Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00020
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: June 21, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text


Vol. 1. No. 21. June 21, 1969 Price: SIXPENCE


Atler the drummer-boys of
tle Daily Gleaner had bom-
barded the people with ne-
mimr about it.the Prime Mi-
nister eventually announced
on June 5lh that Jamaica had
decided to apply to join tihe
Organization ot American Sta-
tes (OAS), As usual, tihe fact
that Jamaica was considering
Itoinng and the arguments for
joining were kept well hidden
from the people of this coun-
try bs the Government which
They are supposed to have
SWe should not be surprised.
Before the Jamaican Govern-
ment can consul tfe Jamai-
can people about a decision
like tills Ihey have to con-
suit the U.S government and
the British government After
their master have given per-
mission, then they can tell
the people of this country
But what is this OAS? For
many years aftei they gained

their independence, the coun-
tries of Latin America dis-
cussed, argued and fought
with each other. Since they
could not agree very often,
they were open for exploi-
altion by the same European
countries from whom they
had liberated themselves. In
1823, the U.S. government
made a declarationcalled the
Munroe Doctrine, which said
the U.S. would not allow
anybody else (European) try-
ing to control the American
continent. From then on she
she acted as what she called
Ihe protector of Latin Ame-
rica. In fact, from that time
onward, tile U.S. las pro-
lected latin America by chas
ing away the Europeans, so
that sire could exploit the
wealth of their countries her-
In 1947, the US. decided
to tighten her clutches on
these countries, because of
her fear of "communist sub-
version'' So she signed ai

agreement in Rio in Brazil
with the Latin American
countries in 1947 called the
Inter-American Treaty of Re-
ciprocal Assistance or Rio
Treaty and in 1948 in Bogota.
Colombia, another agreement
relating to security and de-
fence. These two agreements
led to the setting up of the
organization called OAS.
How did the U.S. benefit?
The OAS now gave her the
right to march into any coun-
try because she thought there
was a "communist threat"
By bribing the latin Ame-
rican dictators with money
and technical help she got
the OAS to "legalize" these
So in 1954. the U.S re-
moved thc Government o(
Guatemala because, they said.
it was sympathetic to commit
nists, liom 1962 up to now
they have harassed the gov-
ernmnent of Cuba; in 1965
they invaded the Dominican
Republic. Each lime the dic-

tators and satellites in Latin
America agreed.
This is the organization
which the government of Ja-
maica is going into without
even asking the people of this
country whether they are in
agreement ,r not. And none
of our well-paid M.P's have
sid a word!

Why is Jamaica going into
OAS now? Of course, they
are following Barbados and
Trinidad. First of all, they
will get more economic aid
and technical help. Where this
will go and what use i wviil
be is another question. But
their important reason for
joining is thai OAS will help
them with what the Mh nister
of Hlome tfai s is always cel-
hi0 thie securityy of the coun-
try". (By this he means the
survival in power otf he JLP
The U.S. will now bi -r.,.

easily able to justify sending
troops which they call mil-
tary advisers to this country
to watch every move that
the people of this country
make. they will be able to get
to know every hill and gullY
in this country by coming fIr
what they call military e ir-
cises. All these activities the
(IS. refers to (and soon w"
will hear the Prime Ministei
calhnli it ;o toolas 'coordi-
nating military assistance "
All this means is that a
Government of th, country
whenever it gets frightened
of its own people canr ill
the U.S. to tend troops I
keep them in power. tut they
will Isk For the troops
tiaough ()AS for ithen they
cao iay that everything is
that is what OAS s about
That is why ro uone will tell
Lis anything about it, or mak
us what we think BRut tit
wo lr has turned.

a Farm Subsidies Withdrawn

'~ose blasted subversives-theyll soon have Black people believing
tey own the damn country."


The people in Jamaica should know that we in the J.D.F. are under-
[Plidand yet we break everybody's strike. For the past year we have been
celed out on several occasions, whenever the Sufferer asks for a raise in
py and the employee refuses to do so because his profit will not be as
glat as the past year.
We would like to know why cannot we get a raise of pay? The police
ftit sick because the Government did not answer their call immediately.
Afew days from that they were granted raise of pay to start some time in
'"i, what happen to the soldier raise of pay?
Food: Every morning green tea with the tea push in it with one burn
qe and four slices of bread. Afternoon One dumpling, one potato, two
1ton of rice with a bony piece of meat or a small bit of chicken and don't
filgt we always get 'corn beef. When I speak about the corn beef I say
aest every day corn beef, with Sunday as the chief day.
This is a story which happen to about fifty of us one Sunday We all
irtest to Capt Chung about the corn beef and is remark was, you can kill
I and eat me if you want because my flesh is good as any other meat, so
Riaou do not want me you will have to eat the corn beef-and after that
were drilled for the corn beef who want it. I went away and that was
It end of it
Next is (he doctor who prescribes treatment for the soldiers before
tell them of their ailment, and those in the sick bay get miss over
ild no complain tO no one for the reply is. I will try, and the next day
I, same thing. but never doubting the dawn will break and lose will
quer at the end. E SMITH

