Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00018
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: June 8, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text

Vol. It. 1. June 8,1969. Price: SIXPENCE


Smoke Lingers Over Gutted Buildings in Willemstad, Curacao
S. rioting oil refinery workers did $20 million in damage in the ciry


A thirty-day house-eviction not-
ice has been served on the mother
of Bongo Nevile Howell, proprietor
of a beer-joint in front of Clock
Centre, Trench Town. Their place
has been the only one selected in
,the area, where his family has been
living for twenty-two years.
When the officer from the Hous-
ing Dept. was asked whether an
alternative arrangement was being
made for the family, the reply was
that, in no way could establishing
the beerjoint elsewhere be enter-
tained and the family may be able
to get accommodation in Boys'
Coming after the police raids,
false arrests and imprisonments of
Bongo Neville, this housing eviction
marks another stage in the victim-
ization of this youth and his family.
They now intend killing his means
of hearing a bread and it is the
Housing Dept. who have now taken
over where the police failed.


This political victimization lies
in the fact that this youth does not
support either the police or the
politicians and discourages other
youths who may be approached by
these men for assistance to oppress
lack people in that area.
It is clear that it is not only the
police who have to be opposed but
this eviction notice from the Hous-
ing Dept.


Ever since Abeng started
some months ago, our readers
have been urgng us to expand
the paper. It is heartening that
despite our inability to do so,
the support for Abeng has
been increasing weekly. How-
ever, we now feel that if
Abeng is to improve and satis-
fy the demands being made
by its readers, it is vital that
it should move up in size as
soon as possible.
The only way Abeng can
do this is with the support of
its readers. We have therefore
launched a fund-raising drive
in which everyone can make
a contribution. We are asking
all our supporters for individ-
ual donations and also to
organise towards such and
fund-raising efforts in their
own areas.

Demonstratons began Thursday the police and the marines
night and the police hired into the Other witness accused the
air after Black workers threatened ie f rating too preipittely to
whites. Saturday another demonst- the deo rensation saying that t had
ration was held and witnesses aid been peaceful until the police begn
that the mob had become unruly shooting.
after policemen shot a labour leader.
A curfew had to be imposed aid
Three hundred Dutch marines, the Government said that 196 peo-_
specially trained in riot control, pie were arrested during the violence
were sent from Holland to Curacao and 50 buildings wre- destroyed,
after the weekend violence in which including two hotels.
2 peoplewere killed and 100 injured. rpspatro the streets were
Two United States warships also given orders to shoot to kill all
steamed to the island. The Berry, a ootert
destroyer, and the Springfield, a
light cruiser, left St. Thomas, in the Latest reports are that workers
American Virgin Islands, prepared re still on strike.
to evauate about 1,100 American POLICE COURSE
residents and tourists.
O woers, who causedtheriot-A T U. W I.
ing, commandeered the island radio
station and forced it to broadcast A Police course which started on
demands that the Government shou. May 26 and will last until June 21,
Id resign or face renewed violence, is now being held at the Trade
At one stage no telephone calls Union Institute, UWI, and has so
could get through because telephone far been attended by over thirty
operators had joined the ike be police officers and inspectors from
an by the petroleum workers in
support of a pay demand, different parts of the island. It is
Mr. Ciro de Kroon. the Prime being conducted at the University
Minister of the Netherlands Antilles, in association with the British Police
claimed to have proof that foreign- Training Mission and the Dept. of
trained communists were behind the Extra-Mural Studies
rioting which broke out during a
march by some 5,000 petroleum Alongside lectures on Jamaican
workers demanding that employees history, politics and social structure,
of Wescar, a subcontractor for the a great deal of time is spent on sub-
Shell Oil Company, should receive jects of immediate interest to the
pay similar to that of the refinery policecommand. There is the view-
workers employed on the island by ing of films like "High Treason"
hell. and "Persona Non Grata". O
After a workers' leader was leeture-discussion nschelenled for
reported to have been shot in the first week was on "Seurity Thrae
chestby the police, waterfrontbuild- to Jamaica". The longest session\
migs were set on fire. The police lasting for an entire day during the
were brushed aside and the protest- third week, is that on the "Use of
ers marched in Willemstad, the cap- Tear Smoke and the Mobile Raeser"
bu ed and looted s were be led off by Mr. O.H.P. Stephn-
Shooting broke out as the son, MBE. Another lecture by Mr.
Shooting broke oat as the police 0 Bernrd, Assmlnt Coemiw
and militia tried to control the .F. ernard, Amitant Como
crowds. Marines were called in to ioer deals with "Police Action nd
help the police and according to Law in Relation to Strikes". Ano-
some witnesses, a number of armed ther subject to be discussed is "Mil-
demonstrators returned the fire of tary Aide to a Civil Power".

Working and living under the present state of opp-
remin and diunity, the immediate.case of sugar workers
la neither for nor against capitalist mechanization.
Mechlination was introduced by the foreign white
capialts hbeaase they found out that the parliamentary
twofpay two4uion system has lost control over sugar
wek, and astike are affecting their drive for maximum
mIt. The agreements concerning mechanization have
only been to try and please the individual sugar worker who
he become redundant, while keeping things at the same
stavation wages of 6/- to 15/- a day for the thousands of
her sugar workers who must continue to work in the
The WISCO white men say that mechanization wil
eaefit the entire industry. How is it then that no agree-
mest am Mnade with the parliamentary two-party unions
who rtpeun sugar workers for an immediate wage increase
to m r workers who must continue to work? Are sugar
w tawm o Ieis m continue to work in the industry lesa
"npnI tli then the redundant from the industry?

