Group Title: Circular ;
Title: Vegetable weed control guide
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 Material Information
Title: Vegetable weed control guide
Physical Description: 8, 8 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Montelaro, James, 1921-
Marvel, M. E ( Mason Edwin ), 1921-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1963
Copyright Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Weed control   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by James Montelaro and M.E. Marvel.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May 1963"--P. 2 of cover.
General Note: Florida Agricultural Extension Service circular 196A
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100537
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 502158271

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CIRCULAR 196A


,::A:BL


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURALL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA












Contents


P

IN TRODUCTION ..............................................


DEFINITION OF TERM S ...........- .. ...............................


PRECAUTIONARY M EASURES .............................. .......


GENERAL R ULES ......................................... ...


EQUIPMENT FOR SPRAYING ............................. .


CALIBRATION OF SPRAYER ...........................


CLEANING THE SPRAYER ............................... .


COMMON TRADE NAMES OF HERBICIDES ..............


HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS ....... ........... ....







The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose(
providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of
products named and does not signify that they are approved to the ex,
sion of others of suitable composition.


Prepared by James Montelaro and M. E. Marvel in cooperation v
personnel of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations. Special tha
go to D. S. Burgis, Dr. J. R. Orsenigo and Dr. W. T. Scudder for their
valuable assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.


May 1963


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMIC(
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State University and United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director










CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL FOR

FLORIDA VEGETABLE CROPS


Introduction

Weed control by use of chemicals in vegetable production is
latively new agricultural practice. It offers great promise as
eans of reducing the costs of growing vegetables by lessen-
the need for cultivation and hand labor.
The effectiveness of herbicides may vary under different soil
climatic conditions. For that reason, the grower is warned
proceed with caution in introducing new chemical weed control
ctices on any of his vegetable crops.
It is the purpose of this guide to assemble, in brief form, the
rmation that is available on chemical weed control for vege-
e crops. Literature describing each chemical is available
nthe manufacturer. For details on local application of chem-
weed control practices, see the county agricultural agent.

Definition of Terms
and application.-an application to a continuous restrict-
d area, such as in or along a crop row rather than over the
entire field area.
directed application (directionally).-an application to re-
tricted area, such as a row or bed at the base of plants.
erbicide.-a phytotoxic chemical used for killing or inhibit-
g the growth of plants.
replanting.-any time before the crop is planted.
reemergence.-prior to emergence of specified weed or crop.
ostemergence.-after emergence of specified weed or crop.
te.-the amount of active ingredient or acid equivalent
San herbicide applied to a unit area (generally stated in
pounds per acre).
elective herbicide.-a chemical that is more toxic to some
plant species than to others.








Spray drift.-the movement of airborne spray particles fron
the intended area of application.
Weed.-a plant growing where it is not desired.
Crop.-a plant growing where it is desired.
Weed control.-the process of limiting weed infestations si
that crops can be grown profitably or other operations can be
conducted efficiently.
Lay-by.-Time of last cultivation.

Precautionary Measures

Read the Label
* Many weed control chemicals are poisonous and are potenti,
dangerous to man and animal. Follow safety precauti,
given by the manufacturer.
* Be sure the chemical is approved for use on the crop you
treating. Follow rate and time schedule on the label as
proved by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Fe
and Drug Administration. Do not use chemicals that do
have such approval.

Test New Chemical on a Limited Scale
* Before you attempt wide-scale use of any new weed coni
chemical, test it on a small scale for one or more seasons ul
you are fully convinced of its value and thoroughly fami]
with its use.

General Rules

Rule 1 Know Your Weeds
The various species of grasses and broadleaf weeds dil
considerably in susceptibility to a specific herbicide. Weeds
killed most readily during the period of germination or dur
the early stages of growth.

Rule 2 Know Your Chemicals
Familiarize yourself with the following before using a r
herbicide:








SPotential hazards to handlers.


