Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00028
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: August 16, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00028
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text

Nixon Nixes Blacks For

Jamaica Ambassador


ug.17, 1887
Marcus Garvey's name is linked with the revolutionary, reform-
i and reactionary activities of black people in Africa, the United
Sb es and the West Indies. In Jamaica, links with Marcus Garvey
ie been expressed by the reactionary political regime. In 1956 the
P1 government had a bust of Marcus Garvey placed in the East
Ri e Course Park. Five years ago, in the same park the JLP govern-
oint had a shrine built in recognition of Garvey as a National Hero.
it were neither fooled nor were we conciliated by these tactical
pftures to black people.
Over the years the Garvey flame has been kept going by diffe-
ent groups of people. Many old Garveyites are still alive. Some ce-
hbrate Garvey anniversaries and often keep meetings at the Shrine
ad elsewhere. On another level the activity of Mrs. Amy Jacques
Garvey during the past forty-seven years is an historic feat of com-
mitment. In secretarial-organizational work, publishing and lecturing
die has carried on despite many setbacks and discouraging comments
rom her middleclass friends who never lost a chance to ask her why
'he kept worrying with black people' when she could be living as
ker class-associates did.
However, it is largely through the Rastsfarians that thousands
f youths, most of them unemployed have come to understand the
militant Marcus Garvey. It is here that Garvey's name is 'propheti-
ally' linked with revolutionary confrontations to occur in Jamaica.
It is this militancy which the political regime has tried to syphon-off
hut at the same time their efforts are defeated by the oppressive con-
&tions which make Garvey's visions not fantasy but reality.
The consciousness which Black Power expresses is partly the
history of this activity which has gone on before.
Marcus Garvey was born 82 years ago in St. Ann's Bay. Jamai-
'ons were then migrating to Panama to build t*e canal for the U.S.
and work in the Canal Zone or in the Central American banana plan-
tions owned by the United Fruit Co. Garvey himself worked as a
ine-keeper on a United Fruit Co. estate in Costa Rica in 1911.
Those black people who stayed at home worked either independent-
i as peasants or laboured on foreign owned banana and sugar esta-
Alexander Bedward and Dr. Robert Love in Jamaica and Book-
T. Washington in the U.S.A. were Garvey's closest predecessors.
ed in August Town, Bedward was a preacher who turned the
(Turn to Page 4)

President Nixon reportedly turned down two Ne-
groes as U. S. Ambassador to Jamaica as a black
power movement spread into the Caribbean area.
Informed sources said that the White House rejected
the bids of Bank of America Vice President E. Fred-
eric Morrow and Ramon Scruggs, a telephone com-
pany official in New York City because the Nixon Ad-
ministration was not prepared to send a black envoy
to any country that is not considered safely in the
U. S. corner. Other countries in the Caribbean area
also are undergoing political thrusts as black ele-
ments attempt to gain control of the governments
and thus have some supervision over business and
industry, a high percentage American owned. In the
Virgin Isles, CORE Dir. Roy Innis is said to be mak-
ing a bid to qualify to run in the first governor
elections next year. Innis, a Virgin Islander, may
give up his national CORE post.

Sugar in Brain-ing

Panic John Swomle, Pofessor o
It is a serious sign of weak. Christian Ethics at the Saint Paul
ness-organizational, policy and na- School f Theology in Kansas City,
tional intention in the panic speech- iS, explained in a lecture that
es of the AllIsland Canefarmers the military even controlled comic
management to Holland cane far. trips, which, as a propaganda me
mers last week. dium, served rather as a means for
It is a shame that with an or- brainwashing, for indoctrinating the
ganization going, with facilities for U people with warmongering i-
research, a circulating income of ideas. The professor cited one of the
and 300 years of industry comic-strip characters STFVE
existence that all the A.IJ.C.F.A. CANYON
can say to its members is that they
must be prepared to receive and use
Another way of subsidy to a
capitalist business. Not a word it
subsidize sugar workers wages.
Yet the loans to cane farmers
must come from taxes. While sugar
workers remain the largest group -
of tax paying people.
The crsiis i not only in sugar "We Want Our People to Thi
but in the minds of official rulers mi
who still believe that the sugar in
dustry can be raised from the dead,
by foreign white capitalists and lit
tie half-a-man cane farmers. And
without a single proposal in the
interest of sugar workers wages and
their social life being mentioned in
their speeches and deeds.
Do these little black men rea-
lly want a -ugar industry? Are they
so blind to the social needs of sugar
Are they not interested in the HOW Essen
vital task of control of the industry,
in the national interest of the after C o
try? or is this too big a task fori ater C o
black people and must be left to fo-
reign white capitalists? i Hlr ,ther Maimrna Edwards
We must remember that the o r o e la Power Re
present "crisis" is a foreign profits oli rio Water
crises. A crises of international pri-
ces determined by foreign capitalis- c(ommn'siont
ts. And since no one, not even the Progress is the fundamental
two/party/parliamentary governme- Goarl fir all Countries To achieve
at know the true profits of the Tate this progress everything depends
and Lyle Europeans who control on the efficiency of its essential
the industry, then sugar workers services which rests in the clean
cannot be expected to be the bur- at capable hands of its workers.
den bearers of the foreign profits shod
"crisis". These workers, should entioy
Those who want an immedia- a jirsr class working condition Th-
te solution to the "crisis" must er" impetus and interest should
know that sugar workers want an never be allowed to drop anu be-
mine meiningles The Water Comnm-
immediate wage increase. Sugar wo- ia, whre8wok The Water Comm-
kers councils will be seeing to that. mission where I work admniter the
And let the small canefarmer know 'Wst antiquated and out-dated wor-
he has no hope in the organization king conditions to its workers as
of the big cane farmers who use an Essential Service. Unquestionable

