Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00023
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: July 12, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text

Vol. 1 No. 24 July 12. 1969


"...this great humanity has said enough!"

In 1962 U.S. companies in Latin
ica took out in profits $750 million
Than they invested there. By 1967
epp between profits and investment
increased to over SI Billion. The size
(lls plunder can be appreciated when
ne realizes that the amount of invest-
leal in Latin America by these compa-
iesi now about S12 Billion. The average
naul profits of these companies is near-
r IZ as compared with 6';, made by
i.S.(pmpanies operating in Europe.
How long are the peoples of Latin
areca prepared to permit the plunder
f r-ir wealth by these foreign mono-
oliu There are indications that they
re a last beginning to stir from their
ang lumber and have said "Enough!"

0n October last year when President
leinhdde Terry of Peru defied national
enfinent and signed a contract with the
ntaiational Petroleum Company permit-
in it to continue its control of the re-

fining and marketing of Penr's oil, the
military, who had installed Terry, moved
in and ousted him. Within days they seiz-
ed all the oilfields and refineries of the
I.P.C. and confiscated the world's might-
iest imperial power.
Threats of economic sanctions by
the U.S. Government against Peru if they
did not provide "adequate compensation
of some $200 million were met with a
claim for over S690 million for accumu-
lated debts and taxes owed by the compa-
ny to Peru. The government assessed the
value of I.P.C. property at $71 million
and drew a cheque for Net amount but
withheld payment until the settlement
of the company's debts.

Who is I.P.C.?
The I.P.C. is one of the subsidia-
ries of Standard Oil (Esso) of New Jersey.
a gigantic U.S. oil monopoly, controlled
by the Rockefeller family. It is one of the
many U.S. oil and mining companies ope-
rating in Latin America and exploiting the

mineral resources of that continent. In Ve-
nezuela, for instance, U.S. oil companies
have an investment of over $2 Billion, one-
half of which is owned by another subsi-
diary of Standard Oil-Creole Petroleum
The military rulers of Peru have not
stopped at the seizure of the I.P.C.'s assets.
Two weeks ago they announced a new
land reform program by which the govern-
ment will expropriate all rural land hold-
ings in excess of 390 acres. As part of the
program, Peruvian officials took control of
the management of two sugar plantations
owned by another U.S. company-W.R.
Grace and Co.Ltd. and blocked the ac-
counts of similar U.S. owned companies
to prevent a flight of capital from the cou
ntry. Other monopoly interests are exr-
ted to be taken over shortly.
Colonel Rodriquez, one of the "key"
members of the ruling body, stated recent-
ly "The great majority of Peruvians have
never benefit from the economic life of
the country despite the vast profits that

have been made -by powerful groups, in-
cluding foreigners We shall not stop until
that has been corrected!"
Meanwhile Chile Prteident Eduard-
o Frei has announced the Chileaniatinon:
of two suhsidiariei of Anaronda Copper
the giant CS oclrtpus hkih has 60 of
its assts in whilee and who is one of the
partners in the Alparl project in \ain. B'
agreement with the cmpanr the Chilean
government will gradually nationalise the
mines by 1972. It will hu 51i of the
companies' shares and will exercise an op-
tion to purchase the remaining 49 w ihin
12 years. This agreement moreover has
been challenged by all Chilean opposition
parties and also by progressive in Frei's
own party as being too faourable to the
companies and a sell-out of the Chilean
peoples' rights. Indications are that there
will be increasing pressure on the Chilean
President to take stiffer measures against
the foreign exploiters of that count 's re-

Iurricaine on

the horizon M
Clyde Sanger
Report on the Rise of Black Power A

rhuday June 12, 1969
Jamaica, the home of Mar-
If Garvey and his early
Ick to Africa" movement,
i ting towards becoming
? ribbean centre of a mo-
rn, wd much more explo-
e, nsovement-that of Black
I we.
Tb7first warning came last
tobh. when riots followed
ae 6 ernitent's refusal to
idmt a uir'ersit', lecturer
zltea odnev, whlo had been
t' Black Writers' Confe-
,act i Montreal A more
bsraBdal warning to the Go-
rnmsti has been sounded
ifs r with the success of
e islical weekly newspaper
Stearer has tried to avoid
coilrontation hoping the pa-