A little over a1 year ant a half
ago, Britain, in the face of one of
her periodic economic crises provok-
ed by the collapse of the Empire
devalued the pound sterling. Heed-
less of the demands of theii masses
and in pure imitation of Britain,
almost all the poor, black, so-culled
members of thc Commonwealth loll-
owed suit. Jamaica was no exscet
ion. The only clear sustamiable reason
rat Jamaica's devaluation was to
protect the sugar industry. The fact
that this decision would lead to
profound dislocation of the econom-
ic system and a further deprivation
of the sufferes was ignored in favour
of protecting the interests ot tihe
white imperialist sugar bandits who
dominate our rural economy. The
expected consequences soon folio-
ed Within a short space of time
prices were rapidly rising as the
local merchants, importers and other
members oit the criminal class saw
the change for a quick profit apd set
about to foist huge increases in
prices on the Jamaican sufferer
Meanwhile it was clear that the local
farmer would not be satisfied to have

Not too much is known ahout
the Sydan outside Africa, and yet
it is important for a number ofi
reasons. In geographical area it is
the biggest country in Atrica, and
it controls the headwaters of the
river Nile which is vital to the
economy of its northern neighbour,
Egypt. Its population- is divided
into two groups, nme Arabs, who
are Muslims and dominate the bg'v-
ernment, and the black Sudanese,
who are Negroes living in thie south-
crn part of the country. Many
of the black Sudanese are christi-

the whole ecunomvy disrtuped to
protect sugar arid itir Jown interests
completely overlooked. indet the
pressure the Government proclaircd
that it intended to ease some of the
increased burden ors local farmrnrs
though subsidiing livestock and
poultry feeds to the tune of 1.-4
But that was a year a.go Since
then the Government has, been reap-
ing the harvest of its shame. The
subsidies have done nothing to stop
the upward spira of plices of food-
stuffs At the smiie time unemiplry-
ment has increased, and so have
rents and transportation charges,
Without bread work and dignity,
the angerLof the black sufl'le his
iscui. And in this the) have bhee
moit than provoked by the tobvitu
wealth it those wh, witih ihii lt hugc
aris, lage palo.' and spletlidd cloth-
Ing have giowvn Ito cAillous to cate
In urder (o contail' this riag., .iod
in despair it aly change, tie Iast
budget, inspired by the uaial slave-
mastel tactic--was ino moie than anl
appeal to the house-slaves with a ltw
bribes A systemll i tax c0llexscstins
-was coifferred onl then. Bi wfiile

ans, and because of this, and be-
cause in the old days the Arabs
raided them fo sl vcs there is
a strong nIovetlenit amionlg Ilhe
which witshc ti brcak away frolll
the Arab north and set up a now
srtle-.aallcd Azania. IFo sonie years
the black souhcrlis have been
Iighling a guerrithWar against Ihe
Sudanese governmcnel
The Sudan is significant for
other rec.Mns. it was the filst cou-
Iry in Africa to bec, nc indepcn-
dent in modern lu.lts, in 1916,
a vear before Ghana. II was the

was ite money to come t:om, it
the taxes of the uiian will'-t.do
were erased? Local agriculture an.
the niral sufferer of court! It wia
in this way that the subsidies huie
come and gone. All that ha bhr:en
left behind are the ignored protests
of the farmer and still higher priics.
Wlile one can and rmust indeed
condemn the cynical ntaioiiellei ot
the Government, one must also .orne
to expect them and know how to
deal with them by seeing thrlm ti
what they are maniiifestations of th-
CointtadI.ttio iof thie ioCsety
Antd in tlii regard whit tan be
clearer tltin tr puitulr it ula uver
exploited societV bhel pr:pl',.i
by ine whu cli l thernmlves, hi ecai
no oII el* will blat k I til:lI
Ieadctr pattng tirther holt ge (
ilr white nflasit Kinig Sugier i
.ndeed tilhe bic ltiony ut aill. EVis'
as the newsrnedia and tihe pillti-,i'
qui ui asid scream over the Wnuill
of subidlies ti feed.tutff trhe avrcica
J1.niitcan sufwlel fats each wiv, k
les thanl 5 ounces it heet', ,, ounc
io goat-imet land v, pint of nilk
Our piobltii hIe in this subtle lng
tiuc inlhiuanity. Wee m it .ild
chlngi it

first Atrican country to have a
ivitlary coup, ui 1958. It was the
ust African country in which the
workers and students, acting to-
gether, forced the military govern-
ment to resign, nm t194. Now the
military. this time the radical
young officers have taken power
asin, though the new PRine Mi-
niste, Abu Bakr Awadallah, is a
civilian, a former Chief Justice.
Th'tc are two iitmporxint aspects.
of the new gosver ; L'nt and its
piiicy which will be Wnerti wlatchl
iite "if's tIso*' 4

What Happened In The Sudan?



How do you view the struggle taking place in the
U S. and the Black Panthers in particularl
Like rn father before me I have always rea-
lised that the fotic which are opposed to the Black
man will aliwas use force against us. They have been
dosi:e sc for hundreds of year, If we should find it
necessary to use force against vhem now it is difficult
for anybody to blame us. We habe suffered for so long.
I do not believe ci violence per se. would not make a
fetisth of sioience but if a man brings violence to me
then I think that I am at liberty to reply with vio-
lence unlimited.

The Black Panthers have said in a statement that the
racial struggle is a reflection of the class struggle. But I
believe you see the racial struggle as primary.