th e big canefarmers bong Ros inporgn oll the is oue
their greater land powee, special t San ices of this country because
privilege of the services of the A.I.
].C.F.A., special privilege with the atier is Life. 75% of its workers
S.M.A. and WISco. and bigger cdit are Casuali, block slaves, wsok in
toM.A. s 'eoghn thh"pactnership wi- mud and water without water boots
to stregthen the n Wo' Irking three weeks on art
The big canefarmers belong off Regeading of wstrkert is out oJ
in the S.M.A. and the small cane- the iiestt m. these wILrkr are
farmers in sugar workers councais working with th C-'-nission o1ver
This is naturally so,for of the" 4 39-5 ,' past I to 1 waYrs.


"For nights and days at
August Town there was a wild
indulgence in African mialism
veneered with Christian prac-
tics...Since when has West A-
frica superseded Palestine?..
We must choose now between
tolerating West African survi-
vals on a gigantic scale and pre-
serving the name of Jamaica
as a country civilised. "
fGleaner Edit. Mon. May 2,
Professor Swomley also claim-
ed that the military-industrial com-
plex used Paramount Picures-whi-
ch the Pentagon own? to ex-
pound the views of the military.

nk for Them:ives"

Vol. 1 No. 29 August 16, 1969

itial is the



in the Army
You can't give puss butter to
watch and he is hungry.
The rate of pay in the army
is as follows: -
Brigadier 9. per day.
Colonel 8. 5/- per day
Lieutenant Colonel -7. 15/-
Major . 15/- per day-
CAptain 4. "
Lieutenant 3. S/- "
Sergeant- 2. 2. 6. "
Private soldiers get 7. 5/- per
week (less than what a lieutenant
colonel gets per day k When mar-
ried in the army a private gets 10.
10/- monthly for rent allowance
while officers get 60 per month.
Also 75% of the light bill for an of-
ficer is paid for with public funds.
In these conditions to ask a
private soldier to guand 10, O0s
O00 is begging for trouble. The o,;
surprise is that more was not taken.