per would die from lack of
In Shearer's words, these
radicals are "irrelevant They
are pushing causes and voitc
ing slogans that they have a-
dopted from elsewhere (the
United States). lie have a
black Gorernment, we hmae
i'rte's fir everyone, swe have
got rid of colour discrimina-
Others aren't at all sure
tite "lbeng writers are irre- NOTHING TO LAUGH ABOUT: Shearer. Seaga, Lightboumre face white Rockefeller power sith beseeching.
levant. For. mile Jamaica is hypocritical laughter to get back some of what their Government continues to give awaN to bau\ite eploiter.
indisputably much richer since
independence in 1962.the we- It slipped out last week that the Government far greater than with the Jamraican Gonern
tivel, few hand& of Jaimaica has asked Governor Nelson Rockefeller, For example, in 1964 the salue they p
The are ar widening areas of America's second most important white man, as he Jamaican bauxite was S14.05. almost t\ice it
dis center. Slearer has promr was described by the 'Gleaner-to intercede with under the 1957 agree rtat S7.r35) If the
suberrsees" ard tor to curb the American President so that Jamaica could be taxes on that value it would prnbabl. ainouu
a soaring crime rate. refunded the 30,000,000 owing to us from escaped almost 2 a ton (and not 12 I 0d IL
One factor seems in his fa- bauxite revenue.
aoure until now the radicals was never revealed to the If Jamaican exports for 1953-64 were re%
have shown anr inability ito or- This amazing fact was never revealed to the
ganise effecrively. But the sac- public, before, a matter fit only for the ears of the at the price given to the American Gosernmen
cess of "Abeng." the ground "second most powerful" white man in America. bauxite companies would hare escaped wit
it has made with its anti-white After signing away our nation's assets to a band of revenue owing tt, Jarsaica of s .25.000.000. eq
campaign, may be changing foreign blood-suckers, we find that ROBBERY has ent to W0'; of the Governlment's total reensue
that. the industry since production began. It is five
we possess. since 1964. and ith ucl more itensive ex
ion of our bauxite ore, the fraud on the Jain

The Government claims a balance owing on
bauxite revenues of 30 millions. The truth would
reveal a figure almost double that, probably 50 -
60 millions. But how did such a state of affairs
come about? In our disclosure some weeks ago of
the new sell-out agreement with ALCOA. ABENG
pointed out that "the bauxite companies have been
valuing Jamaican bauxite to the U.S. Government

ut onil
ie val-
y paid
int to

it. the
h tax

people is now probably close to C60.000.000!
But that is the price of having politicians IN
OFFICE and the Jamaican people OUT OF POWER.
What Jamaica must demand is not the money robb-
ed from us. Slavery and sugar never compensated
the Black Man. The only compensation we demand
today is the return to us of our land and resources.

'ancy Eccles Stokely & The
Festival Song
Scratched Black Panthers
Recording-artiste Clancy Eccles' "Doll- Expressing more disappointment th-
Br Train" was scratched from the Festival an anger, the national chief of staff of the
Sai Competition for what may be his Black Panthers Party said Friday that
HaI Power views. Certain critics have Stokely Carmichael's resignation is accep-
ail there was no mention of Festival in ted.
his entry. Clancy defends his record by "We tried to bring him around,"
posing to the number by the Maytals said Panther official David Hilliard, "but
cunntly in the running for the Festival he just did not come to understand that
prie which also makes no mention of you can't fight racism with racism."
Feliral. Carmichael, in a blistering letter re-

leased Thursday in New York, denounced
the party for its affiliations with white
radical groups.
"THE WORLD is our neighbour-
hood," Hilliard said. "All oppressed peo-
pie are a part of it."
Carmichael accused the three-year
old Panther Party of dishonest and vic-
ious" tactics and forcing its members to
accept a party line.
Hilliard countered: "We do not use
such wild and decadent tactics. Those
would be the methods of a fascist- to
try to suppress an idea with violence."
Carmichael has described himself as

a Pan Africanist. a believer in the common
cultural heritage of all blacks, the world
THE IDEAS that divide the Panthers
from Carmichael and other Black Natio-
nalist critics revolve around questions of
organizational affiliation with whites and
the issue of class struggle versus a non-
white struggle against "white Western im-
In stark contrast. Hilliard said Fri-
day: "It dosen't matter if you are black,
white or brown- the enemy is capitalism.
Black people have two enemies, capitalism
and racism. You can only get rid of them
by practicing solidarity, not more racism."

1W rI
" We Want O)ur People to Thlin /,r I ie rnwm le:
if R( L',s (,IylI- )

VoL 1 No. 24 July 12, 1969



Vn I NI /,I July 1/ 19 9

Time for a Strategy

I I tfailuie of the Janimica Omnibus
Net r i ker" Aociation to will their
tspies icntat in.lr poll is a i important but
tilemprtar set-bck kt thie advance of lthe
o Urkes causl e l-I (p lly. important less-
oni, ire to Ir' dran I1 bothll sides from
thisl dele. I
t1 all acoumnls tile poll should have
ls'en \\on bI J 0 S \ A The faicl hat it
laldil in i t attiem l to oiusl thle two-piarty
unitonu is .1 lsri.ous reflection on tel depth
oi c Oullnilitittln alld tin level on Cit ons-
Ciousn es oetcred Ir the li ie, worker
groupsL Fil oni li t ie nolen that tlie Asso-
ciarion i launched, i n internal worker
Bulletin t uho t hal e Ieen published, itlh-
out suh a regular. source of information
and analis i, i workers fighting against
not onli\ iorrult officials but whose main
function is tile corruption ol the workers'
ton self-respect. ou cannot begin to

and edusatins. These are tile most funda-
mental task, to be organized by any new
worker struggle
There is no east or short-cut route
ito indeplnideni worker power. It is prob-
able that the new Association was deceiv-
ed bt its earl) nilalisation. The going is
alNays tough, always, and the only certain
Sway to maintain and continuously build
one's forces is keep clarifying the basic
principles and tenets of \ our goals. Other-
wise loose organizational discipline is
bound to overtake your efforts. Your
opponents hale money power, and the
means of coercion o.: iieir side. WIorkers
onln hav e the inner conviction of what is
right and best for tile advancement of

