Title: Abeng
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00019
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: June 14, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text














Vol 1 No. 20 June 14, 1969 Price: SIXPENCE


I"Wr IYt Owr ople to Thrik for Themxhevs '
MARCUS GAR V".v


P,5UEUrUP.V1E U'We~1UrYa ,~;md r~~t U-~uE


IE IRLE InllGb IU MUY US


BUT ABENG MARCHES ON


MONTEGO BAY
May 6th, 1969
Dear Sir.
I am a regular reader of the
Abeng newspaper and I would like
to state a grouse. Why do the police-
men have to assault the boys who
are selling the Abeng?
One day while I was shopping
in town I saw a policeman assault-
ing a boy who was selling the Abeng
newspapers. He hit him in the head
with his gun and tore up the Abeng
newspapers he had was selling. I
don't believe the policemen should
be doing such things because this
newspaper is not illegal so anyone
has a right to sell it if they wish
to.
I am
Yours truly,
FAY BROWN.

One of the leading Abeng ven.
dors and correspondents in Morant
Bay has reported that he was ar-
rested by the police and released
on 2.0.0. bail. Around two weeks
ago a police officer left a message
for him at a cook-shop saying that
anywhere he bucked him up he
would be carrying him to jail. A
week passed before the vendor saw
him and while asking him about
the threat he was arrested. The
police officer said he was after the
vendor for a long time because
he was an Abeng vendor.
EDITOR'S NOTE:
In Issue No. 9, March 29, we stated
for these policemen who illegally
intimidate and arrest ABENG ven-
rors that "ABENG is a fully legal


newspaper. It is a licensed publica-
tion and the ABENG Publishing Co.
Ltd. isregistered asa limited liability
rcomlpany under the Companies Act'.


On Saturday June 7, 1969, one
of the usual group of young Abeng
sellers collected his papers at about
10:00 a.m. from the newspaper
office. Some of them ended up in
the new addition to thle Kingston
Sheraton Hotel. They became sepa-
rated and one, Percival Lamont,
asked another, Carlton Wedderburn,
to hold his papers. While on the
fifth floor Carlton was approached
by a workman who indicated his
desire to buy a copy of the paper
but suggested that Carlton wait
downstairs. On his way down, he
was approached by another work-
man, dressed in full Khaki who
asked him what he was doing there.
Carlton explained his business. The
'workman' then ordered him to get
out while brandishing a bottle he
had picked up. Carlton, a youth of
about 9 years old, in his attempt to
flee, dropped the 95 copies of
'Abeng' he was carrying beneath his
arm Turning around to collect them
he found that the workman had got
to them first and firmly refused to
return them.
In the face of this opposition
Carlton went downstairs to the gate-
man who offered to try and find
the person or the copies of Abeng.
'his proved futile. The matter was
then reported to the offices of The
Abeng PublishingCo.and the person
on duty checked at the site of the
Hotel where the story was confirm-
ed by the gateman.


What is happening to Black Man
down at Nain? Why is Babylon so
aggressive over their stronghold'
What is the real nature of the Al
part scheme, the real nature of its
plans for Black Man?
2nd June
Monday. Plainclothes police men-
aces and other beasts disguised as
security were imported to the site
at Nain to strengthen the police
against the workers rhev also spied.
3d June
Tuesday A Ras, his woman, ano-
ther man were held for having herbs
(outside the compound They were
roughed and taken along with their
infant children to jail.
4th June
Wednesday At the Port Kaiser
plant, 3 black youth complaining
about working conditions and pay
they were mobbed by about 20
Gennen who are employed to a
foreign 3 engineering company. All
these men later left the island in
a hurry.
6th June
Friday: Workers, who usually have
to walk an extraordinary distance
from their living quarters, halfway
routd the site and through a police
gate, decided to try a short cut.
A redmen, security guard, new on
the job, challenged them and told
them if anyone stepped over or
under the fence there would be
shots. There was an argument and
while this was boiling, one brother
leaned on the fence The red stripe
immediately used his gun and the
brother was grazed by the bullet.
Since man always used this routine
for Alpart is 7 sq. miles, the size
of Kingston. Black Man became
darker with anger. They decided
to jump the fence up, right in front
of some white men offices. A white
men, James Todd. tried to call it
off. but the security guard along
with others who drove up were


baiting these workers and brandish
ing their weapons eventually one
security guaro stepped back and
drew his gun and Black Man de
cided to act. The guard was dis-
arnned and he and others were bea
ten one by one. Todd and other
whites tried to rescue them hut
,ere also flogged. The spirit spread
as mall spread out over the site,
draping all available exploiters and
and distributing long-earned beating
Work on the site had to be
closed down. These event, took
place at 7 30 and by II a.m the
place was full of lice-men dying
to shoot
7th 8th June
Sat-Sun The men claiming that it
was the job-seekers causing trouble
did nothing else nght away as all
man, workers would be together
over the weekend.
9th June
Monday 7.30 a.m. Now that wor
kers would be on the job, and
hustlers would be isolated from
them, the men sent two Alpart
bulldozers to park and wait at Shan-
ty Town, the scene of many cook.
shops, ranches, and rabernacles.
Then came dozens of security men,
police and white men. All manr
works were bulldozed to the ground
to the last hut. Any resistance or
salvage work by Black Man was
beaten down and battered back.
One woman who had wearily wor-
ked so hard to save her steaks,
chicken, cuwfeet and other food
from the heavy rains had to step
aside while men went through. Be-
hind the beasts and bu'ldozers was
a barrel of gasolic in a pickup
which was full of gas bombs and
bottles. These were lit and used
to burn out the sufferers ruins.
Down to baby's things were tram-
pled. These operations lasted until
Tuesday 10th June. Any man who
the beast could hold alone was
ranged and battered.


