Title: Creative strategies in El nuevo herald
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Title: Creative strategies in El nuevo herald comparisons of advertising executions 1996 and 1998
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Ravalo, Bethel Ann
Publisher: State University System of Florida
Place of Publication: <Florida>
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Publication Date: 1999
Copyright Date: 1999
 Subjects
Subject: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Mass Communication -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Summary: ABSTRACT: The Hispanic population in Miami is recognized as one of the largest in the United States. Furthermore, El Nuevo Herald, the largest Spanish language newspaper is established in Miami. In 1998, the newspaper is organizing itself as a separate business unit from The Miami Herald. This study was designed to explore and describe the advertising in El Nuevo Herald through a content analysis of Spanish and English language in body copy, headline and subheadline; the use of Web/Email address and product type. It will also implement the Laskey, Day and Crask creative typologies Informational and Transformational and their subcategories. The creative typologies were derived from studies by Puto and Wells. The use of advertising layouts will also be coded. The content analysis will take into consideration the segmentation periods of 1998 (Post) and 1996 (Pre). Review of related literature yielded six research questions and nine hypotheses. Frequencies, Cross-tabulations, Paired Sample T-Test and Pearson's Chi Square were used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between advertising layouts and creative typologies within the segmentation periods. There also are some significant relationships between creative typologies and design elements including the increased use of Spanish language words in the body copy.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 1999.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 70-78).
System Details: System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
System Details: Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility: by Bethel Ann Ravalo.
General Note: Title from first page of PDF file.
General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains vi, 79 p.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100663
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 45296420
alephbibnum - 002456723
notis - AMG2054

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CREATIVE STRATEGIES IN EL NUEVO HERALD:
COMPARISONS OF ADVERTISING EXECUTIONS 1996 AND 1998













By

BETHEL ANN RAVALO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1999
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Teamwork and guidance were key in the completion of

this thesis and investigation. To Dr. Marilyn Roberts, Dr.

John Sutherland and Dr. Gail Baker, the members of my

committee, thanks for the support, dedication and comments.

Dr. Baker's observations and support are greatly

appreciated. Dr. Sutherland's suggestions on advertisement

layouts and statistical knowledge were invaluable for the

investigation. Dr. Roberts, brings a new dimension to the

role of chair and advisor as a knowledgeable academic guide,

my advocate and friend.

To the faculty of College of Journalism and

Communications especially the Department of Advertising, I

appreciate all the help given.

I would like to extend my gratitude to the Miami Herald

and El Nuevo Herald for their assistance, especially to

their Marketing Manager, Miguel Pereira, for sharing time

and information.

To family and friends, for sharing this journey in

Higher Education, I am so grateful.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS
page



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................ ii


ABSTRACT ..................................................v

1 INTRODUCTION .............................................. 1


2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..................
Knight Ridder.........................
Miami Herald .......................
El Nuevo Herald ....................
Miami: The City.......................
Miami: Hispanic Population ..............
Hispanic Population and El Nuevo Herald.
Advertising Research ....................
Hispanic/Latino Research ...........
Spanish Language ...................
Creative Typologies ................
Creative Typologies and Products ...
Advertising Layouts ................
Advertising Creative Strategies and
Web Advertising ....................
Newspaper Studies .......................
Newspaper Advertising Bureau .......
Resulting Hypothesis ....................
Research Questions ......................


..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
Hispanics
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........


3 RESEARCH DESIGN .......
Operational Definitions ..
Sample ...................
Coding Procedure .........
Statistical Analysis .....


4 RESULTS .........................................
Additional Tests and Analysis ................


....... 39
....... 44


II I










5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ............................58
Premises for the Study .............................. 59
Discussion of Research Questions .................... 60
Limitations ........................................... 66
Implications for Future Research .................... 67

REFERENCES .................................................. 70

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...................................... 79
















Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
Master of Arts in Mass Communication

CREATIVE STRATEGIES IN EL NUEVO HERALD
COMPARISONS OF ADVERTISING EXECUTIONS 1996 AND 1998

By

Bethel Ann Ravalo

May, 1999

Chairman: Dr. Marilyn Roberts
Major Department: Mass Communication

The Hispanic population in Miami is recognized as one

of the largest in the United States. Furthermore, El Nuevo

Herald, the largest Spanish language newspaper is

established in Miami. In 1998, the newspaper is organizing

itself as a separate business unit from The Miami Herald.

This study was designed to explore and describe the

advertising in El Nuevo Herald through a content analysis of

Spanish and English language in body copy, headline and

subheadline; the use of Web/Email address and product type.

It will also implement the Laskey, Day and Crask creative

typologies Informational and Transformational and their

subcategories. The creative typologies were derived from

studies by Puto and Wells.










The use of advertising layouts will also be coded. The

content analysis will take into consideration the

segmentation periods of 1998 (Post) and 1996 (Pre).

Review of related literature yielded six research

questions and nine hypotheses. Frequencies, Cross-

tabulations, Paired Sample T-Test and Pearson's Chi Square

were used to test the hypotheses.

The results indicate that there are significant

relationships between advertising layouts and creative

typologies within the segmentation periods. There also are

some significant relationships between creative typologies

and design elements including the increased use of Spanish

language words in the body copy.
















INTRODUCTION


There is a growing Hispanic/Latino population in the

United States. New projections released by the U.S. Bureau

of the Census show Hispanics replacing Blacks as America's

largest minority by the year 2010 (Metropolitan Dade County

Planning Department, 1994). As the American population

becomes more diverse, and the total percentage of minority

population continues to increase, their importance grows

(Agee, Ault, and Emery, 1997).

With this in mind, advertising and marketing efforts

geared toward this market are taking place. More than any

other ethnic group in America, Hispanics have an impressive

media system, an avenue through which the target audience

can be reached effectively and efficiently (Baker, 1995). A

case in point is the newspaper The Miami Herald and its

Spanish counterpart El Nuevo Herald. In 1998, during the

first week of January, El Nuevo Herald would not be

folded inside editions of 'The Herald.' Instead the

newspaper would be sold as a stand-alone product at

newsstands and retail outlets in Miami-Dade and Broward

counties. As of April, El Nuevo Herald began selling

separate home-delivered subscriptions (Arrarte, 1997).













This unique case provides an opportunity to study

segmentation strategies for the Hispanic/Latino market,

particularly through its language and advertising.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to content analyze

El Nuevo Herald in regards to the type of advertising before

and after its separation as a stand-alone product.

Due to the particular case of the El Nuevo Herald

newspaper, the amount of related information for this

instance is limited. However, there is some information and

the literature review will provide a more in-depth look at

the Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald newspapers, the city of

Miami, Spanish language and advertising research related to

this investigation.

This examination of the existing body of research

serves to identify factors which need more attention, thus,

to justify a content analysis of El Nuevo Herald at the

dawn of its separation from the Miami Herald.

This study will partly replicate investigations on

creative typologies conducted by Anchalee Phataralaoha

(1994) and the Newspaper Advertising Bureau's (1989) study

on advertisement design in newspapers.



















CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

From the initial press pamphlets to the large size

dailies of today, newspapers have been a news source for

many people in the United States. As the medium served to

disseminate information in ever wider circles, newspapers'

initiation created new developments for mass communication.

At present, the medium continues evolving. Changes in

technological, social and economical forces are affecting

the medium.

Research on this medium reflects these changes. From

Internet to cultural influences, the study of newspapers as

a communication's medium is studied within the mass context.

Mass context is defined as the communication which is

mediated by electronic or print media (Infante, Rancer, and

Womack, 1997).

Newspapers' role as a communication's medium reflects

the functions that Lasswell (1948) and Wright (1960)

prescribed: surveillance of the environment, correlation of

the parts of society in responding to the environment,












transmission of the social heritage from one generation to

the next and as entertainment or diversion. Another

function is that of an economic service that allows

corporations to serve the needs of their shareholders by

attracting audiences that will pay for the media product

(Cristal, 1997). These functions have served as a basis for

many hypotheses and theoretical studies for communication

theorists and social scientists. All these theories are

based on an underlying assumption of mass media. Regardless

of which questions the theories address, it appears clear

that the mass media exert a powerful influence on society,

culture and individual behavior (Infante, Rancer, and

Womack, 1997).

Hence, for the study in hand, it is necessary to

examine the mass media in which the content analysis will

take place. This would also include the various factors

surrounding it such as the background on Knight-Ridder -the

newspaper's parent company, the Miami Herald and El Nuevo

Herald newspapers, Miami's Hispanic population and the city

itself. Also, as part of this review, research on the

Hispanic/Latino segment, Spanish language and advertising

will be discussed.










Knight Ridder


The parent company of the Miami Herald and El Nuevo

Herald is Knight Ridder. Knight Ridder is a newspaper

publisher, with products in print and online. The company

publishes 31 daily newspapers in 28 U.S. markets, with a

readership of 9.0 million daily and 12.6 million on Sunday

(Knight Ridder, 1998).

Knight Ridder is involved in several civic projects in

Miami such as the Performing Arts Center and a center court

suite at the new American Airlines Arena (Fields, 1998)

Miami Herald

The Miami Herald is a very important institution in

Miami. The newspaper is the 23rd largest U.S. daily with

351,000 circulation (Miami Herald, 1998). Their circulation

area covers the Dade, Broward and Monroe counties. In Dade

County, the Herald is considered to be a primary component

of the local power structure and in terms of written media,

is the predominant voice (Croucher, 1993).

The newspaper was founded in 1910 by Colonel Frank B.