1 1 tinsake ii it ucs C

I,[ i nI L. e enlal \ illage
ul S tlrds 12 hi Jul\

Dealers in
kt 10 tOOLS 1 SP\IRES \L 1T P \ITS

TItL \ANll sUll ki 1is And Irust

41 liltd Stro knil

tleir interests in the face of exploitation.
To put it simply, the independent
\worker movement must have an ideology.
Where it is lacking, all kinds of individual-
istic and petty demands come to the fore
\ whatever tie official list of demands may
Clearly. then. a seriously worked out
strategy for tie advancement of the
workers" struggle is a pre-condition for
the next round. The JOS workers now
have made the experience of feeling and
testing their strength against the system.
Their forces must now regroup and re-
consider the whole strategic question of
nwhat are the correct criteria to apply to
their organizing work. what are the defic-
iencies of consciousness that need to be
corrected, what essentially is the meaning
and reality of worker power in the process
of foreign capitalist exploitation.
Merely to try to oust Manley and
Shearer from the scene is a waste of time.
Workers must know what it is that they
and they alone can create at the site of
work. the real basis of all solidarity that
exists among workers.
But while the blood-sucking class of
foreign owners and their local political
usurpers are celebrating in whisky glasses
this temporary set-back, they should know
this. If the working class of Jamaica fail
to create in peaceful conditions new and
independent worker organizations, they
will ultimately face the more revolution-
ary attack of working class insurrection.
One Nwa or another, a change has
to come.

o hen
Black Souls

SOCKS &1 \lSrO I

1 till Jul\
Io Teiari (Lres nt
Irench l t-

IPh li i -i il i,-Oo

BR k\I %El EI ell\ L SONGS I


BUTTO Splifington" t .. l'


I : Or. nae Striet U UCE







Scents have to act according to the
Prisoner instructions we get from the pe-,
liticians, and in most cases the in-
Tie following letter has been structions we have to carry out is
sent to the Hon. Roy McNeil, Min- to discriminate 'ainst: and destroy
ister of Home Affairs our black brotL r
It is only a 'itv it our black
3rd. July, 1969. brothers in both -..-tical parties
Sir cannot see that they will have to
Ssend you under enclosure join hands and fight these profe,.
os ional politicians who have no love
copy of Robert Taylor's letter d.d for blac people. i Servan
27th June, 1969 which speaks for pp S ant.
I understand from Robert Ta- 1 Mallor, Buildin
ylor that he is 27 years old, a Ja- SI John Street
maican by Birth, having been born London E( I
at Mile Gully, Manchester, and that 2s ,h
his mother is Francis Taylor. Dear Sir or Madam
Further that he left Jamaica I \as e, en one leaflet of the
as a child and went to the Virgin beng paper it \as like a dos of medi
Islands and travelled to various cou- from a cood doctor. I told m\ frien
ntries before returning to his home- can rel\ on a repls from my letter for
land (Jamaica). publishers of this paper are the true B
About a year ago, whilst in a SMan who care for their Black Brot
taxi, he was arrested by Supt. Joe and Sisters Please eend me v'eklv c
Williams as a suspected wanted man; of the true histon of mn fore. i -R
but the arresting officer has been Jamaica.l think is time e all know
unable to substantiate his suspicion truth. I am longing toi come Il ihe c
before the court, Further, finger- trs of mn birth Jamaica. But I am
prints and other particulars of him afraid of the r-called Ml.k Jamai
were sent abroad with a view of Governmenl and their dis'iples
satisfying their suspicion; but again I think it is better to be in
this proved fruitless. Yet the man is shite man counu, and he hi, slae t
still held in gaol. h h his I\e in ,our own country i
I am impelled on Humanita- theIe Hon Hutih Shearer and Co.
rian grounds and as a National of thit are educated to help their fe,
Jamaica to bring this matter to your Black brothers of Jamaica The day t
attention and request on behalf of reach office the all turn ihite and ii
this unfortunate citizen, to give his get us
case your early consideration and The blessings of the Dear God i
thus bring to an end the languish Heaven be iith people like you The h,:
and frustration of a man who becau- 4f the Black MIan Keep the \oice
se of his pecuniary position is un- freedom and Independent bloings
able to fend for himself. tiha one ds ue all can put Jamaica CG
ernmeni back to Black Schools and ta
Yours respectfully, them whai Freedom and Independed
Dr. M.B.A. Doonquah means from the bhite man Black Histr
Black Buiness, Black Loe, Black Goir
Civil Servant m i h Blac k iSill t do diee thing.
June 12th. 1969. dc, n the doctor hird ag and put
1 Black man iith the Kes in his hand,
I am a civil servant and what let the eI iih Freedom nis Snd lit
disturbs me more than all is how let Ihe l of Freedom nd p e.
political discrimination as practised ,i ,lt hrndaa iaoe FREEIDOMI .
by both political parties is only I pray e.erc night flr God me
directed against the black man and guidance for iou Editore to ach,
All the different types of Ja- iod without iolnce if nece r I n
maicans, have been able to live and not ho in Jamaia ih i hou t tos ho
prosper, no matter what political i rig h b l soall m Spirit t (Cood
party controls the government. fall on mi Black Brother, I, there apI
Whenever there is a change of gov- il Engand I ol d lel m copi Pi,
ernment it is always the blackmen nund address and detail, li are 1elc
in the opposition party that are to publish mI letter
pointed out to be discriminated
against. God hle- i on inse more mi brother
We in the government depart-