SUGAR WORKERS

CONFERENCE
35 people braved the raut mands of the N. W. U. B. I- T. U,
to attend the sugar worker con- are too narrow and limited to meet
ference. Attendance should have the exploitation of W. I. S. co
been in the hundreds had the con- and the big landowners wholee ac
ference been held during the week counts hide the true extent of pro-
plus the fact of rain that fell fits by dealing only with factory
on and off all day. A worker operations. Our people would not
attending the conference reported be working on the estates if tiey
had land room for cultivation of
thzt the W I S. co. incread other crops, and the demand for
the quota of work for that day land therefore must be met as a
and workers suspected that this basic necessity to build the eco-
was done to prevent attendance "noric strength of sugar and agri-
to the conference. cultural workers. And that the en-
The conference started at five tire profitability of the sugar in-
thirty and was addressed by Rode- dustry including the manufacture
rick Francis and George Myers of of all by-products of sugar, and
the Jamaica Maritime Union. The the shipping and marketing arrange-
general view expressed,which is the ments in determining the ability
position of sugar workers through of W. S. co. to pay the nec-
out Westmoreland and Hanover was esary wages.
that the two party parliamentary The conference agreed to
unions that jointly represent sugar manifest the immediate demand
workers since 1938, was totally of the sugar workers of Westmore-
bankrupt in their organization ca- land to revoke the two party u-
pacity to lead and bargain for nions from their lives, since these
sugar workers. Sugar workers ex- unions have lolg ago revsoked the
press that in a nutshell the de- interest of sugar workers.


One brother tryi ngi fii,l
the lumber from hi, hro,, !.ulr!
that it had been ro rilr-i hb ,,iir
citizens of Naini 5hiler ihe,!,ti.-
it out, he came face ti I ,i-
some anti ,"townln" frelinoi
built up by Babylon. ThrT ih nmi
understanding they ,illJd ptliie
[his sufferer was ioined h i, h
brother who was trying t, i raligh-
ten out thing, when lihi ou l
beasts ro prev in their pritr ruck.
black at tihe tot(onl aid nu hit[ o
top. fell on them and irae h~A
the beating of their liv, uhkch
was nearly the b eatril oi their
death, The younger brother ho
was le.s damaged ncverthele., was
beaten out of his suit of \:lerieica
khaki, so that when he ,-,iped
he was running naked Iie eIder
brother, who was lightl, intoxi=
cated as a result of his frustration,
was unable to put up resistance
of any kind but was bc-ate dread
Until now about half dol ouff
erers have been held atrd charged
with drairming the guard along
with other charges. Yt, no gun
has been found
Until now the suflr, r hopes
are well ploughed up and buO-
dozed and man live m fear This
has been a normal thing for a
long time \ dreadlock brethren,
working legally, was held recently
and locked up, because he hloked
too dread. A men at Port Kaiser,
dissatisfied with the work of the
youth down on the ground whom
he was supervising. shouted from
up on the girder. "Come on up
here, you're no use to me down
there. My boss tells me that when
find a young Janaican, I must
'ork hun till he drops like a mule."
ALPART IS SUBVERSIVE
WHAT IS HAPPENING AT AL-
PART? WHY IS THERE SO MUCH
RADAR EQUIPMENT? WHY IS
SO MUCH SECRET EQUIPMENT
UNDERGROUND' WHO GOES
AND COMES AT THEIR AIR-
STRIP?


MORE ABENG

MORE HELP

Ever since Abeng started
some months ago, our readers
have been urgig us to expand
the paper. It is heartening that
despite our inability to do so,
the support for Abeng has
been increasing weekly. How-
ever, we now feel that if
Abeng is to improve and satis-
fy the demands being made
by its readers, it is vital that
it should move up ir size as
soon as possible.
The only way Abeng can
do this is with the support of
its readers. We have therefore
launched a fund-raising drive
in which everyone can make
a contribution. We are asking
all our supporters for individ-
ual donations and also to
organise towards such and
fund-raising efforts in their
own areas.


THE STRUGGLE





AT NAIN ALPART


BLACK SUFFERERS


OF WHITE MARL


Thursday, May, 29, 1969.


-s


- -













MARCUS GARVEY Jnr. SPEAKS OUT!