Ganreys do not accept a class struggle. We only
know a race-struggle Garveys are racists! I will never
change. I cannot see the difference between one black
man and another because one has more money. They
are buiot black men to me and equal in my sight as re-
gavdi m) icve tsor them. What I mould like to see is that
all black men have a higher standard of living. But I'm
not going to tear down a black man because he has made
It &ood No sr There will be no class division in my
movement. I believe in only one class-the black dassm

In what terms then would you ctasify Jamaican
Jamaican society consists of white, yellow and
paying for white groups. These are the capitalist ex-
ploiters of the mases. You have a lot oif black men who
are of course used by these capitalist exploiters to
maintain the status-quo. They pose as politicians. I see
the struggle for power as one between the black masses
and those who know themselves and identify themselves
with the black masses against this group of exploiters
who are white, yellow and passing for white.
Are vou arguing for black electoral struggle'

The struggle must be wider than merely an electoral
struggle. Political activity is only one. of the means
whereby revolutionary changes are secured. We must have
struggle to put forward our cultuyJ identity struggle to
bring about poad in ourselves as black people-struggle
in other senses. The political effort is one of the means
of struggle It is I think at the moment a crucial means
of struggle
How do you see the artafaIries?
I am very very proud of the attitude of the
Raitafari bretheren. They have held the torch of Africa
alight at a trying time when the forces of evil had driven
my father fromt the d I thank them for what they have
done It is they who now make it possible for me to
emerge to a much easier task than I would have had if
they had not existed. I cannot thank the Rastafarian
bretheren too much for this.
How do you see youth'
Sthink that the yough that we have m this country
are wonderful people It is upon them that I will rely to
do my father's ork It is the youth and the youth alone
who lift up mt spirits and really allow me to step for-
ward at this tune to make my contribution which is such
a necessary one. Tlie youth are crying for change. The
youth have rejected this sickening, fradulent meaningless
out-ofomany one people system. I stand solidly with the
youth. I like my father believe in One God, One Aim,
One Destiny for our glorious black race I am not an
out of many :man I am a black man.
How do you evaluate your mother's cofntribotion to
Garvey's philosophy'
Well karvey's philosophy is Garvey's philosophy.
My mother's contribution has been in helping to spread
this philosophy fhsoughout the world. And she has done
a marvellous job throughout a long period of time. She

has ,e;) i. ,; he all in this struggle ti keep the pm.
cples of Marcus Gaey. her husband, alive I am en
proud if my mother lor this efoerL She has hern clsn
tently wending to people in altris every corner uof it
w rld. rummartes u Garvey' philusophyi. parts of he
speeches. excerpts of his writings on so many diffeot
topics. She has done this without any help at all and i
really has done a marvellous job.
What rote do you think Abeag ought to be piay
ing at this timi
Abeng ought to be stimulating African conscious
ness and should nymphasize Africanism rather than thi
attempt at creatingts class struggle in Jamaica. I beliee
that the attempt at a class struggle is simply playing into
the hands of the Communist infiltrator who I am certain
in our midst I detest Communists as much as I detc
capitalists A white man is a while man and no amount
of frothy talk from his mouth will change my opmina
of him. I know the beast. I will not forget my deaHlg
with the beast when I met it it England I feel that al
sections of the African race must come together soli
now in Jamaica. for we are now facing a baltle for a-
vial and only the fittest will survwe.

How do you distinguish between while casita
ad African Saciarsm?

African Socialism is a doctrine which meansthai
the black man must own the wealth of the black comt
unity. He will not be controlled by the white comnm
insts and he will not be controlled by the white cap
talists- The black people must own the wealth of then
community I do not want to be owned by Mr. Casao.
I do not want io be owned by Mr. Mao-T tung or ay-
body else. Black People must be masters in their ow
house. I would like to disenchant many of my friend,
who believe that communists are any different in their
racial outlook. If they had heard what happened to blac
students when they went to Moscow and when they went
to Piping then they would take a different lin. I belieq
that the Clcasian is a white, the Mongolian is a yellow
man and thi African i a black man. God made us th
way, and I Ike God's work, I am God's asvat and I i-
tend to stay that way. Let as develop tach in our own
vay as the Almighty intended when h placed in diffe-
rent areas of the world to be masters of our land in ow
own way-and following each race its own individual nture.

in the Star of Thursday 22nd May,
one H. Doug Campbeil writer of the column
"North Coast Gossp", launched a scur lus
attack on Africans in general and Monsell
Burchel Abeng Doonquah in particular.
The mami lines of attack can be item-
zed as follows
I That Blacks"have no right to own the
Country more than the other races, since
Jews have been here since 1662 and Chinese
since 18s3 along with Africans and East In-
2. That it is propaganda to show films of
Africa depicting its vast natural resources and
Industrial Development-wiuch Campbell assets
has been done with foreign capital.
3. Under the pretext of reporting a dia-
logue between himself and Doonquah, he veils
an attack on African Culture.