for Courteous & Quick Service
Your satisfaction is our pleaisre


19 & lob SLIPE ROAD.
Textiles, Ready-to-wear, Knitwear
and Footwear
Tel, anitS Prop. S.O. GUNTLEY '


Visit Clancy's foi the latest
in Foreign and Local Records
Open until 9 p.m every day.

122 Oimage Street,

4 Collins Green Avenue,
Latest in Fashions Kingston 5, Jamaica, W.I.

S Please enter me for a subscription to ABENG NATIONAL WEEKLY
and beginning with Vol. 1 No .. I wish to subscribe for [ I one year (25/)
AN FAIR STORES two years 145) Special student rate: (201) for one year.

I Slipe R oad. Nam e .......... . ..... ............
Torrington Bridge, (please Print)
S K ing to n 5 Street ............ ..............
Tel 24731 City .. .... ....... ..... Country ......... ........

; be t o C Col G-reen A kgn 5 Robert A HI Secretary. relidln It i Calcrot Ave KIn 8 Prred b P Ltd. 85 ndustrlal Terrace. Kin 14
.ul, 12


i I

ARUSHA & Socialism ii

;ialbwing is DR. WALTER RODNEY'S
c mtrbutron to a Teach-In on the Arusha Dec-
laratrin 196i7 held at the University College
Dar- s-Salaam. Tanzania The Arusha Declarat-
ion adopted hy TA7 U (Tanzania African Nar
tonal 'iorn) expresses the Socialist goals which
the parr' set out to achieve. President Nrercre
in the opening speech of the Teach-In described
the D clamtion as "the beginning, not the end.
if a crr'n hmg and probabl' extremely hard
struggle." Rodney discusses the problems of
implementing this Declaration in Tanzania.

I. a large elent,( the Arum.ih Dti-artt.n
,a re,0lement of principles and .Ielilf 'Ihnd
haue lint hibeen :ti A riced lito ,id I L Tndd
ti srruael Wo e iin, av r hfi b!n taken ll r ince
Inldepll denc 3i reh_, those principles, 11 see
IO th.hhre ,i thatt in ionie rpeis the imiple
nt ll ttuten l Ihe Drlsith i )edltralntiot ,illt Iark
relate to break wilh the prniast Tr i, parolicu
ltsh Int in the .pliei of flcign pItcI and oi
pla nnig and : Afrural econom.it d then Liberah.
tsin snrugele within Afrta for ,i those, front,
fl i ]i anI n t, erne....... .t t la ph eristenti
.t itaited a rerolutionari socialist position.
tn nini dont.ic i. uel-- tsh e t haelte
lrepid what theri Declaration al in re ltionl
IS c lismt a, delree ihe than kIed.

Ihalsm is anr ideologns rned It cale ol e implet
o, ;e t 1rulJi I)e,'larathon Ihn d epre, nt
I o, ha it-re- there i, dear gap be

" .Io ptoh.lttsi oI imipllei ntatioi.i
Those difficulties which I bould singe out
relate to leadership, party organization, socialist
planning and the rural economy. To begin oith,
lets t ee what the Declaration sass in sectionld)
Sot.cialism Is A4n Ideology.
So.ialism is an ideology. It can onli be imple-
mented by people who firmly behieve in itsprin-
ciples and are prepared to put theminto practice.
A true member of TANU is q socialist. and his

compatriots, that is his fellow believers in this
political and economic faith, are all those in
Africa or elsewhere in the world who fight for
the rights of the peasants and workers
The first duty of a TANU member, and
especially of a TANU leader, is to live by these
principles in his day-to-day life. In particular a
TANU leader should never live on another's la-
bour. neither should he have capitalist orfeuda-
list tendencies"
Eer-, hed kno, t that before the rutlha
Il ration this Implied criticism applied to the
mitnrils of leaders in the highest ranks of the
national administration and party, and the De-
claratioin itelf offered a olultin. one that is
tteL ed again in the Preidelnt I Ansers Io Qlue-
stminn That tllution is to ensure that the leader.
i in national life enjot nio pportunitie, It e\
pihIl tie labInor of their fellm citizens for per
.soll gairn
( llecr etil, the bureaucirati and political
f.actins io the natIni are to he denied the ioppt-
rlunit t of ftrlher deserlopmein along lines thra
wouldd entren.c 'he'itm s sian eploiting ,scial
las,. a, i happening el e in frica
Ihere is ni (luestinu ot reImtoving the pre
sent leadership either ,holls or subhatallanlI
lheir ,kill. are loo [ lIuabbe, and aiong them
iar individual. I hls, e integrity, and sense If na
tional icolnmnrmenli call tt hte cha.llenCed Be.
,idt,. the holureoIis ethic is widespread within
t ntiton and is particularly strong among all
thoel, hl halle acquired education .nd specdil-
ist techilnitutes so there i noI alternate social-
isi tende ship Io be tnlnd However there are
.t .. itted ,o,,ialit it ien of Tanzanta in. di-
"idual, tilo are bsth capable of exercising poll-
tield hureaucratic uir technical functions, and of
tdiatioiL toI the masse the relevance of certain
ideas to i e\ridat lite There are proahblh an
ietn lar-er inmbeh of educated Tanzanians. who