The bad rods, no water, no land, no electricity, no
temnical training, no real economic activity of the peasants
Itime villages, provide no good investment opportunities

for sugar workers with redundant benefits; and these are
the so-called investment opportunities, for it is expected
that redundant sugar workers should remain with their
families and invest in the areas where they live. These
conditions may very well bankrupt their efforts and drive
them back to a 15/- a day work gang. For has not this been
the plight of small business people, followed by the church
and state appeals that the unemployed should go back to
the land as it is in particular the sugar estates?
What are the conditions the parliamentary twuoparty
two-union provide for foreign capitalist investment? lsut
it low wages, no strike contracts, the best lands, the concess
ions, mechanization and better roads? And haven't these
conditions been kept secured by police protection and lies
told to the working class?
Oh no, the case of sugar workers is not just to try out
their hand at petty capitalist investment or beg the white
man for a little more bonus. Ours is a case for scial justice
pending settlement for all workers ever since the black man
was captured from Africa to produce sugar in the West
Indies for white foreign economic power.
Apart from the general social degradation of the save
plantation society that still is the life of peasant farmers
and agricultural workers, the 10/- per day paid to thousands
of sugar workers is comparatively lea than the two meals

per day that sugar slaves received from the slave society
over 100 years ago.
In the Belyle and other areas of Westmoreland and
Hanover cane farmers send trucks around and seduce youths
of 12 years and older to work on their armns for 6/- per
day. Instead of offering their organizational services to a
working programme with sugar workers to tiy to resolve
the problem of more benefits from the sugar industry for
the Jamaican people, the All-Island Cane Farmers Associa-
tion of these half-a-men have been providing strike breaking
cane supplies to the estate factories and preventing the use
of land for other food crops.
The Sugar Manufacturers' Association, thi All-iland -
Cane Farmers Association and the B..T.U./N.W.U. two-
party unions put together are not as productive as sugar
workers to the industry. Yet they are organi~sd and it is
through these organizations thatdeals are cooked up again-
st sugar workers.
Sugar workers will have to match their prdauctie
importance with organization importance. The power
strike, matched with the powei to autte ~s tbR*e;to sl ak
derasds for aind ead timJukatiws qlite l to the labour they
hae contributed since IrAd, They ust eqgiW e now
ealuhi e their a inning power ad wiy thL n i wtk-
Coelsdisae a whe they wme*ml .



Went Our People to Think for Themelve "



"Tne racist cog policemen must o ithdra, immediatel I rom our communities. cease their
, aion murder and brutalit% and torture olh back people, or face the wrath of the armed
people."- H',J P 'Nctl o. Ifinw cr, Delr,i nee,;t l B'wa, Pa other Parrr for Self Defence.

In September 1968, a VS jury composed mostly of middle-class, middle-aged
whites, who are subject daily to adl kinds of social and po esses,
declared Huey P. Nenton. founder a-'d leader of the Black Panther Party and
its prcirit Minister of Defense, guilt) of "voluntary manslaughter" in the death of
ar Ouakland policeman.
ei On Sep'tmber 26 the day before being given a 2 to 15 years' sentence in the
state penitentiary (which -.-0aA 15 y-r e for a political prisoner like him), lHuey
spoke at length on some of the problems now facing both his Party and the
black liberation movement, aid its future We are publishing here a substantial
part of his exposition,
R The questions discussed by Newton (the economic, political, and cultural
Sa; 'cts of the Alro-i.erican struggle; the liberation of cultural minorities; the
dialeco- integration of nationalism and interiationalism) give us a solid basis
in fact for a correc intepreitation of the struggle and the objectives of the Black
Panther Party.
WEi REALIZE that th fiitt is on three levels. We're fighting
a battle to become in'iiically free, economically fri-e, and culturally
frce frun exploitaton and racism In order to do this we're going
to have to develop an economic program to finance our cultural
When I o peak of cultural institutions I'm not merely speaking
of theory, I'm speaking of all of the agencies: our government
agencies, such as municipal and state agencies, such as the
school system, such as developing a publishing house so that we
can interpret the unique world perspective or view that blacks
have. Because one of the main things that the oppressors use in
exploiting us culturally is to say "You don't have a culture." This
actually has confused many blacks because our culture is sup-
pressed; it's suppressed because there's no avenue in which we
can express it. In other words, a culture is really expressed through
ins tutions that the people are in control of; these institutions
reflect the cultural heritage and they can display it to the world.
The white racists have exploited us culturally, denied our having
a culture and at the same time stolen our artistic development
and our general cultural make-up for profit.
We can end this by seizing control of the institutions of our com-
munity, politically developing our leadership so that they can
administer those institutions. That's all political leaders are they
only implement people's desires and handle the wealth that the
people earn by the sweat of their labor. Our Party, at the van-
guard of the people, is the administrator. We will administer the
institutions so that we are the political body.
And next we're going to have to seize control of the economic
institutions. We realize we can't defeat capitalism by doing this,
but what we can do is to get a certain amount of autonomy,
autonomy in the sense that we can have a certain amount of
money so that we can use it for long-term revolutionary goals.
One of these is to revolutionize the minds of the people. To do
this we have to have a certain amount of capital, a certain amount
of money to put into theaters, to put into books, publishing houses,
so that we can cause new attitudes to be established among our
people, so we can prepare them for revolution. We must prepare
them subjectively, because objectively of course all condition
exist now for revolution. But sjbiectlvely the people have npt
exhausted all the peaceful meas whchi e e e4psay to ethajit.
But it's right on the edge of this. Th people a rapidly reahtng
that the only way to liberation is armed resitzaace We're oing
to carry on our fight, adapt our revolution to We Ai errfea reality
that exists. And while we fight we'll negoiatei vw.lil folo 'the
line of the Vietnamese people: gain what ground we as peaceily,
but keep fighting at the same time to improve our position at the


