Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00013
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: May 3, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text


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Price 6d.





Abeng understands that a cir
cularhasgone around to the schools
from the Ministry of Education
asking headmasters to keep watch
on Black Power and discourage the
sale of Abeng in schools. Already
in certain schools in the Corporate
Area those persons who distribute
the paper have been coming under
This victimisation of the Black
Man's paper in our schools is not
surprising because historically sch-
ools have been among the institut-
ions most successful in perpetuating
the white power structure. They
have mistrained the hundreds o
white-hearted black men over the
years, who have striven to become
'educated' in the oppressors' culture
only to serve as highly-paid slaves.
Today as students of all colours and
grades begin to understand the need
to link themselves to the Abeng and
to serve Black Emancipation, the
school establishments must get wor-
ried. But if they try to ban Abeng
in the schools then: (1) students
will get a concrete lesson in the
meaning of freedom of expression-
namely only the 'freedom' to rea
the papers approved by the power
structure but not those dedicated
to the cause of the Black Man;
(2) the Ministry can expect that
students will resist this invasion of
their rights by disrupting the insti-
tutions of miseducation if necessary


An ABENlU vendor was boxed
and intimidated with sub-machine
guns by a group of policemen and
soldiers on Saturday morning last
on Water Lane in Kingston.
It was reported to Abeng that at
about 10:30 a.m.on Saturday morn-
ing last, about 30 persons were at
the premises of 8 Water Lane. This
building is a shop and is used as a
recreation centre by youths. A jeep
with soldiers and policemen stopped
at the shop. The men alighted from
the jeep and began searching the
people in the shop. Many persons
became frightened and ran away.
Among them were pregnant women.
The ABENG vendor and three
others stood their ground. He was
boxed and searched.
On Monday evening this same
youth had a gun drawn on himn by
the police. le had to run iilto




Public debt charges The money
paid to Jamaican and foreign capit-
alists for the Government's debt to
them is the biggest single increase
and the biggest single item of re-
current expenditure. It totals 11
million! This is more than the
Government spends on educating
Jamaican children.
Police-spending is up 21% to 4.6
million. Spending on the Army
amounts to 2.1 million.
Spending on police and the army
therefore amounts to 6.7 million
which is almost 5 times recurrent
spending on housing the people!

The recurrent expenses of the Prime
Minister's residence has fallen from
last year. Last year upkeep of
Jamaica House cost 12,500, this
year it is expected to cost only
The recurrent money given to Light-
bourne's Ministry of Trade and
Industry has been cut by 300,000!
And the money for Maclaren's Min-
istry of Rural Land Development
has been increased by 800,000!
In order to show how important it
is to make sacrifices, politicians are
to get the same money as last
year. The Prime Minister will still

get only 10,000 a year, Finance
Minister only 4,400, 12 other
Ministers only 4,200 each, Leader
of Her Majesty s Opposition will
get only 3,300. 2 Ministers of
State 3,100 each, I Minister with-
out Portfolio 2,500, 8 Parliamen-
tary Secretaries only 3.500 each,
The Speaker of the House gets
only 3,500 Deputy Speaker 2,800
and the remaining ordinary' MHR's
only 2,100 each! Rental of houses
for Ministers will cost only 10,340
and politicians' travelling and sub-
sistence a measly 128,100!

Black Power "Once more as Her Majesty's Representative and your Governor-General I welcome
you ...
". ...It is planned to start a detailed study on folk groups commencing with the
Maroons and to establish folk museums for exhibitions of the rich ethnic art of
Jamaica, commencing with Afro-Jamaican art."
Crime and Violence "The Government is satisfied that the root cause is an organised plan to use a small
group of dissident persons and subversives aimed at creating panic. .. The Government
will further strengthen the forces of law and order to detect subversion and effectively
curtail this growing menace...."
Unemldment ". .. .The Government will continue to pursue policies for the uninterrupted growth
of the Jamaican economy and will maintain the environment and the incentive for the
energetic participation of the private sector....
.. The programme for constructing specially selected roads with a high labour
content will be intensified...."
Youth ".. .The establishment of Beach Camps for training and recreation; development of
summer work camps; the accelerated promotion of voluntary work among young
people. Vocational training aspects of Youth Camps, Approved Schools and Child
Care Institutions will be reviewed and expanded. Planning will be done for the estab-
lishment of a new complex of Approved Schools at Tredegar Park for Boys.. ."
Small Farmers "A new loan programme for tie development of small farms with a ful range of
facilities and other requirements. .... in order to lift small farming to a level of proper
establishment, will be iniplcmcinted.. ."