Who is H. Doug Campbell' He is the
writer of a column-North Coast gossip. His
main activity i in writing flattering things a
bout non-descript white Foreigners and their
local henchmieo, which forms the content of
the said column "North Coast Gossip"
IHe is frequently to be seen dressed as
Imperialist Puppets do, on the North Coast
with foreign white delinqluents who come here
as Tourists. Like any other Puppet in the
Tourist Promota racket he will never write
about the ounoxious by-product of Tourism
with which he is daily in touch for example
Black Sufferers of both cuxe being offered up
as Prouitutes and Pimps to foreign whiae de-
1. The lact that Jews have bean here ama
It ca2 .)i nutihili by tllf. We must observe

their activity. Politically they were the Mer-
chant and News Paper Editors in the Town
Party faction of the Old Assembly. This Party,
as a group, was not "repeenetaoive of the mar
of the p-ople. Although it often enjoyed a
working maijorry it introduced no bills to
promote road building, or to attablish a as
care system of land tenure or to provide
credit and marketing facilities for he peasantry"
(D.G.Hal, Free Jamaica Pg. 8)

Economically they represent the local
banditry who co-ordinate with foreign crim-
nals to exploit the Black masses. Their arch
representatives-The Ashenhims (owners of
some 22 Commercial enterpiaes in this Coun-
try) recently constructed a 3500,000 latt
on East Street the new home of the Daily
Misleadet under the Pioneer Industries Act.
Imagine, a Company such as the Gleaner Conm
pany Ltd. that has been in existence since
1832 having new premises asibuilt a Pioneer
Industry using Black Tax Payers money al-
though owned by the Wealthiest White Faitly
in this Country.
Culturally they have set up Institutiones
religious and secular to perpetuate their stl-
rural Traditions.
The Syrian' relationstup with Jamaica
has been principally an extractive one, In the
field of Commerce they are second only to
the Jews as exploiters of Black Labour. This
activity is complimented by a perfection of vio-
lence parncularly apparent in recent times.
( Note West Kingston and Eastern Portland)

It is the Blacks of this Country who
for over 200 years provided 0a4v Labour
tor the Sugar industry which in turn kept
the local economy alive an Eric Wdlam
ponts out oi "CapitaHlm hta Slavery" help to
fmance the British Industrial Revolution is
the 18th Century. It is the Black Masl
who after emancipation broke away from th
pure plantation economy and divernifile..t
economic life of the count y y"proa we
a great quantity and varly of oAeisti
food and UJI saock. aoduced aw sa
ard re-inoduced Om l as" (WaJL I
Socnl and Economic Stdans Vhi. 17 Me 3
Pg 260 )
It was the Blaclk who wean Blutahiae
on the Plantations to keep thelecoeao ayet ab
and who got shot down in 1831. 16S, 1931
and 1968 when they proteUed tife aujju
and racist nature of the society. It i the Black
Rastaarians who hae been honmadtd, ieti
ized and driven into iexle for rtfumia t
accept the white God, t enA4I te t
with Africa and keanig bgc Garwv *mi
It is the Black utas, I. tdi W ii,
iaty of the poptlaln l0, mie*n dae
Luhor o which the eo y sve g .ito i* llU
the most ocononicauly oppigire. .ulsfl3
deprived and politically excluded
The myth of the 'Igy w iY
vemted by a White Ptantocracy an f petuael
by its While Metrapoital cou1ntaf!as t*K
as Thomas Carlyle. dA E*Obk wkh is
1849 wrote "The Ditcoiuas- oJf t llm

If by now yaou sWcetieRs anai
THE CHINESE why De. Doonquaa taken ia li h AM$
idntify, rmait Aimf fmas C t MA i ls;
The Chinese after opting out ot the pnt tit t it the Air fica n jaMy do *
station Labour system for which they wen ll sBup t ata hashla ri. lti et .->
originally imported used their knowladgt of ia to dist h do t
commetce,coupled with a light complexion to Affrlictiv pu oa L OW
oin the Syrian and Jews in wmoloa Eco-l
nonic and racist Explotation of the Black ~a ,...paig min I I

One of their number, P, Juti Wor W1 "iS t
observed that the Chinieu "hw/ofseid loeie f'' lPIt Stntheamt,
Maiers into a dtannisk wacsau 'm H tnr L ia slm-, "U b *6 _tak
Bertiag Shiogs A pe eLed Orn II* GQiawa, *",4fJ *t a* -K I
rIA. and the ywt Citi i*n driat. lapelq I)P AikS nUIo *A* at M I
eA qia hi r 1%9) ,ut hiseily 0klal lusi Sa lptb iir S ne P
Atogut 3. 196) Thei too lhatn Ola- BigMsn tngtp*g5.L."
tural tnittuatones to papetalte their full-
fal TradltioM n,


The Christian and the Re

This article is on exerpr from c Iolger address
o, midleclass Clhristians io are mainly con-
er'ned i,' h The question of revolutionary viol

The view of resolution which I have is
nor specifically Christian. Human intelligence
is a sufficient guide to it.
But for that reason it harmonizes with
the Christian outlook and is in turn enriched
br a tral Christian attitude. This is what I
want to show treating first of revolution as the
leap to a radically new society, then of the
question of iolence
Jesus has been called, by both Christians
and non Christians, the greatest revolutionary
of all times. The lose he taught and lived, by
simpliciri and depth, lay the axe to the root
of even form of injustice, repression of free-
doa. and exclusive privilege. 'I hare nor come,
Ih- ciJ. 'ir bing peace. bur the 'cr "' fMartr-
h I, 11 .?-4
Jesus directed his personal efforts, not so
much against any particular wrong,. as against
the root of them all, the belief that you are a
good and godl! man if you pray and offer sacri
ice and look after your family and your
This s not to say that he was content
with generalities. Jesus recognized the earthly
implications of his teaching. He described him-
self as bringing 'god np i to the poor. liberty
lor sics. sighi ro the ihnd freedom tob the
ippresse'd (Lu e 4.181 At his trial he was
charged, in part, with the political crime of
stirring up opposition to Caesar
The point is, however, that Jesus Christ
did nor crusade against illiterac). ignorance.
slavery or authoritarian government. These
would follow ii his followers caught his spirit.

