta pratti
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris
Coendou bicolor
Sciurus spp.

Marsupials and Edentates
Dasypus novemcinctus
Tamandua tetradactyla
Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Priodontes maximus
Didelphis marsupialis
( 1h, ,,,. ,. t ,. minimus

Carnivores
Puma concolor
Nasua nasua
Leopardus spp.
Eira barbara
Potos flavus
Total


Common Names

White-lipped peccary
Collared peccary

Red brocket deer
Grey brocket deer


Lowland tapir


Monk saki monkey
Titi monkey
Woolly monkey
Brown capuchin
White-fronted capuchin
Black spider monkey
Uakari monkey
Red howler monkey
Squirrel monkey
Night monkey
Tamarins


Paca
Black agouti
Green acouchi
Capybara
Bicolor-spined porcupine
Squirrels


Nine-banded armadillo
Collared anteater
Giant anteater
Giant armadillo
Opossums
Water opossum


Puma
South American coati
Ocelot/margay
Tayra
Kinkajou


In Out Total %

366 179 545 24.01
264 117 381 16.78


152 6.70
39 1.72


25 28 53 2.33


18
7
8
6
5
4
4
6
0
0
0


388
34
0
0
0
2


19
11
1
0
0
1


2
4
3
0
1
1276


51
45
17
14
20
2
4
7
16
1
4


185
70
20
1
2
3


27
19
7
2
1
0


2
43
6
4
3
994


69
52
25
20
25
6
8
13
16
1
4


573
104
20
1
2
5


46
30
8
2
1
1


4
47
9
4
4
2270


3.04
2.29
1.10
0.88
1.10
0.26
0.35
0.57
0.70
0.04
0.18


25.24
4.58
0.88
0.04
0.09
0.22


2.03
1.32
0.35
0.09
0.04
0.04


0.18
2.07
0.40
0.18
0.18
100











Table 3.3. Total species killed per kilometer square (dry-wet seasons) between inside
and outside the reserve during 1994, 1995, and 1996. The data represent the mean of
1994, 1995, and 1996.


Mean Mean
Scientific Names Inside SD Outside SD

Tayassu pecari 0.42 0.021 0.21 0.059

Tayassu tajacu 0.30 0.038 0.14 0.015
Mazama americana 0.09 0.015 0.08 0.006
Mazama gouazoubira 0.02 0.006 0.02 0.006

Tapirus terrestris 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.015
Pithecia monachus 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.05
Callicebus cupreus 0.01 0.002 0.06 0.012
I,1g'h, / p,h, /, ha 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01
Cebus apella 0.01 0.014 0.01 0.014
Cebus albifrons 0.01 0.005 0.02 0.006
Atelespaniscus 0.003 0.006 0.003 0.002
Cacajao calvus 0.004 0.002 0.005 0.002
Alouatta seniculus 0.007 0.004 0.008 0.003
Saimiri spp. 0 0 0.02 0.013
Aotus nancymae 0 0 0.001 0.002
Saguinus spp. 0 0 0.005 0.005
Agouti paca 0.44 0.122 0.22 0.129
Dasyproctafuliginosa 0.04 0.021 0.08 0.053
Myoprocta pratti 0 0 0.02 0.023
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris 0 0 0.001 0.002
Coendou bicolor 0 0 0.002 0.004
Sciurus spp. 0.002 0.002 0.004 0
Dasypus novemcinctus 0.02 0.021 0.03 0.033
Tamandua tetradactyla 0.01 0.006 0.02 0.024
,ii,i lP1h o tridactyla 0.001 0.002 0.009 0.009
Priodontes maximus 0 0 0.003 0.002
Didelphis marsupialis 0 0 0.001 0.002
( h/ i. i minimus 0.001 0.002 0 0
Puma concolor 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.002
Nasua nasua 0.005 0.004 0.05 0.03
Leopardus spp. 0.003 0 0.006 0.003
Eira barbara 0 0 0.005 0.005
Potosflavus 0.001 0.002 0.004 0
Total 1.50 0.347 1.15 0.543











Total harvest comparison

Results of total harvest obtained in both dry and wet seasons from 1994 to 1996

likewise shows no statistical difference (One way Anova F=0.748, p= 0.436). This

suggests that there was no difference in access to the hunting zones. Therefore, the

total harvest was constant in both seasons of the year.



Hunting Area Inside the Reserve

A total of 3,358 hunter-days of hunting were registered during 1994, 1995, and

1996 in the hunting area inside the reserve from all the communities showed in the

Table 3.1.

Among these communities were Cunshico, Esperanza, and from the city of Iquitos

which are farther from the subsistence zone of the reserve than the other communities.

Hunters from the distant communities came to hunt species that would provide them

economic gain from their sale in the market in Iquitos. Hunters from Iquitos were

invited by local inhabitants who had their own loosely established hunting sites. On

occasion, dogs were observed accompanying novice hunters inside the reserve.

A total of 1,276 animals were hunted in the interior from 1994, 1995, and 1996

(Table 3.2). The ten most commonly hunted species, in order of importance, were: T.

pecari, T. tajacu, A. paca, M. americana, D. fuliginosa, T. terrestris, D. novemcinctus,

P. monachus, M. gouazoubira, and Tamandua tetradactyla. Hunted species per

squared kilometers show similar results (Table 3.3). Artiodactyls, rodents,










perissodactyls, primates, and edentates are the most important orders for local people

using the hunting area within the reserve.



Seasonal variation

There was no statistical difference in the catch per unit effort between the wet and

dry seasons from 1994 to 1996 (One way Anova, F=0.009, p= 0.931). This suggests

that the abundance of species during dry and wet season of the year were similar inside

the reserve.