LIMA Peru April 14 (Reuters)
President Juan Valasco Alvarado of
Peru today demanded Latin-Amer-
ican solidarity with Peru, which is
engaged in a dispute with the United
States over the expropriation of the
International Petroleum Company.
General Valasco was addressing
300 delegates from 46 countries
attending the 13th meeting of the
United Nations Economic Comm-
ission for Latin America, which
opened here today.
In a 25-minute speech General
Velasco said:
"Peru today is the Latin Amer-
ican country that has decided to
reconstruct her destiny and at last
to exercise her sovereignty.
"Peru expects and demands the
the solidarity of brother Latin-
American countries. If Peru falls
today, no national future will be
secure in this part of the world."
This was taken by observers as
a reference to threatened economic
sanctions by the United States if
Peru did not compensate Internat-
ional Petroleum, a subsidiary of the
Standard Oil Company (New Jersey)
for the expropriation of its oil
fields and refineries in northern
General Velasco said that the
present meeting was "where the
responsibility of the Latin-American
continent toward a brother country
In the bitter battle for economic
The president was referring to
the goals of the Economic Comm-
ission for Latin America. He called
on delegates to reflect on Latin
America's efforts to develop the
"You must analyze the points
where we have succeeded and those
where we have failed in recent
years, and if necessary, change our
course to guarantee our countries
the conditions of sovereign nations,"
he said.
"There is no development with-
out transformation, without an auth-
entic revolutionary process," said
General Velasco, who seized power
in a military coup last October.
"The battle for development can
only be waged victoriously when
there is clear consciousness of the
dangers and political implications
on the internal front and on the
international field," he continued.
"Our condition as dependent
societies is part of the global picture
that it is imperative to transform."

On Thursday 5th October, 1966,
the people of Trench Town and
Ghost Town had the amazement of
waking up to find they were com-
pletely surrounded by strong Mili-
tary and Police detachments.
It was an offensive launched by
the Government, under the pretext
of Martial Law, it was a "State of
A few times it was published that
raids were made on "Constituency
Offices". Various weaponry were
discovered, a few arrests made. Tot-
ally irrelevant, if solving of thbse
crimes was really the intentions of
our well equipped, and organized
Police department.
The Government shamefacedly
instituted a "State of Emergency",
certain slum areas were cordoned
and thoroughly searched, house to
house, this yielded a few articles
mainly stolen property, a few guns,
machetes, ammunition and other
weaponry, but all in all this cam-
paign was adversely effective, in so
far as the poor and underprivileged
were concerned. The Government
knew who the offenders were, they
also knew the sources that fed, and
upheld these elements, yet in keep-
ing with true "Imperialist" hypoc-
risy they persistently and viciously
oppressed the poor. Some were tak-
en out of bed, from their women
and children, dragged off to jails,
beaten most cruelly by gangs of
power-crazed policemen. The majo-
rity of these prisoners or "detainees"
as they were called, were taken to
Denham Town's park where they
had set up a "Detention Camp".
This camp had more than two hund-
red prisoners as a result of an over-
flow at all police lock-ups in the
corporate area.
It has never been published, that
any of these persons were convicted
on any charge, that arose out of any
incidents, in connection with any
of the stipulated factors. Yet for
more than three weeks honest, dec-
ent poor people suffered unjustly
at the hands of the Government,

under the guise of so-called "security
measures" when indeed and in fact,
the roots of the problems created,
was in Parliament, among parliamen-

The administration meted the
people was most brutal, individually
they were subjected to the most
intimidating of interrogations, forc-
ed to live day after day under most
inhuman conditions.

The entire camp was encircled
with Military-type barb-wirng apart
from the fencing it already had.
There were three tents of about
8x9 ft., two smaller ones that con-
tained two female "detainees" in
one, cycles and other possessions of
the other "detainees" in the other.
Each tent apart from the one used
by the Military and Police were also
encircled with barb-wiring, leaving
just enough space for two people to
get in or out at a time. There were
no beds, just one piece of board that
covered the surface of the tents.
There were no proper conveniences,
no bathrooms, just one lavatory that
was never clean, and a stand pipe
immediately behind this building, if
one requested the use of these men-
ial conveniences, you were marched
off at bayonet points through this
maze of barb wires. Whatever had
to be done, was also done under the
watchful eyes of the J.D.F.