that is theO

SJas,sii iari we'ko ws'I id:(ad aI 'r srfAi s rganrsna-n i'-f t"m an
Strcii ABL CG ;herefjre ;eell responds. t i:o br' s i itr reakr there trie ria is hinJt
'hi' Organ 1a-ic 1ii'' ir rr cc ical .ia h win' OAs(4 aggrey mI' agarsi. G ,t aktc i
ird t'e.iing cracc \\la'! dea! aih i htr ace, mons aainer Panacra C ila ant! rhe
Dominhoira R, ubil.

rom the strictly legal point of view, the
OAS is supposed to be a voluntary association
oft arious governments in this Hemisphere
worlkng toward certain ends. as a result of
which they established an organization that is
considered a regional organaation in accord
with the United Nations Charter.
However, tie true aggressive. militar).
imperialistic and pseudo-regional nature of the
OAS cannot be hidden behind these legal prin-
iples. each day undergoing greater and greater
From its inception in 194h, the OAS was
used as an instrument of an aggressive military
alliance in the pa\ and control of US imperial-
imn The only reasons that Jamaica could have
had for joining this corrupt organization ere
lund,, as Seaga himself openly stated last week,
and the Govemnuent's acquisition of unperialist
bayonets. as none of them have dared to admit
The points which have determined the
course of the OAS ar concentrated in a few
episode where the Organiatioa has been faced
with a showdown and hashown its true colours
Guatemala, Cuba. Panama, Santu Donlingo.
It i, only natural that Guatemala should
hase been the starting point for this course.
There in that nation converted by American
imperialism into a mere banana kingdom, the
rust crime was comnutted. On assuming the
Presidency of Guatemala in 1952 through free
and impartial elections, JACOBO ARBEN, as
Head of State of one of the poorest and mont
underdeveloped countries of Latin'merca, was
faced sith the task of carrl ing oat an agrarian
reform Although quite moderate, Arbein' agra-
tan reform had a powerful enemy the Yankee
which exploited agriculture aid owned niore
than 20, of the nation's best land
The United States Goernmeunt. openly
identify ing iLt interests with those of this mono-

poly, unleashed a bitter campaign designed to
overthrow Arbenz. At that time, the American
Secreary of State, John Foter Dulles, was the
United Frnut's leal counsel and his brother llten
was head of the C1 t
By March 1954. almost forty subversive
actions had been carried out against the legal
government of Guatemala The big landowners,
including the Catholic Church. which is one of
the most influential allies of the military oligar-
ch, were backing United States efforts to oeer
throw the Anbenz Government. The United
States ambassador was openly plotting against
the incipient democracy
In 1954. the Tenth loter-American Conf-
erence opened to the accompaniment of an
intense defamation campaign against the Guate-
malan adventurers and mercenaries, financed,
malan Government, a campaign in which the
American press held the foremost position. The
creation of a mercenary army composed of
Guatemalan adventurers and mercenaries, fin
anced. armed and trained b) the CIA in neigh-
bouring territories of Hondurasand Nicaragua,
was an rpen open secret.
Under suchcircumstances Guatemala tried
vainly to acquire weapons in the United States
and ialtern Europe. Finding no other recourse.
it finally purchased weapons from Czechoslovak-
ia On Mtay 1), Nicaragua broke diplomatic
relation with Guatemala as the prelude to the
military ina.ion that was to take place a few
days later Coloel Carion Cartllo Arma, led the
invading army in the name of the stnigie against
internationall conamunsuniu"
The Declaration emerging from the Tenth
Conference supported future action by Castillo
Armaa' "antircommuniti army", nod justified
aggression of any type executed by the United
States against Guatemala, which at the same time
defined the courm of the OAS.
For the first time, "international common-