Degree of susceptibility of' each crop.
Resistance of each weed.
Restrictions on rates, timing and crops for which approv-
ed.
Any peculiarities specific to each herbicide.
For pre-emergence weed control it is especially important
t the seedbed be prepared properly before treatment with
bicides. The seedbed should be firm, smooth and free of crop
idues.
Good soil moisture is necessary for most herbicides to be
active.
After a herbicide is applied, the treated soil should not be
turbed unless otherwise specified for the herbicide. Care
st be exercised in cultivation to prevent untreated soil from
ng moved to a treated area.

Equipment For Spraying
Application equipment must be suited for spraying. Many
es of sprayers can be used, provided they have good agitation
the tank and have pump capacity to deliver the necessary
ber of gallons per acre. When using wettable powders, good
station is especially important.
The boom and nozzles should be designed for easy adjust-
nt. Nozzle tips delivering a fan-type spray pattern are general-
used for application of herbicides. Nozzle tips (and strainers)
uld deliver the desired fan pattern and also be suited to pump
city and tractor speed. Check with your equipment dealer
avoid guess-work in selecting proper nozzles.

Calibration Of Sprayer
Calibration of the sprayer is an important factor in success-
weed control. Unless the proper amount of herbicide is ap-
ed in the proper way, the operation may be a total failure.
Before each specific job, adjust the nozzles, clean the screens
d calibrate the sprayer in the field on the tractor that will be
ed with it. For overall soil coverage, adjust the boom so that
n-type spray nozzle coverage overlaps one third at ground level








for preemergence spraying, or at the tops of growing weeds
postemergence spraying.
For band application, use a fan-type spray nozzle. Adj
height of boom for the width of band desired. Usually, 8-to-
inch bands are used. Calibrate for the actual area sprayed,
for the total acres in the field. For example, only one-fourth
the surface area is sprayed if a 12-inch band application is u
on a 48-inch row. Assuming a suggested rate of 6 pounds c
certain chemical per crop-acre for overall application, the ab
would require only 1.5 pounds of actual material for one acre
the crop.
As one method of checking the rate of application, fill
tank with water, then run the sprayer for 660 feet at the sp
and pressure to be used in actual operation; then, re-fill t:
with a measured amount of water to determine the number
gallons of solution used. Measure width of actual area spra3
(For band application, this is equal to the sum of the widths
all the bands). Then calculate as follows:
Gallons used x 66
Width of sprayed area in ft. gallons per acre
12 gal. x 66
=24 f 33 gallons per acre*
24 ft.
Any change in tractor speed, pressure setting, nozzle size or b,
width changes the rate of application and recalibration will
necessary.

Cleaning The Sprayer

It is almost impossible to clean a sprayer that has been u
for spraying herbicides. Hormone-type weed killers cannot
removed completely from wooden tanks or corroded metal pal
Never use this equipment for other purposes-such as applicat
of insecticides, fungicides and liquid fertilizers. Never allow
spray solution to remain in the tank for long periods.
Although it is never completely safe and the sprayer can
used only with considerable risk of damaging crops that
sprayed with it, if it is absolutely necessary to use herbic

This amount of spray will cover one acre overall. In the case of spi
ing 12" bands over rows 48" apart (one fourth of the actual area), 33 1
lons should cover four crop acres. When preparing the spray, add
amount of chemical recommended for one acre to the tank and bring
volume up to 33 gallons with water.








uipment for other spraying, try the following cleaning proce-
res:

1. Use soap or detergent for removing non-hormone type
weed killers.
2. Hormone-type weed killers, such as 2,4-D, require chem-
ical cleaning.
A. To remove water-soluble salt formulations, use one
of the following in 100 gallons of water:
(1) 1 gallon of household ammonia.
(2) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda).
(3) 2 lbs. sodium hydroxide (lye).
B. To remove oil-soluble emulsion formulations, use
either one of the following in 95 gallons of water:
(1) 2 lbs. sodium hydroxide (lye).
(2) 5 lbs. sodium carbonate (sal soda), plus 5 gal-
lons of kerosene and 1 lb. of detergent.
Fill the tank and system with the cleaning solution and allow
stand in the sprayer for at least two hours. Drain the solu-
)n out through the boom and nozzles and rinse thoroughly with
water. Re-fill the tank with water, then drain and flush before
ing again.
If sprayer has been used for copper spraying, do not use for
NBP until after it has been cleaned with 1 gallon of vinegar
100 gallons of water. Allow the cleaning solution to stand
the tank, pump, hose and boom for two hours; then drain
id rinse thoroughly with water.

