Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00030
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: August 30, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00030
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text


University Nain-Alpart

orders source of

Rastafari Imperialist

b move domination
I -h Rastafari hru nh.l'h e re1, ln
Sln d d d 1l, I, ,op;f ,u, f< ,,d .,(]i, t ile 1 len he
'4 lr dllaec 10 t la d a- Shta- ph il pl -ice f Iip rinliem
dlh i.id Bro, Nick e lII ppeai I, A ,11 cl kltei the fint iltin
it Ion tin 9li ofI l Scpie Tlner that r rike o'n 5Il pinfat,: ii-
Ttli, hnl ln d i Ie i F.lt t"e ll ar t hii isi could e ro hllio anI
Trt c.lmpi soIuciidaLi s 1 the hii gd ,reiet or hbrie tholmusand' of
i llg \l lllli al R lrli il .iie llr i ll F ie in .. i. lt, r lid l
piltcmi cl'tritu imi irnliln h'a Ili henetr.imuce lre Ihe phant i-
Titis odlnd Ilal ecn iiadei elt t i, ua ldd h cricc Celo m i ho
t Able ti tile biicil len h.il leniiinid lithat fo h niish a cii
nthl ear, jcleariun it th ll Ih khmn- io.d e ,min tirder t Il ein ,u(,tle
tiedge fi the L'nher-its auiitihoiio .r, iind c diilr tl sec lo I ourself
Ras Shladrach 1 a i i s i i ir ,fllat i ha po eniil ii s itel co iii drid
he iiha jlit completed hlii culti- il l \ t ;nler A ls \lhi d.u "
Ition its corn. cegliableo peas. O()il taen'el iiile dac;y il
ulmpkin a rd other ground pu irey lie rie iilronl da II hicd ian ac
ions plus goats, chicken and pi- iroiielndaid all lhe liaitimd i'il
pnis. rit Nick values Ilis .on at shipt liili hake jtimakia a port
fer 301) ~ic iilcludec Ilas l, hiii. a, a ic cii ole tI Irequelrtli as nlo
Idltiituin anld hii, pli tiI He Calo rao lanlid .l1nori il ic1 i n, Prel ilt
d coal and make a s put th rt Ilalad ire ppiressoiui uld
The Chief Securile otliuter lTcuppre mn lo( Blackn owil
Sarg ed that Ras nafari is a thre- Alpart i 'ubeLi iie: t\h elle
t o campus security So he did his i thcre o inuch srcr ecy' l l t aic
1et to uptit die elebratiorn ct fivities re actu;iell' erihd out *ilh-
ulile Selasrie's 7th Birthda,\ Ii,( ii The plaIu
intliu And uet recently the 'ii- i klda iii ill ino l e ouiec ti
etit\ closed the Students" Union. Or I tilt niiilionr if io,,iid, rhe'
Ii ac directed against certain l ou plan to pour ino the e-ommueit)
-hand Ran Ttari. "hile robbing flem Cu bill. u, iS i
%ice-Chiancellor R y, Marsha- xill eclreiio, s blaicknlan ii titled
s iadte il clear that the nuppre by' the propaganda ltht appears in
in of tle, ltorce ha, legut, \- tile dadi Estlaliilnet press .tlhe
Strict setil( meisrnccs ale cnu mo d recInt e ample Ieing tiie r-
ctin, a' the canIIpus i no, a po't oif th alSppoiinlment ol a tiew
Sfor Intelligelnco acti\it, is Jiil Jmaicar n in louse larve pniti ir
Ilie, not only o the local E1I( accompanied b thi headline "Al-
eek inform ers but also to North part's Jamaicanitstion drie
erical Peace torps, \ volunteer, Blackiaan alrealid kliws the
students who after snice-tra.i- tru" Ioeaning of Ihose words land i
g tlve been lreened for this conenitned to i he itrigile o hi li
ik on the Mona canidu, thli Inlcperial iliiichold demand,

Bongo Nevill case

The case again t 1onlgo Ne-
ille and Francisco Jarrett uere di
missed at tie end of the pAroseu
ion is ae ri on day i fnthe Peot)
Sessions Court at Sotrurl Street
The charges arose ou of an incident
ii June last nlien thongo Netille
and 'Macko' cere selling Abeng a-
long King Street in front of Times
Store. They ere arrested anid r"ou
Sned up" b) the police including
wamen constables and both charg-
ed witlh "'failing to move on". ion
go Nedille was charged, in addition.
uith assaulting the police, resisting
arrest and using indecent language
The trial started on the 12th
of August and was adjourned to
Mohn4ay the 25th of Augusrt when
the Justices heard submissions b)
Counsel for tihe defence that the
evidenc for the prosecution had
been so discredited that it could
not he relied on. At thie end of the
submissrions the Justices ruled that
there was no case for tile accused
to aknseer on all the charges and
BOcNGO,\ E'ILLE* they were accordingly dismissed.