Shutts at a time when Miami was a dusty little town of some

5,000 (Merril and Fisher, 1980). Knight Ridder purchased the

publication in 1937. The newspaper has garnered Pulitzer

prizes, National Press Photographer's Association Awards,

Overseas Press Club Awards and National Press Club Awards.










In 1998, the newspaper's management has worked on

improving equipment in order to upgrade and redesign the

newspaper for more color, more color positions, new

mastheads on inside section fronts and a new size-scaled

down to 21 inches from 22 (Perucci, 1998). Also, in

August, Alberto Ibarguen was assigned the position of

publisher of Miami Herald. Mr. Ibargten, whose parents were

Cuban and Puerto Rican, became the man holding what is

arguably the most powerful management position achieved by

any U.S. Hispanic journalist to date (Cardwell, 1998).

El Nuevo Herald

In what appears to be unique to Miami, the city's main

newspaper publishes both a Spanish and English version of

the paper on a daily basis (Croucher, 1993). El Herald was

first inserted as a supplement to the Miami Herald in 1977.

In 1987, the newspaper was redesigned, enlarged and renamed

El Nuevo Herald. The newspaper started selling subscriptions

and as a stand-alone product in 1998. As the newspaper's

management explains:

Recognizing the ever changing wants and needs of our
readers, The Miami Herald Publishing Company
will expand its distribution channels for El Nuevo
Herald. First, we will expand the single-copy delivery
of El Nuevo Herald separate from The Miami Herald that
first began in 1997 to a full market rollout. Second,
we will offer home-delivery subscriptions to El Nuevo
Herald separate from The Miami Herald in all of Miami-
Dade County. This will not only meet the needs of a
diverse marketplace that prefers to receive its news
and information in Spanish; it will solidify The Miami
Herald Publishing Company as the premier information










provider in the South Florida marketplace.
Unduplicated circulation and El Nuevo Herald
circulation growth will result in an advertising
revenue opportunity. This will result in advertising
efforts specifically for El Nuevo will gain importance,
because of which a dedicated El Nuevo
sales force will be strengthened". (Miami Herald
Publishing Company, 1997).


El Nuevo Herald is the largest Spanish-language

newspaper in the United States with daily circulation of

more than 103,000 and Sunday circulation of more than

133,000 (El Nuevo Herald, 1998). As the newspaper promotes

and positions itself to the advertiser:

Advertise en espaiol in El Nuevo Herald
and you'll effectively target the Hispanic adults in
Dade County who prefer to read in Spanish (MHPC, page
18).

The newspaper has earned the distinction as the best

Spanish-language newspaper in the U.S. by the National

Association of Hispanic Publications for five consecutive

years (from 1989-1993). What's more, the El Nuevo Herald has

news exchanges with Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia and Buenos

Aires.

Furthermore, El Nuevo Herald often sets the agenda of

what will be reported and what will serve as fodder for the

talk shows and commentaries on the broadcast media (Veciana-

Suarez, 1990). This statement, serves to strengthen the fact

that similar to its English counterpart, El Nuevo Herald's

presence in the community is large.










To further understand El Nuevo Herald's positioning, it

is essential to describe its primary audience: the Hispanic

population in Miami.


Miami: The City


When President Clinton announced Miami as the site for

the "Summit of the Americas" he said the choice was based

on:

The diversity, the dynamism all make Miami an ideal
site for this meeting. Miami's economy is fully
integrated with the economics of Latin America and
the Caribbean (Summitry in the Americas, 1997).

The city's dynamics are palpable in business,

government, and cultural activity. Part of this has to do

with its location.

Often referred to as the "Gateway to the Americas,"

South Florida's strategic location places it at the

crossroads of international trade- particularly between

North and South America (The South Florida Market, 1996).

Kanter (1997) outlines five elements that have made

Miami a trade center of the world:

1. Strong cultural connections to another region of
the world, as a starting point for trade;
2. Events that flip the focus from a domestic-only
economy, stimulating explicit international
strategies;
3. An atmosphere conducive to foreign comfort that
attracts foreign capital;
4. Development of trade skills and infrastructure
through entrepreneurs as well as multinational
companies;
5. Leveraging of trade connections in other countries
(page 286).











Miami: Hispanic Population


The heart that has kept Miami healthy during the past

20 years is a Hispanic one (Florida Insight Guides, 1998).

Miami has been a point of entry for a growing Hispanic

population since the 1950s. This population is predicted to

continue increasing. With an Hispanic population approaching

50 percent (49.3), the Miami metropolitan area (Dade County)

was ranked 8th among all primary statistical metropolitan

areas in 1990 in terms of Hispanic percentage (Metropolitan

Dade County Planning Department, 1994). By 2005, 62% of

Miami-Dade's population will be Hispanic (Strategy Research

Corporation, 1998). As Jennie Enyart, Vice President of

advertising for Miami Herald, indicates: "I think Miami is

the way America will look down the road. It's a wonderfully

diverse market" (Editor and Publisher, 1998). Also, as

Fodors in their book Miami and the Keys (1998) describes:

The language and the Latin influence is everywhere.
Though Cubans make up most of this Spanish speaking
population, there are also significant communities
from Colombia, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto
Rico and Venezuela (page 9).

And as Soruco (1996) further indicates:

The rapid growth of Spanish-language media in the
United States in general and in Miami, in particular,
followed the demographic expansion of Hispanics as much
as it did their ethnic concentration, their consumer
behavior and their perceived use of Spanish-language
mass media (page 35).










Hispanic Population and El Nuevo Herald

Approximately 22%-29% of the DMA Hispanics read El

Nuevo Herald (Miami Herald Publishing Company, 1998).

According to the Metropolitan Dade County Planning

Department (1994), the census data of 1990 for the Hispanic

population of Miami- Dade County was composed primarily of

Cubans (60%), Puerto Ricans (8%), Mexicans (2.4%) and

"other" countries (30.8%). The "other" group consisted of

Spaniards and people from Central and South American

countries. The demographic profile of El Nuevo Herald's

daily readers indicates that 58% are male and 42% are

female. The 35-44 and 65+ years are the largest age

brackets (both with a share of 21% respectively). The

reader's share according to age group explains, in part, the

high readership of the newspaper compared to other like

media as Valdes (1995) explains:



...Hispanics with more formal education, higher incomes
and white collar occupations tend to read more than
those at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale.
For example, according to Standard Rate and Data
Service (1993, 165, 167), Miami's Spanish-language
newspaper El Nuevo Herald has a circulation on Sundays
(126,359) that is about twice the circulation of Los
Angeles' La Opinion (63,382). Yet the size of the
Hispanic population of Miami is about half the size of
Los Angeles'. So why the difference? Cubans are the
Hispanic majority in Miami, they are also relatively
older, and better educated and tend to have higher
incomes than Mexicans, the largest group in Los
Angeles. Thus, Cubans would be more likely than
Mexicans to buy newspapers... (pages 270 and 271).










Pursuing this line of thought, on the reader's profile, the

majority (79%) have had high school education or higher. The

most common occupations are technical/sales/clerical (24%)

followed by service (21%). Seventeen percent are retired

while 25% are not employed. This reflects in the household

income, where a high share of the readers (43%) are earning

less than $25,000. However, the majority are earning

$25,000 or more of which 41% of the readers have annual

incomes above $35,000.

The newspaper has served the demographic profile by

offering a variety of sections for the various segments:

El Nuevo Herald's staff of journalists provides a
complete newspaper for the South Florida community.
Their mission: to inform, interest and inspire; to
create a sense of community; and to be the primary
source of information in Spanish every day. Sections
that captivate readers and bring in advertisers
include: Noticias de Cuba (Cuba News), Opiniones
(Opinion Page), America Latina (Latin American News),
Negocios (Business), Galeria (Living), Deportes
(Sports), Viernes (weekend entertainment tabloid), Vida
Social (Weekly Society Tabloid), Disenando Para Vivir
(Home and Design), Abriendose Camino (New Immigrant
Information) and Clasificados (Classified) (Miami
Herald Publishing Company, 1997).


Research has served to abridge studies between

Hispanic cultures and communication (Woodman, 1993; Soruco,

1996; Subervi-Velez, 1984). Pertinent to this investigation

are studies done on print media, on advertising and the

newspaper itself. Within the newspaper studies an analysis

by the Newspaper Advertising Bureau (NAB) will be covered










and in advertising research the topics of Hispanic/Latino

audience, language, creative typologies, advertising layouts

and use of Web addresses are reviewed.


Advertising Research


Hispanic/Latino Research

Although the Hispanic/Latino segment is on the rise,

studies dedicated to the media and this group are not

extensive. As Soruco (1996) indicates:

Despite keen interest in U.S. Hispanics, the
methodologies to study them have been developed
only recently and there is still much work to be
done. Not only are surveys of special groups
costly and time consuming; they require a
carefully developed research methodology, a
complex sampling plan, an instrument that measures
a population within tolerable limits, and trained
personnel to contact respondents (page 18).

It is expected however that as the Hispanic/Latino

population increases the trend towards more research will

also grow. Roslow and Nicholls (1996) summarizes the

studies on this demographic group as follows:

The Hispanic market in the United States has been
studied from a variety of perspectives, including
consumer behavior and the influence of ethnicity,
acculturation and assimilation. Studies have been
made of Hispanics as a population segment, sui
generis, as well as Hispanics versus non-
Hispanics. A consistent thread of much of this
research is the role of language in Hispanic-
American acculturation; the impact on advertising
effectiveness is explicit in some of the studies,
implicit in others (pages 67-68).










