Citation
Investigation of the construction scheduling communication process

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Title:
Investigation of the construction scheduling communication process problems, foreman's role, means of improvement, and use of information technology
Creator:
Elliott, Brent Richard, 1967-
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2000
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xvi, 231 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture thesis, Ph. D ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture -- UF ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to improve the construction scheduling communication process. The study focuses on construction foremen working on general commercial building projects, and explores how the construction scheduling communication process may be improved through the role of foremen. A key objective is to investigate the concept of foremen using handheld computer/communication devices as a means of improving effectiveness and efficiency in the scheduling communication process. Several primary research questions provide a framework for exploring how the construction scheduling communication process may be improved through the role of the construction foreman: 1) What problems exist in the scheduling communication process? 2) What is the role of foremen in the scheduling communication process? 3) How can the scheduling communication process be improved? Procedures used to answers these questions include survey instrument design, sample selection, personal interviews, and statistical analysis. Data collected includes demographic information about the project and individual being interviewed, foremen's role in the initial planning process, use of written schedules on projects, attitudes about scheduling, documentation practices, sources of delay, and exposure to and use of computer technology. Consistency of results between two sample groups is evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon W tests. Correlation testing is performed using Kendall's tau-b in order to identify the independent variables which are correlated with foremen's acceptance of handheld computer/communication technology. Multiple linear regression analysis is performed to identify characteristics of foremen which predict their acceptance of technology. Results are found to be highly significant (P<0.01).
Summary:
ABSTRACT (cont.): This study identifies problems in the scheduling communication process. Results show that foremen are partially excluded from the flow of information within the scheduling communication process, thereby reducing their efficiency in coordinating the work, and that delays often occur due to problems involving the flow of information. Results suggest that the scheduling communication process can be improved by increasing foremen's involvement in the scheduling process and by enabling foremen to access the information they need to coordinate the work. This study also demonstrates foremen's general acceptance of existing computer technology which has the potential to facilitate such improvements.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 2000.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 226-230).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on the World Wide Web; PDF reader required.
General Note:
Printout.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Brent R. Elliott.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
45837370 ( OCLC )
002566145 ( AlephBibNum )
AMT2426 ( NOTIS )

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University of Florida Theses & Dissertations

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INVESTIGATION OF
THE CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULING COMMUNICATION PROCESS:
PROBLEMS, FOREMAN'S ROLE, MEANS OF IMPROVEMENT,
AND USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY













By

BRENT R. ELLIOTT


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2000































Copyright 2000

by

Brent R. Elliott















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I am grateful to many individuals for their support in this research effort. Without

their wise counsel and dependable assistance, this study would not have been possible.

My supervisory committee was an excellent source of direction, both during

preparations for this research and throughout the study's performance and documentation.

Dr. John Alexander provided valuable guidance in setting up the research project and

organizing the final manuscript. His ability to maintain a broad perspective on the study was

extremely beneficial, as was his skillful assistance in analyzing the results. I am also grateful

for his consistent support and motivation. Dr. Jimmie Hinze provided significant help in

refining the focus of this study, and he continued to be an excellent resource throughout the

course of the research. His detailed review of working drafts was extremely beneficial, as

were his insightful suggestions concerning data analysis. His encouragement is also much

appreciated. Dr. Ron Akers provided key assistance pertaining to data organization and

statistical analysis. I am very thankful for his scholarly advice and willingness to help. The

recommendations and insights of Dr. Pierce Jones were quite helpful in defining the scope

of this project and exploring methods of conducting the research. Dr. Leon Wetherington

gave helpful advice in refining the survey instrument, and he provided a very practical

perspective to this study.









Other contributions outside the committee must also be acknowledged. Dr. Rick

Coble provided considerable advice and direction in determining the subject matter of this

research. His energetic inspiration and continued support are much appreciated. Dr. Amarjit

Singh and Dr. Steve Rowlinson offered helpful insights toward defining the scope of the

study. John Kane provided guidance with data coding and approaches to statistical analysis.

The many foremen interviewed in this research are recognized for their essential

contributions. This study would not have been possible without their cooperation and

willingness to answer questions and openly discuss the issues investigated. It was certainly

a valuable and enjoyable experience to meet these individuals during the field interviews.

On a personal note, I am very grateful to my parents, who taught me by example to

strive for excellence in my work. Throughout this research, I have greatly appreciated my

father's consistent encouragement, love, and positive attitude. Finally, I give thanks and

praise to my Heavenly Father, the source of every good and perfect gift, for His eternal

faithfulness and unmerited blessings.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............................................. iii

LIST OF TABLES ................................................ ix

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................ xi

ABSTRACT .................................................... xv

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION ............................................ 1

Purpose and Overview of Study ............... ..................... 1
Scheduling Communication Process ........................... ..... 2
Research Questions ......................... ...................... 10
What Problems Exist in the Scheduling Communication Process? ..... 10
What Is the Role of Foremen in the Scheduling Communication
Process? ......... ............. ....... ........... 11
How Can the Scheduling Communication Process Be Improved? ..... 11
Research Objectives .......................................... 12
Investigation of Problem s ............................. 13
Examination of Foremen's Role .............................. 13
Exploration of Process Improvement ..................... 14
Summary of Research Design ................................... 15

2 METHODS ................................................ 17

Questionnaire Design .................... ..................... 17
Demographic Information ............................ . . 18
Initial Planning Practices ............................. . . 19
Use of Written Schedules .................... ............. 20
Use of Look-Ahead Schedules .................. ............. 20
Attitudes About Scheduling .................... ............ 21









Scheduling and Safety ..................................... 22
Documentation Practices ............................. . 23
Sources of Delay ......................................... 24
Computers and Technology .................... ............. 25
Sample Selection ............................................... 27
Data Collection ................................................ 32
Analysis Techniques ........................................... 34

3 RESULTS ................................................. 37

Characteristics of Forem en ................................. 37
Project Demographics ........................ ........... 38
Demographics of Foremen ................................ 39
Initial Planning Practices ...................... ........... 47
Use of Written Schedules .................... ............. 51
Use of Look-Ahead Schedules .................. ............. 54
Attitudes About Scheduling .................... ........... 58
Scheduling and Safety ..................................... 64
Documentation Practices ............................. . 68
Sources of Delay ......................................... 76
Computers and Technology .................... ............. 82
Comparison of Main and External Samples .......... ................. 96
How Foremen's Characteristics Correlate with Acceptance of Technology .... 97
Formal Education .................. .................... 104
Age ............................................... 104
Use of Written Plan .................................... 105
Frequency that Written Schedules are Helpful ................... 105
More Information About the Schedule .................... . 105
Suggestions to Improve Scheduling ..................... 106
Safety Activities in the Schedule ....................... . . 106
Time Spent on Record Keeping ........................ . 107
Separate Log Book ................. .................... 107
Records Used to Evaluate W ork ....................... 107
Asked Questions About Records ....................... . 108
Access to Information ............... ..................... 108
Waiting for Information ................................. 109
Delays Due to Scheduling Issues ....................... 109
Delays Due to Changes .......... ..................... 110
Openness of M management .......... ..................... 110
Computer Use for Work ................................. 110
Computer Use at Home .......... .................... 111
Video Games ...................... ................... 111
Electronic Organizers ................................... 111

vi









Benefit of Computers to Construction Companies ................ 112
Whether Computers Would Help Foremen Do Their Jobs Better ..... 112
Attitudes Toward Using Computers as Part of Jobs ............... 112
Opinions About Computers Replacing Part of the Foreman's Job .... 113
Notable Variables Without Significant Correlations ............... 113
Regression Modeling: Foremen's Characteristics and Their Acceptance
of Technology ................ ........................ 114
Demographic Characteristics (HI) ............................. 119
Proactive Habits and Attitudes Concerning Scheduling (H2) ........ 119
Stringency of Record Keeping Practices and Accountability (H3) .... 120
Access to Information and Experience with Delays (H4) ........... 120
Exposure to and Use of Computers (H5) ................... . 120
Overall Multiple Regression Models .................... 121
Summary of Regression Analysis ...................... 124

4 DISCUSSION ................................................ 126

Problems in the Scheduling Communication Process .................... 126
Role of Foremen in the Scheduling Communication Process .............. 129
Partial Exclusion of Foremen from the Scheduling
Communication Process ................. ............ 129
Foremen's Role in Documentation ....................... . 131
How the Scheduling Communication Process Can Be Improved ........... 132
Increasing Foremen's Involvement and Enabling Access
to Inform ation ............... ......... ............ 132
Handheld Digital Communicators ...................... 135
Research Limitations ......................................... 138
Further Research ........... . ...... ......................... 139
Other Sectors of Construction Industry .................... 139
Other Project Participants .......... ....... .. ............ 140
Cost/Benefit Business M odel ......................... 140
Productivity Study ..................................... 141
Software Development .................................. 141
Stereo Imaging ........................................ 142

APPENDICES

A QUESTIONNAIRE ..................... .................... 143

B FOREMEN'S RESPONSES TO OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS ........... 153

C AS-BUILT PROJECT DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM .................. 222










REFERENCES ................................................. 226

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................... 231















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Number of Companies Employing the Foremen Surveyed ................. 40

2 Comparison of Foremen Education Levels with 1977 Study ............... 46

3 Foremen's M ain Sources of Delay ............................ . . 80

4 Communication Devices Used by Foremen ....................... . 85

5 Variables with Significant Differences Between Main andExternal Samples ... 97

6 Correlations with Handheld Computing Acceptance Using Kendall's Tau-b ... 99

7 Hypothesis Testing with Single-Step Multiple Linear Regression .......... 116

8 Overall Model Testing with Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression .......... 122

9 Overall Model Testing with Single-Step Multiple Linear Regression ....... 124

10 Foremen's Responses: Do You Follow the Schedule? ................... 155

11 Foremen's Responses: How Do You Feel About the Schedule? ............ 160

12 Foremen's Responses: Do You Wish You Had More Information
About the Schedule? ........................ ............ 167

13 Foremen's Responses: Do You Have Any Suggestions on How
to Improve Scheduling? ...................... ........... . 172

14 Foremen's Responses: What are Some Typical Kinds of Information That
You Have to Wait for Which Are Needed to Perform Your Work? ... 181

15 Foremen's Responses: What Causes You Delays on the Job?
and How Can These Delays Be Reduced? ....................... 185

ix









16 Foremen's Responses: If Your Employer Told You a Computer Would
Help You Do Your Job Better and Wanted You to Start Using
One as Part of Your Job, How Would You Feel About That? ........ 194

17 Foremen's Responses Regarding the Usefulness of a Stereo Camera ........ 201

18 Foremen's Responses Regarding the Usefulness of a Handheld
Computer/Communication Device for General Job Applications ..... 208

19 Foremen's Responses Regarding the Usefulness of a Handheld
Computer/Communication Device Specifically for Scheduling
and Coordination Purposes ........................... . . 215















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Distribution of Sample by Project Name ........................ 38

2 Distribution of Sample by General Contractor .......................... 39

3 Distribution of Sample by Trade ...................... ............. 41

4 Foremen's Overall Construction Experience ..................... 41

5 Construction Experience as Foremen .......................... . . 42

6 Current and Previous Union Affiliation ........................ . . 43

7 Duration with Current Employer ................................... 44

8 Average Crew Size .......................................... 44

9 Level of Formal Education Completed ......................... . . 45

10 Trade School Training ........................................... 46

11 Age of Foremen ............................................ 47

12 How Often Foremen Are Asked About Methods at Start of Job ............. 48

13 Who Asks Foremen About Methods at Start of Job ...................... 49

14 How Often Foremen Are Asked About Duration of Construction Activities
at Start of Job ............................................ 50

15 Who Asks Foremen About Duration of Construction Activities
at Start of Job ............................................ 50

16 Use of Written Plan to Organize Work ......................... 51

xi









17 How Often Projects Have Written Schedules ...................... . 52

18 How Often Foremen See the Schedule ............................... 53

19 How Often Written Schedules Are Helpful to Foremen ................... 53

20 How Often Look-Ahead Schedules Are Used on Projects ................. 54

21 Duration of Look-Ahead Schedules ........................... . 55

22 Who Makes the Look-Ahead Schedules ........................ . . 56

23 Types of Look-Ahead Schedules Used ......................... . 57

24 How Often Foremen Help Plan Look-Ahead Schedules ................... 58

25 Whether Foremen Follow the Schedule ........................ . 59

26 How Foremen Feel About the Schedule .............................. 60

27 Whether Foremen's Crews Know the Schedule ......................... 61

28 How Foremen Think Their Crews Feel About the Schedule ............... 62

29 Whether Foremen Want More Information About the Schedule ............. 63

30 Whether Foremen Have Suggestions Regarding How to Improve Scheduling . 64

31 Effect That Following Safety Rules Has on Production ................... 65

32 Frequency That the Schedule Causes Difficulty in Dealing Properly
with Safety Issues ........................................ 66

33 Whether Foremen Think They Can Make Good Job Progress
While Working Safely ..................................... 66

34 Opinions of Foremen Regarding the Inclusion of Safety Activities
in the Construction Schedule .......................... . . 67

35 Foremen's Practices of Taking Pictures ........................ 69

36 How Important Foremen Think Their Job Records Are ................... 70









37 Why Foremen Think Their Job Records Are Important ................... 71

38 How Often Foremen's Records Are Used to Evaluate Their Work ........... 73

39 How Often Foremen's Records Are Checked .................... . . 73

40 How Often Foremen Are Asked Questions About Their Records ............ 74

41 How Often Foremen Keep Written Notes in the Event They Have
to Move Their Crews ...................................... 75

42 How Often Foremen Keep Records of Time Spent Remobilizing
Their Crews ............................................. 75

43 How Foremen Rate Their Access to Information Needed to Do Their Jobs .... 76

44 Whether Waiting for Information Often Slows Production ................. 77

45 Whether Foremen Find it Difficult to Get Their Questions Answered ........ 78

46 Why Foremen Think it Is Difficult to Get Their Questions Answered ........ 79

47 How Foremen Ask Their Questions ........................... . . 79

48 Whether Management Is Willing to Listen to Foremen's Suggestions ........ 82

49 Whether Foremen Use Computers to Perform Any Part of Their Jobs ........ 83

50 Whether Foremen Use Computers at Home ....................... . 84

51 Whether Foremen Like to Play Video Games .................... . 85

52 Whether Foremen Think Computers Are Beneficial to
Construction Companies ...................... ............. 86

53 Whether Foremen Think Computers Could Help Them Do Their Jobs Better .. 87

54 Foremen's Responses to Using Computers as Part of Their Jobs If So
Directed by Their Employers .......................... 87

55 Whether Foremen Think Computers Could Ever Replace Part of Their Jobs ... 89

56 Whether Foremen Think Stereo Camera Would Be Useful to Them ......... 90

xiii









57 Gator Communicator Mock-Up .............................. . 90

58 Simon PDA / Cellular Phone, by IBM and BellSouth ..................... 91

59 Shared Database for Communications ......................... 92

60 Shared Data Communications Between Foremen and Project Participants .... 93

61 Whether Foremen Think Handheld Device Would Help Them Do Their Jobs. 94

62 Whether Foremen Think Handheld Device Would Help with Scheduling
and Coordination ........................................ 95

63 As-Built Project Documentation System ....................... 224















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

INVESTIGATION OF
THE CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULING COMMUNICATION PROCESS:
PROBLEMS, FOREMAN'S ROLE, MEANS OF IMPROVEMENT,
AND USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

By

Brent R. Elliott

May 2000



Chair: John F. Alexander
Major Department: Architecture

The purpose of this study is to improve the construction scheduling communication

process. The study focuses on construction foremen working on general commercial building

projects, and explores how the construction scheduling communication process may be

improved through the role of foremen. A key objective is to investigate the concept of

foremen using handheld computer/communication devices as a means of improving

effectiveness and efficiency in the scheduling communication process. Several primary

research questions provide a framework for exploring how the construction scheduling

communication process may be improved through the role of the construction foreman:









1) What problems exist in the scheduling communication process?

2) What is the role of foremen in the scheduling communication process?

3) How can the scheduling communication process be improved?

Procedures used to answers these questions include survey instrument design, sample

selection, personal interviews, and statistical analysis. Data collected includes demographic

information about the project and individual being interviewed, foremen's role in the initial

planning process, use of written schedules on projects, attitudes about scheduling,

documentation practices, sources of delay, and exposure to and use of computer technology.

Consistency of results between two sample groups is evaluated with the Mann-

Whitney U and Wilcoxon Wtests. Correlation testing is performed using Kendall's tau-b in

order to identify the independent variables which are correlated with foremen's acceptance

of handheld computer/communication technology. Multiple linear regression analysis is

performed to identify characteristics of foremen which predict their acceptance of

technology. Results are found to be highly significant (P<0.01).

This study identifies problems in the scheduling communication process. Results

show that foremen are partially excluded from the flow of information within the scheduling

communication process, thereby reducing their efficiency in coordinating the work, and that

delays often occur due to problems involving the flow of information. Results suggest that

the scheduling communication process can be improved by increasing foremen's

involvement in the scheduling process and by enabling foremen to access the information

they need to coordinate the work. This study also demonstrates foremen's general acceptance

of existing computer technology which has the potential to facilitate such improvements.

xvi















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


After first presenting the study's purpose, this chapter reviews the literature

concerning the scheduling communication process. It then specifies the primary research

questions explored, outlines the study's objectives, and summarizes the research design.


Purpose and Overview of Study


The purpose of this study is to improve the project scheduling communication

process in the construction industry. The study focuses on construction foremen, and

explores how the construction scheduling communication process may be improved through

the role of foremen. It seeks to examine the characteristics of foremen related to their role

in the scheduling communication process and to develop a profile of these characteristics.

It also considers foremen's perspectives on problems involving the scheduling

communication process and how the process may be improved. A key objective is to

investigate the concept of foremen using handheld computer/communication devices (also

referred to herein as handheld digital communicators) as a means of improving the

effectiveness and efficiency of the scheduling communication process. The research is

therefore designed to learn about foremen's experiences with computing technology, to

discover their attitudes toward the concept of using handheld digital communicators, and to









2

enable identification of any relationships that may exist between particular characteristics

of foremen and their assessment of whether using handheld digital communicators would

help them perform their jobs more effectively.


Scheduling Communication Process


The scheduling communication process is the flow of all information that pertains

to project planning and coordination. It is a dynamic process which requires timely

interaction among multiple project participants. Ideally, the process begins well before

construction activities are underway and involves a gradual transfer of responsibility from

preconstruction managers to operations managers. The process reaches its peak activity level

during the construction phase, which is the focus of this research. Although the as-built

record is established by documenting progress concurrentlywith construction, the scheduling

communication process concludes with emphasis on organization of project records as the

job is closed out and documentation is finalized.

At the inception of a new project, the construction schedule is the "beginning of the

potential to communicate the required information to all participants" (Birrell, 1989, p. 35).

The schedule becomes "the hub of a communication system" which links together a myriad

ofproject participants, each with diverseresponsibilities inthe construction process (Birrell,

1989, p. 34). This communication system must be efficient in order to ensure success in the

dynamic environment of a project under construction. It has long been recognized that the

efficiency of construction operations is directly related to the quality of communications

employed (Fletcher, 1972). As Parker (1980) states, "construction productivity is directly









3

related to the amount and quality of the communication that flows between the people who

are managing and those who are doing the work" (p. 173). Failure in the communication of

the schedule will result in inefficient construction despite the integrity of the schedule

(Birrell, 1989).

Computer technology has led to the development ofbetter field management systems,

and such systems have enabled construction contractors and managers to monitor field

operations more effectively. Despite such advances, however, there is much room for

improving communications and project information flow (Boles et al., 1998). Errors in

information exchange, coordination, and communication are blamed for many of the

problems that arise during construction (Arnold and Teicholz, 1996). In fact, lack of

communication among project participants has been suggested as the main cause of

fragmentation and low productivity in the construction industry (Meyer and Russell, 1991).

In a study which surveyed over 100 construction executives, Birrell (1989) concludes that

lack of communications or poor communications is a major impediment to labor flow

efficiency on site (Birrell, 1989). Abou-Zeid and Russell (1993) conclude that the

communication of project information needs to be improved. In their study of Electronic

Data Interchange (EDI) conducted through the Construction Industry Institute (CII), Bell and

Gibson (1990) also point out the industry's communication problems:

There is a need in the construction industry for more efficient communication
mechanisms for transferring data between and within owner, engineer, contractor and
supplier/subcontractor organizations, e.g.:
1) Design data from owner or designer to the contractor;
2) As-built data from contractor to owner;
3) Procurement-related data between contractors and their subcontractors and
material suppliers;









4

4) Construction and project control data between contractors and owners and
within project and contractor organizations. (p. 4)


Communication of the construction schedule, most closelyrelated to the fourth point above,

is again recognized as an area needing improvement

At the beginning of a project, throughout its construction, and in post-construction

analysis, the schedule is considered the "dominant information tool for managers of

construction operations" (Barnes, 1993, p. 404). As defined in this study, the schedule

includes both the as-planned schedule (planning of upcoming work) and the as-built schedule

(documentation of actual progress). Cost and schedule functions are two of the most

important elements of a construction control system, and "control depends on data acquired

on the site during the execution of the project" (Abudayyeh and Rasdorf, 1991, pp. 679-680).

Although most construction projects employ some means of cost and schedule control,

"many projects suffer from ineffective control due to inefficient flow of information"

(Abudayyeh and Rasdorf, 1991, p. 680). The scheduling communication process is usually

disjointed and often fails to promptly and accurately capture construction progress data that

managers need to make informed decisions. In addition, addressing the immediate demands

and problems concerning work in progress consumes the bulk of field management's

attention, resulting in historical documentation which is frequently either inaccurate or in a

format which is extremely difficult to utilize effectively.

Foremen are closer to the actual construction work than any other supervisors or

managers on a project, and thus are recognized as a valuable source of information about the

project (Coble, 1994). In Borcherding's (1977) study of participative decision making,









5

management realized the value of foremen in field decision making. They reasoned that

foremen make good decisions since they are close to the work. Managers in that study found

it especially valuable to involve foremen in the preconstruction phase, when bidding or

scheduling a project.

However, inefficient means of communication between foremen and management

during the construction phase can lead to reduced productivity and poor documentation.

Despite the development of more advanced project management software packages, "project

participants still have difficulty receiving project data in a useful form" (Boles et al., 1998,

p. 131). Although the most direct source of detailed information about work being performed

is the construction foreman, construction managers often lack an efficient means of

communicating as-planned schedules to foremen and receiving accurate and timely field

productivity information from foremen. It is well known that "accurate, complete

documentation and efficient communication are critical to the success of a construction

project," and that the current "lack of accurate documentation causes confusion and

difficulties with regard to claims and disputes" (Liu, 1997, p. 399). Also, field problems

which require collaboration with management often involve site visits by management and

take excessive time to solve. Inefficient means of communication results in problems during

construction (e.g., delays and productivity losses) and problems after construction (e.g.,

claims and litigation). There is a general need in the construction industry for improved

methods of disseminating information to project team members (Boles et al., 1998; Parfitt

et al., 1993).









6

Construction researchers have contemplated how to use computing technologies to

improve communications between the field and the office, and also within the project itself.

Oglesby, Parker, and Howell (1989) discuss the use of computer terminals placed at strategic

locations on the job to augment communications via portable radios. They suggest that if

verbal information exchanges via portable radios were enhanced by communications via field

computer terminals, such use of computers could "both support and formalize these

information exchanges" (p. 444). These authors point out that one potential use of such a

system would be to communicate the schedule to field personnel. They suggest that the

details of the schedule, such as crew assignments and changes to the schedule, could be

accessed by all interested parties at the computer terminals in the field. They conclude that

such a scheduling communication process would be "far better than relying on word of

mouth or written plans, some of which may relay out-of-date information" (p. 444). There

is a recognition in the industry that "paper-based jobsite construction processes are becoming

obsolete as they are unable to deliver just-in-time information" (De la Garza and Howitt,

1997).

Oglesby, Parker, and Howell (1989) also discuss how computers could be used in the

field for tracking resources, such as drawings, ordered or stored materials, tools, and

supplies. They point out that proper coordination of such resources is essential for

productivity, but that the superintendent or foreman often ends up "hunting through written

records"which are "incomplete, not in usable order, or not readily accessible" (p. 444). They

conclude that "computers can make the process of finding things quicker and easier" (p.

444). Foreseeing the growth of the Internet, electronic mail was identified as another specific









7

application of utilizing computer terminals in the field, and the authors state that "the list of

potential uses for such communication is almost endless" (p. 444). Productivity can be

greatly enhanced by the reuse and transfer of data in electronic format (Parfitt et al., 1993).

An emerging means of improving the transfer of scheduling and coordination

information to and from the field is the implementation of handheld

computer/communication technology. Various construction research projects during the

1980's and 1990's have investigated the use of such technology (including radio frequency

identification, radio frequency data communication, optical character recognition, voice data

entry, magnetic stripe and smart cards) to improve field communications and information

transfer (Bell and Gibson, 1990; McCullouch, 1991b; Pan, 1996; Stukhart, 1995; Stukhart

and Berry, 1992). Research involving radio frequency technology in construction was

pursued because of the obvious information-flow benefits of "real-time, interactive

communication with a computer without being physically attached to that computer"

(McCullough, 1991b, p. 677). Using handheld computers for field data collection has been

recognized as beneficial, partly since "their use would help avoid dependence on site

personnel memories at the end of the day when much of the paperwork is normally done"

(Russell, 1993, p. 392). In addition, electronic documentation offers a solution to the

problem of underutilized daily log information collected by foremen (Tavakoli, 1990) by

enabling managers to access such data more efficiently. Coble (1994) points out that foremen

are the most appropriate individuals to use such devices since "the most accurate information

about a construction project comes from those actually embroiled in the day to day activities

on site" (p. 1451). Pen computing provides a simple means of data entry which actually









8

emulates the earliest means of written communications, marking symbols and letters on a flat

surface (Tidwell, 1992). Handheld computers have been designed to meet the needs of

construction field personnel, integrating components such as digital camera, touch screen,

and two-way communication (Alexander et al., 1997). Other research has investigated

multimedia documentation of field activities and use of the Internet for information exchange

as a means of improving record keeping and information flow (Liu, 1997). As De la Garza

and Howitt (1997) point out in their study ofjobsite wireless communications, "A shift to

an electronic-based exchange of information can help alleviate the timely delivering and

accessing of relevant amounts of information" (p. 3). Although handheld computers have

been utilized in the field to a limited degree, isolated attempts to implement such technology

have done so by equipping project engineers, upper-level field supervisors, or inspectors with

these automated tools (McCullouch, 1991 a; Rojas and Songer, 1996). Construction foremen,

however, have not generally been equipped with such a device, even though foremen are

arguably the best source of detailed project information (Borcherding, 1977; Coble, 1994).

Technology trends were extrapolated by Tatum, et al. (1991) in order to predict future

trends in the construction industry. The authors suggest that "computer literacy in

construction companies will eventually extend to the construction worker in the field to

facilitate the exchange of real-time information between the project team members" (p. 27).

They also state that "technology employing electronic transmission of data will significantly

diminish the significance of geographic location," (p. 39) and that "improved access to

databases is needed to improve productivity" (p. 50). Similarly, De la Garza and Howitt









9

(1977) suggest that "the Construction Industry at-large will profit from leveraging walkie-

talkie wireless voice communication with wireless data communication" (p. 2).

However, human factors must be considered in any attempt to implement such

promising technologies. Stukhart (1995) states that despite future advances in technology,

"by and large people will still be the major problem" (p. 51). Tatum et al. (1991) point out

that "the significance of computers is underrated and not well understood by many people"

(p. 53). In regards to computer use in the field, they state that "there is a strong resistance by

some field superintendents to using computers in the field" (p. 53). Other researchers have

recognized that human factors must be considered when attempting to implement technology

to improve construction operations. Coble (1994) emphasizes that successful implementation

of handheld computing at the foreman level begins with understanding the background and

job-related concerns of foremen. In their study of pen-based computers for use in

construction inspection, Rojas and Songer (1996) conclude that mobile computing offers

much potential benefit to construction field personnel including engineers, inspectors,

superintendents, and foremen but that "little would be accomplished if field personnel reject

this technology" (p. 1033). Similarly, Cahoon (1995) emphasizes that one requirement for

technology implementation in the construction industry is that "there must be buy-in at the

supervisory and craft level" (p. 28).

This study seeks to evaluate field personnel's acceptance of such technology. The

focus is on the first-line field managers, namely craft foremen. It explores the concept of

foremen using handheld digital communicators to improve the effectiveness and efficiency

of the scheduling communication process. A better understanding of how foremen relate to









10

this technology will provide guidance for practical implementation efforts, and will be a

helpful resource for future research and development.


Research Questions


Several primary research questions provide a framework for exploring how the

construction scheduling communication process may be improved through the role of the

construction foreman:

1) What problems exist in the scheduling communication process?

2) What is the role of foremen in the scheduling communication process?

3) How can the scheduling communication process be improved?


What Problems Exist in the Scheduling Communication Process?


Since foremen are the last link in the communication chain whereby a plan of work

is transformed into the reality of work in place, it is important to consider their perspective

regarding communication problems. What problems have foremen experienced with the

scheduling communication process? How do foremen rate their access to information they

need to do their jobs? Are foremen adequately informed about the schedule? Is production

slowed because foremen are waiting for information needed to perform the work? What are

foremen's main causes of delay? This research explores the obstacles that foremen encounter

as they relay information to their crews and report back to management.











What Is the Role of Foremen in the Scheduling Communication Process?


An important part of exploring how the scheduling communication process can be

improved through the role of the foreman is to investigate the level of involvement that

foremen have in scheduling and coordinating the work. What involvement do foremen have

in the initial planning process? Do foremen actually use the formnnal schedule to organize their

work? What involvement do foremen have in creating the as-built record of the job? Human

factors must also be considered. What are foremen's attitudes towards creating the as-built

record of the job? What are foremen's attitudes toward the schedule? Is the schedule helpful

to foremen? Are there any characteristics of foremen that correlate with their practices and

attitudes related to the scheduling communication process? Exploration of foremen's

characteristics related to their role in the scheduling communication process should provide

insight regarding how the process can be improved.


How Can the Scheduling Communication Process Be Improved?


The foreman is the individual most keenly aware of the field communication

problems that arise as a plan of work is transformed into work in place. Thus, foremen's

ideas regarding how to improve scheduling and coordination should be explored. What

suggestions do foremen have about how to improve scheduling? What suggestions do

foremen have about how to reduce delays?

Since little is known about foremen's exposure to computers, questions were

designed to learn more about the potential of foremen as users of handheld









12

computer/communication devices. What is the computer literacy rate of foremen? Do

foremen use computers as part of their job? Do foremen use computers at home?

Attitudinal factors are explored since they could largely determine the outcome of

any attempt to automate foremen with handheld digital communicators (Cahoon, 1995;

Coble, 1994; Rojas and Songer, 1996; Stukhart, 1995; Tatum et al., 1991). What are the

attitudes of foremen toward computers? Do foremen think that using a computer could help

them do their job better? What are the attitudes of foremen toward the concept of using a

handheld computer/communication device as part of their job? Additional insights couldbe

gained by investigating whether any characteristics of the role of foremen in the scheduling

communication process correlate with their attitudes toward new computing technologies.


Research Objectives


In order to answer the questions outlined above, the primary objectives of this study

are established as follows:

1) Investigate problems in the scheduling communication process.

2) Examine the role of foremen in the scheduling communication process.

3) Explore means of improving the scheduling communication process.

More detailed objectives which focus on specific research to be performed in this study are

presented below.











Investigation of Problems


Several research objectives direct the investigation of problems in the scheduling

communication process:

1) Review the literature related to the scheduling communication process.

2) Learn what problems foremen experience with scheduling and coordination.

3) Evaluate foremen's access to information they need to do their jobs.

4) Assess whether or not foremen are adequately informed about the schedule.

5) Determine foremen's sources of delay, including delays in project

information flow.


Examination of Foremen's Role


The following research objectives guide the examination of foremen's role in the

scheduling communication process:

1) Determine the extent of foremen's involvement in the initial planning

process.

2) Investigate foremen's practices related to scheduling (e.g., whether or not

foremen actually use the schedule to organize their work).

3) Ascertain foremen's attitudes toward scheduling (e.g., their perceptions of the

usefulness of a written schedule).

4) Explore factors which may affect foremen's role in scheduling (e.g., the

relationship between worker safety and productivity).









14

5) Examine foremen's involvement in creating the as-built record of the job

(e.g., their common practices of record keeping and attitudes toward

documentation).


Exploration of Process Improvement


Corresponding to the third primary research question, the following objectives

explore means of improving the scheduling communication process:

1) Learn about foremen's ideas regarding how to improve scheduling and

coordination (e.g., how to reduce delays).

2) Explore the concept of foremen using a handheld computer/communication

device to improve effectiveness and efficiency in the scheduling

communication process.

3) Measure the computer literacy rate of foremen (including an assessment of

computer use by foremen at work and at home).

4) Investigate foremen's attitudes towards computers, including their attitudes

toward the concept of using a handheld computer/communication device as

part of their job.

5) Determine whether there are characteristics of foremen which predict their

attitudes toward new computing technologies with potential to improve the

scheduling and coordination process. It is hypothesized that such predictive

characteristics of foremen will include the following:









15

a) Demographic information such as craft, experience level, age, and

education.

b) Involvement in the initial planning stage of a job.

c) Experience with written schedules, including look-ahead schedules.

d) Attitudes about scheduling.

e) Attitudes about worker safety.

f) Documentation practices and attitudes concerning its importance.

g) Sources of delay, including delays due to scheduling conflicts and

information flow problems.

h) Experience with computing technology, including exposure to, use of,

and attitudes toward computers.

Each question in the survey, which is designed to gather information on the above

characteristics, could theoretically be stated as a hypothesis. Since this research is

exploratory, however, strict hypotheses are not formed at this point. As detailed in Chapter

2, the survey instrument provides a means of gathering information regarding many specific

characteristics which correspond to the general characteristics presented above. As detailed

in Chapter 3, preliminary evaluation of results reveals the most pertinent characteristics of

foremen, and explicit hypotheses are then developed and tested.


Summary of Research Design


This research project seeks to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of

construction information systems, specifically regarding the communication of project









16

schedule information. A key element of the study is its focus on field operations, particularly

on the role of the foreman. Under exploration is the concept of automating the construction

foreman with computerized data management and communication tools so that the foreman

becomes an integral part of the communication process within the scheduling information

system.

This study focuses on foremen working on relatively large general commercial

building projects. New construction totaling approximately $1.5 billion at Universal Studios

in Orlando, Florida, provided a wide variety of trades and a plentiful source of foremen to

study. In addition, two large commercial projects in Orlando and two in Gainesville, Florida,

provided an external pool of foremen to study in order that results could be validated outside

of the Universal projects. These four non-Universal projects ranged in size from $12 million

to $30 million.

A questionnaire was developed in order to facilitate in-depth personal interviews

addressing the multiple research questions discussed above. All interviews were conducted

in person by this researcher. Most interviews were recorded on audio tape, which enabled

timely completion of the interviews and also provided an accurate and detailed record of

responses for subsequent review. Purposive sampling, also known as judgmental sampling

(Babbie, 1990), was used to obtain a valid sample of 119 foremen.















CHAPTER 2
METHODS


This chapter describes the methods used to accomplish the study's objectives, as

presented in Chapter 1. The descriptions encompass (1) design of the survey instrument, or

questionnaire, (2) sample selection, including both the main and external samples, (3) field

data collection by means of personal interviews, and (4) statistical procedures for analysis

of results.


Questionnaire Design


The questionnaire used in this research was designed to facilitate an organized and

consistent method of gathering the data during personal interviews (see Appendix A, page

143, for unabridged questionnaire). Questions were tailored to focus on the construction

foreman. The survey instrument was the means of investigating (1) problems with the

scheduling communication process, (2) foremen's role in the scheduling communication

process, and (3) how the scheduling communication process can be improved.

Questions pertinent to the research were developed and then refined in an attempt to

address the issues as specifically as possible. A pilot study was performed in order to test the

proposed questions and to obtain feedback regarding other relevant issues that should be

addressed. Those questions which could be answered with a limited set of possible choices

were identified, and the corresponding sets of answers were developed. Other questions were









18

left open-ended, either due to the wide range of expected responses or simply to allow the

respondents the freedom to fully explain their answers. For many questions, a Likert scale

was deemed appropriate and scaled answers were developed. Several variations of Likert

scales were used. The two most common ones were the frequency scale and the agreement

scale. An importance scale and a quality scale were also used. These four types of scales are

shown below:

Frequency Scale:

1 2 3 4 5

never rarely sometimes usually always

Agreement Scale:

1 2 3 4 5

strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree

Importance Scale:

1 2 3 4 5

not at all of little imp. fairly imp. important very important

Quality Scale:

1 2 3 4 5

terrible poor OK good excellent


Demographic Information


The first section of the questionnaire gathered demographic information about the

project and individual being interviewed. This included the project name, general contracting









19

company name, the foreman's craft and company name, the foreman's experience in

construction as a worker and as a foreman, the foreman's union affiliation, the foreman's

length of employment with current employer, the foreman's average crew size, the foreman's

education level, and the foreman's age.


Initial Planning Practices


The next section of the questionnaire dealt with the foreman's role in the initial

planning process. The questions in this section investigated the input that foremen have in

the development of the project schedule, and are listed below:

* At the beginning of a new job, does anyone from your company or the company

managing the job ask you how you plan to do your portion of the work? (for

example: what specific methods you will use to do the job, or how you will organize

job tasks) [Frequency Scale]

If yes, who asks you?

Description of this interaction:

* At the beginning of a new job, does anyone from your company or the company

managing the job ask you how long you think it will take to complete your portion

of the work? [Frequency Scale]

If yes, who asks you?

Description of this interaction:











Use of Written Schedules


Several questions were developed to determine how often written schedules are used

on projects, foremen's level of exposure to these schedules, and whether they find the

schedules to be helpful. The first question in this section was developed in order to assess

the personal use of written planning by foremen. That is, do foremen just keep track of

everything in their heads and deal with field coordination on an as-needed basis, or do they

actually utilize some type of written plan which they use to map out the work and stay

organized? The specific questions follow:

* Do you use some type of written plan to organize upcoming work? Yes / No

If so, what kind of plan do you use?

A. list of activities B. bar chart C. network diagram D. other:

* How often are there written schedules for projects you work on? [Frequency Scale]

* Do you see these schedules? [Frequency Scale]

If so,

What form are they in? (Bar chart, list of activities, diagram, etc.)

How often are the written schedules helpful to you and your crew?

[Frequency Scale]


Use of Look-Ahead Schedules


The use of look-ahead schedules (short-interval schedules) was also investigated.

Such schedules are valuable to foremen because they serve as the link between the overall









21

schedule and the organization of resources needed to perform specific tasks (Hinze, 1998).

Therefore, the use of such schedules within the sample was deemed important to this study.

The questions asked regarding look-ahead schedules follow:

* Are look-ahead schedules used on your jobs? [Frequency Scale]

* If so,

How far ahead do the look-ahead schedules plan the work?

Who makes these schedules?

What does this schedule look like? (is it a list of activities? a bar

chart? a network diagram? something else?)

Do you help plan the look-ahead schedules on your jobs? [Frequency

Scale]

If so, how?


Attitudes About Scheduling


Several open-ended questions were asked to discover attitudes of foremen and their

crews towards the use of schedules and the general practice of scheduling, as well as to learn

their ideas for improving the process:

* Do you follow the schedule?

* How do you feel about the schedule?

* How do your crew members feel about the schedule?











* Do you wish you had more information about the schedule? Yes / No

If so, what?

* Do you have any suggestions on how to improve scheduling?


Scheduling and Safety


Several questions were then asked about safety in order to gather information about

foremen's perception of the relationship between scheduling and safety. Scheduling and

safety are necessarily intertwined, and "safety is a topic that must underlie every activity that

is included in a schedule" (Hinze, 1998, p. 215). Therefore, it was determined that

respondents' opinions about safety issues were important in this study on scheduling. The

following questions were asked:

* How important do you think worker safety is? [Importance Scale]

* How does following safety rules affect production?

A. slows down production B. does not affect production C. speeds up production

* Do the completion goals of the schedule make it difficult to deal properly with safety

issues? [Frequency Scale]

* Do you think you can make good job progress and be safe at the same time?

[Agreement Scale]

* How is safety information communicated to you?

* Do you think that having safety activities in the written schedule which relate to

upcoming work activities would help you to know what safety issues should be dealt

with at each stage of the job?












Documentation Practices


The next section investigated the practices of foremen regarding documentation.

Questions were developed to determine the types of information they record about the work

of their crews, whether they keep records beyond the minimum documentation required, how

important they think this documentation is, and how frequently their records are actually

used and/or checked. These questions were pertinent to this study because of the importance

of accurate as-built information in order to update the schedule and to notify all interested

parties of the current status of the work.

* Do you record information about the work your crew does? Yes / No

If so,

What do you record & how do you record it? (i.e., time sheets, daily

logs, production rates, pictures, notes, etc.)

How often do you record this information?

How much time per day do you spend recording this information?

Who do you give this information to?

If pictures are taken,

do you use a regular camera or a digital camera (or both)?

what is the purpose of the pictures you take?

Are you required to keep records? Yes / No

If so, by whom?











Do you keep any records that are not required? Yes / No

If so, what?

How important do you think the job records you keep are?

[Importance Scale]

Why do you think this?

Do you think your job records are used to evaluate your work?

[Frequency Scale]

Is the data you record checked by anyone? [Frequency Scale]

Are you asked questions by anyone about the data you record?

[Frequency Scale]

If you have to shift your crew to another area (because you're waiting

for information you need in order to do your current work, waiting for

inspections, waiting for other trades, etc.) do you...

Make notes about why you had to move your crew to a new

area? [Frequency Scale]

Keep track of the time lost from moving your crew to a new

area? [Frequency Scale]


Sources of Delay


Several questions inquired about the experiences of foremen regarding access to

information needed to perform the work and the level of difficulty in getting answers to

specific questions that arise concerning execution of the work. Other potential sources of









25

delay were investigated, as well as foremen's suggested solutions. Opinions regarding the

openness of management toward the foremen's suggestions to improve work processes were

also addressed.

* In general, how do you rate your access to the information you need to do your job?

[Quality Scale]

* Please give your opinion about the following statement: Your production is often

slowed down because you are waiting for information needed to perform the work.

[Agreement Scale]

If so, what are some typical kinds of information that you have to wait for

which are needed to perform your work?

* Is it difficult to get necessary questions answered? [Agreement Scale]

If so, Lwhy is it difficult?

* How do you go about getting questions answered? (RFI's etc.)

* What else causes you delays on the job?

* How can these delays be reduced?

* Is management willing to listen to suggestions you have abouthow to improve work

processes? [Frequency Scale]


Computers and Technology


The last section of the questionnaire gathered information about the computer literacy

of foremen, their exposure to and use of computers and related technology, and their attitudes

toward the use of computers as part of their jobs. It is important to note that the method of









26

asking the last several questions in this section was somewhat different. These final questions

involved explaining the concept of handheld computer use in the field and demonstrating

sample handheld computing devices. The concept of obtaining field measurements via stereo

imaging was explained. Specific handheld digital communication devices were demonstrated

for foremen in order to obtain their evaluation regarding whether such devices would help

them do theirjobs, as well as to measure their acceptance levels concerning their use of such

devices.

* Do you personally use a computer to perform any part of your job? Yes / No

* Do you use a computer at home? Yes / No

* Do you have children who use computers at your home? Yes / No

* Do you like to play video games?

* Do you use any type of electronic organizer? Yes / No (If so, what?)

* What communication devices do you use? (2-way radio, cell-phone, pager)

* Would you say that computers are beneficial to construction companies? [Agreement

Scale]

* Do you think that a computer could help you do your job better? [Agreement Scale]

* If your employer told you a computer would help you do your job better and wanted

you to start using one as part of your job, how would you feel about that?

* Do you think that computers could ever replace part of the foreman's job?

[Agreement Scale]









27

* Assume you had a camera which took pictures that enabled anyone looking at the

pictures to know all the dimensions in the pictures. Please give your opinion

regarding whether such a camera would be useful to you. [Agreement Scale]

If this camera would be useful, for what purposess?

How accurate would such a camera need to be?

* Would a device like these (demonstrating mock-up Gator Communicator and

IBM/BellSouth Simon) help you do your job? [Agreement Scale]

* Would a device like these (demonstrating mock-up Gator Communicator and

IBM/BellSouth Simon, including concept of accessing the schedule through these

devices) help you with scheduling and coordination? [Agreement Scale]


Sample Selection


The construction foreman, defined as the first-line field supervisor, was chosen to be

the focus of this research. In particular, this study sought to examine construction foremen

working on relatively large commercial building projects, with the assumption that large

projects have a higher level of need for efficient and effective scheduling, coordination, and

communication tools than small or medium projects. It was further assumed that foremen of

trade contractors working on large projects would be more aware of the needs for efficient

and effective scheduling, coordination, and communication tools than foremen working on

small or medium projects.

The purposive (or judgmental) method of sampling, as described by Babbie (1990),

was utilized in this research. Judgmental sampling allows the sample to be selected based on









28

the researcher's "knowledge of the population, its elements, and the nature of [the] research

aims" (p. 97). This nonprobability method was chosen since the dynamic nature of

construction projects and the itinerant qualities of construction foremen would make

probability sampling prohibitively expensive and time consuming.

It would have been extremely time consuming to even attempt developing a list of

all the construction foremen working on a selected group of projects. Identifying a larger

population of foremen, such as all the construction foremen working in the state of Florida,

would be even less feasible. It is also unlikely that an accurate and complete list would result

even if one spent the inordinate amount of time necessary to identify all the subcontractors

intending to be on a selected group of projects during a certain range of dates. It would be

equally difficult to contact all of these companies and request the names of their foremen

expected to be working on particular projects during a certain range of dates.

Furthermore, locating individual foremen selected in a random sample would be

extremely time consuming and infeasible, particularly on large project sites. For those

foremen who would actually be found, many would probably not qualify for inclusion in the

study because they were actually superintendents. With trade contractors, distinguishing

between foremen and superintendents is often difficult and people within the contracting

companies usually assume that the superintendent is really the person being sought. They

simply direct an interviewer to the superintendent since they believe this individual will be

able to deal with public relations more smoothly than the foreman, or possibly since

discussions with superintendents would be less disruptive to the work process. Even some

field representatives of general contracting firms are not able to distinguish among a given









29

subcontractor's foremen, general foremen, and superintendents who are working on their

projects.

In this study, purposive sampling enabled the interviewer to locate construction

foremen relatively quickly by walking through the construction projects and observing the

ongoing work. It allowed for flexibility of timing, so that a foreman who was taking a break

could be approached rather than one who was working with the crew (e.g., helping them get

ready for a concrete pour that afternoon). It also enabled the interviewer to include a good

cross-section of trades. For example, if only electrical and concrete foremen were

interviewed on a particular day due to their availability, the interviewer was able to seek out

other trades the next day.

Construction work at Universal Studios in Orlando, Florida, was chosen as the source

of projects from which to draw the main sample. Multiple projects ongoing within the

development activities of a single owner provided an ideal environment for maintaining a

low level of variability and enabling good internal validity of results. Although the

circumstances at Universal Studios appeared ideal for the study since it was a large project

and included an even cross-section of several trades, the possibility was considered that any

unique project characteristics could yield skewed results. Thus, it was determined that the

results of the study would be more reliable if an external sample of foremen was also

surveyed in the same manner as the main sample. The external sample data could then be

compared to the main sample data to check for consistency of results. Thus, four other

projects (two in Orlando, Florida, and two in Gainesville, Florida) were selected in order to

provide external validity to the results of the study.









30

The total volume of work within the Universal Studios projects was approximately

$1.5 billion. These projects included the Islands of Adventure theme park and the Portofino

Hotel. Islands of Adventure was divided into six major "islands," each with a different

general contractor or construction manager (contractual arrangements varied), except that

one contractor was building two of the six islands, resulting in five different prime

contractors. Another contractor was building the hotel project, resulting in six different prime

contractors performing all the work sampled within the Universal Studios projects.

The four projects selected for the external sample included a $30 million retail center

in Orlando, Florida (Winter Park Village), a $12 million office building in Orlando, Florida

(One Legacy Point), a $25 million hotel in Gainesville, Florida (University of Florida Hotel

& Conference Center), and a $16 million student residence facility in Gainesville, Florida

(Student Residence Facility 2000). Two of the six general contractors in the main sample

(Universal Studios projects) were also represented in the external sample (consisting of three

general contractors), and one of these two general contractors was represented in both the

Orlando and Gainesville external samples. This helped minimize any influence that different

general contractors and different geographical areas may have on results within the external

sample.

A total of 121 foremen were surveyed, but two of the surveys were discarded. In one

of these discarded cases, the substantial portion of the questionnaire was incomplete. In the

other, the participant initially identified himself as a foreman but the interview revealed that

he was actually functioning more as a general superintendent. Therefore, the total number

of valid surveys was 119. This sample represented eighty different companies and sixteen









31

different trades or trade groups. In general, trades were categorized according to standard

divisions of work as developed by the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI).

Nomenclature was adjusted and some trades were grouped together to reflect the actual

conditions of the sample. For example, drywall, plaster, and metal framing were grouped

together since this work is typically performed by crews working under the same foreman.

The full list of categories used is given below:

1. Site Work

2. Concrete

3. Masonry

4. Ironwork

5. Carpentry

6. Roofing

7. Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing

8. Flooring / Tile

9. Painting

10. Special Finishes

11. Miscellaneous Specialties

12. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

13. Plumbing

14. HVAC and Plumbing

15. Fire Sprinklers

16. Electrical









32

Since some mechanical foremen performed both plumbing and HVAC, and others

specialized in one or the other, separate and combined categories were created in order to

accurately reflect the foremen's actual work activities.


Data Collection


For the main sample, contact was made with Universal Studios managers overseeing

the construction work. After describing the research project and obtaining permission to

conduct interviews with foremen on the Universal studios job sites, arrangements were made

to gain access to the sites, including confirmation of proper insurance coverage for the

interviewer, parking passes, visitor badges, and project logistics information. Attendance at

a general superintendent's lunch meeting enabled this researcher to describe the research

project to the top field representatives for each of the general contractors and to obtain

approval for interviewing foremen on each respective project.

For the external sample, contact was made with project managers on the individual

projects. After describing the research project, arrangements were made to gain access to the

construction sites.

Interviews for the main sample data (N=87) were conducted between January 29,

1999, and March 10, 1999. Interviews for the external sample data (N=32) were conducted

between June 15, 1999, and July 30, 1999. All interviews were conducted by this researcher

on the actual construction sites. Most were conducted either outdoors or in partially

constructed buildings, and a few were conducted in job site office trailers.