If BiiickmIn Ic b oI CIc c I a fooli h nol'h ] n l l licil e' that 3) If \oi ha' e to cn me into onta.
lihe puppllcet -imp)tial! l le-l ohe lfe, ei l'in r 'l l l, il; i lack sith timi fretquieentl,. look out fo
tfr LItHl It g tile' gunis i lrlegln litee I ernlie un'i i tFhel t alc ill Ir a nd docliument, Al listed
thile ari aIl i l J lan ice te ll< i feek dte n a ve l c.lr parec cl high l i iin a ll their conversatio,n tBe S d. lull them into tour conitdencc
r:nkin Canadi:a n I \ med Fo rcs i ofticci F rst I lo I ut tlhS T ll> 41 t all tuirei ie them falke if
tlhoui tsc t of his hi:,d onlce a ld ll. ien ,l Ieor cu r c i a mo'

lThee lhile (anadia li rice Ilu
les arrih d ill J:tnaia on \loade,
andr thile official C.ove..n.etd. i n
uniilu-alnnioucing iheir le.isic disclo-
sed thl a ill'y te erc here to nake
advance preparations lir a Ir.rainig
exercise to be held lnar Por Anto.i-
ir in Nolember. similar to the
onl held in March ithis, ear In less
than eight months, two s'ti ot
training foi Caiiadian Arlny iercen-
a:ies ia the bushed of the Jamlaican
coinmtc ide'
Ihe colinmuniquei wen oni

ah.il section oi rth Caiiaelilai
ArIned orcei is incising ftoen ancie
IIg thesl "iitr Ir Te Canalian
NA\ Y: Why)? Simple I is ill Shear-
ers interest to have his mnrcenar\
killerss here in a matter of hour
tlhen he calls for them. Sea trails
port is far too slow for that! So
rest the Nalv bhos!
The conununique oenlt uni
*Ii ',i/ hlre ehce aciniee goCp wi
work cloeei" ie e e-o'anon elih
ith.lumaica Dcf e l- For (e i: arri-
ige or tupplios and ali other /it' t
arv pt iiins fii the lete i
What does ', l/ily in -c .Prf,-
ii"o really mean? Simply, the JIOF
is to be given thile necersary rlin-
ing and experience in the handling
and assembly of heavy military
equipment so that when tile tilli
comes they call do their real work,
which is. to be hand-laiden and
accomplices tu foreign aggression
against the Jamaican people.
ABENG is blowing the facts tfr
all to hear. Is this quick successioiu
of military exercises on Jalaican
soil part of a military agreement
between the Canadian and Jamaican
Governments? If so how long has it

bee:l in existence? uch ;i agree-
ime 'l can h.ie pert, interest, against the sill if
ile Jamaican peopi, and purely
as i b1 product the maintenance
em power of the political puppets,
It follows oilei preparations bh tie
enemy the cotnttci.Ile of flone'i
\fairs liniisters ii the bushes of
i(;u.ns a nd J.aiiaicaa admission to
ilembership in the OAS.
IW hy els, since (:anada hs n.i
juigles. did the commanidini officer
of the 15.000 Canadi an mercenaries
in tne hills if Pfortlanid last Mlarchi
describe the terrain as ideal ior
training in t ee technique of jungle
ft -RVARF"et Why did rIhese hite
inaders establish an air and radio
network cocelrily the whole of Jalm-
But if the political puppets on
imperialist strings insist on making
secret agrernme.is to bring ouuwide
military aggression against our pec-
pie. agreements which violate the
security, sovereignty and territorial
integrity of the Jamaiican homeland,
then the people must nce that their
rights are upheld Thex and only
theo can guarantee these rights It
is only the con hined poer of all
the people that will ultimately with-
stand imperialist aggresion. Today
it is that same power that eill
thwart the imperialists in their pre-
parations for aggression.
Wit l this in mind. the following
procedures ought to be carried out
I) Once you have identified the
'anadian ntercenarnic. follow tlhem
wherever they gi. The) should bh
lollHued on fintr aid in carn, Follow
then eitlh more than onle group cit
a rime Ichnigintigpoiltiuls frei quent-
I). They can most easily) be sighted
by looking out for the local mniliars
*toogen whom the) beckon and catl.
2) Maikei sire ie identify ehativeir
pieces of equipment they are carry-

cosii, thing it inflict on an eninmy
31 lake as iniyn phoutoraphs to
identity the individuals. White mer
cenlaries are clever Today a loach
ine-grnner, tomorrow a worker at
6) Send all information. documrnenti,
photographs maps to the AbeneI
Editorial Cornmittee. It does nor
latter if it seems insignificant no
imeaningles to you. Emery piece to
infoianariio fits some other piece
Ecr,, piece counts,
_ENENI) ..


It is reported that the Direc
tot ot Prisons. Lt Col.Glen NMiglon
has been summoned to appear in
('our at Half-Way-Tree in conlnei-
tion with the shooting of Mr Bruce
Itla'o on thle "th of Juie iast
Lt Col Mignon, the report states.
liha bhen charged with I i ihootil n
itll Intent aiid (12) ,ounding with
intent to do grievous bodily hirmn
to Mrt. rah o
The incident w,. first report
cd in the Star of June 25. and was
taken up by Abeng int is sue of
July 1,l demanding that Mignon
be hbouogh to trial.
It is pre-iulcd that Mignonl
will be suspended from hii duties
:. Prisons Director until the out
crime of the idalt

As from noxt week (Septem-
ber I thie office of AtENC will
he at 14a Rousseau Road (corier
of Beetchwood A\cnue & Rousse in
Raad I