Spanish Language

El Nuevo Herald's language segmentation is divided by

the use of Spanish Influence Groups (SIG). The SIG groups

are divided as follows: Spanish language dependent and

Spanish preferred (56% of the Hispanic population in Dade

County), Hispanics who prefer or are dependent on the

English language (44%) and "Latin American tourists who

prefer or are Spanish dependent, an average of 46,200 in

Dade County during any given week" (Miami Herald Publishing

Company, 1998).

Hispanics often prefer to communicate in Spanish even

as they become Americanized, according to two recently

released studies from DRI/McGraw Hill of Lexington, Mass.,

and Strategy Research of Miami (Fisher, 1994). According to

Strategy Research, there are 1.2 million Hispanics of which

54% depend primarily on the Spanish language. Because of a

high Hispanic population in Miami listening to the Spanish

language is common. As described by the Selbys (1995):

Indeed, while English is the predominant language in
the USA, Miami's proximity to countries that have
tended to generate mass refugee migrations have
resulted in an above average number of non-English
speaking. . foreigners. Spanish is the main language
in almost every shop, cafe, coin laundry and restaurant
in Little Havana and in a surprising number of
businesses elsewhere in the city (page 46).

Roslow and Nicholls (1996) performed two investigations

on the use of Spanish and English language in advertising.

In their 1993 study they analyzed the retention rate of a










message in Spanish and English television commercials.

Roslow and Nicholls (1996) then conducted another study, in

1996, which measured persuasion of English and Spanish

advertisements. They conducted telephone interviews in

cities with sizeable Hispanic populations. For both studies

the conclusion was similar: Spanish advertisements received

a higher message retention rate and also a higher persuasion

measure. This study affirms the predictions of the

Accommodation theory. Accommodation theory predicts that

Hispanic consumers would react positively to the use of

Spanish, to the advertiser's sensitivity and respect for the

Hispanic culture and then reward that sensitivity by the

purchase of the advertised product (Koslow, Shamdasani and

Touchstone, 1994). Likewise, Assimilation patterns in

Spanish language usage mirror this theory as explained by

Strategy Research Corporation (1991):

Unassimilated Hispanics are more prevalent in the
Southeast... Cuban and Central American heads of
household display the least level of assimilation. The
relative lack of assimilation among Cuban-American
heads of household, as a group, can be attributed to
several factors including an older average age, the
high density of Hispanics in the Miami market, and
possibly the tendency among the most first generation
Cuban-Americans to believe that they may one day return
to their homeland. The relatively low level of
assimilation among Central American heads of household,
however, is the result of the latest influx of new
immigration among this segment. Nearly all (96%) U.S.
Hispanic adults presently living in the United States
first learned to speak Spanish. The first language
spoken is usually preserved and maintained throughout
one's lifetime. When developed fully enough, it can










represent a cultural bond with a person's heritage
(pages 76, 78, 81).

Furthermore, it is predicted that these Unassimilation

patterns will continue:

It could take two or three generations before it may
not be necessary to market separately to this
population. However, demographic experts predict that
the power gained as a result of the sheer number of
Hispanics in this country will create a resistance to
assimilation for some years to come (Radice, 1997).

Creative Typologies

Laskey, Day and Crask (1989) developed a two stage

approach in which the first stage was to place the

advertisement in one of two basic categories Informational

versus Transformational, then stage two was to classify it

further into a subcategory.

Puto and Wells (1984) proposed a theoretical structure

of advertising effects based on the cognitive and affective

elements of Informational and Transformational advertising.

According to Puto and Wells (1984) for an advertisement

to be judged Informational it must reflect the following

characteristics:

1. Present factual, relevant information about the
brand.
2. Present information which is immediately and
obviously important to the potential consumer.
3. Present data which consumer accepts as being
verifiable (page 638).


Likewise, for the advertisement to be Transformational:

1. It must make the experience of using the product
richer, warmer, more exciting and/or more










enjoyable, than that obtained solely from an
objective description of the advertised brand.
2. It must connect the experience of the
advertisement so tightly with the experience of
using the brand that consumers cannot remember the
brand without recalling the experience generated
by the advertisement (page 638).

Laskey, Day and Crask's (1989) typology involved

subcategories for Informational and Transformational

classifications. Brief descriptions of the five types of

message strategies for Informational are:

Comparative: The main thrust must be on comparison.
Unique Selling Proposition: Claims of uniqueness.
Preemptive: Claims are factually based and verifiable.
Hyperbole: Message built around exaggerated claims.
Generic-Informational: Focus is on the product class in
general (page 38).

Similarly, Transformational subcategories included:

User Image: Focus on user.
Brand Image: Brand personality.
Use Occasion: Usage of product.
Generic-Transformational: Product class (pages 38-40)

Creative typologies has been applied to investigations

in Web/Internet advertising (Philport and Arbittier, 1997)

and cross cultural content analysis of U.S. and Thai

advertisements (Phataralaoha, 1994). Phataralaoha (1994)

develops the Brand Image subcategory by including

"institutional ads or those focusing on the

company/organization's image."

Creative Typologies and Products

Several studies have identified the strategies employed

in advertisements based on the type of products: durables










and non-durables (referred in the various studies as

"products") or services. Studying 760 television

commercials, Zinkhan, Johnson and Zinkhan (1992) identified

the following:

This exploratory analysis indicates that the objectives
and methods used by advertisers for product, retail,
and service advertising differ in television
commercials. Retail advertisements differ from pure
product ads in that the emphasis is on buying one or
more brands from a particular seller in cases where the
brands are available from several sources. Service
advertisers made the heaviest use of transformational
ads while product advertisers employed transformational
ads the least. The large percentage of retail ads that
are informational compared with service ads reflect the
"product" side of retail advertisements (pages 62-65).

The Informational strategy is notable in retail

advertising. This is especially important when considering

newspapers as Moriarty (1991) explains:

Retail advertising is dominated by newspapers.
Newspaper advertising is fast to produce, carries a
tremendous amount of information, and is relatively
inexpensive. It's the ideal medium for most retail
marketing. The emphasis in most newspaper ads is on the
local store and its merchandise or service, as opposed
to magazine or television advertising, which is
primarily brand oriented. Readers want information,
facts, details. In addition to local and retail,
another characteristic of newspaper advertising is its
emphasis on news. News is the medium's reason for
existence, and advertising that mirrors this function
will be the most successful. This is one medium where
advertising copy can be long because it is in context
with the medium (pages 262 and 365).

Restating the Informational strategy by products is the

study by Abernethy and Butler (1992). This study content

analyzed advertisements in newspapers including the Miami


Herald. The results were similar:










Newspaper ads for products and product/service
combinations averaged more advertising cues than those
for service advertisements. Overall, service
advertisements averaged far less information than both
product and product/service combination advertisements
(pages 411 and 412).

Cutler and Javalgi (1993) extend the transformational

strategy of services by reporting:

Service advertisements more often contain an emotional
appeal than do product advertisements. The foregoing
results suggest a consistent pattern of using emotion
in ads to improve the tangibility of services (pages 65
and 66).

Advertising Layouts

Jewler (1995) defines layout as two things:

1. The laying out of the component parts of a print
advertisement.
2. A blueprint for the mechanical, or paste-up and
thus a guide for the printer. Above all, it is the
plan of an ad (page 137)


He further elaborates:

A layout is a pleasing arrangement of elements into a
meaningful message. In an ad, this includes headline,
body copy, illustration, other design devices and
white space (page 137).

These arrangements are the basis for the creative

executions. The reasoning behind the execution is in the

strategy (Wagner, 1998; Jewler, 1995; Moriarty, 1991). As

Wagner (1998) explains:

. .when evaluating those choices you must consider
the advertising and creative strategies to determine
which format or combination of formats is most
effective for the creative execution (page 107).










Wagner (1998) describes thirteen basic layout patterns.

Brief descriptions of the 13 patterns are:

1. Picture Window: Illustration occupies a
majority of the format.
2. Frame: Presence of a border, simple rule
border or wide white space margins. The frame is
often combined with one or more other formats-
especially Picture Window layout with mortises
and insets.
3. Silhouette: Image has no background. This layout
format is based on a production technique, so it's
often found in combination layouts with several
other formats.
4. Rebus: Substitution of a word for a picture.
5. Multi-Panel: Entire format is divided into
equal sized rectangles. This format usually
displays several different products, different
features or uses of the same product. In any
case, it has equal proportion because no image is
emphasized over the others by size- everything
gets equal pay.
6. Mondrian: Entire format is divided into
unequal sized rectangles.
7. Type Specimen: Type represents all or most
of the advertisement. Includes reverse type
and varied sizes. Variations of type specimen
layouts can include illustration- but it's not a
dominant element.
8. Copy Heavy: Body copy occupies more than
three/fourths of the space. Variations generally
combine the long copy with other formats such as
Rebus or Silhouette.
9. Alphabet: Layout of the advertisement forms
a letter.
10. Circus: Different typefaces and illustrations.
Circus layout are often used in multi-product
(omnibus) retail advertising, such as grocery
store ads found in the newspaper.
11. Push Pin: Use of slanted elements, randomly
pasted and/or computer effects.
12. Grunge Design: Hard to read copy. This
distinctive style is important to note, because
it's very prevalent today- especially in design
targeted to teenage and young adult audiences.
13. Combination: Use of two or more elements (pages
107-108).