33

Utilizing judgmental sampling, the interviewer walked around on the projects,

observing the work and looking for foremen to interview. Once potential candidates were

identified, the interviewer asked them several questions about their job descriptions in order

to confirm that they actually were functioning as foremen (defined as first-line field

supervisors). If they were first-line field supervisors, the interviewer briefly described the

research project and asked them to participate in the research by answering several questions

about their experience in the construction industry. Most foremen were agreeable to this idea,

although it was sometimes necessary to assure them that the study was simply the

interviewer's own research project towards completion of a college degree, that it was not

for purposes related to corporate politics, and that all answers would remain confidential.

After a given foreman had agreed to participate in the survey, the interviewer asked

permission to tape record the interview. A few foremen refused to be tape recorded, but most

did not object to the use of a recorder.

Although conducting the personal interviews was very time consuming, it worked

quite well as a method of data collection. The interviewer was quickly able to ascertain

whether or not an interviewee understood the question, thereby enabling the question to be

repeated or clarified, if necessary. Regarding the benefit of personal interviewing as a means

of data collection, Babbie (1990) states, "If the respondent clearly misunderstands the intent

of a question or indicates that he does not understand, the interviewer can clarify matters and

thereby obtain relevant responses" (p. 188). For this reason, the data collected most likely

have a higher level of integrity than if the same survey were conducted by mail or otherwise

distributed for independent completion by the respondents.









34

As previously noted, a somewhat different method was employed for asking the last

several questions in the section regarding use of computers. These questions differed from

the others in that they were asked after explaining a concept and demonstrating how

handheld computers might be used in the field.


Analysis Techniques


The statistical software package used for data analysis is SPSS 9.0. Scaled answers

and answers to closed-ended questions were entered directly into the system to reflect the

answers from the survey instrument. Answers to open-ended questions were either partially

or fully transcribed, and then appropriate codes created, in order to enable entry of the data

into the SPSS data file. Results are first described with descriptive statistics and basic

interpretations. Response frequencies are calculated and both tabular and graphical output

is generated for presentation purposes. Statistical tests are then used to analyze the data.

The Mann-Whitney Uand Wilcoxon Wtests, which enable comparison of two related

samples, are used to evaluate the consistency of results between the main and external

samples. These nonparametric tests are appropriate for analysis of ordinal data, and do not

make strict assumptions concerning population distributions (Agresti and Finlay, 1986). The

equation for the Mann-Whitney U is



U = NIN2 + N(NI + 1) Ti Equation 1 Mann-Whitney U
2

where N1 and N2 are sample sizes of the two groups being compared and T, is the sum of

ranks of one sample. The related equation for the Wilcoxon W is











=m(m + 2n + 1) N(N\ + 1)
W = + N N1N2 N) + Ti Equation 2 Wilcoxon W
2 2


where m is the number of observations in the smaller group, and n is the number of

observations in the larger group (SPSS Base 9.0, 1999).

Next, testing of correlations is performed using Kendall's tau-b in order to identify

the independent variables which are correlated with foremen's acceptance of handheld

computer/communication technology. The formula for Kendall's tau-b is

P- Q
S= -p+Q x Equation 3 Kendall's Tau-b



where P is the number of concordant pairs, Q is the number of discordant pairs, Tx is the

number of pairs tied on Xbut not on Y, and T, is the number tied on Ybut not on X(SPSS

Base 9.0, 1999).

Lastly, multiple linear regression analysis is performed to identify any characteristics

of foremen which predict their acceptance of the handheld computer/communication

technology. The formula for multiple linear regression is


y = fl + fix1+.. .+6xy + E Equation 4 Multiple Linear Regression


where y is the dependent variable, Po is the y-intercept, P3 is the slope, x,...Xp are the

independent variables, and e is the error term (SPSS Base 9.0, 1999).

Single-step multiple linear regression, where all independent variables are entered

into the equation at the same time, is used for hypothesis testing. Both single-step and









36

stepwise multiple linear regression are then used to develop overall predictive models. In the

stepwise method, independent variables are entered individually and are examined for entry

or removal at each step. Variables are then removed if their partial contributions to the model

are no longer significant when combined with other variables which are entered at later

stages (Agresti and Finlay, 1986).















CHAPTER 3
RESULTS


This chapter presents results of the interview surveys conducted in this research.

First, descriptive statistics are presented to profile the characteristics of the participating

construction foremen. Foremen's characteristics are examined to investigate problems in the

scheduling communication process, to study the role of foremen in the scheduling

communication process, and to explore ways the scheduling communication process can be

improved. Results are presented according to the order of appearance in the survey

questionnaire, and frequencies obtained are discussed briefly. Since every question was not

answered by all 119 foremen, the number of respondents for each question is noted in the

corresponding figures. The results are then examined for validity, correlations are

investigated, hypotheses are tested, and predictive models are explored.


Characteristics of Foremen


The responses to survey questions are grouped according to the categories presented

in the Questionnaire Design section of Chapter 2. Demographic data are presented first,

including project and foremen demographics. The remaining characteristics of foremen are

then presented in the following categories: initial planning practices, use of written

schedules, use of look-ahead schedules, attitudes about scheduling, relationship between










38

scheduling and safety, documentation practices, sources of delay, and computers and

technology.



Project Demographics



A total of eleven projects provided the data for this research. Seven projects

comprised the main sample, and four projects made up the external sample. (See Figure 1

for the percentage distribution of the sample according to the source project.) From left to

right in Figure 1, the first seven projects represent the main sample (87 responses) and the

remaining four represent the external sample (32 responses).


Distribution of Sample by Project Name


(N=119)

Main Sample External Sample


20.0 -
19.3






00 1.6







Name of Project


Figure 1


r


M"'










39

The eleven source projects were managed by a total of seven different general

contractors. (See Figure 2 for the percentage distribution of the sample by the general

contractors managing the surveyed projects.)


200




10D .



0o0


(N=119)

r2 6.1 1


CESS


Bovis


General Contractor on Project


Figure 2


Distribution of Sample by General Contractor


Whiting Turner managed Suess Landing and Lost Continent; Turner managed Isla

Nublar; CRSS managed Toon Lagoon; Beers managed Superhero Island and Legacy Point;

Metric managed Port of Entry; Bovis managed Portofino Hotel, Winter Park Village, and

Student Residence Facility 2000, and Hardin managed UF Hotel & Conference Center.



Demographics of Foremen



The demographic characteristics of the foremen included trade specialty, experience

level, union affiliation, education, and age. Foremen employed by a total of seventy-six


Whiting Rzrnan


Haimn









40

different subcontractors and four general contractors were surveyed (see Table 1).

Companies employing the foremen in the main sample consisted of fifty-six subcontractors

and three general contractors, while companies employing foremen in the external sample

consisted of twenty-three subcontractors and one general contractor. Three subcontractors

from the main sample were also in the external sample.



Table 1 Number of Companies Employing the Foremen Surveyed
TOTAL
MAIN EXTERNAL DET
SAMPLE SAMPLE DIFFERENT
COMPANIES

Subcontractors 56 23 76*

General Contractors 3 1 4

3 subcontractors represented in the Main Sample were also in the External Sample



The sample of foremen interviews was drawn from sixteen different trades or trade

groups (see Figure 3). Drywall, plaster, and metal framing were grouped together since this

work is typically performed by crews working under the same foreman. Some mechanical

foremen performed both plumbing and HVAC, while others specialized in one or the other,

so separate categories were created in order to accurately reflect the trades they represented.

The overall construction experience of foremen ranged from three to forty-eight years

(see Figure 4). The mean overall construction experience was 19.3 years, the median was

19.0 years, and the mode was 20.0 years.















16 D
(N= 119)
14 D

12D

10D

SD















Foremen's Trade or Craft

Figure 3 Distribution of Sample by Trade







12
(l=119)

10 *


8


6


4





0
3D 70? 11li 15) 19J) 23J) 27)) 32J) 43J)
60) 9J0 131D 17J) 21J0 25D3 29J0 350)

Years


Foremen's Overall Construction Experience


Figure 4















Construction experience at the foreman level ranged from 0.5 to 30.0 years, with a

mean of 9.5 years, a median of 8.0 years, and a mode of 3.0 years. The percentage

distribution for years experience as foremen is shown in Figure 5.


Figure 5


(N= 119)


.5 2.5 4.5 7J0 10O0 14.J 20J0 30J0
15 35 55 85 12.0 18.0 23J0

Years


Construction Experience as Foremen


Union affiliation was categorized into four groups (see Figure 6). As shown, 46.2%

of the foremen were open-shop and had no prior union experience, 31.9% were working for

an open-shop company at the time of the survey but had prior union experience, 11.8% were

working for a union company at the time of the survey but had prior open-shop experience,

and 10.1% were union at the time of the survey and had no open-shop experience.















462 -IT= 119)
40D


30J* 31.9


20D


10D J 112

00
Open-Shop(All) UionWiis Open-Shop)
Open-Shop(W Uniaon) Uin(All)

Foremen's Responses

Figure 6 Current and Previous Union Affiliation





The length of time the foremen had been with their current employer was examined

(see Figure 7). Durations ranged from two days to thirty years, with a mean of 4.6 years, a

median of 3.0 years, and a mode of 2.0 years.

The crew size typically supervised by foremen ranged from two to fifty-five, with a

mean crew size of 14.8, a median of 11.0, and a mode of 10.0 (see Figure 8). Most foremen

stated that their crew size varies considerably depending on the scope of the project and the

stage of the job at a given time. The answers represent what foremen considered their

average, or typical, crew sizes. Although the upper end of the range seems rather high, the

mean crew size (14.8) is comparable to another study of foremen which had a mean crew

size of 10.9 (Shohet and Laufer, 1991).









(N=118)


J .4 8 2.1 4.5 9J 15i0
-2 .7 13 33 7.0 12.J 22J0


Years


Duration with Current Employer


(?= 114)


2 4 6 8 10 12
Foremen's Responses


14 16 20 25 33 38 45 55


Average Crew Size


, J


Figure 7


Figure 8


,I


11M I










45

The level of formal education completed by foremen was examined and the results

(see Figure 9) were compared to the results obtained in a 1977 Stanford study of fifty

foremen. Although the scale of measurement used in that study was slightly different, 11.9%

of the foremen had completed ninth grade or less, 16.7% had some high school, 35.7% had

graduated from high school, 23.8% had some college, and 11.9% had graduated from junior

college or college (Samelson, 1977).




60D
(N=119)
50D -
50.4

400 *


300 -


20D *





somehig school some college 4-yr college degee
high school graduate 2-yr college degree

Foremen's Responses

Figure 9 Level of Formal Education Completed



The level of education among foremen appears to be rising, as indicated by the

increased percentage of foremen completing high school or more advanced education (see

Table 2). In the current study, 89.1% of foremen were at the high school graduate level or

higher, compared to 71.4% in the 1977 study. Percentages of foremen in this study with

some college education or college degrees, however, closely parallel the 1977 study.














Comparison of Foremen Education Levels with 1977 Study


SOME HIGH HIGH SCHOOL SOME COLLEGE COLLEGE
SCHOOL OR GRADUATE OR COLLEGE DEGREE
LOWER OR HIGHER DEGREE (2 OR 4 YEAR)

Current Study 10.9% 89.1% 38.7% 11.8%

1977 Study 28.6% 71.4% 35.7% 11.9%


Information was gathered on whether or not foremen had received some type of trade

school training (see Figure 10). The sample size, sixty-eight, is smaller for this variable since

no questions about trade school were included in the original survey. However, since many

foremen provided information about their trade school training when asked about their

formal education, this characteristic was examined for its potential relationship with the

dependent variables.


Foremen's Responses

Figure 10 Trade School Training


Table 2


(N=68)
Tn r,^










47

The age of the foremen was normally distributed with a range from eighteen to sixty-

four (see Figure 11), with a mean and median age of 40.0. The two modes were 35.0 and

41.0.


(N=119)


18 26 30 34 38 42 46 51 55 63
22 28 32 36 40 44 48 53 58

Years

Figure 11 Age of Foremen


Although gender was originally intended to be a variable in this study, no female

foremen were identified for inclusion during the sampling process. Therefore, all foremen

surveyed were male.



Initial Planning Practices



Planning is important on complex projects in order to keep all workers actively

pursuing completion of their work. Research shows that foremen's planning practices are an

important factor in the productivity of their crews. For example, one study showed that










48

foremen of productive crews spend 9.6% of their time on planning, compared to only 2.1%

by foremen of unproductive crews (Shohet and Laufer, 1991).

The involvement of foremen in planning varied widely in this study. As shown (see

Figure 12), 20.1% of the foremen indicated that when starting a new job they are "never" or

"rarely" asked about how they plan to organize the job or what methods they intend to use,

while 57.2% said they are "usually" or "always" asked such questions. The remaining 22.7%

indicated that they are "sometimes" asked about planning and methods. Although a




40JD



30 .0



200 -
020 2







never rely sometimes aualy i y

Foremen's Responses

Figure 12 How Often Foremen Are Asked About Methods
at Start of Job


foreman's ideas may not necessarily be implemented, the responses to this question

distinguish between those who have at least some input and those whose opinions are not

even sought. The majority (55.7%) of foremen who are asked about planning and methods

reported that it is someone from their own company (normally their superintendent or project









49

manager) who asks these questions (see Figure 13). Those foremen asked about methods by

the general contracting company indicated that it would typically be the job superintendent

asking the questions.


(N=106)


fremm's cOipay GC coMpay both coupmies

Foremen's Responses

Figure 13 Who Asks Foremen About Methods
at Start of Job


Foremen also gave information on how often they were asked for their estimates of

task duration (see Figure 14). The highest percentage of answers were in the "always"

category. Again, this question does not establish that a foreman's input is necessarily

incorporated into the schedule, but it does distinguish between those foremen who are asked

what they think and those who are not asked. As with the methods question (see Figure 13),

it is usually foremen's own superintendents or project managers who ask for their input

regarding the duration of construction activities (see Figure 15).










(N=119)


never


I
rarely smcetmes usually


Foremen's Responses I
Figure 14 How Often Foremen Are Asked About Duration
of Construction Activities at Start of Job


(N=106)


Foremen's Responses
Foremen's Responses


GC company both conpuaies


Figure 15 Who Asks Foremen About Duration of
Construction Activities at Start of Job















Use of Written Schedules


The majority of foremen (60.5%) reported that they use some type of written plan to

organize their upcoming work. The most common type of plan used was a list of activities,

but four foremen (3.4%) said they use bar charts for planning their work (see Figure 16).


(N= 119)


bar chat


Foremen's Responses


Figure 16 Use of Written Plan to Organize Work


Most foremen (69.7%) reported that there is "always" a written schedule for the

projects where they work (see Figure 17). No answers were given for the scale selection

"never," so this category is not displayed in the chart. Just because a foreman knows that a

schedule exists does not mean that the foreman actually sees the schedule, so foremen were


stL 0 a=Mries















oUJJ
(N= 119)


60 0



40.J



20D* 22




rrely samames usually always

Foremen's Responses

Figure 17 How Often Projects Have Written Schedules




asked how often they see the written schedule. Approximately half (53.8%) of the foremen

reported that they "always" see the schedule (see Figure 18). While 92.4% of the foremen

stated that there is "usually" or "always" a written schedule on their jobs (see Figure 17),

only 74.0% reported that they "usually" or "always" see the schedule (see Figure 18).

Additionally, 10.1% said they "never" or "rarely" see the schedule.

Foremen were also asked how often they find that written schedules are helpful to

them. Slightly more than half (56.9%) of the foremen answered that written schedules are

"usually" or "always" helpful (see Figure 19).











(N=119)


never rrely soametns uually alwa
Foremen's Responses
Figure 18 How Often Foremen See the Schedule


(N=116)


S~ jfIffj I M Th


men's eresponses
Foremen's Responses


Figure 19 How Often Written Schedules Are
Helpful to Foremen













Use of Look-Ahead Schedules



Foremen were asked about the use of look-ahead schedules. Most foremen (70.6%)

reported that look-ahead schedules are "usually" or "always" used on projects they are

involved with, while only 12.6% reported that look-ahead schedules are "never" or "rarely"

used (see Figure 20).



50D
(N= 119)

43.7
400 *


30.0 *


20D *


10 .0

0.0
never rely sometimes mually IwyS

Foremen's Responses

Figure 20 How Often Look-Ahead Schedules Are
Used on Projects



Look-ahead schedules are designed to look into the immediate future and plan for the

upcoming work tasks on a project. Since these schedules can be structured to make

projections of one or more weeks, foremen were asked about the number of weeks projected

in the look-ahead schedules. The reported duration of look-ahead schedules varied from one

week to four weeks or more, but 72.9% answered that these schedules plan between one and










55

three weeks ahead (see Figure 21). A significant number (19.6%) reported a forward plan of

at least four weeks. Although some types of construction look-ahead schedules, or short-term

schedules, are much longer (e.g., sixty or ninety days), look-aheads normally plan the work

only two or three weeks in advance. Many such schedules also include an additional week

that looks back at the work just completed (Hinze, 1998). This study did not inquire about

the inclusion of the previous week in the look-ahead schedules.





30D .
(N=107)



200*




10 JJ





Iwee1 2wees1 3mwees 4we1s
1 or 2wes 2or3weds 3or4weeds 4wes ormmor

Foremen's Responses

Figure 21 Duration of Look-Ahead Schedules




The majority of foremen reported that the general contractor makes the look-ahead

schedules (see Figure 22). Although some foremen specified the general contractor's

superintendent or project manager as the individual who actually develops such schedules,

most answers simply indicated that someone within the general contractor's organization









56

makes the look-ahead schedules. As shown (see Figure 22), 12.8% of the foremen said they

make the look-ahead schedules themselves, and an additional 22.9% said that someone else

within their company makes the schedules. Another 12.8% of the foremen responded that

these schedules are generated by the general contractor and/or their own company, while

50.5% reported that only the general contractor creates look-aheads. Foremen who make the

look-ahead schedules themselves are considered to have the highest level of involvement in

the scheduling process, and foremen whose own companies make the look-ahead schedules

are considered to have more involvement in the scheduling process than those whose own

companies do not make look-ahead schedules.



60DJ
(N=109)
50D -
50.5

40D *

30J -

20D




fream GC&reum's coupmy
f omL's cCpOmy G Cn l CcarAtctor

Foremen's Responses

Figure 22 Who Makes the Look-Ahead Schedules



Approximately half (50.5%) of the foremen indicated that look-ahead schedules are

composed of a list of activities which are to be performed in the upcoming week or weeks










57

(see Figure 23). Bar charts, which would be considered a more sophisticated means of

planning than a list, were the form of look-ahead schedules observed by 35.4% of the

foremen surveyed. An additional 12.1% said they typically see either form (list of activities

or bar chart).





60D J
(H=99)
50D3 50


40D


30 0


20D -


ioDn 12.1


veiba nlrdy listofctYities listorbadchmft brcht

Foremen's Responses

Figure 23 Types of Look-Ahead Schedules Used





A fairly even distribution of answers was obtained when asking foremen if they help

plan look-ahead schedules for their projects (see Figure 24). Hinze (1998) points out that it

is ideal if craft supervisors are involved in developing short-interval schedules since these

schedules detail the specific tasks that the first-line supervisors know best. It was expected

that foremen who participated in planning the work would have a better attitude towards the

schedule.













40JO
(N= 112)


30 0



20.J



10D




neer rely smtimes usually lways

Foremen's Responses

Figure 24 How Often Foremen Help Plan
Look-Ahead Schedules





Attitudes About Scheduling



The fact that nearly all the interviews were tape recorded helped to further categorize

responses to open-ended questions, such as those concerning foremen's attitudes about

scheduling. With the recordings, voice inflection and general sentiment behind a response

could be evaluated if the comment itself was ambiguous.

Foremen were asked if they follow the schedule (see Figure 25; refer also to Table

10, page 155, for foremen's detailed responses). Only 4.2% gave negative responses,

examples of which include "I make my own schedule. I've been told I'm working out of

sequence" and "Well, I try to, but they're always pushin' so you never can." Typical neutral

responses are "You follow it as much as you can. But if something changes right after you













100J0
(N=118)








40. O


20.O



negatiue response eut response positive rensponse

Foremen's Responses

Figure 25 Whether Foremen Follow the Schedule


write it...then you're back to square one" and "Yes, but if there's a problem with some of the

other sub-trades, then you can't follow it." Examples of positive responses include "I try to

keep really close to it, as close as I can" and "I have to. It's based on the GC's bar chart, and

we have to meet certain dates with certain items. If I don't, I get buried in concrete, and it's

my job to chip it up."

Most foremen (65.3%) gave positive responses to the question "How do you feel

about the schedule?" (See Figure 26; refer also to Table 11, page 160, for foremen's detailed

responses.) Comparing foremen's responses regarding how they feel about the schedule (see

Figure 26) to whether or not they follow the schedule (see Figure 25), some foremen

apparently cooperate with the demands of the schedule even if they have negative or neutral

feelings about it. On the three-point scale where negative = 1, neutral = 2, and positive = 3,

the mean for "How do you feel about the schedule?" is 2.52, while the mean for "Do you















70D

60D

50. 0

40D

30D

20J --





egtiie response neutr-nsponse posiue response

Foremen's Responses

Figure 26 How Foremen Feel About the Schedule




follow the schedule?" is 2.74, implying that foremen's actual adherence to the schedule is

better than their attitudes toward the schedule. Examples of negative responses are "It's a

crock of bull since they change their minds so much and it's so tight you can't do it" and "A

lot of times it's not realistic. Coordination is poor. I can keep up with any schedule as long

as it's coordinated with the other contractors on the job site. And that's not done very much."

Neutral responses include "If they get me the things I need when I want them, then I feel

good about it" and "It's useful when it works, and sometimes it's an absolute waste of time."

Sample positive responses are "They help you get the job done. You have to have a schedule.

If not, you never will get the job done" and "You can't go without them. You gotta have

some kind of a schedule. You gotta have some kind of plan to go by."










61

The majority (62.2%) of the foremen reported that their crews do not know what the

schedule is (see Figure 27). One foreman said, "They know nothing about the schedule. They

don't need that stress."


(N=119)


noyes

Foremen's Responses

Figure 27 Whether Foremen's Crews Know the Schedule


For those foremen whose crews know about the schedule, the perceived attitudes of

their crews toward the schedule are categorized in Figure 28. Sample negative responses

include "They hate it, because we push to be done on time" and "They hate it. They'd rather

work their eight hours a day and be done with it." Neutral responses include "They hate

being threatened by it, but they like it as a challenge. And you can use it both ways" and

"They're complacent about it. They just want someone to tell them where to go and what to

do." Positive responses include "They look forward to it, being able to plan ahead" and

"They like it. That way they know what they're doing. Sometimes my crew will get here










62

ahead of me or they'll work late or something, or I have to go to meetings. They know

what's going on in order to go. They're not just sitting there."





50D
(N=43)
46.5
40D *


30D *


20D J


10.0



regtie response neutr1 srponse posite response

Foremen's Responses

Figure 28 How Foremen Think Their Crews Feel
About the Schedule



Many foremen (40.9%) reported that they want more information aboutthe schedule

(see Figure 29; refer also to Table 12, page 167, for foremen's detailed responses). A

common response was that they want to know more about how their upcoming work is going

to coordinate with other trades. One foreman who wanted more information on coordination

with other trades said he does not get the necessary details at the coordination meetings since

"a lot of times, when they have their weekly meetings, half the people don't show up."


Another common response was the desire for more accurate scheduling information. One

foreman who wanted more accurate dates for his upcoming work stated that the original










63

schedule does not get updated. "It changes so much. If they would just adjust the schedule

to reflect what's actually happening in the field."






70DJ
(N=115)
60D J

50. J

40D 409

30D J

20D *





noes

Foremen's Responses

Figure 29 Whether Foremen Want More Information About
the Schedule



The majority (74.6%) ofthe foremen have suggestions on how to improve scheduling

(see Figure 30; refer also to Table 13, page 172, for foremen's detailed responses). Although

these suggestions vary widely, a common theme among them is the need for better

communication throughout the scheduling process. As one foreman said, "Communication

is the real key. I mean, that's the biggest problem that most companies have, is the

communication issue." Another stated, "In construction, you always got communication

problems." Many foremen also suggested that activity durations need to be more realistic,

with some indicating that durations would be realistic if the input of the trades was










64

incorporated into the schedule. Similar findings appear in Birrell's (1989) study of

scheduling issues, in which approximately one-third of subcontractors claimed that durations

are unrealistic. Regardless of the specific suggestion, the fact that some foremen have

suggestions on how to improve scheduling may indicate that they are not satisfied with the

current system and/or that they are open to the idea of changing the current system.


(N=11I8)


noyes

Foremen's Responses

Figure 30 Whether Foremen Have Suggestions
Regarding How to Improve Scheduling


Scheduling and Safety


A majority (58.0%) of the foremen reported that following safety rules slows down

production (see Figure 31). It is important to note, however, that regardless of how they

answered this question, nearly all foremen went on to emphasize the importance they place

on safety. Foremen who stated that safety slows down production typically qualified their










65

answers by saying that their first priority is safety, and that the safety of their workers is

more important than production.


(N= 119)


slows down does not ffct

Foremen's Responses


speeds up


Figure 31 Effect That Following Safety Rules
Has on Production


When foremen were asked if the demands of the schedule ever make it difficult to

deal properly with safety issues, 45.4% answered that this "sometimes" happens, and 17.7%

reported that this "usually" or "always" happens (see Figure 32). It appears that although

foremen as a whole feel very strongly about their responsibility to ensure the safety of their

crews, there is a perception that the demands of the schedule create a conflict with their

commitment to working safely. Nonetheless, 97.5% of foremen either "agreed" or "strongly

agreed" that they can make "good job progress" and be safe at the same time (see Figure 33).

Thus, there appears to be a discrepancy between the goals of the schedule and what foremen














(-=119)
1 45 .4














12.
never rely sometimes usually always


Foremen's Responses

Figure 32 Frequency That the Schedule Causes Difficulty in
Dealing Properly with Safety Issues


(Nz 119 )


no opmeons

Foremen's Responses


agree


Figure 33 Whether Foremen Think They Can Make Good
Job Progress While Working Safely










67

define as "good job progress." This finding is consistent with the fact that many of the

foremen commented on the need for more realistic durations when asked if they had any

suggestions about how to improve scheduling (see Figure 30, page 64; refer also to Table 13,

page 172, for foremen's detailed responses).

Foremen were asked for their opinions regarding the inclusion of safety activities in

the construction schedule (see Figure 34). Regarding whether or not foremen thought it

would be helpful to include safety activities in the written schedule, 51.3% responded

negatively and 38.3% responded positively. Positive responses to this question may indicate

foremen's willingness to try new methods of scheduling.

Previous studies have highlighted the need to address safety issues in the construction

schedule. Birrell (1989) advised that the schedule should reflect safety concerns by its





60.
(N= 115)
50D 513


40.
383

30D


20D -


101-


negaieresponse neut1arensponse positie response

Foremen's Responses

Figure 34 Opinions of Foremen Regarding the Inclusion of
Safety Activities in the Construction Schedule









68

process logic and activity durations, and suggested the possibility of including safety

activities as part of the explicit schedule. Research funded by the Center to Protect Workers'

Rights has resulted in the development of software which enables the integration of

information from a safety database with computerized project schedules, linking relevant

items from the safety database to the appropriate activities in the schedule (Kartam, 1995).

Hinze (1998) also emphasized the importance of addressing safety concerns in the

construction schedule.


Documentation Practices


Nearly all (96.6%) of the foremen indicated that they record information about the

work of their crews. The form of documentation varied from only keeping time sheets to

keeping detailed daily reports and log books. Most of the foremen reported the same basic

practices of record keeping. They keep time sheets for their crews and also keep a daily

record of information aboutthe project. However, the practice of keeping a separate log book

(sometimes called a journal) was less common. Therefore, in order to distinguish between

levels of documentation being maintained, foremen's responses were categorized according

to whether or not they keep a log book to document pertinent activities and issues on their

projects. Based on this criteria, 51.1% of the 92 foremen providing this information reported

that they do maintain a log book (in addition to daily reports and other required

documentation) and 48.9% said they do not keep a log book.

Ninety foremen provided information on the amount of time spent on documentation.

Although the range of time spent per day on record keeping activities varied widely (from










69

five minutes to 3.5 hours), the mean was 61.0 minutes, the median was 56.3 minutes, and the

mode was 60.0 minutes.

Foremen's practices regarding photographic documentation was also examined (see

Figure 35). Foremen were asked whether or not they take pictures on their projects and for

what purpose. Although 19.5% of foremen indicated that they do not take pictures on the job,

the remaining foremen take pictures for three basic purposes: keeping a personal portfolio

of projects they have built, documenting specific problems and/or circumstances, and

maintaining a general record of progress on the job (whether or not there are problems).

From their responses, ordinal categories were created to establish levels of sophistication

concerning photographic documentation, where taking no pictures represents the lowest level

and the practice of taking pictures for general records of job progress represents the highest

level. Although special permission had to be obtained in order to take pictures on the



60.0
( 113)
50D -
494
40D *

30D -


1O.O




nopictures specific problem
persaonlprtfflio geienalrecords

Foremen's Responses

Figure 35 Foremen's Practices of Taking Pictures










70

Universal Studios projects due to the proprietary work under construction, foremen were

instructed to answer this question based on their typical habits of taking pictures on other

projects.

Foremen were asked if they keep any records that are not required, and 82.2%

(N= 118) reported keeping records that are not required. They indicated that such records

usually involve specific details they want to remember about their work, materials they need

to order, or notes about coordination with other trades.

Most foremen (83.3%) indicated that they think their records are "very important"

(see Figure 36). No answers were given for the importance category "not at all," which is

omitted from the chart. This finding indicates an important reversal in foremen's attitudes

towards documentation, as Borcherding (1972) found that "very few foremen or





1000
(N=114)

800 f 833





40 )


20.



oflittlmh importace important
fairly imp t r impr

Foremen's Responses

Figure 36 How Important Foremen Think Their
Job Records Are










71

superintendents fully appreciate the value of or need for paperwork that they are asked to

complete" (p. 122).

Foremen were asked why they think their job records are important (see Figure 37).

As with the foremen's practice of taking pictures (see Figure 35), ordinal categories were

created to rank levels of sophistication regarding documentation practices. The majority of

the foremen (67.0%) gave reasons that dealt with protecting themselves and/or their

companies from future problems, such as litigation (see Figure 37). Reasons given that deal

with maintaining control of the job and/or compiling historical data for use in estimating and

other systems account for 22.0% of the sample. Answers which included both categories

(protect self/company and job control/history) were given by an additional 8.3% of the

sample.





800J

70.0 (N= 109)
676.
60. *

50D *

40D -

30D J

20D 0




protectselfcom y protection + corol
job controlahistoiy other

Foremen's Responses

Figure 37 Why Foremen Think Their Job
Records Are Important









72

The practice of documenting work accomplished on a routine basis, whether or not

there are any particular problems, is considered in this study to be a more sophisticated level

of documentation than specifically focusing on a particular problem area. It is often difficult

to know beforehand which issues will become problems later in the job or after the job is

finished. The documentation that is detailed in all aspects of the as-built project record will

probably be better for multiple purposes than documentation of an isolated issue. The need

to document a specific problem is obvious, but it takes more foresight to also document the

as-built progress that appears to be taking place without difficulty. The practice of

maintaining a comprehensive record of as-built progress should produce the best

documentation.

When asked if their records are used to evaluate their work, foremen gave varied

answers with some bias toward the affirmative end of the scale (see Figure 38). On the five-

point frequency scale shown, where "sometimes" = 3 and "usually" = 4, the mean response

was 3.3. Most foremen are used to being evaluated based on their job records. When asked

if their records are checked by others, foremen again gave varied answers with bias toward

the affirmative end of the scale (see Figure 39). On the five-point frequency scale shown,

where "sometimes" = 3 and "usually" = 4, the mean response was 3.6. Although 19.5% of

the foremen indicated that their records are never checked by others, 62.8% reported that

their records are "usually" or "always" checked. Regarding whether or not they are asked

questions about their records, foremen's responses varied, with a very slight bias toward the

negative end of the scale (see Figure 40). On the five-point frequency scale shown, where

"rarely" = 2 and "sometimes" = 3, the mean response was 2.9.















(N=114)


never rarely sometimes usually always

Foremen's Responses

Figure 38 How Often Foremen's Records Are Used
to Evaluate Their Work


(N=113)


never ey sometnes usually always

Foremen's Responses

Figure 39 How Often Foremen's Records Are Checked













40D
(NT=114)


30.



20J0 219








never rely sometimes muiully aways

Foremen's Responses

Figure 40 How Often Foremen Are Asked Questions
About Their Records




Regarding foremen's practices of documenting situations when they have to shift

their crews to other work areas (because they are waiting for information needed to do their

current work, waiting for inspections, waiting for other trades, etc.), responses show that

such occurrences tend to be documented. Most foremen (76.1%) reported that they "usually"

or "always" keep notes detailing why they had to move their crews (see Figure 41).

Similarly, the majority (57.2%) said they usually or always keep a record of the time spent

remobilizing their crews (see Figure 42). These findings, which relate to foremen's specific

practices of documentation when shifting crews to other work areas, are relatively consistent

with the findings that foremen are generally aware of the importance of their job records (see

Figure 36, page 70, and Figure 37, page 71).















(H= 117)


never rarely somletes usualy


Foremen's Responses I

Figure 41 How Often Foremen Keep Written Notes in the
Event They Have to Move Their Crews


never rely oaimmiee usually


Foremen's Responses


Figure 42 How Often Foremen Keep Records ofTime Spent
Remobilizing Their Crews


O.












Sources of Delay



Foremen were asked to rate their degree of access to the information they need to do

their jobs (see Figure 43). Most foremen (63.6%) answered that their access to information

is "good" or "excellent." On the quality scale shown, where "OK" = 3 and "good" = 4, the

mean response was 3.8.


terrible poor

Foremen's Responses


UK good


Figure 43 How Foremen Rate Their Access to Information
Needed to Do Their Jobs




Although foremen gave fairly positive responses to the general question about their

access to information, their responses were somewhat negative when asked more specific

questions. As shown (see Figure 44), 56.3% of the foremen either "agreed" or "strongly

agreed" that their production is often slowed down due to waiting for information needed to


(N=118)


f P-ilary










77

perform their work (see Table 14, page 181, for foremen's detailed responses regarding the

type of information for which they have to wait). It should be noted that many foremen

indicated that this "sometimes" happens, but since the question specifically asked if they are

"often" slowed down, these foremen answered in the "disagree" category. On the agreement

scale shown, where "no opinion"= 3 and "agree"= 4, the mean response to this question was

3.3.




50D
(N=119)

40. *
39O5

300 *





10 0


i oL
trngly disagee disagee no opi n agee strgly agee

Foremen's Responses

Figure 44 Whether Waiting for Information
Often Slows Production




Similarly, 42.0% of the foremen either "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that it is

difficult to get their questions answered (see Figure 45). Foremen who "agreed" or "strongly

agreed" that it was difficult to get their questions answered were also asked why it is

difficult. Common response categories were developed based on the answers received (see

















(N=119)

40. 412


30 0 32


20D






gu gy clisagee disagree noopnioin agee trglya e

Foremen's Responses

Figure 45 Whether Foremen Find it Difficult to Get
Their Questions Answered



Figure 46). As shown, 38.6% of theses foremen said that the people with the answers are

typically either overloaded with work or not available when needed; 34.1% said itis difficult

to get answers because there are so many layers of management; 11.4% blamed incompetent

architects, engineers, or managers in general; 4.5% said people are reluctant to give them

answers because they are afraid of taking responsibility for their decisions; 4.5 % said they

do not know why; and 6.8% gave other reasons.

Foremen were also asked what type of communication they use when asking their

questions. As shown (see Figure 47), 36.4% of the foremen only ask verbally, 20.3% only

ask in writing, and 43.2% ask either verbally or in writing, depending on the situation.
















(N=44)


n---m


00 "4 U


wf&:loadora ail. incopetence donthnow
layers ofmgt relctanceto decide

Foremen's Responses


Figure 46 Why Foremen Think it Is Difficult to Get
Their Questions Answered


(N=118)


vbal:,n only rittn olerbal writt.:fnn only

Foremen's Responses

Figure 47 How Foremen Ask Their Questions














When foremen were asked about their main sources) of delay, they gave eight basic

responses (see Table 3; refer also to Table 15, page 185, for foremen's detailed responses).

This question was open-ended, and the response categories were developed after all

interviews were completed. Most foremen cited two or three of the sources of delay listed.

The most common type of delay specified is unanswered questions, cited by 42.6% of the

foremen. Being delayed by other trades was also frequently (37.7%) cited by the foremen.

Incomplete or conflicting documents was cited by 31.0% of the foremen. Delays specifically

attributed to scheduling, coordination and communication problems was the fourth most

common source, cited by 28.7% of the foremen.


Table 3


Foremen's Main Sources of Delay


SOURCE OF DELAY CITED

Unanswered Questions

Other Trades

Incomplete or Conflicting Plans / Specifications

Scheduling, Coordination, and Communication

Changes to the Work

Material Delays

Weather

Manpower


PERCENT OF FOREMEN CITING

42.6

37.7

31.0

28.7

27.8

25.4

14.4

10.5









81

Other studies indicate similar findings regarding sources of delay. In a study by

Borcherding and Oglesby (1975), foremen cited not having engineering information,

materials and equipment as causes of delays and sources of dissatisfaction in their work.

Superintendents in that study specified a lack of necessary coordination by supervisors to

maintain the schedule. Borcherding and Garner (1981) listed material availability, crew

interfacing, overcrowding, and absenteeism as major problems affecting productivity. That

study also named communication breakdown, overcrowding, and lack of cooperation among

crafts as demotivating factors. Birrell's (1989) survey of construction executives noted

interference from other work crews as a common problem, and recommended improvement

of on-site communications in order to minimize interference between crews. Birrell (1989)

also named poor or changing design information as a major impediment to on site labor

flows. A study which surveyed project managers also found interference between trades to

be a frequent source of delay (Garcia, 1997). Other key sources of delay indicated in that

study are material delays and labor shortages. Both Birrell (1989) and Garcia (1997)

specified problems and delays involving information flow. The most prevalent cause of delay

noted in Garcia's (1997) study is lack of information. Birrell (1989) described incomplete

information, including slow responses to questions, as a major inhibitor of labor efficiency.

Garcia (1997) also found that delays due to lack of information correlated positively with a

lower degree of computer-aided planning. In other words, there were fewer delays due to a

lack of information when there was a higher degree of computer-aided planning.

Foremen were fairly positive regarding the willingness of management to listen to

their suggestions about how to improve work processes. As shown (see Figure 48), 69.5%










82

of the foremen said that management is "usually" or "always" willing to listen to their

suggestions. Some indicated that the willingness to listen does not necessarily mean that

management will act on their suggestions, but they still felt that their voices were being

heard.




50D.
(N=118) 475

40. *





20D *






never mrely somtkmes mually trwYS

Foremen's Responses

Figure 48 Whether Management Is Willing to Listen
to Foremen's Suggestions





Computers and Technology



A number of foremen (16.0%) reported that they already use computers to perform

some part of their jobs (see Figure 49). These foremen described using computers for the

following purposes: equipment testing, scheduling, safety records, daily reports, expense

reports, ordering materials, tracking production rates and other information about crews,










83

communicating via fax and email, operating building control systems, accessing installation

instructions, surveying, requests for information, pay requests, and accessing information on

project-based Web sites. Most of the foremen who already use computers for work reported

using desktop computers. Locations mentioned by foremen for their use of desktop

computers include in the job site trailer, back at the main office, or at home. Five foremen

had used or were using a laptop or handheld computing device in the field.


100.0


(N=119)


Foremen's Responses

Figure 49 Whether Foremen Use Computers to Perform
Any Part of Their Jobs


Computer use by foremen at their homes was much more prevalent. Approximately

half (50.4%) of the foremen reported that they use a computer at home (see Figure 50).

Results of this study indicate that foremen's home computer use may be influenced by their










84

children's use of computers, as 58.8% of the foremen reported that they have children using

computers in their homes.


60D


40JD


(N=119)


no yes

Foremen's Responses

Figure 50 Whether Foremen Use Computers at Home


The prevalence of video game use among foremen was measured since similarities

can be drawn between playing a video game and using a handheld computer. Regarding

whether or not foremen like to play video games (see Figure 51), answers were categorized

into negative, neutral and positive responses. Foremen's answers were split fairly evenly

between negative responses (47.9%) and positive responses (40.3%), with 11.8% neutral

responses. Foremen's use of electronic organizers was also measured, and 31.9% of the

sample reported that they use some type of electronic organizer.




Full Text

PAGE 1

INVESTIGATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION SC HEDULING COMMUN ICATION PROCESS: PROBLEMS, FOREMANÂ’S ROLE, MEANS OF IMPROVEMENT, AND USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY By BRENT R. ELLIOTT A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2000

PAGE 2

Copyright 2000 by Brent R. Elliott

PAGE 3

iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to many indi viduals for their support in this research effort. Without their wise counsel and dependable assistance, this study would not have been possible. My supervisory committee was an excellent source of direction, bot h during preparations for this research and throughout the studyÂ’s performance and documentation. Dr. John Alexander p rovided valuable guidance in settin g up th e research project and organizing the final manuscr ipt. His ability to maintain a broad perspective on the study was extremely beneficial, as was his skillful assistan ce in analyzing th e results. I am also grateful fo r his consistent suppo rt and motivation. D r. Jimmie Hinze pr ovided significan t help in refining the focus of this study, and he continued to be an excellent resource throughout the course of the research. Hi s de tailed review of working drafts was extremely beneficial, as were his insightful sugge stions concerning data analysis. His encouragement is also much appreciated. Dr. Ron Akers provi ded key assistance pertaining to data organization and statistical analysis. I am ver y thankful for his s cholarly advice and willingness to help. The recommendations and insights of Dr. Pierce Jones were quite helpful in defining the scope of this project and exploring methods of conducting the research. Dr. Leon We ther ington gave helpful advice in refining the survey instrument, a nd he pro vided a very practical perspective to this study.

PAGE 4

iv Other contributions outsid e the committee mus t a lso be acknowledged. Dr. Rick Coble provided con siderable advice and direction in determining the subject matter of this research. His energetic inspiration and continued support are much appreciated. Dr. Amarjit Singh and Dr. Steve Rowlinson offered helpful insights toward defining the scope of the study. John Kane provided guidance with data coding and approaches to statistical ana lysis. The many foremen interviewed in this research are recognized for t heir essential co ntri butions. This study would not have been possible without their cooperation and willingness to answer questions and openly discuss the issues investigated. It was certainly a valuable and e njoyable experie nce to meet these individuals during t he field intervie ws. On a personal note, I am very gr ateful to my parents, who ta ught me by example t o strive for excellence in my work. Throughout this research, I have gre atly appre ciated my fathe rÂ’s consistent encouragement, love, and positive attitude. Finally, I give thanks an d praise to my Heavenly Father, the source of every good and perfect gi ft, for His eternal faithfulness and unmerited blessing s.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................ iii LIST OF TABLES ...................................................... ix LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................... xi ABSTRACT ........................................................... xv CHAPTERS1 INTRODUCTION ................................................. 1 Purpose and Overview of Study ...................................... 1 Scheduling Communic ation Process ................................... 2 Research Questions ............................................... 10 What Problems Exist in the Scheduling Com munication Proces s? ..... 10 What Is the Role of Foremen in the Scheduling Communication Process? ............................................ 11 How Can the Scheduling Communication Process Be Improved? ..... 11 Research Objectives ............................................... 12 Investigation of Pr oblems .................................... 13 Examination of Fore menÂ’s Role ............................... 13 Exploration of Process Improvement ............................ 14 Summary of Research Design ....................................... 15 2 METHODS ..................................................... 17 Questionnaire Design .............................................. 17 Demographic Information .................................... 18 Initial Planning Practices ..................................... 19 Use of Written Schedules ..................................... 20 Use of Look-Ahead Schedules ................................. 20 Attitudes About Scheduling ................................... 21

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vi Scheduling and Saf ety ....................................... 22 Documentation Practices ..................................... 23 Sources of Delay ........................................... 24 Computers and Technology ................................... 25 Sample Selection ................................................. 27 Data Collection .................................................. 32 Analysis Techniques .............................................. 34 3 RESULTS ...................................................... 37 Characteristics of Foremen ......................................... 37 Project Demographics ....................................... 38 Demographics of Foremen .................................... 39 Initial Planning Practices ..................................... 47 Use of Written Schedules ..................................... 51 Use of Look-Ahead Schedules ................................. 54 Attitudes About Scheduling ................................... 58 Scheduling and Saf ety ....................................... 64 Documentation Practices ..................................... 68 Sources of Delay ........................................... 76 Computers and Technology ................................... 82 Comparison of Main and External Samples ............................ 96 How ForemenÂ’s Characteristics Correlate with Acceptance of Technology .... 97 Formal Education .......................................... 104 Age ..................................................... 104 Use of Written Plan ........................................ 105 Frequency that Written Schedules are Helpful ................... 105 More Information About the Schedule ......................... 105 Suggestions to Improve Scheduling ............................ 106 Safety Activities in the Schedule .............................. 106 Time Spent on Record Keeping ............................... 107 Separate Log Book ......................................... 107 Records Used to Evaluate Work .............................. 107 Asked Questions About Records .............................. 108 Access to Information ...................................... 108 Waiting for Information ..................................... 109 Delays Due to Scheduling Issues .............................. 109 Delays Due to Changes ..................................... 110 Openness of Management ................................... 110 Computer Use for Work ..................................... 110 Computer Use at Ho me ..................................... 111 Video Games ............................................. 111 Electronic Organizers ....................................... 111

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vii Benefit of Computers to Construction Companies ................ 112 Whether Computers Would Help Foremen Do Their Jobs Better ..... 112 Attitudes Toward Using Computers as Part of Jobs ............... 112 Opinions About Computers Replacing Part of the ForemanÂ’s Job .... 113 Notable Variables Without Significant Correlations ............... 113 Regression Modeling: ForemenÂ’s Characteristics and Their Acceptance of Technology ............................................ 114 Demographic Characteristics (H1) ............................. 119 Proactive Habits and Attitudes Concerning Scheduling (H2) ........ 119 Stringency of Record Keeping Practices and Accountability (H3) .... 120 Access to Information and Experience with Delays (H4) ........... 120 Exposure to and Use of Computers (H5) ........................ 120 Overall Multiple Re gression Models ........................... 121 Summary of Regres sion Analysis ............................. 124 4 DISCUSSION .................................................. 126 Problems in the Sche duling Communication Process .................... 126 Role of Foremen in th e Scheduling Communi cation Process .............. 129 Partial Exclusion of Foremen from the Scheduling Communication Proce ss ............................... 129 ForemenÂ’s Role in Documentation ............................ 131 How the Scheduling Communication Process Can Be Improved ........... 132 Increasing Fore menÂ’s Involvemen t and Enabling Acc ess to Information ...................................... 132 Handheld Digital Communicators ............................. 135 Research Limitations ............................................. 138 Further Research ................................................ 139 Other Sectors of Construction Industry ......................... 139 Other Project Par ticipants ................................... 140 Cost/Benefit Business Model ................................. 140 Productivity Study ......................................... 141 Software Development ...................................... 141 Stereo Imaging ............................................ 142 APPENDICESA QUESTIONNAIRE .............................................. 143 B FOREMENÂ’S RESPONSES TO OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS ........... 153 C AS-BUILT PROJECT DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM .................. 222

PAGE 8

viii REFERENCES ....................................................... 226 BIOGRAPHICAL SKET CH ............................................. 231

PAGE 9

ix LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Number of Companies Employing the Foremen Surveyed ................. 40 2 Comparison of Foremen Education Levels with 1977 Study ............... 46 3 ForemenÂ’s Main Sources of Delay .................................... 80 4 Communication Devices Used by Foremen ............................ 85 5 Variables with Significant Differences Between Main andExternal Samples ... 97 6 Correlations with Handheld Computing Acceptance Using KendallÂ’s Taub ... 99 7 Hypothesis Testing with Single-Step Multiple Linear Regression .......... 116 8 Overall Model Testing with Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression .......... 122 9 Overall Model Testing with Single-Step Multiple Linear Regression ....... 124 10 ForemenÂ’s Responses: Do You Follow the Schedule? ................... 155 11 ForemenÂ’s Responses: How Do You Feel About the Schedule? ............ 160 12 ForemenÂ’s Responses: Do You Wish You Had More Information About the Schedule? ....................................... 167 13 ForemenÂ’s Responses: Do You Have Any Suggestions on How to Improve Scheduling? ..................................... 172 14 ForemenÂ’s Responses: What are Some Typical Kinds of Information That You Have to Wait for Which Are Needed to Perform Your Work? ... 181 15 ForemenÂ’s Responses: What Causes You Delays on the Job? and How Can These Delays Be Reduced? ....................... 185

PAGE 10

x 16 ForemenÂ’s Responses: If Your Employer Told You a Computer Would Help You Do Your Job Better and Wanted You to Start Using One as Part of You r Job, How Would Yo u Feel About That? ........ 194 17 ForemenÂ’s Responses Regarding the Usefulness of a Stereo Camera ........ 201 18 ForemenÂ’s Respons es Regarding the U sefulness of a Ha ndheld Computer/Communication Device for General Job Applications ..... 208 19 ForemenÂ’s Respons es Regarding the U sefulness of a Ha ndheld Computer/Communication Device Specifically for Scheduling and Coordination Purposes .................................. 215

PAGE 11

xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Distribution of Samp le by Project Name ............................... 38 2 Distribution of Sample by General Contractor .......................... 39 3 Distribution of Sample by Trade ..................................... 41 4 ForemenÂ’s Overall Construction Experience ............................ 41 5 Construction Experience as Foremen ................................. 42 6 Current and Previous Union Affiliation ................................ 43 7 Duration with Current Employer ..................................... 44 8 Average Crew Size ................................................ 44 9 Level of Formal Education Completed ................................ 45 10 Trade School Training ............................................. 46 11 Age of Foremen .................................................. 47 12 How Often Foremen Are Asked About Methods at Start of Job ............. 48 13 Who Asks Foremen About Methods at Start of Job ...................... 49 14 How Often Foremen Are Asked About Duration of Construction Activities at Start of Job .............................................. 50 15 Who Asks Foremen About Duration of Construction Activities at Start of Job .............................................. 50 16 Use of Written Plan to Organize Work ................................ 51

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xii 17 How Often Projects Have Written Schedules ........................... 52 18 How Often Foreme n See the Schedule ................................ 53 19 How Often Written Schedules Are Helpful to Foremen ................... 53 20 How Often Look-A head Schedules A re Used on Projec ts ................. 54 21 Duration of Look-Ahead Schedules ................................... 55 22 Who Makes the Look-Ahead Schedules ............................... 56 23 Types of Look-Ahead Schedules Used ................................ 57 24 How Often Foremen Help Plan Look-Ahead Schedules ................... 58 25 Whether Foremen Follow the Schedule ................................ 59 26 How Foremen Feel A bout the Schedule ............................... 60 27 Whether Foremen Â’s Crews Know the S chedule ......................... 61 28 How Foremen Think T heir Crews Feel A bout the Schedule ............... 62 29 Whether Foremen Want More Infor mation About the Sch edule ............. 63 30 Whether Foremen Have Suggestions Regarding How to Improve Scheduling .. 64 31 Effect That Following Safety Rules Has on Production ................... 65 32 Frequency That th e Schedule Cause s Difficulty in Dea ling Properly with Safety Issues .......................................... 66 33 Whether Foremen Think They Can Make Good Job Progress While Working Saf ely ....................................... 66 34 Opinions of Foremen Regarding the Inclusion of Safety Activities in the Construction Sc hedule .................................. 67 35 ForemenÂ’s Practices of Taking Pictures ................................ 69 36 How Important Foremen Think Their Job Records Are ................... 70

PAGE 13

xiii 37 Why Foremen Think Their Job Records Are Important ................... 71 38 How Often ForemenÂ’s Records Are Used to Evaluate Their Work ........... 73 39 How Often ForemenÂ’s Records Are Checked ........................... 73 40 How Often Foremen Are Asked Questions About Their Records ............ 74 41 How Often Foremen Keep Written Notes in the Event They Have to Move Their Crews ........................................ 75 42 How Often Foremen Keep Records of Time Spent Remobilizing Their Crews ............................................... 75 43 How Foremen Rate Their Access to Information Needed to Do Their Jobs .... 76 44 Whether Waiting for Information Often Slows Production ................. 77 45 Whether Foremen Find it Difficult to Get Their Questions Answered ........ 78 46 Why Foremen Think it Is Difficult to Get Their Questions Answered ........ 79 47 How Foremen Ask Their Questions .................................. 79 48 Whether Management Is Willing to Listen to ForemenÂ’s Suggestions ........ 82 49 Whether Foremen Use Computers to Perform Any Part of Their Jobs ........ 83 50 Whether Foremen Use Computers at Ho me ............................ 84 51 Whether Foremen Like to Play Video Games ........................... 85 52 Whether Foremen Think Computers Are Beneficial to Construction Companies ..................................... 86 53 Whether Foremen Think Computers Could Help Them Do Their Jobs Better .. 87 54 ForemenÂ’s Respons es to Using Computer s as Part of Their J obs If So Directed by Their Employers .................................. 87 55 Whether Foremen Think Computers Could Ever Replace Part of Their Jobs ... 89 56 Whether Foremen Think Stereo Camera Would Be Useful to Them ......... 90

PAGE 14

xiv 57 Gator Communicator Mock-Up ...................................... 90 58 Simon PDA / Cellular Pho ne, by IBM and BellSo uth ..................... 91 59 Shared Database for Communications ................................. 92 60 Shared Data Commun ications Between Foremen and Proje ct Participants .... 93 61 Whether Foremen Think Handheld Device Would Help Them Do Their Jobs .. 94 62 Whether Foremen Think Handheld Device Would Help with Scheduling and Coordination ........................................... 95 63 As-Built Project Documentation System .............................. 224

PAGE 15

xv Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy INVESTIGATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION SC HEDULING COMMUN ICATION PROCESS: PROBLEMS, FOREMANÂ’S ROLE, MEANS OF IMPROVEMENT, AND USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY By Brent R. Elliott May 2000 Chair: John F. Alexander Major Department: Architecture The purpose of this stud y is to improve the construction scheduling communication process. The study f ocuses on construct ion foremen working on general commercial building pro jects, an d explores how the construction scheduling communication process may be improved through the role of foremen. A key objective is to investigat e the concept of foremen using handheld computer/communication devices as a means of improving effect iv eness and efficiency in the scheduling communication process. Several primary research questions provide a framework for exploring how the c onstr uction scheduling communication process may be improved through the role of the construction foreman:

PAGE 16

xvi 1) What problems exi st in the scheduling communication pro cess? 2) What is the role of foremen in the sc heduling communica tion process? 3) How can the scheduling communication process be improved? Procedures used to answers these questions include survey instrum ent design, sampl e selection, personal interviews, and statistical analysis. Data collected includes demographic information about the project and individual being interviewed, foremenÂ’s role in the initial planning process, use of written sched ules on p rojects, attitudes about scheduling, documentation practices, sources of delay, and exposure to and use of computer technology. Consistenc y of res ults between two sample groups is evaluated with the MannWhitney U and Wilcoxon W tests. Correlation testing is performed using KendallÂ’s taub in order to identify the independent variables which are correlated with foremenÂ’s acceptance of handheld computer/communication technology. Multiple linea r re gression analysis is performed to identify chara cteristics of forem en which predict their acceptance of technology. Result s are found to be h ighly significant ( P <0.01). This study identifies problems in the scheduling communi cation process. R esults show that foremen are partially excluded from the flow of information within the scheduling communication process, thereby reducing their efficiency in coordinating the work, and that delays often occur due to problems involvin g the flow of infor mation. Results suggest that the scheduling communication process can be improved b y increasing foremenÂ’s involvement in the scheduling process and by enabling fo remen to a ccess the information they need to coo rdinate the work. This study also demonstrates foremenÂ’s general acceptance of existing compute r technology whic h has the potential to facilitate suc h improvements.