ism invented during the Korean war to obtain.
among other things, Latin-American support for
the United States policy of aggression in Asia,
had become an inftrontiinecntal issue. a principle
applicable to the internal administration of the
Latin-American republics
Besides, the question of "international
communism" was equated, in this resolution, to
be dealt with according to the 1947 Inter-
American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, the
s-called Rio Treaty. as a result of which the
OAS became an instrument of military interven-
tion in the hands of the American imperialism.
to be used against the Latin-American nations
The scope and vagueness of the resolution
("domination or control of the political institu-
tions of an American State" made the Inter
American statement on "international commun-
ism" a truly indiscriminate "big stick'.
The resolution emerging from the Tenth
Conference, whether so intended or not, could
only be an instrument of intervention.
As of that moment, the OAS had assumed
a new nature and a new course, characterized
by the subordination of the tenuous principles
of cooperation and NON-INTERVENTION, pro-
claimed by the 194S Bogota Charter, to the
war-like and aggressive interests of the Rio Pact.
Sixth the case of Guatemala, the OAS was
to begin its policy of looking the other way and
taking absolutely no notice of an imperialist
military aggression against a free and independ-
ent American nation.
Without consulting the OAS, the L S imm-
ediately began sending weapons to the Nicara-
gua Government, and established a blockade on
the possible sending of weapons to Guatemala.
The weapons sent to Nicaragua went to
Castillo Armas' mercenary army. which at that
time was being equipped and trained on Hondur-
as and Nicaragua territory to invade Guatemala
Obviously. this inactivity of the OAS. inex-
plicable and inexcusable coming froma serious
and responsible organiation, was motivated by
the fact that that particular organization was in
reality Washington's Ministry of Colonies. Thus,
the decisions of the OAS had no other purpose
than to create a prior measue of justifialtifl
for any American aggression. On June J7, jha
mercenary army led by Catillo Anrmas, 4tipod
and trained by the CIA. invaded Ctalenal
territory from bases located in t.iragW n and
Honduraa. War plane from bsoe in thnooutn
tries bombed and strafed Guatemalan tln elry
in coordination ith navat operations di4 td
against hitrto Cabe M the OAS
remained talent.
Faced witte i sllene i the OA%, the
Guatemalan GCovrnminet apptd to the t4e 4
(Tua tr Page 4)



4 setris o article
P, 'ples tiroughouri
In 1786 Nadl
His father Senzasi
Zulu king. At an
drove him and his
took refuge with
grew up in the
was made second i
Chaka rose to poa
Chaka and ht
by the hardships
tribe br ctonditi
recognised as a
V'i miteiitgent, he
..In comhats of
ches..." was unnen
and mris git aco
everything he did.
pncipls, who
until itwas ormplt
Chaka's intl
rage was noted
Cqata's 'tribe, He
bocn e leader 0
resiuid in Natal
Wg ,of 16 Chi*a's
kiag of the Zubh.
ceatnt he throat
under one strong
bda name ZULU
Wi 'i ame
be 'wa itequi
so 'his first step

His was the more delicate and more radical
task of being the vehicle of that spirit. His
attack was on the religious establishment, not
the scientific. economic or political.
It would be very unfair to deny to the
Church. in its long history, any appreciation
of the Jesus it claims as its head. The Christian
community has a substantial record of concern
for human suffering in all its forms.
What is not easily forgotten, especially
in this comer of the globe, is Christianity's
part in the hideous crime of slavery. The slave-
traders and slave-owners were supposedly Chris-
tian. And today it comes more and more to the
fore. The reason is clear. Economic domination
is still being practised by white America and
Europe. and Christianity has still to demon-
strate that it is not part of that establishment.
This means a shift away from interpreting
Christian love as mainly 'works of charity',
welfare work, an interpretation springing partly
from the modern State's take-over, more and
more. of the social functions formerly in the
hands of the Church The Church tended to
become the arbiter of only individual morality,
the defender of only family welfare.
The separation of Church and State, al-
ready outlined in the Christian Gospel, is a dev-
elopment not to be regretted But that is not
the end of the matter It belongs to a context
which is past In the present the Church as an
institution has a vital. if personally dangerous,
role to pla as stern critic of the State and of
its chief representatives. the government. And
Christians as citizens have the task of active i-
volvement. of executing what needs to be done,
of seeing it first.
Unfortunately. like the majority of the
population most Christians in Jamaica do not
see the need for profound change. It is this.

riot as they claim the question of violence,
which is the maior obstacle and which leads to
their worry about violence,
No doctrine or deed is more Christian
than that of forgiveness, of overcoming evil by
suffering it out of love. Turning the other cheek
and giving up your shirt to the man who de-
mands your jacket are familiar texts. Still more
striking is the example of Jesus who, with all
his power to defeat his enemies by force, chose
instead to die at their hands,
Men like Mahatma Ghandi in India, Albert
Luthuli in South Africa and Martin Luther King
in America found their inspiration in his ex-
ample, as well as in non-Christian sources.
These men are the proof that there is nothing
passive and permissive about 'non-violence' It
is active resistance to evil, suffering it so as not
to suffer it to continue.
Force by itself certainly solves nothing.
It is in fact a dangerious tool, usable for pro-
tecting selfish interests or for taking vengeance
on selfishness, as well as for good. When the
former happens, violence does generate bitter-
ness and more violence. This is what Jesus was
saying, not (as adherence to the letter would
have it) that force is intrinsically evil or in-
capable of serving honourable ends. 'The prin-
ciple of the absolute renunciation of force
would not therefore be a Christian principle"
(Karl Rahner, 'The Theology of POwer'. Theo
local Investigations, vol.iv, p.399.
It is nonetheless a serious mistake to read
the New Testament books as flatly condemning
every use of force against other men The letter
is mistaken for the spirit.
The letter says turn the other cheek, sur-
render your shirt to the man who sues you for
your coat (Luke 6b 29). In fact. when so at-


tacked don t we
take the man to
though it contradic
What is important is
things are done. It is
The letter sa!
sword will perish by
521. Literally this a
beget more violence.
So persuasion must
the vicious spiral of
What that 'something
to demonstrate as u
appeal of intelligent.
Jesus was org
laying force, anym
lice or courts He
giveness whatever
the situation might
spirit is to he addil
of marking the di.
move. More and nit
area of force and m
The revoluti
brings out the sig t
explains why Jesr
Christianity is now I
conviction cannot
and goodness by ci
It was precise
that Jesus was trial
mic or political revi
allege political crime
crimes would mean I
because the politics
But they recoi
Jesus' call was to I
political revolution. I