Right to


By the Secretariat
Greenwich Town Citizen's Council
hc bring (o public and igoernmentll attention that although const-
ruction continues. e nw indulries rand commercial services go into operat-
ion and new job, are created in our community political dicrimination
continue to dominir e the employment process. Our community is there-
fore commnitled t continue its protests and demands for fair distribution
of available jobs and a secured income.
The majority of job-seekers in our community testifies that jobs
are distributed through JLP branches and endorsed by the Government
Empyl) ment Bureau And that front line JLP henchmen occupy three-
four and more jobs at the same time.
The most glaring case of this gross injustice and corruption can be
proven an) da. at the vhanes and involves both JLP and PNP supporters
alike The majority of these port workers hire destitute unemployed to
vSork their shifts at half price and less while they go on to do other jobs.
Soirme acquire as much as four stubs to vork one or two shifts in unload-
img cargo boats. The destitute unemployed who are given these stubs to
orrk are paid 1. lI5/ or 1.10- at the most per da.y while the daily
rate are from 2.19/- up. And these destitute unemployed who does the
work are not entitled to sick. accident or other fringe benefits.
Some of these port workers who are allowed to carry on this ruth-
less practice owns small businesses and do no work at all They simply
use their port-workers' cards as another business, grossly oppressive but
highly profitable There are also other cases of sub-contracting of labour
in which indi iduals who are nol port workers enter legal contracts with
the shippers openly paying these reduced rates to the destitute unemploy-
ed whom the\ hire.
I'hile this goes on the street corners of our community are filled
with unemployed youths, being driven to beg. steal or become pimps.
Iht a iGoernment permits this is shocking and unbelievable and reveals the
d a drnce of the politicians who constitute the administration. Once this
ir erded no les, than two thousand lobs could be immediately available.
But it won t unless ce struggle vigorously to effect it.
The unemployed of our community must therefore constantly
[lrl tile llostruction sites and every centre of employment within our
ciinlruniity and mount our protests and demands. All those who now work
the shilts must be given official status as port workers
A census of the prevailing social problems of our community which
ginerates from unemployment must also be taken. We must know the
ulgeinl s ical problems of esers man, woman and child within our comm-
unit) anid presnil it tro Government to he resolved
\ie must organism certain elders of our community who stand aloof
of the cimmunits problems and get them to move with us
These members of our community currently employed must be
rolnniilrled to raise our protests and demand within it eir trade unions
and seek rays and means to strengthen our struggle until victory is won.
LIer one within our communal\ must be committed: "be number-
ed on the side struggling for the welfare of our community and social
usti-c or be condemned"

Zambia Faces the

rest of Southern

7nambi. lie, in a key position in Africa bordering as it does on Angola
and Mkioanmbique. two Portuguese colonies which are rebelling against col-
onmal rule oin Rhodesia which declared unilateral independence from bri-
tin so i he white minority could continue to dominate, and on South,
West Africa which is at present under the control of white supremacis-
I South Africa Situated as it is Zambia can be overcome by a combination,
of the White forces and she can act as a centre for African rebels who
iould bring independence and democratic rule to the countries around
her Jamaicans should follow carefull then even move that President
Kaunda imiakes and give him what support they can.
Recenlyl Zambia has called for a meeting of the Security council to
deal with an incident on her borders with the Portuguese Since 1966 there
hase been 61 incidents on her borders with the Portuguese in Angola and
Moambaique. Portuguese have been crossing into Zambian territory and
kidnapping people Hitherto Zambia has sought to deal with these incidelr
-s bh bilateral talks with the Portuguese governments But on June 30th a
plane from Morambique raided a Zambian border town and killed two
civilians This has put a different picture on the border incidents and Presi-
dent Kaunda has therefore taken the matter to the Security Council. He
has had the support of the other black Africans nations. At the time of wvri
ring of this article, the expectation is that the Security Council will cen-
sure Portugal but that 4 members, France, Britain, the United States and
Spain will abstain from olting.
The Portuguese are accusing Zambia of supplying a place of refuge for
the rebels of Angola and Moiambique. Zambia's reply is that she is permi-
tted to give sanctuary to genuine refugees. This applies to all countries.
Up to now. say the Zamhians. they have pursued a policy of non-violence
but Portuguese activity is causing second thoughts. They arellso pointing
out to the United Nations that the Portuguese are using against the Afric-
ans weapons supplied to Portugal by N AT.O.
in this situation of increasing crisis the Zambian Chief Justice has seen
it fit to quash prison sentences against two Portuguese soldiers who were
punished for a border incident. He has done tlis on the basisof the law
of Zambia. And since the Chief Justice has not recognized that thfS Pwrt
guese are enemies President Kaunda is reported to be planning to replace
him and others like hint.
African nations are expected to renew their efforts to pressure it Se-
curity Council into obliging South Africa to give up her control of South-
HWet Africa. When this country gain independence it is expected that ilh
inhabitants will call it Namibia.

(..the living hell)