WtIH T DO YOLU SEE AS THE MAIN TENETS OF YOUR
iF OTHER S PHILOSOPHY'
Welt m father's philosophy, Garveyisn, isthe origin-
a. tonn of Black Power art I can summarise his philosophy
and his ideas in fi\e basic concepts. The first concept is
'hat uf Bioc Awarcness the knowledge of the black man
of himuiel air a African. a man with an ancient history,
li-ur an d ; ntagc. T:le second idea is pride in the black
L'th i. Bl..k it Bcaitiul. Marcus Garvey said this fifty
2-:,, :"'. ( .mit:.acl and the others are only repeating it

The ithid .nicept is that the Black man must have
his own bihak mst,iutions under black leadership and these
inrtitutios mist work t11 create Black Power in the fullest
eeni of ithe tir
SThe I -cth concept is the idea that all Black men are
brothers that ir we must have black unity in the national
sense and we must hia\e black u"jty in the intematioini
Suwse As ,Ma uG Creys said, know no national boundary
where the Negr- i concerned."
The iilth principle, which Marcus Garvey expounded,
is the concept t!hai 1 must have a great nation in Africa.
Tie Black man w-i be nothing anywhere in this world until
w e have a vcr, ver great nation in Africa.
Now ti esre arfwe bas.i concepts of Garveyism, which
'is the original aid purest form of Black Power.
HO, 100 YOl INTEND CARRYING OUT THIS WORK?
I am i.w I kt~ieactive steps to start an organization


oi my own My emphasis is on the fact that we are Africans.
In my father's timlne e had to-use the word Negro although
he fully knew himself as an Afrian, because we were
thinking backwards, we were rot forward thinking, we had
not really emerged from slave thinking. Before our fore-
fathers came from Africa they were known as Africans,
wihn they became slaves they became Negroes, now that
rr, are no longer leaves I feel that a- must he once again
'frican'. So I intend to create ani organzation which will
ei African, which will he working to build up the strength
,if he black people in this country and to prepare my peo-
ple philosophically and ideologically to take power in every
sense in this country.
WHY HAVE YOU CHOSEN THIS TIME TO EMERGE
INTO PUBLIC ACTIVITY? I THINK IT IS NOW TEN
YEARS SINCE YOU RETURNED FROM UNIVERSITY
IN ENGLAND:SEVERAL PEOPLE HAVE BEEN ASKING
QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS:
Because I think the time is ripe now for the type
of philosophy which I hold dear, which is the philosophy
of my beloved father. In 1959 when I returned here I real-
ized the time was not yet ripe for an African Movement in
Jamaica. I realized that people were gradually feeling the1
way to Africarusm. A person who aspires to leadership
must be a man who realizes that he must take the right
action at tie right time. If I had come out m earlier times
and allowed myself to be buffeted by the massive forces
which would have been arrayed against me, I would not
now be in this favourable position. What I knew was that
1 could not join the two-party system. I keot aloof and I
am now in a position to oppose that two-party system, with
all nm force. with all my heart and with all my soul.
HAVE ANY OF THE POLITICAL PARTIES MADE
OVERTURES TO YOU IN THIS INTERIM?
Yes, there have been overtures, but, of course, they
have all been meaningless to me for I have never had any
inrention at any time of joining either the Jamaica Labour
Party or the People's National Party. These political insti-
tutions are quite irrelevant as far as I am concerned. They
have no meaning for me.
DO YOU THINK THE PARLIAMENTARY ROAD WILL
HELP THE BLACK STRUGGLE?
I do not believe that there can be or should be any
shooting revolution m this country. I believe my role is to
work upon the minds of my black people and let them know
themselves as Africans. Once we are united as Africans and
create our own African party, nothing can stand against
us. The 1LP. and the P.N.P. will vanish into oblivion.
BUT ARENT THESE TWO PARTIES ONLY THE BROK-
ERS FOR THOSE WHO REALLY CONTROL THIS
COUNTRY? SO ANY ATTEMPT BY BLACK PEOPLE TO
COME INTO THEIR OWN WILL MEAN A CONFRON-
TATION WITH THE WHITE IMPERIALIST FORCES OF
AMERICA AND ENGLAND?
This is essentially the point. We must not give these
people the excuse tor intervention. That is why we must
attempt to take power legitimately. That is why we must
have an Afriwan political party. It mst be an exclusive
party This was clearly lard down by my father and has


- been repeated with great lorce by Carmichael and the
others. If we have our own party, then we can take
charge of this country. We constitute 95;, of the popula-
tion of this country. We must take charge in a legitimate
manner. If the United States or Canada or Britain tried to
intervene then they will be defeated by World opinion.
THIS DOESNT SEEM TO BE THE CASE IN VIETNAM
NOW NEITHER WAS IT SO IN THE DOMINICAN REP-
UBLIC IN 1965. IN ALL THESE CASES WORLD PUBLIC
OPINION HAS BEEN VERY STRONG YET THE U.S.
HAS ITS OWN WAY. DOESNT WORLD PUBLIC OPIN-
ION SEEM INEFFECTIVE IN THIS SENSE TO YOU?
If a white President of the United States was to so
lose his mind as to intervene in a Black Power nation where
Black People were taking control from the white race and
the yellow race, that man would not long be President.
Hie would have ire in Chicago, fne in Detroit, fire all over
America. And there would be fire in London too. We are
organizing ourselves as Black Power people over the World.
No one can compare the situation in the Dominican Repub-
lic which is simply a situation where a snaB clique of whites
and mulattoes ruled the black masses And there has been
no legitimate revolution of the black mases in the Domin-
ican Republic. We intend to have a legitimate change in
this country where the black masses take control by parlia-
mentary means. The United States or Canada or anybody
else cannot intervene against that.
DO YOU BELIEVE THAT THE BLACK MASSES CAN
REALLY TAKE CONTROL THROUGH PARLIAMENT'
WONT FT BE THE BLACK BOURGEOISIE WHO WILL
DOMINATE THROUGH PARLIAMENT AFTER USING
THE BLACK MASSES TO ENTER PARLIAMENT?
There is no Black Bourgeoisie in the real sense of the
term in this country. There are a few black men who have
got jobs or men who have achieved positions by rather
uncertain means. The Black People in this country areOne
people. There cannot be a domination by a black bourgeois-
ie if we have an aroused socialist movement. Any movement
i which I take part will preach the philosophy of African
Socialism which goes hack to our African heritage. That is,
I believe in joint state and worker ownership of all large-
scale indsutries. I believe that capitalism is acceptable and
should be there in medium range and small range industries.
I have not the slightest interest nor did my father in Comm-
unism which is just another white man's doctrine. The
Black Bourgeoisie cannot exploit the masses in a socialist
order and a socialist society.
BUT ISNT CHANNELLING THE BLACK STRUGGLE
THROUGH PARLIAMENT TAKING IT THROUGH A
WHITE INSTITUTION?
When the time comes for the black man to take
power there will be a complete change of system. We must
have an African Republic in this country. An African Rep-
ublic based on the principles of African Socialism as laid
down by Kwame Nkrumah and other African Socialists. I
am an African Socialist. I take no doctrines from the white
man I will have no white man's parliament. I will have a
black man's parliament-a black constitution, organized,
developed and promulgated by black people.
Continued NEXT WEEK!