PAGE 17

1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION After first presenting the studyÂ’s purpose, this chapter re v iews the literature concerning the scheduling communica tion process. It then specifies the primary research questions explored, outlines the studyÂ’s objectives, and summarizes the research design. Purpose and Overview of Study The purpose of this study is to improve the project scheduling com m unication process in the construction industry. The study focuses on construction fo reme n, and explores how the construction scheduling communication process may be improved through the role of foremen. It seeks to ex amine the chara cteristics of for emen related to th eir role in the scheduling communication process and to develop a pr ofile of these ch aracteristics. It also considers foremenÂ’s perspectives on problems involving the scheduling communication process and how the process may be imp roved. A key obje ctive is to investigate the concept of foremen using h andheld computer /communication de vices (also referred to herein as handheld digi t al communicators) as a means of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheduling communication process. The re s earch is therefore designed to learn about foremenÂ’s experiences wi th computing techno logy, to discover their attitudes toward the conce pt of using handhel d digital communicat ors, and to

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2 enable identification of any relationships that may exist betw een particular characteristics of for emen and their assessment o f whether using ha ndheld digital commu nicators would help them perform their jobs more effectively. Scheduling Communic ation Process The sched u ling communication process is the flow of all information that pertains to projec t plannin g and coordinatio n. It is a dynamic pr ocess which requ ires timely interaction among multiple project participants. Ideal ly, the p rocess begins well before construction activities are underway and involves a gradual transfer of responsibility from preconstruction managers to oper ations managers. The process reaches its peak activity level during the construction phase, w hich is the focus of this research. A lthough the as-buil t record is established by docum enting progress concurrently with c onstruction, the scheduling communication process concludes with emphasis on organization of project records as the job is closed out and documentation is finalized. At the inception of a new project, the construction schedule is the “beginning of the potential to communicate the required inform ation to all participants” (Birrell, 1989, p. 35). The schedule becomes “the hub of a communication system” which links together a myriad of project participants, ea ch with diverse responsibilities in the construction p rocess (Birrell, 1989, p. 34). This communication syste m must be efficient in order to ensure success in the dynamic environment of a project under construction. It has long been recognized that the efficiency of construction operation s i s directly related to the quality of communications employed (Fletcher, 1972) As Parker (1980 ) states, “constr uction productivit y is directly

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3 related to the amount and quality of the communication that flows between the people who are managing and those who are doing the work” (p. 173). Failure in the communication of the schedule will result in ineffici ent construction desp ite the integrity of the schedule (Birrell, 1989). Comput er technology has le d to the developmen t of better fie ld management systems and such systems have enabled construction contractors and manager s to monit or field operation s mor e effectively. Despite such advances, however, there is much room for i mproving c ommunications and p roject informati on flow (Boles et a l., 1998). Errors in information exchange, coordination, and commun ica tion are blamed for many of the problems that arise during construction (Ar nold and Teic holz, 199 6). In fact, lack of communication among project participants has been suggested as the main cause of fragmentation and low productivity in the construction industry (Meyer and Russell, 1991). In a study which surveyed over 100 construction executives, Birrell (1989) concludes that lack of communications or poor communications is a major impedimen t to la bor flow effici ency on site (Birrell, 1989). Abou-Zeid and Russell (1993) conclude that the communicatio n o f project informa tion needs to be impr oved. In their stud y of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) conducted t hrough the Co nstruction Industry Institute (CII), Bell and Gibson (1990) also point out the industr y’s communication problems: There is a need in the con struction industr y for more efficient communication mech anisms for transferring data between and within owner, engineer, con tractor an d supplier/subcontractor organizations, e.g.:1) Design data from owner or designer to the contractor; 2) As-built data from contractor to owner; 3) Procuremen t-r elated data between contractors and their subcontractors and material supplier s;

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4 4) Constr u ction and project control data between contractors and owners and within project and contractor organizations. (p. 4) Communication of the construction sche dule, most closely related to the fourth point above, is again recogniz ed as an area ne eding improvement At the beginning of a project, throughout its const ruction, and in post-construction analysis, the sche du le is considered the “dominant information tool for managers of construction operations” (B a rnes, 1993, p. 404) As defined in this s tudy, the schedule includes both the as-planned schedule (plan ning of upcoming wor k) and the as-buil t schedule (documentation of actual progress). Cost and schedule functions are two of the mos t important elements of a construction control system, and “control depends on data acquired on the site during the execution of the project” (Abudayyeh and Rasdorf, 1991, pp. 679-680). Although most construction p rojects employ some means of cost and schedule control, “many projects suffer from ineffective con trol du e to inefficient flow of information” (Abudayyeh and Rasdorf, 1991, p. 680). The s cheduling communic ation process is usually disjointed and often fails to promptly and accurately capture construction progress data that managers need to make informed decisio ns. In addition, addressing the immediate demands and problems concer ning work in progre ss consu mes t he bulk of field management’s attention, resulting in historical docu mentation which is frequently either inaccurate or in a format which is extremely difficult to utilize effectively. Foremen are closer to the actual construction work t han any other supervisors or managers on a project, and thus are recognized as a valuable source of information about the project (Coble, 1994). In Borcherding’s (1977) study of participative decision making,

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5 management realized t he value o f foremen in field decision making. They reasoned that foremen make good decisions since they are close to the work. Managers in that study found it especially valuable t o involve f oremen in the preconstruction phase, when bidding or scheduling a proje ct. However, inefficient mea ns o f comm unication between foremen and management during the construction phase can lead to reduced productivity and poor documentat i on. Despite the development of more advanced project management software packages, “project participants still have difficulty receiving project data in a useful form” (Boles et al., 1998, p. 131). Although the most direct source of detailed information about work being performed is the constructio n foreman construction managers often lack an efficient means of communicating as-planned schedules to for emen and receiving accu rate and timely fi eld productivity information from f oremen. It is well known that “accu rate, complete documentation and efficient communication are critical to the success of a const ruction project,” and that the curren t “lack of accurate documentation causes confusion and difficulties with regard to cla ims a nd disputes” (Liu, 19 97, p. 399). Also, f ield problems which require collaboration with management often involve site visits by management and take excessive time to solve. Inefficient means of communication r esults in problems during construction (e.g., delays and productivity losses) and problems after construction (e.g., claims and litigation). Th ere is a genera l need in the constr uction indust r y for improved methods of disseminating information to project team members (Boles et al., 1998; Parfi tt et al., 1993).

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6 Construction researchers h ave contemplate d how to use computin g technologies to improve communications be tween the field and the office, and also within the project itself. Oglesby, Parker, and Howell (1989) discuss the use of computer terminals placed at strategic locations on the job to augment communications via portable ra dios. Th ey suggest that if verbal in formation exchanges via portable radios were enhanced by communications via fiel d computer terminal s, such use of comp uters could “both s upport and formal ize these information exchanges” (p. 444). These aut hors poi nt out that one potential use of such a s ystem would be to communicate the schedule to field personnel. They suggest that the details of the schedule, such as crew assignments and changes to the sch edule, co uld be accessed by all interested parties at the computer te rminals in the field. They conclude that such a scheduli ng communication process would be “far better than relying on word of mouth or written plans, some of which may relay out-of-date information” (p. 444). There is a recognition in th e industry that “pa per-based jobsit e construction pr ocesse s are bec oming obsolete as they are unable to deliv er just-in-time inf ormation” (De la Garza and Howit t, 1997). Oglesby, Parker, and Howe ll (1989) also discuss how computers could be used in the field for tracking resources, such as drawings, ordered or stored materials, t oo ls, and supplies. They point out that proper coordination of such resources is essential for productivity, but that the superintendent or foreman often ends up “hunting through written records” which are “incomplete, not i n usable order, o r not readily accessible” (p. 444). They con clude that “computers c an make the proc ess of finding thing s quicker and ea sie r” (p 444). Foreseeing the gr owth of the Intern et, electronic ma il was identified a s another specif ic

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7 application of utilizing compute r terminals in the field, and the authors state that “the list of potential uses for such communication is almost endless” (p. 444). P roductivit y can be greatly enhanced by the reuse and transfer of data in electronic format (Parfitt et al., 1993). An emergin g mea ns of improving the transfer of scheduling and coordination information to and from the field is the implementation of handhel d computer/communication technology. Various construction research p rojec ts during the 1980's and 1990's have investigate d the use of such technology (including radio frequency identification, radio frequenc y data communic ation, o ptical charact er recognition, v oice data entry, magnetic stripe a nd smart cards) to improve field comm unications and i nformation transfer (Bell and Gibson, 1990; McCullouch, 1991b; Pan, 1996; Stukhart, 1995; Stukhart and Berry, 1992). Research involving radio frequency tec hno logy in construction was pursued because of the obvious information-flow benef its of “real-time, interactive communication with a computer wi thout being physica lly attached to th at comput er” (McCullough, 1991b, p. 677). Usin g handheld computers for field data collection has been recognized as beneficial, p artly since “the ir use would help a void depend ence on site personnel memories at the end of the day when much of the paperwork is normally done” (Russell, 1993, p. 392). In a ddition, electron ic documentation o ffers a soluti o n to the problem of underutilized daily log information collected by foremen (Tavakoli, 1990) by enabling managers to acc ess such data more efficiently C oble (1994) points out that foremen are the most appropria te individuals to use such devices since “the most accurate information about a construction pr oject comes from t hose actually emb roiled in the day to day activities on site” (p. 1451). Pen computing provides a simple m eans of data entr y which actually

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8 emulates the earliest means of written communications, marking symbols and letters on a flat surface (Tidwell, 1992). Handheld computers have been des igned to meet the needs of construction field personnel, integrating components such as digital camera, touch screen, and two-way communication (Alexander et al., 1997). Other research has investigated multimedia documentation of f ield activities an d use of the Inter net for informatio n exchange as a means of improving record keeping and information flow (Liu, 1997). As De la Garza and Ho w itt (1997) point out in their study of jobsit e wireless commun ications, “A shift to an electronic-based exchange of information can help a llevia te the timely delivering and accessing of relevant amount s of information” (p. 3). Although handheld computers have been utilized in the fie ld to a limited degree, isolated attempts to implement such technology have done so by equipping project engineers, upper-level field supervi sors, or inspectors w ith these automated tools (Mc Cullouch, 1991a; Roj a s and Song er, 1996). Construction foremen, however, ha ve no t generally been equipped with such a device, even though foremen are arguably the best source of detailed project information (Borcherding, 1977; Coble, 1994). Techno logy trends were extrapolated by Tatum, et al. (1991) in order to predict future trends in t he cons truction industry. The authors sugge st that “computer l iteracy in construction c ompanies will eventually ex tend to the constru ction worker in the field to facilitate the exchange of real-time information between the project team members” (p. 27). They also state that “technology employing electronic tran smission of data will significantly diminish the si gn ificance of geo graphic location ,” (p. 39) and tha t “improved acce ss to databa ses is needed to improve productivity” (p. 50). Similarly, De la Garza and Howit t

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9 (1977) suggest that “the Construction Industry at-large will profit from leveraging walkietalkie wireless voice communication with wireless data communication” (p. 2). However, human factors must be considered in any attempt to implem ent su ch promising technolo gies. Stukhart (199 5) states that desp ite future advances in technology, “by and large people will still be the major problem” (p. 51). Tatum et al. (1991) point out that “the significance of computers is underrated and not well understood by many people” (p. 53). In regards to computer use in the field, they state that “there is a strong resistance by some field superintendents to using computers in the field” (p. 53). Other researchers have recognized that human factor s must be cons idered when attempting to implement technology to imp rove construction operations. Coble (1 994) emphasizes that successful implementation of handheld computing at the foreman level begins with understanding the background and job-related concerns of for emen. In their stu dy of pen-based c omputers f o r use in construction inspection, Rojas and Songer ( 1996) conclude that mobile computing offers much potential benefit to construction field personnel inclu ding engineers, in spectors, superintendents, and foremen but that “little woul d be accomplished if field personnel reject this technology” (p. 1033). Similarly, Cahoon (1995) emphasizes that one requirement for technology implementation in the construction industry is that “there must be buy-in at the supervisory and craft level” (p. 28). This study seeks to evaluate field personnel’s acce pt ance of such technology. The focus is on the first-line field managers, namely craft foremen. It explores the concep t o f foremen using handheld digital communicators to improve the effectiven ess and efficiency of the scheduling communication process. A better understanding of how foremen rel ate to

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10 this technology will provi de guida nce for practical implementation efforts, and will be a helpful resourc e for future re search and deve lopment. Research Questions Several primary resear ch quest ions pr ovide a framework for exploring how the construction scheduling communi ca tion process may be improved through the role of the construction foreman: 1) What problems e xist in the schedulin g communication pr ocess? 2) What is the role of foremen in the scheduling communi cation process? 3) How can the scheduling communication process be improved? What Problems Exist in the Scheduling Com munication Proces s? Since foremen are the last link in the commu nication chain whereby a plan of work is transformed into the reality of work in place, it is impor tant to consider th eir perspective regarding communication problems. What problems have foremen ex peri enced with the scheduling communication process? How do foremen rate their access to information they need to do their job s? Are foremen adequately informed about the schedule? Is production slowed because foremen are waiting for information needed to perform the work? What are foremenÂ’s main causes of delay? This research explores the obstacles that foremen encounter as they relay inf ormation to their c rews and report back to manageme nt.

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11 What Is the Role of Foremen in the Sche duling Communication Process? An important part of exploring how the scheduling communicat io n process can be improved through the role of t he foreman is to investigate the level of involvement that foremen have in scheduling and coordinating the work. What involvement do foremen have in the initial planning process ? Do foremen ac tually use the for mal schedule to organize their work? What involvement do foremen have in creating the as-built record of the job? Human factors must also be considered. What are foremenÂ’s attitudes towards creating the as-built record of the job? What are foremenÂ’s attitudes toward the schedule? Is the schedule helpful to foremen? Are there any characteristics of foremen that corre late with their practices and attitudes related t o the scheduling communication process? Exploration of foremenÂ’s characteristics related to their role in the scheduling communication process should provide insight regarding how the process can be improved. How Can the Scheduling Communication Process Be Improved? The foreman is the ind ividual mo st k eenly aware of the field communication problems that arise as a plan of work is transformed into work in plac e Thus, foremenÂ’s ideas regarding how to i mprove scheduli n g and coordination should be explored. What sugges tions do foremen have about how to improve scheduling? What suggestions do foremen have about how to reduce delays? Since little is known about foremenÂ’ s exposur e to computers, questions were designed to learn more about the potential of foremen as users of handh eld

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12 computer/communication d evices. What is the computer literacy rate of foremen? Do foremen use computers as part of their job? Do foremen use computers at home? Attitudinal factors are explored since they could largely determine the outc ome of any attempt to automate foremen with ha ndheld digital communicators (Cahoon, 1995; Coble, 1994; R oj as and Songer, 1996; Stukhart, 1995; Tatum et al., 1991). What are the attitudes of foremen toward computers? Do foremen think that using a computer could h elp them do their job better ? What are the a tt itud es of foremen toward the concept of using a handheld computer/communication device as part of their job? Addit ional insights could be gained by investigating whether any characteristics of the role of foremen in the scheduling communication pro cess correlate with their attitude s toward new comp uting technologies Research Objectives In order to answer the questions outlined above, the primary objectives of this study are established as follows: 1) Investigate prob lems in the schedul ing communication p rocess. 2) Examine the role o f foremen in the s cheduling communic ation process. 3) Explore means of improving the sche duling communicatio n process. More detailed objectiv es which focus on s pecific research to be performed in this study are presented below.

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13 Investigation of Pr oblems Several research objectives direct the investigation of problems in the scheduling communication pro cess: 1) Review the litera ture related to th e scheduling commu nication process 2) Learn what problems foremen experience with scheduling and coordination. 3) Evaluate foreme nÂ’s access to inf ormation they nee d to do their jobs. 4) Assess whether or not fo remen are adeq uately informed about the schedule. 5) Determine foremenÂ’s sources of dela y, including delays in project information flow. Examination of Fore menÂ’s Role The fo llowing re search objectives guide the examination of foremenÂ’s role in the scheduling communi cation process: 1) Determine the extent of foremenÂ’s involvement in the initial planning process. 2) Investigate foremenÂ’s practices related to scheduling (e.g., whether or not foremen actually use the schedule to organize their work). 3) As certain foremenÂ’s atti tudes toward scheduling (e.g., their perceptions of the usefulness of a written schedule). 4) Explor e facto rs which may affect foremenÂ’s role in scheduling (e.g., the relationship between worker safety and productivity).

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14 5) Examin e f oremenÂ’s involvement in creating the as-built record of the job (e.g., their common prac tices of record keeping and attitu des tow ard documentation). Exploration of Process Improvement Corresponding to the third primary researc h q uestion, the following objectives explore means of improving the sche duling communicatio n process: 1) Le arn abou t foremenÂ’s ideas regarding how to improve scheduling and coordination (e.g., how to reduce delays). 2) Explore the concept of foremen using a handheld computer/communication device t o improve effectiveness and efficiency in the scheduling communication pro cess. 3) Measure the co mpu ter literacy rate of foremen (including an assessment of computer use by foremen at work and at home). 4) Investigate foremenÂ’s attitu des towards compu ters, including the ir attitudes toward the concept of using a handheld computer/communication device as part of their job. 5) Determine whether there a re character ist ics of foremen which pr edict their attitudes toward new computing technologies with potential to improve the scheduling and coordination process. It is hypothesized that such predictive characteristics of foremen will include the following:

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15 a) Demographic information such as craft, experience l evel, a ge, and education. b) Involvement in the initial planning stage of a job. c) Experience with written sched ules, including look -ahead schedul es. d) Attitudes about scheduling. e) Attitudes about worker safety. f) Documentation practices and attitudes concerning its importance. g) Sources of delay, including delays due to scheduling c onfli cts and information flow p roblems. h) Experience with comput ing technology, including ex posure to, use of, and attitudes towa rd computers. Each question in the survey, which is designed to gather information on the abov e characteristic s, could theoretica lly be st ated as a hypothesis. Since this research is exploratory, however, strict hypotheses are not formed a t this point. As detai led in Chapter 2, the survey instrument provides a means of gathering info rmation regardin g many specific characteristics which correspond to the general characteristics presented above. As detailed in Chapter 3, prel iminary evaluatio n of results reveals the most pertinent characteristics of foremen, and explicit hypotheses are then developed and tested. Summary of Research Design This research project seeks to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of construction information system s, specifically r egarding the communication of project

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16 schedule information. A key element of the stud y is its focus on fiel d operations, par ticularly on the role of the foreman. Under exploration is the concept of automating the construction foreman with computerized data management and communication tools so that the foreman bec om es an integral part of the communication process within the scheduling information system. This study focuses on foremen working on r e latively large general commercial building projects. New co nstruction totaling approximately $1. 5 billion at Univers a l St udios in Orlando, Florida, provided a wide variety of trades and a p lentiful source o f foremen to study. In addition, two large commercial projects in Orlando and two in Gainesville, Florida, provided an external pool of foremen to study in order that results could be validated outside of the Universal pro jects. These four non-Univer sal projects ranged in size from $12 million to $30 million. A questionnaire was developed in order to facilitate in-depth persona l i nterviews addressing the multiple research questions discussed above. All interviews were conducted in person by this researcher. Most interviews were recorded on audio tap e, which enabled timely completion of the interviews an d also provided an accurate and detailed record of responses for subsequent review. Purposive sampling, also known as judgmental sampling (Babbie, 1990), was used to obtain a valid sample of 119 foremen.

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17 CHAPTER 2 METHODS This chapter describes the meth ods used to accomplish the studyÂ’s objectives, as presented in Chapter 1. The descriptions encompass (1) design of the survey instrument, or questionnaire, (2) sample selection, including both the main and external samples, (3) fiel d data collection by means of persona l interviews, and ( 4) statistical pro cedures for an alysis of results. Questionnaire Design The questionnaire used in this research was designed to facilitate an organized and consistent method of gathering the data during personal interviews (see Appendix A, page 143, for unabridged q uestionnaire). Q uestions were tai lored to focus on th e co nstruction for eman. The survey instrument was the means of investigating (1) problems with the scheduling com mun ication process, (2) foremenÂ’s role in the scheduling communication process, and (3) how the scheduling communication process can be improved. Questions pertinent to the research were developed and then refined in an attempt to address the issues as specifically as possible. A pilot study was performed in order to test the proposed questions and to obtain feedback regarding other relevant issues that should be addressed. Those questions which could be answered with a limited set of possible choices were identified, and the corresponding sets of answers were developed. Other questions were

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18 left open-ended, eit her due to the wide range of expected responses or simply to allow the respondents the f reedom to fully ex plain their answers. For many questions, a L ikert scale was deemed appropriate and scaled answers were developed. Several va riations of Likert scales were used. The two most common ones were the frequency scale and the agreement scale. An importance scale and a quality scale were also used. These four types of scales are shown below:Frequency Scale: 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always Agreement Scale: 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree Importance Scale: 1 2 3 4 5 not at all of little imp. fairly imp. important very important Quality Scale: 1 2 3 4 5 terrible poor OK good excellent Demographic Information The first section of the questionnaire gather ed demog raphic information about the project and individual being interviewed. This included t he project name, general contracting

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19 company name, the foremanÂ’s craft and company name, the foremanÂ’s ex peri ence in const ruction as a worker and as a foreman, the foremanÂ’s union affiliation, the foremanÂ’ s length of employment with current em ployer, th e foremanÂ’s average crew size, the foremanÂ’s education level, and the foremanÂ’s age. Initial Planning Practices The next section of the questionnaire de alt with the foremanÂ’s role in the initial planning process. The questions in this section investiga ted the input that fo remen have in the development of the project schedule, and are listed below:C At th e beginning of a ne w job, does anyone from your company or th e compan y mana ging the job ask you how you plan to do your portion of the wo rk ? (fo r example: what specific me thods you will use to do the job, or how you will organize job tasks) [Frequency Scale] C If yes, who asks you? C Description of this interaction: C At the beginning of a new job, does anyone from your company or the company managing the job ask you how long you think it will take to complete your portion of the work? [Frequency Scale]C If yes, who asks you? C Description of this interaction:

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20 Use of Written Schedules Several questions were developed to determine how often written schedules are used on proj ects, foremenÂ’s level of exposure to these schedules, and whether they find t h e schedules to be helpful. The first question in thi s section was deve lo ped in order to assess the personal us e of written planning by foremen. That is, do foremen just keep track of everything in their heads and deal with field coordination on an as-needed basis, or do they actually uti lize some type of written plan which they use to map out the work and stay organized? The specific questions follow: C Do you use some type of written plan to organize upcoming work? Yes / No C If so, what kind of plan do you use? A. list of activities B. bar chart C. network diagram D. other: C How often are there written schedules for projects you work on? [Frequency Scale] C Do you see these schedules? [Frequency Scale] C If so, C What form are they in? (Bar chart, list of activities, diagram, etc.) C H ow o ften are the written schedules helpful to you and your crew? [Frequency Scale] Use of Look-Ahead Schedules The us e o f look-ahead schedules (short-interval schedules) was also investigated. Such schedules ar e valuable to for emen because they serve as the link between the o verall

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21 schedule and the organization of resources needed to perform specific tasks (Hinze, 1998). Therefore, the use of such schedules within the sample was deemed important to this study. The questions asked regarding look-ahead schedules follow:C Are look-ahead schedules used on your jobs? [Frequency Scale] C If so, C How far ahead do the look-ahead schedules plan the work? C Who makes these sc hedules? C What does this schedule look like? ( is it a lis t of activities? a bar chart? a network diagram? something else?) C Do you help plan the look-ahead schedules on your jobs? [Frequency Scale] C If so, how? Attitudes About Scheduling Several open-ended questions were asked to discover attitudes of foremen and thei r crews towards the use of schedules and the general practice of scheduling, as well as to learn their ideas for im proving the proce ss: C Do you follow the schedule? C How do you feel about the schedule? C How do your crew members feel about the schedule?

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22 C Do you wish you had more information about the schedule? Yes / No C If so, what? C Do you have any suggestions on how to improve scheduling? Scheduling and Saf ety Several questions were th en asked about sa fety in order to gather information about foremen’s perception of the relationship between scheduling and sa fety. Scheduling and safety are necessarily intertwined, and “safety is a topic that must underlie every activity that is included in a schedule” (Hinze, 1998, p. 215). Therefore, it was determ ined t hat respondents’ opinions about safety issues were important in this study on scheduling. The following questions were asked: C How important do you think worker safety is? [Importance Scale] C How does following safety rules affect production? A. slows down production B. does not affect production C. speeds up production C Do the completion goa ls of the schedule ma ke it difficult to de al properly with sa fety issues? [Frequency Scale] C Do you think you can make go od job progress and be safe at the same time? [Agreement Scale] C How is safety information communicated to you? C Do you think that having safety activities in the wr itten sche dule which relate to upcoming work activities would help you to know wha t safety issues sho uld be dealt with at each stage of the job?

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23 Documentation Practices The next section investigated the practices of foremen regarding documentation. Questions were developed to determine the types of information they record about the work of their crews, whether they keep reco rds bey ond the minimum documentation required, how important they think this documentation is, and how frequently their rec ords are actual ly used and/or checked. These questions were pertinent to this study because of the importance of accurate as-built information in order to update the schedule and to notify all interested parties of the current status of the work.C Do you record information about the work your crew does? Yes / No C If so, C What do you record & how do you record it? (i.e., time sheets daily logs, production rates, pictures, notes, etc.) C How often do you record this information? C How much time per day do you spend recording this information? C Who do you give this information to? C If pictures are taken, C do you use a regular camera or a digital camera (or both)? C what is the purpose of the pictures you take? C Are you required to keep records? Yes / No C If so, by whom?

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24 C Do you keep any records that are not required? Yes / No C If so, what? C How important do you think the job records you keep are? [Importance Scale] C Why do you think this? C Do you think your job recor ds are used to evaluate your work? [Frequency Scale] C Is the data you record checked by anyone? [Frequency Scale] C Are you asked questions by anyone about the data you record? [Frequency Scale] C If you have to shift your crew to another area (because youÂ’re waiting for information you need in order to do your current work, waiting for inspections, waiting for other trades, etc.) do you... C Make notes about why you had to move your crew to a new area? [Frequency Scale] C Keep track of the time lost from moving your crew to a new area? [Frequency Scale] Sources of Delay Several questions inquired about the experienc es of f oremen regardi ng access to inform at ion needed to perfo rm the work and the level of difficul ty in getting answer s to specif i c questions that arise concerning execution of the work. Other potential sources of

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25 delay were investigated, a s w ell as foremenÂ’s suggested solutions. Opinions regarding the openness of management tow ard the foremen Â’s suggestions to improve work processes were also addressed.C In general, how do you rate your access to the information you need to do your job? [Quality Scale] C Please give your opinion about the following statement: Your production is often slowed down because you are waiting for information needed to perform the work. [Agreement Scale] C If so, w hat are some typical kinds of information that you have to wait for which are needed to perform your work? C Is it difficult to get necessary questions answered? [Agreement Scale] C If so, why is it difficult? C How do you go about getting questions answered? (RFIÂ’s etc.) C What else causes you delays on the job? C How can these delays be reduced? C Is management willin g to listen to suggesti ons you have about how to improve work processes? [Frequency Scale] Computers and Technology Th e last section of the que stionnaire gathered information about the computer literacy of foremen, their exposure to and use of computers and related technology, and their attitudes toward the use of computers as part of their jobs. It is important to note that the method of

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26 a sking the la st several questions in this section was somewhat different. These final questions involved explaining the concept of handheld c om puter use in the field and demonstrating sample handheld computing devices. The concept of obtaining f ield me asurements via stereo imaging was explained. Specific handheld digital communication devices were demonstrate d for foremen in order to obtain their evaluation regarding whether such devices would hel p them do their jobs, as well as to me asure their acc eptance levels c oncerning their u se of such devices.C Do you personally use a computer to perform any part of your job? Yes / No C Do you use a computer at home? Yes / No C Do you have children who use computers at your home? Yes / No C Do you like to play vi deo games? C Do you use any type of electronic organizer? Yes / No (If so, what?) C What communication devices do you use? (2-way radio, cell-phone, pager) C Would you say that computers are beneficial to construction compan ies? [Agreement Scale] C Do you think that a computer could help you do your job better? [Agreement Scale] C If your employer told you a computer would help you do your job better and wanted you to start using one as part of your job how would you fee l about that? C Do you think that computers could ever replace part of the foremanÂ’s job? [Agreement Scale]

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27 C Assume you had a cam era which took pictures that enabled anyone looking at the pictures to know all the dimensions in t h e pictures. Please give your opinion regarding whether such a camera would be useful to y ou. [Agreement Scale] C If this camera would be useful, for what purpose(s)? C How accurate would such a camera need to be? C Would a devi ce lik e these (demonstrating mock-up Gator Communicator and IBM/BellSouth Simon) help you do y our job? [Agreement Scale] C Would a device like these (demonstrating mock-up Gator Com munica tor and IBM/BellSou th Simon, inc l uding concept of accessing the schedule throug h these devices) help you with scheduling and coordination? [Agreement Scale] Sample Selection The construction foreman, defined as the first-line field supervisor, was chosen to be the focus of this research. In particular, this study sought to examine construction foremen working on relatively la rge commer cial building projects, with the assumption that large projects have a higher level of need for efficient and effective scheduling, coordina tion, and communication tools than small or medium projects. It was further assumed that foremen of trade contractors working on large projects would be more aware of the needs for efficient and effective sche duling, coordinati on, and communica tion tools than foremen working on small or medium proj ects. The purposive (or judgmental) method of sampling, as described by Babbie (1990), was utilized in this research. Judgmental sampling allows the sample to be selected based on

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28 the researcher’ s “knowledge of th e population, its elements, and the nature of [the] research aims” (p. 97). This nonpr obability method wa s chosen sinc e the dynamic nature of construction proje cts and the itinerant qualities of construction foremen would make probability sampling prohibitively expensive and time consuming. It would have been extremely time consuming to even attempt developing a list of all the construction foremen working on a selected group of projects. Identifying a larger population of foremen, such a s all the construc tion foremen work ing in the state of Florida, would be even less fea sible. It is also unli kely that an accu rate and complet e list would result even if one spent the inordina te amount of time ne cessary to identify all the subcontractors intending to be on a selected group of projects during a certain range of dates. It would be equally difficult to conta ct all of these co mpanies and requ est th e na mes of their foremen expected to be wo rking on particula r projects during a certain range of dates. Furthermore, locating individua l foremen selec ted in a random sam p l e would be extremely time consuming and infeasible, particularly on large project sites. For those foremen who would actually be found, many would probably not qualify for inclusion in the study because they were actually super int endents. With trade contractors, distinguishing between foreme n an d superintendents is often difficult and people within the contracting companies usually assume tha t the superintende nt is really the per son being so ught. They simply direct an interviewer to the superintendent since they believe this individual will be able to deal with public relations more smoothly than the foreman, or poss ibly since discussions with supe rintendents would be less disruptive to the work proce ss. Even some field representatives of general contracting firms are not able to distinguish among a given

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29 subcontr actorÂ’s foremen, gener al foremen, and s uperintendents w ho are working on their projects. In this study, purposive sampling enabled the int erviewer to locate construction foremen relatively quickly by walking through the construction projects and observing the ongoing work. It allowed for flexibility of timing, so that a foreman who was taking a break could be approached rather than one who was working with the crew (e.g., helping them get ready for a concrete pour that afternoon). It also enabled the interviewer to include a good cross-section of trades. For example, if o nly e lectrical and concrete foremen were interviewed on a particular d ay due to their availability, the interviewer was able to seek out other trades the next day. Constr ucti on work at Universal Studios in Orlando, Florida, was chosen as the source of projects from whi ch to draw the main sample. Multiple pr ojects ongoing with in th e development activities of a sing le owner provided an ideal environment for maintaining a low level of variability and enabling good internal validity of results. Although th e circumstances at Universal Studios appeared ideal for the study since it was a large project and included an even cross-section of several trades, the possibility was considered that any uniq ue pr oject characteristics could yield skewed results. Thus, it was determined that the results of the study would be more reliable if an external samp le of foremen wa s also surveyed in the same mann er as the main sample. The external sample data could then be co mpared to t he main sample data to check for consistency of results. Thus, four other projects (two in Orlando, Florida, and two in G ainesville, Florida ) were selecte d in order to provide external validity to the results of the study.

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30 The total volume of wor k within the Univer sal Studios project s was approximate ly $1.5 billion. These projects included the Islands of Adventure theme park and the Portofino Hotel. Islands of Advent ure was divi ded into six major “islands,” each with a different general contractor or construction manager (contractual arrangements varied), except that one contractor was building two of the si x isl ands, resulting in five di fferent prime contractors. Another contrac to r was building t he hotel project, resulting in six diff erent prime contractors per forming all the wor k sampled within the Universal Studios p rojects. The four projects selected for the external sample included a $30 millio n retail center in Orlando, Florida (Winter Park Village), a $12 million office building in Orlando, Florida (One Legacy Point), a $25 million hotel in Gainesville, Florida (University of Florida Hotel & Conference Cen ter), and a $16 mil lion student reside nce facility in Gainesville, Florida (Student Residence Facility 2000). Two of the six general contractors in th e main sample (Universal Studios projects) w ere also repre sented in the external sample (consisting of three general contractors), and one of these two general contractors was represented in both the Orlando and Gainesville external samples. This helped minimize any influence that different general contractors and different geographical areas may have on results within the external sample. A total of 121 foremen were surveyed, but two of the surveys were discarded. In one of these discarded cases, the substantial portion of the questionnaire was incomplete. In the other, the participant in itially identified himself as a foreman but the interview revealed that he was actually func ti oning more as a general superintendent. Therefore, the total number of valid surveys was 119. This sample represented eighty different com pan ies and sixteen

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31 different trades or trade groups. In general, trades were categorized ac cordi ng t o standard divi sions of work as developed by the Construction Specifications Institute (C SI) Nomenclature was adjusted and s ome trades were grouped together to reflect t he actu al con ditions o f the sample. For example, drywall, plaster, and metal framing were grouped together since this work is typically performed by crews working under the same foreman. The full list of categories used is given below: 1. Site Work 2. Concrete 3. Masonry 4. Ironwork 5. Carpentry 6. Roofing 7. Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing 8. Flooring / Tile 9. Painting 10. Special Finishes 11. Miscellaneous Specialties 12. Heating, Ventila tion, and Air Conditi oning (HVAC) 13. Plumbing 14. HVAC and Plumbing 15. Fire Sprinklers 16. Electrical

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32 Since some mechanical foremen perf ormed both plumbing and HVAC, and others specialized in one or the other separate and c ombined categori es were cre ated in order to accurately re flect the foreme nÂ’s actual work a ctivities. Data Collection For the main sample, contact was made with Universal Studios managers overseeing the construction work. After describing the research project and obtaining per mission to conduct interviews with foremen on the Universal studios job sites, arrangements were made to gain access to the sites, i ncluding confirmation of proper insurance coverage for the interviewer, parking passes, visitor badges, and project logistics information. Attendance at a general superintenden tÂ’s lunch meeting enabled this researcher to describe the research project to the top field representat ives for each of the general c ontractors and to obtain approval for inte rviewing foreme n on each respec tive project. For the external sample, contact was made with project managers on the individual projects. After describin g the research p roject, arrangements w ere made to gain a ccess to the construction sites Interviews for the main s ample dat a (N=87) were conducted between January 29, 1999, and March 10, 1999. In terviews for the external sample data (N=32) were conducted between June 15, 1999, and J uly 30, 1999. All interviews were conducted by this researcher on the actual construction sites. Most were conducted either outdoors or in partiall y constructed build ings, and a few we re conducted in jo b site office tra ilers.

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33 Utilizing judgmental sampling, the in terviewer walk ed around on the pr ojects, observing the work and lookin g for foremen to in terview. Once potential candidates were identified, the interviewer asked them several questions about their job descriptions in order to confirm that they actually we re fu nctioning as fore men (defined as f irst-line field supervisors). If they were first-line fi eld su pervisors, the interviewer briefly described the research project and asked them to participate in the research by answering several questions about their experienc e in the construct ion industr y. Mo st foremen were agreeable to this idea, although it was sometimes necessary to assure them tha t the study was simply the interviewer’s own research project towards completion of a college degree, that it was not for purposes relate d to corporate po litics, and that all answers would re main confidentia l. After a giv en foreman had agreed to participate in the survey, the interviewer asked permission to tape record the interview. A few foremen re fused to be tape r ecorded, but most did not object to the use of a recorder. Although con duc ting the personal interviews was very time consuming, it worked quite well as a method of data collection. The interviewer was quickly able to ascerta in whether or not an interviewee understood the question, thereby enabling the question to be repeated or clarified, if necessary. Regarding the benefit of personal interviewing as a means of data collection, Babbie (1990) states, “If the respondent clearly misunderstands the intent of a question or indicates that he does not understand, the interviewer can clarify matters and thereby obtain relevant responses” (p. 188). For this reason, the data collected m ost likely have a higher level of integrity than if th e same survey we re conducted by m ail or otherwise distributed for ind ependent comple tion by the respond ents.

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34 As previously noted, a somewhat different method was employed for asking the last several questions in the section reg arding use of computers. These questions differed from the others in that they were asked after expl aining a concept and demonstrating how handheld computers might be used in the field. Analysis Techniques The statistical softwa re package use d for data analysis is SPSS 9.0. Scaled answers and answers to closed-ended questions were entered directly into t h e system to reflect the answers from the survey instrument. Answers to open-ended questions were either pa rtially or fully transcribed, and then appropriate codes created, in orde r to enable entry of the data into the SPSS data file. Results are first described with descript ive statist ics and basic interpretations. Response freque ncie s are calculated and both tabular and graphical output is generated for presentation purposes. Statistical tests are then used to analyze the data. The Mann-Whitney U and Wilco xon W tests, which enable comparison of two related sample s, are used to evaluate the consistency of results between the main and external samples. These nonparametric tests are appropriate for analysis of ordinal data, and do not make strict assumptions concerning population distributions (Agr esti and Finlay, 1986). The equation for the Mann-Whitney U is Equation 1 Mann-Whitney U where N 1 and N 2 are sample sizes of the two groups being compared and T 1 is the sum of ranks of one sample. The related equation for the Wilcoxon W is

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35 Equation 2 Wilcoxon W where m is the number of observations in the smaller group, and n is the number of observations in the larger group (SPSS Base 9.0, 1999). Next, testing of correlations is performed using KendallÂ’s taub in order to identify the independent var iables which are correlated with foremenÂ’s acc eptance of hand held computer/communication technology. The formula for KendallÂ’s taub is Equation 3 KendallÂ’s Taub where P is the number of concordant pairs, Q is the number of discordant pairs, T x is the number of pairs tied on X but not on Y and T y is the number tied on Y but not on X (SPSS Base 9.0, 1999). Lastly, multiple linear regression analysis is perform ed t o identify any characteristics of for emen w hich predict their acceptance of the handheld computer/communication technology. The f ormula for multiple linear regress ion is Equation 4 Multiple Linear Regression where y is the dependent variable, $ 0 is the y -intercept, $ 1 is th e slope, x 1 ... x p are the independent variables, and g is the error term (SPSS Base 9.0, 1999). Single-step multip le linear regression, where all independent variables are entered into the equation at the same time, is used for hypothesis testing. Both single-step and

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36 stepwise multiple linear regression are then used to develop overall predictive models. In the stepwise method, independent variables are entered individually and are examined for entry or removal at each step. Variables are then removed if their partial contributions to the model are no longer significant when combined with other variables which are entered at later stages (Agresti and Finlay, 1986).

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37 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS This chapter presents results of the inter vi ew surveys conducted in this research. First, descriptive statistics are presented to profile t he char acteristics of the participating construction foremen. ForemenÂ’s characteristics are examined to investigate problems in the scheduling communication p rocess, to study the role of foremen in the scheduling communication process, and to explore ways the scheduling communication process can be improved. Re sults a re presented according to the order of appearance in the survey questionnaire, and frequencies obtained are discussed briefly. Since every question was not answered by all 119 foremen, the n umber of respo ndents for each question is noted in the corresponding figures The results are then examined for validity, correlations are investigated, hypotheses are tested, and predictive models are explored. Characteristics of Foremen The responses to survey questions are grouped according to the categories presented in the Questionnaire Design section of Chapt er 2. Demographic dat a are presente d first, including project and foremen demographics. The remaining characteristics of foremen are then presented in the following categories: initial planning practices, us e of written schedules, use of look-ahead schedules, attitudes about scheduling, relationship b etwe en

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38 Figure 1 Distribution of Samp le by Project Name scheduling and safety, documentation practices, sources of delay, and computers and technology. Project Demographics A total of eleven projects provided the dat a for this resea rch. Seven proje cts comprised the main sample, and four projects mad e up the external sample. (See Figure 1 for the percentage distrib u tion of the sample a ccording to the sou rce project.) Fr om left to right in Figure 1, the first seven projects represent the main sample (87 responses) and the remaining four represent the external sample (32 responses).

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39 Figure 2 Distribution of Sample by General Contractor The eleven source projects were man aged by a total of seven different general contractors. (See Figure 2 for the percentage di stribution of the sample by the general contractors managing the surveyed projects.) Whiting Turner managed Suess Landing and L ost Continent; Turne r managed Isla Nublar; CRSS managed Toon Lagoon; Beers managed Superhero Island and Legacy Point; Metric managed Port of En try; Bovis managed Portofino Hotel, Winter Park Village, and Student Residence Facility 2000, and Hardin managed UF Hotel & Conference Center. Demographics of Foremen The demographic characteristics of the foremen included trade specialty, experience level, union affiliation, education, and a ge. Foremen emplo yed by a to tal of se venty-six

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40 MAIN SAMPLE EXTERNAL SAMPLE TOTAL DIFFERENT COMPANIES Subcontractors 56 23 76* General Contractors 3 1 4 3 subcontractor s represented in the Main Sample we re also in the Exte rnal Sample Table 1 Number of Companies Employing the Foremen Surveyed di f ferent subcontractors and four general contractors were surveyed (see Ta ble 1). Companies employing the foremen in the main sample consisted of fifty-six subcontractors and three general contractors, while companies employing foremen in the external sample consisted of twenty-three subcontr a ctors and one general contractor. Three subcontractors from the main sample were also in the external sample. The sample of foremen interviews was drawn from sixteen different trades or trade groups (see Figure 3). Drywall, plaster, and metal framing were grouped together since this work is typically performed by crews working under the same fo reman. Some mechanical foremen performed both plumbing and HVAC, while others specialized in one or the other, so separate categories were created in order to accur ately reflect the trades they represented. The overall construct ion experience of f oremen ranged from three to forty-eight years (see Figure 4). The mean overall con struction e xperience was 19.3 years, the median was 19.0 years, and th e mode was 20.0 ye ars.

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41 Figure 3 Distribution of Sample by Trade Figure 4 ForemenÂ’s Overall Construction Experience

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42 Figure 5 Construction Experience as Foremen Construction experience at the foreman level ranged from 0.5 to 30.0 years, with a mean of 9.5 years, a median of 8.0 years, and a mode of 3.0 years. The percentage distribution for years experience as foremen is shown in Figure 5. Union affiliation was categorized into four groups (see Figure 6). As shown, 46.2% of the foremen were open-shop and had no prior union experience, 31.9% were working for an open-shop company at the time of the survey but had prior union experience, 11.8% were working for a union company at the time of the survey but had prior open-shop experience, and 10.1% were union at the time of the survey and had no open-shop experience.

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43 Figure 6 Current and Previous Union Affiliation The length of time the foremen had been with their current employer was examined (see Figure 7). D urations ranged f rom two days to thirt y years, with a mean of 4.6 years, a median of 3.0 yea rs, and a mode of 2 .0 years. The crew size typica lly supervised by foremen ranged from two to fifty-five, with a mean crew size of 14.8, a median of 11.0, and a mode of 10.0 (see Figure 8). Most foremen stated that their crew s ize varies consi derably depending on the scope of the project and the stage of the job at a given time. The answer s represent wha t foremen conside red their average, or typical, crew sizes. Although the upper end of the range seems rather high, the mean crew size (14.8) is comparable to another study of foremen which had a mean cre w size of 10.9 (Shohet and Laufer, 1991).

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44 Figure 7 Duration with Current Employer Figure 8 Average Crew Size

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45 Figure 9 Level of Formal Education Completed The level of formal education completed by foremen was examined and the results (see Figure 9) were compared to the results obtained in a 1977 Stanf ord study of fifty foremen. Although the scale of measurement u sed in that study wa s slightly different, 11.9% of the foremen had completed ninth grade or less, 16.7% had some high school, 35.7% had graduated from high school, 23 .8% had some college, and 11.9% had graduated from junior college or college (Samelson, 1977). The level of education among foremen appears to be rising, as indicated by the increased percentage of foremen completing high school or more advanced education (see Table 2). In the current study, 89.1% of foremen were at the high s chool graduate level or higher, compared to 71.4% in the 1977 study. Per centages of for emen in this study with some college education or college degrees, however, closely parallel the 1977 study.

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46 SOME HIGH SCHOOL OR LOWER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE OR HIGHER SOME COLLEGE OR COLLEGE DEGREE COLLEGE DEGREE (2 OR 4 YEAR) Current Study 10.9% 89.1% 38.7% 11.8% 1977 Study 28.6% 71.4% 35.7% 11.9% Table 2 Comparison of Foremen Education Levels with 1977 Study Figure 10 Trade School Training Information was gathered on whether or not foremen had received some type of trade school training (see Figu re 10). The sampl e size, sixty-eig ht, is smaller for this variable since no questions about trade school were included in the original survey. However, since many foremen provided informa tion about their tra de school tr aining whe n asked about thei r formal education, this ch aracteristic w as examined for i ts potenti al rel ationship with the dependent varia bles.