ence table. We expect uprisings and rebellions throughout
ack colony periodically until it will come to a head, and we
ave the final victory.
while we're doing this, we'll propagandize so that we can
lidarity on an international level and also gain friends here
mother country, who are necessary to help transform this
nment into a socialist system.
en I speak of this economic development it has to be in
operative fashion, but not the traditional kind of co-ops that
o really political overtones. We want a co-op or an economic
* to take a stand and say that this is what our people want,
ve will put the money into services, and for free education or
ople and also use it to gain the necessary tools for liberation
would do this instead of having it strictly as an offspring
'italism, instead of a co-op where the people buy shares and
onetary returns without any real development politically.
other words, the economic system that we would develop
be financing the people's liberation. We're going to do
we must do it. This will be done across the nation. By this
s we'll be able to express our culture. We'll also encourage
her people in the country, especially the colored people who
oppressed, such as the Indians and the Mexican people who
rictly oppressed politically, economically, and culturally.
too need encouragement; we'll encourage them, as they're
ng now, we'll aid them in their struggle for control of their
ic communities. This of course will not give us our final
y, but this will weld us into a sharp fighting force.
it will be, in the American sense, somewhat liberated
ory if we can get a community where the people's minds
been revolutionized and they are ready. Then the com-
y will be a haven for the rebel army. (It's not now; the
unity's not educated) So it will be our type of liberated
ory as other colonized peoples and revolutionaries try to
berated territory. They even develop new economic programs
eir territory. They know that economic programs will not
the dictatorship and the imperialists, but at least they can
they can have finances for food to feed the rebel army and
certain tools We'll be doing the same thing.
is not saying that we won't be fighting. We don't believe
ce can make an economic transition from capitalism to social-
r even set up a socialistic community in a capitalistic state,
c can do is try to harness some of the funds and wipe out
middle class as far as leadership is concerned. The middle
hae the time to really develop a leadership which could
the masses. But they chose not to do it because of a faulty
sis, a fallacious analysis of the American scene, and also
se of the material incentive and because of the lesser amount
pression they've always gotten.
v what we need is a revolutionary party with an economic'
cal, and cultural program. After we get many cultural national
ities in the country free as far as liberated territory goes,
,ill progress on. I'd like to see each community control its
economic situation. After we seize the control of the national
rises and socialize them we will put representatives to
sister the industry, to pour money into the various cultural
unities, into the co-ops of the cultural communities for th(
it of the people in those communities.


"Intervention must remain an ever-pre-
sent possibility Picture shows crowd in
the April Revolution in our sister-country
Dominican Republic, four years ago. The
Revolution united blue and white collar
workers, under the slogan: "YANKEES

A Confidential Report on the Carib-
bean, which urges a comprehensive political
military and economic policy for the Carib-
bean, is now undergoing review in the Dep-
artments of State and Defense, reports the
New York Times.
Among its recommendations and high-
Increased aid to Police and Paramili-
tary forces in the Caribbean to "maintain
A. policy of non-intervention in Carib-
bean disputes.
Technical and financial support for
Caribbean economic and political integra
The importance of maintaining the
flow of strategic materials (Bauxite is so
regarded) in times of war and peace.
The importance of military facilities
located through the area in the detection
of Soviet submarine activity.
Why are the agents of the U.S. imper-
ialists, enemies of all who struggle for social
change and justice in Vietnam as well as
Jamaica, apparently arguing for a policy of
non-intervention? The Report seems to
indicate that it is because they believe they
can control all the black and white people
of the Caribbean by other less obvious
means. The Report notes that with the dec-
line of the British, French and Dutch over-
lords, a vacuum exists in the Caribbean-
the U.S. must now become directly involved
in all those regions which it has not up to

now totally dominated, like Jamaica. It
notes that emigration which has allowed
29% of the Caribbean people to leave after
1946 has virtually ceased, and that 35% of
the population is between 2 and 14 years:
an explosive situation.

Non-intervention is not the result of
imperialist generosity. It is based on renewed
confidence in the control and elimination
of all revolutionary and reformist move-
ments in the area. This confidence in these
new techniques of control makes them bold
enough to enunciate a "non-intervention"
doctrine. Also, it would be convenient if
the U.S. could not answer a call of assist-
ance from Duvalier in the event of his over-
throw by U.S. trained insurgents-
These are two ways in which indirect
control is to be brought about, as the Rep-
ort makes clear:
The strengthening of the repressive
forces of the governments of the area. The
Report urges that this is best done through
the police and paramilitary, rather than the
Army. This policy is already in implementat-
ion. Under the aegis of the Office of Public
Safety of the AID, security police and infor-
mer networks are improved, as well as an
increase in police terrorism and political
arrests. This programme is already widely in
use in the independent States of Africa to
help governments control revolutionaries.
The "integrated Caribbean" policy.
This is in the process of implementation. In
the first sfage, the Spanish, Dutch, English,