Life behind bars is a terrible thing. It is there as something deep down inside of me
not a bed of roses It is the living hell Maybe telling me that prison and crime was not for me,
you have asked yourself how can a man, of Because I am for progress and there is none e-
even ordinary intelligence put up with this hind bhrs. There is much sorrows and bitterness
kind of life day in, day out, week after week. there. I am sure thousands of youths are in pri-
months after months, year after year? You son in this island, and they are without hope.
might wonder whence do I draw sufficient They are from one approved school to -
courage to endure it. To begin with, these nother, then to the GP. and the St. Catherine
words seems written on the walls of my cell D.P. where there i still no hope for them to be-
Nothing can he worth this. No one knows what come somebody. There is no programme of trai-
it is like to suffer from the intellectual atrophy ning in these prisons. I think it is time now.
the pernicious mental scurvy that makes life that emphasis should be placed on the Reforma-
real Because even the analogy of thirst cannot lion of Prisoner Rehabilitation. Brutality can-
possibly give you an inkling of what it is like not reform anyone, and that is the main thing
to be tortured by absence of everything that that goes on i the prisons. Brutality only make
make life worth living, one become more bitter,-the most grievous in-
A prisoner cannot keep from being haun- human acts committed against prisoners every
ted by a vision of life as it used to be when it day'in this prison and there is no one to dojus-
was Real and lovely At such a time I pay lice from Caesar to Caesar. But I would like
with a sense of overwhelming. These words I to ask one question. "Men, who are sent to pris-
did write on the table of my heart. For many on, are they not still human beings and are en-
years and to my grave they will go with me. titled to Constitutional Rights?Why do the pri-
In the past I had spent most of my youth be- son authorities *ur the rights to carry on this
hind bars Because of injustice and until this blatant suppression upon our Constitutional
day the past seems to be with me everywhere Rights?
I go. But there is no one that can prevent the Prisoners are constantly kept on a semi-
reaction of a human mind when he is barred fr- starvation diet for no just reason. Prisoners are
om progress for most of his life and for no real murdered, beaten and as a result suffer broken
reasonl. legs, hands and skull; and it is covered up inside
I just cannot begin to explain the pangs the prison by the doctor and the superintend-
of hell one has to bear behind prison walls. enl. But there is still a lot of evidence at the Sp-
Prisons in general are no beds of roses, so I can anish Town Hospital to prove this.
not see how any well-thinking person, with a Just a few weeks ago. a prisoner was mur-
reasonable mind. can believe that prison is the dered at the G.P and the killers are still at large.
best place to send one when he committed an But I have this to say to all those who are sup-
act that is far beyond his control. People should porting the killing of innocent inen in the free
stop and think again, I am not saying that when world and in prison. who are saying crime will
-ever one commits an inhuman act he should stop by killing innocent people. They all make
he set free But what I know is that most of the one of the biggest mistakes in their lives.
I have made a study of our prisons and I
men behind bars are deprived of justice in every ave diaverd that almost aof the prison an
way It is Injustice that put most of our youths ave dio d that almos o the pilsner
behind prison calls are poor people and are children of the poor.
b prison walls. I also discovered thaut mot of the prisoners are
But it seems as if no one has ever stopped I also dis<'eted that'mot of the prisoners are
But it seems as if no ne has ever stopped ignorant or the children of the ignorantl seems
to find out why so many youths are in prison. to me then, that ipovere y ond ignorance make
This is mainly because of injustice, and not un- t peo le ommt cme So all those o are
til all who support these acts of injustice come people commi crime. all thoe who are
together and do something about it. that any- saying to kill would cme together and find a
thing will be done This is self-evident, that all twy to do away mwth poterty and ignorance
men are created equal and are endowed by their they would be much beler off in the log run
Creator with certain inalienable Rights That Most of the men behind bars are born
among these are; Life, Liberty and the pursuit children of conditions and circumstance. There
of Happiness People may be deprived of their are many youths behind the St. Catherine pris-
Freedom. but still retain Personal Rights on walls doing terms ranging from 5 years to 20
It e ems to me as if human life is absolu- years. And even life imprisonment, and yet,
it seems to me as if human life is alsosi then is still no programme of rehabilitation set,
tely of no account in the St. Catherine District o o still no Pgramme of rehabiBlation set'
Prison. An innumerable amount of Human Life out for the reformation of these helpless youths
cut short by unheard of brutality. There is no whom the government move (rom one prison
reasonable mind that will not react against to the other, All that is handed down to these
cruely The State employs thousands of people poo youths, each day, is lots of brutality. I
to put you in jail if you do the wrong, but the- don't know what would really happen to many
re is not one to help you when you are unjustly of us if we did not get the help of the Almighty.
convicted The whole surroundings of the prison is
I was unjustly convicted and sent to pri insanitary and you cannot get any medicalcare
son for 6 long years, Now. I was completely inside the prison that is soi badly insanitary.
isolated from the rest of the world mainly be- I am INNOCENT, bilu I REMEMBER.
cause of injustice. But although I was isolated : L /69.

rhe Myth of King Sugar

Iggar Boy" Robert Kirkwood hanging on
Whenever members of the community
raise questions concerning the future of the su-
gar industry and the plantation system both the
Government and the sugar estates adopt postu-
res which are generally interpreted as aggressive
they challenge questioners to provide practi-
cal and detailed answers to their own questions.
I think it is necessary for us to expose the sham
of these postures as they are nothing more than
red herrings #from across the waters) which are
designed tocn e confuse and confound the public.
The first implication of their attitude is
that the burden of proof as to the iracticability
and feasibility of any ideas on this subject lies
on the heads of those who make them.Let it be
known clearly, loudly, strongly and unambigu-
ously that this responsibility is primarily a gov-
ernmental one. it is rheo withr their vast admi-
nistrative and research facilities, their access to
information moree often secret than nor) on
whom the burden of evaluating ideas lies. It is
nothing but arrogant nonsense and a device aim-
ed at resisting change to charge the responsibili-
ty to the individual citizen or to individual grou
-ps particularly when both the government
and the sugar estate make a virtue out of the se-
crecy of statistical information which they may
The second implication of their attitude
is that before the issue of diversification can be
decided it-is necessary to have concrete details
of the diversification programme. I could not
agree with this more completely. But one must
also recognise two concomitant points. First, is
that itheseprecise details (as I said before) can
only follow on a programme of governmental
evaluation.The other, and this is related to the
sugar boys in particular, is that if one must jus-
tify the case for every, acre of land subject to
a diversification programme-then similarly
they must justify the case for every acre
of land they bWing under sugar. Yet, let it be no-
ted this has not occurred and since the end of
the SecondWorld War the acreage of land und-
er sugar cane has more than trebled with hard-
Sly a murmur on the question of alternatives.