Common And Trade Names Of Herbicides


Common Name
allyl alcohol -- ----------
atrazine -----...... ......- -.. ---- .....
CDAA .......-----
CDEC ...---.... --
chloropicrin ..--....-...........-----
CIPC -................. .. ....
DCPA ...-
diphenam id .------..... ---------
DNBP (alkanolamine salts)


Trade Name
A-A Weed Seed Killer
Atrazine
Randox
Vegadex
Larvacide
Chloro-IPC
Dacthal
Dymid, Enide
Premerge, Sinox PE








Common Name


EPTC .-
mineral spirits
methyl bromide
NPA (sodium salt)
simazine ....-. ..
SMDC -............
solan ---------..
PEBC ...-----
TCA (sodium salt)
2, 4-D (amine salts)


Eptam
several brands
MC-2, Pestmaster
Alanap 3
Simazine
VPM Soil Fumigant, Vapam
Solan
Tillam
Sodium TCA (several brands,
2, 4-D amine (several brands,


Herbicides For Vegetable Crops
The tables that follow list weed control treatments that ha
shown good results in Florida experiments and are offered f
grower trial. Always check the container label for recent chang
regarding crops and rates approved by the U. S. Department
Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration. Chemic,
and rates listed without parentheses under each soil type ha
been tested quite thoroughly and are, therefore, recommend
for use. Those in parentheses have not been thoroughly test(
or have been less dependable and therefore can only be suggest
for trial purposes.
Chemical rates of all herbicides, except for soil fumigant
are given in terms of their active ingredients. Except for mi
eral spirits, all of these should be mixed with water before beil
applied as sprays. The rates of the soil fumigants allyl alcoh
methyl bromide, and SMDC are stated in terms of their col
mercial formulations. These materials are applied alone or
water drenches; not as sprays.


Trade Name




HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS


Crops


Beans, Bush
and Pole


Herbicides


EPTC

CDAA


CDEC


CDAA+CDEC






DNBP


DCPA
DNBP
EPTC


Time of Application
To Crop*

Preplanting

Preemergence


Preemergence


Preemergence






Preemergence


Preemergence
Postemergence
Postemergence


Lbs./Acre
Sandy Soils

3 to 4

(4)


4 to 6


4 to 6






3


(10.5)


(3 to 4)


(Active Ingredients)
Muck Soils



4


4 to 6


4 to 6






6(3)




(3)


* All treatments are "preemergence" to iwfeds unless stated otherwise under "Remarks".


Remarks


Incorporate EPTC into soil
and seed immediately.
CDAA is more effective
against grasses than broad-
leaf weeds.
CDEC is more effective
against broadleaf weeds than
grasses.
Combine CD)AA with CDEC
for mixed grass and broad-
leaf weed populations. The
total amount of active ingre-
dients in the mixture should
not exceed the amount sug-
gested for each separately.
CAUTION- Injury may re-
sult if heavy rains follow
treatment on sandy soils.


Up to crook stage.
Apply at lay-by directionally
to base of plants and incor-
porate lightly into soil.










HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS


Herbicides


Crops

Beans, Lima









Beets





Broccoli
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Collards
Kale
(Continued)


Time of Application
To Crop*


CDAA

CDEC

CDAA+CDEC


DCPA

CDEC
EPTC

TCA

CDAA




CDEC



CDAA+CDEC


Lbs./Acre
Sandy Soils


(4)

(4 to 6)

(4 to 6)


Preemergence

Preemergence

Preemergence


Preemergence

Preemergence
Preemergence

Preemergence

Preemergence




Preemergence



Preemergence


4 to 6


(Active Ingredients)
Muck Soils


Remarks


(10.5)

(4 to 6)
(2)


(4)

(4 to 6)

(4 to 6)




(4 to 6)


(9)

4




4 to 6



4 to 6


See remarks on CDAA under
"Beans-bush".
See remarks on CDEC under
"Beans-bush".
See remarks on CDAA +
CDEC under "Beans-bush".