and French Caribbean are encouraged In
"economic integration" under Amercan
auspecies, a programme in "hich the (arib
bean people benefit very little, but which
increases the dependence of our countries
on the financial support and aid of the U.S.
and increases their power to control and
manipulate the governments of the Carib-
bean, through "Development Banks" and
the like. The second stage is likely to
involve the coordination of defense and
security systems in the region, very possibly
linking control to U.S. commands. The A-ew
York Times does not mention this second
stage in its account, but a similar control
system, The Central American Defense
Council, which integrates Central America
an the military level, is the clear precedent
for this type of policy. Each "Free Trade
Area" will have its military or "unfree"
counterpart, if all revolutionary people do
not unite in exposing this imperialist man-
There seems to be little doubt that
non-intervention policies cannot be forott-
en in many of the Caribbean countries with
strategic materials or military bases like-
Jamaica or Trinidad. Also, when the revolu-
tionary situation has reached an advanced
stage, U.S. officials will not be so foolish
as to put their hopes on an already ove-
extended police force. Intervention-espe-
cially multilateral intervention, must remain
an ever present possibility which revolution-
aries must consider seriously in their struggle
for freedom.

,J ,P

I have read all your articles and they
are very interesting. You are the only paper
that has had the pluck to speak out openly
for the oppressed people of this island. In
my opinion you should dedicate yourself to
exposing the disadvantages taken of the
working class so that the public can read
for themselves how the employers of certain
enterprises abuse their employees in accord-
ance with. the backing of the reactionary
politically affiliated unions the BITU, TUC,
and the NWU. No union can do any good
for the workers so long as they are affilated
to unions whose leaders aspire to political
positions under the capitalist system as it
exists in this country or any other country
on a whole.
Let us take for example the recent
strike of Jamaica Omnibus Workers. The
workers went on strike for the removal of


I have seen a few films about Family
Planning at Charles Town School here in
Portland. I can see plainly where they want
u Israel to stop the growth of the population here
U IS1ae in Jamaica because they claim that unem-
ployment is too great in this island and by
stopping the growth more people will get
more employment chis sounds good but
may I ask these people, do you realise what
you're planning? You claim that the pop-
ulation is too big to maintain, but will the
stopping of birth or controlling of birth as
you call it, help this present population,
seeing that birth control is for people who
have not apMeared on the scene as yet?

I think you should plan for more
employment and schooling for this genera-

an official who in six weeks after being
promoted dismissed forty workers, some for
trivial causes, others to show that he is the
"boss". The unions did nothing and said
nothing in favour of the workers yet when
the workers could not tolerate the situation
any longer they decided to stage a strike.
The NWU and the BITU along with
some agents of the company dismissed an
employee who turned out to be the Presi-
dent of the newly formed union which the
workers formed for themselves to represent
their interest after wearying of the sell-out
policies of the NWU and BITU. Together
with the Ministry of Labour these unions
manoeuvred to block the workers from hav-
ing a union of their own.They then ordered
the workers back to work without them get-
ting guarantee of relieving the said dictator
official of his powers. Owing to the confus-

tion that is suffering than to stop the birth
of the people who are to come and take our
place as skilled and professional people.
I was talking to a man who is a supp-
orter of the system, and he told me that
Jamaica badly needed Family Planning bec-
ause the people are mostly poor and the
government cannot support them with work
because the population here is too big: I
said to him that the government is not at
all interested in us the poorer people of this
country. He asked me who is the govern-
ment of this country. I explained to him
that I was talking to him about those who
represent us as the government. He said to
me how can these Heads of Government
know how many people are unemployed. I
told him that they can do it in a similar
.manner as they are doing this Family Plan-
ning because they will oon find out how
many people take the Planning measures
to stop birth.
I toid Iurn that this Plan was a foolish
one since for over two years I have been

ion engendered by these notorious unions
among the workers the JOSWA had to fall
in line, owing to the fact that their recog-
nition was being blocked by the Ministry
of Labour and the said unions.
The only promise offered was to set
up a tribunal of enquiry to go into the affair
which from experience may take many
months. During that time they will have
sufficient time to dismiss the more militant
Now it is time for the workers of this
country to unite and rid themselves of these
traitors to the working class. They must
come together to form one union with diff-
erent categories to represent them all for
one and one for all. Working men with
honest ideas must be selected as their leaders-
in the respective industries so they can rid
themselves of these parasites who are using
them in order to get political jobs.

unemployed and I go everywhere possible to
get a good job and all now I am still unem-
ployed although I went to the Government
Employment Bureau I never get a call to
work. He asked me what type of trade-man
I was and I told him. He said because I don't
have any diploma to show that I am a con-
tractor that is why I can't get work. I asked
him if the contractor don't use workmen,
he said yes. I then asked what about me. He
said no one front the Bureau is responsible
for that, it will have to be my luck to find
one of these contractors to employ me.
I and my girl was living together only
two of us and because of unemployment we
had to part and this happens to nany other
people without a lamay, aoes this need
Family Planning?
Women, beware, think twice before
you take birth control because our Govern-
ment can do more to help our needs but
they want to take us for a ride after we have
worked so hard for them they are now plan-
ning to kill us out.

nin to kill us out.