Now nat me sugar industry inds that they
have reached the extensive limits of their land
frontier they come to us in all "innocence" on
the question of alternatives.Thus tonight when
I speak on the question of sugar and alterna-
tives it must be clearly recognised that I am not
on the defensive but I am in fact throwing do-
wn a challenge to both the sugar and govern-
mental interests on the questions of land use
and the burdens of the sugar industry on the
rest of the community posed by its present
shape. forn, size and location.
As soon as the issues of diversification
is raised the plantation boys throw their hands
in the air and shout the question, why use our
lands for this, if there is other idle land in the
community? Put in this way their question raise
es and even more profound and disturbing issue.
How can a poor. land-hungrv island econoii',
really have 'idle' land' And., if this land is idle
what are the institutional restraints which pr-i
vent its g0itng into prodhctiotn. Mi answer in
brief is the p/lranttion s stenl. It is the planta-
tion system which contributes to the fact that
0.7% of the farms in Jamaica occupy 56' of to-
tal acreage whilst 717 of the farms occupy 12%
of total acreage.
The problem of sugar is to be seen and
analysed in the context of total planning and re-
source use. 4s far as land use is concerned it its
impossible to do t/is and at fthe same rime hIs
as sacrosanct the 25' of! he country hbest coul-
tivable land now under sugar. From this com-
prehensive standpoint it is also obvious that the
merits or demerits of diversification cannot be
baseb on any simplistic measure of how much
we get per acre of sugar as against other crops.
We have seen that a great deal of the cost of
sugar production are hidden and indirect. In
the diversification programme which I shall out-
line a great deal of the benefits derive fromn the
fact that the 'new'forms lf agriculture which I
recommend create the basis for other industries
within the economy and unlike sugar it is not
necessary to have the real industrial use of the
nmarerial ie., sugar refining, done outside ofour
The first problem of land utilisation is the
land held in excess by the plantation. Tbtal ac-
reage belonging to the sugar manufacturers is in
excess of 200,000 acres land this comes from
the Mordecai Report despite Kirkwood's claim
that it is 170,000 acres) of which at most 80,
000 acres is cultivated. The explanations offer-
ed for this situation is that the unused land is
unsuitable for sugar and agriculture. Apart from
wondering about the economics of buying land
which is useless, apart from raising questions of
honesty, it seems to me that if the land is too
hilly as it ifs often claimed then it should be e-
valuated for use as the basis of an afforestation
programme. Forestry demands on soil are mini-
mal. Projected imports of pulp and paper for
the whole of the West Indies will be in the e-
gion of 25,000 tons by 1975 at'a value of a-
bout 14m. at 1962 prices. In Jamaica alone in
1965 import values of pulp, wood and paper is
8m. A programme of afforestation also aids
conservation and thus yields other indirect be-
nefits. Thie first line of enquir, therefore is the
forest potential of the so-called 'useless' land
held by the plantation estates This potential
has to he examined on the basis of the feasibili-
ft of an integrated set ofactivities centreing on
a pulp alnd paper manufacturing induttsr.
The second area of diversification is into
vegetable production. Here it has often been
claimed (as done in the Mordecai Report) that
500 acres each of onions, carrots, cucumber,
tomatoes, peas, Irish potatoes and sweet pota-
toes would satisfy current Jamaican consumpti-
on levels. This leads to a total acreage of 3,500
acres. A little reflection will show that this is
not a good enough answer although it has been
used to minimize the importance of vegetable
production.Per caput consumption of vegetable
is about 75 Ibs. per year, of potatoes about 18
Ibs. per year. This average figure hides vast dis-
parities and clearly suggests that the bulk of
the community is under consuming vegetables
at the desirable nutritional level. If we place the
demand for vegetables in a dynamic context i.e.
one in which we aim at desirable nutritional
standards,we eliminate unemployment which is
government's responsibility to do, we recognise
population is growing at just under 3% per ann-
um, and government undertakes its responsi-
bility to ensure a more equitable distribution
of income and if, in addition, we recognise that
the demand for vegetables grows at least 1I'
times as fast as incomes then we recognise that
the land requirements for vegetables are vastly
in excess of that which is bandied about by the
S.M.A., the press and the Governments. Their
estimate is based ontfhq resent levels ofpover-
ty and immiserisattiob of the vast majority of