Total harvest

The total harvest between the wet and dry seasons from 1994 to 1996 was greater

in the wet seasons than in the dry seasons (One way Anova F=10.443, p= 0.032).

This reflects that the difference in access to the hunting zones between seasons.

Hunters can access the hunting zones inside the reserve much easier in the wet season

than in the dry season.



Comparison Between Hunting Areas

Hunting species

A total of 33 mammal species belonging to six orders were hunted from 1994 to

1996 inside and outside the reserve (Table 3.2). Of the total 2,270 killed animals,

artiodactyls were the most killed group (49%), followed by rodents (31%). The ten

most commonly killed species were: Agouti paca, Tayassu pecari, T tajacu, Mazama

americana, Dasyprocta fuliginosa, Pithecia monachus, Tapirus terrestris, Callicebus










cupreus, Nasua nasua, and Dasypus novemcinctus (Table 3.2). The first five species

of those listed above were most commonly killed in both hunting areas.

The most preferred species in terms of biomass extracted from the hunting area

within the reserve were: T. pecari, T. tajacu, A. paca, T. terrestris, M. americana, M.

gouazoubira, Puma concolor, D. fuliginosa, Lagothrix lagothricha, and Dasypus

novemcinctus (Table 3.4). On the other hand, the most frequently killed species

outside the reserve were: T. pecari, T terrestris, T. tajacu, M. americana, A. paca, M.

americana, D. fuliginosa, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, L. lagothricha, and D.

novemcinctus. Similar results were obtained when expressing biomass in square

kilometers (Table 3.5).



Catch per unit effort per species

A statistically significant difference was found when comparing total catch per unit

effort (CPU) of the two hunting areas (One way Anova, F=7.708, p=0.037) (Fig 3.1).

The results indicate that the CPU is greater within the reserve than outside. CPU

analysis shows statistical differences for only three of the species: Tayassu pecari, T

tajacu, and Callicebus cupreus (Table 3.6). The results suggest that the two peccari

species are more abundant inside than outside the reserve.

Immigration of animals from source areas located in the protected zone of the

reserve might maintain a bountiful hunt in sink areas of the reserve. For example,

hunting of Callicebus cupreus is significantly greater outside the reserve than inside.

This primate is easily detectable in the morning hours because of its characteristics

calls, territoriality, adaptation to habitats on the edge of bodies of water, and its


















QQC5 P0.037
F=-7.7-6






l_ Q015
0.01

0

0-

Irdei lg 1 OtiRcb194-1
Yeas


Figure 3.1. Total catch per unit effort (dry-wet) between inside and outside the reserve.




relative tolerance for human presence. Thus, Callicebus inside the reserve might be

moving to sink areas outside the reserve.




Catch per unit effort in relation to biomass

Total CPU of biomass extracted differed statistically between the two hunting

areas (Fig 3.2). T pecari, T. tajacu, Agouti paca, Callicebus cupreus, and Potosflavus

differed in the CPU of biomass extracted between inside and outside the reserve (Table

3.7). Results indicate that peccaries and pacas were more abundant inside the reserve

than outside. Consequently, they are the species that generate the most economic gain

for those people who frequent the reserve's subsistence area. On the other hand,











Table 3.4. Total biomass of individuals (wet and dry seasons) between inside and
outside the RCTT during 1994, 1995, and 1996. Species body weight represented in
kilograms was taken from data reported by Bodmer (1994), and Puertas et al. (1996).



Scientific Names In Out Total %

Tayassu pecari 11328 5728 17056 35.53
Tayassu tajacu 6750 2925 9675 20.15
Mazama americana 2409 2376 4785 9.97
Mazama gouazoubira 320 440 760 1.58
Tapirus terrestris 3500 3920 7420 15.46
Pithecia monachus 32 102 134 0.28
Callicebus cupreus 8.4 54 62.4 0.13
Lagothrix lagothricha 185.3 185.3 370.6 0.77
Cebus apella 21 49 70 0.15
Cebus albifrons 15 66 81 0.17
Ateles paniscus 31.2 15.6 46.8 0.10
Cacajao calvus 16 16 32 0.07
Alouatta seniculus 51 59.5 110.5 0.23
Saimiri spp. 0 12.8 12.8 0.03
Aotus nancymae 0 0.8 0.8 0.002
Saguinus spp. 0 2 2 0.004
Agoutipaca 3774.9 1627.81 5402.71 11.25
Dasyproctafuliginosa 188.56 321.86 510.42 1.06
Myoprocta pratti 0 15 15 0.03
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris 0 30 30 0.06
Coendou bicolor 0 10 10 0.02
Sciurus spp. 1.6 2.4 4 0.008
Dasypus novemcinctus 144.75 156.32 301.07 0.63
Tamandua tetradactyla 59.8 87.4 147.2 0.31
Myrmecophaga tridactyla 31.5 220.5 252 0.52
Priodontes maximus 0 60 60 0.12
Didelphis marsupialis 0 0.7 0.7 0.001
Chironectes minimus 0.645 0 0.645 0.001
Puma concolor 225 150 375 0.78
Nasua nasua 12.4 133.3 145.7 0.30
Leopardus spp. 21.6 79.2 100.8 0.21
Eira barbara 0 19.2 19.2 0.04
Potosflavus 3 9 12 0.02


Total


29131 18875


48005 100.00










Table 3.5. Total biomass individuals hunted per kilometer square (dry-wet seasons)
between inside and outside the reserve during 1994, 1995, and 1996. The data
represent the mean of 1994, 1995, and 1996.