A call for The

Community game
"Com m unity 'ABENG is pleased to reprint fIe
torial that appeared in The rindad
THERE is something distur-
A A* ,-,_ By the Secretariat Expres, Sat. Augusft. 1969.
AGreenwich Town bing about the ne that the West
Citizen's Council Indian governments have been meet
ing secretly to discuss ways and
Suffering and oppressed Brothers and Sisters of Greenwich Town and ad- means of dealing collectively with
jacenl areas! .. so-called subversive elements in the
Seven years ago we arose to~ claim our right to jobs and civilised region. The news is even more dis
living standards from a multi-rllion-d"llar industrial expansion then mow- turbing in the light of our suspicions
ing int full gear right here in our home town-'New Port West' that what these governments usu-
We saw the need to establish community orgni i or sation in order to ap ally define as subversive is simply
pear as a strong united fore' if we were to have power to win civilised liv anything and anybody opposed to
ing standards due to even ioninlit, their present practices and policies
The two miles of wateilront pro'ideI fishing beaches from which as governments.
hundreds of families survival for decades homes for hundreds of families How else can we construe
who were at refuge from ruthless landlords and general economic oppress their interpretation of radical acti
ion" bathing beaches and recreational centres shared by a wide radius ofl itis on and off campus. among
ditienry. The industrial expansion was sweeping this away without reitrn students, academics and workers.
ing genuine and lasting benefits to the community. exerciing their democratic right of
It was the intervention ol the 'tiwparty-politics' which was the ma free speech and organisation, as ini-
in obhmuction to the continuity of our efforts Opposed It genuine liberal mil to the interests of the society,
lion and social change. their political sought to destroy the independent t i necessary to remind our
social force we created. Thev appeared when we appeared as a rising corn necessa to remid
munit, power nhey disappeared when they divided and defused our po regional politicians that they now
wer Thsl is l a significant part of our history hold their present offices, not from
any God-given right, but as elected
A G NERAL REVOLUT1IOHRY STRATEGY MUST BE FOLLOWED- representatives of the people in
loday thie -sale of revolutionan struggles demand huge and more their respective societies. Whenever
,olimplex commintent if forces I here are thousands among the oppressed or if ever, these people choose to
Itlak populace ohu have aqu hired ne, social concept mnd attitudes and remove them from power through
are willing to devote their lives to this new dimension of iruggle but are the ormal democratic channels,
forced to grapple with the extrmelh complex problem ol how this i to be they have every right to do so.
done And without a correct and realistic perspecthi for carrying on the If there are any elements in
stnrggle based upon a clear understanding of objective conditions, thou- West Indian society which are in-
saind, of polenltial dist pi's 'f Bla 1, k lrat ni and wil cra, e will rNn lined towards subverting the print
the risk of dtisonenttaion or actingg time and energy while irting to reach ciples of democracy by which we
the goal in their own separate wi s lIte, these elements lie among those
rhe experience of the reth e t f lst revolutionary world shows that the wo now hold power. The very fact
,,mot effective road to the goal of liberation and social change is by dev that they are worried by open and
loping a rounded program of mass struggle-organising a mass political lith their polie and feel the
inotement around inilitani action on that proraamo The solution lies in their policies ad fre, t
formulating and elfecting a program that mill help transforin general di- eewd teo rnt alk h eupressionr
content and general militancs into organized, cohesie conscious resolu- whether these people understand
tIhe broad revolutionary strategy i' thus clear "link the struggles hademocracyis llbout.
for the pressing immediate needs of the oppressed Black populace with FUTURE COURSE
the revulutiounar goal of Black liberation and social change.
Our community struggle was conducted in this sain. That is why our It ma also be useful to remi
enaemi moved such great forces against us. nd i absence of a mass Id our poliians that tory has
political movement for Black liberation and social change to widen the 'd ou politicians ehar history has
shawna in almost every society, that
struggle we were bound to sutfftemr tipioarn defeats and setbacks whenever people are denied expre-
Enriched hb our experiences we are committed to re-appear as a re- ssion through the normal democra-
lentless cnnmmunit force in ctonjuncion with the overall national and ti channels which ought to be open
international sruggle and advance from that position If we fail to mouse to them. it is usually at this point
this society, will continue Iti len us of our rights and freedom s that their frustrations give way to
ON Rf-ORGANI\ATION violence. But nobody enjoys vio-
lence as a means of expremsing dis-
Efforts have already begun on teorrgamsationa Ther no et a conent of expressing
Secretariat functioning with broader forces tore-createa conununitT force The future course of West
as uur unit of social power Black Power' to act around the basic pro- ndian society will depend on whe-
bleins of the community. other our present governments are
Objective conditions dictate that (I1 securing a tangible and lasting prepared to tolerate the continued
income to the community and 2)i the proper social upbringing of our existence of all the political and
community problems This does not exclude tackling other social proble- constitutional privileges which are
ms as they arise. open to free people all over the
LAS.ING. JtOS is the onls social means by which a community can world. The day they decide to close
sutre a constant income and lay the ecouotic base for improvement of these avenues to the people, they
living standards. And iis problem must he tackled fundamentally since we must be prepared to take the blame
also hate to provide for new geicsrasons Practically, we a addressing our- for whatever consequences may fo-
telse, to many individuals who sesen sears ago were children in our comr- low.
munity Today they too have begun to hase their children and are now
cqualls concerned with the problean of a secured income And this process
L constant.
ive must confront Guvernuncn and that Uhite anid near-while skin-
ned oppresaor claas who owns and directs industries and services within lu g a r
our community with thi conmununity problem.
SC . Crop timune fo Westmoreland seg-
WVe rmut probe deeply into the facts of this multimillion-dollar in- a workers enos this neL Wordin
dustrial expansion so that our community will kno the extent to which om Sunday to Sunday at long
we are disinhented and national progress obstructed behind the guise of hours sometimes starting at 4 a.m.
industrial development.This will provide the moral strength of our sruggle The wages of sugar workers may be
THt PROfPifR SOTAL UPlRIA.\G i OF OR YOUTH is indi.- 9 per week, down through to 2/7
pensble to the cultured development of our community. Each communi- per week Although there was an
ty has the task of producing its own scientists, doctors. engineers. teachers, agreement between sugar workers
technicians. jurists. administrators. etc. But how can this be when in crm- and the two-party unions not to
muoities such as ours, here the mass of Black oppressed are found, the pay union dues from less than 1
social upbringing of our youth is environed by so much poverty and de- per week wages, WISCO is taking
privation, prison cells and prostitution. While in the communities where out dues from workers' wages of
that white and near-white skinned privileged class is found the social up- 2/7 per week, and transfer it to the
bringing of their youth is environed by plenty and privilege. high school bank account of the twoparty un-
and unihersites. ions in Kingston.
It is society which is respunaibl for producing people of learning With the ending of cr time the
and usefulness and also criminals and prostitutes This society must be real tamarind season begi- Sugar
indicted for producing more criminals and prostitutes than people of learn- s e wilM now get a regular
ing and usefdlneas by simply subjecting the vast majority of its youth, the 10110, /6 -an raday,
oppressed Black youths in communnies such as ours, to environs of eitre- 1 -a ,
me poverty and deprivation, prison cell and centers of prostitution. It is aeo the season of rnaintm s
Now it has found itself bmoud up with thia contaadiction. It is hoTri- month", we snga works avsC
fitd at what it has produced and has launched a war,a wamton campaign on mant ta s Itt amd he him fotW
police brutality against Bla youth of these oppressedo ouimnai suc ck SThe f of rnaitiger, nt
as oesm No society cani survive a war aminst i ts youth Its nciget in its .revge against th who di
sfua-ade -tion ang ui5n c timeg cr li.
It is against this loic that the motto. "OLT OF MANY, ONE PE- Sug workers bPe no pand- as
PLE" ..falls to pieces. sayings, an security, no union pn