our people. Locally grown vegetables unlike su-
gar offer the prospect of utilising indigeneous
foodstuffs for processing and canning. There-
fore its contribution to output, income and
employment is not limited to the yield of out-
put per acre multiplied by price as is often
claimed, but to the total complex of activities
which follow from locally grown vegetables.
The third area of diversification is into
meat and daring. The Mordecai Report con-
cedes that these activities have a greater prflita-
bility per acre than sugar but the Report dis-
missed it because of its high demand on fanning
skills. This to me is the utmost nonsense. I
have seen. anyone who has lived in the U.K.
or the U.S.A. can attest, our so-called illiterate
people hurled literally overnight into the most
complex modern industrial societies and adjust
quite easily. As long as the incentive is there
the peasants can do it. And the only nay to
provide the incentive is to produce agricultural
crops for ourselves by ourselves.
Imports of fresh beef converted to num-
her of head of cattle in 1969 \ill average about
13,319 head of cattle. This requires a total
stock of 76,000 to support the annual turnover.
This alone is equal to one quarter of the exist
ing population of cattle in Jamaica and on the
basis of I acre per head on good lands (e.g. pre-
sent sugar lands) would require 76,000 acres
usually 2 acres on rough land, thus 152,000
acres). Lamb and beef imports will also in 1969
be equal to 33,000 animals and would require a
stock of 130.000 animals. On the basis of I
acre to 4 sheep we have again a claim for 32,
500 acres of land. As to processed beef in 1965
we imported 41/1 million Ibs. and on the basis of
2501bs processed beef per animal it was equi-
valent to a turnover of 16,000 animals and a
stock requirement of 90,000 acres of best lands
stock requirement of 90,000 animals. and a
further acreage requirement of 90.000 acres
of best lands (or 180.000 acres of poor land).
Milk imports also equalled in 1965. 20 million
Ibs. Butter imports 7 million lbs., cheese and
curd 3 million Ibs. The import of butter and
cheese was equal to about that produced by
40.000 head of dairy cattle as an annual turn-
over and a stock requirement of about 60.000
animals with an acreage of 60,000 acres of
good land. Milk imports would require an an-
nual turnover of 5.000 animals, a stock or 9,
000 animals and an acreage of 9,000 acres. All
of this ignores the fact that current meat con-
sumption is only 301bs. per head per year and
milk products 55 [bs. per head per year. When
the other dynamic factors referred to in our
look at vegetable production are taken into acc-
ount it is clear that the acreage and cattle re-
quirements would be significantly higher. The
acreage totalled so far is 226,000 acres of good

(Turn to Page 4)



ord this?

Table of Food



Pig, goat
sheep meat
(of all kinds)
(of all kinds)

1% lbs. per month

23 ozs.
51/ ozs.
3 ozs.
2 lbs. "
3% lbs. '
2% lbs.
9 lbs.
10 lbs. per'"ear"

2 pairs per year.


Shiangelser to dollars and
(cntl due next week. rill hli the
ipri"' i'e'der, first and tha rdc
Ilhe lro;ii tlat 1t clt te rrill hut
dtirs sit apply to the fise-cenl
ilrt" fi nf i magic can rtrn fei\e
r rllc into six pennio thnrr e uitl
site Iiastl Io slcnd .ill feel there hti
ial pinch'
NN :illolnlil prIpagtlnda Ii"
Siilnrr'nil'li Ithls rail alter Ihre (;tt
that there will lie iib 100coits t*o
Ilis dilllai a as.itiznt I u20 clin, to
I tll, h iltlimrus. and hilt pre ni
irpedlic ill iaie til il tetn cih"
itruto.d oI twehe foi something
itha ii sail tl be worthl a s hiling
I i salcan no h(iy I l m hanaas for
tw-lve pc nis., how many will you
Iv able tol buy k iti tell cInI "
Ithe rilorc t do their slo ltp
iri liltclalls hand ill ilouth t'lln
it th ei s werte he1re to hill in lIrg
-r iuJniilre theie is nri refrigerator
or -: urr pl ec Io tore fouod NtlA
eln r ith lile i m;allesl purihas.
theIt esir le i sublstr nial lo,' Let
it ,,1 lit piiurchals is a half.
piiund 'd. i a banll pounlld of tlou
I3d. ;i half pound of cornmeal
2' id and a qunarler pound of ilte
itheTcipst aIll fish '":d This ;itd
up to I 41 There could be shi clan-
ge our of 2/- tHu iwitl 2,- worll 20
cr, ts and if pennies are tounited as
merits, the piurhaser will get 4 center
i,. 4dt change only. o snhe will be
4d horse off than today
Of course, the Goverimeill
ts ihast Ii he cent is worth more
tharn thl prenIn something between
a Iarlthing and a lhaltpinnsy more
Int uheni lasrl did svu r-et a tIrlingl
-iad half-peniies will no longer e-
\11t In actual lact, except for a dif
ferniil inae vix penllies will be only
aorth li, pennies next week
IWe would have been better
off with a 4/ dollar, divided into
Iltl cents lo take the place of 9h
half pennits But the political touts
in hothl partie itouti for big money e
liae r nu time forl the sufferers Thes
decided on a iprestige dollar and

The myth of
lasnu i tr ixeld farming tE psrodur cfur 19i
rii'ri iir ii' s nr, i/1 ancld doirv pronlltduc
Atiar also orffir rhLk advantage of further
pie isir / tif dimne st produce i at hintom bui
t i't i sreuTer itiamrraiti e the skins eof these
animaulsA ,ul fnrm the basis of a thriving lea-
:/,r ;iJurlti since price is. we ae significan-
tls cheaper than ithe ources ol current imports.
There is also tle possihilit of developing a ma-
jor teedstuffs industry. Currently w import o-
ver S0 million lbs of feedstuffs But on the
1lasie of a estl\ elianded cattle population
requinnig -41bs. of feed Iver galton of milk
prodiuced, plus 1 .000Ib of feed for beel ani-
in1 as siipploktoil to natural fodder it we
;le ri operate efficient thenl the feedstiff
nidusir\ would need to produce mnl etliing like
iisarl, 500 million l It rl ct d.
This leadI on is it thi rIa! arta do lr
"N;!...,'I, I'. i erI, r. / w;'a, :. This will
olil rlll replace prevent cereal imports valued
at (Sir, bui could provide along with suci
pircduc is as clpra meal and cake.pineapple bran
b ailliaas. Cakes and meals ol wild palms ert tihe
bis- iof a atl ilitiluat-ri o. indigesnetus pro.
jsLuis as ai. input into .n indfiencu industry)
TlIre- are ether crops utich tliln ad space
pe cii u'tie Ironm lookuins ilntll But une othrl
dt rsilng lo mention is tuba.cco if which we
siporleid 2 a millili Ib\ in 19et (most of it
ironic Rliodesiai
It may be further noted that all these
foinis of agriculurr we Ilhae collsiderctd is tlhei
ii r l a(int ,ifirs. A d th is i lo s i-r fe ai,