Do not use tops for human or
animal food.


See remarks on CDAA under
"Beans-bush".
CDAA not approved for use
on Broccoli, Cauliflower, Col-
lards and Kale.
See remarks on CDEC under
"Beans-bush".
CDEC rate on Kale should
not exceed 4 lbs./A.
See remarks on CDAA +
CDEC under "Beans-bush".
Also see remarks on CDAA
and CDEC under "Broccoli",


'"'"




Crops


Broccoli
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Collards
Kale


Herbicides


TCA
DCPA

CDEC




CDAA+CDEC


DCPA


Time of Application
To Crop*

Preemergence
Preemergence

Post-transplanting




Post-transplanting


Post-transplanting


4 to 6


(10.5)


Cantaloupes NPA Preemergence (3 to 4)





NPA Postemergence (3 to 4)

Cucumbers NPA Preemergence (3)


Carrots mineral spirits Postemergence (40 to 60 gals.)
Parsley

All treatments are "preemergence" to weeds unless stated otherwise under "Remarks".


4 to 6


(40 to 60 gals.)


Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Sandy Soils Muck Soils
- 8.5
(10.5) -

4 to 6 4 to 6


Not approved for use on Col-
lards and Kale.
See remarks above on CDEC
under "Broccoli", etc. Apply
immediately after transplant-
ing. Use preemergence to
weeds.
See remarks above under
"Broccoli", etc. Use pre-
emergence to weeds.
Apply immediately after
transplanting. Use pre-
emergence to weeds.

Surface soil must be moist at
treatment time to insure
good results.
CAUTION Injury may re-
sult if heavy rain follows
treatment.
Use preemergence to weeds.

See remarks under
"Cantaloupes".

Apply at the 3-leaf stage.


Remarks









HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS


Crops

Celery


Herbicides


allyl alcohol

chloropicrin


methyl bromide

SMDC

CDAA



CDEC



CDAA+CDEC



mineral spirits




CDEC in
mineral spirits


Time of Application
To Crop*

Preseeding in
seedbeds
Preseeding in
seedbeds

Preseeding in
seedbeds
Preseeding in
seedbeds
Post-transplanting



Post-transplanting



Post-transplanting



Post-transplanting


Post-transplanting (4 lbs. in 40 gals.)


Remarks


Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Sandy Soils Muck Soils

(25 gals.) (40 gals.)

(1.3 pts./100 sq. ft.) (1.3 pts./100 sq. ft.)


2 lbs./100 sq. ft. 2 lbs./100 sq. ft.

50 to 75 gals. 100 gals.

(4) 4



4 to 6 4 to 6



4 to 6 4 to 6



(25 to 40 gals.) (25 to 40 gals.)


l


See remarks on mineral
spirits under "Celerv".


Apply in water drench. Con-
trols weeds only.
Gives good nematode and dis-
ease control, but poor control
of weeds.
Cover with plastic film.

Apply in water drench.

See remarks on CDAA under
"Beans-bush". May be re-
peated up to 4 weeks after
transplanting crop.
See remarks on CDEC under
"Beans-bush". May be re-
peated up to 3 weeks after
transplanting crop.
See remarks on CDAA +
CDEC under "Beans-bush".
May be repeated up to 4
weeks after transplanting.
Use postemergence to weeds.
Apply directionally to base of
crop plants. Do not treat
later than one month after
transplanting crop.


/ I


(4 lbs. in 40 gals.)





Crops


Endive
(Escarole
and
Chicory)

Lettuce


Onions















Peas


Herbicides



CDEC



CDEC


CDAA







CIPC
CDAA+CIPC

DCPA

DCPA

CDAA

DNBP


Preemergence


Preemergence


Preemergence







Preemergence
Preemergence

Preemergence

Post-transplanting

Preemergence


Time of Application
To Crop*


(2 to 4)


(4 to 6)







4 to 6
(4 + 4)

(10.5)

(10.5)


Preemergence


Lbs./Acre
Sandy Soils


(2 to 4)


(2 to 4)


6







(6 to 8)
6 + 6


4

6 to 9


(Active Ingredients)
Muck Soils


(2 to 4)


* All treatments are "preemergence" to weeds unless stated otherwise under "Remarks".