Vol. 1. No. 21. June 21, 1969


Wilil it happening to the Mothers of the
trld. eprially the Black Mothers of Jamaica?
t b( hlore sorrd and forgotten our African
bhirhriori and have adopted the ways of nur
1ilrmer tavre matIers even more than the black
I .err o if our children). We do not try to lift
hli teril l tire shlate masters and dash it to
pie-c, at our blark Fathers are trying to do.
1 her itird help We. the black Mothers of Jam-
-a i cn tgi i them smne. Instead of ragging nur
ullicild anod man folk for anything more or
noiri nol thing when the Govenment or prit ate
li-iire-.c trlait fie price of thinprs unfairly and
< ni ua.l., let iIs comC together and march to
Giirdoin HolusC or wherever. because through
.l rltr traiinp of this and that our children's
itriler pa checks remain the same.
tre the black Mothers are too weak in
purpno.n Oh lo[s Mother tell me what has the
strlr masters done for you? They smile with
iou at first, then cast vou out, leaving you
hrbetId and bleeding by the wayside, without
.hriter and w without home. Remember your God
loI your heritage. shed the ways of the adopted
ireirnt slae; masters and white gods.
I a black Mother. cry to the lost black
Mnithlo return from the sea of Mini, Wigs, false
pride, rc.
Have you forgotten Nanny Accompong,
Prin.ci aslii (the Emperor's daughter), Judith,
Ruth. ELther and many more black Mother.

who gave their lives for the uplittment of black
people all over the world, spiritually, culturally,
violent or passive.
Leave your wanderings and adopted par-
entc and like the Prodigal Son who came to
himself. retrace your steps to the Father's House.
You are assured of a warm and happy welcome.
Jab Ras Tafari says. "Come." God is known hy
many names but this one: Jah Rastafari is dread-
fil and terrible among the Pagans.
Mothers and Fathers come now let us
endeavour to weigh up things in the Scnle of
God On one side the world with all un pomp
and "power". all its wealth and fame. all its
joys and pleasures. Pile them high. let them
sparkle in their brilliance Take tihe wealth of
Nations with all the undiscovered preciounston-
es and substanees, add the position, of king, and
queens, the fame of authors poets artists
philosophers. statesmen, world-conquerors, then
bring the pleasures. joys and pastimes of the
centuries and take all these along with every,
thing else that men hold dear and place them
ip the scales. Go noW to the Prince of Light
and Love ahd ask him to place a Mother, just
one Mother or Soul in the other side of the
scales Now behold the result. The Scale though
weighted down by a world and all it contains
rises and lo. The Mother or Soul of Man has not
yet been valued. So come, let us show our true


flagWaomsigar est Mialoa ,w aa pl &l


I was very plad within myself to
ee your publishmren in tIis Abehig
We must let thin natilonhnd of this
country he rallu nnd lrtl tilte whie
man. 1 i ol ur i hut a working
for nothing heca0sle while we work
for cannot buy Inod :nd it ca nno
hby colthec and pay hnbse refit
We musi cnmt together and iinitC
with one and ;lill working whlle-
harctedly, I am a black ran chiii
hut I like graio for Gli.d i, nd ind
mTrcyfNull hi each i il r ev l'it
or suall No man nr any wui min w.at
born or I Iiis earth 'vith :t ...n.i ..
fork or pencil in his rl itr finnil
'licy treat orm frle-pjrcnTii nol 't -i
like dofi and want i i atladlie i
like dauiln foon Out yc' e i so theI cin,.
Ok be go nd oil -irntPi' and (lyal
to us.

For a couple ot years now the
postal service of Janmaica has beer,
passing through a pcoind or re
tribution. Thil dilirmma started
when thi Giener;il Post Office at
King St. went on sire tl to April
I9hG. Froni his crisis ther came
a grlat suifertum whell many ol