Service Station Worker

girding for

minimum wage battle

(From the S.S.A.U News Bulletin)
July 189 1969.
The last Miniman Wage for the Petrol Retail Trade was declared
April 1964. Five years ago. It took the SSAU from the 20th January
the 9th July 1969. to get the Minister of Labour to act.
We must be careful not to look for any thing of substance from
board. Not only because Minister Newland has victimied us and abu
democracy by not giving us a seat on the board. But because the woNr
representatives and their Unions bare no membership in the Industry.
When you look at the Board from whatever angle you may choe
you see a most abnormal picture. A group of people that history mi
pass judgement on as partners of oppression.
Employers representatives: Ivan Vaz. Guy Campbell, D.C. Teon,
H.S. Marais, W.E. Clarke, Kenneth Chin.
Workers representatives: Issac Hibbert, Roland Hinds (
L. Lawrence (TUC) Lascelles Beckford. Aston Austin. Roy Harper(B1
Chairman: Dr. John Beckford,
The TUC, has no member at all in the industry: the NWU has
even one member in the industry also; the BITU is the only Union
possibly has a few members in the Rural Areas Then, we ask you,
Union hasn't got a member in an Industry, who is that Union' rep
tives on the Board to represent? Isn't it the employers? It can't be
workers for they do not know the problems of the workers.
On the 20th Jan. 1969, we wrote the Ministry of Labour and
Secretary of the Jamaica Gasolene Retailers Association, pointin1
that the APRIL 1964 MINIMUM WAGE which provides for a Min
of 1. 2. 0. to a Maximum of 4. 6. 0 for a 44 hour work week is
only outmoded but a criminal act. We requested the appointment of a
Board and that the SSAU be accorded 3 seats on said Board. It was noll
til the 10th July a day after the Board was set up that thisletter and
reminders to it were replied to by the Ministry in the most negative fasis
family of 4, 5, 6, and in many cases 8, must no longer wark for 2.3,
3.3 and 4.6. per week, againli
"Every one has a right to a standard of living adequate fo the ha
th and well being of himself and his family.'
We are calling upon all workers not to accept the cnrmbs that will
swept from under the masters' tables, that win be LABELLED MIN
MUM WAGE AWARD. If said Minimum does not reflect positive
genuine increases on the present slave-wage, THEN TO HELL WITHI
WE aint boasting: The Service Station Attendants Union is the a
workers' organisation with the required qualification to speak on behalf
the workers and to represent the workers in the Industry on any Board
Tribunal in Jamaica. Whether Newland wants to admi thi or not- W
the NWU, BITU and TUC have failed to organism us er the years,
have succeeded in organising ourselves.
WE are the only Union with a signed AGREEMENT from ot
our employer, which was duly signed and witnessed before the Minis
of Labour on the 19th March, 1969, by the employer Mr. A. D. Hob
and the Union's President. Mr. Clement Sinclair.
WE are the only Union in the history of the Industry who ever
upon the Ministry to take a poll in the industry. WE are the only U
ever to place before the Ministry on the 12t May. 1969, 37 CERT
CATES OF MEMBERSHIP and on the 25th June. 6 more, mking a
of 43 Certificates of membership for the purpose ,q deletlpag epres
ational rights in the industry. The Minster of Labne well up to datm
these facts.
OIL IS THE GOD OF'MINEALS out of which thieves and eploitens
BLACK and WHITE LABOUR became rich and respectable. They ca
from rags to riches"

Councils Report
tectio We only have our labour to I)WIOwSC6wi40a whIo res
sell as the mans of life. e hfrso the plitiaiil ltinoS. Rol
The foreign white capitalist. Oi .'l iul 1ed '
know this and carry out the worirt aftg" s Wlolt". (Beal
form of victimizaton against cAw of n'irs? sn id live
scious workers who dfenad Sli! t SPSder)*
cause of immediate wage iwcree 2) If there 6 no itarie e o
Many workers hpte not trtsu calif ,lryetmig y "t
hack since the tlastswe k trike. tioe, tofo I,10 a8t
And all the political e maiOils dii, wiB thLericks 0 .ga toae lgaiWSCO,
to say, "We didts-t I p o st op stdy o t iiluty, to m t
work." Neither coald deatf te uin leelsiand cont
be found to iet th t a ets A nken* on the i
WSCO heat ih asga work elrs rys to strengli
arte knoiinveg ti lu mote than y poatee Ip settle the st al
before. The whit t (kr fea 3) Wigtt RIC ltt th1 O itoi
thin BL.sCK WORKINGQ CL 5s, has5 ealtest A wtajllt ibab bg
KNQWfIEDGF. And they plan to' -jo0Laiy of fodcrop&a
fualhir stictii weri anal sty 41 Ttws, yho pla Ike.eg, Up
klIa)o tlegaojsgtheWulo pe ti, is only iD do iP-W
otthel olakisary unoionarnqirlttt Keep a good portion for yar
4Wtcla't. 4, p, t )rM. AP
boe, decide "Wits Ptoi0 DO fNIWN TRADE
Atsw Vtmatitinao wik oR- haadty W Iourm I yl
GANITN a bter standard of