Mean Mean
Scientific Names Inside SD Outside SD

Tayassu pecari 12.93 1.095 5.64 1.915
Tayassu tajacu 7.71 0.532 3.44 2.150
Mazama americana 2.75 0.133 2.79 2.639
Mazama gouazoubira 0.36 0.107 0.51 0.107
Tapirus terrestris 4.00 2.458 4.6 1.587
Pithecia monachus 0.04 0.001 0.12 0.095
Callicebus cupreus 0.009 0.001 0.06 0.017
Lagothrix lagothricha 0.21 0.032 0.22 0.083
Cebus apella 0.02 0.032 0.06 0.050
Cebus albifrons 0.02 0.015 0.08 0.031
Ateles paniscus 0.04 0.064 0.02 0.017
Cacajao calvus 0.02 0.012 0.02 0.012
Alouatta seniculus 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.035
Saimiri spp. 0 0 0.01 0.010
Aotus nancymae 0 0 0.001 0.002
Saguinus spp. 0 0 0.002 0.003
Agoutipaca 4.31 0.476 1.91 1.143
Dasyproctafuliginosa 0.22 0.055 0.37 0.235
Myoprocta pratti 0 0 0.02 0.020
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris 0 0 0.04 0.064
Coendou bicolor 0 0 0.01 0.023
Sciurus spp. 0.002 0.002 0.003 0
Dasypus novemcinctus 0.17 0.050 0.18 0.183
Tamandua tetradactyla 0.07 0.017 0.1 0.104
Myrmecophaga tridactyla 0.04 0.064 0.26 0.254
Priodontes maximus 0 0 0.07 0.064
Didelphis marsupialis 0 0 0.0007 0.001
Chironectes minimus 0.001 0.001 0 0
Puma concolor 0.26 0.255 0.17 0.150
Nasuanasua 0.01 0.012 0.15 0.100
Leopardus spp. 0.02 0.025 0.09 0.060
Eira barbara 0 0 0.02 0.025
Potosflavus 0.003 0.006 0.01 2E-10


21.05 11.177


Total


33.27 5.474














Table 3.6. Total CPU (dry-wet seasons) between inside and outside the reserve during
1994, 1995, and 1996.




Scientific Names Mean SD F P-value
In Out In Out
Tayassu pecari 0.113 0.0433 0.015 0.015 31.5 0.005
Tayassu tajacu 0.077 0.027 0.015 0.021 11.25 0.028
Mazama americana 0.023 0.018 0.006 0.019 0.191 0.684
Mazama gouazoubira 0.005 0.005 0.001 0 0 1
Tapirus terrestris 0.007 0.007 0.004 0.003 0.014 0.912
Pithecia monachus 0.005 0.011 0.005 0.009 0.98 0.378
Callicebus cupreus 0.002 0.01 0 0 7.1E+15 0
Ig,'h,l hi/i% h,,1 ia 0.005 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.25 0.643
Cebus apella 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.655 0.464
Cebus albifrons 0.002 0.005 0.002 0.002 6.25 0.067
Atelespaniscus 0.001 0.001 0.002 0 0.346 0.588
Cacajao calvus 0.001 0.001 0.001 0 1.47 0.292
Alouatta seniculus 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.255 0.642
Saimiri spp. 0 0.004 0 0.003 5.61 0.076
Aotus nancymae 0 0.0002 0 0.0005 1 0.374
Saguinus spp. 0 0.0009 0 0.001 1 0.423
Agoutipaca 0.17 0.047 0.04 0.029 5.959 0.071
Dasyproctafuliginosa 0.011 0.018 0.008 0.013 0.573 0.491
Myoprocta pratti 0 0.005 0 0.005 2.75 0.173
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris 0 0.0003 0 0.005 1 0.374
Coendou bicolor 0 0.001 0 0.001 1 0.374
Sciurus spp. 0.001 0.001 0.0005 0.001 1.83 0.247
Dasypus novemcinctus 0.03 0.005 0.044 0.005 0.951 0.385
Tamandua tetradactyla 0.004 0.005 0.001 0.005 0.132 0.734
_fi, ,,, hp tridactyla 0.0003 0.002 0.001 0.002 1.83 0.247
Priodontes maximus 0 0.0005 0 0.0004 3.769 0.124
Didelphis marsupialis 0 0.0003 0 0.0005 1 0.374
( h/i 'i. minimus 0.0003 0 0.0005 0 1 0.374
Puma concolor 0 0.0005 0.001 0.0004 0.08 0.792
Nasua nasua 0.001 0.011 0.001 0.009 3.771 0.124
Leopardus spp. 0.001 0.001 0.0001 0.001 0.54 0.503
Eira barbara 0 0.001 0 0.001 2.139 0.217
Potosflavus 0.0003 0.001 0.0005 0.0001 2.882 0.165











Table 3.7. Total CPU in
outside the reserve during


relation to biomass (dry-wet seasons) between inside and
1994, 1995, and 1996.


Scientific Names

Tayassu pecari
Tayassu tajacu
Mazama americana
Mazama gouazoubira
Tapirus terrestris
Pithecia monachus
Callicebus cupreus
Lagothrix lagothricha
Cebus apella
Cebus albifrons
Ateles paniscus
Cacajao calvus
Alouatta seniculus
Saimiri spp.
Aotus nancymae
Saguinus spp.
Agouti paca
Dasyprocta fuliginosa
Myoprocta pratti
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris
Coendou bicolor
Sciurus spp.
Dasypus novemcinctus
Tamandua tetradactyla
Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Priodontes maximus
Didelphis marsupialis
Chironectes minimus
Puma concolor
Nasua nasua
Leopardus spp.
Eira barbara
Potosflavus


Mean


In
3.46
2.037
0.73
0.097
1.123
0.01
0.002
0.053
0.007
0.005
0.01
0.005
0.016
0
0
0
1.137
0.057
0
0
0
0
0.047
0.017
0.01
0
0
0.0002
0.063
0.159
0.007
0
0