Advertising Creative Strategies and Hispanics

Most of the major Spanish language metropolitan dailies

that existed ten years ago, still exist today...these

newspapers, such as Diario Las Americas and El Nuevo Herald

in Miami, El Diario/La Prensa and Noticias del Mundo in New

York, El Maiana in Chicago, La Opinion, El Eco de Valle and

Noticias del Mundo in Los Angeles along with a few other

dailies in smaller markets, have dedicated their pages to

servicing the Hispanic market (Strategy Research

Corporation, 1991). According to the American Management

Association (1987) advertising in Hispanic newspapers tends

to be local. Guernica (1982) adds that Spanish newspapers

need to be deeply involved in the Hispanic community to be

most successful.

These ties are effective for reaching local businesses

as advertisers; Guernica (1982) suggests:

Spanish newspapers are effective advertising vehicles
for supermarkets, restaurants, theaters, and other
local retailers, particularly when they feature special
sales announcements. Spanish print is an effective tool
for promoting contests and sweepstakes and for
distributing coupons. As a supporting medium, Spanish
print can communicate a vast amount of information and
a degree of detail that is not feasible through
broadcasting (page 146).


Valdes (1995) further elaborates:

For the Hispanic market, television, radio, and print
play complementary informational roles. For example,
if, in addition to a television commercial, a coupon or
print ad is also available, the Hispanic consumer
needing a more detailed information about the product










can look at the ad for any length of time and
internalize the subtleties and characteristics of the
product, all of which would help him or her with the
in-store search. The printed ad also offers other
advantages for Spanish-dominant consumers. It helps
them avoid having to say the product's name in a
language they are not fluent in...it helps them to shop
at ease for the particular product or brand they saw
advertised in a televised commercial or heard about on
a radio broadcast. (pages 275-280).


The majority of U.S. Hispanics tend to be very literal

in their interpretation of advertising...abstract or elaborate

metaphors, images and messages, tend to be missed or ever

worse, misinterpreted (Valdes, 1995). Sanchez (1992)

indicates that Hispanics have demonstrated a tendency to

interpret visuals and copy literally. Furthermore, she adds

that Hispanic consumers "repeatedly demand that commercials

provide them with detailed product information."

However, there are some cases where the "emotional

pull" is effective, particularly in services, as Valdes

(1995) illustrates:

Phone companies targeting Hispanics should always keep
in mind that emotionally driven bilingual or Spanish-
language advertising, information and support are
essential to attract, entice, and retain Hispanic
customers. In addition, new arrivals (that is, foreign
born Hispanics) require special marketing attention and
support because a very large percentage did not have
phones in their homes before immigrating to the United
States...

...in the case of a mortgage insurance broker who wants
to appeal to Hispanics, simply describing in
straightforward language what a policy offers {"The
policy covers and pays mortgage payments if the lendee
is unable to do so"} will not get massive results. It
may succeed in informing the audience- which is










certainly important- but it will not motivate the
majority. In order to raise the Hispanic consumer's
purchase interest and to increase recall- there must be
an emotional hook {"With this insurance policy, you can
rest assured that your loved ones will not need to
worry if you lose your job and cannot make the house
payments"}(pages 121 and 342).

But the Hispanic's product interest is not only limited

to services. Valdes (1995) details the interest of the

Hispanic who is Spanish language-dominant and Spanish

language-preferred:

...for marketers promoting mass market consumer goods and
products and services, marketing to the Spanish-
dominant/preferred foreign born tier is a must.
Personal care products, soft drinks, beer, packaged
goods, clothes, shoes, and services such as dentists,
insurance policies, eye care services, eyeglasses and
contact lenses, savings and loans, money remittance
products, credit cards, checking accounts, telephone,
water, gas and electricity, entertainment and amusement
parks, airline travel and tourism are some examples of
categories with great appeal among these Hispanics.
Other products that have great acceptance among the
Spanish-dominant/preferred are hard durable goods, such
as radio, CD players, video players, microwave ovens,
sewing machines, pressure cookers, and irons. Another
sought-after product among consumers in this foreign-
born tier is a brand new car, an attainable American
dream for many immigrant Hispanics (pages 323 and 325).


Based on their interest in the various products, many

food, clothing, retail and telecommunications companies are

aggressively competing today for their patronage (Valdes,

1995).

Thomas (1988) interviewed several retail organizations

to gauge their advertising and promotional efforts towards


Hispanics. The observations were:










Burdine's targets Hispanic advertising to the Latin
market segment with the same upscale demographic
profile of its Anglo customers...due to common buying and
shopping habits.

Burdine's Hispanic advertising parallels its Anglo
media mix, which is approximately 70/30
print/broadcast.

Copy is scrutinized in Burdine's ads considering the
differing dialects of Spanish.

JC Penney's marketing strategy has been to promote and
produce ads for television that are oriented to sale
events no image ads.

Kmart's in-house marketing department uses a mix of
print and broadcast that roughly mirrors its overall
media mix. Their ads in Hispanic media are
overwhelmingly item oriented (page 55).

El Nuevo Herald's language segmentation, according to

Spanish Influence Groups (SIG), is another way of

considering creative message strategies. As mentioned,

these groups are: the Spanish language-dependent and Spanish

language- preferred (56%), the Hispanic who prefers or

depends on the English language, and the Latin American

tourist visiting Dade County.

There are several considerations when advertising,

especially for the last group, as Woodman (1993) describes:

The Hispanics' "brand unawareness" condition due to
their recent arrival represent a great opportunity to
create brand loyalty and/or new consumers. ...Hispanics
with low levels of acculturation manifest a strong need
to adapt to the host society, which would be their end
state of being, and in order to achieve their final
goal they believe that being, courageous, helpful,
obedient, responsible, forgiving, and loving are very
important modes of behavior (instrumental values).
Knowing the needs and desires of the low acculturated
Hispanics, and more important, knowing the origin of










these needs, provides a better understanding of this
Hispanic segment. A practical application of these
findings would be for advertisers to focus their
message on or appeal to the Hispanics' desire to keep
their ethnic identification. Also marketers can
promote products that would help Hispanics to adapt to
this society (pages 55-56).

However there are several common attributes in the

backgrounds of Hispanics. These characteristics are: strong

family values, a need for respect, product loyalty

(particularly with nationally advertised brands) and an

interest in product quality (Radice, 1997). Support of the

community is another way to capture more Hispanic

consumers...consider promoting Hispanic festivals such as

Cinco de Mayo, Calle Ocho, Columbus Day and Mardi Gras

(Radice, 1997). Addressing to the Hispanic community in

general, and to their Hispanic background specifically, will

produce a positive chain reaction that could end in the

adoption of certain brands (Woodman, 1993).


Web Advertising

Computers increasingly are becoming a means to receive

news and information in the age of the Internet (Harper,

1998). Although the number of Hispanic households owning a

computer is quite low at 3.8%; the West and Southeast

regions have the highest ownership share at 4.8% and 4.6%

respectively (Strategy Research Corporation, 1991).

Moreover, El Nuevo Herald has its own Website:

www.elherald.com. A study conducted by Maddox and Mehta










(1997) examines the effects of URL's in traditional mass

media advertising. Here is a conclusion of their findings:

In many cases the mere existence of a URL in an ad
enhances the advertiser's image over advertisers who do
not include them. Advertisers with Web addresses are
perceived as more customer-oriented, responsive,
informative, "high tech," sophisticated and more likely
to stay in business longer (pages 56 and 57).


Newspaper Studies

Newspapers Advertising Bureau (NAB)

The Newspaper Advertising Bureau is a non-profit sales,

research, marketing and promotion organization that has been

helping member newspapers and advertising community to use

newspapers more effectively since 1913 (Rankin, 1986). The

Research Department of the NAB designs and carries out

survey research involving readers, the newspaper, products

and it does special analysis of economic and media data

(Rankin, 1986). Among the studies are eye camera/movement of

advertisements (1987), usually read sections of the

newspaper (1987) and appearance of "winning" newspaper

advertisements (1989).

The National Advertising Bureau in 1987 conducted an

investigation to identify "good" and "bad" advertisements by

asking retail advertising professionals to examine ads that

ran in the largest papers on Sunday, August 23, 1987

(Newspaper Advertising Bureau, 1989). The results were:

Overall ads rated "good" by experts differ in important
ways from those rated "poor." The distinguishing










features of highly rated ads suggest the following
opportunities for improved newspaper advertising:
Illustrations should be more prominent.
The use of color should be expanded.
The purpose of the ad must guide ad design (page
vii).

On the study of "Newspaper Sections" the results

indicated that the General News section was the most widely

read by both sexes and every age (Newspaper Advertising

Bureau, 1987).

A summary on some of the "Eye Camera Study" results

are as follows:

Large ads are more likely to receive an initial
scanning fixation (or two) than are small ads
simply because they take up more space on the
page. Everyone who reads a paper uses a scanning
process to go through the newspaper to find interesting
things to read or look at.
The scanning process is used on the individual
page (Newspaper Advertising Bureau, 1987).


Resulting Hypothesis

El Nuevo Herald's development as a Separate Business

Unit (SBU) as well as its ties with the increasing Hispanic

community fosters more Informational strategies in its

advertising. This is maintained by the newspaper's role as

a supporting medium in the media mix (Valdes, 1995;

Guernica, 1982) and the predominance of retail advertising

(Moriarty, 1991). Therefore it is suggested that:

Hypothesis 1: El Nuevo Herald will contain a greater
number of Informational ads in the Post
Segmentation period.