For more than thirty years, the Dominican
Republic suffered the bloody dictatorship of
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo, the "nausea of Ameri-
ca". whose arrival in power was the product of
the 1924 intervention by Yankee marines in
Santo Domingo. His was one of the most despo-
tic regimes ever to exist in Latin America and
was, without doubt, the most servile to U.S.
The tyrant was assassinated amidst mys
serious and surprising circumstances in May of
1961, In December, 1962. elections were held in
which I)r. Juan Bosch. opposition candidate to
the one favored by Washington's most reaction-
arn circles. twon a landslide victory
On September 26. 1963, a Pentagon and
CIA-backed military coup overthrew Bosch and
placed in power a triumvirate, whose members
resigned one by one Tile outcome was a govern-
ment headed hb Donald Reid Cabral, supported
by the military Trujillo backers, in what appear-
ed to be a continuation of the tyrant's long rule
On April 24, 1965. Cabral's government
was toppled by a large. popular movement led
by a group of young officers whose intention
was to place Juan Bosch in the Presidency once
more, and bring back constitutionality. This
democratic movement, led by Colonels Miguel
A Ramifre and Francisco Caamano Deno, made
Rafael Molina Urena. who had been head of
the ousted Chamber of Deputies, Provisional
O m ST his was opposed by a group of discredi-

ted Irujilloite military men headed by general
Elias Wessin y Wessin. (hief of the Air Force.,
from his headquarters at the Base f San Isidro
The Constitutionalists headed by Caamano, had
given weapons to the people with the support of
organized democratic parties, to defend the po-
pular movement in the face of the attack from
Wessin y Wessin's followers.
A few hours after creation of the military
junta, a brain-child of the US. embassy. it
threatened to attack the city owing to the
growing strength of the revolutionary forces
which endangered the position of the trujilloite
militarists. At that point, US, warships appeared
off the Dominican coast. And at the same time,
the air force under the command of Wessin.
bombed and strafed the Dominican population,
committing a flagrant act of genocide.
On April 27, the U.S. Embassy called on
the people to lay down their arms President
Molina Urena and a group of vacillating officials
sought asylum. Others, headed by Caamano, re-
mained firm. at the side of the people, causing
Wessin's military offensive to fail The San Isidro
Air Base itself was attacked by the people who
feared its imminent collapse.
LUS. President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered
US marines to land in the Dominican Republic
on April 28. in order "to protect the lives of
United States citizens" The main objective of
the armed LI.S invasion of the Dominican Re-
public was clear to prevent the triumph of the
democratic revolution and the overthrow of the
Irujillo military clique
The very nature of the C S. intervention,
its brutality and ultra reactionary aims placed
the OAS in a blind alley Employing a practice
used on other occasions, including the so-called
October crisis. Washington called the OAS toi
gether to report. not on its military aggression.
but on the "serious situation" existing in the
Dominican Republic
In the case of the Dominican Republic
the OAS became a gendarme against the Latin
American peoples and tried to cover up the res
ponsibility of imperialism in the episode. Mul-
tiple statements on the dangers of international
communism and anti-Cuban diplomatic action

were not enough, just as it was not enough that
the OAS look the other way in the face on
Yankee aggressions. It was now time for the
OAS to join the United States in undertaking
the military intervention of a republic on the
And so it is that days after the beginning
of the Tenth Consultation Meeting. this organi
ration approved creation of the so-called Inter
national Peace Force. Of course, they didn t
discuss replacement of the invading Yankee
troops by Latin-American troops. Besides adding
a handful of soldiers, officers and policemen
from Brazil, Honduras, Paraguay and Costa
Rica, the Inter-American Force was born of the
simple expedient of putting the OAS stamp on
the men who composed the US. aggressor army.
The OAS commissions (one of them head-
ed by the General Secretary of the Organization)
set up in less than three months to settle the
Dominican problem. were resounding failure
At that point a third commission was created,
headed by the United States through its Xr-
bassador to the OAS, Ellsworth Bunker
fhe third and final commisitin lappropri
ately dubbed the Bunker Mission by Assistant
Secretary of State for Inter American Affairs,
Jack Hood Vaughnl had the lamentable honour
of imposing on the Dominican people, in the
name of the OAS, the burden of a Ilnal felony
which consisted in the establishment of a vesa
tiuns trusteeship regime on the Republic It is
clear that the so-called mediation tina led Ito the
fiction of a supposed provisional government,
backed by the Yankee bayonets of the Inter-
American Force, was a temporary solution ori-
ginating in Washington. to cope with the obsti
nate resistance of the Dominican people and
the pressure of world public opinion and the
denunciation from the floor of the Security
The episode of the U.S military intiren-
tion, to which the OAS was added. participating
in and finally accepting the direct responsibility
for the armed intervention after establishing a
trusteeship over that country, even exceeded its
previously discredited and shameful past.