Out
1.393
0.727
0.6
0.107
0.6
0.026
0.01
0.043
0.01
0.016
0.004
0.004
0.016
0.003
0.0002
0.0004
0.393
0.083
0.004
0.01
0.003
0.0002
0.039
0.022
0.057
0.01
0.0002
0
0.033
0.033
0.01
0.004
0.002


In
0.696
0.343
0.115
0.029
0.544
0.01
0.001
0.025
0.004
0.005
0.017
0.001
0.012
0
0
0
0.189
0.02
0
0
0
0
0.015
0.007
0.017
0
0
0.0003
0.065
0.27
0.003
0
0


F P-value
Out
0.472 17.593 0.014
0.487 14.524 0.019
0.575 0.148 0.72
0.006 0.346 0.588
0.575 1.313 0.316
0.022 1.256 0.325
1.6E-10 5.3E+2 0
0.012 0.391 0.566
0.009 0.455 0.537
0.006 6.73 0.06
0.004 0.306 0.609
0.001 1.125 0.349
0.008 0.002 0.969
0.002 5.449 0.08
0.0003 1 0.374
0.0005 2.139 0.217
0.257 16.24 0.016
0.056 0.615 0.477
0.004 0.424 0.195
0.017 1 0.374
0.005 1 0.374
0.0003 1 0.374
0.037 0.108 0.758
0.024 0.137 0.73
0.064 1.508 0.287
0.012 4 0.116
0.006 1 0.374
0 1 0.374
0.031 0.523 0.51
0.021 0.648 0.466
0.009 0.325 0.599
0.005 2.117 0.217


0.0006 49


0.002

















1200

1100 -
p=0.038
1000 F-9 296

900 -

800 -

700

600

S500

S400

300 T

200

100

0
TIside 1994 -1996 Outside 1994-1996

Years




Figure 3.2: Total biomass extracted in dry and wet seasons between inside and outside
the reserve



smaller species like Callicebus and Potos are exclusively hunted for local consumption


instead of for sale.Artiodatyls, Perissodactyls and rodents were the species hunted


most in terms of total extracted biomass (67% and 15%, respectively) (Table 3.4). The


four most important are: T. pecari, T. tajacu, Tapirus terrestris, and Agouti paca.


As shown in Table 3.1 registers of hunters was greater inside than outside the


reserve (One way Anova F=663.1, p=0 ). Most hunting trips inside and outside the


reserve are done by hunters living in communities close to the subsistence zone of the


reserve. Hunters living in communities farther from the reserve preferred the










subsistence zone inside the reserve. In contrast, hunters living in the communities

closest to the reserve hunted more often outside the reserve.



Discussion

The catch per unit effort results show that when independently comparing each

hunting area, there are no statistically significant differences between wet and dry

seasons. This constant CPU suggests that the abundance of species was similar

between seasons inside and outside the reserve. Thus, CPU is a reliable method for

assessing the populations of wildlife in the reserve.

Temporal variation of hunting has been observed in Neotropical Indian

societies. Beckerman (1994) distinguished three patterns of seasonality in hunting: 1)

there are societies with no appreciable difference in hunting between the wet and dry

seasons; 2) there are Indian societies where the wet season brings increased hunting

returns such us the Nambiquara (Setz 1983), the Shipibo (Bekerman 1980); and 3)

there are societies where hunting gets better in the dry season such us the Bari

(Beckerman 1980), the Ache (Hill et al. 1984), two groups of Nambiquara (Setz 1983),

Ye'kuana of Southern Venezuela (Hames 1980), Yanomamo (Lizot 1978, Sponsel

1981), and the Gajibo of the llanos of eastern of Colombia-western Venezuela

(Metzger 1968, Morey 1970). A similar pattern was observed for the Makuna (Arhem

1976), Colombian Vaupes and Waorani of Ecuador (Yost and Kelly 1993), and the

Pume of the Venezuelan llanos (Gragson 1989). According to Beckerman (1994) the

most preferred pattern is an increase in hunting during the dry season.










Comparing the annual values of total CPU there is a increasing trend for each

hunting area, although more data are necessary to demonstrate a statistical increase

(Figure 3.3). Preliminary results indicate a overall healthy wildlife population in both

study areas and that these populations seems not be declining. The increase in the

CPU between 1994 to 1996 might be due to the co-management programs in the

reserve. However, this does not apply for the specific species of carnivores, primates

and edentates. One weaknesses of using CPU as an index of abundance is that it only

works well with species that are economically important such as Artyodactyls and

Rodents, but not with non-preferred species such as Callicebus and Potos. More

research is necessary to determine wildlife densities in both hunting areas in order to

corroborate these findings.

The results of this study suggest that wildlife is more abundant inside the

reserve than outside. This implies that the subsistence zone inside the reserve is

functioning as an area where animal populations are greater. It is easier for hunters to

obtain wildlife inside the reserve during the wet season when access is easier. One

explanation for greater populations of species inside the reserve is the source-sink

theory. This theory proposes that animals are moving from the fully protected zone of

the reserve to the subsistence zone inside the reserve. Thus, animal populations inside

the reserve are potentially being replenished by animals from the fully protected area.

These results suggest that zoning of the reserve is working as source-sink zones.