have reacted positiely to the hrunha Declara-
lion. because the, appreciate that the, arc wor-
kers sharing fundamental interests with other
categories of labour. Ihee. in socialist parlance
are potential cadres It is essential that such Tan-
tanians who can measure up to the requirements
of this section on idenloge be strategically in-
volved in the implementation of the Arusha De-
Let me spell out the meaning of this
strategic involvement. Firstl,. heres a simp
lified model of the origins of the Arusha Decla-
ration Otwing to treess of neo-colonialism.
President NSyerre. articulating the interests of
workers and peasants and supported bv a ec-
lion of the leadership pushed ahead and framed
this document in face of opposition and fool
dragging on the part of another section of the
leadership The contradiction between these to
routps has not ended, and will now take the
form of varving interpretations of the tnAruha
Declaration so that the socialist fraction needs
to be strengthened for the struggle
Throughout the nation socialist cadres
have to be sought out and schooled where ne-
cessars, they ha\e to he placed in positions
where the\ can obsene what is going on, and
where they can fight against feudal and capita-
list tendencies

Party Organization

T\NL has been one of the most success-
ful parties in Africa, mobiilisin and uniting the
people to regain their freedom and to confront
the first crucial Iears of indeprnddence But, as
a road nationalist movement, it made room for
capitalist tendencies and the Arusha Declara-
tion set out deliberately to remove those tenden-
cies from the parts. As a consequence. TANU
faces a crisis and since it is a large living organi-


e Ihat is therm S

Inter-American Treaty?

ParliA illrl Mt hi lk1 tnill[ i)appr I.,hel ar. i

\'lr 1rplll .11k ag 1 Ill I, dl cid d , bread nn
i o lit p inira it, Ini c o St a el l ,. i toi
tia mandnll bt driu.l lig sulan tuit orga il I
ri-s atti atli lill lil in in III t e ll C c rsi ld t
d-iI dte h. l,iikd d ha ih t, ln ..-i i-id it It
srld that htlier or Iu t tI e 0)5 a15 retd ta
[h, l II [ t 1 ,ltd State, aga tiu Iula

hI, lt vid ,sill hh. tad I h ll ci ll c i all iiic

IniI i I hc e \tod iii the the u S l lit n ti ibe
idp. i nd a tl) liscall Republi and It thei Ie

ri, snilii tituntrit' So Ltit Aniterita a.d tiel
id ir t il iT r e ar l if o nte 0li t he i n r
nric n l'hadl "r eh ile t.f b O \S an

ih t l ali d dItr t iea diqui uiag ,
l 5i ii er t a n tisiaii taadle-. itwihat
i t lh ille that i lehl iii, [ ua i iles Li the O S be

puril l p it o Iate U it, reem thhal mkt e eu
he ri it halS i a rlle d the a i li n i:,r: ali
tIe t isaill ni lie f L a.i LAutrica and thela
Caribbean Ic otrie 5O1 haiti o intie Prin I
rbAit ter b at cit ab nou t Itahal a nid ie.tnia,
I isa ne toll h, ii 'nr o t, the 01"A the mat ite
pata.. past Iu d s agheen .. that make up
She A ha i, has if c alled tib d iu on

the O A.S i, hat I, ,alled the ]t'r ', r: u

l"u -, r 2,a! signed in Rio
in 'i4-I TliS is ispp sed, [ be ab ul self-defen-
a- aaini I grii.... and pea. ceful settlement of

co lot i c he i.ee. aini l mei can Stlates n fact
the nile!d Stat wa\ oilil wh concernedS about
om nan i[ al re io lndT ,hi ,, II\ t \, ....ere
- ansiou ts sign thia lrearvi. then -omebod
iud thai there in Ituc a (hins g a economic ag
t,... I h, LS t firm, mshich t n i f thes e

nican Repulilt The S and r is no \\e itl Lknow

Aever\itizen o a s Latin Americn counf aaia Per
Ihapes te wii i oon f ind som henlre. S
One I mor thing The Inte r r-Aerican Trea

n teli tall ie bec must he t eink thewih ia n th
i/S lhere th ar i (uaternala and the L' Thi

tis really 1 Irick h the L S. to present soun
ariue from riihe a COinlU m in the bedrm of rion
in i place liIe the Lati. lher iahe third world
hpuni ries will h\e more friends The Govr
One store thing. ]he Inter- Anerican Irea

imen o Jmaiprcal is a member of the Lpas It h s
that ll pJmail is independent. I it o ing to he
cpS b this restriin oa its indp ndenc Is the
i real, trick e ,t the Lr S to preeen. .out
tri,, from catisita sh, problem of aTS aS retian
in place like the L N ,[blis the third ,Irld
,unae& ill hae more friends The GCoterr
tnle f amaica is a member of the I'N It nail
ithat Jamaica i i.ndependest I, .Is going to a.-
cept thiS, restriction of its independence) I the
Opposition going to say anything about this'?
\te can guess But we will see.