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47 Figure 11 Age of Foremen The age of the foremen was normally distributed with a range from eighteen to sixtyfour ( see Figure 11), with a mean and median age of 40.0. The two modes were 35.0 and 41.0. Although gender was origi nally intended to be a variable in this s tudy, no female foremen were identified for inclusion during the sampling process. Therefore, all foremen surveyed were male. Initial Planning Practices Planning is important on complex projects in o rder to keep all worke rs actively pursuing completion of their work. Research shows that foremenÂ’s planning practices are an important factor in the productivity of their crews. For exa mple, o ne study showed that

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48 Figure 12 How Often Foremen Are Asked About Methods at Start of Job foremen of productive cr ews spend 9.6% of their time on planni ng, compared to on ly 2.1% by foremen of unproductive crews (Shohet and Laufer, 1991). The involvement of for emen in planning varied widely in this study. As shown (see Figure 12), 20.1% of the foremen indicated that when starting a new job they are “never” or “rarely” asked about how they plan to organize the job or what methods they intend to use, while 57.2% said they are “usually” or “always” asked such questions. The remaining 22.7% indicated that they are “sometimes” asked abou t plann ing and methods. Although a foreman’s ideas may not necessarily be implemented, the re sponses to this question distinguish bet wee n those who have at least some input and those whose opinions are not even sought. The majority (55.7%) of foremen who are asked about planning and methods reported that it is someone from their own company (normally their superintendent or project

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49 Figure 13 Who Asks Foremen About Methods at Start of Job manager) who asks these questions (see Figure 13). Those foremen asked about methods by the general contracting company indicated that it would typically be the job superintendent asking the question s. Foremen also gave information on how often they were asked for their estimates of task duration (see Figu re 14). The highe st percenta ge of ans wers were in the “always” category. Again, this question does not establish t hat a foreman’s input is necessar ily incorporated into the schedule, but it does distinguish between those foremen who are asked what they think and those who are not asked. As with the methods question (see Figure 13), it is usually f orem en’s own superintendents or project managers who ask for their input regarding the duration of construction activities (see Figure 15).

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50 Figure 14 Ho w Oft en Foremen Are Asked About Duration of Construction Activities at Start of Job Figure 15 Wh o Asks Foremen About Duration of Construction Activities at Start of Job

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51 Figure 16 Use of Written Plan to Organize Work Use of Written Schedules The majority of foremen (60.5%) reported that they use some type of written plan to organize their upcoming work. The most common type of plan used was a lis t of activities, but four foremen (3.4%) said they use bar charts for planning their work (see Figure 16). Mo st foremen (69.7%) reported that there is “always” a written schedule for the projects where they work (see Figure 17). No answers were given for t h e scale selection “never,” so this category is not displayed in the chart. Just b ecause a fore man knows that a schedule exists does not mean that the foreman actually sees the schedule, so foremen were

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52 Figure 17 How Often Projects Have Written Schedules asked how often they see the written schedule. Approximately half (53.8%) of the foremen reported that they “al w ays” see the schedule (see Figure 18). While 92.4% of the foremen stated that there is “usu ally” or “alway s” a writt e n schedule on their jobs (see Figure 17), only 74.0% reported that they “usually” or “always” see the schedu l e (see Figure 18). Additionally, 10.1% said they “never” or “rarely” see the schedule. Foremen were also asked how often they fin d that written sche dules are helpfu l to them. Slightly more than half (56.9%) of the foremen answered that written sch edules a re “usually” or “always” helpful (see Figure 19).

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53 Figure 18 How Often Foreme n See the Schedule Figure 19 How Often Written Schedules Are Helpful to Foremen

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54 Figure 20 How Often Look-Ahead Schedules Are Used on Projects Use of Look-Ahead Schedules Foremen were asked abo ut the use of look-ahead schedules. Most foremen (70.6%) repo rted that look-ahead schedules are “usually” or “always” used on projects they a r e involved with, while only 12.6% reported that look-ahead schedules are “never” or “rarely” used (see Figure 20). Look-ahead schedules are designed to look into the immediate future and plan for the upcoming wor k tasks on a project. Since these schedules can be structured to make projections of one or more weeks, foremen were asked about the number of weeks projected in the look-ahead schedules. The reported duration of look-ahead schedules varied from one week to four weeks or more, but 72.9% answered that these schedules plan between one and

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55 Figure 21 Duration of Look-Ahead Schedules three weeks ahead (see Figure 21). A significant number (19.6%) reported a forward plan of at least four weeks. A lthough some types of construction look-ahead schedules, or short-term schedules, are much longer (e.g., sixty or ninety days), look-aheads normally plan the work only two or three weeks in advance. Many such schedules also include an additional week that looks back at the work just completed (Hinze, 1998). This study did not inquire about the inclusion of the previous week in t he look-ahead sc hedules. The majority of foremen reported that the general contractor makes the look-ahead schedules (see Figure 22). Although some foremen specified the general contractorÂ’s superintendent or project manager as the individual who actually deve lops such schedule s, most answers simply indicated that someone within the genera l co ntractorÂ’s organization

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56 Figure 22 Who Makes the Look-Ahead Schedules makes the look-ahead schedules. As shown (see Figure 22), 12.8% of the foremen said they make the look-ahead schedules themselves, and an additional 22.9% sa id that someone els e wit hin their company makes the schedules. Another 12.8% of the foremen respo nded tha t the se schedu les are genera ted by the genera l contractor and /or their own compa ny, while 50.5% reported that only the general contractor creates look-aheads. Foremen who make the look-ahead schedules themse lves are conside red to have the hig hest level of invol vement in the scheduling process, and foremen whose own companies make the look-ahead schedules are considered to have more involve ment in the schedul ing process than th ose whose own companies do not ma ke look-ahead sc hedules. Approximately half (50.5%) of the foremen indicated that look-ahead schedules are composed of a list of activities which are to be performed in the upcoming week or weeks

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57 Figure 23 Types of Look-Ahead Schedules Used (see Figure 23). Bar charts, which would b e co nsidered a more sophisticated means of planning than a list, were the form of look-ahead schedules observed by 35.4% of the foremen surveyed. An add itional 12.1% said th ey typically see e ither form (list of activities or bar chart). A fairly even distribution of answers was obtained when ask ing foremen if the y help plan look-ahead schedules for their projects (see Figure 24). Hinze (1998) poin ts out that it is ideal if craft su pervisors are in volved in developi ng short-interva l schedules since these schedules detail the specific tasks that the first-line supervisors know best. It was expected that foremen who participated in planning the work would have a better attitude towards the schedule.

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58 Figure 24 How Often Foremen Help Plan Look-Ahead Schedules Attitudes About Scheduling The fact that nearly all the interviews were tape recorded helped to further categorize responses to open-ended que stions, such as those concerning for eme n ’s attitudes about scheduling. With the recordi ngs, voice inflection and general sen timent behind a re sponse could be evaluat ed if the comment it self was ambiguou s. Foremen were asked if they follow the schedule (see Fig ure 25; refer a lso to Table 10, page 155, for foremen’s detailed responses). Only 4.2% gave neg ative resp onses, examples of which include “I make my own schedule. I’ve been told I’m work ing out of sequence” and “Well, I try to, but they’re always pushin’ so you never can.” Typical neutral responses are “You follow it as much as you can. But if something changes right after you

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59 Figure 25 Whether Foremen Follow the Schedule write it...then you’re back to square one” and “Yes, but if there’s a problem with some of the other sub-trades, then you can’t follow it.” Examples of positive response s include “I try to keep really close to it, as close as I can” and “I have to. It’s based on the GC’s bar chart, and we have to meet cer tain dates with ce rtain items. If I don’t, I get buried in concrete, and it’s my job to chip it up.” Most foremen (65 .3%) gave positive responses to the question “How do you feel about the schedule?” (See Figure 26; refer also to Table 11, page 160, for foremen’s detailed responses.) Comparing foremen’s responses regarding how they feel about the schedule (see Figure 26) to whether or not they follow the schedule (see Figure 2 5), some f oremen apparently cooperate with the demands of the schedule even if they have negative or neutral feelings about it. On the three-point scale where negative = 1, neutral = 2, and positive = 3, the mean for “How do you feel about the schedule?” i s 2.52, wh ile the mean for “Do you

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60 Figure 26 How Foremen Feel A bout the Schedule follow the schedule?” is 2.74, imply in g that foremen’s actual adheren ce to the schedule is better than their attitudes toward the schedu le. Exampl es of negative re sponses are “It’ s a crock of bull since they change their minds so much and it’s so tight you can’t do it” and “A lot of times it’s not realistic. Coor dination is poor. I c an keep up with an y schedule as long as it’s coordinated with the other contractors on the job site. And that’s not done very much.” Neutral responses include “If they get me the things I need when I want them, then I feel good about it” and “It’s useful when it works, and sometimes it’s an absolute waste of time.” Sample positive responses are “They help you get the job done. You have to have a schedule. If not, you nev e r will get the job done” and “You can’t go without them. You gotta have some kind of a schedule. You gotta have some kind of plan to go by.”

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61 Figure 27 Whether Foremen ’s Crews Know the S chedule The majority (62.2%) of the foremen reported that their crews do not know what the schedule is (see Figure 27). One foreman said, “They know nothing about the schedule. They don’t need that stress.” For those foremen whose crews know about the schedule, the perceived attitudes of their crews toward the schedule are categorized in Figure 28. Sample negative responses include “They hate it, because we push to be done on time” and “They hate it. They’d rather work their eight hours a day and be done with it.” Neutra l resp onses include “Th ey hate being threatened by it, but they like it as a challenge. And you can use it both ways” and “They’re complacent abou t it. They just want so meone to tell them w here to go and wha t to do.” Positive responses include “They look forward to it, being able to plan ahea d” an d “They like it. That way they know what they’re doing. Somet imes my crew will get here

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62 Figure 28 How Foremen Think Their Crews Feel About the Schedule ahead of me or they’l l work late or something, or I have to go to meetings. They know what’s going on in order to go. They’re not just sitting there.” Many foremen (40.9%) reported that they want more information about the schedule (see Figure 29; refer also to Table 12, page 167, for foremen’s detailed r esponses). A common response was tha t they want to know more about how their upcoming work is going to coordinate with other trades. One foreman who wanted more information on coordination with other trades said he does not get the necessary details at the coordination meetings since “a lot of times, when they have their weekly meetings, half the people don’t show up.” Another common response was the desire for more accurate scheduling information. One foreman who wanted more a ccurate dates f or his upcoming work stated that the original

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63 Figure 29 Whether Foremen Want More Information About the Schedule schedule does not get updated. “It changes so much. If they would just adju st the schedule to reflect what’s actually happening in the field.” The majority (74.6%) of the foremen have suggestions on how to improv e scheduling (see Figure 30; refer also to Table 13, page 172, for foremen’s detailed responses). Although these suggestions vary widely, a common theme among them is the need for better communication throughout the scheduling process. As one foreman said, “Communication is the real key. I mean, that’s the biggest problem that most companies have, is t he communication issue.” Another stated, “In construction, you always got communication problems.” Many foremen also suggested that activity durations need to be more realistic, with some indicating that durations would be r ealistic if the input of the trades was

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64 Figure 30 Whether Foremen Have Suggestions Regarding How to Improve Scheduling incorporated into the schedule. Similar fi ndings appear in BirrellÂ’s (1989) study of scheduling issues, in which approximat ely one-third of subcontractors claimed that durations are unrealistic. Regardless of the specific suggestion, the fact that some foremen have suggestions on how to improve scheduling may indicate that they are not satisfied with the current system a nd/or that they ar e open to the idea of changing the c urrent system. Scheduling and Saf ety A majority (58.0%) of the foremen reported that following safety rules slows down production (see Figure 31). It is important to note, however that regardless of how they answered this question, nearly all foremen went on to emphasize the importance they place on safety. Foremen w ho stated that saf ety slows down prod uction typically qu alifie d thei r

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65 Figure 31 Effect That Following Safety Rules Has on Production a nswers by saying that their f irst priority is saf ety, and that the sa fety of their wor kers is more important than production. When foremen were asked if the demands of the schedule ev er make it diffic ult to deal properly with safety issues, 45.4% answered that this “sometimes” happens, and 17.7% reported that this “usually” or “always” happens (see Figure 32). It appears that although foremen as a whole feel v ery strongly about their responsibili ty to ensure the sa fety of their crews, the re is a percepti on that the demands of the schedule c reate a conflic t with their commitment to working safely. Nonetheless, 97.5% of foremen either “agreed” or “ strongly agreed” that they can make “good job progress” and be safe at the same time (see Figure 33). Thus, there appears to be a discrepancy between the goals of the schedule and what foremen

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66 Figure 32 Frequency That the Schedule Causes D ifficulty in Dealing Properly with Safety Issues Figure 33 Whethe r Foreme n Think They Can Make Good Job Progress While Working Safely

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67 Figure 34 Opinions of Foremen Regarding the Inclusion of Safety Activities in the Construction Sc hedule define as “good job progr ess.” This finding i s con sistent with the fact that many of the foreme n commented o n the need for more realistic durations when asked if they had any suggestions about how to improve scheduling (see Figure 30, page 64; refer also to Table 13, page 172, for foremen’s detailed responses). Foremen were asked for their opinions regarding the inclusion of safety activit ies in the construction schedule (see Figure 34). Regarding whether or not foremen though t i t would be helpful to include safety activities in the written sch edule, 51 .3% responded negatively and 38.3% responded positively. Positive responses to this question may indicate foremen’s willingness to try new methods of scheduling. Previous studies have highlighted the need to addre ss safety is sues in the construction schedule. Birrell (1989) advised that the schedule should reflect safe ty concer ns by its

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68 process logic and activity durations, and sug gested the possibil it y of inclu ding safety activities as part of the explicit schedule. Research funded by the Center to Protect WorkersÂ’ Rights has resulted in the development of sof tw are which enables the integration of information from a safety da tabase with compu terized projec t s che dules, linking relevant items from the safety database to the appropriate activities in the schedule (Kartam, 1995). Hinze (1998) also emphasized the importance of address ing safety concerns in the construction schedule. Documentation Practices Nearly all (96.6%) of the foremen indicated that they record information about the work of their crews. The form of documentation varied from only keeping time s hee ts to keeping detailed daily reports and log books. Most of the foremen reported the sam e basic practices of record ke eping They keep time sh eets for their cr ews and also keep a daily record of information about the project. Howe ver, the practic e of keeping a se parate log book (sometimes called a journal) was less common. Therefore, in order to distinguish between levels of documentation being maintained, foremenÂ’s responses were categorized according to whether or not they keep a log book to document pertinent activities and issues on their projects. Based on this criteria, 51.1% of the 92 foremen providing this information reported that they do maintain a log book (in addition to da ily reports and other required documentation) and 48.9% said they do not keep a log book. Ninety foremen provided information on the am ount of tim e spent on documentation. Although the range of time spent per day on record keeping activities varied widely (from

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69 Figure 35 ForemenÂ’s Practices of Taking Pictures five minutes to 3.5 hours), the mean was 61.0 minut es, the median wa s 56.3 minutes, and the mode was 60.0 minute s. ForemenÂ’s practices regarding photographic documentation was also examined (see Figure 35). Foremen were asked whether or not they take pictures on their projects and for what purpose. Although 19.5% of foremen indicated that they do not take pictures on the job, the remaining foremen take pictures for three basic purposes: ke eping a personal portfolio of projects they have built, documenting specific prob lems and/ or circumstances, and maintaining a general record of progress on the job (w hether or n ot there are problems). From their responses, ordinal categor ies were crea ted to establish lev els of sophistic a tion concerning photographic documentation, where taking n o pictures represents the lowest l evel and the practice of taking pictures for general records of job progress repre sents the highest level. Although special permission had to be obtained in ord er to take pictures on the

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70 Figure 36 How Important Fore men Think Their Job Records Are Universal Studios projects due to the proprietar y work under cons t ru ction, foremen were instructed to answer t his quest ion based on their typical habits of taking pictures on other projects. Foremen were asked i f they keep any records that are not required, and 82.2% (N=118) reported keepin g records that ar e not required. They indicated that such records usually involve specific details they want to remember about their work, materials they need to order, or notes about coordinatio n with other trade s. Mos t forem en (83.3%) indica ted that they think th eir records ar e “very importan t” (see Figure 36). No answers were given for the importance category “not at al l,” which is omitted from the chart. T his finding indicate s an imp o rtant reversal in foremen’s attitudes towards documentation, as Borcherdi ng (1972) found that “very few foremen or

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71 Figure 37 Why Foremen Think Their Job Records Are Important superi n tendents fully appreciat e the value of or n eed for paperw ork that they are asked to complete” (p. 122). Foremen were asked why they think their job records are important (see Figure 37). As wit h the forem en’s practice of taking pictures (see Figure 35), ordinal categories were created to rank levels of sophistication regarding documentation practices. The majority of the foremen (67.0% ) gave re asons that dealt wi th protecting thems elves and/or thei r companies from future prob lems, such as litigation (see Figure 37). Reasons given that deal with maintaining contro l of the job and/or c ompiling historical data for use in estimating and other systems account for 22.0% of the sample. Answers which included b ot h categories (protect s elf/ company and job control/history) were given by an additional 8.3% of the sample.

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72 The practice of documenting work accomplished on a routine basis, whether or not there are any particular problems, is considered in this study to be a more sophisticated level of documentation than specifically foc using on a particul ar problem area It is often difficult to know beforehand which issues wi ll become pr oblems later in the job or after the jo b is finished. The documentation that is detailed in all a spects of the as-built pro ject record will probably be better for multiple purposes than documentation of an isolated issue. The need to document a specif ic problem is obviou s, but it takes more foresight to also document the a s-built progress that appears to be taking place without difficulty. The practice of maintaining a compreh ensive record o f as-built progre ss should produce t he best documentation. When asked if their records are used to evalua te their wor k, foremen gave varied answers with some bias toward the affirmative end of the scale (see Figure 38). On the fivepoint frequency scale shown, where “sometimes” = 3 and “usually” = 4, the mean response was 3.3. Most foremen are used to being evaluated based on their job records. When asked if their records are checked by others, foremen again gave varied a nswers with bias toward the af firmative end of the scale (see Figure 39). On the five-point frequency scale shown, where “sometimes” = 3 and “usually” = 4, the mean response was 3.6. Although 19.5% of the foremen indicated that their records are never checked by others, 62.8% re ported that their records are “usually” or “always” checked. Regar ding whe ther or not they are asked questions about their records, foremen’s responses varied, with a very slight bias toward the negative end of the scale (see Figure 40). On the five-point frequency scale shown, where “rarely” = 2 and “sometimes” = 3, the mean response was 2.9.

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73 Figure 38 How Often ForemenÂ’s Records Are Used to Evaluate Their Work Figure 39 How Often ForemenÂ’s Records Are Checked

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74 Figure 40 How Often Foremen Are Asked Questions About Their Records Regarding foremen’s pr actic es of documenting situations when they have to shift their crews to other wo rk areas (beca use they are waiting f or information ne eded to do their current work wai ting for inspections, waiting for other trades, etc.), responses show that such occurrences tend to be documented. Most foremen (76.1%) reported that they “usually” or “always” keep notes detailing why they had to move their crews (see Figur e 41) Similarly, the majority (57.2 %) said they usual ly or always keep a record of the time spent remobilizing their crews (se e Figure 42). Thes e findings, which relate to foremen’s specific practices of documentation w hen shifting crew s to other work areas, are relatively consistent with the findings that fore men are genera lly aware of the importance of their job records (see Figure 36, page 70, and Figure 37, page 71).

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75 Figure 41 How Often Foremen Keep Wr itten Notes in the Event They Have to Move Their Crews Figure 42 How Often Foremen Keep Records of Time Spent Remobilizing Their Crews

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76 Figure 43 How Foremen Rate Thei r Access to Informati o n Needed to Do Their Jobs Sources of Delay Foremen were asked to rate their degree of access to the information they need to do their jobs (see Figure 43). Most foremen (63.6%) answered that their access to information is “good” or “excellent.” On the quality scale shown, where “OK” = 3 and “good” = 4, the mean response was 3.8. Although foremen gave fairly positive responses to the general question about their access to information, the ir responses wer e somewhat n egative w hen asked more sp ecific questions. As shown (see Figur e 44), 56.3% of the foremen either “agreed” or “ strongly agreed” that their production is often slowed down due to waiting for info rmation needed to

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77 Figure 44 Whether Waiting for Information Often Slows Production perform their work (see Table 14, page 181, for foremen’s detailed responses regarding the type of information for which they have to wait). It should be noted t hat many foremen indicated that this “sometimes ” happens, but sinc e the question spec ifically asked if they are “often” slowed down, these foremen answered in the “disagree” category. On the agreement scale shown, where “no opinion” = 3 and “agree” = 4, the mean response to this question was 3.3. Similarly, 42.0% of the foremen either “agr eed” or “s trongly agreed” that it is difficult to get their questions answered (see Figure 45). Foremen who “agreed” o r “strongly agree d” that it was difficult to get their questions answered were also asked why it i s difficult. Common response categories were developed based on the answers received (see

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78 Figure 45 Whether Foremen Find it Difficult to Get Their Questions Answered Figure 46). As shown, 38.6% of theses foremen said that the people with the answe rs are typically either overload ed with work or not a vailable when ne eded; 34.1% said it is difficult to get answers because there are so many layers of management; 11.4% blamed incompetent archit ect s, engineers, or managers in general; 4.5% said people are reluctant to give them answers because they ar e afraid of taking responsibility for their decisions; 4.5 % said they do not know why; and 6.8% gave other r easons. Foremen were also asked what type of commun icat ion they use when a sking their questions. As shown (see Figure 47), 36.4% of the fore men only ask verbally, 20.3% only ask in writing, and 43.2% ask either verbally or in writing, depending on the situation.

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79 Figure 46 Why Foremen Think it Is Difficult to Get Their Questions Answered Figure 47 How Foremen Ask Their Questions

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80 SOURCE OF DELAY CITED PERCENT OF FOREMEN CITING Unanswered Questions 42.6 Other Trades 37.7 Incomplete or Conflicting Plans / Specifications 31.0 Scheduling, Coordination, and Communication 28.7 Changes to the Work 27.8 Material Delays 25.4 Weather 14.4 Manpower 10.5 Table 3 ForemenÂ’s Main Sources of Delay When foremen were asked abo ut their main source(s) o f delay, they gav e eight basic responses (see Table 3; refer also to Table 15, page 185, for foremenÂ’s detailed responses). This question was open-ended, and the response categories were dev eloped after all interviews were completed Most foremen cited two or three of the sources of delay listed. The most common type of delay specified is unanswered questions, cited by 42.6% of t he foremen. Being delayed by other trades was also frequently (37.7%) cited by the foremen. Incomplete or conflicting documents was cited by 31.0% of the fore men. Delays spec ifically attributed to scheduling, coo rdination and comm unication problem s was t he fourth most common source, cited by 28.7% of the foremen.

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81 Other studies indicate s imil ar findings regarding sources of delay. In a study by Borcherding and Ogles by (197 5), foremen cited not having engineering information, materials and equipment as causes of delays and sources of di ssatisfa ction in their work. Superi ntendents in that study specif ied a lack of nec essary coordina tion by supervisors to maintain the schedule. Bor cherding and Ga rner (1981) liste d material availab ility, crew interfacing, overcrowding, a nd absenteeism as major problems affecting productivity. That study also named communication breakdown, overcrowding, and lack of cooperation among crafts as demotivating factors. BirrellÂ’s (1989) surve y of co nstruction executives noted interference from other work crews as a common problem, and recommended improvement of on-site communications in order to minimize interference between crews Birrell (1989) also named poor or changing design information as a major impediment to on site labor flows. A study which surveyed project managers also found interference between trades to be a f requent source of delay (Garcia, 1997). Other key sources of delay indicated in that study are material de lays and labor sho rtages. Both Bi rrel l (1989) and Garcia (1997) specified problems and delays involving information flow. The most pre valent cause of del ay noted in GarciaÂ’s (1997 ) study is lack of in formation. Birre ll (1989) describ ed incomplete information, including slow resp onses to questions, as a major inhibitor of labor efficiency. Garcia (1997) also found that delays due to lack of information correlated positively with a lower degree of computer-aided planning. In other words, there were fewer delays due to a lack of information when there was a higher degree of computer-aided planning. Foremen were fairly positive regarding the wi llingne ss of management t o listen to their suggestions about how to improve work processes. As shown (see Figure 48), 69.5%

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82 Figure 48 Whether Management Is Willing to Listen to Foremen’s Suggestions of the foremen said that management is “usually” or “al ways” willi ng to listen to their suggestion s. Some indicated that the willingness to listen does not necessarily mean tha t management will act on their su ggest ions, bu t they still felt that their voices were being heard. Computers and Technology A number of foremen (16.0%) reported that they already use computers to perform some part of their jobs (see F igure 4 9). These foremen described using computers for the following purposes: equipme nt testing, schedul ing, safety reco rds, daily report s, expense reports, ordering materials, tracking production rates and other information about crews,

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83 Figure 49 Whether Foremen Use Computers to Perform Any Part of Their Jobs communicating via fax and email, operating building control systems, accessing installation instructions, surveying, requests for inf ormation, pay req uests, and accessing information on project-based Web sites. Most of th e foremen who al ready use computers for work reported using desktop computers. Locations mentioned b y forem en for their use of desktop computers include in the job site trailer, back at the main office, or at home. Five foremen had used or were using a laptop or handheld computing device in the field. Computer use by foremen a t their homes was much mor e prevalent. Approximately ha lf (50.4 %) of the foremen reported that they use a computer at home (see Figure 50). Results of this study indica te that foremenÂ’s home computer use may be influenced by their

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84 Figure 50 Whether Foremen Use Computers at Ho me childrenÂ’s use of computers, as 58.8% of the foremen reported that they have children using computers in their homes. The prevalence of video game use among foremen was measured since similarities can be drawn between playing a video game and using a handheld computer. Regarding whether or not foremen like to play video games (see Figure 51), answers were categorized into negativ e, n eutral and positiv e responses. Fore menÂ’s answers we re split fairly ev enly betwee n negat ive responses (47.9%) and positive responses (40.3%), with 11.8% neutral re sponses. ForemenÂ’s use of electronic organizers was also measured, and 31. 9% of th e sample reported that they use some type of electronic organizer.

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85 Figure 51 Whether Foremen Like to Play Video Games COMMUNICATION DE VICE PERCENT OF FOREMEN USING Two-way Radio 89.1 Cell Phone 65.5 Pager 29.4 Table 4 Communication Devices Used by Foremen The use of job site communicat ion devices by for emen was investiga ted. Results indicate that the two-way radio is the most common communication device used by foremen, followed by the cell phone a nd the pager (se e Table 4). Some foremen carried either two or all three of these devices concurrently. Others had combination devices that included twoway radio, cell phone, and pager communication.

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86 Figure 52 Wh ether Foremen Think Computers Are Beneficial to Construction Companies Ne arly all o f the foremen had positive attitudes about the use of computers in the construction industry, with 93.3% responding that they “agree” or “strongly agree” that computers are beneficial to construction companies (see Figure 52). A less pos itive response was found when asking foremen’s opinions concerning whether computers could help them do their jobs better (see Figure 53). Nearly half (46.2%) said they “agree” or “strongly agree ” that com puters could help them do their jobs better, while 44.6% said they “disagree” or “strongly disagree.” Foremen were also asked how they would feel about using computers as part of their jobs if their employer s told them that using computers wo uld help them and wa nted them to start using computers (see Figure 54; refer also to Table 16, page 194, for foremen’s detailed

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87 Figure 53 Wh et her Foremen Think Compu ters Could Help Them Do Their Jobs Better Figure 54 ForemenÂ’s Respons es to Using Computers as Part of Their Jobs If So Directed by Their Employers

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88 re sponse s). The positive responses (68.1%) were much stronger than on the previous question. This change is attributed to the fact that this question stated the employer’s opinion that computers would he lp them, as well as the employer’ s desire for them t o use computers. Many foremen who did not think that computers would help them do t heir jobs better responded positively to using c omputers as part o f their jobs simply because they would try to do what their employer wanted. As for negative responses, one foremen said “I wouldn’t use it. Tell him [the employer] it’s out. Nope, sorry! You want somebody to run a computer? Get yourself someone out of college to wal k ar ound like a dog behind you.” Another foreman said “I’ve got no use for it.” Neutral responses include “I wouldn’t say I would like it, but if that’s what it takes, that’s wha t I’d have to do” a nd “Oh, it would be all right as long as I agreed about how I was supposed to be using it.” Positive responses include “I’m ready to use one. It would save me time” and “Yes, I need one. I need a laptop.” When a sked if the y think computers c ould ever replac e part of their job s, most foremen (83.2%) “disagre ed” or “strongly disagreed” (see Figure 55). This question may help determine whether or not there is a relationship between foremen’s fears of being replaced by computers and their responses to the proposed ha ndhel d computer/communica ti on technology. If foremen see computers as a threat to their job security abilities, or familiar operating procedures, they may be averse to considering t h e possibility that computers could replace part of their jobs. Conversely, foremen who are not th reatened b y computers may be more open to the idea that computers could perform part of their job functions, and may tend to view computers as a tool that can help them, rather than as a threat.

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89 Figure 55 Wh ethe r Foremen Think Compu ters Could Ever Replace Part of Their Jobs A question was asked concerning the foremen’s attitudes toward their potential use of stereo imaging technology. Foremen responded very positively about the u seful ness of stereo cameras which w ould enable them to obtain dimensions from photographs. As shown (see F igure 56), 75.6% of the foremen “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that such a came ra would be useful to them. Examples of how foremen woul d use this tool typica lly dealt with either layout work or documentation of work before it is covered by subsequent work (see Table 17, page 201, for foremen’s detailed responses). For emen were then shown two models of handheld digital communicator s. On e model was a mock-up prototype of a Gator Communicator (see Figure 57; Alexander et al., 1997; Alexander, 1996 ). The other devi ce was Simon (se e Figure 58), a combination of personal digital assistant (PDA) and cellular phone, designed by IBM and marketed by

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90 Figure 56 Whether Foremen Think Stereo Camera Would Be Useful to Them Figure 57 Gator Communicator Mock-Up

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91 Figure 58 Simon PDA / Cellular Phone, by IBM and BellSouth BellSouth (Andrews, 1994; OÂ’Malley, 1994). It w as explained to the foremen that such devices could be used to keep time recor ds for their cre ws, record daily progress and other daily log information, a ccess information about the schedule, create requests for information (RFIÂ’s), check on the status of change orders, view selected drawings and details, document progress or problems with pho tographs, and to communicate ver bally with others either on site or at remote l ocations via radi o or cellular connec tions. It was also e xplained that data could be entered either by touch screen or by voice, and that data could be stored, accessed, and viewed concurrently with other project participants as necessary by connecting to th e

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92 Figure 59 Shared Database for Communications appropriate central s hared da tabase (e.g., pr oject Web site). Figure 59 shows a ba sic config ura tion of such a system. Fo remen are part of the overall co mmunication system, linked by means of t heir handheld dig ital communicator s. Focusing specifically on foreme nÂ’s communications within a shared database s ystem foremen could communicate and share data with their supe r intendents, proje ct managers, suppliers, foremen from other trades, and additional members of the project team. It would b enefit project communic ations if foremen could transfer v arious types of inf orma tion, eithe r to or from the share d database, in or der to communicat e with other project pa rticipants (see Figure 60). Information foremen could tr ansmit to the shared database includes their status of completion on scheduled activities, quantities of work completed, sources of delay,

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93 Figure 60 Shared Data Commun ications Between Foremen and Proje ct Participants documentation of existing conditions and as-built data, photographic records, RFIÂ’s, labor and payroll in fo rmation for their crews, equipmen t and material usa ge and needs, jobs ite deliveries, field modifications, and res ults of field tests and modifications. Information foremen could retrieve from the shared database includes look-ahead schedules, crew assignments, change orders, schedule changes, minutes of coordination meetings, the status of predecessor trades, detailed work packages and tasks, installation instructions, the status of pending deliverie s, results of lab te sts, and answers t o RFIÂ’s. Other research supports the

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94 Figure 61 Whet her Foremen Think Handheld Device Would Help Them Do Their Jobs concept of a shared-data resource as a means of creating this “common communication channel for exchanging d ata between pro ject p articipan ts” (Abou-Zeid and Russell, 1993, p. 251). Foremen responded very p ositively to the use fulness of a handheld digital commun icat or that would enable data entry and retrieval of information about a project under construction. Most foremen (79. 9%) “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that such a device would help them do their jobs (s e e Figure 61; refer also to Table 18, page 208, for foremen’s detailed responses). Foremen were also asked for their opinions regarding the use fulness of a hand held digital communicator spe cifically for pe rforming their dut ie s re lated to scheduling and

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95 Figure 62 Whet her Foremen Think Handheld Device Would Help with Scheduling and Coordination coordination. Most foremen (75. 3%) “agreed” or “strongly agre ed” that such a de vice would help them with scheduling and coordination (see Figure 62; refer also to Table 19, page 215, for foremen’s detailed responses). Overall, t he resp onses of foremen to the concept of using handheld computing devices were quite positiv e in this s tudy. One earlier study which included a limited demonstration of such devices to field personnel noted that although there were no negative comments, “foreman reac tion was cautious, or lukewarm” (McCullouch and Gunn, 1993, p. 383). However, that study concluded that superintendents’ basic reaction was favorable, as they saw potential time savings for themselves in record keeping tasks and for others who would subsequently use the recorded information (McCullouch and Gunn, 1993).

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96 Comparison of Main and External Samples As discussed in Chapter 2, the data set is composed of a main sample (N=87) and an external sample (N=32). These two samples are com pared with the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, which enable co mpar ison of data from two related samples (Agresti and Finlay, 1986). Test resul ts indicate that re sponses are gene rally consistent be tween the main and external samples. However, seven of the approximately one-hundred variables do have significant response differences between the two samples, one at the .01 level and the other six at the .05 level (see Table 5). Average crew size (CREW SIZE) in the main sa mp le i s approximately sixteen, compared to approximately e leven in the exter nal sample. Foreme n in the main sample find schedules to be helpful (SCHD HELP) more frequ ently than foremen in the external sample, possibly since the benefit of schedules is more apparent in larger and more complex projects Look-ahead schedules plan the work further ahead (LOOKTI ME)in the main sample. Also, look-ahead schedules in the main sample are more likely to be generated (LOOKMAKR) by foremen or their own companies rather than by the general contractor. Records of foremen in the external sample are checked more frequently (RECCHK) than those in t he main sample. Lastly, foremen in the main sample are more likely to use c omputers at home (COMPHOME) and to have children using computers at home (COMPKIDS).

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97 MannWhitney U Wilcoxon W Z Sig. (2-tailed) ForemenÂ’s Average Crew Size (CREWSIZE) 932.000 1397.000 -2.116 .034* Frequency that Written Schedules are Helpful to Foremen (SCHDHELP) 1012.00 1540.000 -2.150 .032* How Far Ahead Look-Ahead Schedules Pla n the Work (LOOKTIME) 648.500 1026.500 -3.149 .002** Who Makes the Look-Ahead Schedules (LOOKMAKR) 823.000 4144.000 -2.332 .020* Frequency tha t ForemenÂ’s Records Are Checked ByOthers (RECCHK) 962.000 4365.000 -2.081 .037* If Foremen Use Computers at Home (COMPHOME) 1086.500 1614.500 -2.114 .034* If Foremen Have Children Using Compute rs at Home (COMPKIDS) 1045.500 1573.500 -2.436 .015* **Correlation is significant a t the .01 level (1-tailed). *Correlation i s significant at the .05 level (1-tailed). Table 5 Variables with Significant Differences Between Main and External Samples How ForemenÂ’s Characteristics Correlate with Acceptance of Technology Results were analyzed to determine if the m e asured characteristics of foremen correlate with their level of acceptance of the proposed handheld computer/communication technology. Variables within t he groups of fore men character istics previously di s cus sed (initial planning practices, use of wr itten schedules, look-ahead schedules, attitudes about

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98 scheduling, relationship between scheduling and safety, documentation practices, sources of delay, and computers an d technology) wer e tested for cor relations with foremenÂ’s attitudes and opinions toward personally using handheld computers as an integral part of their jobs. As described in the Chapter 2, testing of correlations was performed using KendallÂ’s taub (see Table 6). Three variables used as measures of foremenÂ’s ac ceptance of th e handheld com puting technology were tested for correlation with all other measured characteristics of foremen. These variables, the dependent variables for this study, were (1) whether foremen think a handheld computer would help them do their job (HANDHELD), (2) whether f oremen think a handheld c omputer would help them specificall y with scheduling and coordination (HHSCHED), and (3) whether foremen think a stereo camera would be useful to them ( CAMERA). All three variables were measured on the five-point agreement scale. These three variables were al so grouped together for a combined test of handheld computing technology acceptance among the foremen (HHCOMBO). KendallÂ’s taub testing indicates several characteristic s of foremen whic h correlate significantly with their acceptance of handheld computing tech n ology (see Table 6). This study initially hypothesized that the investigated characteristics of f oremen may predict foremenÂ’s levels of acceptance of such technology. Therefore, the variables which measure foreme nÂ’s a cceptance of the technology (HANDHELD, HHSCHED, CAMERA, and HHCOMB O) are dependent variables, a nd the significance of correlations is calculated based on one-tailed tests. Only two of the variables testing significant with KendallÂ’s taub SCHDHELP and COMPHOME, are also among those identified as variables with signi ficant differences between main and external samples (see Table 5, page 97).

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99 Variable Statistics Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) Formal Education Completed(SCHOOL) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N .104† .098 119 .188* .019 93 .031 .350 119 .125† .070 93 Foremen’s Age (AGE) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N -.024 .370 119 -.136* .045 93 -.074 .149 119 -.135* .038 93 Foremen’s Use of Written Plan for Upcoming Work(WRITPLAN) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N .209** .007 119 .217* .012 93 .158* .030 119 .222** .007 93 Frequency that Written Schedules are Helpful toForemen(SCHDHELP) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N .097 .114 116 .091 .156 91 .192** .008 116 .147* .047 91 If Foremen Want More Information about theSchedule(MOREINFO) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N .154* .039 115 .115 .123 89 .049 .286 115 .095 .153 89 **Correlation is significant a t the .01 level (1-tailed). *Correlation i s significant at the .05 level (1-tailed). †Follows trend (significant at the .10 level, 1-tailed) Table 6 Correlations with Handheld Computing Acceptance Using Kendall’s Taub

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100 Table 6–continued Variable Statistics Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) If Foremen HaveSuggestions onHow toImprove Scheduling (SUGGIMPR) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .401** <.001 118 .222* .011 93 .251** .003 118 .251** .003 93 Foremen’s Responses toIncludingSafety Activities in the Schedule(SCHDSAFE) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .193* .011 115 .301** .001 89 .106 .103 115 .272** .001 89 Time Foremen Spend Per Dayon Record Keeping(DOCTIME) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .212** .006 90 .155* .036 86 .241** .002 90 .199** .007 86 If Foremen MaintainSeparate Log Book(SEPLOG) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .262** .004 92 .120 .136 74 .190* .025 92 .196* .027 74 Frequency that Foremen’sRecords are Used to Evaluate Their Work (RECEVAL) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .082 .151 114 .210** .009 91 .079 .158 114 .162* .025 91 **Correlation is significant a t the .01 level (1-tailed). *Correlation i s significant at the .05 level (1-tailed). †Follows trend (significant at the .10 level, 1-tailed)

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101 Table 6–continued Variable Statistics Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) Frequency That Foremenare AskedQuestionsAbout Their Records (RECQUEST) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .186** .010 114 .158* .037 91 .231** .002 114 .192* .010 91 How Foremen Rate TheirAccess toInformation Needed to Do Their Job(INFORATE) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .026 .372 118 .148* .050 93 .046 .285 118 .144* .044 93 If Foremen Think Waitingfor Information Often SlowsProduction(INFOWAIT) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .108† .088 119 .110 .110 93 .160* .021 119 .083 .162 93 Cited Delays Due to Scheduling /Coordination / Communication Issues (DELSCHED) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N .172* .025 115 .104 .144 92 .038 .331 115 .089 .166 92 **Correlation is significant a t the .01 level (1-tailed). *Correlation i s significant at the .05 level (1-tailed). †Follows trend (significant at the .10 level, 1-tailed)

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102 Table 6–continued Variable Statistics Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) Cited Delays Due toChanges to theWork(DELCHANG) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .063 .238 115 .154† .058 92 .152* .040 115 .202* .014 92 If Management is Willing toListen toForemen’sSuggestions( MGMTOPEN ) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N -.206** .005 118 -.102 .129 93 -.076 .172 118 -.127† .066 93 If Foremen Use Computers to PerformAny Part of Their Job( COMPWORK ) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N .287** <.001 119 .331** <.001 93 .271** .001 119 .342** <.001 93 If Foremen Use Computersat Home ( COMPHOME ) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .106 .110 119 .062 .260 93 .142* .049 119 .123† .088 93 If Foremen Like to Play Video Games(VIDEO) Taub Sig.(1-tailed) N .170* .020 119 .113 .113 93 .116† .079 119 .149* .044 93 If Foremen Use ElectronicOrganizers(ELECORG) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .124† .074 119 .212* .014 93 .178* .019 119 .205* .012 93 **Correlation is significant a t the .01 level (1-tailed). *Correlation i s significant at the .05 level (1-tailed). †Follows trend (significant at the .10 level, 1-tailed)

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103 Table 6–continued Variable Statistics Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) If Foremen ThinkComputers areBeneficial toConstruction Companies (COMPBENE) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .033 .348 119 .211* .013 93 -.086 .150 119 .073 .203 93 If Foremen Think aComputerCould Help Them Do Their Job Better(COMPHELP) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .441** <.001 119 .408** <.001 93 .330** <.001 119 .468** <.001 93 Foremen's Responses toUsing a Computer asPart of TheirJob (COMPFEEL) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .415** <.001 119 .343** <.001 93 .262** .001 119 .368** <.001 93 If Foremen ThinkComputersCould ReplacePart of theForeman's Job(COMPREPL) Taub Sig.(1-tailed)N .129† .056 119 .327** <.001 93 .002 .491 119 .187* .016 93 **Correlation is significant a t the .01 level (1-tailed). *Correlation i s significant at the .05 level (1-tailed). †Follows trend (significant at the .10 level, 1-tailed)

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104 As shown (see Table 6, page 99), several of the investigated charact erist ics of foremen correlate with their acceptance of the proposed handheld computing technology. As discussed, the dependent variables which measure foremenÂ’s acceptance of the technology are HANDHELD, HHSCHED, CAMERA, and HHCOMBO, and correlations are tabulated according to these four depe ndent variables. The following sections discuss the correlations as listed in Table 6 (see page 99). Formal Education The association between level of formal education (SCHOOL) and the acceptance of handheld co m puting technology was expected intuitively. However, although HANDHELD and HHCOMBO show a trend toward significance, a significant correlation with level of formal education completed is only found with one variable, HHSCHED (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 9, page 45, for response frequencies). Age The age of foremen (AGE) was expected to have a fairly strong negative correlation with their acceptan ce of handheld c omputing te chnol ogy. However, while there are significant negative correlations with H HSCHED a nd HHCOMBO, the sign ificance is relatively close to the thre shold level of .05 (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 11, page 47, for response frequencies).

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105 Use of Written Plan Significant correlations exist between fo remen who use some type of writte n plan to o rganize their upcoming work (WRITPLAN) and all the dependent technology variables including HHCOMBO (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 16, page 5 1, for response frequencies). Foremen who are in the habit of planning their upcoming work in some type of written format app ear to support the idea of using advanced technologies to plan ahead and coordinate their work more efficiently. Frequency that Written Schedules are Helpful The frequency that w ritten schedules are helpf ul to foremen (SCHDHELP) correlates significantly with both CAMERA and HHCOMBO (see Table 6, pag e 99; refer also to Figure 1 9, page 53, for response frequencies). As discussed above regarding the use of writte n plan s (WRITPLAN), the practice of pla nning ahead may be the link in this relationship. More Information About the Schedule Foremen’s answers to the question, “Do you wish you had more information about the schedule?” were categorized as “Yes” or “No” for the purposes of correlation testing (see Table 1 2, page 167, for foremen’s detailed responses). Foremen’s desire for more information about the schedule (MO REINFO) correla tes significantly with HANDHELD. This correlation supp orts the hypothesis that because of the handheld technology’s potential

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106 to provide foremen with scheduling information, foremen who want more information about the schedule will accept the t echnology mor e readily than those who do not want more information (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 29, page 63, for response frequencies). Suggestions to Improve Scheduling Foremen’s answe rs to the question, “Do you have any suggestions on how to improve scheduling?”were categorized as “Yes” or “No” for the purposes of correlation testing (see Table 13, page 172, for foremen’s detailed responses). St rong correlations exist between foremen who have suggestions on how to improve sch eduling (SUGGIMPR) and all the dependent variables (see Table 6, page 99; refer a lso to Figur e 30, page 64, for response frequencies). It is interesting to n ote that regardl ess of the specific suggestions, simply the fact that suggestions were offered proved to be a strong predictor of foremen’s acceptance of the handheld computing technology. Safety Activities in the Schedule Foremen’s respon ses to including safety activities in the schedule (SCHDSAFE) correlate significantly with HANDHELD, HHSCHED, and HHCO MBO (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 34, page 67, for response frequencies). Including safety activities in the schedule is a relatively new and uncommon practice to foremen. Their responses to this question may pr edict their acceptance of handheld computing technology since the use of handheld computers is also relatively new and uncommon to foremen, and likewise indicates their willingness to try out or to adopt unfamiliar techniques on the job.

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107 Time Spent on Record Keeping Strong correlati ons exist between the amount of time foremen spend on record keeping (DOCTIME) and all the dependent variables (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to page 68 for response frequencies). Foremen who have more record keeping duties appa rentl y recognize the potential that handheld computing technology offers for increased efficiency in completing their documentation duti es. Separate Log Book ForemenÂ’s practice of maintaining a separate log book (SEPLOG) correlates significantly with HANDHELD, HHSCHED, and HHCOMBO (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to page 68 for response frequencies). Similar to the previous variable regarding record keeping, this indicates that the more extensive foremenÂ’s documentation practices are, the more likely they are to accept the use of handheld computing technology. Records Used to Evaluate Work The frequency that foremenÂ’s records are use d to evaluate their work (RECEVAL) correlates with HHSCHED and HH COMBO (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 38, page 73, for res ponse frequencies). The more often foremenÂ’s rec ords are used to e valuate their work, the more likely they are to accept the use of handheld computing technology. Foremen with more accountability for their records apparently see the proposed technology as a means of cre ating high-quality records.

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108 Asked Questions About Records Once again, a relatio nship is shown betwe en experience s with record kee pin g a nd acceptance of h andhe ld computing technology. The frequency that foremen are asked questions about their records (RECQUE ST) correlates s ignificantly with all the dependent variables (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 40, page 74, for response frequencies). Similar to the findings of for emenÂ’s records being used to evaluate their work (RECEVAL), foremen who are held acc ountable for thei r records apparently view the proposed technology as an effective means of documentation. Access to Information How foremen rate their access to information (INFORATE) correlates sign ificantly with HHSCHED and HHCOMBO (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 43 page 76, for response frequencies). Although a negative correlation was expected, which would have indicated that dissatisfaction wi th access to information would result in acceptance of handheld computing technology as a potential means of improvement, the res ults instead suggest a positive correlation. That is, foremen who are more satisfied wit h their access to information appear to acce pt handheld comput ing technology as a means of improving their access to information more readily than those foremen who are less satisfi e d. However, it should be noted that the correlation strength (close to the .05 level) is moderate.

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109 Waiting for Information Foremen’s claims that waiting for information often slows production (INFOWAIT) correlates significantly with C AMERA (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 44, page 77, for response frequencies). Altho ugh no other significant correlations exist between I NFOWAIT and the dependent variables, HANDHELD follows the trend. Stronger correlations were expected based on the hypothesis that foremen would see the potential of the proposed technology to reduce delays which result when they are waiting for information necessary to complete their work. (See Table 14, page 181, for foremen’s detailed responses to the followup question, “What are some typical kinds of inf ormation that you ha ve to wait for which are needed to perform your work?”) Delays Due to Scheduling Issues Although a stronger correlation was expected bet ween foremen’s expe rience with delays due to scheduling/coordination/communication issues (DELSCHED) an d their accept a nce of handheld computing technology, a significant correlation is found with the dependent variable HANDHELD (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Table 3, page 80, for response frequencies). This finding indicates that foremen view the proposed technology as a means of reducing such delays (see Table 15, page 185, for foremen’s detailed responses to the questions “What causes you delays on the job?” and “How can these delays be reduced?”).

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110 Delays Due to Changes Foremen’s citation of delays due to changes to the work (DELCHANG) correlates significantly with CAMERA and HHCOMBO ( see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Table 3, page 80, for response frequencies), again indicating that foremen see reduction of delays as a potential benefit of using handheld digital communicators. HHSCHED follows the trend. (See Table 15, page 185, for foremen’s detailed responses to the questions “What causes you delays on the job?” and “How can these delays be reduced?”) Openness of Management Management’s willingness to listen to foremen’s suggestion s (MGMTOPEN) shows a si gnificant negative correlation with HANDHELD (see Table 6, page 99; refe r also t o Figure 4 8, page 82, for response frequencies). In addition, HHCOMBO follows the trend. It appears that those forem en who are more likely to accept the prop osed handheld technology are less likely to feel that management is willing to listen to the ir s uggestions about how to improve work processes. Computer Use for Work Strong correlations exist between foremen’s use of computers to perform any part of their jobs (COMPWORK) and all the dependent varia bles (see Table 6 page 99; refer also to Figure 49, page 83, for response frequencies). Those foremen who have alrea dy used computers f or work are much more likely to accept the use of handheld computing

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111 technology in their jobs. This finding strongly supports implement ation o f the proposed technology, since those foremen who have already used computers for work recognize the benefits of such t echnology and als o desire to expan d their use of comp uters. Computer Use at Ho me Although not nearl y as strong as the correlations involving computer use for work purposes, foremenÂ’s use of computers a t home (COMPHOME) does c orrelate signifi cantly wit h CAMERA (s ee Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 50, page 84 for response frequencies). HHCOMBO follows the trend. Experience with using computers at home may influence fore men to more readi ly accept the use of computers in the ir jobs. Video Games Foreme nÂ’s pre ference to play video games (VID EO) correlate s significantly with HANDHELD and HHCOMBO (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 51, page 85, for response frequencies). CAMERA follows the trend. Foremen who a re familiar with operatin g video game devices may view handheld computers as similar, and thus be more comfortable with the idea of usi ng such devices in their jobs. Electronic Organizers ForemenÂ’s use of electronic organizers (ELECORG) correlates sign ificantly with HHSCHED, CAMERA, and HHCOMBO (see Table 6, pa ge 99; refer als o to page 84 for response frequencies). In addition, HAND HE LD follows the trend. Foremen who already

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112 use electronic orga nizers, which co uld be considered a type of handheld computer, appear to be more recep tive to the use of ha ndheld computing te chnology in their jo bs. Benefit of Computers to Construction Companies ForemenÂ’s belief that computer s are b eneficial to construction companies (COMPBENE) correlates sign ificantly with HHSCH ED (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 52, page 86, for response frequencies). ForemenÂ’s gener al opinions about the benefit of computers to construction companies may influence their opinion s reg arding the proposed handheld computer/communication technology. Whether Computers Would Help Foremen Do Their Jobs Better ForemenÂ’s responses regarding whether computers could hel p them do their jobs better (COMPHELP) corre lates significant ly with all the depe ndent variables ( see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 53, page 87, for response frequencies). The opinion of foremen regarding the usefulness of computers for the ir work appears to be a strong predicto r of their acceptance of handheld computing technology. Attitudes Toward Using Computers as Part of Jobs Nearly as strong are the correlations re gardin g f oremenÂ’s attitudes toward using computers as part of their jobs if their employers want them to use computers (COMPFEEL). Significant correlations are found w i th all the dependent variables, again indicating that foremenÂ’s attitudes toward using computers as part of their jobs stron gly p redicts their

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113 acceptance of handheld computing technology (see Table 6, page 99; refer also to Figure 54, page 87, for response frequencies; see Table 16, page 194, for foremenÂ’s detailed responses.) Opinions About Computers Replacing Part of the ForemanÂ’s Job ForemenÂ’s opinions that computers could replace part of their jobs (COMPREPL) correlates significantly with HHSCHED and HHCOMBO (see Table 6, page 99; r efer also to Figure 55, page 89, for r esponse frequencies). In addition, HANDHELD is in the trend range. Foreme n who believe computers could replace part of their jobs tend to view such technology as a tool that will help them perform their jobs better. Tho se for emen who disagr ee may see computers as a threat to their own job security, abilities, or familiar operating proce dures. Notable Variables Without Significant Correlations It was expected that foremen from the more technical trades, such as mechanical and electrical foremen, would be more likely to accept the handheld co mputing te chnology. However, no specific trad es or crafts of f oremen are signi ficantly corre la ted with the dependent variable s. It was also expected that foremenÂ’s practice of taking pictures (PICTURES) for higher levels of documentation (see Figure 35, pa ge 69, and related discussion) would co r relate positively with their acceptance of the handheld computing technology, particularly with CAMERA. However, there are no sign if ican t correlations between PICTURES a nd the dependent v ariables.