Hypothesis 2: El Nuevo Herald will contain a greater
number of Establishment Announcement ads
(Informational subcategory) in the Post
Segmentation period.

Following the same assumption for newspaper and retail

advertising but now attending the products advertised, it is

believed that Durables and Non durables -as "products"-

adopt more the Informational strategy (Abernethy and Butler,

1992; Zinkhan, Johnson and Zinkhan, 1992) while services

employ more the Transformational strategy (Zinkhan, Johnson

and Zinkhan, 1992; Cutler and Javalgi, 1993). Furthermore,

within the Transformational strategy the use of community

and corporate sponsorship -and therefore the Brand Image

subcategory- is considered (Phataralaoha, 1994; Radice,

1997; Woodman, 1993). This suggests that:

Hypothesis 3: Non-durable's ads will use more the
Establishment Announcement
(Informational subcategory) in the
Post Segmentation period.

Hypothesis 4: Service's ads will use more the Brand
Image strategy (Transformational
subcategory) in the Post Segmentation
period.


Once again, there is a presumption on the dominance of

retail advertising (and therefore the Informational

strategy) when considering the presence of a Web address.

El Nuevo Herald has one. Moreover, with the growth and

positive responsiveness towards a Web address (Maddox and

Mehta, 1997; Harper, 1998) it is suggested that:











Hypothesis 5: El Nuevo Herald's Informational ads will
use more Web/Email addresses in the Post
Segmentation period.


The ties of El Nuevo Herald with a growing Hispanic

community and its separation from the English version

newspaper, Miami Herald, are indications of the increased

use of the Spanish language. Also, the Hispanic community

in Miami exhibit Acculturation and Unassimilation patterns

which can be seen through their use of the Spanish language

(Roslow and Nicholls, 1996; Fisher, 1994; Strategy Research

Corporation, 1991; Koslow, Shamdasani and Touchstone, 1994;

Radice, 1997). Therefore it is suggested that:


Hypothesis 6: El Nuevo Herald's headlines will use
more the Spanish language in the Post
Segmentation period.

Hypothesis 7: El Nuevo Herald's subheadlines will use
more the Spanish language in the Post
Segmentation period.

Hypothesis 8: El Nuevo Herald's body copy will use
more the Spanish language in the Post
Segmentation period.


On advertising layouts, once more, the premise on

Informational strategy will be used. Wagner (1998)

indicates that the Circus layout is often used in retail

advertising. Therefore it is suggested that:


Hypothesis 9: El Nuevo Herald's Informational ads will
use more the Circus pattern in the Post
Segmentation period.












Research Questions

From the review of literature the following research

questions have been determined:


Research Question 1:

How did the creative strategies in the advertising at
El Nuevo Herald differ considering the Pre and Post
Segmentation of the papers?

Research Question 2:

What is the difference in the use of subcategories
within the Informational and Transformational
strategies at El Nuevo Herald considering the Pre and
Post Segmentation?

Research Question 3:

What is the difference in the use of creative
strategies by product type considering the Pre and Post
Segmentation?

Research Question 4:

How do the design elements used with the creative
strategies differ at El Nuevo Herald considering the
Pre and Post Segmentation?

Research Question 5:

How do the design elements used with the language
strategies differ at El Nuevo Herald considering the
Pre and Post Segmentation?

Research Question 6:

How did the layout patterns used with the creative
strategies differ at El Nuevo Herald considering the
Pre and Post Segmentation?
















CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESIGN

This study will partly replicate investigations on

creative typologies conducted by Anchalee Phataralaoha

(1994) in her masters thesis "Creative Strategies in Thai

and U.S. Magazine Advertisements." It will also incorporate

parts of a research investigation by the Newspaper

Advertising Bureau (1989) on advertisement design in

newspapers.

Operational Definitions

The newspapers segmentation serves as the frame in

which the creative typologies, layouts and languages are

studied. Classification employed will be whether the

advertisement was taken from a El Nuevo Herald newspaper

before (date: before 1998) or after (date: after 1998)

their separation from The Miami Herald.

In addition, the study will compare the usage of

English and Spanish language within the design elements: 1)

Body Copy Language 2) Headline Language and 3) Subheadline

Language. Headline is defined as the largest type in the ad

regardless of where located (Newspaper Advertising Bureau,

1989). Subheadline follows the headline (Newspaper

Advertising Bureau, 1989). Body copy are all the words











outside the headline, subheadline and excludes numbers,

legal type and names. Language evaluation takes into

consideration the Herald's separation, the Hispanic's

language choices (Strategy Research Corporation, 1991 and

Radice, 1997) and effects in advertising studied by Roslow

and Nicholls, 1996; Koslow, Shamdasani and Touchstone, 1994.

Phataralaoha (1994) employed the Laskey, Day and Crask

(1989) typology which classifies advertisements as 1)

Informational or 2) Transformational. These are further

subcategorized. Subdivisions under the Informational

category are: 1) Comparative 2) Unique Selling Proposition

3) Preemptive 4) Hyperbole and 5) Generic-Info. Likewise,

under Transformational are the following: 1) User Image 2)

Brand Image 3) Use Occasion and 4) Generic-Trans.

However, these typologies are used to classify

television commercials. Phataralaoha (1994) suggests: "For

those planning to use the Laskey typology to study media

other than television commercials, it is suggested that this

typology be refined so that better and more accurate coding

can be derived." With her suggestion in mind and after a

pre-test of the coding instrument was conducted, several

refinements were introduced. Two additional subcategories

will be included under the Informational category:

Establishment Announcements and Product Introductions.

Establishment Announcements are those advertisements that











invite or require the client to visit the store or

establishment in order to take advantage of the information

provided. This takes into account the fact that most

advertisements in a newspaper come from retailing or local

business (Moriarty, 1991; Belch and Belch, 1993).

Announcements of events such as bridal shows, sales offers,

store openings/closings and "shopper style" format are

classified under this subcategory. The "shopper style"

format is particularly important for print advertisement as

it helps reinforce broadcast promotions or ease shopping

(Guernica, 1982; Valdes, 1995). Product Introductions

involves promoting a new product. New product is defined by

several common elements: the product offers innovative

benefits, has features not previously available or are

different from and better than existing products (Skinner,

1990). To achieve the requirement of mutual exclusiveness

the advertisement should include the word "introducing" or a

derivative thereof. Examples of advertisements under this

subcategory are introductions of a movie, telecommunications

and financial services.

All categories and subcategories will use the meaning

of product as defined by Skinner (1990): "Any good, service,

or idea that satisfies a need or want and can be offered in

an exchange." Whereas goods are tangible, services are











intangible and idea is a philosophy, concept or image

(Skinner, 1990).

Phataralaoha (1994) also classifies the advertisements

by product type: 1) Durables 2) Non-durables and 3)

Services. The classification of the product advertised is

based on the use and/or price. If several products are

advertised, classification will be based on the majority of

products advertised. Phataralaoha outlined the product types

as follows:


Durables: Clothing, jewelry, watches, furniture,
home/office furnishings, high-priced products
($100+).

Non-durables: Household/Office supplies, personal
care products, drug products, food, beverages, and
tobacco, low-priced/short-lived products ($99 or
less).

Services: Recreational, conferences,
entertainment, phone services, credit,
newspaper/information providers, cards, insurance,
banking, and hospitals (pg. 59).


The product types listed are also products which the

Hispanic consumer caters (Valdes, 1995).

Further study of the advertisements through its design

elements is another suggestion that Phataralaoha (1994)

indicates:

Since readers of magazine advertisements have more
time to process the information in the copy and
visual elements, the scheme for magazine ad study
could be divided into A) graphic elements such as
photos and drawings, and B) copy, so that the











researcher could cover and study every element of
an ad (pg. 79).

To take advantage of this suggestion, this study

incorporates examining the advertisement design elements of

Web/Email address and basic advertising layouts as defined

by Wagner (1998). In Web/Email Address the presence or

absence of a Website and/or Email address is assessed

considering the growth of computers (Harper, 1998) and the

positive attitude towards them (Maddox and Mehta, 1997).

Layouts are the way the illustration, body copy, headline

and subheadline are arranged in the advertisement(Wagner,

1998; Jewler, 1995; Moriarty, 1991). The layouts studied are

defined as follows:

1. Picture Window: Illustration occupies a
majority of the format.
2. Frame: Presence of a border, simple rule
border or wide white space margins.
3. Silhouette: Image has no background
4. Rebus: Substitution of a word for a picture.
5. Multi-Panel: Entire format is divided into
equal sized rectangles.
6. Mondrian: Entire format is divided into
unequal sized rectangles.
7. Type Specimen: Type represents all or most
of the advertisement. Includes reverse type
and varied sizes.
8. Copy Heavy: Body copy occupies more than
three/fourths of the space.
9. Alphabet: Layout of the advertisement forms
a letter.
10. Circus: Different typefaces and illustrations.
11. Push Pin: Use of slanted elements, randomly
pasted and/or computer effects.
12. Grunge Design: Hard to read copy (page 107-108).











The brand, company or store that is advertised is also

considered.

Sample

The study involved random selection of advertisements

half page or more. Advertisements selected served as the

unit of analysis and unit of observation. This is a common

practice employed in content analysis (Newspaper Advertising

Bureau, 1987; Phataralaoha, 1994). Generally, large sized

advertisements provide more elements which can be studied as

opposed to its smaller counterparts which tends to be a

"fixed" or same ad printed in a given period of time.