In this study from the 33 game mammals hunted, ungulates and rodents were

the most preferred species both inside and outside the reserve. These mammals, due to

their large size, are the most marketable for sale, therefore, generating more economic





















r= 0.79296, F=0.4171
0.5



0.15 side
0.4
0.35
a- 0.3
_0 0.25
6 0.2
0.15 -
0.1 Ouside
0.05
0
1994 1995 1996
Years



Figure 3.3: Trend of the total catch per unit effort per year inside and outside the
reserve.



gain than smaller species. However the non-preferred species of smaller size are in less

demand in the market and are for local consumption. This register corroborates the

results reported in Robinson and Bodmer (1999), and Bodmer (1993), who mention

that the most frequently hunted species in the RCTT include collared (T. tajacu) and

white-lipped peccary (T. pecari), red (Mazama americana) and grey brocket deer (M.

gouazoubira), paca (A. paca), agouti (Dasyprocta sp.), and lowland tapir (T.

terrestris). In addition, people regularly hunt some species of primates, smaller

rodents, edentates, marsupials, and carnivores. They also mention that ungulates are

by far the most important game mammals in terms of biomass harvested. Vickers

(1991) states that the Siona-Secoya prefer larger animals (e.g., large ungulates such as










tapir and peccaries, large primates such as woolly and howler monkeys). The less-

preferred animals tend to be the smaller species (e.g., ungulates such as deer, primates

such as the monk saki and the squirrel monkey). Most rodents and edentates are also

less preferred than the larger ungulates, and primates. Townsend (1996) mentions that

the ten most important animal species extracted by the Siriono were: peccaries

(Tayassu tajacu and T. pecari), deer (Mazama americana and M gouzoubira), marsh

deer (Blastoceros dichotomus), tapirs (Tapirus terrestris), pacas and agoutis (Agouti

paca and Dasyprocta variegata), nine banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcintus) and

coatis (Nasua nasua). The ungulates constitute 74% of mammal biomass extracted.

Fragoso et al. (1998) states that the most frequently captured game species by the

Xavante's were: giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), tapir (T terrestris), marsh

deer (B. dichotomus), pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus), white-lipped peccary (T.

pecari), and collared peccary (T. tajacu).

Robinson and Bodmer (1999) mention that wildlife species in tropical forest, in

contrast to those of temperate areas, are rarely managed. Preliminary data suggests

that hunting in tropical forests is often not sustainable. They conclude that unless the

hunting of wildlife is managed, it will lead to the local extirpation of many species,

and the loss of an important natural resource for many rural people in the tropics.

Likewise, Stearman and Redford (1995) mention that sedentarism and population

growth among the Yuqui have contributed to local depletions of fauna, as might be

expected from people hunting continually around a permanent settlement. Of greater

consequence to Yuqui well-being, however, is the depletion over a wider area of the










larger game animals, such as white-lipped peccary, T. pecari, capybara, Hydrochaerus

hydrochaerus and tapir, T terrestris.

The RCTT also needs to take into account depletions of fauna to assure

sustainable harvesting in the long run. For that reason, Puertas and Bodmer (1993)

maintain the need to properly manage the wildlife of the RCTT. One of the more

urgent actions requires a cessation of hunting of primates, carnivores, and edentates

(Bodmer 1994). Likewise, Redford (1995) maintains that even if wildlife were valued

appropriately, populations would probably still be susceptible to local extinction due to

a lack of management alternatives, particularly with subsistence hunting. The lack of

management of wildlife populations throughout many regions of the Neotropics is not

only causing the depletion of animal populations, but is also compromising the long-

term socio-economic benefits that wildlife offers. In that context, Bodmer (1993)

mentioned that wildlife conservation in Amazonia will be fruitless unless it focuses

attention on the currently unmanaged game hunting. If game management is not

improved, mammalian populations susceptible to over-hunting will decline and local

extinction will be unavoidable. Programs that help riberefios manage wildlife have

been developed in Loreto and aim to replace unsustainable with sustainable hunting.

Managing hunting also helps to maintain the value of forests for rural inhabitants,

which in turn makes deforestation less desirable.

Hunting pressure in Tahuayo-Blanco appears to be a result of its proximity to the

city of Iquitos which can be reached by boat in approximately 10 hours.

Consequently, hunters of Tahuayo-Blanco are influenced primarily by the value of

game meat in the local markets of Iquitos (Bodmer et al. 1990a). While primates are







41


only infrequently used as commercialized game meat, they play an important part in

the economics of game meat hunters. Game hunters seek ungulates and large-bodied

rodents for their greater market accessibility and sell virtually all of these larger

animals for cash. Primates and other small-bodied mammals are taken for food during

hunting forays and substitute for economic losses that hunters would incur if they

consumed the commercially valuable meat of large-bodied mammals. Thus, primates

are experiencing substantial harvesting pressure, because of the socioeconomic system

of local meat hunters (Bodmer et al. 1990).














CHAPTER 4
HUNTING STRATEGY

Introduction


Historical data on Amazonian peoples indicate a diet oriented toward obtaining

protein, principally from fish and wildlife (Gross 1975). Today, riberefios still

consume much protein. In the RCTT this protein often comes from hunting. In

addition, people sell wildlife for meat sales in city markets. In order to manage this

hunting it is necessary to understand the different hunting strategies.

This chapter examines how hunters divide and use the hunting areas. In

addition, the chapter examines the different hunting strategies used by local hunters.

For example, how important are hunting strategies, and how are they developed both

inside and outside of the reserve? These are two of the main questions that this

chapter will attempt to answer.

Hunting strategies depend on the hunting ability of each individual, knowledge

acquired through experience with wildlife, skill with hunting weapons, and knowledge

of the hunting sites. However, life experience combined with one's own skills and

ability to take advantage of opportunities as they arise, are important factors in

determining hunting strategy (Beckerman 1994). These practices are passed from

generation to generation, however, in the case of river communities, hunting systems

change according to the level of human pressure in the hunting sites. Therefore,

subsistence hunting becomes commercial hunting due to market demand (Smith 1980,










Mares and Ojeda 1984, Godoy et al. 1993). The hunting strategies of local people

who use the areas both inside and outside the RCTT have evolved in this context.

Certain species are more exploited than others. For local inhabitants, this is a

function of the demand to provide for subsistence protein needs as well as the demand

to satisfy economic needs through the hunting and sale of game meat in the markets in

Iquitos. In order to maintain a permanent stock, local people consider it very

important to maintain small hunting areas near their dwelling. Use of these smaller

areas is rotated with use of larger areas located in the interior of the reserve.