Determined to


in 19'61- Atii to Cural. leader ,f th
,ndependence Io Guinea and Cape I' rde IPAIG
for the first guerillas, itith the aim of unlea
against Portueurse colonialism on a naionail sca
tro thirdJ of the country, i under PAIGC control


What is the state of the struggle in the cities of socalled Poruguese
R esist Gnea,particulaly in the capital. Bissau, and in Cape Verde?
e s We have had a great deal of experience m the struggle in the cities
Amicar Cabral and the urban centers of our country, where the struggle first began. At
first we organized mass demonstrations, strikes, etc to demand that the
Portuguese change theu position in regard to the legitimate rights of our
people to self=determination and national independence.We found out that
mi the cities and urban centers the concentration of the Portuguese repres
sive forces-military police etc.-was causing us serious osses. For example
in August 1959. during the Bissau dock workers' and merchant seamen's
strike, in just 20 minutes the Portuguese shot to death 50 African workers
and wounded more than 100 on the Pidjiguiti docks. At that time our
Party decided to hold a secret conference in Bissau, and it was then that
we changed direction. That is, we began to mobilize the country-side, and
we decided to prepare ourselves actively for armed struggle against the
Portuguese colonialist forces.
Later we decided that the Party's underground organization would
continue in the cities The same leaders are still active in the urban centers,
among them the present Party President, who, after 18 months of under-
ground work in Bissau, was arrested by the Portuguese authorities and is
still under house arrest. We decided that the popular masses in the cities
should not organize any event that would give rise to criminal eprisls on
the part of the Portuguese colonialists.
.we know that the Portuguese are determined to continue their
criminal acts against our peaceful forces in the liberated areas. Thus far,
we have not carried out any action in the cities, but we are determined to
do so insofar as it constitutes an advance in the struggle as well ase episals
for the savage acts committed by the Portuguese against out population
in the liberated areas.
What is the strategic aim of the anned struggle? A there anh y psasibillietk
of negotiating with Portuguese colonialta?
The strategic aun of our armed struggle of national liberation i,
obviously, to completely free our country irot the portuguese colontia
yoke. It is, after all. the strategic aim of all the lin a liberation moua-
menas. which, forced by gircumsiances, take u;p arms, to fight laginst rep
ressirr and hre.colonial presence. In nor struggle, we set down our princip-
e African Party for l after having become thoroughly familiar with our country's conditions.
C) created the bases For instance, we decided that we should begin the struggle within the
shing armed struggle country and that we should never struggle from outside the country, for
le in 1963. Presently which reason we never lad armed forces outside our own land. A4d, for


I_ T- ,I


the same reason, in 1963 we started
country, both in the south and int
what has been done by the peopleri
ing for national independence, s1
centrifugal: we started in the cent
our land. This came as the first bi
stationed their troops on the Guon
tion that we were going to invade Ma
But we mobilized our people a
side. We prepared our own cadIes,
both traditional and modern weap
the centa of oi country.
S. .we have liberated a large part
part of the framework of otaustratt
As to the osaibilities for neO
seeks a politicalobjective; we are 1
or because we like war. W are net
are fighting heeause we hWe to It
our rights as tration, as arn "nicasi
But the ojicltiae of our wa are ,
pie of Guinea and Cap*ie ad andl
and s verigithy both at hs and d
fould you ell as sn ieahip abottl
PAIG u&ilbtaarmy?
S,,Wean say tha( etl count
In rte first place, i iis qui a sin
and 4 9 Iken in Coo Vffret W
Cape VBr is iri the ri f th
thg ilto cansti, hi, ino ail
wiuPjA unt(ain, anar'Ye'ryeXi known
the tounainsas a slig point f
our people t0 ti s intio the mo
try, an we had to take fi ada'
ont0unry tq eate 4lifllul c"nditi
with the o*lorious advane of ourt
As f ourr o the tactifc,-n4
armed struggle, or, ifyou prefer,
trol a given zone, is forced to
ed, and we can defeat him. In
he needs to concentrate his














100 YEARS OF WORKERS STRUGGLE

by BRO. NEI]