However, for some dates this criteria could not be fulfilled

and therefore the next largest sized ads were selected. The

advertisements were selected from Section A or "General

News" section of the newspaper El Nuevo Herald Final

version, for the months of August and September, of the

years 1996 and 1998. The "News" section was chosen because

it is the selection of main interest and targeted to both

male and female readers (Newspaper Advertising Bureau,

1987). The Final Version ensures that it is the publication

distributed in the Miami-Dade area. In order to study

differences in advertisement content, taking into account

the segmentation of El Nuevo Herald and The Miami Herald,

the years 1996 (two years prior to the separation) and 1998

(the year the separation takes place) were selected.











August and September were selected as months representing

the third quarter of the newspaper's distribution. The

assumption is that during this period changes due to the

segmentation (in 1998) have already taken place as opposed

to the first and second quarter whereas changes may not be

so visible as it is in an "adjustment phase."

The issues selected for the sample will be conducted

using the common method of constructed week as described by

Riffe, Lacy and Fico (1998):

Because of their traditional dominance as a mass
medium, daily newspapers have received more attention
in sampling efficiency studies than other forms of
media. These studies have concentrated on efficiency
of sampling for inference. Most of these concentrate
on the use of the constructed week, which is created by
randomly selecting an issue for each day of the week
(pg. 97).


This study will use the constructed week method through

the following steps:

1. Randomly selecting dates for two constructed weeks
per month.
2. Selection of the 10 largest advertisements in
Section A or General News of El Nuevo Herald.

In summary, for August and September 1996, 280

advertisements will be randomly selected and likewise for

1998, for a total of 560 advertisements.

Coding Procedure

The researcher coded all 560 advertisements. To test

reliability, two coders content analyzed 5 percent or 30











ads. For each advertisement, the judges (fluent in Spanish

and English language as well as a with a background

knowledge on advertising layouts) independently coded the 30

advertisements. Before coding, coders were trained on the

process involved. Example ads were presented and studied

for demonstration. The researcher explained how she viewed

the advertisements and proceeded to describe the variables

involved in the questionnaire. The coders practiced with

example ads to test understanding of the coding

questionnaire and process.

Intercoder reliability will be calculated using

Holsti's (1969) intercoder reliability ratio:



C.R. = 2M

N1 + N2

M = Number of coding decisions

N1 and N2 = Number of coding decisions made by coder 1

and 2.

Statistical Analysis

Pearson's Chi Square will be used to determine the

strength of relationships among the data. The T-Test will

be used to compare the means when studying the amount of

Spanish words in body copy, headline and subheadline. Also

frequencies will be tabulated to describe and summarize the

usage of: Spanish language in body copy, headlines and







38



subheadlines; Informational and Transformational types,

product type, sizes, Web/Email address and layouts.















CHAPTER 4
RESULTS


For this investigation a sample of 560 advertisements

from "General News Section A" were used in which 280 were

dated from the Pre Segmentation (1996) while 280 were from

the Post Segmentation (1998).

The intercoder reliability result was 80%.

Hypothesis 1: El Nuevo Herald will contain a greater
number of Informational ads in the Post
Segmentation period.

For Hypothesis 1 the valid sample were all the 560

cases. The results indicated that although the amount of

Informational ads increased from 1996 to 1998, it was not

statistically significant. The increase was approximately

3% (from 242 Informational ads in 1996 to 250 in 1998).

However, it is worth mentioning that the large

majority (88%) of the newspaper's ads are Informational at

both Pre and Post Segmentation periods (Table 4-1).

Transformational ads strategy is used at a lesser degree

(12% of the total sample).

Hypothesis 2: El Nuevo Herald will contain a greater
number of Establishment Announcement
(Informational subcategory) ads in the
Post Segmentation period.










The number of advertisements within the Establishment

Announcement (Informational Subcategory) increased after the

Post Segmentation by approximately 8%. This was not

statistically significant.

There were 484 valid or Informational cases, for this

Hypothesis, the difference ('missing') consisted of

Transformational ads and those within the Informational

category which could not be classified within a subcategory.

Still, Establishment Announcement was the most common

strategy used by the advertisers for both 1996 (200) and

1998 (217) as seen in Table 4-2.

Hypothesis 3: Non-durable ads will use more the
Establishment Announcement
(Informational subcategory) in the
Post Segmentation period.

Hypothesis 4: Service ads will use more the Brand
Image strategy (Transformational
subcategory) in the Post Segmentation
period.

For Hypothesis 3 the number of valid cases were 484 of

which the missing cases were those Informational without a

subcategory or Transformational. For Hypothesis 4 there

were 68 valid cases or the total of Transformational ads in

the sample.

With p = .069 for the year 1998, the relationship

between Non-durables product type and Post Segmentation

periods was not statistically significant. However, through

additional collapsing of the categories -by retaining those










with the highest count- this yielded a p value of .020 (see

Table 4-3 and 4-4). The Establishment Announcement proved

to be the most common strategy across all Product Types as

well as periods of Pre and Post Segmentation. However,

Hypothesis 3 was not supported. Non-durables using the

Establishment Announcement decreased from 28 (in 1996) to 27

(in 1998) as tabulated in 4-3 and 4-4.

Hypothesis 4, on the Transformational Subcategory, was

not supported. In 1998, the count of service ads using the

brand image strategy was reduced from 11 in 1996 to 7 in

1998 (Table 4-5 and 4-6). In 1998, the most common strategy

for services was the Use Occasion. With a p value of .008,

the relationship between Transformational Subcategories and

the Post Segmentation period (1998) was not significant.

Hypothesis 5: El Nuevo Herald's Informational ads will
use more Web/Email addresses in the Post
Segmentation period.

The whole sample of 560 ads was used for Hypothesis 5.

The tests results for Pearson Chi Square indicate that there

is a statistical significance (X2 = 5.33, p = .021) between

the period of Post Segmentation and the presence of a

Web/Email address (see Table 4-7). Although the number of

advertisers promoting a Website or email is quite reduced,

close to 28% of the sample, at the Post Segmentation, it is

worth noting this number increased from 4.6% at the Pre

Segmentation (see Table 4-8). This also supports Hypothesis










5. Informational ads proved to be the ones promoting a

Website/Email more. Before segmentation, 92.3% of the ads

promoting a Website were Informational ads. This percent

increases to 96.2% after segmentation.

Hypothesis 6: El Nuevo Herald's headlines will use
more the Spanish language in the Post
Segmentation period.

Hypothesis 7: El Nuevo Herald's subheadlines will use
more the Spanish language in the Post
Segmentation period.

Hypothesis 8: El Nuevo Herald's body copy will use
more the Spanish language in the Post
Segmentation period.


The T-Test Paired Sample statistic was used to compare

the means for the average number of words in the Pre

Segmentation sample and the Post Segmentation for the

Headline, Subheadline and Body Copy. For Hypotheses 6

through 8, the sample was composed of 280 cases for Post

Segmentation and 280 cases for Pre Segmentation.

The means for the amount of Spanish words in the

headline was 5.90 in the Post Segmentation while 6.23 at the

Pre Segmentation (see Table 4-9). The results of the T-test

indicate that there is no difference between these means and

therefore Hypothesis 6 is not supported (see Table 4-10).

Hypothesis 7 was not supported. The results of the T-

Test (Table 4-12) indicate that there is no difference

between the means. The means for Spanish words in










subheadlines at Post Segmentation was 4.44 while at Pre

Segmentation it was 4.08 (Table 4-11).

However, there is a difference in the means for the

number of Spanish words in the body copy. The T-Test proved

that there is a statistical significant difference between

the averages of Body Copy at Post Segmentation with 155.95

and 109.48 at Pre Segmentation (Table 4-13). The 95%

confidence interval of the difference was 17.59 (lower) and

75.35 (upper) and t = 3.168.

Hypothesis 9: El Nuevo Herald's Informational ads will
use more the Circus pattern in the Post
Segmentation period.


The crosstabulation between the Informational and

Transformational subcategories with layouts and Pre

Segmentation yielded significant Chi Square results. The

Transformational subcategories and layouts at Pre

Segmentation were significant (X2 = 11.20, p = .047). The

two periods of segmentation for the crosstabulation of the

Informational subcategory and layout were also significant

(1998: X2 = 20.63, p = .014 and 1996: X2 = 17.41, p = .043).

The use of the Circus pattern increased in count from 19 at

Pre Segmentation to 33 at Post Segmentation (Table 4-15 and

4-16). However, this was not the main layout pattern used.

With the exception of the Transformational subcategories at

Pre Segmentation (where the main layout pattern was Picture

Window), Type Specimen was the layout pattern used the most










by all other Informational and Transformational

subcategories in the various segmentation periods.


Additional Tests and Analysis

The advertisers who appeared the most in the

sample did not vary much in the Pre and Post Segmentation.

The most common at Post Segmentation were Office Depot,

Brandsmart, Lord and Taylor, Macy's and Burdines. At Pre

Segmentation they were AT&T, BellSouth, Lord and Taylor,

Brandsmart and Burdines (see Table 4-19).