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114 Regression Modeling: ForemenÂ’s Characteristics and Their Acceptance of Technology As discussed in Chap ter 1, several general characteristics of foremen were hypothesized to be predictors of their responses to using handheld computer/communication techno logy. M ore specific characteristics were then investigated by means of the questionnaire. The correlations measured with KendallÂ’s taub (see Tab le 6, page 99) are helpful in assessing which specific characteristics of foremen may indicate their tendency to accept the hand held computer/communication technology presented to them in this study. However, foremenÂ’s resp onses to the techno logy questions may be due to several of these characteristics working in c omb ination. Multiple linear regression analysis enables ev aluation of the combined ef fect of such cha racteristics. Th e following hypothe ses ar e tested with singlestep multiple linea r regression ana lysis: H1: The demographic characteristics of formal education completed (SCHOOL) and age (AGE) are predictors of fo remenÂ’s technology acceptance. SCHOOL is a positive predictor and AGE is a negative predictor. H2: Proa ctive habits and attitudes concerning scheduling (measured by WRITPLA N MOREINFO, SUGGIMPR, and SCHDSAFE) are positive predictors of foremenÂ’s technology acceptance. H3: More string ent record keeping practices and ac countability (measured by DOCTIME, SEPLOG, RECEVAL, and RECQU E ST) are positive predictors of foremenÂ’s technology acceptance. H4: L es s access to information and more experience with delays are predictors of foremenÂ’s technology acceptance. Of the two variables measur in g access to

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115 information, INFORATE is a is a negative predictor and INFOWAIT is a positive predictor. The two variables measuring experience with delays, DELSCHED and DELCHANG, are b oth positive predic tors. H5: More exposure to and use of computers (measured by COMPWORK, VIDEO, and ELECORG) are positive predictors of foremenÂ’s technology acceptance. Although KendallÂ’s taub testing shows that COMPHOME correlates significantly with CAMERA and is close to a signific ant correlation with HHCOMBO (see Table 6, page 99), COMPHOME is excluded from hypothesis testing and all other regression models since the two-independent-samples tes ts (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon) show that home c ompute r use is more prevalent within the main sample than within the external sample (see Table 5, page 97). Thus, no var iables which have significant differences between the main and external samples are included in hypothesis testing (see Table 7, for res ults of hypothesis testing). In addition, two significant independent variab les are excluded from hy pothesis testing and all other regression models in order to eliminate pot ential tau tology problems. Independent variables COMPHELP and COMPFEEL correla te strongly with the dependent variables in KendallÂ’s taub testing (see Table 6, page 99), and appea red to be strong predictors in preliminary re gress ion t esting (not shown). However, it could be argued that these variables are fairly similar to the dependent variables, t hereby account ing for the highly significant correlations. Thus, COMPHELP and COMPFEEL are excluded from regression analysis.

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116 Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) Demographic Characteristics (H1) Formal Education Completed (SCHOOL) Beta Sig. .088 .345 .174† .095 .004 .970 .096 .360 Foremen’s Age (AGE) Beta Sig. -.011 .902 -.127 .220 -.094 .313 -.143 .172 Summary of Models R 2 Sig. N -.009 .637 119 .027 .106 93 -.008 .600 119 .010 .242 93 Proactive Habits and Attitudes Concerning Sche duling (H2) Foremen’s Use of Written Plan for Upcoming Work (WRITPLAN) Beta Sig. .131 .117 .157 .121 .142 .129 .184† .064 If Foremen Want More Information about the Schedule (MOREINFO) Beta Sig. .002 .986 .120 .256 -.048 .628 .038 .713 If Foremen Have Suggestions o n How to Improve Scheduling (SUGGIMPR) Beta Sig. .453** <.001 .179† .095 .230* .021 .304** .004 Foremen’s Responses to Including S afety Activities in the Schedule (SCHDSAFE) Beta Sig. .216* .011 .328** .002 .150 .111 .319** .002 Summary of Models R 2 Sig. N .256** <.001 112 .168** .001 86 .062* .028 112 .209** <.001 86 **Significant at the .01 level *Significant at the .05 level †Follows trend (significant at the .10 level) Table 7 Hypothesis Testing with Single-Step Multiple Linear Regression

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117 Table 7–continued Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) Stringency of Record Keeping Practices and A ccountability (H3) Time Foremen Spend Per Day on Re cord Keeping (DOCTIME) Beta Sig. .232 .101 .238 .102 .181 .201 .242† .095 If Foremen Maint ain Separate Log Book (SEPLOG) Beta Sig. .231† .093 .014 .912 .213† .095 .157 .225 Frequency that Foremen’s Reco rds are Used to Evalu ate Their Work (RECEVAL) Beta Sig. -.065 .616 .186 .171 .076 .564 .092 .494 Frequency That Foremen are AskedQuestions Abo ut Their Records (RECQUEST) Beta Sig. .059 .635 -.003 .983 -.001 .996 .009 .946 Summary of Models R 2 Sig. N .090* .034 72 .077† .059 68 .076† .053 72 .092* .038 68 Access to Information and Experience with Delays (H4) How Foremen R ate Their Access t o Information Nee ded to Do Their Job(INFORATE) Beta Sig. .018 .857 .181 .102 .095 .346 .171 .120 If Foremen Think Waiting for Information Often Slows Production(INFOWAIT) Beta Sig. .101 .333 .142 .207 .200† .054 .128 .252 **Significant at the .01 level *Significant at the .05 level†Follows trend (significant at the .10 level)

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118 Table 7–continued Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) Access to Information and Experience with Delays (H4)–continued Cited Delays D ue to Scheduling /Coordination / Communication Issues (DELSCHED) Beta Sig. .141 .140 .109 .299 -.023 .805 .079 .446 Cited Delays D ue to Changes to the Work (DELCHANG) Beta Sig. .071 .460 .175 .102 .128 .182 .232* .030 Summary of Models R 2 Sig. N .003 .370 115 .035 .130 92 .025 .152 115 .048† .080 92 Exposure to and Use of Computers (H5) If Foremen Use Computers to P erform Any Part of Their Job( COMPWORK ) Beta Sig. .240* .013 .300** .006 .213* .026 .312** .004 If Foremen Like to Play Video Games(VIDEO) Beta Sig. .102 .269 .004 .968 .049 .596 .059 .563 If Foremen Use Electronic Org anizers (ELECORG) Beta Sig. .057 .538 .120 .244 .162† .078 .133 .190 Summary of Models R 2 Sig. N .067* .012 119 .093** .009 93 .073** .008 119 .122** .002 93 **Significant at the .01 level *Significant at the .05 level†Follows trend (significant at the .10 level)

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119 A total of twenty regression models (four models for each of the five hypotheses) are developed to test the effect that foremenÂ’s characteristics have on their tendency to acce pt the use of handheld c omputer/communica tion devices. The four dependent v aria b les used to create the models are HANDHELD, HHSCHE D, CAM ERA, and HHCOMBO. W ithin each hypothesis, individual beta weights and significance levels are shown for the foremen characteristics for each model. Model statistics are also shown for each hypothesis, includi n g R 2 values and significance levels (see Table 7, page 116). Demographic Characteristics (H1) H1 is not supported by multiple linear regression. Similar to findings with KendallÂ’s taub testing (see Tabl e 6, page 99), the demographic characteristics of formal education (SCHOOL) and age (AGE) a re not strong pred ictors of foreme nÂ’s handheld computer/communication technology acce ptance (see Ta ble 7, page 116). As indicated by the low R 2 values of all four models testing H1, demographic characteristics account for only a small portion of the explained variance concerning for emenÂ’s accepta nce of the handhe ld technology. However, it is noted that negative relationships are again observed between age and the dependent variables measuring acceptance. Proactive Habits and Attitudes Concerning Scheduling (H2) H2 is supported by multiple linear regression. Model s for dependent variables HANDHELD, HHSCHED, and HHCOMBO are significant at the .01 level, and the model for CAMERA is significa nt at the .05 level ( se e Table 7, page 116). The R 2 values are

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120 relatively strong, in dica ting an explained v ariance of ove r 20% in two of the mo dels (HANDHELD and HHCOMBO). Indepe ndent variables SUGGIMPR and SCHDSAFE h ave very strong individ ual coefficien ts and appear to b e driving all four models. Stringency of Record Keeping Practices and Accountability (H3) H3 is supported by multiple linear regression. Although R 2 values are not as strong as those for H2, expl ained variance is approaching 10 % for each of the models (see T able 7, page 116). Models for dependent variables HANDHELD and HHCOMBO are significant at the .05 level. Models for HHSCHED and CAMERA have significance in the trend range. Access to Information and Experience with Delays (H4) H4 is not supported by mu ltiple linear regression. Although the model for dependent variable HHCOMBO has significance in the trend range at .080, with an explained variance of 4.8%, no other models are cl ose to b eing significant (see Table 7, page 116). As found with KendallÂ’s taub testing (see T able 6, page 99), INFORATE again exhibits a positive relationship with foremenÂ’s handheld computer/communication technology accep ta nce, contrary to expectations of a negative relationship. Exposure to and Use of Computers (H5) H5 is supported by multiple linear regression. Model s for dependent variables HHSCHED, CAMERA, and HHCOMBO are significant at the .01 level, and the model for HANDHELD is on the threshold of significance at the .01 level (see Table 7, page 116).

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121 Explained variance of the models ranges from 6.7% (HANDH ELD) to 12.2% (HHCOMBO) As the only strong independe nt variable, COMPW ORK is obviously driving the models. It is interesting to note that if COMPHOME (excluded due to differences between main and external samples; see Table 5, p age 9 7) is added to the models, it exhibits a negative r elationship with foremenÂ’s ha ndheld computer/c ommunication tech nology accepta nce i n three of the four models. This is co n trary to expectations of a positive relationship, and contrary to the positive relationship indicated in KendallÂ’s taub testing (see Table 6, page 99) It should be noted, however, that the individual coefficients for COMPHOME are relatively weak in both KendallÂ’s taub testing and multiple regression anal ysis. Overall Multiple Re gression Models Further multiple linear regression is useful to analyze combinations of variables which appear to be predictors of foremenÂ’s handheld computer/communication technology acceptance. Overall models enable substantiation of the key independent variables from the above hypotheses, an d reveal h ow these variables are working together to affect the dependent varia bles. When the seventeen indepen dent variables se lected for regr ession analysis (s ee Table 7, page 116) are tested with stepwise multiple linear regression, several key predictors are identified (see Table 8). All four stepwise m odels are highly si gnificant, easily satisfying the .01 level of significance. The adjusted R 2 value of the c ombined technology model (HHCOMBO) is relatively high, indicating an ex pl ained variance of 35.4%. The other models are also fairly strong, with explained variances of 20.8% (HANDHELD), 44.0%

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122 Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) If Foremen Have Suggestions o n How to Improve Scheduling(SUGGIMPR) Beta Sig.Rank .409** <.001 1 .418** <.001 2 (Excluded) .374** .001 2 Foremen’s Responses to Including S afety Activities in the Schedule (SCHDSAFE) Beta Sig. Rank (Excluded) .273** .008 3 (Excluded) .263* .014 4 Time Foremen Spend Per Day on Re cord Keeping (DOCTIME) Beta Sig. Rank (Excluded) (Excluded) .316** .005 1 (Excluded) Frequency that Foremen’s Reco rds are Used to Evalu ate Their Work (RECEVAL) Beta Sig.Rank (Excluded) .234* .021 4 (Excluded) (Excluded) Cited Delays D ue to Changes to the Work (DELCHANG) Beta Sig. Rank (Excluded) .196* .045 5 .277** .010 3 .292** .006 3 If Foremen Like to Play Video Games(VIDEO) Beta Sig.Rank (Excluded) (Excluded) .290** .007 2 (Excluded) If Foremen Use Electronic Org anizers (ELECORG) Beta Sig.Rank .278* .014 2 .438** <.001 1 .215* .044 4 .389** <.001 1 Summary of Models R 2 Sig. N .208** <.001 67 .440** <.001 63 .320** <.001 67 .354** <.001 63 **Significant at the .01 level *Significant at the .05 level †Follows trend (significant at the .10 level) Table 8 Overall Model Testing with Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression

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123 (HHSCHED), and 32.0% (CAMERA). It is noteworthy that COMPWORK, although a very strong predictor in reg ression testing of H 5 (see Table 7, page 116), is absent from all four models. Conversely, DOCTIME, RECEVAL, and VIDEO are each included wi thin one of the four stepwise models (see Table 8, page 122). These three variables were relatively weak predict ors in hypot hesis testing (see Table 7, page 116), particularly RECEVAL and VIDEO. Since COMPWORK was such a strong predictor in hypothesis testing (see Table 7, page 116) but was exclu ded from the stepw ise models, singlestep regression i s next use d to examine the influence of this variable in an overal l model. The single-step method of multiple linear regre ssion allows for manu al selection of all the independent variables desired for in clusion in the model (Agresti and Finlay, 1986). To build the single-step model, the four variables in the HHCOMBO stepwise model (see Table 8, page 122) are first selected. Next, the one variable measuring “exposure to and us e of computers,” ELECORG, is replaced with COMPWORK. As sho wn (see Table 9) CO MPWOR K emerges as the topranking variable in these sin gl e-step models. Thi s test confirms tha t COMPWORK is a predic tor variab le, as suggested by Kendall’s taub testing (see Table 6, page 99) and hypothesis testing with multiple regression (see Table 7, page 116). The model statistics re sulting from this single -step regression test are not quite as strong as in the stepwise models, but the adjusted R 2 values are still relatively high (see Table 9). The explained variance of the combined technology model (HHCOMBO) is 30.3%. The other models have explained variances of 26.4% (HANDHELD), 22.4% (HHSCHED), and 13.5% (CAMERA).

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124 Handheld Computer for General Job Applications ( HANDHELD ) Handheld Computer for Scheduling ( HHSCHED ) Handheld Stereo Camera ( CAMERA ) Handheld Variables Combined ( HHCOMBO ) If Foremen Have Suggestions o n How to Improve Scheduling (SUGGIMPR) Beta Sig.Rank .425** <.001 1 .158 .107 4 .175† .056 3 .244** .009 4 Foremen’s Responses to Including S afety Activities in the Schedule (SCHDSAFE) Beta Sig. Rank .200* .017 2 .328** .001 1 .120 .184 4 .295** .002 2 Cited Delays D ue to Changes to the Work (DELCHANG) Beta Sig. Rank .069 .399 4 .192* .046 3 .177* .048 2 .261** .005 3 If Foremen Use Computers to P erform Any Part of Their Job(COMPWORK) Beta Sig. Rank .186* .030 3 .256* .011 2 .258** .006 1 .300** .002 1 Summary of Models R 2 Sig. N .264** <.001 111 .224** <.001 88 .135** .001 111 .303** <.001 88 **Significant at the .01 level *Significant at the .05 level†Follows trend (significant at the .10 level) Table 9 Overall Model Testing with Single-Step Multiple Linear Regression Summary of Regres sion Analysis Multiple regression anal ysis confirms seve ral ch aracteristics of foremen who are more likely to embrace the use of handheld digital communicators in their work. A proactive attitude toward scheduling and coordination, measure d by SUGGIMPR and SCHDSAFE,

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125 is one of the stronge st predictors of technology acceptance. ForemenÂ’s exposure to and use of computers, measured by COMPWORK, VIDEO, and ELECORG, also has a very strong impact on their re action to the conc ept of using handhe ld digital communica tors. Although not quite as strong, other key characteristics are identified by the regression analys is. Habits of reco rd keeping is one such quality. Foremen with stringent documentation practices and accountability for their records, measured by DOCTIME and RECEVAL, tend to favor the use of handheld digital communicators. Lastly, foremen who have experienced delays due to changes to the work (DELCHANG) are likely to see the us efulness of hand held digital communicators. Although DELCHANG and the other variables measu ring access to information and experience with delays (INFO RA TE, INFOWAIT, and DELSCHED) do n ot confirm the specific hypothesis H4 (see T able 7, pag e 116), DELCHANG is a significant part of both the stepwise and single-step overall regression models (see Table 8, page 122, and Table 9, page 124).

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126 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION The first section of th is chapter discusses conclusions reached concerning the primary research questions under inv estigation in this stu d y. The remaining s ections discuss limitations of the study and suggestions for further research. In accordance with its purpose (see page 1), this study explored how the construction communication process may be improved through the role of the construction foreman. As previously discussed, the three primary research questions are: 1) What problems e xist in the schedulin g communication pr ocess? 2) What is the role of foremen in the scheduling communi cation process? 3) How can the scheduling communication process be improved? These were investigated according to their corresponding research objectives (see page 12), and by means of the procedures outlined in Chapter 2. In the following sections, conclusions are discussed wi thin the context of the three primar y research que stions. Problems in the Sche duling Communication Process As indicated in Chapter 1, co nstruction researchers have documented the need for improved communication in c onstructi on pr oject delivery systems (see pages 1-9). Although advancements in computer technology have enabled better communication and tracking of

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127 information among project participants, the re is still much room for improvement (Boles et al., 1998; Parfitt et al., 1993). The data from interviews with foremen substantiate findings in the liter ature th at there are inefficien cies in the scheduling communication process. Although some foremen did express strong dissatisfaction with the current system, there is not a consensus among foremen that the schedulin g communication pr ocess is highly prob le mati c. Rather, the findings of this study are that within the dynamic and complex process of coor dinating a construction project, two general problems can be identified: 1) Information flow is inefficient and communication is often poor. 2) Delays frequently occu r due to inefficient information flow and poor communication. Nearly all of the main sources of delay cited by foremen (see Table 3, page 80) are related to a breakdown in the communication process whereby a proj ect design and the associated c onstruc tion schedule are translated into a finished product. Nearly half of the foremen (42.6%) said that a primary source of del ay is not getting time ly answers to their questions about the work at hand. In responding to related questions, 56.3% of the foremen “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that their production is often slowed dow n because they mu st wait for information n eeded to perform their work (see Figure 44, page 77), and 42.0% “agreed” or “strongly agre ed” that it is diffic ult to get their questions answered (see Figure 45, page 78). Over one-third (37.7%) of the foremen blamed other trades for dela ying their own work by not keepin g their commitments, not completing their work in a timely manner, or simply getting in the way with their workers, materials, and equipm en t. Incomplete or

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128 conflicting plans and specifications was noted a s a main source of delay by 31.0% of the foreme n. S cheduling, coordination, and communication problems was the source of delay specificall y cited by 28.7% of th e foremen. Howe ver, it should be no ted that schedulin g coordination, and communication issues are also imp licitly related to t he previously mentioned delays. Similarly, delays due to changes in the work (27.8%) and material delays (25.4%), even if not the dir ect result of sch eduling/coordina tion/communication problems, could certainly be minimized by effective planning and communication. The fact that 74.6% of foremen had su ggestions on how to im prove scheduling also indicates that there may be problems worth investigating within the curr en t system (see Figure 30, page 64). More spec ifical ly, communication p roblems were amo ng the most common issues pointed out by the foremen who offered suggestions (see foremen’s detailed responses to the question “Do you have any suggestions on how to improve scheduling?” in Table 13, page 172). The considerable number of foremen (40.9%) who stated that they wish they h a d more information about the schedule stron gly suggests that their ability to coordinate the work is being inhibited due to a lack of information (see Figure 29, pa ge 63; refer als o to foremen’s detailed responses to the question “Do you wish you had more information about the schedule?” in Table 12, page 167). Without being prop erly informed of the schedule, foremen cannot coordinate the work efficiently.

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129 Role of Foremen in th e Scheduling Communi cation Process Few would argue aga inst the state men t that “the foreman plays a key role on any construction site” (Hinze and Kuechenmeister 1981, p. 635). As f irst-line field sup ervisors, foremen are pivotal members of the management team responsible for getting the job built by coordinating labor, materials, and equipment in the most efficient manner possible. However, results of this study show that foremen are partially excluded from the scheduling communication pro cess. Documentation of the work concurrent with actual construction is another important function of foremen. Much of the documentation pertinent to the as -built s chedule is recorded by foremen. Results of this study indicate that most foremen know the importance of keeping good rec ords, and that most foremen are use d to being held accou ntable for their job records. Partial Exclusion o f Foremen from the Scheduling Communic ation Process The value of involving f oremen in projec t planning and sche duling has lo n g been realized by managers (Borcherding, 1977). However, evidence suggests that knowledge of this value is not being put into practice. Earlier research found foremen’s actual involvement in the planning process to be minimal (Olsen, 1982). Results of this study suggest that many foremen are stil l not being included in the planning and scheduling proce ss. This study indicates tha t foremen’s involv ement in the initial s cheduling proce ss varies wide ly. M ore than half “usually” or “always” have input concerning methods and

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130 estimated duration of construction, but about one-fifth are “rarely” or “neve r” involve d in this process (see Figure 12, page 48 and Figure 14, page 50). The knowledge and experience of the latter group is not being incorporated into the project schedule. In addition, about onethird of the foremen are “never” or “rarely” involved in planning look-ahead schedules (see Figure 24, page 58), a scheduling technique which s hould rely heavily on foremen’s input (Hinze, 1998). Consequently, the usefulness of schedules is questioned by many foremen. Only about half of the f oremen rate sch edules as “usuall y” or “always” helpful (see Figure 19, page 53). As discussed, 40.9% o f the foremen wis h they had mo re i nformation about the schedule (see Figure 29, page 63; refer also to foremen’s detailed responses to the question “Do you wish you had more information about the schedule?” in Table 12, page 167). This lack of information is limiting their ability to perform their role of coordinating the work. Such information generally does exist, but foremen are apparently excluded from portions of the scheduling communication process. Two foremen d escribed their frustrations as follows: 1) Your project manager or your superintendent is going to sit in a meeting, and he’s g onna s ay, well, yeah, concrete’s being poured there next week. And they may say that on their three-week look-ahead, but they may not pass that information to me until the day before concrete, and then all of a sudden I got to run around and set drains. So, I’m pressured by not knowing the schedule. [HVAC/plumbing foreman] 2) Yeah, one of the big things – no matter how much exper ience you h ave, if you’re n ot given i nformation on a time ly basis, you’re a lways trying to improvise, or you have to pull off of something until you get information. It just slows everything down. Infor mation and material is all I need to do a good job. [electrical foreman]

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131 Similar to the observations of Borcherding (1972), “foremen feel left out when not included in planning and scheduling meetings” (p. 112). Another foremen said, “Yes, I think foremen should have more information on the schedule,” and t hen specificall y addressed look-ahead schedules: Most jobs I’ve ever been on, about one in three have [look-ahead s che dules] available at a foreman’s level. Most of the time it’s all been above [the foreman’s level], because superintendents don’t feel like [foremen] need to know that much, that they need to concentrate more on what they’re doing right there. But I think that for foremen who are capabl e and want t hat information, it should be availab le to them. [concrete foreman] In summary, results of this study show that foremen are partially excluded from the flow of information within the scheduling communication pro cess, thereby reducing their efficiency in coordinating the work. Furthermore, results indicate that many foremen are well aware of this problem (see Table 12, page 167, for foremen’s detailed responses to the question “Do you wish you had more information about the schedule?”). Foremen’s Role in Documentation Foremen’s role in documenting the work is an impor tant part of the scheduling communication process. In general, f orem en are well aware of the importance of maintaining accurate and complete rec ords, with 83.3% ra ting their job reco rds as very imp ortant (see Figure 36, page 70). This finding represe nts a marked in creas e in foremen’s a wareness regarding the importance of documentation as a prior study found that few foremen or superintendents fully appr eciat ed the value of their job records (Borcherding, 1972). Additionally, most foremen are accustomed to being evaluated based on their records (see

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132 Figure 38, page 73), having their records checked (Figure 39, page 73), and being questioned about their records (see Figure 40, page 74). Foremen’s attention to detailed documentation is an important finding of this study since a key element of the scheduling communication process involves field documentation of as-built progres s concurrent with construction act ivities. If foremen are to be given more responsibility in creat ing the as-built project record by means of handheld digital communicators, i t is essential that they be accustomed to a high level of quality and accountability in their record keeping practices. It appears that a large majority of foremen are prepared to handle such responsibility. How the Scheduling Communication Process Can Be Improved Result s of this study suggest that the scheduling communication process can be improved by (1) increasing foremen’s involvement in the scheduling process and (2) enabling foremen to access the information they need to coordinate the work. Furthermore, this study demonstrate s foremen’s gene ral accept ance of existing computer technology (handheld digital communicat ors) which has the potential to facil itate such improve ments. Increasing Foremen’s Involvement and Enabling Access to Information Foremen’s responses to the question “Do you have any sugge s tions on how to improve scheduling?” provide valuable field perspectives regarding how the s che duling communication process can be improved. Many sugge s tions by foremen express the need for more field input in the scheduling process. Although field input is sought t o some extent,

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133 foremen’s responses indica te that they are often overlooked when schedules are generated. Examples are as f ollows: 1) The best way to improve schedulin g would be to actua lly talk to the people that are building the job. [miscellaneous specialties foreman] 2) Everybody needs to sit down and h ave meet ings with the people who’s actually doing the work, a little c loser than they normally do. [HVAC/plumbing foreman] 3) Get more input from the field, and believ e what they say. [drywall/plaster/metal framing foreman] 4) Coordinate schedules with the subcontractors b etter. Build the sc hedule with the subcontractors. And talk to them about what it’s going to take. [concre te foreman] 5) Instead of te lling t he construction team what they [GC/construction manage rs] want, a sk them if they can meet it first. Instead of setting a deadline and telling them, a sk them if they can meet t h at deadline. Then establish the deadline. Then, if they don’t meet it, it’s my fault. [fire sprinkler foreman] 6) Well, before they make the schedule up, I think they oughta go around to all of the subs and say, “How long is it gonna take you in here?” and let us kinda work with them on it. The schedule is made up by the general contractor, and they think we can do it in a week, when it’s gonna take a week and a half or two weeks. They make the schedule up. They don’t consult us ahead of time, w hen they make the sche dule, on how long it’ s gonna take. And t h en the y want you to meet their quota, which is hard to do sometimes. They ought to get our input on how it’s gonna happen. [plumbing foreman] Other responses address the need for better communication. In particular s uch res ponses f ocus on the previously noted problem of foremen’s partial exclusion from the flow of information within the scheduling communication process. Examples are as follows: 1) The foremen who are going to be running t he jobs sh ou ld be at the preconstruction/prescheduling meet ings, not just the company owner or project manager. [And this should happen] before they break ground so we know where we stand and about what’s coming up–so that it gives us

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134 something to think about, how I’m going put that building up in three weeks or wha tever, instead of just step ping on the job and be ing totally lost. [ironwork foreman] 2) Keep the field updated on all the change s that come down, in scheduling and everything. If you let it filter down, you’ve probably solved about 50% of the pr oblem. B ecause 50% of the problem is that changes, or anything that’s done in the office does not filter down to the people in the field. And that’s what’s going to hold you up. So if you’ve got a good system set up where the changes are don e – the revisions to drawings or whatever’s been changed – and get it out to the field, and get it out to the people who’s got to get the work done, and circumvent all the other b.s., then it will get done right. But what happens is that whe n you’ve got this filtering down process, somewhere along the line somebody doesn’t care, or somebody just forgot about it, and it nev er gets out into the field. If you can assure that it gets into the field, where the working man, the common man out in the field, gets the proper information, you can save a lot of problems late r on That’s one main problem that happens on all jobs. [HVAC/plumbing foreman] 3) I guess if it was updated every couple of days, a nd you got the critic al path and where each trade was, like if they weren’t holding their schedule an d where they were going to be. If it could b e consta ntly updated, instead of waiting, you know. [miscellaneous specialties foreman] 4) All the trades need to be aware of the schedule. A lot of times someon e gets left out of the loop. You’ll have two different electrical contractors, one doing the general electric and lighting and whatnot and then you’ ll ha ve fire control. Fire control will jus t come in, do their job and be gone, and they’re not coordinated with anybody else. [drywall/plaster/metal framing foreman] 5) Well, I think the people that make the schedules should coordinate, and not just say they coord inate. But actuall y coordinate with all of the other trades involved, and make sure that they have the information that they need to complete the job. Because when you get out there and you’re waiting on information, one trade can hold up another trade waiting for that information. I think the flow of information from the top to the bottom needs to be a whole lot faster than what it is. [electrical foreman] 6) I would say we could do a little better on communication, as far as getting the schedule ahead of time, before the job starts. That way the foreman can look over the scope of work and be able to tell what he need s to get in there and get done, and wha t he needs to get started. To ha ve it a couple days earlier. [masonry foreman]

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135 7) They need to keep the information coming on any changes to the schedule. If theyÂ’re going to change anything on the schedule they need to get it to us as soon as they can possibly get it, because thatÂ’s what messes us all up. [HVAC/plumbing foreman] Construction productivity is dire ctly related to suc cessf u l communication between management and field personnel (Fletcher, 1972; Parker, 1980), a reali ty that foremen are keenly aware of, according to this studyÂ’s findings. Other common suggestions by foremen regarding how to i mpro ve scheduling include (1) improving coordination among various trades and (2) establishing more realistic durations when creating schedules (see Table 11, page 160 and Table 13, page 172). Handheld Digital Communicators In general, forem enÂ’s attitudes t oward co mputers are quite positive. The computer literacy rate of the foremen in this study is higher than initially expected. Half of the foremen surveyed use computer s in their homes (see Figure 50, page 84). Computer use on the job (16%) is also higher than expe cted for for emen (see Figure 49, page 83). Expe rience with computerized devices is common as well; about one-third u se some ty pe of electronic organizer, typic ally for phone numb ers and address es. Most pertinent to this study, foremen are very positive toward the concept of using handheld computer/communication devices as part of their jobs. This is an important finding since it affirmatively a nswers the questio n of w hether there is b uy-in at the firstline field manager level, as posed in prior res e arch studies (Tatum et al., 1991; De la Garza and Howitt 1997 ; Rojas and Songer, 1996; Cahoon,1995). Responses are approximately the

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136 same regarding the use of such devices for general purposes and specifically for scheduling purposes (see Figure 61, page 94, and Figure 62, page 95). The following comments by foremen concerning the use of handheld digital commun icat ors demonstrate th is technologyÂ’s ac ceptance by fie ld personnel: 1) I think it would be like mov in g out of the stone age into a modern time. I think it would greatly reduce down time, and reduce a lot of nonproduction, because of lack of information. It would revolutionize t he con struction industry, in my opinion. For one thing, itÂ’s extreme ly versa tile. It has information, it can g e t information on a timely basis, probably as in right now. And since we donÂ’t have it, IÂ’m not exercised in it, but IÂ’m sure that after I was for a while, I could think of a hundred million more things. If we had this type of communication, man, itÂ’d make m y job 100% easier. [electrical foreman] 2) I think that would be a fa ntastic tool to have. That would definitely be a huge asset to the industry. I couldnÂ’t think of a better idea than that. And IÂ’m glad to see th at somebody is thinki ng of an idea like t hat. That would he lp ou t tremendously. [miscellaneous specialties foreman] 3) ItÂ’d help the foreman in the field, for sure. You know, on his particular job. Once the foreman got us ed to using it, he probably couldnÂ’t do without it. As far as scheduling, and seeing where youÂ’re at, sure. Especially if they had a Web site, where you could be at home and punch up on your PC, you know, you could be 100 miles away, and pun ch up an d see whatÂ’s going on. Definitely, definitely. That would [also] be really good for a project manager thatÂ’s got six or seven jobs going at once. [electrical foreman] 4) A lot of these sites that weÂ’ve been on they have daily upda tes on the job progress and you can pull them up on the Internet and see how the job Â’ s going [he acces ses this information on-line from his home]. [Coordination meetings are] paperwork, paperwork, paperwork. You know what IÂ’m saying? I just came from another job, and in my briefcase, I had that much [indic atin g several inches] paperwork. And y ou know what it was? Schedules, all the schedules. It was unreal. ThatÂ’s a lot of t rees to die, you know? And it was nonbeneficial. I went to the meeting, we went through it, and then it was done and it went into the briefcase. ThereÂ’s a lot of stuff to building a job like this. ThereÂ’s a lot of information there. Every week thereÂ’s a stack of paper ten, twelve, fifteen pages thick, you know, on a job this size, because there is a lot of thi ngs, and thereÂ’s a lot of things you ha ve to

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137 schedule. [It would be better to have on a handheld computer.] Something I could carr y on my s ide like this phone, and all that information be handed down, and I could do that kind of work with it. Oh, yeah. No doubt. Sure, I could walk over to him [pointing to pipefitter] and say, “Look, I see here where you’re gonna have that pipe there by such and such a date, but I gotta get in there and put that beam in there before you get the pipe in there,” you know. I mean that’s something you could look at right here. I mean, I don’t have to go to the trailer, I could look and see they’r e gonna bui ld walls in there on such and such a date. I need to get that b eam in there. Espe cially if it can be updated, I mean, if change s or whatever can be done on it, like a d aily thing or whenever they get to it, they could go right in a nd change it and whenever it gets throu gh it gets through, you know. Yeah, I think that would be totally beneficial. [But] everybody that’s involved in the job should have access to that We b site. If one guy d oesn’t do it, then it’s really no good. It’s either an all team thing or it’s nothing. I think i t’d be totally the w ay to go. Something like that you could clip on you r side. Some thing that has a good battery in it. [ironwork foreman] The above responses illustrate this study’s finding that foremen gen erally accept the use of handheld computer/communication devices as part of their jobs and are quite positive regarding the pote ntial of such technology to improve the scheduling communication process. (S ee Ta ble 18, page 208, for foremen’s responses regarding the usefulness of handheld computer/communication devices for general job appli cations; see Table 19, page 215, for foremen’s responses regardin g the usefulness of handheld computer/communication devices specifically for scheduling and coordination purposes.) Correlation testing (see Table 6, page 99) and regression analysis (see Table 7, page 116; Table 8, page 122 ; and Table 9, page 124) reveal sev eral characte ristics of fore men which predict their tendency to accept the use of handheld digital communi cat ors in their jobs. For example, fore men who possess a pr oactive attitude t oward schedulin g tend to respond that handheld digit al communicators w ould be useful i n thei r jobs. Similarly, foremen who have stringent documentation practic es and are held accountable for the

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138 integrity of their record s respond positivel y to the use of hand held digital communicators in their jobs. Those f oremen who have experie n ced delays due to changes to the work are also positive in their assessment of the t echnology. Anothe r characteris tic which predict s foremenÂ’s acceptance of this technology is their prior exposur e to and use of compu ters. Common demographic characteristics such as age and education were expecte d to b e key predictors as well, but these qualities of foremen exhibit r elatively weak r elationships with their attitudes tow ard using handhel d digital communica tors in their jobs. Research Limitations This study reveals i mportant findings which contribute to the improvement of project scheduling information systems. However, several research limitations should be noted. Since this research project was not funded, its scope was restricted. Interviews were conducted only by this researcher, limiting the number of foremen in the sample. Although the sample size (N=119) was adequate for this study, the fore men represente d just one sector of the overall construction industry, general commercial building construc tion. Also, although many foremen in th is study in dicated that they had worked in other parts of the United States, the sample was obtained entirely from pro j ects in Florida. In addition, purposive sampling was used rather tha n random s ampling due to the impracticalities of random sampling (s ee Sample Selecti on, page 27). The refore, statisti cs are technica lly not generalizable to the overall commercial construction sector. Because of the infeasibility of actually reengineering the scheduling communication process by implementing a c omprehensive system featuring handheld digi tal communicators

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139 this research was limited to investigating foremenÂ’s responses to the concep t of such a system. ForemenÂ’s responses to the implement atio n of an actual syst em may differ fr om their responses to the concept Thu s, although results strongly indicate field acceptance and sup por t of the technology presented, the conclusion that an actual system would achieve similar acceptance and support cannot be drawn with certainty. Further Research Based on the conclusions of this study, which suggest that there are problems in the construction scheduling communication process and that foremenÂ’s use of handheld digital commun icators i s a viable means of addressing these problems, there are several areas of further research which are rec omm ended. Suggested research includes investigating other sectors of the construction industry, studying other project participants, performing cost/benefit analyses, measur ing changes in productivity, developing software, and exp lorin g the use of stereo imaging for sched uling and document ation purposes. Other Sectors of Construction Industry As previously discuss ed, a limitation of t his study is th at only foremen from the general commercial building sector of the industry were surveyed. Similar studies could be performed with forem en from other construction industry sectors, such as industrial or transportation. Such studies would expand the knowledge base regarding the applicability of the subject technology towards improving construc tion scheduling inf ormation systems.

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140 Other Project Par ticipants Further research could also study project participants other than foremen. During informal discussions held while co nducting this rese arch, most superi ntendents, field engineers, and project managers responded positively when asked about the c oncept of field personnel using handheld digital communicators. For m al research co uld investigate perspectives of these and other project participants in detail. Th e most obv ious prospects would be superinte ndents, field engi neers, and project managers, both within trade contractor and general cont ractor organizations. However, perspectives of architect s, engineers, owners and suppliers would als o be important. Such research could seek expert adv ice from these participants regarding the matter of what problems exist in the scheduling communication process and how to most eff ectively solve the se proble ms. One t echnique suitable for this type of research would be the Delphi method, which facilitates collaboration o f ex pertsÂ’ opinions and assimilation of their judgements (Helmer, 1983; Bradicich, 1996). Cost/Benefit Business Model Another useful research project would be to investigate the projected costs and potential benefits of implementing handheld digital communicators, and to develop a business model for evaluating these costs and benefits within a typical company or within a given sector of the industry. Such a cost/benefit mod el would provide helpful guidelines for co ntra ctors considerin g whether or not to utilize this techno logy in their opera tions. Although the Delphi method could be used in this type of study, consideration sho uld also

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141 be given to the Analytic Hierarchy Method (AHP). The AHP is a technique for modeling a decision making process, a nd is a type of expe rt system since it i ncorpor ates the ideas of experts into the development of a hierarchical model (Saaty and V argas, 1982; Skibni ewski, 1988). Productivity Study Research could also be cond ucted which meas ures pro ductivity changes resulting from process reengineering. For example, a company desiring to implement the use of handheld computer/communic atio n dev ices could provide the opportunity to monitor the actual implementation and operation of such a syste m. E valuation of the system could be performed by comparing productivity measuremen ts betw een the old and ne w process models. Software Development One other important ar ea for further research is software development, which should involve field testing. User interfaces for handh eld digital communic ators must be spec ifically designed for foremen and other field pers onnel. This stu dy sh ows that many foremen are computer literate, with approximately half of foremen using computers at home (see Figure 50, page 84). A study focused on user interface design could research foremenÂ’s computer ex periences in more detail and employ this information towards development of software which is appropriate for construction fie ld personnel. It c ould then test field personnelÂ’s use of pro posed i nterfaces and then use this feedback to improve the design. Such an iterative

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142 process of design, testing, and refinement would facilitate the development of effective i nterfaces. Results of other re search investiga ting pen-based a nd conventional da ta entr y systems for field use (McCullouch and Gunn, 1993; Russell, 1993) should also be considered. Stereo Imaging The final suggestion f or further rese arch involv e s expanding the use of stereo imaging. Representin g part of the overall handheld computing technology investigat ed in thi s research, stereo imaging has potential for use in the area of automated scheduling, specifically for progress updates and documentation of as-built conditions. Preliminary exploration by this researcher has c onceptualized such an application of stereo imaging technology. Since stereo ima ge s digitize the fiel d of view in three -dimensional spac e, objects in such pictures ca n be counted and me asured. Also, ste reo images of a project under construction could be linked to the pro jectÂ’s computeraided drawing (CA D) file and to the construction schedule. By comparing the CAD as-planned completed p roject with the asbuilt condition during construction, t h e schedule could be automatically updated. At the same time, a comprehensive pictorial record of the as-built schedule would be created. (For additional information, see Appendix C, page 222.)

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143 APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE The following questionnaire was used for conducting intervi ew s with the foremen in this study. Section headings within the questionnaire have been added for clarity. Foreman Interview Survey # _______ Date __________ Time (star tstop)_____________ Demographic Information C Job name / work area? Seuss Landing (Whiting Turner) Lost Continent (Whiting Turner) Isla Nublar (Turner) Toon Lagoon (CRSS) Superh ero (Beers) Other ________________ C Name? C Company name? C Craft/Trade? C Years construction experience? C Years experience as a construction foreman? C Union or non-union? C Ever been union/non-union? Yes / No C How long have you been with your current employer?

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144 C What is the average crew size which you supervise? C How much school have you completed? C What is your age? C Sex? M / F Initial Planning Practices C At the beginning of a new job, doe s anyone from your company or the company managing the job ask yo u how you plan to do your portion of the work ? (for example: what specific me thods you will use to do the job, or how you will organize job tasks) 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C If yes, who asks you? C Description of this interaction: C At the begi nning of a new job, does anyone from your company or the compa n y managing the job ask you how long you think it will take to complete your portion of the work? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C If yes, who asks you? C Description of this interaction:

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145 Use of Written Schedules C Do you use some type of written plan to organize upcoming work? Yes / No C If so, what kind of plan do you use? A. list of activities B. bar chart C. network diagram C. other: ____ C Are there any types of written schedules for projects you work on? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C Do you see these sc hedules? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C If so, C What form are they in? (Bar chart, list of activities, diagram, etc.) C How often are the written schedules helpful to you and your crew? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always Comments: Use of Look-Ahead Schedules C Are look-ahead schedules used on your jobs? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always

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146 C If so, C How far ahead do the look-ahead schedules plan the work? C Who makes these sc hedules? C What does this schedule look like? (is it a list of a ctivities? a bar chart? a network diagram? something else?) C Do you help plan the look-ahead sche dules on your jobs? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C If so, how? Attitudes About Scheduling C Do you follow the schedule? C How do you feel about the schedule? C How do your crew members feel about the schedule? C Do you wish you had more information about the schedule? Yes / No C If so, what? C Do you have any suggestions on how to improve scheduling? Scheduling and Saf ety C How important do you think worker saf ety is? 1 2 3 4 5 not at all of little imp. fairly imp. important very important

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147 C How does following safety rules affect production? A. slows down production B. does not affect production C. speeds up production C Do the completion goals of the schedule make it difficult to dea l properly with saf ety issues? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C Do you think you can make good job progress and be safe at the same time? 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree C How is safety information communicated to you? C Do you think that having safety ac tivities in the writte n schedule which r elate to upcoming work activities would help you to know what safety issues should be dealt with at each stage of the job? Documentation Practices C Do you record information about the work your crew does? Yes / No C If so, C What do you record & how do you record it? (i.e., time sheets daily logs, production rates, pictures, notes, etc.) C How often do you record this information? C How much time per day do you spend recording this information? C Who do you give this information to?

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148 C If pictures are taken, C do you use a regular camera or a digital camera (or both)? C what is the purpose of the pictures you take? C Are you required to keep records? Yes / No C If so, by whom? C Do you keep any records that are not required? Yes / No C If so, what? C How important do you think the job records you keep are? 1 2 3 4 5 not at all of little imp. fairly imp. important very important C Why do you think this? C Do you think your job records are used to evaluate your work? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C Is the data you record checked by anyone? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C Are you asked questions by anyone about the data you record? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always

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149 C If you have to shift your crew to another area (because youÂ’re waiting for information you need in order to do your current work, waiting for inspections, waiting for other trades, etc.) do you...C Make notes about why you had to move your crew to a new area? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always C Keep track of the time lost from moving your crew to a new area? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always Sources of Delay C In general, how do you rate your access to the information you need to do your job? 1 2 3 4 5 terrible poor OK good excellent C Please give your opinion about the following statement: Your production is often slowed down because you are waiting for information needed to perform the work. 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree C I f so, what are some typical kinds of information that you have to wa it fo r which are needed to perform your work?

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150 C Is it difficult to get necessary questions answered? 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree C If so, why is it difficult? C How do you go about getting questions answered? (RFIÂ’s etc.) C What else causes you delays on the job? C How can these delays be reduced? C Is management willing to listen to suggestions you have about how to improve work processes? 1 2 3 4 5 never rarely sometimes usually always Computers and Technology C Do you personally use a computer to perform any part of your job? Yes / No C Do you use a computer at home? Yes / No C Do you have children who use computers at your home? Yes / No C Do you like to play vi deo games? C Do you use any type of electronic organizer? Yes / No (If so, what?) C What communication devices do you use on the job? (2-way r adio, c ell-phone, pager) C Would you say that c omputers are ben eficial to constr uction companies? 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree

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151 C Do you think that a computer could help you do your job better? 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree C If your employer told you a computer would help you do your job better and wanted you to start using one as part of your job how would you fee l about that? C Do you think that computers could ever replace part of the foremanÂ’s job? 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree C Assume you had a camera which took pictures that enabled any one looking at the pictures to know all the dimens ions in t he pictures. Please give your opinion regarding whether such a camera would be useful to you. 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree C If this camera would be useful, for what purpose(s)? C How accurate would such a camera need to be? C Would a de vice l ike these (demonstrating mock-up Gator Communicator and IBM/BellSouth Simon) help you do your job? 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree Comments:

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152 C Would a device like the se (demo nstrat ing mock-up Gator Communicator and IBM/Be llS outh Simon, including con cept of accessi ng the schedule th rough these devices) help you with scheduling and coordination? 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree disagree no opinion agree strongly agree Comments:

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153 APPENDIX B FOREMENÂ’S RESPONSES TO OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS Fo remen Â’s responses to several open-ended questions and followup comment sections from the survey a re presented in t his appendix. Respo nse s a re tabulated for the following questions and comment secti ons: 1. Do you follow the schedule? (See Table 10, page 155.) 2. How do you feel about the schedule? (See Table 11, page 160.) 3. Do you wish you had more infor mation about the schedule? (See Table 12, page 167.) 4. Do you have any s uggestions on how to improve scheduling? (See Table 13, page 172.) 5. Wha t are some ty pical kinds of information that you have to wait for which are needed to perform your work? (See Table 14, page 181.) 6. What causes you dela ys on the j ob? and How can these delays be reduced? (See Table 15, page 185.) 7. If your employer told you a computer would help you do your job better and wanted you to start using one a s part of your job, h ow would you feel a bout that? (See Table 16, page 194.) 8. ForemenÂ’s responses regarding t he usef ulness of a stereo camera. (See Table 17, page 201.)

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154 9. ForemenÂ’ s responses regarding the usefulness of a handhel d computer/communication device for gene ral job applications. (See Table 18, page 208.) 10. ForemenÂ’s respon ses regarding the usefulne ss of a handhel d computer / communication device specifically for scheduling and coordination purposes. (See Table 19, page 215.)

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155 No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te positi ve "Yes." 2 Concre te positi ve "Yes." 3 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since incomplete) 4 Electrical neutral "Yes, as best as I can, but it often doesn't hold up. (other trades, rain, e tc.) 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing neutral "As much as possible – when feasible, when reasonable" 6 Flooring & Tile neutral "I try to bu t there are ex ceptions." 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "Abso lutely." 8 Concre te neutral "I try to as lon g as it's a realistic sch edule." 9 Electrical positi ve "As best w e can." 10 Electrical neutral "As close as you ca n." 11 Flooring & Tile positive (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 12 Carpentry positi ve "As best I c an." 13 Carpentry positi ve "Yeah ." 14 HVAC and Plumbing positi ve "You h ave to or y ou're go nna get b uried." 15 Electrical positi ve "Yeah pretty m uch. If I did n't I would be in troub le with them." ( "them"=GC) 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing neutral "At this level you use it when it's working with you. In other words, if you need more help to get the work done, you use it t hat way." (t o justi fy getti ng more men) 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "Pretty m uch. As best I can, y eah." 18 Ironwork neutral "If I can." 19 Ironwork positi ve "You try to accom plish wh at needs to get don e, yeah." 20 Ironwork positi ve "We try to, yes." 21 Flooring & Tile positi ve "Pretty clos e, yeah." 22 Concre te positi ve "Pretty m uch." 23 Special Finishes positi ve "Yes." 24 Special Finishes positi ve "Yes." 25 Misc Specialties positi ve "Yeah whatev er (my su perintend ent) says, I d o." 26 Electrical positi ve "You b ounce around with it, you know ." 27 Misc Specialties neutral "Yes, but if ther e's a problem with some of the other sub-trade s, then yo u can't follo w it." 28 Electrical positi ve "Th e onl y rea son w e don 't follo w the sche dule is if we can't do work because of anot her trade. Then we jump on to our next area We just k eep on g oing." 29 HVAC and Plumbing positi ve "Basical ly, yes, but sometimes you have to get out of sequen ce becau se of a cha nge or so methin g." 30 HVAC and Plumbing negative "I make my own schedule. I've been t old I'm working out of sequen ce." 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "My sole purpose is to st ay ahead of their schedule. Whate ver I can't d o is becau se some body's h olding m e up. I docu men t it, sen d it ba ck to them and tell the m w hy I c an't get there fro m here ." 32 Electrical negative "The b est that I can, w ithout them screwing me up ." Table 10 Foremen’s Responses: Do You Follow the Schedule?