Street Dance

pive these results

By the poet Ras Dizzy
Monday August 4th is a holiday in Jamaica -it is the Jaomaica
/tpendence holiday to the respect of an INvDEP I DEWCE'
HflUCRA CY after bee taking our of the hands of Britainr Inldr
niece iseln ruliftgi is rather good It does not stop there though,
ha is much more to the picture re w- e realth mloying the true
aives of self Government? Hai e you really felt the spirit of a
Hmnol Independetnce Then tell me how it taste'' Has the state
Flrhe church settled their unftnish differences as yeti? Does the
di;ics t po litihcal victimization and dictatorship get out tihe
&le of Parliuint it as iyt r Coan an one or does an) one care to
i 'hat is the conflict there? W'ohat would be the correct result i
Sople here should see Jamaica turn into a police slated Should
ir violence aind disunity make its break-through i an independ-
The answer is . the question is then why?
, It is now nighibreak. Fun in the city of Kingston had started
f from itn the day but in tlhe West then funning began. Notice.
rihere around browndusk in the afternoon Here in thfe wild
gunning West of Kingston is dry and either too open or much
jammed up I am now at the Round Fountain Clock Tower in

dren Cinic this is the contmmunito of the poor peasants A
ring of electric bulb stringing overhead of the people while
Old Clock Toer presented itself on the rising of a slope in the
dle of the streets companion itself like that of a saloon in Dallas.
A although I am a Journalist on the spot carrying the manuscript
i am headsick in trying to interpret why the lirle kids is so
tously mad in getting to chat, meet and play with each other.
then why was there in fight or fuss after they were giving so
vy bad names hb those who lived up in the St. Andrew heiaens'
rounding box parked itself in the middle of the Fountain Tower
then ask the whitewashed electricity post to make her company
I she was ready to part away and so it was. It was now dancing
excitement as the paraparstic crowd beat their way up and down
Clock Tower. Human perspiration swims. The children uses the
for a dancing floor hall then dust wind and papers went for a
lion in the air The music played and the children and parents
s awa a great noise hit the crowd and the heads went up
around It was a frustrated humanist toasting the crow in his
ofever funning holiday.
The police and the ver' smart and clever detectives parked
Radio patrolled cars and jeeps and private cars to the section of

corner line. The cops they works very hard but the truth is that
did not see any trouble or fish for the jail Bigger than that is

o play. If is not recreational struggle for the youths then what is
ou tell me.
Friends the world has got out your hands and you can catch
k so let's think on these things Godly.

P.M. Lash Army Chief

Ont the 27th of Juln the usual
guard for Jamaica House was sta-
tioned at Kings House Guard Room
At about 5 30, we started asking
for supper but the cook told us it
was not prepared Then at about
6 o'clock he called us for our sup-
per The first men to enter the di-
ning hall shouted, "Sardine again"
That was had for a Sunday
afternoon supper, but it was also
inadequate for the 30 odd soldiers.
There were only 9 tins of the Bruns-
wick 10d tins. Each of these tins
contains 3 little fish which amounts
to 27 fish that means some men did
not get a whole one. At the same
time. we had to use fork to spread
it on the two slices of bread. Bro-
thers and sisters, that was the last
meal before bedtime, and each man
only sleep for 4 hours then he is up
to watch for 2 hours.
The next meal being at 8 o'
clock in the morning. Well, one
smart man after going on his post

stopped the Prime Minister who was
parsing by in his Buick and told him
of the situation He was mad about
it. so he telephoned the Chief of
Staff, His Imperial Majesty, David
Smith. who in turn pretends as
though he is not aware of the con-
After a good lashing from the
Prime Minister he sent up the Duty
Officer not really to see that we
get more food. hut to find out the
person who made the report so that
he could have his head. On his arri-
val he said we could cook the food
for the next day meal, but one
smart man said there was no cook.
we are all guardsmen. One suggest-
ed that the duty cook in camp be
sent up.
Anyhow, there was one smart
man who said no, we want no fo-
od because this should be done long
ago instead of now. This officer.lan
Robinson, wan not pleased so he
accused the man of being one of

those to complain to the P.M. He
was unsuccessful so the C.O. Patsy
from Trench Town came up and
in his telephone conversation wi-
th the Chief of Staff he told him
what we had was more than our
All now there is a big invest
tigation going on to find out who
made the complaint, in order to
punish him.
Black Brothers and Sisters,
you cry that too much is being
spent on us yearly, but we do not
see it. The taxpayers'money that
comes this way goes in the pocket
of the smart foreigners who are sent
over. and when you find out th-
ings and talk you are penalized un-
known to the rest of the world.
The Prime Minister has to do
something or else one day when he
really need our help we'll be much
weaker than we are and cannot


A A fL

Vol. 1 'lo 29 Augus 16. 1969

Arthur Lewis
To this Professor (as well as Shearer)
we already have black power. for all
black power means in Africa and the
\iest Indies is for black people "to captu-
r te ie central legislature and the executive
:ird judicial powers" (nothing about
conisol of our eco""mic resources-
better left in the han,:, t of h imperial-

So Lewsis and his employers- The NY
T1 inles r ie Gleaner and Princeton Univer-
sits black power has to mean no more
than black Mr. Speaker. blackman respe-
lr for Parliamentar Mlace. blackmani
in whliremens horse-hair igca blackmnan
withl police outrider, drill suit. ceremon-
I.l rswrdl. orsrich plume hat and all that
,T.r] It black power meant conscious
,h'lickman with he help of all colour
nd lass- taking control os econo-
ui\ ian socies and turning it to the ser-
siic ol himrieli and mankind, then Lewis
"i~urln i hlie a work and the Gleaner &
\es ork Times wouldn't have a free
hand to en.le people's minds. Nothing
l. th(frn collective control of Jamaica
i.da\ the product of three hundred
Se:!rr of black imne ro [hie sons of sa\es- no Tiace. wit lor
plule dgien us bx % hitemen can be