r fa ,I C ,., ,twarJs ~! og the i a, i
; .i I,.i rm t,,ii The foreign exchange sgalou
ut tlie plorducts I hsav considered was valued
at Litoli in 1966t a. agdin& t fl nt. gr1ss eam-
iig0 itf ihe augar industry
Fan.ily tdiersification of land us also in-
sdolu the nonagricultlurl use of landfor hou-
Ming, ierali-ati facilitie, tci.
hnere are two points I would like to
'onachaud wiu very briefly aid thee are of a

hoi Bhut nI the th Septem bher iou
will pa.l cents for the same hbs
of nlatihes Look on any Govern-
mento C n ersionn Chart and vou will
ses that 2 cents equal 2d or eI
This is fantastic How can one thing
be equal to two different thing.?

Snllnd' Sept 21st


Il \ Bay Farm Road

I -r ot lilylii Wav



Kin SugarCONT
deliberate controversial nature. It seems t,
me that on the hasis of present data and know-
ledge that the peasant farmers who produce
half the sigal outpur are the nost effiieint
pioduccre of sugar Thev receive, to quote the
Mordecai Report. 41". less per ton of sugar
than ihe estates ad )el conrlinlu to produce
cane. L less thev are fools. which I am certain
the\ are iot, they would not have continued
to do so unless it was compensated for by
greater efficiency It should also he noted that
in the evidence supplied the Mordeeai Commi-
sion bh the Sugar Manu.;facturers Association
that of the I1 estate, 13 of them claim to pr-
duce sular at a coItl of more than 40 per m.,n
This suggests considerablte nefficienly This i
due not so much tn sheer sizc hut to ihe oner.
ship structure of the industry and all its histhr
rical and sociological implications Alnd as a
last point I think we should look ad the probe
lens iof tim hornlon and risk The sugar buys
require guarantees for ten years and to quote
this evidence t the Murdecai Report again
"eve an anaerage weighted return of ..8 S/; for
the 7 i-ar period 1OSt-bi. the Ashsociatiou
regards as inadequate in relation to a risk inr

Notice here. despite public pronounce-
inmnts to the contrary there is the clear adumi
saion of how much nsk the industry involves
Here then is my challnge. Evaluate a progra.
nirle along the lines suggested on the basis of
(I) cntiituing guairaiteed markets of te a earsn
ahead. 2) offering the incentives which now
go to foreign capitalists to our local peasantry
and to those who can engage ili activities scen
tried on the suggested 'new' forms'of domestic
agriculture (3) guarantee a setumr of &g8ia per
anaim which the sugar states fndsh.inadequa -
e, ad calculate the risk along te lines of na-
ioutal'and not prikate itlertest. Thet lefl us if su
-pi, particularly plasintaion, sugar eat justify
t i present ftrsna shapet. atiz and location oni
the baeMs of de utere-st of JamaignL A a post-
script may I as pyipam pitaSe publish the

For a few Dollars more!

e i i 0 c i t _!N IN

their prestige doillm will produce t however t IlGornmelt ae ma
lellv painl lfo thu' p rn tpelider. hra % tl 1r a ilt ceingst Thelr hate
itrei"agen In ,Itlt h seats oepintl il
M ore abit o *,e eBset it w thi maoiko
affair m will go. antii rtire ho,
S ufferin g! bho 2e chNty sats -ll !4
0.r U Il < u! r _m tei t etntt l ;*
I IIf t o hbugilil a ptl, now ilen l h! i l` tlr 2' a fihletf re retm
and gave onfe cenl tel rie Tendor r. ream v icst so ` n 2 d i "and not
dl, o tl, Ih t l iot r tl wotld I ot ulih is'i R iir"" v it I r
g _t hm-i k ell tte ,Inses ~ llrl ltple ei pi( s r6, te IUsing
cents il tartl sn would cit back ithe iat'hs etpnnplu. the upper
he ent r e l cin i ere sp wt piur chsi a rion
nolhing e htlats the om.ext .ol i, 12 ba ts the cenl N011 o i.I therrj-, I-e fo
1,6th .f a pelenn everltilme 1 l u ile lower cla ill till hry therl
ils t ille hin tfoir a cent In fact. ne one" his ,i 12 boI esit gly n
thie t,isl if a snowhall is I lh 2.4d each ir 21ihd (2, 4%dl Thi*
monr otn ite lth Septelmbr than 'in nmeanI lnd more or 55rl as "ome
Ihe -th September THE PRICE people say I' :i- 'i I:r iumw,
AH RtAILTY GON UP. iby what
sone people otmld sa),. 16 CLASSIFIED ADS
2 What a.uld you sav if vour The Glenmuir High School
landlordt pl up )lr rer Old Stt dents Asociation
Pitt it lthin ayv Youi are payine
4 .4! per month rent and the land- Annlat General Meetting takes
lord .iid !l i ou. rNe t inIlith )Onu r pia' at the School -
Sill Iusar u v tpa 14 morr n er 10 Ghleitlmir Roadt. ay Pen
month Thi i, the ame as vour ni 0 30th August. 1989
PerIy nn, kbal at 4 :0 p.m
is Most of ut hu a box of matche.-.
ipetiall tliok eis and porer pea- Ht,'i Ne itie & I Jarrett
tile Ot the 7rh Septeimber. you silt
.1 to lhe ,hol aninl ia fVd for onlle :t; scks as -IaCkO





time now...