Dels in

Ta Name You Know ard Tut

ame 67059 78706 Place 22475

for Courteous & Quick Seryle
Your atisfactlon is uor pleaui

Date- Sunday 8th, JUNE 1969
Time I p.m.

You Have Done Your Seteace. Now Establish a SUGAR
WORKERS COUNCIL on every fam and ii every

9 -,



Sour features on the Black Panther Party in the U.S.A. and the guerrilla struggle
ii Guine (Bisau) we have started a series on Liberation Movements, ABENG brings
o its readers the views and experiences of these freedom fighters which are vital
ID the understanding of our own struggle against the same forces of imperial control.
The following is an address given by ELDRIDGE CLEAVER, Minister of
ktformtion in the Black Panther Party in America, at a rally in his honor given a
kw daly befoe he was scheduled to return to jail. BrWther Cleaver is also the
nthor of the book "Soul On Ice", a compilation of his notebooks in prison.

"I don't know how. to go about waiting
until people start p~ what they preach.
I don't know pio g~ ut waiting on that.
Because a ical situation, a
Chaotic 'i there's suff-
ering, th I justification
for aiti y what you
could nation for wait-

ing until y. I see no justifi-
cation for i if I have to move by

"I think of my attitude towards these
criminals my parole officer included who
control the prison system, who control the
parole board. I can't reconcile things with them
because for so long I've watched them show
down people's throats. I knew there was some-
thing wrong with the way that they were treat-
ing people. I knew that by no stretch of the
imagination could that be right. It took me a
long time to put my finger on it, at least to my
own satisfaction. And after seeing that they
were the opposite of what they were supposed
to be, I got extremely angry at them. I don't
want to see them get away with anything. I want
to see them in the penitentiary. They belong in
there because they've committed so many crim-
es against the human rights of the people. They
belong in the penitentiary!
"I've been working with Bobby Seale on
the biography of Huey P. Newton. Bob Scheer
and I took Bobby Seale down to Carmel-by the-
Sea. But we went away from the sea. We went
into a little cabin, and we got a fifth of Scotch,
a couple of chaers, a tape recorder and a large
stack of blank tapes. We said, "Bobby, take the
fifth, and talk about brother Huey P. Newton."
And Bobby started talking about Huev. One of
the things that just blew my mind was when he
mentioned that prior to organizing the Black
Panther Party, he and Huey had been planning
a gigantic bank robbery. They put their mind
to work on that because they recognized that
they needed money for the Movement. So they
sat down and started trying to put together a
key to open the vault. But as they thought about
it, they thought about the implications. Bobbv
tells how one day while they iwere discussing
this, Huey jumped up and said, "later fitr a
bank. What we're talking about is politics. What
we're talking about essentially is the liberation
of our people. So later for one jive bank Let'i
organize the brothers and put this together let',
ann them for defence of the black communri,
and it will be like walking up to the While
House and saying, "Stick 'em up.mother W\e
want what's ours."
"So there's a very interesting and a very
key connection between insurrection and acts
carried out by oneself, a private, personal cil
war. We define a civil war as when a society
splits down the middle and you have two oppose
ing sides. Does that have to bhe the derfmition?
Can 5000 people launch a civil war' tan 4000,
3000, two or one' Or one-hall of 1001 Or half
of that? Can one person'" Can one person engage
in civil war? I'm not a lawyer rFm definiel;
not a judge, but I would say that one person
acting alone could in fact be engaged in a civil
war against an oppressive system. That's how I
look upon those cats in those penitentialtes.
don't care what they're n for robbery, burgl-
ary, rape, murder, kidnap, anything.
"A response to a situation. A response to
an environment. Any social science book will
tell you that if you subject people to an unpleas-
ant environment, you can predict that they wAil
rebelagainst it. That gives rise to a contradiction.
When you have a social unit organized in such

a way that people are moved to rebel against it
in large numbers, how then do you come behind
them and tell them that they owe a debt to
society? I say that society owes a debt to them
And society doesn't look as though it wants to
"This piggish. criminal system. This system
that is. the enemy of people. This very system
that we live in and function in every day This
system that we are in and under at this very
moment. Our system! Each and every one of
your systems If you happen to be from another
country, it's still your system. because the syst-
em in your country is part of this. This system
is evil. It is criminal; it is murderous. And it is
in control. It is in power. It is arrogant. It is
crazy. And it looks on the people a its property
So much so that cops, who are public servants
feel justified in going onto a campus, a college
campus or high school campus, and spraying
mace in the faces of the people. They beat
people with those clubs, and even shoot people,
if it takes that to enfore the will of the likes of
Ronald Reagan, Jesse Unrh, or Mussolini Alioto.
"When I speak up for convicts, don't say
thai every convict is going to come out here and
join the Peace and Freedom Party. I'm not say-
ing that. Or that he would be nice to people
out here. I'm not saying that. Yet I call for the
freedom of even those who are so alienated from
society that they hate everybody. Cats who
tattoo on thber chest, "Born to Hate." "Born to
Lose." kIn, a cat who tattooed across hs
forehead. "Born to Kill." He needs to he releas-
ed also Because whereas Lyndon B. Johnson
doesn't have anoy attoos on his head. he has
b'leok dripping from his fingers. I.BJ has killed
more people than nry man who has e\er been
ill any prison in th U'nited States of America
frort the hbegtinnii of it to the end. He has
murde-ed Arid people like prison officials,
pr icemen, ;l. or, chiefs of police they endor-
s it Thec even cill for escalation, meaning,
kill more pernle I don't want it The people
who are hiee ronight, because I see so many
f'tes itht I i.-'nir:e, I could say that I know
srou don't I.r:ilit I either
There's only one way that we're going
to get ild of it. That's by standing up and draw-
ing a firm line, a distinct and firm line, and
standing on ours side of the line, and defending
that line by hateier means necessary including
laying dwuin o'ru lives. Not in sacrifice, but by
taking pigs with us. Taking pigs with us.
"I cannot relate to spending the next four
years in the penitentiary, not with madmen with
supreme power i their hands. Not with Ronald
Reagan ihe head of the Department of Correct-
ions, as he ir the head of every other state
agency. Not with Dirty Red being the warden.
ifthey made Dr Shapro (San Francisco psychia-
trist and lorg-time supporter of the Panthers)
the warden of San Quentin. I'd go right now.
But while they have sadistic fiends, mean men,
cruel men, n control of that apparatus, I say
that my interest is elsewhere. My heart is out
here with the people who are trying to improve
our envuonment