Retreat of the Imperialist
I/'t/ ( G/ I I/\ B1 IUlltIR lk l torcst. stationed At
I I TRA. PRLlt II\lMSTI R OF TH RF I )O 4s tor infansf
I( TIl\4ARY (;ci ltR\\.\ I OF ( 4BA A4T a T tai of 35 .
THI CLull: O THE RA iLLY O( SOLID 68 pirent.e The Ai
Ri'} WITH `U( itl/ I ft t tl 0\ THEtOC-- m0ri s in South IM
( f.I \ IO f iT i i IT LOf 1 C R-II)f TRA.\ that is. 58.3 per,
Bt L kit 1M HI It11 4t / lTi PL IZ.A I 11 Is furtarncllte
RF 1 11 it (tIl \ UI 11 \ I .I I' 1l Y A. R Y O1 rs r use 1250 fi. g
Dt I7I Ft l )il4 ItO R, 3100 o.r 32 per-
To get an idea of the extrenmes of brun- sing 50 percent
litn. violence and criminality the aggression a- h'ar in Its LUnited
gains flhe people ]of lietnamn has reached. one diwl.
should consider the fJloving dataa /In the matt
hI late lMarh 19h9 the United States' rthy are using 1201
forces comprised 660,000 soldiers Of these, or 20percent.
the contigents quartered in South Vietnam They have
that is, in the South Vietnamese theatre of ot a total] 16, or
operations itself since the rest were in Thailand: .4 this sho4
the Seventh Flee.t etc. numbered 520,000. absorbed the gre
tirts assigned to South Vietnam included power
nine Yankee divisions and five brigades that As a conse
is. 32 brigades out of a total of 71 brigades that Vietnam. 10 per
they have. representing 42 percent of their land tmphloed in war


nation which cannot
it is reacting very s
challenge of implem
The leadership
of self discipline, but i
then the party membnl
deal with those who.
workers and peasants.)
rable amount of hardly
Party re-organisation1
can look forward hopd
crash programme of'
Declaration and to aS
in T AN cells.
I made one specify
I, that the supervisia
of activating the Partyi
of the Arusha Declarati
of Secretart-General dl
and that its holder sla
additional ministerial b

The problela ma
firtl,, broad sectors
be examined. and sece
be devised on a regiold
to the different social t
side. the Aru-ha Dechn
thing vastl\ different i
another. This was impli
wer to a certain questia
amples of the satandilu
IVachagga. Furthermore
that people will be molb
Someone remark
people cheered when n
it is only at the local I
to money from the side
part. They will help fa


Zania Rodney

-edo~ernighlt and they will carry them out, assuming the inter
atiily to the -penetration of socialist elements belonging to
rush Declara the party
Quite obviously socialist planning must
,t be capable proceed simultaneously on two fronts national
in this regard and local, and as the programme moves under
R position to way what will Ihe rated is not a So, lal/st star
case of the twhiih is ome distance awai l but a II It itv
reel a conside- Iaichi there is a stgnift/iant amount of puibli
Sthsuhbject of ownership and a large sirctor where rthe argani-
edicalion.We an if labour i oillectirn is, and io alised
b rdults of the These sectors will enter into contradictory re-
an the Arusla lations with capitalist tendencies both at home
ntaion rooted and abroad. For the contradiction to be resolved
in favour of socialism means very simply the
in ire name- spreading of the concept of working together
enimdous job co-operatively for the common good instead of
inplmentation competitively for individual private gain." and
s t&t the post this means further the building of institutions
ber italised. which allow for co-operative work.
velt carry an
.ecarra Rural Reform
ig rThe Arush'a Declaration made it clear that
316 agriculture is the basis of Tan;/niian develop-
bd at tw- levels ment. It now seems to me essential that the task
lionl life must of the Part) centre and tie relevant ministries is
"gralnes must to devise two or three basic agrarian models,
U binis..Owing giving a perspective of rural socialist development
in country- For instance, there is the possibility of the state-
lid man some- owned farm. controlling large concerns such as
I asopposed to sisal estates, and operating in areas where there
Presents ans- are pools of agricultural labour rather than pea-
te iled the e- sant farmers There can be farms owned and
hku.a and the and controlled by local authorities of national
ithelocal level groups. There can be village settlements, and far-
I s based on mutual aid under the umbrella of
Ithit while the co-operaties. When these patterns are imple-
ion took place, mented from place to place there will be local
neywill be able variations and the forms will not be static They
I actually take will evolve as people obtain experience of work-
he programmes ing in the collectivitsY