To Work Out

The Politics of Movement

by Blackman

Surr'ounded bN, yesmen, lell further and further behind bh the
jrirs of btlndmatn the Shearer Manlev cliuir now tm r desperilelc no
. marorn-ned so Afric safaris "'Get Ihe Ftract I.ilinst "Meet thel
pie torl. But the people .an t he f.dled Every dnv on a hundred,
pi:l/l n. n street cormnr and in o cnip fall netr the people, "outh as te
older heads are working out the politicks ,t mutis net for" it is clear as
thit the old time business done with


Some rca-san that Jamaica need, ne Ihiod yrtun. educate
with tile itintre-t if C ufntry heart fhee heads forget or di not
from the fact that the nsajrfit of youth 65.; of Jaraica under 25
eduvcaed. whether in school room or onn street-eorer, and the discipl
true freedom are for theie very reasons out if party politricks The
that the systelnm ill ch~ang; man before man, can change the atelm.
inderstasnd that it is not that no po,,nnurn friend has been in p'lir
but that aou cannot remain true for lorn. Thee see that there ari un5
en commandments which politicians have to obei Io unie. nio n
how much honesty, brains or der datiin the might hare


Some other who see that tile stein capture man rather mant
ge the system reason that we need a third parts The trouble is tha
third party have to work in the system anme wav But let man see there
Many before us have tried the third party way. In fact. since I
there have been nineteen third parties besides the PNP and ILF
example Agri-industrial Party ( 149). National Labour Party (19621
me of these have been only a few opplrtianists coming together:others
Millard Johnson looked more serioius.AI of them met the same fatel
ever. Not one ever got as much as 5 per cent of the vote. much less
single candidate into the two-party-apitlaist parliament. Not one la
from one election to another even when such skillful poltitian like
Hill was in charge. Why?
Not because the PNP-JLP were holding their support. We have
that progressively the, were losing people or at least not attracting y4
Not because the third party leaders did not know the tricks of the t
nor were iliterate- the Hills and Richard Hart failed. not because I
were uneducated or failed to give off black sounds look at Millard Ji
son None of these reasons show why no new vote-catching part) has I
able to take up the support that the political gangster, have heen loto
The truth is that the consciousness which has moved blackmani
and more away from PNP-JLP politricks is a consciousness that ino
movement/party or whatever that is primarily concerned with election
he primarily concerned with blhrakian Ifberealion sections wa s ,art
Jamaica by whitemen in alliance with tual middle-cla.s to gu te tile
the vote so that imperialism and its houselaves could keep every
else. This is now seen. It was no surprise then that the JLP-PNP gan
drafted the independence constitution with an eve tn discriminate a
thE blackpeople party of the time-the PPP Why else they 'enrenl
only one Opposition Leader who lould choose all the opposition s
t regardless of how many parties got elected to the House? Wh) edil
to ensure that even if Johnson got elected to the House, he and his
would have no real say in upsetting the imperialist ctiontiution. Btck
sees these things and learned from them Electiona is 'their' business
signed to protect theirr interret. black people may use the white m
de ice as a lalHc against him but ineer ass ura iegv Now the watch,
is put by Brother Makcolm X "BY ANY, MEANSNECESSARY". We
nut he tied to electoral Ntles which thue enemy makes and breaks (in
the PNP JLP record). By so duitg he exposes what ru third party has
put before blackman-elections canom t he out primary coen. Hence
reason why they all hpue coltapsedsthey failed to ose timmsees on
rising consciousness od blackman on the move.
The second basic reaso is that the third party, especially i it i
dical, can never offer as awpny iniducetrnts to the few who stilf vote a
established parties nor expect anylthip but repnrmcsio ffrom the e
The PNP-JLP man promise a work on a tltrwe Faottrmore faced
isrious third party threat, the imperialiso and tjeir local lackeys fre
all the funds taken from btlckmans to keep the two-paritycapitalis exn
ration goinog-WISCO. DELISER, Hart, Public Seo'i Co., supenm
merchants. Maitalon ssa. ASbeaheim, and all the othe. Every third
in Jamaica today must face itn pispoet of starvation from alck offer
Get some froTn atboad blt how can that lai7? And even if t
kept coming ll4 goughi for an election ci apaigm how does the
party fight tit pe 'ad propaganMa of the power altruetre? No me
that you talk the tuth it can stilU b.seditioa:;te poKie can bntUtlisei
workers even thought it might ie illeaal. And how will the liberation
pai'tr aeh tItF peop~a? through the "freedom-on-speech" radio. T.V.
piroes Fioret that adlirma -restigbrr how much ttime Itih students
laet October it put their case! Where is Argumnat, News analysis. W
Youir Clous and. lately, S ns of Neguc ? All gone. Fromr thb we see
old iesso again no inling elass in history has ever eomunitted suicide
in tIh in urea of freedom of speech nor anything hse. The enemy in
ic .will certainly not allow a Mackmima party to turn the instrument
white power against whibe. Aid if revolutionary forces maiaged to
th real problem would only then begin.

V t'';,.": d At,\ P l.: Ca, ld , ;

l> ti.r; \ Ki n. RO.r! H, 1 Se:;er'ty, reudr; uti CllCroft Ave. Kgn. 8. Printed by H.P. Ltd., .5 Induutrial TeCace, Kgn. 14.,

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