Table 4-1

Distribution Creative Typology in Advertisements
by Segmentation

Creative Typology 1998 1996 Total

Informational 250 242 492

Transformational 30 38 68

Total 280 280 560

(X2 = 1.07; df = 1; Not Significant)










Table 4-2


Distribution Informational Subcategory And Segmentation

Informational
Subcategory 1998 1996 Total

Establishment
Announcement 217 200 417

Preemptive 20 22 42

Product Int. 7 8 15

Others 3 7 10

Total 247 237 484

(X2 = 3.45; df = 5; Not Significant)




Table 4-3


Distribution Informational Subcategory And Product -
Post Segmentation (second crosstab additional collapsing)

1998 Count

Informational
Subcategory Durables Non-Durables Services Total

Establishment
Announcement 103 27 87 217

Preemptive 3 4 13 20

Total 103 31 118 237

(X2 = 7.81; df = 2; Significant, p = .02)











Table 4-4


Distribution Informational Subcategory And Product -
Pre Segmentation (second crosstab additional collapsing)

1996 Count

Informational
Subcategory Durables Non-Durables Services Total

Establishment
Announcement 85 28 87 200

Preemptive 7 1 13 21

Total 92 29 100 221

(X2 = 3.7; df = 2; Not Significant)


Table 4-5


Distribution Transformational Subcategory And Product -
Post Segmentation

1998 Count

Transfor-
mational
Subcategory Durables Non-Durables Services Total

User Image 9 1 4 14

Brand Image 0 0 7 7

Use Occasion 1 0 8 9

Total 10 1 19 30

(X2 = 13.92; df = 4; Not Significant)







47


Table 4-6


Distribution Transformational Subcategory And Product -
Pre Segmentation

1996 Count

Transfor-
mational
Subcategory Durables Non-Durables Services Total

User Image 6 0 11 17

Brand Image 6 4 11 21

Total 12 4 22 38

(X2 = 3.62; df = 2; Not Significant)






Table 4-7


Distribution Creative Typology And Web/Email Address
- Post Segmentation

1998 Count Web/Email

Creative Has Web No
Typology and/or Web/
Email Email Total

Informational 75 175 250

Transformational 3 27 30

Total 78 202 280

(X2 = 5.331; df = 1; Significant, p = .021)







48


Table 4-8


Distribution Creative Typology And Web/Email Address
- Pre Segmentation

1996 Count Web/Email

Creative Has Web No
Typology and/or Web/
Email Email Total

Informational 12 230 242

Transformational 1 37 38

Total 13 267 280

(X2 = .402; df = 1; Not Significant)







49





Table 4-9


Paired Sample Statistic Headline Spanish Words

Mean N Std.Dev. Std. Error Mean

Headline
Post Seg. 5.9036 280 4.9356 .2950

Headline
Pre Seg. 6.2286 280 5.2832 .3157





Table 4-10


Paired Sample Test Headline Spanish Words

Mean Std. Std. Lower Upper
Dev. Error
Mean

Headline
Post Seg.
Minus -.3250 7.2184 .4314 -1.1742 .5242
Headline
Pre Seg.



Paired Sample Test Headline Spanish Words

t df Sig (2tailed)

Headline
Post Seg.
Minus -.753 279 .452
Headline
Pre Seg.







50


Table 4-11


Paired Sample Statistic Subheadline Spanish Words

Mean N Std.Dev. Std. Error Mean

Subheadline
Post Seg. 4.4429 280 6.0485 .3615

Subheadline
Pre Seg. 4.0821 280 6.3903 .3819





Table 4-12


Paired Sample Test Subheadline Spanish Words

Mean Std. Std. Lower Upper
Dev. Error
Mean

Subheadline
Post Seg.
Minus .3607 9.0606 .5415 -.7052 1.4266
Subheadline
Pre Seg.



Paired Sample Test Subheadline Spanish Words

t df Sig (2tailed)

Subheadline
Post Seg.
Minus .666 279 .506
Subheadline
Pre Seg.







51


Table 4-13


Paired Sample Statistic Headline Spanish Words

Mean N Std.Dev. Std. Error Mean

Body Copy
Post Seg. 155.95 280 205.8236 12.3003

Body Copy
Pre Seg. 109.48 280 124.1776 7.4210





Table 4-14


Paired Sample Test Body Copy Spanish Words

Mean Std. Std. Lower Upper
Dev. Error
Mean

Body Copy
Post Seg.
Minus 46.4714 245.4805 14.6703 17.5930 75.3499
Body Copy
Pre Seg.



Paired Sample Test Body Copy Spanish Words

t df Sig (2tailed)

Body Copy
Post Seg.
Minus 3.168 279 .002
Body Copy
Pre Seg.







52


Table 4-15


Distribution Layout And Informational Subcategory -
Post Segmentation

1998 Count

Layout Preemptive Establishment
Announcement Total

Circus 1 32 33


Copy Heavy


Frame


Mondrian


Multi Panel

Picture
Window


Push Pin


Rebus


Silhouette

Type
Specimen

Total


(X2 = 20.63; df = 9; Significant, p = .014)


29


65

237


217







53


Table 4-16


Distribution Layout And Informational Subcategory -
Pre Segmentation

1996 Count

Layout Preemptive Establishment
Announcement Total

Circus 0 19 19


Copy Heavy


Frame


Mondrian


Multi Panel

Picture
Window


Push Pin


Rebus


Silhouette 3 25 28

Type
Specimen 7 66 73

Total 22 200 222

(X2 = 17.41; df = 9; Significant, p = .043)







54


Table 4-17


Distribution Layout And Transformational Subcategory -
Post Segmentation

1998 Count

Layout User Brand Use
Image Image Occasion Total

Circus 1 0 0 1

Multi Panel 1 0 0 1

Picture
Window 10 3 7 20

Push Pin 1 0 0 1

Silhouette 1 3 0 4

Type
Specimen 0 1 2 3

Total 14 7 9 30


(X2 = 13.29; df = 10; Not Significant)







55


Table 4-18


Distribution Layout And Transformational Subcategory -
Pre Segmentation

1996 Count

Layout User Brand
Image Image Total

Copy Heavy 0 2 2


Frame


Picture
Window


Rebus


Silhouette


Type
Specimen 0 4 4

Total 17 21 38

(X2 = 11.20; df = 5; Significant, p = .047)













Table 4-19


Distribution Advertisers Segmentation

Number of times appeared in
Advertiser 1998 1996


BellSouth 6 11

Brandsmart 12 14

Burdines 19 14

El Nuevo Herald 6 6

Lord and Taylor 12 14

Office Depot 10 8

University of Miami 5 5

Appliance TV Depot 7

Bloomindales 6

Community Air Cond. 5

Dillards 7

Macy's 12

Sears 5

AT & T 10

Lurias 5

Nationsbank 6

Rooms to Go 5

South Motors 5






page
57
missing
from
original
















CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS


This study involved examining advertisements in El

Nuevo Herald, through content analysis, within the time

frame of its segmentation from the Miami Herald in 1998. The

sample involved 280 ads from Section A or News Section in

1996 (Pre Segmentation) and 280 ads from the same section

but in 1998 (Post Segmentation). Among the variables

studied in the advertisements were the design elements, use

of Spanish language, creative typologies

(whether Informational -advertisements' strategy is to

provide information that is verifiable, factual and relevant

or Transformational -advertisements' strategy is to link the

message with a richer and warmer experience with the use of

the product) and layouts.

Based on the statistical significant results there are

several characteristics which describe advertisements in El

Nuevo Herald. Informational strategy was employed the most

by advertisers whereas the Establishment Announcement

subcategory was the majority. This strategy was applied to

invite readers to visit the store or location to take










advantage of the promotion or what was announced. This also

corresponds with the fact that the majority of the

advertisers are retailers. Other findings indicate that

there was more use of Web/Email address and Spanish language

in the body copy after El Nuevo Herald issued its first

stand alone newspapers separate from the Miami Herald.

Another notable result is that this study confirms the

relationship between a strategy and a creative execution.

The principal layout pattern utilized was Type Specimen

which concurs with the predominance of the Informational

strategy and the increase of Spanish words in body copy.

Discussion on these results, the investigation's premises,

limitations and implications follows.


Premises for the Study


One assumption is that the El Nuevo Herald's

segmentation is primarily through language, the Spanish

language. The persistence for the use of Spanish language

due to Acculturation and Unassimilation patterns and a

growing Hispanic population suggest a continued trend for

this segmentation. The investigation examined how this form

of positioning strategy -language segmentation- influenced

the executions of advertising.

El Nuevo Herald's segmentation from the Miami Herald is

a particular case in the newspaper industry. The

particularity was evident in the lack of information on the










subject of segmentation within newspapers -as the case of El

Nuevo Herald.

Looking for information regarding this segmentation

strategy was limited to newspapers (e.g. La Opini6n in

California and El Diario in New York) that have introduced

and established themselves as papers of the Spanish

language. El Nuevo Herald's case is unique because of their

beginnings. They initially served as a translation of the

English version. This has evolved into establishing a

separate business unit which is no longer just an English

translation of the Miami Herald. Instead the newspaper, as

part of their separate business unit plan, is in the process

of establishing its own advertising, circulation and

marketing responsibilities. Moreover, El Nuevo's news focus

on Hispanics includes news exchanges with newspapers from

South American countries.

Discussion of Research Questions

The first two research questions are as follows:

Research Question 1:
How did the creative strategies in the advertising at
El Nuevo Herald differ considering the Pre and Post
Segmentation of the papers?

Research Question 2:
What is the difference in the use of subcategories
within the Informational and Transformational
strategies at El Nuevo Herald considering the Pre and
Post Segmentation?

The questions were developed using the frame of

segmentation to study creative typologies. Two hypotheses










were used. Hypothesis 1 evaluated whether there would be

greater number of advertisements using the Informational

strategy while Hypothesis 2 studied if there was an increase

in the Establishment Announcement/Informational subcategory.

In both, the hypotheses results to answer these questions

were, by count, supported but not significant.