In thal struggle tor blaik power in
Jmlisi." b3lackmian here must face the
''"en i'nem' 3s blacknman in America-
hie wtli.e power strucrure,
ise hae it) Ire allies in fighting the
exptloilatrion of the same nulti-national
.rporjlatlri ,ni but what does the black
ini T ol the E' mpire- Lewis propose for

& Black Power
our brothers in the United States Not
that they lead the attack of the American
working class to make human a system
which has grown powerful by dehumani-
sing rich and poor alike. No, what our
black brothers must do is educate them-
selves in white culture to get I I of all
the Mammon Babylon has to offer.Black
man must turn back on his historical roll
in the west of making tree for all.the pro-
ducts of slavery, capitalism and imperia-
lism For what -I 11 of the stolen goods?
As if blackman in the U.S. has had
onls' 11' of sufferation and built onl\
SI of U.S power'
But then Lewis has had a long his-
tory of planning brown management of
white power inside and outside univer-
sities) How can he explain the politics
of black liberation? And where was he
going to do this- in the Gleaner and New
York Times?
No- the understanding of whie-
hearted blackmen like Lewis, with how-
ever many degrees, will remain dim so
long as they remain apart from the black
masses on the move. Instead they will be
used by white power in its attempts to
foul up the movement But the more we
see or hear them nowadays the more we
know the white men are on the run.
More police, more festival- more
brains, more black capitalism (sponsored
by Nixon in the L'US ) has to be brought
in to stop the rising tide of black power
control by blackman of the conditions
of his existence.
Black people will never be content
to move into the little space left us by
colonialism or to join the man-killing
corporations of U.S. capitalism.

Marcus Mosiah Garvey
,LQ-master s religion on its head by calling for Black Redemption.
H- hai a ,-as following for )ears from different parts of the count-
r, ihe coAonml government plotted to silence him by imprisoning
him lor life in a lunatic asylum The Daily Gleaner s editorial poli-
c, at the rnme wa to ridicule the Bedwardite Movement out of exis-
lce Lnfortunatels many of the m)ths about Bedward still remain
sirtnig Dr. Robert Love through his main organ, a weekly newspaper.
The dirvocate struggled for black political representation when
uhite men dominated the legislature. That generation of black pro-
lesionai land-oning small business people were then breaking a-
- firim their peasant background and had emerged into a politi-
at force
Gane> found the Universal Negro Improvement Association
iand \lncal Communities League in 1914. Booker T. Washington's
influence was then strong as Garvey thought seriously about establi-
Shing a Jamaian Tuskiegt.
it uas dunng the immediate post World War I years in the
I lhat the Ganey Movement became extremely powerful. mak-
a indelche mark on the consciousness of millions of black pea-
le -nd ali the white oppressors. Black people had returned from
.ion T i the European in the European war where they had been
,rdj i., light for democracy and self-determination".' After fight
(i (n y sill received the white racist blow. This war Garvey des-
tt.ad a, the outgrowth of dissatisfied capitalistic interests. and
,r the capitalist logans he substituted slogans calling for the self-
Sernu ,nation f Africans at home and abroad.
hile capitals interests fought Garvey into prison. Firestone
R a r to sabotaged his Liberian-bsed African Liberation sche-
S i y anted Liberia's rubber Eventually he was deported
''.rn the L S k in 192' Gre)' s activities in Jamaica centred a-
rsund Shc L A His l kills as a journalist and orator served him
a si r and the 'sc Jalmican and held weekly meetings at Edelweiss
'ir, Friirm LEdieloi Park the UNIA mushroomed througlbot
the fiuntisidc GrvS> teamed the first political party for black
pc.pl -i, iCnicli eltions in 1930 on a similar ideoloical platform
a tha ul Di Love but most of the candidates were not returned.
He -rsund 'n the KSA( as a Councillor and there he found a polioi-
I1 t sic un hhich to propose certain reforms Garvey's activities we
fi ali subject j1to in h central concern, that is. theliberarion of the
i risd, continent Whiether i Eagland, the USA or in the Caribl an
,,rey slucks to hi slogan
Jamaica nou represents evdthiting orvey fought against. A
ialck parliament proves nothing, Ganeys pegrats lppoarnts were
blh. men elected to the Jamaican legislature. Those men, like thfs
dday were mere puawn, who Gar-ey aid had "grown wi Lth heir
muster' ideals" and so were "unable to think apart from the custom-
s and ideals of their old-time Laur wa er. "