AFTER SLAVERY
The history of the Trade Union
movement in Jamaica is the history of the
workers' fight against brutal oppression
and exploitation following slavery. As
early as 1863-64 only 25 years after the
abolition of slavery in Jamaica, the work-
ers' struggle against exploitation began.
'The Falmouth Post', mouthpiece of the
planters, in its issue January 19. 1864,
reports that there has been among the
peasantry, a strike for wages in several
districts of the country. The same news-
paper of February 12, 1864 states, "we
regret to learn that during the last week,
there was among labourers in the parish
of Hanover strikes for more wages."
Throughout Jamaica there was a
similar situation arising from the new
conditions of wages and labour in that
period, which, coupled with oppressive
conditions in general led to the 1865
Morant Bay Rebellion. In 1898 a Carpen-
ters, Bricklayers and Painters Union was
formed. In 1907-1908 strikes were organ-
ised by Printers. Tobacco workers and
again in 1918-20 In April. June,July and
December of 1918 strikes spread from
kingston to many areas of the country.
The Kingston Fire Brigade went on strike
in April a few days after the Railway and
Wharf workers stopped working. 3 people
were killed and a dozen wounded in a riot
at Vere Sugar Factory On June 22 a mass
of coal carriers marched to Kings House
in protest against the use of 600 prisoners
to load ships. In 1918 the Longshore-men
Workers Union was founded and in 1919
the Law guaranteeing the right to estab-
isll Trade Unions was won.
1938
At Frome Sugar Estate on April 29
to May 2, 1938 more than 3,000 workers
rioted for higher wages, burning cane
fields and shouting the slogan "justice or
death". The foremost leader, H. Dixon,
a six-month pregnant woman Kathleen
Martin, 26 years, Caleb Grinnon and an
unidentified worker were killed. This start-
ed the 1938 uprising which spread throu-
ghout the island. It was out of this up-
rising that the BITU was born establishing
Trade Union representation on a national
scale. The BITU was formed as a blanket
Trade Union which prevented workers
'from dealing effectively with their respect
ive problemsexistingin separate industries
and services. They were dictated to by


Bustamante for selfish and opportunistc
reasons. However on account of the nilt-
anc exCerted by tile workers the BITU yhas
considered a grave danger by imperialism.
In September r 1040 Bustaanite was det-
ained in military camp in air attempt by
the imperialist forces to crush the BITU.
During Bustrraante's internment, the nat-
ional-capitalists of the PNP which was
formed in September 1938 made attempts
to bring the BITU under the control of
tire PNP. but to no avail, on account of
the mistrust by ttie mass of workers. The
ain of the national-capitalists in creating
the PNP was that of exploiting tire discon-
tent of the masses as a means to gain
concessions from imperialism and the same
tine contain the mass struggle of which
they were more afraid than imperialism.
Imperialism, on the other hand,
made concessions to the opportunist Bus-
tamante, who ransomed the workers' right
for his freedom and went into open con-
flict with the PNP. In 1942 the Jamaica
Government Railway Employee's Union,
Post Office Workers' Union and the Public
Works Employee's Union were formed by
the national-capitalist leaders of the PNP
arising from the breach between Busta-
mante and-Manley which was openly
expressed one week after Bustamante's
return from detention on February b,
'1942. These ,nions were established upon
a more democratic base as Independent
Industrial Unions and led by the "left
wing" leaders Richard Hart, Ken Hill,
and Arthur Henry. It was on account of
the workers' mistrust for the bourgeois
nationalists why the left wing leaders were
used and supported in gaining the workers'
support for the PNP through the Trade
Unions THE BITU SPLIT

In 1943 the JLP was formed by
Bustamante, supported by a section of
the native bourgeoisie. In 1944 when
imperialist Britain implemented Jamaica's
first Adult Suffrage Constitution' the
opportunist labour leaders, foremost of
whom were Bustamante, Frank Hill, Ken
Hill and Richard Hart-the left opportun-
ist group began directing the Trade Union
movement to serve the political aims of
the native bourgeoisie movement. The
BITU was directed to serve the bourgeois
and opportunist clique of the JLP while
the group of unions under the leadership
of the left were directed to serve the
PNP opportunists, setting the precedent
which is followed until this day.
The collaborationist policy followed
over the years by tie native capitalists


led to the lorther deutirmaoi adi wor k-
ening of tdie TradeL UnioLn ioiveenir as it
was being controlled hy the growth of aI
bureaucracy which was in the service of
the native capitalists.
The treacherous labour leaders rest-
rained the workers' struggle to aid the
growth of nionopoly capital in Jamaica.
As a result the policy of struggle, strikes
and anti-imperialist demonstrations, which
were pursued within the period 1938-42
resulting in the arrest and detention of
Trade Union leaders, was diverted to a
policy of peaceful negotiation with imper-
ialism in accordance with the policy of
peaceful transition to "Independence"
pursued by the native capitalists.
The BITIU, the dominant Trade
Union, was Bustamante's personal union.-
He raised an unscrupulous clique to serve
him, imposing this clique upon the work-
ers as the Union's executive. The BITU
maintained a monopoly representation of
workers in the Sugar Industry and of al-
most all rural labour from 1938-1051
when it was broken by the entry of bhe
TUC on the Worthy Park Estate. It alsi
maintained a monopoly representation of
workers in the wharfing service to 1494
UNIONS SERVE POLITICIANS
The TLUC functioned under the principle
of national industrial groups
a) Government and Quasi-government em
ployees.
b) Light and power, motor transport srv-
ices, foundries, workshops, seamen and
portwoikers.
c) Factory. printing, budding, catering
service and entertainment workers.
d) Commercial and clerical. agricuItuaio
and unemployed workers
INDEPENDENT UNIONS TO TUt
Independent Demtocratic Unions of
Transport Workers, Municipal Workers,
Printers, Shop Assitanits,Hospital Prison
Workers and Water Commission Workers
were created and loosely federated until
in 1948 under the directive of the Left
opportunist leaders, Richard Hart and the
Hills, these unions merged to form the
Trade Union Council (TUC) in order to
strengthen workers support to the PNP
Because on the broader democratic base
upon which these unionsonsnstituting the
TUC grew and enabled these workers to
exert more power and control of their
unions in the course of their struggle. A
a result these workers followed the anti-
imperialst path of struggle lor a longer
period, and created greater problems for