In 1953 Richard Hart along with
the American-unionist Ferdinand Smith,
who was a Jamaican by birth,formed
the Jamaia Federation of Trade Unions
The JFTU was purported to represent
the workers of various services and in-
dustries, but factually, most of these
unions were only on paper, apart from
sugar and agricultural workers union
which evolved from the ruins of the
TUC in areas such as Appleton Sugar
Estate and farms in Western Hanover
and Vere. From the start the JFTU
was viciously fought by Government
the bourgeoisie, and the bureaucracy of
the BITU and NWU. A campaign against
the recognition of the JF I U was carried
out by these reactionary elements.With
tactical errors by the leadership in con
ducting the workers struggle and growth
of dissent within its executive around the
the bureaucratic and unprincipled be-
hiiour of the Hart-Smith leadership.
the JFTU perished in 1"956. The major
erors committed by the leadership was
the attempt at winning recognition for
the union by conducting the struggle
against the combined forces of the BITU
and NWU in a relatively small area of
the mgar industry.
MW9eover each year the struggle was

conducted with weaker forces, not being
able to broaden the struggle on account
of growing differences between the leader-
ship and cadre force. ln 1954 strikes were
conducted by the union at Appleton
Estate and on the Farms of Western
Hanover, lasting 28 days at Appleton
Estate. It was broken by strikebreaking
workers from outside the area. In 1955
strikes were again conducted in these
areas. On Appletonlestate only a sec-
tion of the farm workers went on strike,
lasting four days, while only one farm
in Western Hanover, went on strike for
a week. Similar strikes occurred in 1956.
The complete failure of all these efforts
resulted in the death of the union in
that yea.
The coming of the PNP government
in 1955 assisted the NWU to share equal
status with the BITU. By 1960 both
these unions dominated the labour move-
ment in Jamaica.
During the last decade there have
been repeated efforts to create Trade
Unions independent of the JLP-BITU
and the PNP-NWU which were either
destroyed by these combined forces of
reaction or absorbed by them.
With this reactionary control of the
Trade Union Movcmentt, greater plunder
of wealth ann oppression of workers

have been carried out by the partner-
ship of imperialism and the native bour-
geoisie, while union leaders have become
The JLP-PNP imperialist puppet gover-
meat further legislated against trade u-
nine representation in many industries,
against strikes, legislated to assist strike
breaking and to force workers to accept'
arbitration of their demands by so called
"impartial arbitrators" as a step to fur-
ther shackle the workers from waging
their struggle against imperialist explo1
station, so establishing greater security for
the function of monopoly capital in
The most reactionary of these anti-
labour laws are the Essential Service
Laws and laws governing the "Pioneer
The present so-called "fair labourcodel"
to govern the entire function of indus-
try and labour cripple workers so they
could not legally conduct their struggle
against imperialist exploitation. Although
the struggle against unemployment is
essentially a trade union struggle, it is
not taken up by the treacherous union
leaders. 'A solution of unemployment
strikes at the very base of the system
of capitalism which they uphold. Neither
do they lead the worker in struggle
tonabolish the antilabour laws. which is

an important step to be taken in streng
thening the position of the workers in
advancing their struggle against imperia-
list exploitation.


Despite this extensive period of un
bridled reaction dominating the Trade
Union movement ia Jamaica there exists
today growing conscious and militant
workers in almost every industry, who
on several occasions have driven the
reactionary union officials beyond their
will. The NWU holds almost a monopoly
representation of workers in the Govern-
ment service, printing, bauxite, electri-
city, cement, tourist and many more.
Undoubtedly within the framework of
these bureaucratically controlled unions
are the.essential conditions of a growing
consciousness and militancy of workers
to destroy reactionary control over their
trade union.
ABENG will play a great role in
building up the consciousness of the
working class in advancing the struggle
in every place of work-the field.the fac-
tory and the mine. ABENG by nature
of its historical role will become the
ITame that the black workers will use
to et the torch aligt in Jamaica.

I- I I I

Sin-- -~- -

ABEmmn kr

Yl1. 1.o. 1. I. Jm Il P. Piis. eSIXPENCE


The struggle of lack people in dtlr eon-
try is a tnsuele far eCoCom power. Suffering
th the dict redllt of de fact st wealth
is MonMitaied n le white pow structure
Thi whhte power aructur i International in
scope and it economic power is sured by
political and miliary power. Our struggle for
economic power mut, therefore. be linked
directly with the aimlar tnruggle of black
people in other countries in what is really a
confrontation with a single common enemy.