.. .. ........... ... sea. ched be r le nn

thie sle breadwinners were dhi working lot let us say"nothing.'
mrtsed from their jobs without Are we to stand up and see our BONGO NEVILLE
any tangible reasons given. This hrothers suffer in this manner for. The attemnp to cish the in.
was done under auspices and gene- long? Shaka Abujay. domitabe sprmit of 'Bongo' Neviie
rosity of the lion, Minister of Howell continue. Coming shortly
Communication and Work whom after the Government's, notice to
I think will have to given an ac, TEACHERS IN SCHOOL quit o less persn tian Super.
count of this alrociou act so t is a pleasure ce more to tndent Jo WiSiamr of Dntam
Swrite t your newspaper. It i a Town Police Station went to 'Bon-
pat d brown hll i there wals widely known fact tlt Jamaica is go' Neville's premises on West Road
greal downfall in the salary ei- hort of teachers but that isn tea- last Tuesday and ordered him to
pcctolly on die part of the se c "'
pecallyd 'oties Whether the Mi- 0ot Why when the rwhire men cme close hi beer parlour on the gromu-
called "postics"' Whether (he Mi- here as teacher. wmen to make nd that he had no permit. The
nister was directly respoasiblc for herdvise aches ey art take fact, as the Superintendent well
his, I don i kiow but Irnt such a of knew and as he was reminded, is
there rar itot been any sipn of In aon Secondary school in the that last year Howell applied for
improvemcnl in Ihe salary zrale Western part fthe island there we premi to sell eer to the in.
A l-w d;,ss, agiot it wa, rvealei tW" incidents of this white man wpecor at Admiral Town Station.
after the Inion had tntcrvenced trying to light sludenl. Ile tried to His prmises was choked and he
due II tIhe piaing io( lle hdbudt t'ilt rfie hiry hut was cared from a was told that he cold open the
tirl tie Miinris did not know heating hy the Ieputy tleadmiaster business and pay the permit fees
lhe poties were not rcesvin any "Nt alrtirid. this matn hoxed a bhy when he was notified to do so.
nlliwanes For to is reason it waI wlho Iltrealtncd to heat him. It was To date he has not been o o noti
lea.ned thatl ite Plst Master fie- reported to the headmaster (who fied.
nctrl was slUiin ried for invest- hy snom Cmeans or bther is a lack After questioning 'Bng.' Ne.
galine Inai the afit rs. I woird man with .i white heart whi prim- ville Superintendent Williams turan
like to ay the P.M.G. alone is pily reported it to his masters, who ed to his 16 year old brother and
not responsible lor this hit the e by chance membersoitthe School asked if he was also defending
entire head of 'he Postal Dcpart- "oM d I some being black). The hby Black Power. Before the youth cou-
Orenrt A few men received allow- wassuipended indefinitely. lie bla- Id reply Williams struck him twice
ance shorlly after the strike in :I ck men doing injustice against there across his back and dde with a
lump sium oin the ginonds of colour length of platted electric wire and
receiving a tip iti buying a drink. Alas' Ihe fault is not withm told hib to move ( The youth
Our 'Black Jrothers' have been themselves. It has been from the wa, standing in front of his home).
days of slavery that the whites have Williams then delivered two similar
I Y A BhypnG "td us, but we small over hlows to another youth and had
SAy iRENG oonmien him and Bongo Noville's brother
SCHOOLOY S1FEHRER searched before leaving.

With the C(miimirtn oh
For Local and Foreign Records
216 Old Hope Road, Kgn. 6, Ja. W.
Open till .00 ip.m.

Starting IONIGH IIs t)0 i i
A Seri-s Mull c.l Cruutndini
'TIe leears ,t of ie--doi S-ound,
Is Mu I ,1 .l ... .
O I p i 'd

Latest in Fashions

I Slipe Road,
Irrmrgton Bridge,
Kinrgr ton.

relephnre 247j8

I'r e tdung HI pr itn art[es and a/io facet m lt'- oridr

1V4\ hIv -lnil Ruoad
t urne of Ulymiipic Way

Ihlit(,l'l Aat K trti __h. Rubelr A.l]t ,c Sccltary, rc : I ti' l il al c..ll Avr., Kill]|siitn i


Fir (furtr'titu anrd Quttk .ert)rc
lasty Food
Reaunablle Prices
Your Sattifi} ti i i e vtr P -surtw

Nkaa L haWIL

Pnma eatlr mn fora ihilaiia t AIENO NATIONAL WIEELY
oJ ia mt"Vol. I Na...l tita tosribatl I I nywr (1-)
II e vsw (461.) 11 SpIIalml Mridat: (2/I)fr lSww.

i ...................... ..... .. .. -....
City ................... .im nuv......... ...............


Thsw oss t o ,'U freed om ye erct agitatio, men

..... P cne s nthi w d nd. I n rd a i ne

wit eihe wod or blws orwt oh h iiso yat r

pr esri tbedi e llli I th eQ 0 0 l ur luendurancm Ioifh d V thbos ( tiheI o p rs


SUDAN? (Oirt'dfironp. I)
ing. First is the extent to whicbdl
will be possible to change any Wjn
pect of the economy or political
system of the Sudan. The Sudan'
is a3ry poor country, dependent
for its income on selling its cottont
on the world market. When the
old civilian politicians ere in pot
wcr, in 1956-58 and 1964-69, they
proved to be inefficient and ctr.
rupt C(an the new men do any
better, given that the economy Ki
not really controlled by Sudanes-.
bhut b thi foreigners who buy
theii cottenr
The second question is very in-
tersting, because it concerns the
part played by Communists in an
African country. The -Sudaneri
communistt Party is one of the
most influential in Africa. It is
strong in Ihe trade unions and
played a big part i overthrowing
the military regime itr 964. But
it has always been close to the
Shuiet lnirt. where its leader, A-
bdul Khalti Mahjoub, has often
been a welcome guest, and many
Sldanese say that the Cfommunists
are inore interested in the Soviet
Union than in their own country.
List October the Communists split
with many of them calling for
the party to be dissolved and Ie-
formed as a new party which would
concern itself only with Sudanese
affair, and not become involved
in tile fatairs of the world Comlnu-
nist, iinvement. This group strong-
ly sUpports Iwadallah and the
young officer, and he leans heavi-
ly on them; it i reported that
incre ae as many as eight of
them in his foul tolw-man cabinet.
Mahjoub him.lh has bren arrested
by the new giernment. So the

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