Vietnam territor.
rattoopers. 24 out
re there -that is.
'ps las seven regi-
tof a total of 12

inSouth V'ietnam
ot of a total of
itina, they are u-
ainder which thev
replace planes shot

Strategic aviation,
'od of 612 planes,

eiraft carriers out

wuin Vietnam has
>f Yankee militan'

ft aggression in
dtatrial workers are
s e 20 percent of

Itha al tr iani and 40 peri nt /t til/ phlt ,it, v
fTh i halt had to tnoblitze 22.000 -?s-,
/Ipandi.. for war production.
.Is liar military spending, ait four years
of local war (1965-68) filer have ni vstcd 9)7.
000 mi/lli on doari .
Bomb used i 1968 hit a record r ritre of
an average if 64,000 tins per imn th. In i 'hori
War II this figure iwa 45.000 t io per iiionth In
the four years n f local car tithc have used three
,,ill.. t. o/ bhofb, u'T-cas rthe lour
vcit t f li'i/7 lt 'ar I1 tlie i cmpitd ita c tilli
ti ,ns ,f boimb, S,, tSi, United Statc' in it, r
ieari has rileasic threi e i tilhn rt ion f I bi ih
over a coii uir which i i Iil slightly larger ita..
the island r Cubai .
A million tons if bombs morc than thiir
employed ini tihe whole couri of Wo\rld War I1.
S-ltd in a territory, I repeat, scarcely gicat
cr than that of Cuba, more than half a nlliion
soldier r, tie oq ill t ousand 'o allied Ii olie '
atid. in additi o, mra !ithar halt a nillii pup
pet soliier That is, itir than a milhln Imen'
And wilth all thalt i t rc auidU all tihse b, -
bs anid itit almost 100,000 milli 1/dollars.
they are unable to iontri moreI than one' li/h
of South ictnamese territory anid une flimrri oi
the population, largely those lilang in the big
cities who, certainly, in their immense manot
rilt are against the war and against the imperial
list aggression.
GCuld you ask for greater proof of the
support, the backing, that the determination to
achieve freedom has among the people of South
I ietnam i
e min ight ask the following question. Has
there ever, in all of world lustory, been any
other people that has given such proof of its de
sire for freedom i
And is it possible for the Government of
the United States to consider these figures a
source of pride for that country To hare en-
gaged the greater part of the most powerful cap-
italist military force, to have invested 100.000
million dollars of the U.S. people's ione be-
cause, those millions do not come from the
monopolies: those millions are paid by the peo-
ple in taxes while the monopolies make enor
moeus profits to invest 100,000 million dollars
in murdering Vietnamese and setting up corrupt
puppet governments, governments of bandits,.
murderers and reactionaries? To keep this up is
an honour for the people of the United States?
I think that just reading this data is enou-
gh to give an idea of the concept of honour held
by the U.S. Government.