--


Remarks







Some varieties and strains of
lettuce may be injured.

May be applied as a post-
emergence treatment to onion
but before emergence of weed
seedlings. Apply direction-
ally to base of crop plant at
second true leaf stage or
later. Do not use on green
onions.


See footnote on CDAA un-
der "Onions".
See footnote on CDAA un-
der "Onions".



See remark on CDAA under
"Beans-bush".
See remarks on DNBP un-
der "Beans-bush".










HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS


Herbicides Time of Application Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients) Remarks
STo Crop' Sandy Soils Muck Soils Rem


Preemergence

Post-transplanting


Crops

Peppers



Potatoes


diphenamid

diphenamid

dalapon


EPTC

CDAA

DCPA
diuron
DNBP

dalapon





EPTC


4




6.0


May not give good control of
broadleaf weeds and sedges.


For control of perennial
grasses, apply to green foli-
age and then plow under.
Incorporate into soil and then
plant immediately.
See remarks on CDAA under
"Beans-bush".
Will not kill emerged weeds.


Apply at least one day be-
fore crop emerges.
Apply after last cultivation
where grass seeds have
germinated. Apply direc-
tionally to base of crop
plants. Do not apply to red-
skinned varieties.
Apply immediately and in-
corporate into soil after last
cultivation or no later than
45 days before harvest.


Preplanting




Preemergence

Preemergence
Preemergence
Preemergence

Postemergence





Postemergence


7.4


4



(10.5)
(0.8)
6.0

(3.7)





4 to 6





Crops


Strawberries

Sweet Corn


atrazine



2,4-D


Herbicides


DCPA

CDAA

CDEC

CDAA+CDEC

atrazine


simazine

DNBP
2,4-D


Time of Application
To Crop*

Post-transplanting

Preemergence

Preemerg'ence

Preemergence

Preemergence


Preemergence

Preemerg'ence
Preemer'gence


Postemergence



Postemergence


6

6

1 to 2


1 to 2

(6)



(1)



I' to :"i


to 6

to 6

to 4)


(9)
(1% to 1/2)


(1)



% to %3


Lbs./Acre (Active Ingredients)
Sandy Soils Muck Soils

(9.0)

(4) 4


* All treatments are "preemergence" to *iweds unless stated otherwise under "Remarks"


Remarks


May be repeated once.

See remarks on CDAA under
"Beans-bush".
See remarks on CDEC under
"Beans-bush".
See remarks on CDAA +
CDEC under "Beans-bush".
Adequate surface soil mois-
ture is essential for best re-
sults.
See remark on "atrazine" un-
der "Sweet Corn".


Controls weeds for short du-
ration only. Some varieties
are susceptible to injury.
Use preemergence to weeds.
Apply directionally to base
of plant. Will control seed-
lings up to one inch tall.
Apply directionally to base
of crop plants. Use amine
formulation. Some varieties
susceptible to injury.














HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLE CROPS


Time of Application
To Crop*


Crops


Tomatoes


Lbs./Acre
Sandy Soils


Herbicides


PEBC



solan


(Active Ingredients)
Muck Soils


Remarks


Incorporate into soil and then
seed immediately. May not
give good control of solana-
ceous and legumuous weeds.
Apply just prior to emer-
gence of tomato seedlings.
Adequate surface soil mois-
ture necessary for best re-
sults.



Apply directionally to base
of crop plants. Will control
weed seedlings.

See remarks under
"Cantaloupes".
See remarks under
"Cantaloupes".


* All treatment< are "preemergence" to weeds unless stated otherwise under "Remarks".


Preplanting



Preemergence




Preemergence
Post-transplanting
Lay-by



Preemergence

Postemergence


4




(4)
(4)
4



3 to 4

3 to 4


diphenamid
diphenamid
solan


Watermelons


NPA

NPA




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