The headquarters of the nternational
white power structure is the United States of
America; lub-tations are in Western Europe.
The power structure of thee nations is based
on exploitation of black people all over the
world even within the United States itself.
Mutual defense, treaties between those nations
provide military security for the economic
wealth they mass by exploiting us. The ten-
tacle of the white power etrmture spread far
and wide not just our bauxite and our lands
but the petroleum of Trinidad, Venezuela, and
the Middle East and the vast mineral resoucres
in the 'heartland of Africa, to mention a few.
The struggle of black people in this coun-
try is the struggle of black people everywhere.
To break the tentacles of the white power
structure, black people everywhere must unite
with purpose.

Afrteis la, Otracao is us. The ret of the
Caribbean n us. Latin America in us. The black
people in America ae us. We ae Africa. We
se Latin America. We ae the black people
in AmerIca.
It is difficult for any hmgle one of us
to mecneed in the struggle. The white power
structure controls because we are divided and
they are united. Whenever one of is rise up
they strike with full force. They aent troops
to Vietnam. They fly troops to Angilla. To
Curacea. To Chicago. To Watts. To Alabama.
They mpply Nigerlans with weapons to kill
out Bisfrans.
Our identity with black people every
where s not just a matter of entiment or
culture. Identity and unity with the black
struggle everywhere is essentall for the asewn
of our own struggle for our survival. The.
military arsenal of the white power structure
is formidable for any one country, except a
Vietnam, But it cannot stop a revolution of
back people in Jamaica, in -Africa, in the rest
of the Caribbean, in Detroit, in Chicago, in
Alabama, and in Brail all at the same time.
That is the perspective for a complete
break up of the white power structure. What
our bothers and siters elsewhere ar doing
in their own struggle will affect our struggle,
What we -will do affect theirs. For theirs is
ours and oun is their. That is identity


m~ ldJ r"/J/ A

Returning to school after the demon-
atrations, we found that a number of
new people were employed cleaning our
rooms and tiolots as well as watchmen
at nights. However, we noticed that
these men kept note books in which
they wrote down the license of cars
that came ono campus, and they inter-
rogated visitors on campus. We also
liave proof of these men entering our
rooms when we are gone to classes.
On further investigations, we found
that some were constables, and they
all reported to a detective who came
on campus each night and some early
Tlhes men lsten to all students argu-
ments, even hiding in hushes to do
this and are well informed ahout every
side of life. We are in a state eof constant
tension, knowing every move is watched
although we are not criminals. We are in
a prison camp on three Veal snntcncev
although we have committed In crme
unless stanting up for one's riplit is a
crime under our present sternn oi
Government ,
It obviously is.
A student,

PS. We nnte tim;It allthoiulg tl police
beet us to the groii ld duririn the dlenron
astrtions, the Prime Minister clauns that
the Governtent has not been formed
of any case o police brutality.

B^ ^^^^^^^HH^

Abeng must not forget Africa. hope
our brothers of hghie learning would
come down to earth, so we all under-
I would lke the black mal
forers of this land that is rgtfully
their, to know that they who buy
at this Chinese man store cannot
go into his two cinemas If they do
not look DECENT.
DECENT means pushing in pants and
having this properly buttoned up. Don't
forget that your face appearance helps
to determine how decent you look.
How long will black people have to
exist under these conditions. The white
German volunteers who come to these
cinemas with shirt out of pants look
decent. They may enter. What will black
people do about this?
Spanish Towl.

The following is an excerpt from a
release to -the public by the Gas Station
Workers on strike.
"We wit to Thalnk you, the renmral
pubber and either nototritln Tor the ngeat
support you have beeii giving the workters
on trhi pir tvlie i ii t h tcil rugl at Ivan
V i, ("0iiolsiof )St Cal0iIel.', Sh li' S'mvle
station at H.iA Way Tree, sael the 17tht
bay. 196)."
The strike was called id defenice
of a worcer who was 'vrnngluly dcimniLsed,
the enpliyer therraflet relfused to dtiscuoIs
ial dit:mteliJ wuil the Uliutun reptrewct-

Dea Abeng, L:tnw wb"' o
1, being a black man it thiu uuntry. nmallet."
am glad that at last theblackh ufrters "T'he w',rki
of this present melting pot, have a -neans lie,. with their
of telling each tiohe what is reary 'hap- bloody, but trll
peuing to them. I am very oury !,owevel back. Now loew
that due to my poor staitald of edu- cial might burn
cation, I could not undastoland what sweated lack la
Bolngo Jete was saying in his lrtile: and upploss wur

A c iOWIE mT r.icCO^ raoc eon

With the Mighty STEREO from Spanish Town
at the Students Union U.W I. (No. 6 Bus)
Your Sou l iere 40c or 4/-

was appruachtald ii ihri

er- are itll oun lte picket-
back, to the wall, heads
unbouwed, and tighiatg
:;tch l. iger will tiarn-
out of exploited and
ib-ur c-;ntinre tou I.ush
kers' ightilt? Huw much




Sponsored by Jamaica Black Power Movonmnt
Speaken: Br. Roy Phillibert
Bra. Cecil 'X' ,
Bro. Marcus Carvey JnM.
Date: Sunday, 8th June, 1969 at 4.00 p.m.
Place: T"he GARVEY SHRINE, George VI Menm. Park.


come to

15 Hermitao Road
(neae Uniwnriy)

Dcletim in Local Prim Beef


Men's Sportwear

55 Maiden Lane, Kg.

P-u t l i l l. ,', , A Ill],e e o .ary, at 1I alcrotfl Ave., Kingston 8. Printed by Brice Printing Ltd., 6 East St., Kingston, June 8,196i.