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156 Table 10–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 33 Misc Specialties positive "Yeah." (they make their own) 34 Special Finis hes positive "Oh, sure ." 35 HVAC and Plumbing positive "To the best of our a bility." 36 HVAC and Plumbing positive "We always maintain our end o f it." 37 Plumbing positive "Yeah ." 38 Misc Specialties positive "I try to keep really close to it. A s close as I can ." 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Yeah as much as p ossible." 40 Electrical positive "On mo st jobs, yeah." 41 Concre te neutral "Oh, someti mes. I pre tty muc h try t o." 42 Electrical neutral "You follow it as much as you can. But if something changes righ t after you write it........then you 're back to square on e." 43 Concre te positive "As close as possible, I m ean, as muc h as we can." 44 Carpentry positive "Try to, yea h." 45 Ironwork neutral "Try to, but usual ly somethin g happens. No schedule' s ever happen ed out here right." 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "We try to beat the sch edule." 47 Fire Sprinklers positive "We ll, I'm usually ahead most of the time ." 48 Electrical positive "I foll ow it exa ctly, unless I get a modi ficat ion document on it, or if another craft or trade has in terrupted my sc hedule, I'll differentiate from it." 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "My schedule or their schedule? Their schedule has more tendency to change. M y short term sch edules, I'm usua lly right on. Long term schedu les, there's always those variables, you know." 50 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since fore man definitio n not met) 51 HVAC and Plumbing positive "Pretty mu ch." 52 Concre te neutral "Usually. It d epends o n the owner sometimes. T hey dictate 90% o f your schedu le." 53 Painting neutral "As muc h as possible Sometime s you can't." 54 Painting neutral "Sometimes." (say s it' s hard to foll ow because of changes ) 55 Ironwork positive "Yeah, pret ty much. We're pret ty much ah ead of it most of the time." 56 HVAC and Plumbing positive "I have to. It's ba sed on the G C's bar chart, an d we have to meet certain dates with ce rtain it ems...If I don't, I get buried in concrete and it's my job to chip it up." 57 Electrical neutral ""Pretty m uch." 58 Fire Sprinklers positive "Usually we tr y to stay ahead of the schedul e. If the dates are righ t, yes we fol low the s chedule. But if t hey'r e not following the d ates we try to get a head of it." 59 Fire Sprinklers positive "At the b egin ning of th e jo b we do, but usua lly if t her e's delays a nd the end da te isn 't pus hed up, th en we proceed on and go ahead of the sch edule. If we don't get s cheduled, we leave." 60 Carpentry positive "Try to a ll the time."

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157 Table 10–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 61 Concre te positive "Yes." 62 Electrical neutral "Yeah, I try t o, if it' s pract ical. You know, you get some things on t here that ar en't pract ical. An emergen cy may come up or a change or somethin g like that, that need s to be addr essed right aw ay, and you h ave to go to that." 63 HVAC and Plumbing negative "Some times I do. So metimes it's like, you kn ow..." (indicati ng it' s a waste of t ime) 64 Carpentry positive "I try to as best I can... Sometimes you try to do it but something c omes up ." 65 Roofing positive "To the best of my ab ility. I try to." 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Yeah always." 67 Masonry positive "We try to meet the time that we're given to d o the job." 68 Misc Specialties positive "Yeah absolutely." 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Oh, yeah you got to." 70 Fire Sprinklers positive "Yes." 71 Special Finis hes positive "I try t o follow i t but emer gencies always come up, and y ou have to juggle t hings." (ear lier sai d the schedule was extre mely i mportan t/he lpful to the m) 72 Ironwork positive "Oh, yeah ." 73 Masonry positive "As muc h as possible yes." 74 Sitework positive "Yes, I d o." 75 Carpentry positive "I try to st ay in li ne with the program. That just makes things go smo other." 76 Concre te negative "Some times." 77 HVAC and Plumbing positive "Yes, if I can ." 78 Roofing positive "Well, I try to. If it 's reasonable and we can stick to it ." (he plans work in his head and stays in touch with su pt. regardin g work plan but appar ently doesn't use any t ype of writt en schedul e, alt hough he' s aware t hey "alwa ys" exis t for jobs he's been on) 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Yeah I keep ahea d of the sche dule." 80 Carpentry positive "I try to beat the schedule." 81 Concre te positive "W e try So met ime s oth er p eop le ho ld yo u up so yo u ca n't meet your sc hedule." 82 Concre te positive "We try to. We try to stay as close to it as w e can." 83 Painting positive "Best as I c an." 84 Ironwork positive "As best w e can." 85 Flooring & Tile positive "Yeah I try to. Really it's essential to." 86 Concre te positive "Yes, I try to sta y ahead of the schedule." 87 Sitework positive (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 88 Roofing positive "Yes, we have to." 89 Roofing no data never sees, d oesn't know ab out; he gets dire ction from su pt. on what to do that day or week 90 Masonry positive "Yes, I try to g et ahead o f the schedule ." 91 Ironwork positive "As best a s possible. W e aim our go als for the sched ule..."

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158 Table 10–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 92 Concre te positive "Oh, yeah. When I set down t o make a schedu le, I abi de by what I tell them. If I tell the m I can hav e it in a week, I'll have it in a week ." 93 Electrical positive "Yeah every trade trie s to be right with the schedule." 94 Plumbing positive "We try to make the d eadlines, yeah ." 95 Electrical positive "We try our best to follow it. Everybody's li nked together, and if you' re not where you n eed to be on the schedul e, you're holding other peo ple up." 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Pretty clos e, yeah. W e have to." 97 Ironwork positive "Yeah we have to." 98 Plumbing positive "Yep we try to follow it as c lose as we ca n." 99 Roofing neutral "I try. Like I say, they (GC) don't follow them either. Take this job here, for inst ance, they sent me down here when I started, then I broke down and went down to that end, andnow I'm back at t his end again. So, you know, wherev er they throw me, I g o. A lot of time s it don't go with the sc hedule at all." 100 Electrical negative "We ll, I try to, but they're always p ushin' so you nev er can." 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "I try to." 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing neutral "That all depends on the conditions on the job. You have inclement weather, labor situations, material situations, other tr ades, you know. The cra ne's l iable t o fall over. You never can te ll. The only thing that's consistent in this trad e is change. If you 've got the idea th at you can co me in and w rite something in a solid, plann ed-out, map ped out stra tegy, you're either incre dibly inexpe rienced, or some kind of fool. 'Cause it does not work that way.. ......On the average, t hey're usuall y alway s late on the job, no matter what. The s tate of Florida is consistent about that You're on time if you' re anywhere from 6 wee ks to 6 months behind And that's just the way i t's don e. Nothin g start s on time nothi ng fini shes on time. Why they have a critical flowchart, I guess that's just to keep the investors hap py." 103 Ironwork neutral "As muc h as w e po ssib ly ca n.... ..... ....A lot o f tim es yo u ca n't make them there's no way to m ake the sche dule." 104 Plumbing positive "Yeah, I mean, if you' ve got th is sect ion done, y ou know what section yo u've got to mo ve on to nex t." 105 Flooring & Tile positive "I norma lly beat it." 106 Sitework neutral "Try to a s best I can, bu t often I get throw n off by having to move to d ifferent areas." 107 Masonry neutral "It all depends. A lot of times the GC comes out with a schedule that don't work wi th the schedul e that you hav e. We d o the best we can do." 108 Concre te positive "Yeah, I would say, because I do what needs to be done. You kno w, for me, it's what's got to b e done im mediately, but for them, it's a lon g time proje ction." 109 Plumbing positive "Yes, so metimes I ex ceed it." 110 Electrical positive "Yeah as best as we c an."

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159 Table 10–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 111 Concre te positive "If I'm on t heir schedule, I need to foll ow it... ..I foll ow it as close as I can ." 112 Carpentry positive "The b est I can, yeah." 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Yes." 114 HVAC positive "Yeah yes.........We no rmally stay ahea d of them a little bit." 115 Ironwork positive "Well, w e try to get ahead of schedu le. But most of the t ime we come on the job we're already a w eek behind ... Usually I would say w e're pretty much on schedu le, but we're usually behind wh en we get on the job. T hat's standard p rocedur e." 116 Masonry positive "I'm pretty muc h on sched ule, yeah." 117 Electrical positive "We 're usually ahead of the sched ule." 118 Fire Sprinklers positive "I try to. W e try to keep u p with it." 119 HVAC positive "Yeah you got. I do n't have a choic e. If somebo dy else falls behind, then everybod y's schedule falls be hind...." 120 Ironwork positive "We try to, as much a s possible." 121 Sitework positive "Yeah, most of the t ime, unless you know, weat her permitting, and sometimes you have help sick or something like that, and you have to cha nge. But usu ally we do."

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160 No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te positi ve "It's a good thing. It's usefu l." 2 Concre te positi ve "Sometimes it 's imposs ible but it's good since i t gives us someth ing to sho ot for." 3 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since incomplete) 4 Electrical neutral "They 're good to have, b ut it usually d oesn't go a ccordin g to schedu le.... The seq uencing works, b ut the time s don't" 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative "In gen eral, sched ules are ov erly optim istic." 6 Flooring & Tile positi ve "They 're good if everyo ne does their part, if ev eryone is focused on it." 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative not enough time; too much overlapping of trades 8 Concre te positi ve "As long as it's realistic, it's a great too l." 9 Electrical positi ve "You g otta have someth ing to sho ot for." 10 Electrical positi ve "They 're a good tool if they're u sed." 11 Flooring & Tile positi ve (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 12 Carpentry positi ve "You can't go without them. Y ou gotta have some kind o f a schedu le – you gotta hav e some kind of p lan to go b y." 13 Carpentry positi ve "I thin k it's a g ood thing even thou gh so meti mes it's escalat ed, but it stil l gives you a goal, somet hing to go after." 14 HVAC and Plumbing neutral "There is a degree of helpfulness, but it doesn't always work out... ... Someti mes you get other trades j umping in on top of the sched ule & tha t screws it up ." 15 Electrical positi ve "Sometimes the y're damn near i mpossible t o meet, but they're helpful because they let me know if I need m ore men o r if I need to o rder mo re materia ls." 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing neutral "You shoot for it, but too often they're not practical They don't take enoug h factors in to accou nt." 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative "A lo t of time s, t he peo ple wh o wri te t he sc hedul e down don't really know what we're up against in certain places. It's good to have, bu t it's not realistic." 18 Ironwork neutral "Usually the schedule is unrealistic. But sometimes they're OK. Mainly, I would l ook at a schedul e for how I'm going to coord inate with th e other trad es involv ed." 19 Ironwork positi ve (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 20 Ironwork positi ve (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 21 Flooring & Tile positi ve "I like to kee p things ah ead of sch edule. M y incentiv e is that, j ust li ke most people i n this t rade, the more days you come in under your projected finis h dates, the more money you're going t o save your boss and the more pot ential you have fo r receiving a bonu s." 22 Concre te positi ve useful, ofte n beat sch edule 23 Special Finishes positi ve I think it's pretty good, 'cause it gives you a goal to work at." Table 11 Foremen’s Responses: How Do You Feel About the Schedule?

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161 Table 11–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 24 Special Finishes positi ve "I've se en schedules that were ve ry adequate, very good, that could be foll owed to the letter. It depends how much coordin ation they 've done with the o ther subs. It g oes both ways. It de pends how reasonabl e it i s, because there' s a lot of times t hey have a push on for one reason or a nother, and the sched ule just isn't reaso nable." 25 Misc Specialties neutral (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 26 Electrical positi ve "Th ey're grea t if they wor k. If th ey do n't wo rk, th ey ain 't worth a ----. Som etimes the y want y ou to do 2 week s worth of work in 1 week. Most contractors have a pret ty good feel for it, though."" 27 Misc Specialties neutral "It's useful, but if s omeone's forgot ten to order all t he panels, or ordered t he wrong ones, there's nothi ng you can do abo ut it." 28 Electrical positi ve "The sch edule's help ful to kno w, but no one can meet it." (Note distinct ion between sub's schedule and GC schedule – he does the look-ahead, but st ill says no one can meet schedu le since he's talk ing abo ut GC's sch edule) "W e try to follow th e GC's sch edule. So metim es it works out, somet imes it d oesn 't ." ( He's very posi tiv e abou t hi s own schedu le, but not re ally abou t the GC's.) 29 HVAC and Plumbing neutral "They're hel pful to a c ertain e xtent, but a lot of t imes you can't meet your schedule because of t he changes." (Says chang es often d on't allow f or the cor respond ing chan ge to the schedul e: the work cha nges, oft en causing r ework, but the sched ule stays the same.) 30 HVAC and Plumbing negative "You have to push them (GC) because otherwise they're going to be pushing you. You got to keep ahead of them asbest you can. Then you get in s omebody else's way. But that ai n't my problem – t hat's t heir probl em. If everybody worked together it' d be fine, but it generally don't happen that way ." 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "It's great for the fir st 3/4 of the job. Then it's as-buil t, you get wha t you go t." 32 Electrical negative "A lot of times it 's not real istic. Coordination is poor. I can keep up with any schedu le as long a s it's coordina ted with the other c ontractor s on the job s ite. And t hat's not done very m uch." 33 Misc Specialties neutral "Sometimes it 's a li ttle ha rd to foll ow because our tr ade usually comes in toward t he end of the j ob, so dependi ng on what's ha ppene d before then, som etimes the re's conflicts." 34 Special Finishes negative "Sure, t hey're use ful. But sometimes jobs are just too high pressure. You've got too many peopl e, too many egos. You have so many layers of beauracracy, and you got egos t hat you're d ealing w ith." 35 HVAC and Plumbing positi ve It's excellent. Y ou hav e to have it." 36 HVAC and Plumbing positi ve "It's a good thi ng. You have to have some outline of what the job du ration is."

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162 Table 11–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 37 Plumbing positi ve "I think it' s a great idea. The schedule tells me what I need to do an d wher e I need to do it." 38 Misc Specialties positi ve "It's usually r eally cl ose. I mean, it's useful s o you know when you're gonna be done, but it' s always – s omething doesn't go right, or they change it, or wh atever, but it's a good tracking so you can stay focused on the l ong term goal to get finishe d. They work p retty well." 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "Yeah I think it can b e helpful a t times, yes." 40 Electrical positi ve "As long as t hey don't change nothing on you, a nd you have a good set of prints, the n yeah, th ey're real he lpful." 41 Concre te neutral "It's useful. Th ere's still problem s here & there. It's just a guideline that you g otta follow ." 42 Electrical neutral "It's a good tool, but it do esn't alway s work." 43 Concre te neutral "It's helpful when you f irst ge t going, but after you' re in a job for a w hile, every thing's cha nged." 44 Carpentry negative "Most of the time it's just a big push, trying to get stuff done, so the y can get othe r trades in." (s ays usuall y not realisti c) 45 Ironwork positi ve says it 's a good gui deline, something to go by 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "It 's good to k now t he g ene ral seq uenc e of work bu t my written pl an is what I rely on.. .... .Some things ha ve to be totally coo rdinated o ut in the field You h ave to ge t with each of the t rades and make sur e things a re going to f ollow some so rt of seque nce." 47 Fire Sprinklers neutral "It's helpful, as lo ng as it's reaso nable." 48 Electrical positi ve "definit ely" a good tool 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "[It's very us eful], espec ially if you're movin g mater ials." 50 N/A N/A (this survey not used since forem an definitio n not m et) 51 HVAC and Plumbing neutral "It's a good tool as long as you have everybody in sync. When you do n't have ev erybod y in sync it's useless." 52 Concre te positi ve "It's always h elpful." 53 Painting neutral "It's useful w hen it wo rks, and so metim es it's an absolu te waste of tim e." 54 Painting positi ve "It's good, th e schedu le. I like it, in final pu nch." 55 Ironwork neutral "It depen ds on w hat kind o f job you 're on." 56 HVAC and Plumbing positi ve There h as to be a sch edule. Y ou hav e to have one." 57 Electrical neutral neutral r esponse (good t o have, but us ually get messed up) 58 Fire Sprinklers positi ve "Schedules a re good as long a s they fol low them. But you have contract ors who don't f ollow schedul es, and t hat's t he problem When one con tractor fails, do esn't mee t his schedu le, then it kno cks every body b ehind. Y ou hav e to have a sc hedule, o r else it's comp lete chaos o n the job." 59 Fire Sprinklers positi ve "I think it' s a good guide to go by. You have to have a schedu le. You h ave to ha ve a plan ."

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163 Table 11–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 60 Carpentry positi ve "It's usually r easonable, usually r ealist ic. Someti mes you got schedule s that a re real t ight, and you gotta work a l ot more h ours to stay on them ." 61 Concre te positi ve "It's good to have a p lan." 62 Electrical neutral "I think i t's a good thing, yes But I don' t think i t should be approached that it' s written in s tone, that i t has to be that way, be cause the re's always someth ing that co mes up ." 63 HVAC and Plumbing negative Sometimes it 's li ke, you know... (indica ting it 's a wast e of time) 64 Carpentry positi ve "It keeps th e job rolling ." 65 Roofing neutral "Oh, sometimes i t's unr ealist ic. I gues s it has to do with a lot of pol itics other t han the real construct ion world....C runch tim e come s down to it, they wa nt to stick to their schedules, but I mean, you know, they're not out here pushing the guys and tryi ng to get t he job done. Dif ferent delays come up, you know. ..There' s so many diffe rent delays, you can't e ven make a list of them... ..... As long as you ke ep lines of c omm unication open, y ou can u sually come to a pretty re alistic term." 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "I think it's a gre at tool." 67 Masonry positi ve "I think the y're reason able." 68 Misc Specialties positi ve (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "You gotta know when you're gonn a finish, when you're gonna open......It's nec essary." 70 Fire Sprinklers positi ve "Usually they're done well. Sometimes the milest ones they wan t you to hit a re jus t imp ossib le, yo u kn ow w hat I'm sayin'? Bu t I think it's a very useful too l." 71 Special Finishes positi ve "If we did n't have it w e'd be un organiz ed all the tim e." 72 Ironwork positi ve says it 's good si nce it gi ves you a basel ine to work fr om 73 Masonry positi ve thinks i t's a good tool 74 Sitework positi ve thinks i t's a good tool 75 Carpentry positi ve thinks i t's a good tool 76 Concre te neutral says it's useful b ut it's not usua lly accura te 77 HVAC and Plumbing positi ve "You h ave to ha ve a sche dule, I think ." 78 Roofing positi ve positive resp onse, stays in close co mmu nication w ith his superintendent regarding coordinating the work 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 80 Carpentry positi ve says it 's defi nitely i s a good tool 81 Concre te positi ve It's good. Y ou can g et more done fa ster." 82 Concre te positi ve "It's helpful." 83 Painting positi ve thinks i t's a good tool 84 Ironwork positi ve "You can't al ways stay wit h the schedul e, but it lets you know where the other trades are going t o be, so you can open u p an area for them ."

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164 Table 11–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 85 Flooring & Tile positi ve "It's a good thing. .... You got to set goals in t his type work. A lot of tim es you d on't mee t 'em but y ou got to try like hell to meet 'em ." 86 Concre te positi ve "I think s chedules ar e important, but you need everybody invo lved eve rybod y on t he whol e job that 's l eadi ng a cr ew, to know what's go ing on a t a certain tim e." 87 Sitework positi ve "You c an't work withou t a schedu le." 88 Roofing positi ve "If you don't have no schedule ain' t nothin' gonna get done right." 89 Roofing neutral never sees, doesn't know about ; he gets directi on from superintendent on what to do that day or week 90 Masonry neutral "It's needed, but pe ople making the s chedule need t o be more re alistic on du rations." 91 Ironwork positi ve "Of course i t's us eful. You have t o plan ahead. Without plannin g ahead you're ba cking u p." 92 Concre te positi ve "It's very go od." 93 Electrical neutral "If you'r e behind, you hat e to see i t. If you' re ahead, you like to see it." 94 Plumbing negative "Sometimes they're OK an d sometimes they're stupid." continued t o comment negativel y on lack of i nput by subs (also se e suggeste d improvements in Ta ble 13, page 172) 95 Electrical positi ve "I like hav ing a sche dule, espe cially if it's a goo d, well though t out, well laid out sched ule, and th ings fall into place w here they should, a nd there's n ot a lot of pro blems to sort out, it's grea t." 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "Yeah it's a good thin g to hav e." 97 Ironwork positi ve "Th ey're alwa ys rea listic, a s far as we're conc erne d. Th at's one thing that's constan t, how lon g it takes us to do a certain thing. I t's pr etty much a known quanti ty. There' s no guessing about tha t." 98 Plumbing neutral "There 's a lot of push in', 'cause time is mone y." 99 Roofing positi ve "I like a schedule because it gives you a goal to go for. Whether you don't make it or do make it, it gives you a goal to fight for." 100 Electrical negative says ti mes aren't realis tic "As l ong as I've been in the trade, t here's ba sicall y no time real ly allowed f or the ele ctr ici an. When the y mak e t hei r s che dul es, the re' s t ime for the pl umber, there' s time for the framer, there' s time for the AC guy, an d the electric ian just has to get in there." 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positi ve "It's pretty good. It's good to have a dat e to go by. You know, work to go als. I don't reach all my goals, but if I reach 75 % of m y goals ea ch day, I'm happy ." 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative "Th e con cept i s goo d, bu t it's rare ly pra ctical ..........I t's excessive paperwork. It usually ha s nothing t o do with how the job's act ually ran." ( RE: Who makes the schedules?: "I don't kn ow, we haven't fo und tha t lunatic yet."

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165 Table 11–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 103 Ironwork positi ve "You have to kno w where the other guys are w orking at. It lets you know where the other t rades are gonna be at.... ..... ..... ..... .It gives you an idea of where you're supposed to be at by a certain da te." 104 Plumbing positi ve "Oh, yeah. It gives you a def inite da te to have s omething done." 105 Flooring & Tile positi ve says it's good to have th e schedu le 106 Sitework negative "It's a cr ock of bull since t hey change their minds so much and it's so tigh t you can 't do it." 107 Masonry positi ve "It's good to schedu le." 108 Concre te positi ve "You' re ou t her e to d o a jo b, t o get it d one, so you know, my attitud e toward s it is OK, it's goo d." 109 Plumbing negative "A lot of t imes it' s not real isti c.... ..Too short a time span f or the mec hanics, yo u just can't find the help." 110 Electrical neutral "They're goo d, but they're not usu ally accurate, becau se things happen. It's a help." ( says it 's usef ul for order ing materials and lon g lead items like switch gear, generators) 111 Concre te positi ve "Sched uling is go od. Yo u got to h ave it." 112 Carpentry negative "They 're set up to p ush. It's part of the gam e, man, it's all part of t he game." (sa ys it' s just about making money; they don't care ab out the crews) 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative "They help you get the job done. You have to have a schedu le. If not, you never w ill get the job d one." 114 HVAC positi ve "It's a guideli ne to go by, as far as havi ng a date of completion. (says i t's good f or stayi ng organized) 115 Ironwork neutral "You have to have some s ort of la yout for the job. I t hink there needs to be more versa tili ty in the schedule. A lot of the jobs I've been on they nee d to be m ore realistic ab out it. I know they all want the job done on time and sche dule and how it goes, but I thi nk they're asking for something unrealistic. I don't think they u nderstand w hat it takes. May be so me o f them do an d som e of th em d on't, b ut I do n't think they really und erstand w hat it takes, an d how long it takes." 116 Masonry neutral "If they ge t me the thi ngs I need when I want them, then I feel good about it." 117 Electrical positi ve "Usually it's beatable. So metim es they pu t stuff up to try to make the job go faster 'c ause they've lost time in other places an d it messes th ings up. B ut it's usually n ot too bad [It's helpful] to let you kn ow w hat's going on and try to keep ev erybod y flowin g." 118 Fire Sprinklers positi ve "I accept it. I t's j ust ther e. I don't mind having it It keeps me centered..... ..... ...It' s not very hard to keep to.. ..... .They give yo u a pretty re alistic time fram e to work with." 119 HVAC positi ve "That's w hat you r goal is. Yo u gotta m eet it....... You go tta have a g oal to shoo t at someth ing."

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166 Table 11–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 120 Ironwork negative "It's j ust certai n jobs you get on.... ..... one thing or another has held them up..... .... once t he building begins, t hey expect everyt hing to get caught back up, you know, and they try to r ush all you r trades to ge t back up to their original schedule. .... .. I' ve walked in on j obs where the i ron truck hasn' t even got t here yet, standing t here with t he drawings, t rying to get the buil ding in your hea d, before t he stuff even gets there, an d I've had the super intenden t walk up and tel l me, he sa ys, 'Bud dy, I want t o let you kno w, you' re 2 we eks b ehin d ri ght n ow. ... Well I d on't know, man. The damn iron ain' t even here, there' s no way I can be 2 week s.....You kn ow, that so rt of stuff." 121 Sitework positi ve "Oh it's gre at. I m ean, t hat's th e onl y wa y to d o it. Y ou ca n't just go out on a job and st art from scratch once you get there and try to figure out where the best direction to go is. You g otta know what yo u're doing when y ou get the re."

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167 No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te yes what's coming up further ahead than what' s on the lookahead sch edule 2 Concre te no no 3 N/A N/A (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) 4 Electrical yes whether or not t he company is making money 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 6 Flooring & Tile yes more info about th e work of other t rades in the ar ea 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 8 Concre te yes yes 9 Electrical no no 10 Electrical yes accurate completi on dates for othe r trades 11 Flooring & Tile no no 12 Carpentry yes deadlines ; budget on the job 13 Carpentry no no 14 HVAC and Plumbing yes more de tails about rela ted work tha t's coming up in o rder to help av oid conf lict s & probl ems 15 Electrical yes "It would be nice to know more information on where the next area o f concentratio n is going to be ." 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no "It's available if you want it, so I've got all the access I need." 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 18 Ironwork no no 19 Ironwork no no 20 Ironwork yes "When we're going to get on the next project and when we have to off of it so we can f igure out exact ly what we nee d and how m any peop le to put on the re." 21 Flooring & Tile no no 22 Concre te no no 23 Special Finis hes yes "The R EAL sch edule. Th en we cou ld plan a co uple days ahead." ( says they're always give n unrealistic time fra mes to put pre ssure on them ) 24 Special Finis hes yes "The coordi nati on wit h other subs, because that affe cts me directly." 25 Misc Specialties no no 26 Electrical no no 27 Misc Specialties no "No, b ecause the sc hedule is on ly a guideline. Y ou have to be able to respond to daily chang es." 28 Electrical no no 29 HVAC and Plumbing yes more details ahe ad of time "so you' ve got time t o sit down and plan w hat you've got to do." 30 HVAC and Plumbing no no 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 32 Electrical yes more info on what the other trades are doing Table 12 ForemenÂ’s Responses: Do You Wish You Had More Information About the Schedule?

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168 Table 12–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 33 Misc Specialties yes "A little more informati on on the whole job would be n ice. Kind of kn owing wher e everyone 's at." 34 Special Finis hes yes "What I need is just general information, where if they're (blocking w ork in one a rea) I can m ove to ano ther area." 35 HVAC and Plumbing no no 36 HVAC and Plumbing yes "I wish it was mo re accurate ." 37 Plumbing no no 38 Misc Specialties no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 40 Electrical no "No, I ge t all I need." 41 Concre te yes more long t erm info on what wor k is comi ng up on the job 42 Electrical no no 43 Concre te no no 44 Carpentry yes more details on t he work of other t rades 45 Ironwork no no 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes better n otice on w hen the wor k of other trades i s going t o be started/comple ted 47 Fire Sprinklers yes more infor mation on c oordinati on with ot her trade s... .... .."A lot of times, when they have t heir weekly meetings, half the people d on't show up." 48 Electrical no no 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Just the interaction with the other subs.......A lot of times, we'll go gung ho on our schedule, and then we'l l find out that they weren't up to their sched ule..." 50 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since fore man definitio n not met) 51 HVAC and Plumbing no no 52 Concre te yes "Yes, I think foremen should have more information on the schedule But a lot of it i s that some foremen don't w ant to. It depends on the peopl e you'r e dealin g with. Coordinati on with other trad es. Make sure that their pla n of work is all thought out, and all the detail s are worked out"...RE: lookahead schedules: "Most jobs I've ever been on, about 1 in 3hav e tha t ava ilab le at a for ema n's le vel, mos t of th e tim e it's all been above.... because superintendents don't feel like they (foreme n) need to k now that mu ch, that they need to concentra te more on what they're doin g right there....but I think that for foremen who are c apable and want that information it should be a vailable to the m." 53 Painting no no 54 Painting yes more informati on on coordination wi th other tr ades 55 Ironwork no no

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169 Table 12–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 56 HVAC and Plumbing yes "Your project m anager or your superin tendent is goin g to sit in a m eeti ng, a nd h e's go nna say, well yea h, co ncr ete's being poure d there ne xt week. Anyd they may say t hat on their 3 week l ook-ahead, but th ey may not pass t hat information to me until the d ay before c oncrete, an d then all of a sud den I go t to r un a rou nd a nd s et d rain s. So I'm pressured by not know ing the sched ule." 57 Electrical yes number of manhours allocated to each area of work 58 Fire Sprinklers yes "I would like to know ex actly the right date s they need." 59 Fire Sprinklers no no 60 Carpentry yes "When things are supposed t o be done exactly. That way you can put more production into that. They don't give you alot of point ers on that. Info on other t rades, so that you can get in and do your work." 61 Concre te no no 62 Electrical yes "Yeah, one of the big t hings – no matte r how much experience you have, if you're not given information on a timely basis, you' re always trying t o improvise, or you have to pull off of something until you get information. It just slows everythin g down...Info rmation and material is all I need to d o a good job." 63 HVAC and Plumbing no no 64 Carpentry no no 65 Roofing yes no 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 67 Masonry no no 68 Misc Specialties no no 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "I'd like to kno w when they w ant it done......" (sa ys would like more specifics than he norm ally gets) 70 Fire Sprinklers yes "A lot of t imes when they put a schedul e out, t he detai ls of the schedule are not extensive enough. Sometimes they' re vague as to w hat they want you to do, so I think they could give a little more detail in the sche dules." 71 Special Finis hes yes "More specific detai ls. There' s always somet hing that was missed or overlooked by the project manager or the customer, and you don' t find out till i t's t oo late. If you had that informatio n ahead o f time, you'd have been alright." 72 Ironwork no no 73 Masonry yes "If they would let you know prior to you try ing to meet the schedule that it's not going to be possible bec ause somebody's holding y ou up. That t he work is not ready for you. The y normally let you know the d ay that you wan t to get started that yo u can't start." 74 Sitework no no 75 Carpentry no no 76 Concre te yes more notice ahead of time regarding what's coming up in the schedule

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170 Table 12–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 77 HVAC and Plumbing no no 78 Roofing no no 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 80 Carpentry no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 81 Concre te no no 82 Concre te no no 83 Painting no no 84 Ironwork no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 85 Flooring & Tile no no 86 Concre te no no 87 Sitework no no 88 Roofing yes more advanced notice regarding changes in the work and their effect on the schedule 89 Roofing yes "Sometimes, yes. To know a littl e further ah ead, you know, maybe on a weekly basis rather than a daily basi s." (thinks it would hel p some to see the wri tten schedul e) 90 Masonry yes yes 91 Ironwork no no 92 Concre te no no 93 Electrical no no 94 Plumbing no no 95 Electrical no no 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Weekly report or somethi ng. Hand it out to eac h sub. Instead of trying to guess, like a weekly sheet or something that comes out on Monday, or comes out on Friday for thenext week, o n what need s to happe n." 97 Ironwork yes "Yeah, sometimes I wi sh I knew how much tol erance we had, you know, as far as miss ing a pour, etc etera, etce tera. ” 98 Plumbing no "No, to me it don't do n o more g ood. T hen all you do ne is you got t hat much mor e in your head, and y ou know how much you g ot to push, an d it's painful, I guess." 99 Roofing no no 100 Electrical no no 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "What pa rt of the building they want done first. On most job s it's l ike, 'Her e's th e bu ildi ng, g et it d one all to geth er.'" 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 103 Ironwork yes more detailed and real istic under standing of wh en the other trades are gonna be there 104 Plumbing no no 105 Flooring & Tile no no 106 Sitework yes more info a bout mate rial availability 107 Masonry no no 108 Concre te yes "Yeah, I do.... What they project and what they expect out of me...... The y just operate on a need to know ba sis." (says he would like t o know more about the long term plan rath er than j ust t he shor t ter m)

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171 Table 12–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 109 Plumbing yes more accurate information on upcoming dates for his work; says the ori ginal schedul e doesn't get updated.... ...It c hanges so much. If t hey would just adjust the s chedule to ref lect what's actually hap pening in the field ." 110 Electrical no no 111 Concre te no no 112 Carpentry no no 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 114 HVAC no no 115 Ironwork yes more infor mation abou t the s chedule bef ore the job start s, or before he g ets to t he job 116 Masonry no no 117 Electrical yes "I'd jus t like to know when certai n thing s are expec ted to be done, the flo ors and wh atever.... It's helpful to kn ow.....I usually don't kno w....It'd probab ly help to kno w more....... Like when they plan on having t he framing done so we can get in. When they wan t to st art dry wall, so we know how long we hav e." (says he no rmally has to go through his superintend ent to get that kind of info ) 118 Fire Sprinklers yes "On the bigger jobs, def initely ..... ...Just a finer breakdown of the schedule in some areas. More detail. Not in all t he areas, but just in some of them that concern s us." 119 HVAC no no 120 Ironwork no "No, I w ish I had less." 121 Sitework yes "It would be nice t o know every day and to k now ahead of time. Sometimes you don't know when things change........ ..... Exactly what other subcontractors are doing and where they' re going and if they'r e gonna be here, th en you need t o be where t hey'r e not gonna be, so you 're not runnin' over top of each othe r."

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172 No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te no no 2 Concre te no no 3 N/A N/A (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) 4 Electrical yes suggest s gett ing worke rs wit h better attit udes so produc tion will be bett er 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Allow more time for the unexpected.... Expect the unexpec ted." 6 Flooring & Tile yes better coordination of trades; GC should use more input from subcontractors 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Stick t o the sche dule at t he beginni ng of the job inst ead of always falling behind and then t rying to catch up at the end [during our work]. Require all trades to be at the coordination meetings to improve communication and planning." 8 Concre te yes "Send m ore peo ple to sched uling schoo l" 9 Electrical yes "listen to the guys (get field inpu t) 10 Electrical yes "Schedule work to flow from one side of the project to the other instead of in a checke rboard p attern." 11 Flooring & Tile no "We've worked very hard on our s cheduling for the last year and I think things are coming together r eal well." (no suggestions) 12 Carpentry yes "Com munication is a big factor." 13 Carpentry no no 14 HVAC and Plumbing yes "Keep the field updated on all the changes that come down, in scheduling and everything. I f you let it f ilter down, you've probably s olved about 50% of the probl em. Because 50% of the problem is that changes, or anythi ng that's done in the office does not filter down to the people in the field. And that' s what' s going t o hold you up. So if you 've got a good system set up w here the cha nges are do ne – the revisio ns to drawings or whatever's been changed – and get it out to t he field, and get it out to the people who's got to get the work done, and circumvent all the other b.s., then it will get done right. But what happens is that when you've got this f iltering dow n pr oce ss, s ome whe re a lon g the line som ebo dy d oes n't care, or somebody just forgot about it, and it never get s out into th e fiel d...If you can as sure th at it gets i nto the f ield, where the working ma n, the c ommon man out i n the fi eld, gets t he proper infor mation you c an save a lot o f probl ems later on.... Th at's one main p roblem tha t happens o n all jobs." 15 Electrical yes "One of the ways to improve scheduling would be to have better draw ings." 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Get mo re input from the field, and b elieve what the y say." RE: com munication : "It's only about 5 0% of w hat it should be – and this is a good c ompan y." Table 13 Foremen’s Responses: Do You Have Any Suggestions on How to Improve Scheduling?

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173 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "The people who make the schedules need to kno w more abou t wh at' s go ing on. Ever ybod y ne eds to b e on the same line of thought. Bet ter communications. It does n't happen very ofte n." 18 Ironwork yes "Well, I t hink nowadays ther e's more peopl e getti ng inv olv ed i n th e of fi ce e nd of it tha t ha ven' t ha d en ough ti me in the fi eld. There' s nothing l ike hands on exper ience, and that seem s to be leav ing the ind ustry these days." 19 Ironwork no no 20 Ironwork yes quicker answer s to quest ions they ha ve 21 Flooring & Tile yes "Inst ead o f tryin g to b luff th roug h som ebod y tha t's expe rienc ed w ith a p seud o fini sh da te, just be ho nest. I t's hard to get a real solid ho nest answer ou t of most of these people fo r some re ason." 22 Concre te yes bett er co ordi nati on bet ween t rade s by t he GC 23 Special Finishes yes The last company he w as with had foreman m eetings every morning before they went to the job, and al so once a week after wor k, to drill into e verybo dy's head where th ey shou ld be at, what procedures t hey should be usi ng, and how manp ower w as lookin g. He say s it worked really well. 24 Special Finishes yes "There shou ld be more c oordination b etween all the subs, what they're going to be doing, when their start is. If I get all the good informati on for myself, and what I need t o do, and t he stu d gu y do esn't h ave a ll his in form ation the jo b's still going to fa ll apart." 25 Misc Specialties no no 26 Electrical yes "They gotta be re alistic." 27 Misc Specialties yes "On e thin g tha t wou ld he lp is to mak e sure that ev eryb ody 's got a copy, that ev erybody k nows wh at the goal is....Most people don't have it. .... Everybody will t alk about i t in a meeting, but they'l l be dist racted or won' t pay att ention, whereas if you give them a schedule, they can see better what work has to be done and how their work coordinateswith the o ther trades." 28 Electrical yes "They (owne r/A/E/G C) need more q ualified sup ervision in the fiel d." There needs to be more foll owup and coordination by qualifi ed people. 29 HVAC and Plumbing yes "Everybody needs t o sit down and have meetings wit h the people who's actually doi ng the work, a litt le closer t han they normally do.... .... ...They nee d to keep the i nformation comin g on an y chang es to the sch edule. If the y're going to change anything on the schedule they need to get it to us as soon as they can possibly get it, because t hat's what messes us all up.".. ..... (suggests giving for emen more details ahead of time "so you've got ti me to sit down and plan what you've got to do.") 30 HVAC and Plumbing no "To m e the sched ule is som ething to g o by. Th ey wan t to take it as the B ible, but it can 't always be done th at way." (no suggestion s)

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174 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes more manpower for the ot her trades so they don' t hold up schedu le 32 Electrical no no 33 Misc Specialties yes "I guess i f it was upda ted every coupl e of days, a nd you got the criti cal path and where each trade was, like if t hey weren't hol ding their schedule and wher e they were goi ng to be. If it coul d be constant ly updated, instead of waiting, you kn ow." 34 Special Finishes no no 35 HVAC and Plumbing no "Most of the t ime it' s a good syst em. On theme parks, the schedu le doesn't rea lly work well.....But yo u still have to have so me idea of whe re you're g oing." 36 HVAC and Plumbing yes "They nee d to do mo re planning be fore the project starts. Like here, the kit chen equipment supplier wasn't contracted with until aft er the concrete sl ab was poured. And them were the prints you needed to go by, s o information that was needed for t he schedule di dn't get there unti l after the schedu led dates." 37 Plumbing no no 38 Misc Specialties no no 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Coord ination is a m ajor mu st. Having the right pe ople in the right meetings, getting t he right f oreman with the r ight project m anager." 40 Electrical no "No, we have our weekly meetings and our morning meeting s. That's pro bably ab out the be st way to g o." 41 Concre te yes "They need to get all t he partie s involved wi th the work and come up with a concl usion on what j obs they need and when they nee d them ." 42 Electrical yes more c ooper ati on fr om GC 43 Concre te no no 44 Carpentry yes "I'll tell you what the main t hing is – di scussion about what's going on. There's not a lot of that at all with other trades. Th ey just com e in and d o their wo rk and if y ou're in the way, you're in the way, t hat's it They'll run ri ght over top of yo u." 45 Ironwork yes "If the GC that's running the job is more knowledgeable, that helps." 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "All the t rades need t o be aware of the schedule. A lot of times someone gets left out of the loop. You'll have 2 different el ectrical cont ractors, one doing t he general electric and lighting and whatnot and then you'll have firecontrol. Fire cont rol will just come i n, do their job and be gone, an d they're n ot coord inated w ith anybo dy else." 47 Fire Sprinklers yes "They nee d more co ordination with th e other trades." (also commented on need for bet ter engine ering) 48 Electrical yes better c ommunication 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Just communicat ions between t he subs themsel ves. I mean, even if the GC isn't involved. Sometimes the GC h inders those com munic ations."

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175 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 50 N/A N/A (this survey not used since forem an definitio n not m et) 51 HVAC and Plumbing yes "As long as the GC's people are doing their job, t hen we can do ours. A lot of the ti mes I see where t here's a lack of communication. So i n order to make i t bette r, if you' ve got the communicati on there the n you can get thi ngs done. And be re ali sti c wit h the time fra mes, othe r th an, y ou know, something tha t's gonna t ake a week needs t o be done tomorr ow." 52 Concre te yes "Informati on, meetings. Morning meetings a nd evening meetings. Coor dination, you know. Communication is the real key. I mean that's the biggest problem that most comp anies hav e, is the com munic ation issue." 53 Painting yes "Yeah coordin ating betw een trade s would be very helpful." 54 Painting yes better c oordinati on 55 Ironwork yes better communication – remarked on benefit of Nextel phone technology ( group contact feature, easy to re ach the right per son) 56 HVAC and Plumbing yes better communication of the schedul e to the foremen 57 Electrical yes better coordinati on of the trades thr ough better attendance at the weekl y meetings; would also hel p him to know the number of manhours in hi s company's es timate for differe nt parts of t he job 58 Fire Sprinklers yes "Pin people down and make t hem hold their schedule. The only way to do it is to accept what they have to tell you. Ifyou're gonna make t hem lie, t hen there' s no sense i n making a schedule. You have to accept the date that they give you." (suggested the w eekly mee ting as the time to do th is) 59 Fire Sprinklers yes "Don't lie. If y ou say so methin g, do it. Th at's all you ha ve to do. If that d oesn't hap pen, it's a hou se of card s – it all falls down. (He als o sai d tha t a maj or pr oble m is t he GC pushing subs into dates that are impossibl e to meet, and that even w hen they tell them it's im possible, the y still put it in the sched ule.) 60 Carpentry yes "Get all the trades togethe r, so that they work together, so when one finis hes the next one is in l ine and gets on it ri ght away. B etter coord ination be tween th e trades." 61 Concre te yes "Sometimes they wait 't il the las t minute to ask you to get something done, and you got to stay lat e to do it. They should h ave aske d the first thing that mor ning, that th is here's got ta be done ri ght away, ins tead of wait ing until the end of th e day."

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176 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 62 Electrical yes "Well, I thin k the peo ple that m ake the sch edules sh ould coordin ate, and n ot just say the y coord inate. But ac tually coordinate with all of the othe r trades involved, a nd make sure that the y have th e inform ation that the y need to complete the job. Becaus e when you get out t here and you're wait ing on informat ion, one tr ade can hold up another tr ade waiti ng for that informati on. I thi nk the flow of information from the top to t he bottom needs to be a whole lo t faster than w hat it is." 63 HVAC and Plumbing yes "Yeah, what the y could do is gi ve a lit tle bit more time, and not have everybody worki ng on top of each ot her. A lot of times the y'll ha ve us and the el ectric ian, for instance going in at the same ti me, trying to do the job, and get finished at the same time. Well, we can't hardly get in there and work when there's somebody in there alr eady, especiall y when you're in a little room so mew here." 64 Carpentry yes "Yeah give us m ore time." 65 Roofing yes "More time." 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 67 Masonry yes "I would say we coul d do a lit tle bet ter on communicati on, as far as getting the schedul e ahead of ti me, before the job start s. That way t he foreman can look ove r the scope of work, and be able to tel l what he needs to get i n there and get don e, and w hat he ne eds to get sta rted. To h ave it a couple d ays earlier." 68 Misc Specialties yes "The b est way to improv e schedu ling wo uld be to a ctually talk to the pe ople that ar e building the job." 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 70 Fire Sprinklers yes "Instead o f telling the co nstruction team w hat they w ant, ask them if t hey can meet it first Inste ad of sett ing a deadline and tell ing them, ask them if they can meet t hat dead line. T hen e stabli sh the dead line. T hen, if they don 't meet it, it's my fault." 71 Special Finishes yes "Just have an organized person doing the sched uling." (indicates t his sometimes isn' t the case) 72 Ironwork no no 73 Masonry yes better coo rdination & com munic ation (also se e comm ents regardin g desire fo r more sc hedulin g inform ation in Ta ble 12, page 167) 74 Sitework no no 75 Carpentry no no 76 Concre te no no 77 HVAC and Plumbing no no 78 Roofing no no

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177 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes more planning ahea d by superint endents (of both GC and subs); says t hey need be out in the fiel d more to keep better track of what 's going on 80 Carpentry yes better coordinati on of different tr ades 81 Concre te no no 82 Concre te yes "They need be tter coord ination be tween th e trades." 83 Painting yes "Better coordinat ion between trades." (indicates it's oft en 1 or 2 subs who just do their own thi ng & don't do what was agreed to at coo rdination mee tings) 84 Ironwork no no 85 Flooring & Tile no no 86 Concre te yes "Coordination between all t he contractor tra des could be a lot better." 87 Sitework yes better c ommunication 88 Roofing yes Adjust the schedule t o reflect changes i n the work: "They never push the schedule bac k, even though t hey have engineering changes, archi tectural changes, but they never change the schedule. So you alw ays have to man up to try to meet or beat the dates ." (al so, from Table 12, page 167: more advan ced notice regarding changes in the work and their effect on the schedule) 89 Roofing yes better communication to be able t o locate the other trades foremen easie r in order t o coordinate with them and fi nd out when they plan to be done in an area, et c. 90 Masonry yes "Use m ore realistic du rations." 91 Ironwork yes "Better communication would hel p." (says there' s too many layers of people the i nformation goes through, whic h ends up breaking down the clarity of t he message) 92 Concre te yes better coordinati on between trades 93 Electrical yes "In con struction, y ou alwa ys got co mmu nication p roblem s." He says ther e is a need t o improve communications but "You won't know [how to i mprove it] unl ess you'r e in a specific si tuation." (s ays issue is not scheduling technique, but sit uation-s pecific communications and plans to make the work go better) 94 Plumbing yes "Well, before they make the schedule up, I think they oughta go arou nd to all of th e subs an d say 'Ho w long is it gonna take you in he re,' a nd let us ki nda work with them on it. The s chedule is made up by the general contract or, and they think we can do it in a week, when it's gonna take a week and a half or two weeks. They make t he schedule up. They don't cons ult us ahe ad of time, when they make the schedule, on how long it' s gonna take. And then they want you to me et their quota, which is hard to do som etimes. They o ught to g et our inp ut on ho w it's gonn a happe n."

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178 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 95 Electrical yes "I think at tim es, they ne ed to be a little more rea listic. I think the p eopl e that desig n a sch edul e at tim es do n't understa nd wh at it takes to pu t the job in. A nd I think if they had a li ttle more understandi ng of that, it would be much better on e verybo dy." 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Have a weekly report or something. Hand it out to each sub. Inst ead of tryi ng to guess, like a weekl y sheet or something tha t comes out on Monday, or comes out on Friday fo r the next w eek, on w hat need s to happ en." 97 Ironwork yes "Hold every body to their pa rt of the schedule. U sually, it's a biased opini on. The form carpent ers, t hey don't re ally give you the deck when the y're suppos ed to, and t hen everybody else has to m ake up th eir time." 98 Plumbing no no 99 Roofing yes "Co mm unic ation s, that's the m ain th ing. I f it's no t wro te, it's not real, yo u know To me comm unication that's the key to everything. .... ..I mean, you take big proj ects li ke we're on right her e, a li ttle bi t more communications from some of the o ther s ubs w ould help me o ut a w hole lot m ore, a nd I'm sure it's the same way with me, if they had a little bit more communication from me it'd be helpful.. ..... .For example, this morning, I was set ting out in the f ield out here, I was gonna pump asphalt i nto my tankers. I was alre ady set up ready to pump it when the plumbers come in and sai d, 'Well I got to unload these chiller sy stems.' So I h ad to brea k all my st uff d own and move i t out of hi s way. He could of tol d me that yest erday, and I' d have set up somew here else." 100 Electrical yes add time for the elect rician 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "You just need better comm unications betw een the trades, between the s ubs... .... .... They're behi nd, we're behi nd, everybody's t rying to get caught up, and you' re steppi ng on each other' s feet i n the proces s. And you may get a s troke for every 3 s trokes you do. It's like t rying to get out at hi gh tide.. ..So, j ust bett er communication" 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing yes "Yeah, get al l the busi nessmen back out of the const ruction trade and have it ran by con struction p eople. Elim inate all business p eople fro m the job sites, and an ything to do with the jobsites scheduling or anythi ng else.... ..... It's only been the last 12 t o 15 years that the busi ness people have gotten out into the field..... 103 Ironwork yes "The biggest problem that we have is unqual ified management. Guys managing t he project s that a re not qualified to manage project s. They've been to school, they have a little bit o f business e ducation that's it. No field experien ce." 104 Plumbing yes adjust the schedul e to reflect actual conditi ons, like when the job starts late (don't just keep the sam e deadlines)

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179 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 105 Flooring & Tile yes "I wish the y were more effi cient on kee ping on the schedu le." 106 Sitework yes "Cost eng ineers and estimators should g et more field experien ce." 107 Masonry no no 108 Concre te yes pay wo rkers m ore to im prove p roductiv ity 109 Plumbing yes update the s chedule; us e more reali stic dur ations 110 Electrical yes giv e us more ti me 111 Concre te yes "Coordinate schedules with the subcontractors better. .... .Build t he schedule wi th the subc ontractor s. And talk to them about w hat it's going to take." 112 Carpentry no no 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no no 114 HVAC no no 115 Ironwork yes The fore men who are going to be running the jobs shou ld be at the preconstruction/pre scheduling meetings, not just the company own er or project mana ger. [And do this] before they break ground so we know where we stand andabout wha t's coming up – so that it gives us so mething to think about, how I'm going to put that building up in 3 weeks or whatever, instead of just s tepping on the job and being totally lost." 116 Masonry yes "Coordinate the subs and get the material here." (improve these areas) 117 Electrical yes "I guess if you h ad more information o n it. More d etail. How long they plan to ha ve for eac h trade t o get in a nd do their st uff... ..... I haven' t really seen a whole lot of schedules out here." 118 Fire Sprinklers yes "The GC needs to be outside inst ead of stayi ng in the off ice. He needs to get out and physically look for himself and don't rely on he arsay or othe r people g oing out." 119 HVAC yes "Coo rdination. T hat's the only way you can. And stic king to it. I f one pers on don't hold to hi s, it basical ly holds everybod y else up." 120 Ironwork yes "You c an't tell them anything, yo u know....... Yo u get in with all the shi rts and ties on the job meetings and stuf f like that, you' re not gonna tel l them boys any thing. You can suggest, but it never comes aroun d........ I think the biggest thing that would help, out i n the field anymore, is i f the people th at are doing the schedule – Now g ranted, I understand they 're off ice people and everyt hing, but i f they would just co me out, and spend time and see wha t it actually takes a m an to do a c ertain amou nt, that might help to get these sch edules bac k into reality a little bit......He ll, that's everybod y's viewpoint out in the field, you kno w."