Description of Hunting Strategies

The boundaries of hunting sites are set in a subjective and conventional

manner, using signs in areas close to the hunter's house and through the opening of

trails or the construction of a camp when the site is far from his home. The length of

stay in a determined area and the maintenance and care of the hunting site are taken

into account for the use and division of hunting sites both inside and outside of the

reserve (Fig 4.1).

Hunting sites located outside the reserve are determined when the hunter

establishes himself in a certain area by constructing his house and opening a system of

trails varying from 1 to 10 km in length. These trails are opened so as not to overlap

with already established hunting areas and thus, avoid conflicts with other hunters. A

sense of territoriality is shown when hunters establish an area for more than ten years.

There is unwillingness to share hunting sites without the consent of the titular hunter.

This is due to the fact that hunters consider their hunting areas to be micro-reserves.










These micro-reserves are zoned according to two factors: 1) they exist primarily for

the use of wildlife


Figure 4.1. Map showing the hunting sites inside and outside the reserve


and 2) they are a constant supply of wildlife. However, overlapping of hunting sites

exists when a hunter has recently arrived to the area or when the sites are uncared for

and have no clear markers. This is the case of older residents of the El Chino

community that sporadically make use of hunting sites in the hunting area outside the

reserve.

In general, the trail system is strategically designed. The main trail is in a

circular or elliptical shape and dissected by secondary trails varying from 1 to 5 km in










length. These trails are opened with machetes to make access possible and they serve

as a point of reference for the hunter in case he gets off the trail trying to get a prey.

The trail system gradually increases or reduces the area as the hunter explores his area

and finds new evidence for the hunting of preferred species. Mammal tracks,

relatively easy access to the area by various bodies of water, and the presence of

diverse habitats are examples of an abundance of food resources for game species.

These factors, along with the presence of natural mineral licks, known as colpas, used

by peccaries, deer, tapirs and pacas are an indispensable conditions for the

establishment of a hunting site. When trails exceed 5 km in length, a provisional camp

is used for resting, staying the night, and the preparation of food.

Hunting activity outside the reserve usually takes place by the hunter walking

from his house to the hunting site. On occasion, this activity takes place by canoe

utilizing the small tributaries of the Blanco River when the water level allows for

access. Local people or hunters from Iquitos and communities on the Tahuayo River,

sporadically invited by local residents, use this access.

Rustic dwellings called camps, rather than permanent settlements, exist in the

hunting areas in the interior of the reserve. These camps are strategically found on the

banks of streams or other small tributaries. Starting at the camps, hunters open long

trails that, in general, are oriented by the rising and setting of the sun. Secondary trails

stem off from and dissect the main trails. These trails vary in length from 3 to 5 km in

length. The area covered by the hunters corresponds to the subsistence zone of the

RCTT. However, in exceptional cases, they enter the strictly protected zone of the










reserve when persistent rains occur at the headwaters of the Blanco River and canoe

navigation becomes possible.

In general, the hunters with sites inside the reserve take three days on average

for navigation to their sites. At the same time, the length of hunter-days spent

fluctuations with the water level of the Blanco River.

Hunting activity in the interior of the reserve takes place by two methods: on

foot and by canoe. Hunting on foot takes place during the day on the trails previously

opened primarily in the search for peccaries. At night, it takes place by going to the

colpas in search of deer, tapirs and pacas.

Points of reference used to delimit hunting sites in the hunting areas inside the

reserve consist of rustic camps obviously in use by the camp owner and evidence of a

system of operative trails. In general, hunters in the interior of the reserve utilize more

than two camps. The use of these camps is rotated so as to have a minimal impact

upon the hunting area. This pacifies the areas and provides for immigration of animals

for adjacent areas or source areas with a permanent supply.

Permanent residents of the use zone of the reserve have loosely defined hunting

sites. This is recognized by the older residents of the area and by those who use the

subsistence zone of the reserve. Cases of overlapping or competition for hunting sites

occur with novice hunters, young people or people from areas farther away from the

reserve that prefer to take advantage of already established hunting sites. However,

territoriality is not well demonstrated as in the case of hunting areas situated outside

the reserve. These cases generally occur from December to May when the water level

allows for canoe access.










Case Studies

Two cases are presented in this section as examples of how hunters divide their

zones (Figure 4.1). The first case refers to a hunter that lives in an isolated area on the

limits of the reserve and, as a consequence, whose hunting activity usually takes place

in the subsistence zone of the reserve. The second case refers to a hunter that uses

areas situated both inside and outside the reserve.

In the first case, the hunter arrived in the area in the early 1960s. His principal

activities were the extraction of lumber and hunting. Once timber extraction ceased,

he dedicated himself to hunting, mainly concentrating on species with commercial

value, but he also did some hunting for subsistence or local consumption.

He has stayed in the area for the following reasons: 1) diverse habitats provide

a favorable environment for colpas and fruit trees that attract game species close to his

house, 2) he is able to avoid any other hunters and has freedom and discretion in

management, and 3) has a permanent supply area, a micro-reserve, that satisfies his

family's economic needs and food supply for the long term.

Examples of his management include: providing food in strategic places of the

colpas in order to accustom the animals to consuming supplied food, such as salt and

palm fruits like pijauayo (Guillielma gasipaes) and rotating hunting sites between 20

and 30 days.