Black Panther

1 Party
"latr, .'fitah marked ithe ric trn 4t' Chairman 8,oi,0v Scalc and Raii "Ifd "-tavi- Hleitt
Io i/hI nit'ed Stat /iilowin' an erirmtriid ipcakting rour throughout F tar'pe. h' tl'ur
;a-s ipotsord Ib the rcv'lufiionar p-ople in the eathlinarian countrits 4 I'stcirn
l/ urope, wh hav a Jdcirs' ,c tuceritantd wha t Hucv \ ,iitn ani ti h fHlm r Panther
Party is all about,. ih p opil' f Swd ch. \ orai l a t' nl-a. Ild i iGermanyv and l'inmark. w er
given tihe cerrt Ilauk lPath r ideol'/g a8di i t air'\ ant! ci:fa'/ th e n"i st ip- rtant
aspic r of the br,,ther\' trip nal that it ltonce aaiti provided an i'ou, /* ehi/th M the rc. ,la
tionarv black people in i mericta could rea h /t, tI r o, pt alidaritv twith ither rie l
io, art people / the word. -
CHAIRM \AN The overall trip and the things (hat we came inl contact \ith the people ind
organizations we came in contact with was fruitful lit our knowledge of the real situation that exr ts
in Scandinav ia It vs er, ery, important that those tven in Scaindinaia who will riad this ,rti
cle understand that putting things into practice is where it s at Now% int i of the things that ith Partt,
tried to put over to people there and organizations the radical orgai/at.ionl etc was that they itrust
go forth and in a basic sense make a stand against capitalism and the ontrly wa tI make that stLind ,a
gainst capitalism is to understand that we don't fight capitalism with more capitalism, we don't fight
racism with tore racism, wt don't fight impeialism wit more imperisism. siih as the way the Run-
tas, using imperialistic tactics irl ( ccliolotakiai, etc that te can fight racism oith a solidarit ott all
the third world peoples standing in solidarit% with our A Vi Namese brothers, our (Ihines brothers,
our African brothers, all the revolutionary peoples .and reioluttinari fronts thrutghoui t lsia, \lrica
and Latin America, tsehe tree main revolutionary groups, In r sia, primarily ati the top wc knit it'a
China. and i/te valiant peaple/s retotlt ionar sv r ruling people .t Vietnat t ruggl t I agaisll imperial
ism Ilin Africa. the brothers in Southwest Africa. Ilhe brothers i \Mozailique. i he brlhers in ingola,.
ateo are lighting the i perialists, the brothers i ll South \frica, ant otter brttlhers anit i/ere in
Africa. and ithe Cuban brothers itl Cuba and Latin mlerica, and aniv other r/\olutioniart ftrotl, bc
they in Venezuela. be te anhe r anwhee in Latin \merica, and of course in North America, in the confin
es of the continental united states or what ha.e \ to.
The Black-American peoples, standing i solidarity with Mlexican- Aiencan clas brother
standing in solidarity with the Chinese brothcrr and the \anguard organizations of there lpricudar
groups, the Indian-Americans, and of course along with the progressive white rev ilutionaries. wi liit
Black Panther Parts really consider e there anguard within the ethnic group o(f w ite people. who
oppose capitalism and see the necessity of establishing real socialistic institutions, establishig ltem st
the e people can definitely learn bv them right n) geit inci thlis things going. In esence ths is w at
the Party talked about, this is what the Ps the Part educated te people about Ve explained to ties ho
tricky Dick Nixon's black capitalism will only perpetuate more racism, and went into great detail to
give an understanding o the people that vwhat causes racisl ism in fact. capitalism that is exactly what
causes it, it keeps racism going. W\e understand we have two fronts to fight
Nowt brother Stokley Carmichael deviated from the Part 's political line to some tent while
he was there and the Parti was able to give a correct understanding to the many people we talked to
about the correct line of the Party. His deviation from the lie was many times direct related to
some inferences about black racism in the way he talked. Whereas the Soulthest Africats and the
African brothers were seeing the need for the European masses not the governments neceassrily,
because the governments aere tied up naturally with imperialism on one level or another throughout
Europe, but t a t e sues the act thapeasants there opposed the capitalistic, racist regimes of
Europe. And by them doing this. it gives them the black Africans who are also part of the proletarian
worldwide struggle of the peoples the revolutionary struggle of the peoples, to really down capitalism.
And this is in essence what the Party was running down, and gave the infoaion to t the people.
About Black America, of course it was black capitalism that wte were opposed to, we also got the miles
age of course about myself, facing 10 years in prison when we came back. But that's all well and good
and in fact t e undersea th dersd that whein we are attacked, more people come forth to understand
and try to understand, and try to seek out the information from the Part) and try to understand vwh
we re attacked, and the ranks of the Party swell readily and fast when we have such attacks Huey
P. Newton was the major topic along with the Breakfast for Children that's spreading across the nation,
that tricky Dick Nixon doesn't like because of he fact that it's exposing the capitalistic system for what
it is. That s socialism exposing capitalism in a sense-in a sense fact that s what it is, because the Break-
fast for Children is a very socialistic program. Free medicine in the Black community, through the
Department of the Ministry of Health of the Black Panther Party is another thing that we talked about,
that we need to establish. We ran down to the people, the need for community control of the police in
the Black commune. spoke to them also about the liberation schools in the evening where we
will teach the youth about the class struggle, and teach them about Huey) and the need for the stud-
ents and the people in Scandinavia or anywhere in Europe Germany what have you. Paris.'etc to
stand and demonstrate in front of the American Embassies or what have you if they want to tear
down the American Embassies, in support of the fact that Huey P. Newton must be set free Hues P.
Newton MUST be set free. What we have to do is go forth in unity and solidarity.
We are already all in solidarity in the third world and it's time that the people, not the gover-
ments the peoples of Europe understand the necessity of ending imperialism, of ending racism, ending
capitalism, and they un derstand that the 're only part and parcel of the development of mankind. At
the same time understanding that a violent revolutionary struggle is being waged here in America. this
is another thing that we ran down to the Scandinavian people. That there is, in fact. a revolution going
on, the organizations that had a tendancy just to sit down and read about Brother lao and read
Marxist-Leninism were just more or less armchair revolutionaries but at the same time there were a
bunch of good brother there.
The Black Panther Party established a solidarity committee for the third world peoples revolut-
ionary struggle, Asia. Africa and Latin America, and all the revolutionary fronts that's moving on one
level or another to end imperialism and try to get these organizations to understand that they must
stand in solidarity along with- regardless of color or skin we're not worried about skin. we've under-
stood and told the people that it's a class-truggle the upper class exploiting and oppressing the lower
class, the lower class that imperialism and capitalism created in the first place.
So this is the way to summarize really what we ran down. Some of the other organizations such
as Scan-SNCC-Scan-SNCC had been running around saying that they represented the Black Panther
Party in the United States-we explained to the people that Scan-SNC( does not represent the Black
Panther Party. Scan-SNCC cannot represent the Black Panther Party cause Scan-SNCC is a shuck
organization. It's run by one cat or two people that is. and as Sherman says it's his organization. He
doesn't understand that all organizations have to be a people's organization.

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