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180 Table 13–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 121 Sitework yes "Just make sure every subcontractor has a copy of the schedule, as t o where they need t o be, and when they n eed to be there. And i f they' re going to be behi nd schedule, l et people know, so like if we' re planni ng to make a run of storm drain or s omething, and t hey gonna be havin' block there, the block masons are gonna be i n the way the re, so we need to know when they're scheduled to be out of there, and we're planni ng on making that and then the y fall a day behind because of the weather or they have people out sick,or somethi ng like that, we need to k now ahead of t ime, not like t he day of. .... .... A litt le bit better c ommunicati on between the trades."

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181 No. Trade Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te change s in pl ans; l ayout problems 2 Concre te (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 3 N/A (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) 4 Electrical RFI answ ers; modifica tion docum ents 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing disagreed overall, but agree d on this job: missing details on plans; drawings that won't work 6 Flooring & Tile coordinat ion & schedul e infor mation 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing disagreed "often" b ut said when it ha ppens it's dime nsions/mea surements & clarifications 8 Concre te change o rders (bigg est problem ); plan details d on't match; things d on't fit as drawn 9 Electrical (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 10 Electrical ans wer s to R FI's 11 Flooring & Tile (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 12 Carpentry extra details 13 Carpentry (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 14 HVAC and Plumbing information on change s to work & changes to sc hedule 15 Electrical equipment elevations; clarif ications to conflicts in drawings 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing basic informat ion on the print s or lack of i nformation f rom other trades 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing change orders 18 Ironwork (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 19 Ironwork (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 20 Ironwork answers to specific questions about the work 21 Flooring & Tile engineer ing inf ormation 22 Concre te A/E design clarifications 23 Special Finis hes details abo ut the finishes requ ired for differe nt areas of the w ork (says in this case his com pany has the in formation, b ut they haven't given it to him yet); he blames this on "poo r communications" 24 Special Finis hes art dir ector in formati on; A/E in formati on 25 Misc Specialties (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 26 Electrical informat ion on chan ges (ans wered "somet imes") 27 Misc Specialties equipment documentation from engineers 28 Electrical changes 29 HVAC and Plumbing design changes; clarifi cations on drawings 30 HVAC and Plumbing clarification of co nflicts 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing design changes 32 Electrical changed locations 33 Misc Specialties engineering type information; locations of things 34 Special Finis hes coordinat ion & schedul e infor mation 35 HVAC and Plumbing change orders, rescheduling 36 HVAC and Plumbing "I don't really ha ve a prob lem with that be cause I plan ahead." Table 14 ForemenÂ’s Response s: What are S ome Typical Kinds of Information That You Have to Wait for Which Are Needed to Perform Your Work?

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182 Table 14–continued No. Trade Detailed Respo nse 37 Plumbing "Change orders, what they want me to do. We run into a situation where we can't pipe it o r do it by cod e, and we ha ve to alter the syste m to do it, and I have to get informa tion from them on how the y want me to d o it." 38 Misc Specialties "If it is, i t's my fault ." (answered no opinion) 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 40 Electrical information that is mis sing on prints: "You can be done in 5 minutes, but you're wai ting 5 days f or the infor mation to come back." (a nswered "sometimes ") 41 Concre te "Odds & ends on what they want done, waiting for information from the general co ntractor." 42 Electrical engi neer ing inf ormat ion f rom ow ner & GC 43 Concre te (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 44 Carpentry "Most of the time i t's when is this going to be done so we can g et in ther e, and it's always a big wait. Coord ination and sc heduling info ." 45 Ironwork structural engine ering to fix a pro blem in the field 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing design information that is n't detailed on the plans 47 Fire Sprinklers "Usually conflicts between elevations b etween the trades." (sprinklers, ducts, plum bing, etc.) 48 Electrical (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing changes i n specs, any othe r changes ; the s chedule of the othe r subs 50 N/A (this survey not us ed since fore man definitio n not met) 51 HVAC and Plumbing clarif icati ons by engi neer; di rection from GC regardi ng coordina tion of different trades 52 Concre te "Dimen sions, measu rements....des ign issues." 53 Painting (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 54 Painting paint color sel ections by owner 55 Ironwork engineering info 56 HVAC and Plumbing answers to specific questions about the work (i tems not detailed in plans & specs) 57 Electrical "Usually change order s, confli cts on the pri nts. Then you got ta submit an RFI, and then they gotta do all t he paperwork before the y get you an answer. So metimes you 're looking 2 to 3 weeks." 58 Fire Sprinklers corrections to architectural and engi neering errors 59 Fire Sprinklers A/E design clarif icati ons: "You got ta be kiddi ng me. Why the elevat ion of the s lab is c hanged, wh y the wal l's be en moved, how c ome the room stil l leaks why t he steel 's 4 i nches off they 've added be ams, the elevat ion of the slab's 6 inches hi gh, the door frames won't fit you can't run your pipe the re, the typ e of s yst em' s wr ong, you h ave u nspr ink led a reas Do you want more? I can go on and on. The elevation of the underground runs into ot her things the civi l engineer di dn't coordinat e the indust rial water with the storm li ne, there's no access to t he fire department connecti on, the dr y syst ems are pipe d the wrong directi on, your t ype of syste m is not a dequate f or the t ype area y ou're pu tting it in the t ype of equipme nt they're requiring o n the job d oesn't exist. Thin gs like that." 60 Carpentry (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 61 Concre te "Scheduling problems. Like, is this area here ready t o be worked in? And sometimes it takes a day or two in orde r for me to find that out."

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183 Table 14–continued No. Trade Detailed Respo nse 62 Electrical "Information t hat is not r ecorded on the plans. ..Or say th ere's a chan ge, and the provisions that are supposed to be made concerning your trade arenot brought down to y ou fast enough. also scheduli ng info (see suggest ed improvement s in Table 13, page 172) 63 HVAC and Plumbing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 64 Carpentry "There's stuff in t he blueprints that don't match up to what they're wanti n' out here on the job, so we need them to make a decision for us if we want to change it t o another way, s o we gotta go throug h all thi s red tape to get it changed o r ask them to c hange it." 65 Roofing "Decisions in the field. Just things that, y ou know, if documents show one thing, and changes that ar e being made, whether it be by a rchite cts, or because of another contractor that can't do something, and that in turn rolls downh ill. You can't do what you're sup posed to to follow up." 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing blueprints, change orders 67 Masonry (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 68 Misc Specialties (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 70 Fire Sprinklers "Modification documents details on areas, RFI' s, CR's (i nvolves pay appl ica tio n tr acki ng), all the paper work tha t com es do wn f rom t he GC and the ow ner." 71 Special Finis hes decisions that need to be made to know how to proceed with the work 72 Ironwork "Some times we got to wait on prints." 73 Masonry information that' s not detailed on the plans 74 Sitework "Like if there's som ething in my way w hen I'm digging ." 75 Carpentry (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 76 Concre te surveying c oordinates (say s usually the surveyor s aren't available) 77 HVAC and Plumbing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 78 Roofing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 80 Carpentry "They c ould be a little more spec ific on details on the plans." (sa ys tracking down t hese kinds of det ails wast es a lot of t ime) 81 Concre te dimensions not shown on drawings; modifications 82 Concre te (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 83 Painting (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 84 Ironwork changes o r something th at needs clar ified on prints 85 Flooring & Tile "That happens a lot, damn near every day......Just, you know, something that wouldn't be included o n the bluepr ints that I cannot figu re out myself, that the GC needs to an swer befor e I can con tinue.........Just things that I cannot find o ut myself." 86 Concre te details that aren' t on plans 87 Sitework (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 88 Roofing direct ion fr om engin eerin g on how t o solve fiel d proble ms 89 Roofing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 90 Masonry answers to RFI's; clarif ications 91 Ironwork details not complete on plans by architect or engineer

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184 Table 14–continued No. Trade Detailed Respo nse 92 Concre te says "some times" ( detail s not compl ete on pla ns by arch itect or engineer) 93 Electrical "A lot of time s we have to w ait on framing in formation, b ecause it has to be r ight bef ore we c an st art b oxi ng o ut, p ullin g ca ble ..... Som etim es it 's ceiling heights........ (also mentioned waiting on info re garding co ncrete work and iron work) 94 Plumbing "I agree. In fact I got 4 pl aces rig ht now I' m held up wai ting on information ." (says it's questions to th e architect) 95 Electrical answers t o RFI's. .... .... (say s having design en gineer on site h elps tremendo usly to get questio ns answered quickly ) 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "Wa iting on RFI d ecisions. T hrough the a rchitect or eng ineer." 97 Ironwork waiting on ans wers to questi ons about discrepanci es between archi tectural and structural drawings 98 Plumbing specs, draw ings, architectura l details 99 Roofing field de tails & problems th at requi re additi onal inf ormation or decision from A /E 100 Electrical "Sizing on AC equ ipment, fram ing, maybe a decision o n a change." 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing field detai ls & info needed f or coordinating wi th other tr ades 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing ans wer s to R FI's 103 Ironwork ans wer s to R FI's 104 Plumbing (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 105 Flooring & Tile change orders 106 Sitework change orders 107 Masonry (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 108 Concre te (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 109 Plumbing engineering information (if no on-site engineer) 110 Electrical it' s more wait ing on peopl e than on t he infor mation 111 Concre te dimension s that aren't given, jo b change s, answers to d etails that need to be worked out 112 Carpentry (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "Subm ittals, RFI's on dim ensions of wa lls." 114 HVAC (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 115 Ironwork "Changes, RFI's on stuff, print s. I've gotten print s where there's been 2 other sets pu t out after I've gotten mine and the y've never gotten to me." 116 Masonry (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 117 Electrical "Engine ers, stuff that's not the way the y've drawn on the prints. Answ ers." 118 Fire Sprinklers (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 119 HVAC architectu ral info: elevations codes 120 Ironwork (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 121 Sitework (not provided, not available, or not applicable)

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185 No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 1 Concre te other trades better communicat ion between tra des a nd wi th GC 2 Concre te people from other trades in the way allow more time in the sched ule 3 N/A (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) 4 Electrical disaster, weather (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "Weather is t he major cau se of delay...... Other tra des." "You can't change the weather.....Better s cheduling by the GC to re duce trad e conflicts...... Maybe communication is t he key there – W e don't always communicate well about when and where we're working and finishi ng work." 6 Flooring & Tile "Poo r coordin ation." "Better c oordina tion by the G C." 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing weather, othe r trades (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 8 Concre te lack of manpower better prints 9 Electrical weather, traffic (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 10 Electrical material delays; other trades; indecision by customer (changes and additions to draw ings) better up-front planning 11 Flooring & Tile (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 12 Carpentry weather, problems with drawings better c ommunicati on 13 Carpentry other trades better cooperati on among trades 14 HVAC and Plumbing waiti ng for answer s; prob lems with drawings (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 15 Electrical (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing materials, but that' s your own company's schedul ing problem better c ommunicati on 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing Rework due to not knowing about change orders -"Sometimes there's a change on the pri nts that we don't know anyt hing about for months... They send outpap erw ork bu t som etim es I d on't get the paperwork. I don't know who's fault it is." "If there was so me way to ch eck to see if there has b een any cha nges in a certain area that would d efinitely help." 18 Ironwork "Coordination with other trades. Everybody wants t o get in ther e at the same time ." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 19 Ironwork conflicts due to changes "They need to h ave all phases of work coo rdinated." Table 15 Foremen’s Responses: What Causes You Delays on the Job? and How Can These Delays Be Reduced?

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186 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 20 Ironwork not getting answers to questi ons back on tim ely basis answer the quest ions quicker 21 Flooring & Tile "Poo r job coo rdination." "By not trying to push the job s so hard." 22 Concre te waiting for A/E clarifi cations (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 23 Special Finis hes waiting for inform ation from his company about the specs of upcoming work better c ommunicati on 24 Special Finis hes "Lack of material or lack of an area to get your material i n" (other trades in the wa y) better c oordinati on 25 Misc Specialties other contractors (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 26 Electrical "The worst t hing I ca n think of would be people stori ng material in the building. Having to workover other people's ma terials." "Don't put material in the building." 27 Misc Specialties "Waiting for other trades is the biggest thing." "Have more ma npower." 28 Electrical "Too many people in one area, and not enough supervision by theGC." "They (owner/A/E/GC) need mo re qualif ied super vision in the f ield. There needs to be more followup and coordination by qua lified people." 29 HVAC and Plumbing materials; waiting for answers to RFI's beca use of all the cha nnels they have to go through have an engineer on site to ans wer RFI 's 30 HVAC and Plumbing getting t he proper material s; other trades; not e nough manpower "Nothing t hat woul d do any good. You just have to keep pluggingalong. Get wit h all the ot her trades and work tog ether t o get the job done. 'Cause a lot of times theuppers seem to get in the way morethan they help." 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "We can blow their schedul es away. Our problem is that ourschedule s are al ways impe ded by others – elec trician, plumb er, A/C man. If everybody got out of ourway we could do the job in 1/3 thetime that it takes. (also says l ack of engineering, redesign check the CAD files (proof the prints) bef ore issuing them 32 Electrical "Just poor coordination, that's the biggest thing ou t here. Poor coordin ation." "Whoever's in charge don't see the underground, in my opinion, they don't see what needs to be in theground, they j ust see what they see in the fi nished project, and they don't know h ow to orga nize it to where they ca n get both d one."

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187 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 33 Misc Specialties material delays from suppliers better communication / coordinat ion 34 Special Finis hes communications better communication / coordinat ion 35 HVAC and Plumbing "Absenteei sm, especi ally on a job like this – peo ple get burn ed out." "I've been doing this for 38 years, and I have n't found one ye t. If a man wan ts to take a da y off he's going to take a day off." 36 HVAC and Plumbing absenteeism "We paid do uble time for a while to try to get people to come in, andthe s ame peo ple that wer en't coming in o n regular time still didn't show up ." 37 Plumbing just wait ing on info ( also see Table 14, page 181) (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 38 Misc Specialties materia l, wai ting on a wall t o be done, co nstruction sche dules in general "I would sa y better coo rdination." 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing design questi ons, designs not clear (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 40 Electrical "No, 'caus e you can al ways be working on something e lse while you 're waiting on [t he information ]." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 41 Concre te "Changes in the s tructure, engineering changes." "T hat's just som ethi ng th at's necessary." 42 Electrical weather (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 43 Concre te "Just other tra des." "How can you? It's been that way ever since I've been doingcon stru ctio n, yo u kn ow. Eve ryo ne's got to do their job, and they mightbe in the area you're going to n ext. You just h ave to dea l with it." 44 Carpentry "Most of it's just wait ing for other trades. I mean, they'l l tell u s we can go over there and do this, butthen we ge t over t here and i t's n ot ready. Bad coordinati on." (Note: his supe rinten dent say s, "Lack of communication between the offi ce and the field. Scheduling & communication is the number one problem ." have daily meetings 45 Ironwork structural engineering to fix a problem in the field (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing lack of coordinat ion; sometimes special mate rials "Being a ble to look ahead a little better than the y do." 47 Fire Sprinklers "This job here, just trying t o get on site......weather......d eliveries." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable)

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188 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 48 Electrical "O n ju st ab out eve ry jo b it's materia ls.. .Part of that' s poor planning on my part sometimes availability." better planning 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing poor coordination betwee n trades more on-s ite supe rvi sio n by GC 50 N/A (this sur vey not used si nce foreman d efinition not me t) (this sur vey not used si nce foreman definition not m et) 51 HVAC and Plumbing "Other trades – coordination – they're never co ordinated ." better c ommunicati on 52 Concre te "Improper scheduling. Improper sequencin g." "Mo re experien ced peo ple seq uen cing the w ork and [the GC 's people] being realistic with t he scheduling." 53 Painting coordination betwe en trades "To m e, better com munication is the best way to av oid that sort of delays." (al so suggests a broader schedule that includes all trades; says this job the schedules t hey are given onl y have t heir own w ork on them) 54 Painting paint color sel ections by owner (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 55 Ironwork waiting for engineers t o figure out soluti ons to fi eld problems ; not having t he right tools f or the job more fiel d experien ce for engineers; spend the money to buythe right tools 56 HVAC and Plumbing misinformatio n (rework d ue to changes to the work) no suggestions 57 Electrical waiting for information (changes, answers to questions) no suggestions, just the way things are (tal ked about al l the l ayers of managem ent that everything has to pass through) 58 Fire Sprinklers "Other contractors not finishing their work in fro nt of me." "If RFI's wer e being answered quicker, I thin k that e verybody would be better off." (says n ot all sub s are late bec aus e of RFI 's though – a lot just don't plan their work well) 59 Fire Sprinklers other tr ades; th e lack of informat ion (als o see Table 14, page 181) "don't lie" (re ferring to commitments mad e by other trades) 60 Carpentry "Lack of communication between trades and the GC That causes a lot of delays." "Get better communicat ion. Have a chart of what we're doing, and who's gonna be there, who 's not. With all the tra des involve d." 61 Concre te "Other c ontractors. T hey prob ably got someth ing in the way...." bett er co ordi nat ion b y GC 62 Electrical "That information issue" (waiting for informat ion). (say s sometimes the proble m is material d elays ) (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable)

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189 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 63 HVAC and Plumbing changes to the work; rework stick to the original plans 64 Carpentry "There 's too much red tape. W e need more people who's done been on the job before. If they h ad people who's been in the field and done the w ork befor e, they could make a decision instead of passing the buck down the roadsomewhe re and go ing through a ll this red t ape, 'cause it slows down time. You're ready to do it, andyou need answers, and it slows you down ." Get managers who have been in the field and done the work before 65 Roofing changes or ders, wai ting f or direction on a change some of them are legitimate (no soluti on offer ed) 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing other tr ades in t he way, c luster of people everywhere; equipment breakdowns It's part of t he job. There's nothing you can do about it. That's the way it goes." 67 Masonry work not re ady when the y get to job "More comm unication between the GC and our office." 68 Misc Specialties "Material delays ..... .Other subcontra ctors." "Mate rials is usually the issue. I think if people could plan their materia l lis t a li ttle bi t sooner, or come out a week in advance, andget ahead." 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "We don't really have any delays to speak of. Very seldom." (thinkscoordinat ion is u sually very good ) (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 70 Fire Sprinklers job logisti cs (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 71 Special Finis hes waiting for ma terials no specif ic solu tion 72 Ironwork "It's a wide ran ge of things....Deliveries of supplies,breakdown of equipment, other trades." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 73 Masonry "Poor planning......It st arts at the top. It 's th e GC that' s not coordinating with the trades. But it's normally other trades that are affecting our progress." (butimplies it's the GC 's fault) "It's just a ma tter of communicat ion." (s ays GC needs to le t all t he tr ade s kno w wh at's going on) 74 Sitework trash & other mat erials i n the way (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 75 Carpentry production of wo rkers, absenteeism (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 76 Concre te waiting for elevati ons and coordinates (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 77 HVAC and Plumbing (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable)

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190 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 78 Roofing the weather (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing poor c oordi nat ion b y GC bett er co ordi nat ion b y GC 80 Carpentry temporary power failure is the biggest thing; m aterial delays (late delivery or ne ed to mo ve materials from other side of j ob) (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 81 Concre te details not shown on the plans better draw ings; more p eople available to answer the questions 82 Concre te "Different trades not completing their jobs o n schedule to coordinat e with e verybody el se." bett er co ordi nat ion b y GC 83 Painting mostly overlapping trades, also waiting for RFI answers (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 84 Ironwork weather; ma terial delays (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 85 Flooring & Tile "The biggest cause of de lay is not having wor k areas read y for me to perform my job. T hat's the most biggest, on an y job I've eve r been on. 'Come o ver here, I wa nt you to do this,' and you get over there and ther e's 3 trad es th at ar en't don e. F or e xam ple the pai nt ai n't done, I can't tile, 'Well, go before the paint,' .. OK, well the dry wall er a in't d one he a in't taped. And I would say that' s poor scheduling, o n the GC's pa rt." bett er co ordi nat ion b y GC 86 Concre te "Weathe r. That's the biggest holdup." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 87 Sitework job not being ready wh en they get there bett er co ordi nat ion b y GC 88 Roofing "Material handling, scheduling, inspections." He says this is du e to "the project manager (their own)not getting in touch wit h the foremen, not scheduling the work properly." (says it's usually because they' re overloaded ) better communicat ion between their p.m.' s and foremen 89 Roofing access to the work area (getting the crane wh ere they need it to be); usually lots of stuff is i n the way (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 90 Masonry coordination betwe en trades bett er co ordi nat ion b y GC 91 Ironwork incomple te details; mater ial delays better c ommunicati on 92 Concre te other trades better coordinat ion between tra des & by GC 93 Electrical constructi on debris in th e way just part of the business

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191 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 94 Plumbing "Men not showing up for work. Really. That's one thin g, if you don't get men on the job, if they lay out, then you 're hurtin'." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 95 Electrical material at times especially with so much construction work going on better communication & planning ahead 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing materials; incomplete work ar eas provide suggested field solution to RFI when submitting the RFI (hetypically does this) 97 Ironwork "The carpenters. The deck' s never ready when it' s supposed to be. That's a recu rring prob lem." "Hold them to the sch edule." 98 Plumbing "Sometimes r unning ou t of material. Material on backorder.Stuff like that." "If s tuff's bac kor der ed, ther e ain 't nothin' you can d o." 99 Roofing lack of communicat ion (see SUGGIMPR) better communication & planning ahead 100 Electrical "Men not coming in, not getting materia l, gene ral cont ractor changing the s chedule, another trade hold ing you up." "We all need to m ove into huts..... Well, if we had gr ass huts, we wouldn't have to worry about building them We co uld build them ourse lves." 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "Just lack of coordination by the GC." "Better coordin ation by the GC. Planning. P lanning." 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "Inclement weather, labor situations, material situations, other trades, you know. Thecrane' s liabl e to fal l over. You never can te ll." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 103 Ironwork material del iveries no specific so lution; says fabricators have too much workand can't produce enough for theamount of w ork that 's goi ng on 104 Plumbing "Trades ahead of you that are not keeping up ." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 105 Flooring & Tile change orders, weat her says no way to reduce change orders since it comes from the owner 106 Sitework material deliveries (since cost engineer o rders wron g stuff) cost engineer should double check with superintendent 107 Masonry equipme nt or materials better planning 108 Concre te weather (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 109 Plumbing material del ays; lack of qualifie d workers says too muc h work for su ppliers to meet demand 110 Electrical other trades don't schedule so tight

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192 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 111 Concre te "Miscoordination of my own company's [manpower going somewhere el se that needs to be here].... Miscoordination betwe en other subc ontractors." "These can be reduced by having a weekly s ubcontract or coordinat ion meeting, and seriously tal k about stuff. Don't go in t here like a bunc h of businessmen thinking you' re gonna have a lit tle sit -down business talk. T alk to these guys one on one and f igure out what you need to do and work together. Ifsubcontractors can't work together,you're going to have delays." 112 Carpentry "Other tra des. Som ebody's alwa ys gonna dr ag and no t keep up w ith everybod y else." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing "Other su bs not being ready, architectural problems. I' d say the main problem is arch itectural problem s." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 114 HVAC "Not anyth ing major, no. Sometimes w aitin g on materi al or somethin g like t hat. But most of the time I'll move on to something else, be cause th ere's so much to be done." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 115 Ironwork "We ather and m anpowe r, I would say, are the 2 b iggest things." says no solutions 116 Masonry "Mate rial, arrival of ma terial, that's the biggest one. Sometimes tools, you don't have the ri ght equipment you can' t do the j ob. It's aggravating sometimes if I put in for it a week prior to when Ineed it, and I still haven't got it." "They could make sure that they're here, when we're ready to startpro duc tion I do n't kn ow w hat's involved in t he office as far as doing that, but that sh ould be done. All your subs should be lined upright, as far a s who's gonna do what." 117 Electrical "Changes or w aitin g on information ." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 118 Fire Sprinklers "The only thing that causes us a delay is i f something i s fabricat ed wrong.... .or if somet hing was missed." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable)

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193 Table 15–continued No. Trade What C auses De lays How Delays Can Be Reduced 119 HVAC "Trash. Nobody cleaning up. That really hur ts. That, and i f you let some other trade get too far ahead of you." "Yeah, they need a cleanup crew. It should be put in the bid. The general contractor should have cleanup guys, every day. When these f loors wer e clean, man you cou ld z oom thro ugh her e. N ow, it's like s afety hazards, all ki nds of stuff. You spend time mo ving this I'd rather go pack up my guys andmove to the other end of thebuilding than have to movesomebo dy else's stuff." 120 Ironwork "The biggest thing with us is t he weather." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable) 121 Sitework "We ather. Just the we ather." (not provi ded, not av ailabl e, or not applicable)

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194 No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te positive "I guess I'd have to, but I want t o anyway.... Computers are good. M y wife is going to ge t one. I need to learn how to use comp uters." 2 Concre te negative "I would a sk him how.... I d on't think it would." 3 N/A N/A (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) 4 Electrical positive "I would d o it." 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "I don' t have a proble m about t hat. I have 3 compute rs in my house. I ain't scare d." 6 Flooring & Tile positive "Oh, yeah I'd be willing to try." 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "I'm ready to use one" ( says he will soon be using on e).... "It would sa ve me time" (says with a com puter it would only take him 1/2 hour to do what would take 2 or 3 hoursnormally) 8 Concre te positive says he'd use it 9 Electrical positive "As long a s he paid m e to use it I'd be ha ppy. I'd try it." 10 Electrical positive (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 11 Flooring & Tile negative I wouldn't use it. Tell him it's out. Nope, sorry! You want somebody to r un a computer ? Get yourse lf someon e out of college to w alk around like a dog b ehind you." 12 Carpentry positive "I'd like to, very m uch so." 13 Carpentry positive "Yeah I'd be willing." 14 HVAC and Plumbing positive "Not a p roblem. J ust part of the jo b." 15 Electrical positive "No p roblem – it's just a tool." 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Oh, I'd go at it in a minute." 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative "I've never used one. I don't know anythi ng about compu ters. So I wo uld be lost." 18 Ironwork negative "I've got no u se for it." 19 Ironwork neutral "If they can sho w me how to run it, more p ower to them ." 20 Ironwork positive "Sure, I'd be interested." 21 Flooring & Tile positive "Oh, yeah sure. I know the benefits of using a compute r." 22 Concre te positive I'd love it." (N ote: he used to use a com puter at W elbro to document safety and scheduling i nformation; says "it h elped a lot, i t defin itely sped thi ngs up.") 23 Special Finis hes positive "Oh, yeah. It would help tremendously. Because a lot of the information that they don't have time to give me ... I could just go onto the computer, boom – get my information and keep going. I used a computer at my other company all the time. I f I miss ed a meetin g or I was ou t of town I coul d log in and fi nd out what was going on, that night. 24 Special Finis hes positive That'd be no problem." (Note: he built t he first computer that he owned) 25 Misc Specialties negative "I couldn 't handle it. I have d yslexia." 26 Electrical positive very positive response (N ote: he does panel sche dules, makes signs up, etc., on hi s computer at home) Table 16 Foremen’s Responses: If Your Employer Told You a Computer Would Help You Do Your Job Better and Wanted You to Start Using One as Part of Your Job, How Would You Fe el About That?

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195 Table 16–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 27 Misc Specialties positive "I have to h ave it. With so me of our e quipmen t we have to do prog ramming a nd we do wnload fro m our co mputer into the equipm ent, so there's no o ption, it's part of the jo b." 28 Electrical positive "I'd go for it all the w ay." 29 HVAC and Plumbing positive "If t hey g ave me t he tr aini ng o n ho w to use i t, the re w oul dn't be no pro blem." 30 HVAC and Plumbing positive positive response 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "Oh, I'd use it." 32 Electrical negative "I don' t have time t o use one I don' t see n o use f or it for my job." 33 Misc Specialties positive "No problem." (he already uses one, for record keeping & scheduling) 34 Special Finis hes negative "N o, I'm too muc h in t he fi eld I'm a field fore man I'm hands on, so it wouldn't do me any good – wouldn't have no place to p ut it." 35 HVAC and Plumbing positive positive response 36 HVAC and Plumbing positive "They sh ould have laptops ou t here. Tha t way you cou ld send your tim esheets in and all these daily rep orts right in instead of going through all t his process and delaying things 2 more d ays, then they've go t a question, the n we've got to get the informa tion back a nd make c opies of it." 37 Plumbing positive "As long a s they train me ho w to use it." ..... If you get a CAD program, you could design the system yourself, before you have t o go out and do an ythin g in the field. ...For information storage....Yo u could use it for a lot of things." 38 Misc Specialties positive "Yes, I need one. I need a l aptop." (already u ses computerized device on the job for signal routing andrunning the audio-visual equipm ent he installs) 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive he wouldn't have any prob lem with that; he already uses a computer at the job trailer for field rep orts, time reports, letters to GC, etc. 40 Electrical negative "It'd never ha ppen." 41 Concre te negative "I w oul dn't agr ee w ith it I me an, I don 't see a re aso n wh y I'd need one Everything's on yo ur blueprints, b asically." 42 Electrical negative "It would n ot help me here. I don 't have no plac e to put it. I move too much, I'm in the open too much, so computers are no good." (but said i f his employer wanted him to use one, he'd use it) 43 Concre te positive "I would try it, yo u know." 44 Carpentry positive "I'd use it, yeah." 45 Ironwork positive "I'd rat her do it at home. I t'd be h ard to have one out her e on the job." 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative "I'd say, well, prove i t to me, that it's going to save me t ime, save us time, an d save us m oney." 47 Fire Sprinklers negative "I woul dn't use it No, cause I ain' t got t he ti me. By t he ti me I do it on the computer, I could do it on paper and be donewith it."

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196 Table 16–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 48 Electrical negative "I don't have a problem with using one, but they would have to show me where it was gonna help me, 'cause I stay in the field, I don't stay in the o ffice." 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "I'd agree wi th that. Oh, yeah." (al ready uses computer at home for time management, tracking materials, calculating production rates for his crews) 50 N/A (this survey not us ed since fore man definitio n not met) 51 HVAC and Plumbing neutral wouldn't mind but said, "H e'd have to train me." 52 Concre te positive "Oh, I wouldn't mind. I'm all for any learning and growing experienc es I can get." 53 Painting positive already uses one....."I'm still fumb ling through it. I'm still a little bit u nco mfo rtab le wi th it. I'm a piss -po or ty pist so i t's not as good a s a tool a s it cou ld be were I a better operator. (but expressed desire to continue to use and learn more about ) 54 Painting positive very posi tive, wants t o use a comput er on the j ob; on previous job he used a l aptop in the job t railer or i n his car to send faxe s & email 55 Ironwork negative "Unless you're a superintendent, I r eally don't see it .... and rea lly, t hat's usua lly ju st th e of fice peo ple It re ally wou ldn 't help me. A t this level, it's really just hands o n." 56 HVAC and Plumbing positive "If they f elt that we were doing somethi ng that needed t hat kind of wor k, I would d o it." 57 Electrical neutral "I'd use it, but out here i n the field, I mean, unles s you're doing a lot of paper work in the of fice, you don' t really need one out he re." 58 Fire Sprinklers positive "I'd be hap py, I mean, if they c ould show me how it wo uld help me, I'd b e more tha n happy." 59 Fire Sprinklers positive "I would like t o... A laptop woul d be excellent, to organize eve ryth ing, and then you wou ld n eve r los e it. Y ou w oul dn't have to worry about space for a filing cabinet. I could print out at home I coul d do daily r eports. I could kee p track of all my information. As far as carrying any paper, or worry about form s that we always ru n out of, I cou ld store them in a data base. I'd go into the data base and just get the form that I need an d just print at ho me." 60 Carpentry positive "Very go od." 61 Concre te positive "I'd strongly agr ee with it." 62 Electrical positive says he would definitley like to use o ne (Note: p reviously used a computer at work for doing building management control, fire alarm control, worked on a cogeneration plant that was partial ly comput erized) 63 HVAC and Plumbing positive "Oh, yeah You co uld log a lot o f information, like daily reports, on a laptop, somethin g like t hat. Yeah, it woul d be beneficial." 64 Carpentry positive "If he sent me to school I w ouldn't have no problem with it. As long as he pa ys fo r it. As long as it ain' t comin out of my pocket, I ain 't got no prob lem with it." 65 Roofing positive "Oh, I wo uldn't mind. Just sh ow me ho w to use it."

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197 Table 16–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing neutral "They'd have to pu t me through school for training to use the comp uter efficiently." 67 Masonry positive he currently sca ns and faxes a ll his handwritten d aily reports and expenses reports through his computer at home, t hen keeps this i nfo stored on hi s computer for hi s own documentat ion 68 Misc Specialties positive "I wouldn' t have any problem wit h it at all." (he alr eady uses one for work, on his own ini tiative ) 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing neutral "Well, I don't kn ow where I'd set a computer up out here. [But] it would n't bother me a ny." 70 Fire Sprinklers positive "I'd get one to morrow ." he's going to ge t a laptop so on to use for w ork sinc e his compan y will pay half of an $1800 computer for employees 71 Special Finis hes neutral "Oh, I'd use it, sure. [But] if I'm in t he field I wouldn't have a use for it." 72 Ironwork positive "I'd li ke to. I t'd be g reat. On on e other job, we had lapt ops that everybo dy used. Y ou put it all in there Man, it's great, call it up anytime. I f you use th at with a s canner, you can put all your files, eve rything, right in there." previously used laptops for daily logs, look-ahe ad schedules, manpower li sts, de taile d work package s & inst allat ion instructions 73 Masonry positive "I'd be op en to trying it." 74 Sitework negative "I would d isagree with it." 75 Carpentry neutral "Oh, it would be all right as l ong as I agreed about how I was supposed to be using it. You know, I'm out on the site...he'd have to sh ow me ho w." 76 Concre te negative "Well, I could ag ree to that if I had to." but says he just doesn't think it wo uld help him 77 HVAC and Plumbing positive "I'm plannin g to take an AutoCAD class so I'm goi ng to get into that anyho w." 78 Roofing positive "I'd agree to it. I wouldn't have n o proble m with that." 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "I'd do it, but he's g onna have to send me to s chool and pay for it. I got no pr oblem with that whatsoev er." 80 Carpentry positive "H e'd h ave to p ay m e to go to scho ol.. ..... As lo ng a s I'm educated on how to u se it, I wouldn't have a problem with it." 81 Concre te negative "I would d isagree." 82 Concre te positive "I like them. T hey help me good. I ha ve no pro blems with compu ters." He c urrently uses a d ata collecto r (which costs approximately $1000) to conn ect to his Nik on "Total Station" surveying instr ument, which he uses for shooting points in site foundati ons & wall layout 83 Painting positive "It w oul dn't bot her me. I'd b e mo re th an h app y to. ..... ..... It'd be a lot less paperwor k to kee p up wit h... .... Inst ead of me having t o thumb thr ough my fi les, I could jus t pull it up on the comp uter."

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198 Table 16–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 84 Ironwork positive "I think it would be great. W hen I get iron in I could pu t it in the computer, then when we go looki ng for a piece we can 't find I co uld pul l it up on th e co mpu ter a nd s ee if it's even here. Whereas now, I 'm going th rough pages and pages of paperwork, and a l ot of times y ou miss it, you know what I mean, 'cause you just don't pick it up. But you co uld ask the comp uter if this numbe r's in there, and it'd spit it up to you. You 'd know it's here." 85 Flooring & Tile positive "I'd say coo l, show me ho w." 86 Concre te positive "I would t ry it and the n if I f elt it didn't improve my j ob, or I felt I could do bet ter wit hout it .... I'd pr obably use it for records." 87 Sitework neutral (laughing) "I guess I' ll have to do it, man. Just have t o go with the flow, ma n.....I wouldn't say I wo uld like it, but if that's what it takes, that's what I'd ha ve to do." 88 Roofing negative "I wouldn' t know wher e one would be benefici al, exce pt for logging, you know, materials, deliveries, and stoc k items. Just keeping up on wha t you got here It'd be more h assle than what you got, out here in t he field. I mean, what are you gonn a do, car ry a l itt le la ptop wi th you ?" 89 Roofing positive "Wouldn't have no problem with it. Especially if i t did make my job easier or better or more efficient. (doesn't see the use bu t wo uld n't ha ve a pro ble m wi th tr ying it; N ote : he's building hi s own computer) RE: Do you use a c omputer at hom e: "N ope do n't ha ve o ne b uilt y et. W ork in' o n it.. ..... It's easy. It's easy. A computer ain't nothin' but a motherboard and car ds th at go es in slot s and wire s to h ook it up It's actually pretty s imple. I don't know that much about computers, but as far as puttin' one together it's easy ......I' ve got a co upl e fri end s tha t pie ced thei rs to geth er to o... ..... It's really not that difficult. Y ou'd really be su rprised." 90 Masonry positive he would like to use one; he just got a computer to star t using on site 91 Ironwork negative "I woul dn't appreci ate i t, per sonall y. I' d ask hi m to sho w me how to work it...........In this line of work, you have to firstof all gain the respect of t he men. If a computer's running the job, you won't get any respect from the men. Plain and simple." 92 Concre te positive "I'd try it." 93 Electrical positive "I w oul dn't hav e no pro ble m wi th it. (b ut d oes n't th ink i t'd help him since he's worki ng hands on; Note: His general foreman uses a compute r in the job si te trail er .) 94 Plumbing positive "Well, I'd ask him to tell me how it' s gonna do it, and bring it out here, let's give it a try." 95 Electrical positive very open to using a com puter;currently uses spreadsheets; writes RFI's, time sh eets & pur chase ord ers on com puter in job trailer 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "That'd be good, I need to l earn. That'd be cool as long as he's buying it."

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199 Table 16–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 97 Ironwork neutral "We ll, I'm compute r illiterate, so that wo uld be a thre shold to climb.....Bu t no, I don't have any proble ms with it." 98 Plumbing positive "Yeah, that'd be fine." (he used a computer a lot when he was a shipp ing/receiving p arts manage r for a car de alership ) 99 Roofing neutral "N ot v ery h app y, bu t if th at's w hat i t too k, th at's w hat I 'd have to do. .... .... I mean, I' m not a comput er fan. It does s how you things, you c an log in, you c an record things and hav e it filed. Yeah, I c ould see a b enefit." 100 Electrical negative "I'd tell him to mo ve his desk o ut here, and fo r him to operate the compute r. I wouldn't have time for it." 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing positive "If i t's gonna he lp me i n any ma nner, way, s hape or f orm, yes, I' d use it." ( Note: his superi ntendent uses a computer for his work .) 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative would do it just to keep jo b and get p aid, but sees n o use in it 103 Ironwork positive "Well if he t houg ht i t wa s nec ess ary I' d lea rn ho w to. He says he used a compute r at a fire protec tion comp any to track stock lists (cut sheets for fabricat ion) 104 Plumbing neutral "Oh, if he wants me t o, I'l l do what my boss tel ls me to do. On the j ob, I thin k it'd get b ang ed u p, o r ge t dir ty. T o me it's not worth it. N ot on the jo b site." 105 Flooring & Tile positive "Oh, I wouldn't have any problem with it at al l. If I thought it would help I would de finitely do it." 106 Sitework negative "At 58 years old, can y ou imagin e that? Now t hat woul d be a joke, reall y. I don't have the pati ence.... My wife uses compu ters..... If I was 30 o r 40 years o ld, OK." 107 Masonry positive "I'd do wha t I'm told........Anything tha t I feel like would help me, I would use i t. Anyt hing it could do bett er, it 'd be good to use it." 108 Concre te negative "Well, I 'd li ke to kn ow what kind of compute r he' d give m e to get those b oards up side the wall. If you got a com puter to do that, bring it on." (says he's too much invo lved with manual labor) 109 Plumbing positive "If I had one in he re, I'd us e it." (al ready uses own PC at home to order supplies on-line) 110 Electrical negative "I'd tell him no....I wo uldn't do it." 111 Concre te positive "It's a mus t. Nowadays, I don' t see how anybody can get along without having to use a computer." (uses his own computer to track manhours ) 112 Carpentry neutral "I'd say OK, pay me to go l earn how t o use the damn thin g." (says he would n't mind, as long a s he was taugh t how to use it) 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing negative "Not too good.. .... .... ..Oh, I' d do it if they wan ted me too. But I don 't know how co mputers wo uld help my w ork." 114 HVAC positive "I'd give i t a try. I've never used one before. But I 've seen things that they do and heard of things they can do."

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200 Table 16–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 115 Ironwork positive "I think it 'd be great. I think i t'd be great I think even if th ey had one at th e of fice I me an I 've g ot o ne a t ho me. Th ere 's no reason why I can' t get that informati on on any job that we have, and bring i t up at home and look at it." RE: For what purpose s?: "I wou ld say for sched uling....If I could ge t into anybody else's mainframe, you know, the di fferent companies we work for, I could get all the inf ormation I need ab out the job prior to be ing on the jo b, or prior to getti ng a set of print s... .I thi nk it wou ld help an ybody immensely. You kno w, prior knowledge is always a benefit..... .. I mean, a lot of these s ites that we' ve been on, they have da ily updates on the job pro gress and yo u can pull them up on t he Inter net and se e how the j ob's goi ng." (disc ussed u se of t his s yste m on Baker Mel on's V.A. Outpatient Cli nic in Rockledge/ Cocoa Beach; he accessed this i nfo on-l ine fr om his home) Note: He uses a Palm Pilot 116 Masonry positive "I'd love to. A s long as he wa s ready to pa y me to learn a ll that." (hasn't used compute rs at all) 117 Electrical positive "That'd be fine...... .I'd be willing t o learn if it' d help out some. I'm sure there's certain things. [B ut] that'd prob ably be more for t he superi ntendent to keep h is paperwor k, not necessarily the fo reman." 118 Fire Sprinklers negative "It'd h ave to be one hell of a computer, 'caus e my main j ob is to install pipe, and there's no way a computer's gonna help." 119 HVAC positive "Yeah, I' d do it.. .... .. Show me w here it 'd hel p me out. I 'd do it, sure...... I guess it would help me o ut if I could loo k up all the files instead o f having to call the shop and have him bring it up on his compu ter." 120 Ironwork positive "Oh, I love to learn things. I' m 42 years old. I learn something new every da y. I have a very open mind. I've just never h ad the o pportun ity or the need to be aroun d them, you know. I mean, you really don't have much need for amouse up 70 feet in the air, yo u know." 121 Sitework positive "It wouldn 't bot her me. I mean, I can use it I coul d take it or leave it." (he use s one now for RFI's and pay reque sts )

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201 No Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te agree document work before it's covered; show A/E existing conditi on 2 Concre te agree plan dimensions may not be as built; documentation before work covered 3 N/A N/A (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) 4 Electrical agree compare as-built condition to plans 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree as-builts; sending things to the engin eer; often nee d to sketch field co nditions & d imensions & put into RF I (could use image inste ad) 6 Flooring & Tile strongly agree for remod el work; help plan materia l needs; use to create CAD file of existing conditions 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree verify all quanti ties install ed, especially in the case where actual dimensions don't match plans 8 Concre te strongly agree as-buil t inf ormation 9 Electrical no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 10 Electrical strongly agree it would help speed up RFI's (by des cribing a situatio n via transmitting a pict ure); also could use to recall where roughin items are after t hey're covered up 11 Flooring & Tile strongly agree use to get dimension s by taki ng pictu re of ren derings on plans t hat aren 't di mensioned ( i.e., color patt erns for terrazzo floor) 12 Carpentry strongly agree getting dimensions for as-bui lt conditions 13 Carpentry disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 14 HVAC and Plumbing strongly disagree "I can't see it bein g used out in th e field at all." 15 Electrical agree "A lot of times you need to know something about work that's already covered up. A picture' s worth a thousand words. It would let us go back without teari ng something apart and see what we did originally. It would be very beneficial to ins pectors, esp ecially for doin g finals. It would be very be neficial to mainte nance pe rsonnel." 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree situations where dimension s are not clea r (i.e., artistic theming in them e parks) – c ould use to c reate scale tem plate from model 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree "For calculati ng distances, like if we had a long wall & we wanted to put it up in 3 or 4 pan els, y eah, th at would h elp – that would he lp a lot." 18 Ironwork agree "It would b e helpful to get th e x & y dime nsions." 19 Ironwork no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 20 Ironwork strongly agree for getting eleva tions: ""If I wa s looking for a certain elevation, and that computer c ould throw it out to me real quick, that'd be great. Tha t would save a lot of time." 21 Flooring & Tile strongly agree "Knowing how to set up the job, quantities of material and where to sto ck what on the job." 22 Concre te strongly agree for calculat ing areas Table 17 Foremen’s Responses Regarding the Usefulness of a Stereo Camera

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202 Table 17–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 23 Special Finis hes strongly agree layout work 24 Special Finis hes strongly agree "If the came ra was set up in such a way wh ere you co uld take a picture of the model and take a picture of the exi sting structure and combine them, so t o speak, so you know what you have and where t he model may diff er from that structure, it would help imme nsely." 25 Misc Specialties strongly disagree "We 've got tape me asures." 26 Electrical no opinion "Measuring co nduit runs for wire measureme nts." (Also mentioned use by an estimator f or quantify ing remodel work.).... "That (stereo camera) would be the least of the features I wou ld use, though (from featu res discussed in regard to overall handheld computer) 27 Misc Specialties strongly agree "Extremely useful, especially in big dome theaters up in the roof, to se e wher e spea kers and st uff have t o hang ." RE: Why not just use bluep rints?: "Because blue prints aren't asbuilts." 28 Electrical strongly agree to creat e CAD drawing of exist ing / as -built conditi ons for layin g out the job 29 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree to creat e CAD drawing of exist ing / as -built conditi ons for layin g out the job 30 HVAC and Plumbing strongly disagree "I wouldn't have any use for that ." (says his superint endent would hav e use for it) 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing disagree "It would b e to the engine ers, but not to m e." 32 Electrical strongly agree "Yeah, that would hel p me a great deal. You cou ld lay a job out the day befor e, mark on your pri nt, or mark on t here, and go lay it o ut." 33 Misc Specialties strongly agree "It would help us calculate the diff erent radii of the equipment we install along the t rack, to bend our bar to [the right] radius." (said plans m ay not show tru e as-built condition) 34 Special Finis hes strongly disagree "If you start adding things like that, you' d never get anything done." 35 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree "Oh, yeah – damn right it woul d!"... .says useful for layout...... "Use ful for coord ination, too." 36 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree "When they're laying out a building ri ght from the ground up. You could verify the dimensions right off of the picture." 37 Plumbing strongly agree "That'd be g reat. Sc aling w alls, layin g walls out, f ootage of pipe for mat erial t akeoffs – you could u se it f or a lot of things." 38 Misc Specialties strongly agree "I'd love it. Yo u could use that thing for anythin g. How b ig a room is, how hig h it is. .. That thi ng would save so much time." "I could use the heck out of this ." says he constantly has to sketch out as-b uilt conditions a nd take it to have engineeri ng draw it up, then the next day he goes back to get it."

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203 Table 17–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree "Setting benchmark s, being able t o quickly check dimensions of a w all to make sur e it's right befor e we Densglass it." 40 Electrical disagree "Yeah, that' s all ri ght for est imators.. .or general superintendents." says can' t see any use for his work 41 Concre te agree figure out quantitie s of rebar needed for a footer 42 Electrical agree figuring out fixt ure heights & setup for hangi ng fixtur es 43 Concre te agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 44 Carpentry strongly agree docum ent damag e on the job ..........his superintende nt said it would save her hundre ds of hours o f doing field dimensioning 45 Ironwork strongly agree "Instead of usi ng a tape measure, if you had one of them things that'd save a b unch of time." 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree transmitt ing image to ar chitect t o solve fiel d conflict 47 Fire Sprinklers disagree "I wouldn't trust i t....I wouldn' t use it... ...I wouldn't have no place to p ut it...... It'd just be someth ing else I'd have to carry aroun d." 48 Electrical disagree "I can't s ee it helpi ng me, personall y. Now if I was an ironworke r, or someth ing, yeah." 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree ordering material based on as-built conditions; finding things in the wall after covered up 50 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since fore man definitio n not met) 51 HVAC and Plumbing agree "Power plants, chip plants, all kind of di fferent ways...... ..Piping, lay out your pipe. To give me the dimensions of the room. You could coordinate the room. Itwould ma ke sense to c oordina te the room then you cou ld coordinate all the trades. This way everybody h as an elevation an d a set place and you ca n't miss it. It'd be ideal." 52 Concre te strongly agree layout work, engineering, design iss ues 53 Painting strongly agree "You cou ld do square footag e take-offs real easy." (also suggest s using to evalu ate color schemes on printouts of images) 54 Painting strongly agree estimat ing mate rial ( paint) n eeded by area calcul ation 55 Ironwork disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 56 HVAC and Plumbing agree use to lay out repetiti ve work (take pict ure of the "te mplate" work in plac e); docum ent undergr ound lines w ith dimensions before covered up 57 Electrical agree "You could use it for conduit runs, wire footages, t hings like that." 58 Fire Sprinklers agree "To m y office it would b e very bene ficial. If they were ab le to know the dimension s of a room by shooting it, tha t would defin itel y hel p them ou t." ..sa id if you coul d do a CAD overlay, "Y ou'd be in fat city."