The second hunter arrived in the area around 1993 and used only one hunting

area situated in the reserve. However, in 1994 he began to use two hunting sites, one

very far from his house in the reserve and a second site close to his house. He travels

to the first site by canoe. The length of time he stayed there depended on the










fluctuations in water level of the upper course of the Blanco River, climatic conditions,

easy access to game species and hunting supplies, knowledge of the zone, and

maintenance of his trail system. He invested a great deal of time in maintenance and

gaining empirical knowledge of the game species. For this reason, he decided to begin

to explore areas close to his home and he found that with a greater knowledge and care

of the hunting area, he could obtain similar results to those he received in the reserve.

This motivated him to establish permanent hunting sites close to his home to be used

on a rotating basis. This allowed him to continue to hunt but dedicate more effort to

agricultural activities.



Access to a Closed System

The hunting areas, inside and outside the reserve, need to be viewed as an

overall system of closed access. This requires that knowledge of the population

dynamics of the hunting sites be gathered through constant monitoring. Such

monitoring would establish which areas are overhunted. The overhunted areas could

then rotated to areas where less or no hunting occurs.

Local hunters should take into account that they should hunt in the reserve

sporadically and in limited numbers. Only hunters living in permanent settlements in

the area should be allowed to hunt in the reserve. The entrance of hunters not living in

the use zone of the reserve should be limited. If such measures are not taken, negative

repercussions, such as the entrance of a greater number of hunters than those recorded

in the Tahuayo-Blanco zone could take place. This would provoke a population










imbalance in the source-sink relationship. In order to maintain the current recorded

hunting level, one should opt for the use of an overall management system.

What can be done to maintain the current hunting level? One needs to take into

account that the critical time period occurs between December and May when the

Amazon, Tahuayo, and Blanco Rivers have high water levels. The best access to the

hunting areas in the reserve occurs at this time. It is during the rainy season that local

people should organize and establish an effective vigilance system that would limit the

access of outside people. On the other hand, the current flow of hunters should not be

increased to assure sustainable hunting in these areas. In order for a hunting system in

the reserve to function, it needs to be co-managed. The system needs to be adequately

communicated to the local communities so that wildlife populations will remain viable

and be taken advantage of at their current level. Exceptions should be made for

species like carnivores, primates, and edentates that, according to hunting records, are

not at sustainable levels (Bodmer 1994). Beckerman (1994) reinforces this position

and considers that hunting should take place according to population density,

seasonality, and habitat diversity.











CHAPTER 5
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CO-MANAGEMENT OF WILDLIFE WITH
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

Introduction

Most management experiences in Latin America have taken protectionism

measures in order to safeguard the habitats of threatened species (Townsend 1996).

These measures, because of their central, legal and bureaucratic vision, occur without

community participation and lack functionality and practical application. This is the

case with wildlife management programs in protected areas in northeast Peru. For

example, the case of the Reserva Nacional Pacaya-Samiria which was created in the

decade of the 1950's with the expulsion of local people from the area and without

taking into consideration the local people that have ancestrally occupied and continue

living in that complex Amazon ecosystem.

Most of the inhabitants in the northeastern Peruvian National protected areas

are poor people and they use the natural resources from those natural areas for

subsistence use and commercialization in the city markets. This means, the flooded

and upland forests constitute an extremely important resource for local human

populations. However, these forests are among the most vulnerable in the Amazon,

because of their accessibility for resource extraction by fluvial transportation (Bodmer

et al. 1999).

Conservation of the natural resources through the park guard system is

unsuccessful in the National Protected Areas of northeastern Peru, because the local

people are not involved in the decision making process. There is a history of










repressive actions, abuse, mistreatment, and misleading the local people who, since a

long time had been against the park guard system.

Conservation experiences in regions with tropical forests, such as Brazil,

Bolivia, and Africa. indicate that the best way to conserve natural resources is to

involve the local inhabitants ( Metcalfe 1994, Towsend 1996). For example, the

success of Mamiraua is due to community-based conservation initiatives. That

initiative was taken from the model of the Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo,

located in northeastern Peru. This means that since the community-based co-

management is working as a conservation strategy in the RCTT, and it can be applied

to other Amazonian areas.

This study recommends that a viable alternative for conserving Amazonian

forests is with the participation of communities. The RCTT represents an excellent

model for this alternative. However, for long-term objectives to be reached, the co-

management system requires strengthening, habitats need to be improved, and hunting

needs to be managed by local people. To reach this last goal, it is very important that

local people be made aware of the information about hunting effort obtained in this

study. This communication needs to be conducted in understandable language or

terminology to promote their adequate understanding and ample participation in the

analysis of hunting. Indeed in the future, local hunters should analyze their hunting

on their own and then decide the future for wildlife through the implementation of a

system of participatory management.










Strengthening of a Community Co-management System

At the present, wildlife management with community participation represents a

real conservation alternative for the reserve. However, to ensure true communal

management in the long term, a process of community-based co-management is

required. According to initial data, local people themselves should promote the

sustainable use of viable species and protect those species that are being hunted at

unsustainable levels.

Community-based co-management relies on acquisition and communication of

information (Bodmer and Puertas, in press). This needs to use the following design:

local people implement management that effects game populations. Biological studies

on game populations leads to information on the impact of hunting and effectiveness

of management. Simultaneously, research and extension in agroforestry will lead to

improvements in wildlife habitats in both catchment areas inside and outside the

reserve. Results from these studies are then conveyed to local people through

extension activities. Indeed, the feedback loop linking game populations to local

people can only be completed if it contains complimentary research and extension

components. In other words, the impact of management can only be determined

through research on game and palm species which is communicated to the community

through extension activities. Therefore, research and extension bridge the loop that

links the realities of biological populations to community-based resource management.

The co-management must include the local communities with the following

stakeholders: extension workers of local Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs),

officials of Govermental Organizations (GO), and researchers (Bodmer and Puertas, in










press). At the same time, it is necessary to consider the role of secondary stakeholders,

such as local merchants called regatones, and residents of Iquitos and the town of

Tamshiyacu.