Sugar (o.NT.,
canrfarners that quit the industry
over the past two years" reported
by the canefarmers manager many
have become sugar workers.
Organisations must express our
social needs. And our power must
grow from that.
And if the foreign capitalists
of WISco. and the Jamaican capi-
talists of canefarmers persist to fail
in producing any real solution to
the problem in the industry then
sugar workers must act on this. The
vital task of national planning and
national objective cannot be left to
the clique of subversive agents who
occupy the offices of the two/party
/urion and organization of farmers.
Sugar workers are the produc-
tion boss. And sooner or later will
have to decide Rith their worker
power how the problems of the in-
dustry is to be solved and in whose
interest the solution must be.
But for the time being let it
be understood that in spite of the
cringing fear of national leaders to
VISco. and the dangerous hope of
the A.I.JC.F.A. and the S.M.A.
that the Prime Minister will heed
their demands, sugar workers de-
mands still stand erect.., FOR A BA-


To celebrate with us the 82
nd. birthday of the first National
hero of Jaimaica and an ifri an
Nationalir, the HaD Marcus CI,.
vey at. the Shrine togated at Gfior
ge yi. August. 1909, 'r 1.30 pin


.... : R, !': \ 'I Secr!.a rn at r 1 jI (aro ft Ave. Kgn. a. Printed by H.P. Ltd., 85 Industrial Terrace, KEn:i|3

time now...

To Work Out

The Politics of Movement

by Blackman
The other reason for the suspicion of conscious blackman of A
BENG is the failure to take a systematic line on the question of revolt
tionary change in Ja. Populism publishing anything sent in-+ ba
revolutionary analysis is not the same. Certain forces need to be sure the
paper stands for something rather than everything before coming in.The
line which treats everything from the mouth of the people as gospel is
line at all. Yet it is doubtful whether the paper could have become such
social force without being the mouthpiece of the people. The point
though that indiscriminate populism has served its purpose and achieve
what we spoke about last week. To perpetuate it any longer is not possible
Sthe paper will pas away if it does not meet the need of revolutionary
analysis in more of what it prints.
The intellectuals at the centre who resist subordinating themselves
to 'blackman time now" and the overthrow of white imperialism will be1
come subordinate or take charge of a dying project. The paper must coon
tinue to air the grouses of the people; it may continue to accomodate all
tendencies, racist. Marxist-Leninist. Maoist. Africanist. Rasta-but it mus
have more analysis and that analysis must carry a unified BENG line.
The lack of a political line based on proper analysis has fed both the bour.
geois criticism that the BENG isn't reaching people and the blackmau
suspicion that the BENG is opportunist.
These criticisms however indicate not so much what the BtrNG
should have been doing as what it needs to do now to continue being a
progressive force. Its achievements responded to the needs of a situation,
In that situation the BENG rejected and advanced certain changes. It
could not have done so- that is become a sound force- unless it was po0
pulist; equally it cannot continue to be a social force without tempering
its populism with more revolutionary guidance. The longer it postpones
its role of revolutionary guide, the more likely it wilt wither away. But it
could hardly have taken up this role long before now because i is necesa-
rily first to "be a pupil of the masses before you can become a teacher of
the masses". You have to know what the situation is before you can ana-
lyse it: only the people can say-they have been saying through the BENG.
The BENG needs to respond more positively in the paper and in the move;
ment or blackmaan will stop tuning in.
This means tnal in the paper several things need to be done:-
the adoption of a revolutionary political line. This does not mean calling
for bloodshed nor being banal nor merely recording how bad sufferatioit
is. It means that all analysis must reflect the linkage between black exploit
station and white imperialism. Analysis must show the meaning of black
power in Jamaica and the fact that all can contribute so long as they sub-
ordinate themselves to black freedom. This does not mean that they aren't
a lot of middle men between the two, it means rather showing concretely
how they link up. Nor does it mean that we blame everything on the white
man but rather show all the time that our struggle to free ourselves-poliit
cally, culturally and economically -must ievitably come up against t
ne ultimate enemy-the ruling class of the US and their local houseslaves
Now that the BENG has aided widespread consciousness of one people's
suffering, more effort needs to be devoted to recording and advancing the
people's attempts at self-help but all the time with a strategy of combat
not welfare Cultural liberation schools have begun to spring up. Bengmen
must put themselves at the service of the people's struggle in theory and
practise. Same way youth and sugar workers are organising u-derstand,
analyse and ground with these movements otherwise things will look too
bleak and the objective pessimism of the paper would only be reactionary.
Both these changes mean that Bengmnen must redouble thei effort
to know what is going on in Jamaicaa Without this the paper will soon be
unable to contribute to the growth of the struggle, The st cotrdiction
between bourgeois class origins and black revoluoary purpose needs to
be resolved more positively in favour of the latter Meefrtie needs to e
spent with the peopleecome down. Otherwise c1f4r will stop coming upg
the paper will become cut off from the people and any revolutionary
political line become meaningless. Nothing less can develop trust in Ihi
new stage of blackman's colour-clas consciousness. Thiswill requni more
organisation-division of labour combined .with rotation of tasks.

Latest In Fashcins

S Slipe ad
Torringr~n BrsO t
Kingfira S Tleetlrwaa 44738

Posponement of Dance
Sacks and lP.tale rport to iliirm Ahttng readers
and tetlow-ppOrFee that they havs hla tt plstpqne the
t dape ad outing. "t~,i Rtoijing", at Port Hlndnrien on
Auubt 11,
SThe new date for thlp dtanle will b SEPT. 2Ti, .
19q indf tha r~uh will. t the riagxit GOLD COAST
LiSotani dhqyoa
Sourd will b provided by the fameou So ul

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