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204 Table 17–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 59 Fire Sprinklers strongly agree "That'd b e excellent. I think that'd be great. W hen I get a call to go out and look at a job when t hey're bus y, and they tell me to take a look at a j ob and see what you thi nk, not only coul d I tell them what I thin k, I coul d tell them how many heads, how much mai n – in minutes It would t ake a load off the o ffice...............I could go in this b uilding, and it could tell me the bar joist width, the height, without climbing a lad der." 60 Carpentry strongly disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 61 Concre te strongly agree layout work 62 Electrical strongly agree layout work 63 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree "Yeah, you could take a pi cture of a room and make up an isometr ic drawi ng of it and it would be more c lear.. ...You could lay out t he whole job right here on the scre en here, give it t o the guys, a nd they would know exa ctly whic h way the pipe is. In between your turns y ou could put measurem ents on it too." 64 Carpentry agree field dimensioning, gett ing angles for cuts (l ayout work) 65 Roofing strongly agree "Dimen sion s, s quare foot age, elev ati ons, every thi ng." RE: why not just use the plans ?: "Plans aren' t always t hat accurate. A lot changes. More times than not the plans are differ ent, t hrough th e archit ectural s and dif ferent shop drawings." 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree layout work, sc ale for simil ar work.. .. "Hell yeah, that' d be helpful!" 67 Masonry strongly agree lineal footage of walls, layout wo rk, length of foo ters, length of footers......thinks it wo uld be a lot e asier than getting info off plans 68 Misc Specialties strongly agree "Absolutel y, tha t would he lp me. Li ke that arch, f or instance. Instead of me st anding out here f or 20 minutes tryin g to fi gure out w hat the degree is on that a rch, or h ow high it is or how deep it is, I could just click on it wi th a compu ter. Sure, that'd be a fantastic tool." 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree layout work 70 Fire Sprinklers strongly agree layout work 71 Special Finis hes strongly agree "If it was quick and accurat e, it w ould be inv aluable. (for layout work says has t o field dimensi on, & it's often difficul t to get i nto position wh ere he can get t he needed measurem ent) 72 Ironwork strongly agree "It'd be grea t, but I don't see ho w it'd be possib le." (says it would be useful for layout w ork and a s-builts ) 73 Masonry no opinion "I don't know what u se I'd have for t hat.. ...I guess i t would, it's hard to tell." 74 Sitework no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable)

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205 Table 17–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 75 Carpentry agree "It would have to be ac curate t o 1/16"... ...(s ays it would be useful for layout ) 76 Concre te no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 77 HVAC and Plumbing no opinion "I'd think the pr int would be more acc urate than that." 78 Roofing disagree "I don't see ho w it could help me." 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing disagree "It's all on the print." 80 Carpentry strongly agree layout work 81 Concre te strongly agree getting a measurement in the fi eld; verifying dimensi ons with the pi ctures lat er on at home or at t he office 82 Concre te strongly agree layout work (which would have to be accurate to 1/100") but also could be us ed for tracki ng work in place, which only needs to be accura te to 1 or 2 fe et) 83 Painting strongly agree for measurin g, especially sq uare footag e of walls; says would be a lot easier & faster than getti ng from plans 84 Ironwork agree "For an area t hat I don' t have any questi ons on, i t'd be useless But an ar ea that I had quest ions on, it woul d be excellent. Y eah, that wou ld be helpfu l." 85 Flooring & Tile strongly agree layout work..... "T ake a picture and go b ack and lo ok at it and figure out how much tile y ou're gonna need f or that area or that space. Oh, yeah, most definit ely.... Layout, anything. Becaus e really, when we do some thing, all we do is visually look at it an d measure it. If you could do th at with a pi cture, that'd be won derful." 86 Concre te strongly agree "I would use it for measuring material, you know, if I knew how long it wa s, how wide it, wa s without mea suring it. Give me squar e footage line ar feet on wood to order for steel." 87 Sitework disagree says there's us ually a lot of obstructi ons where they work (like trees) 88 Roofing strongly agree field measure ments... .. they currently use what he cal ls an "estimat or," whic h is some s ort of l aser devi ce, for approximat ing cei ling he ights etc. ; says it woul d be good for estimators to measure roofs in the field w ithout having to get up on t he roof 89 Roofing agree "For calcul ating s quare." ( squares of roofing tile needed) 90 Masonry agree documenting wo rk before it's covered up (reba r heights, etc.); for esti mating in remodeling work 91 Ironwork agree documenting problems for back charging and showing discrepancies between plans and as-built conditi ons 92 Concre te no opinion thinks it would b e useful for G C supt. 93 Electrical agree but thinks mo re useful for gen eral forema n than for him 94 Plumbing strongly agree "I could go al ong with that. I like that. I'd st rongly a gree." (says would be very u seful for kn owing l ocati ons of i tems after they'r e covered up, particularly if doing remodeling work )

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206 Table 17–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 95 Electrical strongly agree "You c ould get ca ble lengths, rec ord what's in the w all before it's covered up 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree "That'd be l ike an aut omatic bl ueprint Yeah, t hat woul d be a go od t hing ." (l iked ide a of doc ume ntin g wo rk b efo re it 's covered up) 97 Ironwork agree "That'd b e beneficial to show the insp ector at a later d ate, if he wasn't there, you know." 98 Plumbing agree laying out penetrations 99 Roofing agree planning for materials needed, layi ng out tanker location & general job setup 100 Electrical strongly agree "Yeah I think it would b e good to have som ething like that. Time saving. Wouldn't have to walk over there and measureit. T ake the p ictu re, l ook at yo ur re ad o ut, a nd s ay O K, t hat's 170 feet "... .... .... .... "You got one tha t wil l look insi de some of the se guy s heads see i f it 's r ock or s and?" 101 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no opinion thinks it woul d be useful at sta rt of job, but not f or rest of job 103 Ironwork disagree "Not for me it wouldn' t." (thought maybe for some other trades ) 104 Plumbing no opinion "I don't know." thought maybe woul d help other tr ades 105 Flooring & Tile strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 106 Sitework strongly agree useful for dirt work, roads and bridges ; thoug ht maybe picture could repl ace a lot of the dai ly log 107 Masonry strongly agree useful for documentation of work completed to keep in a database f or any probl ems late r on 108 Concre te strongly agree estimating material, doing layout 109 Plumbing agree "Wh en I go ove rhead, and I'm running plastic overhead if I was to be able to take a picture of it, and have dimensions right the re, I could si t in thi s office an d tell a guy you need to cut a piece of pipe this long and prefab it t o hang it up there....... That wo uld actually spe ed me up ." 110 Electrical disagree thought maybe useful for offi ce people or A/E; also thought maybe use ful for work o n industrial plan ts to facilitate future renovati on 111 Concre te agree "That would be nice for transferring information back and forth be tween compani es. Archi tects, engineer s, that sort of thing........It'd be really help ful." 112 Carpentry agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree "Figuring out materials, f iguring cost, how much your people a re doing. T hat'd be a grea t help." 114 HVAC agree "Measurements of pipe, things like that." (pl anning & layout )

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207 Table 17–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 115 Ironwork strongly agree anchor bolt layout... "If I could take a picture of something and it would give me the dimensions on it, I' d know right then if my steel or whatever 's gonna fit, if the things are right, you know. Yeah, I th ink it 'd be ver y benefi cial. It'd be a lot better than me pulling the tape out and having to walk down thro ugh there and measure ev erything." 116 Masonry no opinion "I could se e how it wou ld be useful to the estimator, b ut I don't see how it could help me.... ....... If they wanted to take a picture of a wall, and l ater on there' s an alterat ion on that wall or s ome thin g, th en th ey'd kno w wh at's i n the re. T hat's all I could think of." 117 Electrical no opinion thinks it' d be useful to the superintendent for doing l ayout work, but d oesn't know ho w he'd use it 118 Fire Sprinklers disagree but thinks his co mpany's engine ers or archite cts would probab ly have use for it 119 HVAC strongly agree "Laying out your column lines. All y our duct runs off the column line d imensions. F or contro l lines, that's usually what everyb ody com es off of......... That wo uld tell me if those columns are really on t o what my drawings says they are. Like on the first floor, our guy had each column 3 inches larger than what it actually was, and then I had to go check colu mns. Well, they' re 30-foot And I onl y got a 25foot tape It woul d save me ti me right there. And if you got a duct over there, and it's 50 feet in the air, i nstead of having to go all the way up, if y ou could snap a picture that'd save you some more time to o, without hav ing to get up the re." 120 Ironwork strongly agree "On thes e bigge r proje cts, I'm s ure it would be yeah .... .. As far as set ting up your l edgers, or anyt hing like that, t hat would be pretty handy. Something that you had with a l ong run." 121 Sitework strongly agree dimensioned records of storm drain after it' s covered up

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208 No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te disagree It's a re al good idea, but my superintendent or general forem an wou ld have m ore use fo r it than me I'd break it because I' m working with the c rew about half the ti me – I work w ith my tools" 2 Concre te disagree It 's a go od i dea bu t wo uld be mo re u sef ul f or my superinte ndent o r project m anager. I w ork with my cre w all day." 3 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since incomplete) 4 Electrical agree (not provided, not avail able, or not appli cable) 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree "Don't p ut too m any thing s on it – it need s to be com pact." 6 Flooring & Tile strongly agree (not provided, not avail able, or not appli cable) 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree Anything that can help you cre ate a dai ly log thr oughout the day would be useful..." RE: 2-way radi o/phone/voice recorder, etc. "It would be nice to have something t hat was all inc lusive" RE: voice tr anslati on-"that would be fantastic -that would be dynamite" 8 Concre te strongly agree (not provided, not avail able, or not appli cable) 9 Electrical no opinion (not provided, not avail able, or not appli cable) 10 Electrical agree (not provided, not avail able, or not appli cable) 11 Flooring & Tile strongly agree (not provided, not avail able, or not appli cable) 12 Carpentry strongly agree "I think it'd be great. W e're lucky to be able to enjoy this kind of techno logy. And you're going to enjoy it more so than I do ." 13 Carpentry agree "I coul d see how s omething l ike tha t could be helpf ul." RE sketch & fax feature: I could see where something like t hat could h elp me a lot." 14 HVAC and Plumbing agree "I could see the po tential of that in a lot of situations. Just like get ting cert ain drawings and changes. That would be real helpfu l." RE:fax feature: "I co uld see ho w that w ould be helpfu l." RE:W eb site acces s: "I could g o for that, yeah." 15 Electrical strongly agree "There's a lot of i nformation t hat we could ut ilize with a device like this." 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree suggested put ting a homing devi ce on it i n case it got misplaced or covered up by plans, et c. 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree likes bigge r screen, bu t it would b e better to be smaller if had to carry around all day 18 Ironwork agree "The o nly prob lem is that it w ould take time getting used to being corrected by the computer.. ..Pretty handy li ttle it em though ." 19 Ironwork no opinion "As soon as you se t it down on t he job, tha t thing woul d be gone! M e? No, I d o it the old fa shioned way." Table 18 Foremen’s Respons es Regarding the U sefulness of a Ha ndheld Computer/Communication Device for General Job Applications

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209 Table 18–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 20 Ironwork strongly agree "Oh, tha t'd definitely b e helpful. I lik e that wh ole conc ept." (says Gator Communicator screen size i s perfect and that weight is more important than s ize) 21 Flooring & Tile strongly agree "That would be a big help. I thin k there' d be a lot of use for that, I really do." 22 Concre te strongly agree "Being a ble to transm it a picture to the o ffice in order to solve pro blems and get clarifications a nd answer s to questions wo uld speed things up trem endously." 23 Special Finis hes strongly agree "That w ould be tre mendo us." 24 Special Finis hes strongly agree "That w ould be lo vely – that wou ld be bea utiful." 25 Misc Specialties strongly disagree "I'd rather use a tape. Make a phone cal l. That's about as high-tech as I ge t." 26 Electrical strongly agree "This would take off half the time of doing t imesheets and daily logs." 27 Misc Specialties strongly agree very posi tive, he uses Sh arp palmtop a lready 28 Electrical strongly agree "Yeah, if I had somet hing where I coul d pull up a parti cular print or I could get into my submittal s and find out about equipme nt off of someth ing like this, that'd be gr eat." 29 HVAC and Plumbing agree "We have cut shee ts on fittings & all – the y could pu t all them int o the comput er – then w e could pul l them up on there inst ead of having to l ook for it." ... als o commented that would be useful for daily logs 30 HVAC and Plumbing strongly disagree "I wouldn 't want to carry the d amn thing. I wo uldn't want to be responsi ble for i t. I woul dn't t hink th at would be part of my job description, to be carrying that. (NOTE : Did like the idea of voice t ranscri ption f or recordi ng infor mation on logs, so he woul dn't have t o write anyt hing. Expressed strong disl ike for doing paperw ork, as if he were a secretary) 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree "Yeah, that would be benef icial As long as it c ould be downloa ded, that wo uld be go od." 32 Electrical strongly agree "Yeah, that would hel p greatly, something li ke that. As f ar as keeping up wit h so many changes & what not out here, this would help greatly for that – re membe ring stuff." 33 Misc Specialties strongly agree "Yeah that would b e pretty nice. D efinitely. For data transf er, st orage of s ome amount of data. I' d probably s hoot pictures of wh at happen ed each d ay." 34 Special Finis hes disagree "I wouldn' t carry it." ( says t here's too many l ayers of bureaucr acy; that it would b e too com plex to com municate that way).... (Note: In a followup conversation with his boss, a projec t coordina tor, his boss tho ught the hand held would be really helpful for communicating wi th the field by usi ng the pictures, and thought the s uperintendents would have more use fo r the devices than foreme n..... "That's pre tty slick. Yeah, I th ink that would work for so me of the guys out in th e fie ld, s o ev eryb ody has a bet ter f eel f or w hat's going on out there. ")

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210 Table 18–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 35 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree "Yes, I think that would b e an excellen t tool." 36 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree Yeah, that'd a ll be great." 37 Plumbing agree "Yeah, that'd help me d o my job a lot better...if it wasn't so big. My Nextel' s too big. The small er the better If you had to carry this wit h you everywhere, it would be a problem. If you could l eave it in your pickup, a nd go get i t when you need it, it'd be gre at." ..... "My b iggest prob lem on the jo b is paperwork, 'cause in order to do the paperwork takes me outof the field to do it." ..... Says it would help to be able to usethe handhe ld to be ab le to stay in the field an d enter data more quickly, & voice transcription would be even better. 38 Misc Specialties strongly agree "That'd be an awesome box right there." (says Simon size would be good, but t hat Gator Communicat or is t oo big) 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree "It'd be useful, yes, especially for faxing...photographs, measurem ents, being ab le to take off are as." 40 Electrical disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 41 Concre te disagree "No, not real ly – not for a for eman as much. For superintend ents, projec t managers." 42 Electrical no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 43 Concre te disagree "No, I d on't think it would he lp me." 44 Carpentry strongly agree His superintendent said it would be good for the superintendents and the foremen: "Anything you can givethe foreman for informatio n helps." 45 Ironwork strongly agree says it would be helpful 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree helpful to transfer pi ctures or sketches to architect to solve field confl ict 47 Fire Sprinklers disagree "I wouldn 't use it, 'cause the comp any would sig n it out to me, and if an ythin g ha ppe ned to it I'd h ave to b uy it. Th at's the big one, ri ght there. The less I got i n my name, the bet ter I like it." 48 Electrical disagree "I would have to actually try i t, I'd be willi ng to try it. The most useful thing would be if y ou had access to the blueprin ts to wh ere you cou ld code in a certai n page or certain section of a page, and bring it up on here, without carrying prints w ith you." 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree thinks the lead m en should h ave the units, to b e able to communicate with the forem en and since they are most closely related to the work 50 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since fore man definitio n not met) 51 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree "I like that." ( likes voice rec order, sketc h pad, acc ess to drawings) 52 Concre te agree "Yeah, that could be a ve ry usef ul tool. (both for superint endent and f oreman on la rge job ) 53 Painting agree "Yeah it seems like it could be very useful. T he faxability would be very helpful."

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211 Table 18–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 54 Painting strongly agree on previo us job he u sed a lapto p in the job trailer or in his car to send faxes & em ail 55 Ironwork no opinion said it would help to transmit picture to enginee r & discuss immediately, avoiding need to come to job; thought helpful on big job but not on smal l job 56 HVAC and Plumbing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 57 Electrical agree "That'd b e pretty slick." 58 Fire Sprinklers agree "On some jobs it would be ver y helpf ul. The wor se the j ob, the more this w ould help yo u." 59 Fire Sprinklers strongly agree "It sounds great to me... We'll take one t o start with, and then we'll put one in every truck." RE: voice recorder: "That would be ideal." ( He currently us es a digital voice recorder and types out notes later.) 60 Carpentry strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 61 Concre te strongly agree "This would be a good idea to use. I'd strongly agree. It would be quicker." 62 Electrical strongly agree "I thin k it woul d be like mov ing out of the st one age int o a modern time. I think it would greatl y reduce down time, and reduce a l ot of nonpr oduction, because of lack of informat ion. It would revol utioni ze the cons tructi on industry, in my op inion. For o ne thing, it's extremely versatile. It has information, it can get information on a time ly ba sis, p rob abl y as i n rig ht no w. A nd s ince we d on't have it, I 'm not exerci sed in it, but I'm sur e that aft er I was for a while, I could think of a hundred million more thin gs.. ..... ..If w e ha d th is typ e of com mun icat ion ma n, it'd make my jo b 100% easier." 63 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 64 Carpentry strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 65 Roofing strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly disagree "That'l l work f or the bus iness e nd of my job, but not f or me... I woul dn't use i t at all ." (thought upper level managers above sup erintenden t level, would h ave use for it, but not clear on specific use ) 67 Masonry strongly agree "That'd b e terrific. That w ould be v ery useful." 68 Misc Specialties strongly agree "I think th at would be a fant astic tool to have... .... That would de finitely be a huge a sset to the industr y.......I couldn't t hink of a bett er idea than t hat. And I' m glad to see that someb ody is thinking o f an idea like that......T hat would help out trem endously." 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 70 Fire Sprinklers strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable)

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212 Table 18–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 71 Special Finis hes no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 72 Ironwork strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 73 Masonry strongly agree "I think it'd help a lo t. You'd hav e everything co mbined in to one." 74 Sitework agree says it would help keep him organ ized 75 Carpentry agree "I'd say you ha ve a pretty go od devic e." 76 Concre te no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 77 HVAC and Plumbing no opinion says it would b e something more for his su perintende nt... "T hat w oul d de finit ely b e use ful. T he p rob lem with it is it 's very expensive and if I drop i t, there' s nothing t o replace it... ....If they could make i t to take a beat ing.... (he had used a touch screen before when working on a LucentTechnologies job in a clean room, running stainless tubing,so they could n't use any pape r/pencil; says it wor ked really well) 78 Roofing disagree "M e pe rso nall y, I w oul d no t hav e a u se fo r it." (Th inks it'd be something for a superintendent or project manager) 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree "Yeah, that would hel p, especi ally i f you' re out i n the fi eld, then you do n't have to walk all the way back to the trailer." 80 Carpentry strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 81 Concre te agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 82 Concre te strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 83 Painting strongly agree "That's a rea lly good ide a.........Tell your pr ofessor he's on to something." 84 Ironwork agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 85 Flooring & Tile agree "Yeah that would b e handy." 86 Concre te agree "Yeah, that would be very handy if you had something like this all in one box." RE: daily reports: "Yeah, I think that' d be a lot ea sier, a lot f aster. 87 Sitework disagree "No, I wouldn't go for that. It' d just be too much to carry around." 88 Roofing no opinion says it wo uld be n ice i n an eme rge ncy s itua tion bu t do esn 't think it'd normally he lp him 89 Roofing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 90 Masonry strongly agree liked i dea of acces sing dra wings on h andheld; also bar c ode reader for materials / time ca rds / tools 91 Ironwork agree "I agree it woul d help. I doubt it would be a hindrance ............Problem is, wh en the engine er gets this information, he throws it over there on the side of his desk and won't look at it for t wo weeks. And that puts our material ano ther two wee ks behind. It a ll falls back to human err or." 92 Concre te agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable)

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213 Table 18–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 93 Electrical strongly agree "I think it'd help m e do my jo b. And an ytime that you go t a tool tha t's g onna help y ou to get t he job done fa ster, or better, or s afer, then hell, you' re all for it. I' d strongly ag ree. Most foreman – man, they'll be all day long wit h paperwork, this, that, you know. Anything that' s time saving is a grand help to a fore man." 94 Plumbing strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 95 Electrical agree "I thin k that w ould be product ive." .... RE:use: Most ly for recording data, because the better you document the job, thebetter you ar e through the process o f the job and at the end." 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree "Yeah that'd be a grea t help. Grea t help." 97 Ironwork strongly agree "Yeah, I definit ely thin k that could be benef icial." likes idea of t ransmit ting s ketch or pi cture t o get cla rifi cation 98 Plumbing agree "That'd b e beneficial, yea h." 99 Roofing strongly agree "Yeah, that would be most defini tely u seful. A lot of questions you have, you talk about it over the phone, but you're not really se eing what the o ther person 's actually saying, or the o ther person don't see what yo u're trying to explain to him. So, yeah, that would be helpful to send the pictu re to h im and t hen tr y to ex plain it at the sa me time... ..... ..... When I get off work, I got to drive t o the office and coordinate with him (his boss) about a problem that I've got out here so I can have it solved for the f ollowing day...........I'll sketch out som ething and tak e it and show him what's on the dra wing, and m y sketch, and w e try to work it from that." (He thinks he coul d use handheld to have that discussion fo rm the field, witho ut having to d rive back to the office.) 100 Electrical agree "They'd b e useful, but I wo uldn't buy one, I p robably wouldn't use it, and I don't think you'd e ver get my bo ss to buy one........ .It would be useful, but t he problem is that on a job like this, it woul dn't be necessar y. On a big big, job, yeah. But this jo b here, you c an take care of it very easily just by carrying a notepad with you." 101 Drywall/Pla ster/M tl Framing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing disagree says it' s not practic al 103 Ironwork agree said it would be good for large jobs but not for small job s; liked the idea of sketching so mething and faxing it 104 Plumbing no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 105 Flooring & Tile strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 106 Sitework strongly agree especially good for earthmoving work 107 Masonry agree mainly for lar ge jobs

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214 Table 18–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 108 Concre te strongly agree "That w ould be a mazing. It wo uld definitely be a benefit to the field.... ..That would be great. I wouldn't have to go to t he office and trac k someb ody dow n to explain so mething to me." (thou ght daily repo rting feature wo uld really help h im ) 109 Plumbing strongly agree really liked idea of voice recognit ion, daily reporting, Internet acce ss for order ing materials "I 'll go for this modern techn ology. I like i t. It makes my job a lot eas ier." but thinks the o lder guys will resist it 110 Electrical agree "It would h elp in certain c ases, but very ra rely." 111 Concre te strongly agree liked idea o f accessing pla ns on hand held 112 Carpentry disagree "I d on't thin k it'd help that muc h in t he fi eld I me an, I don 't think i t'd make any kin d of drast ic diff erence, e xcept maybe mak e yo u a li ttle b it laz ier t han you wer e 'ca use you did n't have to walk to the office.. .. What I do is pretty much the hands on phy sical pa rt of t he deal, not the pol itica l part, you know." 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree "That'd c ome in han dy on the jo b, I reckon ." liked daily log feature & ability t o store infor mation; say s if it worked good, he would strongl y agree 114 HVAC agree "That so unds pretty ne at." 115 Ironwork strongly agree "That'd b e tremend ous. Tha t would be a tremend ous help in our fie ld... .... .... I hope i t works. Remember us, that y ou took the surv ey, and if it come s out, and so mebod y makes it, let us be the fi rst ones to try it.. ... I think i t's g onna be a good deal." (N ote: He cu rrently uses and really likes the Pa lm Pilot.) 116 Masonry agree "Yeah, that 's pret ty neat ." (thi nks the g eneral f oreman or superintendent would have more use f or device ) 117 Electrical agree "I'd say probably mor e towards t he superi ntendent would be the person who'd use it more probably. I mean even thoughit' s [call ed] 'f oreman,' it' s glori fied la bor.... .It' s more hands on." 118 Fire Sprinklers agree "It probabl y would, if th ey spent the ti me to teach me how to use it, and sen t me to class so I could ma ke use of it." 119 HVAC strongly agree "Yeah, you could keep your guys working while you're working on a problem ." 120 Ironwork strongly agree "Yeah, I'm sure it would. Actually it'd probably end up bei ng q uite han dy. Y ou g ot so met hing som ethi ng th at ai n't coming together quite right, y ou could fax that over to the iron comp any, and hav e an answer instead of waiting to have a rep resentative co me out there you know, the ir trouble s hooters. Sure, t hat'd be pretty handy. That 'd be pretty cool." 121 Sitework strongly agree "Yeah that'd be real help ful. That wou ld be real he lpful."

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215 No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 1 Concre te no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 2 Concre te no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 3 N/A N/A (this sur vey not used si nce incomplete) 4 Electrical no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 5 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 6 Flooring & Tile no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 7 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 8 Concre te no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 9 Electrical no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 10 Electrical no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 11 Flooring & Tile no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 12 Carpentry no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 13 Carpentry no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 14 HVAC and Plumbing no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 15 Electrical no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 16 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 17 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 18 Ironwork no opinion "Possibly. The only way I could giv e you an honest ans wer is once I'm in the middle of usi ng it. 'Cause the way things wor k no w – t hey'v e wo rke d th is wa y for a lo ng ti me. But I'm pretty open -minded." 19 Ironwork no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 20 Ironwork no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 21 Flooring & Tile strongly agree "That would be great, def initely And for my boss, even more so. If he coul d access that k ind of infor mation, that would be unbelievab le. Instead of m e trying to relay it to him verbally or through a fax, you know. It would be very helpful to be able t o have an acc urate s ource of i nformati on about durations of other trades' work and when they weregoing to be done." 22 Concre te no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 23 Special Finis hes no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 24 Special Finis hes strongly agree "If the project manage r is having a meeting and he has a question for the foreman i n the fi eld, th e foreman c ould, with the came ra deal, actua lly show him wh at's going on in the field, during th e meeting, so they know wh ere the delays are, where th e delays can be st opped, and production moved up. I wish I had invented this!" 25 Misc Specialties no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 26 Electrical strongly agree "Oh, yeah – that would be cool." 27 Misc Specialties no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) Table 19 Foremen’s Respons es Regarding the U sefulness of a Ha ndheld Computer/Communication Device Specifically for Scheduling and Coordination Purposes

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216 Table 19–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 28 Electrical strongly agree "Yeah, that' d be great. Press a button, the re's th e schedule. Yeah." 29 HVAC and Plumbing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 30 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree "The computer is only as good as the information that's put in. I need to t alk with t he other trades in the fi eld, and see what's going on They'd waste more time tryin g to upda te that thing." 31 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree "Yeah that way I could add to or delete from the priority list we use for up coming wo rk to do." 32 Electrical agree "Maybe at the beginning of the job, for the first half of the job" (sa ys too many d ay to day cha nges after that) 33 Misc Specialties agree "Proje ct schedules that would b e helpful too ." 34 Special Finis hes strongly agree says y ou can't really know a sit uation u ntil y ou see it for real; (Note: In a followup conversation wit h his boss, the project coordinator, his boss thoug ht project Web sites would be a gr eat idea, but only for the younger g enerati on of guys that have compute r skills .) 35 HVAC and Plumbing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 36 HVAC and Plumbing agree "It'd be nice if it had a printer in it so you could print it out and hand it to t he guy in th e field and say "Here's th e new schedule." 37 Plumbing no opinion "It's a neat idea, b ut the bad thing about it is that I'd hav e to spend the tim e out of my d ay to enter in the info rmation into it." 38 Misc Specialties agree "Oh, yeah – you could just keep your schedule on there and update in e very day." 39 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree "Yes, that would also help. It would really depend on the job that you 're on how m uch this would be useful. It wou ld be useful probably on this project, because of thecomplexit y and the size of it. A l ot of our r egular j obs, no, that wouldn't be useful." 40 Electrical no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 41 Concre te no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 42 Electrical no opinion "It might, I do n't know." 43 Concre te no opinion doesn't know 44 Carpentry strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 45 Ironwork strongly agree "Sure. If the m ain contrac tor had this, & I had this, & everybod y had this, that wo uld work re al good." 46 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no opinion "Yeah, it probably would. Not so much on my end, though. Proba bly for the GC it would." 47 Fire Sprinklers disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 48 Electrical disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable)

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217 Table 19–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 49 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree "Only if ever ybody had access to it and everybod y would just fill in their informati on and then you knew where everybody w as, the n yeah, that wou ld be great ."... .... "You could just come in in the morning and download everything, get a hard co py of everything That wou ld be great." 50 N/A N/A (this survey not us ed since fore man definitio n not met) 51 HVAC and Plumbing strongly agree "Yeah if everybod y had one o f those, then you could probab ly go from ther e.....That'd be ideal. I think it wou ld help." 52 Concre te agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 53 Painting agree "Yeah if you could link th e different trad es, and if you're all working on the same software, as soon as some things st art overlapp ing, at least I know that I've got electricia ns in this building, and they know that w e're gonna b e here, and if there' s somethi ng that 's got ta be deal t with we shoul d know that in advanc e." 54 Painting strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 55 Ironwork disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 56 HVAC and Plumbing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 57 Electrical agree "Yeah, if you coul d get everybody to pun ch in updated information on it. Yeah, that' s the hardest part." RE: using it: "Yeah, I would, because then you don't have to t rack a guy down." 58 Fire Sprinklers agree "If I was on a different si te, that would be very helpful. It comes b ack to, are the y telling the truth?" (would help to know wha t's going on at a d ifferent site; only wou ld work if accura te in fo was put in to sys tem) 59 Fire Sprinklers disagree said that for scheduling, the superintendent would be the better person to use this technology 60 Carpentry strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 61 Concre te strongly agree "It would be better [than con vention al methods ]. It w ould be more helpful. I'd be losi ng time going back to the offi ce trying to find out what 's going on. If I' ve got a computer like this here, I' d just look it up in here, and I could fi nd out exactly what's goin g on....It would be helpful." 62 Electrical strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 63 HVAC and Plumbing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 64 Carpentry agree "That would help a lot better, ye ah, to coordinat e and see what they (othe r trades) are doing."

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218 Table 19–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 65 Roofing strongly agree "Oh, that would help tremendously, yeah. Check it at t he end of the day, try to fi nd out where you ought to go tom orr ow, wha t's re ady on th e bu ildi ng, i f the bui ldin g's even frame d. You k now how many times the y've sent me to a job and t he f reak in' buil ding wasn 't even buil t ye t? Oh yeah, i t happens. .... .Yeah, t hat woul d work out pr etty g ood. As long as-a human being still has to stick to it. I mean, you can put anyt hing you want into this but if t he man doesn't hold his word and actually come over and performthe work..." 66 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 67 Masonry strongly agree "Sure, t hat'd be real he lpful. (especia lly t o verif y if a job was ready to go to, and to update sch edule durin g the job)... "I think it would definitely impro ve our system ." 68 Misc Specialties strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 69 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 70 Fire Sprinklers strongly agree "Oh, yeah that'd be a grea t idea." 71 Special Finis hes no opinion (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 72 Ironwork strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 73 Masonry agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 74 Sitework agree "Yeah that would he lp." 75 Carpentry strongly agree "Oh, yeah that would d efinitely be helpfu l." 76 Concre te disagree says it proba bly wouldn 't help 77 HVAC and Plumbing disagree thinks hi s superinte ndent would have more us e for it t han him 78 Roofing disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 79 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing no opinion "Yeah, it probably wou ld help, but basi cally you'r e not going to get a lot of work done if you' re carrying that thi ng around." 80 Carpentry strongly agree "That'd be i deal.. .... .... I believ e it woul d help, defini tely. .... .... The more inf ormation y ou can get on hand, like s o, the f aster y ou're g oing to be a ble to do you 're job and the be tter you're going to be able to d o it." 81 Concre te agree "Yeah, it'd be good, it'd be less t ime for the superintendent to have to co me out to the job..." 82 Concre te strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 83 Painting strongly agree "Yeah, that'd be great to have something in here (i ndicating handheld device) wi thout having to walk around and l ook at every lit tle thi ng. If somebody jus t plugs in here when they're done w ith something, the n you know who's next in line, cause the schedul e tells y ou. Oh yeah, that 's a great idea."

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219 Table 19–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 84 Ironwork agree says it probably would be helpful 85 Flooring & Tile agree "That'd be cool. Yeah, that would be real good, then I wouldn't have to go over there and lo ok at it...... It proba bly would help." (but says it would st ill be essential to have the coordination meetings ) 86 Concre te strongly agree "That w ould be v ery helpful." 87 Sitework disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 88 Roofing disagree says not useful for hi s position, but thinks it would be useful for the genera l foreman 89 Roofing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 90 Masonry agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 91 Ironwork no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 92 Concre te agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 93 Electrical strongly agree "It'd h elp the f oreman in t he fiel d, for s ure. You know, on his particular job.... Once the foreman got used to using it, he probably couldn't do without it. As f ar as scheduling, and seeing where y ou're at, sure. Especial ly if t hey had a Web site wher e you cou ld be at home and pu nch up on your PC, you know, you could be 100 miles away, and punch up andsee what' s going on Defini tely, defini tely. That'd [ also] be really good for a project manager that's got 6 or 7 jobs going at once." 94 Plumbing disagree says coord ination has to b e done talk ing face to face with the other trades, as in coordination meeti ngs 95 Electrical strongly agree "That would be great. I think tha t would be a lot bet ter than the coordi nation me etings because it woul d be documented. Because talk is somewhat tentative, you know, but black and white is black and white. The only downfall is that the info rma tion 's on ly go ing t o be as ac cur ate a s the dat a tha t's input." (Duri ng followup dis cussion, he t hought maybe a combination of coordination meetings and using thehandhelds would be best, such as having the result s of the meetings po sted on a p roject W eb site.) 96 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing strongly agree "Yeah that would b e real nice. T o be able to view it immediat ely, i nstead of having t o wait. 97 Ironwork agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 98 Plumbing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 99 Roofing strongly agree "Yeah it'd be most usefu l for that." 100 Electrical no data (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 101 Drywall / Plaster / Mtl Framing agree more efficien t than conve ntional system; he lpful to coordinate wit h other trades (i.e., project schedule database) 102 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing disagree says peopl e would not enter ac curate i nformati on 103 Ironwork agree said it would be good f or large jobs but not for smal l jobs 104 Plumbing no opinion thought would be benef icial wi th a large cr ew

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220 Table 19–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 105 Flooring & Tile strongly agree "Yeah, that'd be great. Like other jobs that ar e coming up after t his one, I'd be abl e to check a nd see if they' re on schedule." 106 Sitework strongly agree "That'd be nice. That way you could schedule your work a lot better. Not like here, where everybody' s tripping ove r each other I thi nk it' d be a good idea, especial ly for scheduling." 107 Masonry agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 108 Concre te strongly agree "I think th at would be neat. That would be cool... .. That way I could ma ke better pla ns for my crew ." 109 Plumbing strongly agree "That w ould work great for me." 110 Electrical disagree says they already know scheduling i nfo from the coordination meeti ng; thought it would be hel pful for an inexperienced f oreman 111 Concre te strongly agree "Yeah, put the schedule on it. If I' m out there and I have questions about the schedule, I've got t o come all the way back up here to get i t. That wou ld be nice .... .... ...That 'd be perfect." 112 Carpentry disagree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 113 Drywall / Plaster / Metal Framing agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 114 HVAC agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 115 Ironwork strongly agree "A lot of thes e sites that we've be en on, they hav e daily updates on the job progress and you can pull them up on theinternet and se e how the jo b's going." (d iscussed use o f this system on B aker M elon's V.A. O utpatient Clinic in Rockledge/ Cocoa Beach; he a ccessed t his in fo on-l ine fr om his home) RE: coordination meetings: "Paperwork,paperwork, pa perwork. Yo u know what I'm saying? I just came from another job, and in my brief case, I had tha t much (indicati ng several i nches) paperwork. And y ou know what it was? Schedules, all the schedules. It was unrea l. That's a lot of trees to d ie, you know ? And it wa s nonbene ficial. I went to the meet ing, we went through it and then it was done and it went into the brie fcase. The re's a lot of stuff to building a job l ike this. There's a lot of informati on there. Every week there's a stack of paper 10, 12, 15 pages thick, you know, on a job this size, because there is a lot of things, and there's a lot of thi ngs you have to s chedule." RE: bett er to have on handheld computer?: "Oh, yeah. Something Icould carry on my s ide like t his phone, and al l that informat ion be handed down, and I c ould do that kind of work with it Oh, yeah. No doubt. Sur e, I could walk over to him (pointing to pipefitt er) and say, 'look, I see her e where you're gonna have that pipe there by such and such adate, but I gotta get in t here and put that beam in there bef ore you get t he p ipe in th ere ,' you kno w. I m ean that 's something you could look at right here. I mean, I don' t have to go to the tra iler, I could loo k and see the y're gonna bu ild

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221 Table 19–continued No. Trade Response Detailed Respo nse 115 (contin ued) walls in t here on such and such a date. I need t o get that beam in the re. Espec ially if it can be upd ated, I mea n, if changes or whatever can be done on i t, li ke a dail y thin g or whenever they get to it, they cou ld go right in and change it, and whenever it g ets through i t gets th rough, you know. Yeah, I think that would b e totally beneficia l. [But] everybod y that's involved in the job shou ld have acc ess to that Web site. If one guy doesn't do it, then it's r eally no goo d. It 's eit her an a ll tea m th ing o r it's n oth ing. I thin k it'd be totally the wa y to go. Som ething like that you could clip on your side Something that has a goo d battery in it." 116 Masonry agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 117 Electrical agree "Yeah that would he lp." 118 Fire Sprinklers agree "It would b e beneficial." 119 HVAC strongly agree (not provided, not available, or not applicable) 120 Ironwork disagree "We don't really have anything to do with that Usually the GC does all t hat, y ou know. I don 't re ally c ome into pl ay on anything like that ....... ..... Well see, wit h iron, a lot of your trades are held up anyway until we' re out of there. [Then] we're done a nyway, so we re ally don't deal m uch with it." 121 Sitework strongly agree "Oh, it'd be hel pful. That' d be real helpful That way everybody' s not tr ipping ove r each oth er. They ca n look ahead an d see what's go nna be hap pening."

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222 APPENDIX C AS-BUILT PROJECT DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM This appendix provides additional information regarding app l ications for stereo imaging technology, as proposed in the Further Research section of Chapter 4. Background Data management functions have become increasingly important in the construction industry. The advent of computerization has given constru ction m anagers some degree of control over data management, but the press ing demands of res ponsibility for the o verall direction of the work leave little time to ensure the completeness and accuracy of voluminous data management and paperwork. A need exists for a more efficien t system. Construction supervisors are inundated by pa per work and data management responsibilities on the job site. Construction f ield operations a re typically docu mented via a paper forms system. Records such as job costs, time sheets, and related accounting data are transferred to office person nel who input data into electronic f ormat. Other records, such as daily logs and safety inspectio n results, are nor mally maintained on ly in a static handwritten paper format. Field record keeping is often inefficient and inaccurate. The purpose of the As-Built Project Documentation System described here in is to automate the control of documentation

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223 throughout the construction p rocess. This syste m is specifically d esigned to work in conjunction with a handheld digital communica tor e quipped with a stereo pair of cameras (e.g., Gator Communicator). Description of System The As-Built Project Documentation System (see Figure 63) enables automation of field data management funct io ns in the construction industry and other industries which install p hysical work in pla ce (e.g., utilitie s). The system utiliz es stereo digital i mages to capture as-built project data. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is used to provide a reference position for the captured data. This as -built data can be plotted in threedimensional space via s tereo imagin g algorithms. Once as-built data is plotted, it can be juxtaposed with as-planned d ata. With the GPS position, along with as-planned and as-built data in compatible CAD f ormats, as-built da ta can be automat ically compared with asplanned data. Quantification of work in place c an be automatica lly generated fr om this aspl anned versus as-built c omparison. This wor k-in-place data then enables auto matic processing and output of multiple types of project controls data (e.g., scheduling, estimating, accounting). As shown in the flowchart (see Figure 63), a digital stereo camera is used to capture a Smart As-Built Image of a project under construction The as -built data in the “ smart” image can be plotted in three-dimensional space via stereo imaging algorithms. Similarly, the 3-D As-Planned Image in the CAD file can be plotted. Next, the As-Planned vs. As-Built Image Analyzer Program enables for position matching a nd attribute data conversion. Thes e

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224 Figure 63 As-Built Project Documentation System functions utilize the GPS infor mation gathered w ith the handheld data collector, and enable the as-built data-capture position to be located on the correlating as-planned CAD image The As-Planned vs. As-Built Image Analyzer Program then compares the as-planned and a sbuilt images and outputs the as-built progress data (quantification of work in place).

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225 Next, the Da ta Integration Program enables for Project Controls Data (e.g., scheduling, estimating, and accounting) to be compared with the As-Built Progress Data. Once the Project Control s Data and As-Built P rogress Data are compared, Information Output is given in the form desired. For example, scheduling data would include information such as date, item of work, percent complete, and other related data.

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226 REFERENCES Abou-Zeid, Azza and Russell, J effrey S. “Using Data Flow Diagrams to Study Communication Process Between Constructi on Pr oject Participants.” Proceedings of th e 5 th International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Anaheim, CA, 1993, pp. 245-254. Abudayyeh, Osama Y. and and Rasdorf, William J. “Integrated Cost and Schedule Control Automation.” Proceedings of Construction Co ngress 1991 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Cambridge, MA, April 13-16, 1991, pp. 679-686. Agresti, Alan and Finlay, Barbara. Statistical Methods for the Soc ial S ciences (2 nd ed.). Dellen, San Francisco, CA, 1986. Alexander, John F., Coble, Richard J., and Elliott, Brent R. “Hand-Held Communication for Construction Supervision.” Managing Engi neered Construction i n Expanding Globa l Markets: Construction Congres s V: Proceedings of the Congress American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Minneapolis, MN, Oct. 4-8, 1997, pp. 972-979. Alexander, John F. “Gator Communicator: Design of a Hand Held Digital Mapper.” Computing in Civil Engineering, Proceedings of the Third Congress, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Anaheim, CA, June 17-19, 1996, pp. 1052-1057. Andrews, Dave. “Simon Says: Communicate.” Byte February, 1994 [Online Seria l]. URL http://www.byte.c om/art/9402/sec3 /art5.htm Arnold, James Andrew and Teicho lz, Paul. “Data Exchange: File Transfer, Transaction Processing and Application Interoperability.” Computing in Civil Engine eri ng, Proceedings of the Third Congre ss, Ame rican Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Anaheim, CA, June 17-19, 1996, pp. 438-444. Babbie, Earl. Survey Research Methods (2 nd ed.). Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1990. Barnes, Wilson C. “Microcomputer s in Management of Construction Operations.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management Americ an Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 119, No. 2, 1993, pp. 403-412.

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227 Bell, Lansford C. and Gibson, George E. Da ta Integration Strategies in Construction Construction Industry Institute (CII), Source Document 57, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, September 1990. Birrell, George S., Con struction Scheduli ng Factors, Emphase s, Impediments, a nd Proble m s as Seen by Construction Exp erts M.E. Rinker, Sr., School of Building Construction, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1989. Boles, Walter W., Emsoff, J acki e E., and Anderson, Stewart D. “Scheduling FunctionForeman Interface on Paper Mill Maintenance Projects.” Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Blackwell, Malden, MA, 1998, pp.131-141. Borcherding, John D. “An Exploratory Study of Attitudes that Aff ect Human Resourc es in Building and Industrial Construc ti on.” Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 1972. Borcherding, John D. “Participative Decision Making in Construction.” Journal of the Construction Division American Socie ty of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 103, No. C04, December 1977, pp. 567-575. Borcherding, John D. and Garne r, Douglas F. “Work Force Motivation and Productivity on Large Jobs.” Journal of the Construction Division American Societ y of C ivil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 107, No. C03, September 1981, pp. 443-453. Borcherding, John D. and Oglesby, Clar kson H. “ Job Dissatisfactions in Construction Work.” Journal of the Construction Division American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 101, No. C02, June 1975, pp. 415-435. Bradicich, Thomas M., “An Approach for Red ucing Geographic Barriers in the Access of Healthcare Servic es: An Application of Location and Time Independent Technology.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1996. Cahoon, Tommy A. “A Guide to the Implementation of Techno logy in the Construction Industry.” Construction Congres s: Proceedings of the 1995 Conference American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), San Diego, CA, October 22-26, 1995, pp. 25-32. Coble, Richard J. “Bringing the Construction Foreman into the Computer Age.” Computing in Civil Engineering: Proc eedings of the First Congress American Socie ty of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Washington, D.C., June 20-22, 1994, pp. 1446-1453. De la Garza, Jesus and Howitt, Ivan. Wireless Communic ation and Computing at the Construction Jobsite Construction Industry Institute (CII), Research Report 136-11, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, June, 1997.

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228 Fletcher, Leonard. “A n I nformation System for the Construction Industry of the United Kingdom.” Proceedings of the First I nterna tional Congress on Construction Communications Rotterdam, The Netherlands, September 24-28, 1972, pp. 93-118. Garcia, Sandra A. “Planni ng & Communication in Construction: Impacts on Performance.” Master’s thesis, University of New Mexico, 1997. Helmer, Olaf. Looking Forward: A Guide to Futures Research Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, 1983. Hinze, Jimmie. Construction Planning and Scheduling Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. Hinze, Jimmie and Kuechenmeister, Ken. “Productive Foremen Characteristics.” Journal of the Construction Division American Socie ty of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 107, No. C04, December 1981, pp. 627-639. Kartam, Nabil. “Integra ting Constructio n Saf ety and Health Performance into CPM.” Construction Congress: Proceedings of the 1995 Conference American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), San Diego, CA, October 22-26, 1995, pp. 456-462. Liu, L.Y. “Construction Field Data Collect ion U sing the ‘Digital Hardhat.’” Managing Engineered Construction in Expanding Global M arkets: Construction Congress V: Proceedings of the Congress American Soci ety of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Minneapolis, MN, October 4-8, 1997, pp. 399-404. McCullouch, Bob G. “Automated Construction Dat a Management System.” Final Report to the Indiana Joint Highway Research Proj ect Joint Highway Rese arch Project, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 1991a. McCu llouc h, Bob G. “Radio Frequency Data Communication Applications in the Construction Industry.” Proceedings of Construction Cong ress 1991 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Cambridge, MA, April 13-16, 1991b, pp. 670678. McCullouch, Bob G. and Gunn, Pau l. “Construction Fie ld Data Acquisition with Pen-Based Computers.” Journa l o f Construction Engineering and Management American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 119, No. 2, June, 1993. Meyer, H W. Guy and Russell, Jeffrey S. “Electronic Communication Between Project Participants.” Proceedings of Construction Congress 1991 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Cambridge, MA, April 13-16, 1991, pp. 620-625.

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229 Oglesby, Clarkson H., Parker, Henry W., and Howell, Gregory A. Productivity Improvement in Construction McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989. Olson, R. Court. “Planning, Scheduling, and Communicat ing Effects on Crew Productivity.” Journal of the Construction Division American Socie ty of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 108, No. C01, March, 1982, pp. 121-127. O’Mall ey, Ch ris. “Simonizing the PDA.” Byte December, 199 4 [Online Serial] URL http://www.byte.c om/art/9412/sec1 1/art3.htm Pan, Nai-Hsin. “Automatic Data Processing Technologies and Industry-Wide Information Transfer Standards in the Construction Industry.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of New York, Buffalo, 1996. P arfitt, M. K., Syal, M. G., Khalvati, M., and Bhatia, S. “Computer-Integrated Design Drawings and Const ruction Pr oject Plans.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 119, No. 4, 1993, pp.729-742. Parker, Henry W. “Communication: Key to Pr oductive Construction.” Issues in Engineering–Journal of P rofessional Activities Proceedings of the Amer ican Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 106, No. 3, July, 1980, pp. 173-180. Rojas, Eddy M. and Songer, Anthony D. “Interface Design for Pen-based Computers in the FIRS Project.” Computing in Civil Engineering, Proceedings of the Third Congre ss, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Anaheim, CA, June 17-19, 1996, pp. 1027-1033. Russ ell, Alan D. “Computerized D aily Site Reporting.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management American Socie ty of Ci v il Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 119, No. 2, 1993, pp.385-402. Sa aty, Thomas L. and Vargas, Luis G. The Logic of Priorities: Applications in Business Energy, Health, and Transportation Kluwer-Nijhoff, Boston, MA, 1982. Samelson, Nancy Morse. The Effect of Foremen on Safety in Construction Technical Report No. 219, Stanford Univ ersity Departme nt of Civil Engineering, Stanford, CA, June 1977. Shohet, I. M. and Laufer, A. “What Does the Construction Foreman Do?” Construction Management and Economics E. & F. Spon, Vol. 9, 1991, pp. 565-576.

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230 Skibniewski, Miroslaw. “ Fr amework for Dec ision-Making on Imp lementing Robotics i n Construction.” Journal of Construction Engineering an d Management American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 2, No. 2, April, 1988, pp. 577-593. SPSS Base 9.0: Applications Guide SPSS, Chicago, IL, 1999. Stukhart, George. Construction Materials Management Dekker, New York, 1995. Stukhart, George and Berry, William David. Evaluation of Voice Recognition Technology Construction Industry Institute (CII), Source Document 76, Texas A&M University, College Station, June 1992. Tatum, C.B., Creger, Willi am F., Myers, Dona ld L., Jr., and Mik, Da vid F. Diving Forces and Capabiliti e s for Projects of the Future Construction Industry Institute (CII), Source Document 65, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, May 1991. Tavakoli, Amir. “Effective Progress Scheduling and Control of Construct ion Pro jects.” Journal of Management in Engineering American Society of Civ il Engineers (ASCE), Vol. 6, No. 1, January, 1990, pp. 87-98. Tidwel l, M ike C. Microcomputer Ap plications for Field C onstruction Projec ts McGrawHill, New York, 1992.

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231 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brent R. Elliott was born in Y oun gstown, Ohio. His father operated his own cons truction business, working in the residential and light commercial building sectors. Wit h construction work sluggish in Ohio and booming in Florida, Mr. ElliottÂ’s family moved to Naples, Florida, when he was twelve years old. After working in construction with his father throughout high school and during summer breaks from college, he deci ded to pursue a career in the construction industry. He completed his Bachelor of Science degree in building construction at the University of Florida in May 1991. After working in commercial construction performing estimating, scheduling, supervision, and project management until 19 94, he returned to the University of Florida to pursue a master's degree in bu ildin g construction. Mr. Elliott studied for his masterÂ’s degree while working as a graduate research and teaching assistant, and he completed the M.S.B.C. degree in 1995. He t hen b egan the P h.D. pr ogram at the Unive rsity of FloridaÂ’s C ollege of Archite cture, speciali zing in management of construction in formation techno logy. While pursuin g his Ph.D., Mr. Elliot t worked as a consultant with a local construction consulting firm, and also taught classes and as sis ted with funded research projects in the M.E. Rinker, Sr., School of Building Construction.

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I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it co nforms to accept able standa rds of scholarly pre sentation and is fu lly adequate, in sc ope and quality, a s a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. John F. Alexander Chair Professor of Urban and Regional Planning I certify that I have read this study and that in my op inion it conforms to a cceptable standards of schol arly presentation and is fully adequate in scope and qual ity, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Jimmie Hinze, Coch air Professor of Building Construction I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it confor ms to acceptable s tandards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Ronald L. Akers Professor of Sociology I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Pierce Jones Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and qua lity, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Leon Wetherington Lecturer in Building Construction

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T his disse rtation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Architecture and to the Graduate School and was accept ed as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. May 2000 Dean, College of Architecture Dean, Graduate School


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