^ -oatey erM rm y ti pnell k aae ta tleyowie leac et l tousa
,is s is" NW M .l i ll i Wcisa fllf,: --odBto lBB[
longer will Ivan V82. con~iaut tho(xp its.,lmntonibea mth B.
and abuse black laboUryVi Manipnr uie MulN oina a me n t dth lo h em entt isa ati
"Mhny unconscious motorists are o be fought tiaeeo n lt ad wrong, jeti 6evm inuumtl, trnth
mosttinsympatlheteto"thworakerontthe "'vasfarwihoodaldil e i te n -u
picketline and even sout at thenitalling me. laole~ t tdr aeo have.Inaly
them lazy. But when you take 14hourOs or ia h rra G ki A i. o a m can e at p ,il. t
pay at I/t.I per hour out of a week's hi mid l.eahqoe and with a mottt ahip ther tinimre the 1D
only 2. 18. 7. to take home to serve w, e Btate Mramu who follow ion. k lijah eMuhunmad
his family and himself for the next 8 days. have tnm and mra again en m nea lteigahin hoa. We by no mnas
InaidentalyNational Insurance and Union teach hare. W te acth tmrlr and eparation. Te ruth is not accepted by
Duie after deduction leave the worker a race of pdple who afr madedntiary tthe natutoand practice of
with a net 2. 14. 1." the mth the traih a onsideeid hat teaclinge, then we are God's
fiend, fori the very beel B intoB according to the bible God hated
"Your continued support we are one bother and loved he other, God loved Jacob and hated Evau.
ever and always depending upon. If our (Wiy God hated was da toethe evil worideand the Brviousdeeds done
Motto: "Odl of Many Come One" is to be to the brother that God loved by the othor li rhe Christan
meaningful, let us put it in practice by povt out that i le tutit- loe uw in they fir t that he
our deeds and actions. Please do not croa s taught hate too. hey left in the things whih they couldusa to ansdve
the Picket Line. Pleas SUPPORT WORK- the black man. In e 4 26, Jesus s that he does not
the Pce Line Please SUPPORT WORK c a eout pue tot bhets,. snstors, or who disbelieve n his Meilt
ERS BY BOYCOTTING IVAN VAZ but consider them as his enemy Tle white mamate no time never did
SlELt SERVICE STATIONS, at Halft tech the black pseaanthe true titotlpo de"th ble. Jeml ci~s llofed
Way Tree Road, Eastwood Park Road, the pieot and the piesaher as bein blind scriptually, therefore the
Spanish Town and OlndHarbur, nti lid leading theblinndd they both al into the ditch-Rovelation 19,
this matter is settled." Vese 25.) We nuot separate and build ourselves aUnited Blck Nation.
own kingdomn ucdar thir own white Toenr. Kings. President, and
greens. Why ate they Iaivt IUcct the black mae living to himself apart
frnt this white men oeUlled society. It in the naturieofus to separate
Youths most now stop waning Wer ad we are belle ofl beiLg apart then mixing. h i ants will not try
sp live with red a-, it a ,he law of ,vure.
aermong themselves. The corrupted politi- Why it the e n otsit trying o d to stop thi teaching of
cians uaed you during elections to destroy Muihumnad fobm nohthill tle black people The anvei i very simple
oppreaed people like yourselves. The After dthe bhlak man hear the teaching of the Uon, Elijah Muhummad
politiciansn gave out gurn to the youths, hterefueton helaveaymor, and the white avematerePnnotexist
wc t iot 4-a sua. Aft.r the black mat got, h, thing from Eqiah
the youths defended them with there lies. Muini mad he will s t wal iv n leus to do for hin that whch he can do
The result was--death, imprisonment, and for himself Neither will be lIok forward to a hcaven in the sky when
a lot of offering. You should rememi bere doLn hbt dl nolk hais own Le n, get hi mian id hloney and .w1
tiesin tothe atregtheniot Io. llt anihymeur-inm faull hbe ol nt e haiwiedt with fdli any-
or hope olies I the stregthening of unity mo., Heaven ait hell it a condition of life. Heavn and hell is right
among the black youth and suffering here n ritP erth
niuaes of the country. Wn nnlst be fire W worship our own Black God Alah without
_-*- -_-_- interfere iitl n _y Gove(iiouena' We mu t eonur Rehlgious Books
ledally to etudy our eligpon such a: "Messan to tl Black Man",
"Mdhummuna peakk, "flow trn t to live".
Next W eek! l by Allah ,e yau t light o flen ldiog. e careful of your
Net T iWne m false black leaders. with white wives, politicians or uthcewise.
Resmniber wihn tiy had nothing they uc4 yor black women. Now
"na1 0 AB they have money and position, and ad niitreating high offices, they
h* Aaves reoluedl our black woeae for bloodd hair white woman. Aren't
OW yuu, biao e wUoman denerUig of i te thikiI olf life' Why must you always
Sbe aeccitatid with poverti'

U ___

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