For the Tahuayo-Blanco area, community based co-management should be

oriented toward gaining knowledge, and analyzing and interpreting hunting levels.

Regulations should be set and enforced in a harmonious and consensual environment.

At the same time, this system should focus on strengthening intra and inter community

organization. This would allow for activities to be effectively monitored.

An important step in implementing community-based wildlife management in

the Tahuayo-Blanco area took place in the El Chino community in November 1993.

Communal agreements about hunting regulations were established with the

participation of local residents and political authorities in the communities of

Esperanza, Buena Vista, El Chino and with residents from the Blanco River.

Community meetings and the explanation of the agreement's goals was supported by

80% participation among local people. Later, on 6 March 1993, in a general assembly

made up of the communities and stakeholders, the agreement was approved. However,

legal recognition and signing of the agreement did not take place until 27 March, 1994.

In 1995, community organization in the area was weakened due to a lack of

extension workers, a faltering local economy caused by the high water levels of the

Tahuayo and Amazon Rivers, the existence of a patronage system, and the corruption

of local police and political authorities. Some people viewed the reserve as an

opportunity to satisfy personal ambitions by extracting game meat and timber in spite

of legal restrictions. As a consequence, the hunting agreement was suspended.










A group made up of seven families, who pioneered the creation of the reserve,

decided to organize themselves to strategically combat the corrupt system. They

continued to carry out community-based management. Their strategy included: 1) the

creation of a permanent, autonomous community named San Pedro, 2) a search for

allies among the older residents of the Blanco River by annexing of 7 de Julio, and 3)

denouncing to competent authorities the corruption in El Chino. This strategy

achieved the desired results in that the patronage system collapsed and the corruption

of authorities in the area ceased. To this day, better coordination is necessary between

communities.

At this time, it is suggested that the community of San Pedro should coordinate

activities for the reserve's community-based management program for residents of

local villages and the local level stakeholders. However, for this to be successful, the

wildlife extension workers need to be integrated into benefiting the communities.

Also, there needs to be a constant flow of information between researchers and

extension workers so that information is adequately communicated to the community

members in charge of co-management. Previous experience suggests that inadequate

communication on the part of extension workers can cause co-management to fail

(Bodmer and Puertas, in press). Also, constant training of the extension workers by

experts in community-based wildlife management is required. As a consequence, the

main objective of this study is that in the long-term, communities can manage their

own hunting through information gathered by themselves on hunting effort.

Once community-based management is strengthened at the local level, the next

step would be to search for political support at the regional level. This would provide










legal backing for the actions and agreements that communities historically have

reached in an informal manner. For this to take place, the communities must have the

support of the principal stakeholders at the local level. For the most part, the

communities should already be properly organized and trained to take control of

community-based management.

This study also recommends that the direction for the conservation of natural

resource in the RCTT must take into account the following criteria: 1) aptitude of the

government authorities, extension workers and researchers to provide adequate

technical information and respect the socio-economic realities of the local people, 2)

capacity of effective coordination, 3) a lot of energy and will power, 4) common sense

to understand both the necessities of the local people and the new tendencies of the

international aid, and 5) economic alternatives to the unsustainable extraction of

natural resources.

Finally, in making the RCTT management program more sustainable, is

necessary to elaborate a comprehensive management program to maintain a permanent

forum intended to refresh current practices and generate new ones on the basis of

learning from individual programs. Ultimately, this will result in an adaptive program

that, through the help of the extension component of the team will recommend how

local people, hunters and other managers, adjust the use of the resources to the limits

set by the biological characteristics of the species, and to the possibilities of market

shifts.










Closed Hunting Areas

It is likely that the current hunting system is sustainable because of hunting

zones functioning as micro-reserves and the closed access that hunters maintain.

These micro-reserves should be promoted as a means for local people to take

responsibility for an area of forest and manage that specific area. Thus, the RCTT

appears to be functioning because it is in fact an area made up of many micro-reserves.

More information is necessary for a better understanding of these micro-reserves as a

management strategy for the reserve.



Habitat Improvement

Agroforestry research and extension need to be done with farmers in their

fields and fallows. Native trees should be planted with the local people as a means to

reduce the felling of wild trees. The strategy is to enrich the catchment area outside

the reserve in order to improve wildlife habitat within the reserve and permit a constant

flow of wildlife populations from inside to outside the reserve and vice versa.

Therefore, enriching the agroforestry systems with fruit trees for mammals may also

attract game and help animal populations in and surrounding the reserve (Clay 1988,

Penn 1994, Bodmer et al. 1997). For example, peccaries, lowland tapir and the red

uakari, feed heavily on Mauritiaflexuosa palm fruits which are planted in agroforestry

gardens (Aquino and Encarnacion 1994, Bodmer et al. 1994). Farmers will own these

trees and will receive the economic and nutritional benefits from their management.

This agroforestry work was initiated by supplying seeds to farmers and was successful

in the pilot agroforestry programs on the upper Tahuayo (Penn, 1994). But, it needs to








57


be continued by providing them technical assistant. This agroforestry strategy needs to

emphasize fruit tree diversity, nutrition, and the improvement of agroforestry systems

in order to conserve wild trees for animal populations both inside and outside the

reserve.










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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Pablo Eloy Puertas was born in the Peruvian Amazonia. His first sixteen years

of life was in the rural areas "ribereho", border with Brazil. He graduated from the

Department of Biological Sciences at the Univerdad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana

(UNAP) in 1985. For five years he worked as a research assistant in the Peruvian

Primatological Project and for six years in the Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones

Tropicales y de Altura (IVITA) of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

(UNMSM) as a research professor. In the fall of 1997 he began graduate studies in the

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation at the University of Florida. He

plans to continue working on community-based co-management, in the Peruvian

Amazonia.




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