the bourgeois nations list s 'lit I'1P
and tire native bourpgeilsie wi1i i i[ I)
as tile latter carried out 0l i !:i .
collaboration with imperiinli
THE PNP SPLIT
There were the hirttn.I Miyr, :;,
Ilotel, Cleaner, Asylumn, Winorthl,
City Bus Service strikes among u.n i,
other strikes which demonllrsitrl i
sustained militancy of the wor ,.,,.
trast to the workers uf th" lII i 1 .Bi.
were being directed by thI rni; -,
Bustanante who used strike .n i .
other obstructionist ta 't n ii'o 1
militancy. A firmer hand ai- l
sought by the bourgeois i .n
the PNP over the Trade (i
resulted in the split with the II ,I I ".
creating the NWU undei ailITI.. i.:
eaucracy to suit their prol, -v ,ii i'r,',.i1
collaboration.
Undoubtedly, the I!, ,i.
formerly indepenrcnt ilntdI,,l I ..;
into a single unionu, bri ,rgnn i'i:, -.i,.
rmiler greater i[fin T'iit. 4*l tl. l-, riF,
nationalists greatly -.a,'iid ilt i ia:.
within the union oct ecti g itil' iili
Following this. i,.IIlt- i ['i ;-,il )
ed within the TUC ohen Iit ,1 iip.i:i't
"Hill" brothers began ,iit l i, I I 1
(International Confedileat sin i
de Unions) whose i-a-Irriip iohli
within tile ervi ce of [riontl opl11 i :ta!
on n inetit io nal e at le, ca iri: ,. t Iii-
ther weakening of the II.t ,)t .r il.
main factors that led to tih' : 0tt,,ial
Workers Union.
Today the TUi hi, r ,,i Jon,:
out of the igar industtv arijd i ilrosi
non-existent. Abandoir d hv ii, til hiro
others it ir now dnoinular d hi ,,- f rol-
ist Jlique

next week;

"FORCES OF REACTION"



BONGO JIt'R
SPEAKS ON

'THE FREEDOM SOUNDS
OF DON COSMIC""


frid. june 20th, 8pm.
extra-mural dept.
south camp rd.


i armed struggle in the center of the
t north. This means that, contrary to
Africa or other places who are fight
lapted a strategy that we might call
lnd moved towards the periphery of
uprise to the Portuguese, who had
od Senegal borders on the Supposi-
mwn country.
idly; in the cities and in the country-
tinned those few that we could with
B, and we initiated our action from

four national territory, whichforms

ltions, we can say that our struggle
[knaking war because we are warlike
ming war to conquer Portugal. We
lder to win back our human rights,
Iile that wants its independence.
cal: the total liberation of our peo-
I inning of national independence
Ihe international plane.
tactical principles followed by the

different from other countries.
try, about 36,000 km in Guinea
inea is on the Africancontinent,
like an archipelago. We took all ot
n, Guinea is a flat country. It has
t in general the guerrilla force uses
t armed struggle. We had to convert
in needed for the fight in our coun-
Sof the jungles and swamps of our
the enemy in his confrontation
Struggle.
lw the fundamental principle of
Swar: the enemy, in order to con-
Sforcesi he thus4becomes weaken-
be able to defend himself from us
when he concentrates his forces


he allow s u to occupy the areas that are left empty and work on them
politically to prevent the enemy from returning
This is the dilenlna faced by colonialism in our land Our people are
mobilized. They are aware of what they are doing. Also, the liberated
regions of the country, where we are developing a new society, are a con-
stant propaganda force f(jr the liberation of other parts of our country.
What are the principal tactical and strategic antiguerrilla principles used
by the Portuguese Army?
It we have not had to invent a great deal m the course of our struggle,
the Portuguese have invented even less The only thing that the Portuguese
do in our land is follow the tactics and strategies used by the US and other
imperialists in then wars against the peoples who wish to free themselves
itf their domination The Portuguese lust attempted to work politically
after having experimented with the art of repression: anned repression,
police repression, murder, massacres, etc All of that has not stopped lthe
struggle. Then they tried to work politically. They exploited tribal contra-
dictions. They even exploited racism on the basis ol lighter and darker
people. They exploited the question of the civilized and the uncivilized
etc., as well as the privileged position of the traditional chiefs. That did
not lead to the desired results. The Portuguese then unleashed a colonial
war, and in that colonial war they used the strategy and tactics that are
common to all imperialists who fight against the peoples.