To answer the research questions we can cite a main

finding: there were a greater number of Establishment

Announcement/Informational advertisements. This served to

reinforce the use that newspapers have within Integrated

Marketing Communications. As explained by Agee, Ault and

Emery (1997):

Approximately 50 to 60 percent of every daily
newspaper consists of advertising, an important service
that gives readers information for purchasing
goods... (pg. 134).

This confirms that local advertising, often referred as

retail advertising, accounts for the majority (85 percent)

of newspapers' display advertising (Moriarty, 1991; Belch

and Belch, 1993).

Consequently, the results reflect this trend in which

417 of the 560 advertisements were mainly Informational

typology and subcategorized as Establishment Announcement.

The subsequent research question involved studying

strategies by the type of product. The questions was:










Research Question 3:
What is the difference in the use of creative
strategies by product type considering the Pre and Post
Segmentation?

The product type Services (whether it would use more

the Brand Image/Transformational subcategory) and Non-

durables (whether it would use more the Establishment

Announcement/Informational subcategory) were evaluated.

Continuing with the results of Establishment

Announcement, as the majority of the advertisements, this

also reflected when answering research question 3. Based on

hypotheses test results, we could indicate that the year of

separation of El Nuevo Herald from Miami Herald was

significant on how advertisers announced, based on their

products. This could be explained, in part, by the

announcement of El Nuevo Herald's SBU (Separate Business

Unit) plans as well as its sales as a stand alone product.

There is not much difference in the creative strategies

used by each product type. All product types used the

Establishment Announcement/Informational subcategory the

most. However, the majority of the products fall within the

Durables product type as opposed to Non-durables which were

of a lesser count compared to the other product types.

Still, Durables as a majority, reinforces newspapers as

dominated by retail advertising (Moriarty, 1991) and

therefore serve to provide a showcase for local business.

Valdes (1995) explained that retail advertising in










newspapers aids the consumer in selecting products when

visiting the retail store. Furthermore, as Woodman (1993)

explains they are "brand unaware" and hence not

knowledgeable of the stores and their products.

It was presumed that with the suggestions by Radice

(1997) and Woodman (1993) to sponsor Hispanic community

activities, Services would use the Brand

Image/Transformational subcategory more. Instead, Services

was the next product type to use more the Establishment

Announcement/Informational subcategory.

Among the possible reasons for this is the increasing

importance of advertising and familiarizing a growing

Hispanic population with using this product type. The

Informational strategy would help accomplish this goal. As

indicated by Guernica (1982) and Valdes (1995), Hispanics

use the newspaper as a source of information in their news

as well as purchases. Furthermore, they indicate that this

medium serves to reinforce and provide additional

information on what was advertised in broadcast or radio.

Advertisements for services were oriented towards how the

service could be used (such as how to fill in insurance

forms for certain claims), reminders (products promoting "As

seen on TV" such as herbal remedies) and invitations for the

reader to visit the location to learn more about them

(lawyers, chiropractors).










Research Question 4:
How do the design elements used with the creative
strategies differ at El Nuevo Herald considering the
Pre and Post Segmentation?

For research question 4, there are differences in the

design elements used to advertise. According to the results

of Hypothesis 5, the Post Segmentation had an effect in the

advertiser's use of Informational typology and the presence

of a Web/Email address. This can be accounted for by the

increasing use of Web and Internet technologies (Harper,

1998). Also, as mentioned, the El Nuevo Herald has a Website

which justifies the potentiality of a continued increase in

Web/Internet usage.

Another factor that was studied was the use of the

Spanish language within the segmentation periods as shown:


Research Question 5:
How do the design elements used with the language
strategies differ at El Nuevo Herald considering the
Pre and Post Segmentation?

Spanish was the dominant language in the

advertisements. It seems the use of Spanish language is a

spreading trend as the patterns of a growing Hispanic

population, Acculturation and Unassimilation continue. As

suggested by Strategy Research Corporation (1991) Hispanics

retain their first language. Furthermore, a great number of

Hispanics are comfortable with the Spanish language (Miami

Herald Publishing Company, 1997; Fisher, 1994) and seem to

show a higher retention and persuasion rate (Roslow and










Nicholls, 1996). The segmentation of the newspaper was

studied primarily through the design elements of Spanish

language in their headlines, subheadlines and body copy.

Statistically, increased use of Spanish words proved

significant in the body copy. This can be explained by the

majority using the Informational Strategy and most of the

information is located in the body copy when using this

creative typology (Belch and Belch, 1993).


Research Question 6:
How did the layout patterns used with the creative
strategies differ at El Nuevo Herald considering the
Pre and Post Segmentation?

In order to answer this question a crosstabulation

between the subcategories of the creative typologies and the

layouts was conducted. Generally, Type Specimen ('type

represents all or most of the advertisement') layout pattern

was the most common across Informational and

Transformational subcategories.

Hypothesis 9 examined whether Informational ads would

use more the Circus (combination of 'different typefaces and

illustrations') layout pattern which according to Wagner

(1998) was common in retail advertising. The test showed

that there is a significance between Informational

subcategories and layouts at both Pre and Post Segmentation

and that there was an increase in the use of the Circus










layout pattern. Also, of the Transformational subcategories,

there was significance before segmentation.

In general, this significance demonstrates the

importance of establishing a strategy in order to accomplish

a creative execution.

For the significance in the crosstabulation between

Informational subcategories and layouts, this strengthens

the fact that there is a dominance of these strategy in

newspaper advertising and that it has influence in the

creative executions before and after the separation of the

newspapers. In part, this could possibly explain why the

Transformational subcategories and layouts before

segmentation were significant and not after: the

Establishment Announcement/ Informational subcategory was

the dominant type slightly more so at Post Segmentation.



Limitations

The nature of this study is exploratory and descriptive

due to the constraints of information on the topics of

segmentation and the decision making process on which

creative typologies and layouts to use. Therefore, the

studies does not attempt to answer: Why are the creative in

the advertisements at El Nuevo Herald executed like that?

Instead, the study focuses on describing and answering: What

are the advertisements at El Nuevo Herald like?










Sample selection was confined to Section A or General

News. A stronger representative sample of the newspaper

would have involved a sampling design which considered all

the sections and a random selection of the advertisements

within the section or sections chosen.

Several concepts were introduced into coding. The

subcategories of Establish Announcement and Product

Introduction were added under the Informational typology.

Another introduction was to content analyze the basic

layouts used for advertisements' design.

Based on the results of the intercoder reliability

testing (.80) the categories should be defined further to

ensure they are mutually exclusive and mutually exhaustive.

Holsti (1969) suggests to increase the reliability by

rigidly and exhaustively attempting to reduce coding from a

judgmental task to a clerical one. He also suggests

increasing the number of coders.

Implications for Future Research

The limitations and the suggestions to counteract them,

provides some implications for future research in content

analysis. For example, the limitation on studying only

Section A (News) and resolving that shortcoming by expanding

the sample design to include other sections, suggests

several possibilities for study. This could include

comparing within the various sections (e.g. Sports compared










to the Business sections). Another possibility could be the

study of another section -similar to this study- within the

segmentation periods (e.g. Lifestyle section and changes at

Pre and Post Segmentation). Then again, another frame or

layer for study would be comparing between the Spanish

version-El Nuevo Herald and the Miami Herald -the English

version.

A further analysis could include studying news content

with advertising (e.g. newspapers' front page headlines and

news contrasting with the type of advertising within its

pages).

Continuing with this thought one more possibility for

future research is studying news content and advertising of

El Nuevo Herald with like Hispanic media (e.g. El Nuevo

Herald compared with La Opinion and/or El Diario).

The results in this study also provides opportunities

for other research methodologies such as questionnaires and

in-depth interviews. As indicated previously, the study is

exploratory and descriptive in nature. Yet, the descriptive

statistics can be used to explain creative strategies

particularly to examine the reasoning behind them.

For a stronger support of the correlation between a

creative typology and layout, a research topic could be to

determine what are the reasons for deciding the types of

patterns for advertisement layouts of their products.










One final research topic can be to focus on the appeal

of the advertisement. By identifying which advertisements

are appealing it is possible to determine which layouts and

creative typologies are favorable.

These research topics could be answered either through

questionnaires or in-depth interviews of the advertiser's

creative directors or the agencies handling the accounts and

in some cases, the newspaper's readers.

With the changing face of the population in the United

States and the growth of the Hispanic population, newspapers

are being challenged to cater the needs of this different

reader. Responding to these changes is the Miami Herald and

El Nuevo Herald as well as their advertiser's that help by

providing information through their advertising and by

economically supporting the newspaper. The Miami Herald and

El Nuevo Herald's situation is original and distinct,

creating the groundwork which merits further research,

evaluation and study.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Bethel Ann Ravalo was born in the Philippines and

raised in Puerto Rico. She graduated from the University of

Puerto Rico in 1995 with a Bachelor of Science in Business

Administration Marketing and a minor in Organizational

Studies. After working as a Marketing Manager in a retail

operation in Puerto Rico, she moved to Gainesville in 1997

to pursue a Master of Arts in Mass Communication degree at

the University of Florida. During her academic year she was

able to obtain work experience with MTV Networks in Miami,

Florida and with Jordan, McGrath, Case and Partners in

Manhattan, New York. She worked in the account teams for

SmithKline Beecham and Procter and Gamble. Bethel Ann is a

member of the Honor Society Phi Kappa Phi and a AAAA -

MAIP Alumni. She will pursue a career in

advertising/marketing.




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