Can you tell us something about the development of the struggle?
m. we want to add that the armed struggle is not only wiping out
the remnants l tribal ideas that might still exist but that it is also profound-
ly transforming our people.
. and you must have found the new man. The new man who is
emerging in our land: the new woman who is emerging in our land. And,
if you had Ith opportunity to speak lo the children, you would see that
even our schoolcliildren are already politically and patriotically aware and
desire the intrggle and the uidcpendence of our country. An awareness of
mutual understanding, oI ndtiionarl unity and unity on tile African contin-
ent
We want to cnIplinhaze in particular that tile wonlcn iof.(ur country
are winning an indrpendence lor winch so many have fought nlsucccss-
fully. You saw, surely, Iow here were women in charge of tihe committees
in tile villages and the zomes and even of interrcgiunal comilLttees. Thlise
women arc conscious if lheinr worth and their role within our Parly, and I
canl,4i that there are women oin all levels of our Party.


s~ I


I.I I
















n-t i _n to ... en u nite 4


EDITORIAL COMMITTEE


roertp h u
_a*^^ I U Mm n


NAIN VIOLENCE

The Alpart Alumina Refinery, built on ers, and police and military beating and brutal-
the site of Nain in St. Elizabeth will go down iing black sufferers-now come up to bump at
as a landmark in the history of economic enter- Na
pris. Suprvised by cold-blooded union bandits, Jamaica's foreign-white-controlled capital-
tile Alpart refinery was constructed with the ist economy has reached an entirely new stage.
labour of political pimps. gpn-slingers, paid It could at first accept as one or the conditions
killers, and other assorted two-party union crim- of production the inevitable violence between
inals. A fine achievement to the lasting partner- the two-party union scramble lor the crumbnh.
ship between white imperialist investment and It is, after all, crumbs and crumbs alone that
our local political cannibals drive one set of black men to maim and kill
But if Alpart was built in theadow ir brothers Were the fullness otf thei re-sui
the gun-barrel. Alpart can only produce today cos theirs, then black brothers could all share
behind the massive and permanent defence of equally
the regime's official guns. For what the political Nain shows us something different today.
gangsters believed was a matter to be contained Black sufferers are prepared to challenge the
entirely for and between them has now been right of any operation that denies them an
overturned From now on it is a question of equal share of the benefits. The politicians
the Black Suferers against lthe rest! cannot control this. A new agreement will
In tlis irspecl thr economic crisis in therefore he drawn up.
Jamaica is no liner a question of how much The full logic of recent developments are
profits are made from invested capital or the now made clear for all to see. For the iast feI
level of savings and the problem of over-consum- years a veritable army of private security guards
ption nor the question of prices and the distri- has been reared up for the protection of capital
button of icrmnc. These are the relevant ismes ist property in this country, ALPART HAl)
when the people are prepared not to challenge THEM TOO. But in the face of black suffera-
the overall system of exploitation. But the tion this will no longer be enough Shearer and
moment thai the population finds itself in Company will now start using tax-payers' mon
motion, motion to whiLh the white power ey to provide foreign property with OFtFI IAL
structure is tound to drive it, then social forces POLICE AND MILITARY DEFENCE. Either
immediately intervene in the economic sphere, he does it or they will find a place for-Manley
and the economics ol exploitation has to call to do it
upon its political puppets o gt tile people back Jamaica's economy is no longer in a
under control, and control in aly society based STATE OF SFICE The economy from nm. on
on exploitlaion mean! tlie police and ihe amiy wil be physically GARRISONED by the state
Whlue foreign capital, black men consci" u s of apparatus! The events at Nain in the past werk
their dispossess, political stooge taking ol0- point tile wau for all whO lih to see it.


I MUSr SUPPORT
MeTHAt1I-rTrloh IN4
-riE sue6AR 1141sRY
Z CA.IsjOT PILLoW A
FEW MOQ, LuNfPLoWYEb
LfRcKS TO STA lD IH
TTRE- W4- OF Pfl RGRE
AND OF TH E
CAMPfIPFN rvlvDS
T HOPEr TO RAIjSy

f, OM H k
coa .leJ t

55 i iis,5 ss 5


PENWOOD CITIZENS

Suffering black brothers and sister
of Penwood today some of you
have decided to group together and
create a Citizens Council to act
upon your grave social problems.
You are committed to take thi!
step as a- result of the years of
JLP-P.NP mis-rule and white oppres-
sion. You have experienced that
the JLP and the PNP are the main
organisations upon which white op-
pression is maintained here. Your
Counclt mut be your organisation
through which you express your
social power within your commun-
ily. All such people's organisation
constitute their units f social
power wherever they are. And it
you allow politicians of the ruling
parties to infiltrate your organisa-
litn they will undermine ils real
Iulrpose and msake it a elCss vote-
catching appendiage if their parties
and hold dewiv the riv. ol your
scial power.
You have no interest il spec h-
making by these politicians. They
uac this IN give you a false feeling
ol security ul them while Ithy do
nothing ibhiut your pressing prob-
Icms. You want them to ACT. NI-
thing lsr. Resolutely oppspe their
tr lins ii nutinue dceivle ypo. It
eIm o IT suiferling Ilacki peiplk


PETER BOB ANDY & SCREE

Present

A NITE OF BLACK HARMONY
With the Mighty STEREO from Spanish Town
at the Students Union U.W.I. (No. 6 Bus)
ON SATURDAY 5th JULY 1969
Your Soul Fare 40c or 4,-




PRINCE BUSTER
Jama, as No I Padio & TV Personality
RECORD SHACK
127 ORANGE STREET-
SCKINGSTON JAMAICA W I
r ENTERTAINER,
r Eono Phone 26272

'asLyj sce Priniiing ltd.'


Vol. 1 No. 20 June ,


Dealers It
AUTO TOOLS SPARF
CYCLE SALES & SE

The Name you Ka
37 SLIP ROAD, K
41 GOLD STREET, Ka


BIAOW THE HORN

TELL THE PEOPLE
(LffU, a -bren< am rtpais madura tdsia ufrh dl j


to advance.
Make yourself a Disciple of the
cause of Black Liberation and So-
cial Change.'

RACISM IN SCHOOL

I attend a pretty well-known
high school in Kingston. Recently
we had a discussion in our civics
class on Black Power, soon it became
a class telling the goods of the
white man, and the evils of the
black. The topic again changed to
Black Power where we were abrupt-
ly told that white power will prevail
and that Black Power was only a
front for Communist infiltrators.
We were told that the editors of
your paper and others together with
certain persons from U.W.I. and
certain politicians were only hiding
behind the 'shield of Black Power
It was said that the lower class
would eventually pay the price.
The topic of trie Rasta movement
cane up where it was said that the
Raslas were the trouble era and
that anvyone who th .lgh Rasta
would be punished, and that they
should, instead of worshipping and
looking up tI, Haile Selasie and
Ethiopia should look up to the
wlhte manl and Rome. When we
started ii state Iir own views about
Rast. and Black Power we were
shut up arud threatened. We were
told that every lack man is a


thief and a liar and that we were
born to be the daves of the white
and Chinest man. On hearing this
many students including myselfch-
anted out Black Power three times
and said that the white men and
the black oppressors would fall. The
teacher who was a black man himse-
lf said that he was witnessing the
work of Black Power and Rasta
right now because of the statement
we made. Saying that you could
know niggers and saying that that
was the way niggers behaved he left,
a few moments later the headmaster
arrived and we were being hustled
off to the fourth form where we were
abused and put in detention, those
of us who were argiing outright
with the teacher There were only
4 of us. We were warned about
expulsion and later in the week
suspended flr a week. What type
of Iree speech is this where a 6th
former has no free speech I al al.
Tell me sir, what is free spechd
and Black I'ower'
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT

S BUFF BAY
My parents own a property "In
tIle land setrtele nl i rl Pirtlasnd
known as Kildare My pr sblem is
about a pondssd isshaled sI (iat maid
property Alter so rlsans ylrs have
passed Iy I neither sei no, hear
,uythng ahbut whis rl tO1is


ment has to do about this pond. lndcer.ined citizens St. Janl
Now mark you this pond is n,, Westmoreland jointly neque
around 40chainscircumference wh- iorsi immediate intervention, t
en rain falls heavily it spreads to bracket investigation into alley
around 60 chains. Then it overflows murder Gillis Beck, late of G1s
damaging the roads, and people's vilt,, MAatego Bay by ~naa
property. When it overflows it does L.. IBuiey.
great damage to my parents' land.
They complain to the Parish Coun- bte ts not yet dlclosed. bl
cil who pay no attention to it. dissatified of procedure. Intl
Fishermen have used their small 'ion, threats rampant to ialtibld
boats to go fishing in this pond and sources of Informanirn. Fear under.
they have made a catch weighing mining good relationdllp Pfbli
51' lbs. Police
If you take a keen note you will Volunteer witnesses embarked.
we that it is heading in the dirertion driven from station Police news
of Buff BaY: BUFF BAY release misleadlnt. Beck Al crafts.
t o .man,. alleged caur malicious for
GILLIS BECK thought."
S ld. Lloyd Wright, S. Miller,
The following telegram has lien Ralph Anderson, Daisy Lawson, St
sent to the Prime Minister Hugh Campbell, Elhanah Williams, Moses
Shearer. Minister of Home Affairs. Bl. Wilberforce Beck. Sylvia Beck
Roy McNeil. The Commissioner of Gertrude Donalson. Clave Samuels,
Police, Gordon Langdon and the Almica Phillips, Henry Benwell,
Diretor of Public Procutlion. The Leslie Dryden, Dclores Mair Gwen-
Gleaner, Beaconand Public Opinon. dlvn Nelson, Willim Weght.
It reports the slaying of a cabinet l Nelson, William Wrightm
craft-man of Montego Bay, Gilis l
Beck, who was slain by a police ;lreai utiany, Lomun Hylton. Nellie
officer who ran am fear of what be Dovi Theresa L Christie. Linda
suddenly realized he had done. mel Cu gs. Genie
McKnight, Dudley Smrith. Ionie Baiu
It is a known fact persons who es. Vuirir Darkin Uriah DIoyly
have volunteered evidence have htin Tullock. Develyn Dodd. Car-
been threatened and driven from h,,t Lanu',. Lloyd Hamilton.
the local police station and Mr. Coordinator Lloyd Wright
Beck's family refused their legal
rights to be present at the inquest. Al4an. Fwatrrno


7-7 BUXIE'S
'ist Claney's for the Ina-Lt U '
Foreign and local Recordl.
Open until 9 p.m. e"rydayy.






-- BLACK A
BLACK


S AUTO PAINTS SOUNDS
RVICb CO.. LTD TO

,w and Trnat OROUND
S Phone 67059-68706 IA Gordon Stre'et
2 3- ~S In MA aEN.
2'147




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