Photographs of each person were
taken in various positions, finger-
prints and other "routine" data were
also taken. Of the many questions
asked by the heads of the CID, the
importance was placed on the poli-
tical affiliations of the individuals.
It seemed that the primary purpose
of the entire operation was mainly
to find out who was JLP from whi'
was PNP, what "Group"or what
"Branch" you belong to, how well
you knew Zackie or so and so, all
former political gunmen who had
died in the period before.
Thi food was always brought in

containers, similar to those used as
dust-bins by muddle-class families,
it was never palatable, or looked like
food prepared under hygenic condi-
tions, yet people were forced to eat
gratefully, it was prohibited for
relatives or friends to bring food,
money, clothing, toothbrushes, soap,
combs, or whatever other things a
prisoner could have found a necess-
ity. Occasionally a sympathetic sol-
dier may violate authority by allow-
ing a pack of cigarettes, or a dish of
food to get to a prisoner.
Most youths tried hard to refrain
from eating the food sent by the
authorities, it was commonly thou-
ght that it was most times drugged.
One Sunday cornbread and butter
along with chocolate tea, was served
for breakfast. One youth refused to
eat the butter and laid it out in the
sanitary plate, in the sun; at 5 p.m.
the butter had not melted, nor was
the plate even damp from absorbing
moisture. The youths became more
suspicious and less people ate food
thereafter, there were murmurings
everywhere, everyone was frustrated
and hostile, became thin and stank.
Another youth, a few days after,
became highly frustrated, began cry-
ing, and ventured beyone the wires
Two soldiers were on duty, an argu-
ment developed, and the soldiers
began hitting him with the butts of
their rifles, the other men began
protesting this brutal attack, and
some came from behind the wires,
At this point the attack was then
concentrated on the other people,
more men came from behind the
wires, the soldiers backing off began
to crank their weapons in a manner
that suggested that they meant to
open fire. By this time other soldiers
and policemen had joined the fracas.
The Military and Police headquarters
were notified and in a few minutes
several jeeps and lorries loaded witll
police converged on us. By this time
the other soldiers had cleared the
compound entirely, and with the
reinforcements were lined up right




around the place; all guns. including
brens and stens, and other machine
guns, were trained at us, the men
now roamed the entire compound,
boisterously voicing their opinions,
and grouses, shortly after the Chief
of tie Army and other officials.
under heavy escort, entered. They
proceeded to inspect the camp. After
-wards he began to intimidate the
men, by saying they could not
expect to be released if they rebelled
and that they were destroying Gov-
ernment's properties, and that the
Government would not tolerate such
a demonstration. He lasted the iood
which lie afterward spat out. and
tried to assure us that it was tasts
and what not,. le left.
We tore down the lavatory pipe

the same day and most of us had
baths, none of us ate a bit of food,
we placed them all on three tables.
formerly used by the authorities.
and batches of us danced around
them, in the small space we had in
one corner of the camp. True to the
Chiefs word, a very strong detach-
ment of policemen converged on us
the following night at about II p.m.
men were dragged out of the tents
beaten savagely, lined up under
flood lights, searched, a' :uIt'ed
We lived with a 're freedom
within our enslavement, for a few
imore daIs till one by one- and somel-
ilimes in batches ol threes or louts.
ihey began to release us. This opct'a-
iai took fo notl, er ,o weeks





Black: The Government has passed a law giving them the right
to deport anyone without trial or a court order.
White: You see there are many foreigners who come in and
create discontent among the illiterate blacks leading them on to
Black: So this is your line of argument, which sialso the propa-
ganda of the mass media. In actual fact what has happened is
this: an American, Canadian, Frenchman, German or Israelite can
come and do as they please. They get the best jobs and treatment
However the slightest thing a Black person does, especially when
they criticise the Government, they are ready to deport them
And in many cases White foreigners are given preference over
Black foreigners although they both have the same qualification
for a particular job.
White: The White people are more industrious and brainier
than the Blacks. The Black people have not built or invented any-
thing. Neither do Black foreigners contribute an thing.
Black: How do you account for the number of African doctors
and specialists working at U.C. Hospital and the Children's
Hospital. And the many teachers who are contributing to the
education of Jamaica's children.
White: I am sure that if you were ill you would feel better and
healed quicker when attended to by the European specialist than
an African or Jamaican specialist. You see the European has got
a long line of experience, When the Europeans were bulding
boats and navigating the seas, the Africans were still uncivilzed.
The Black people have no brains, only one in ten thousand have
any ambition.
Black: This is utter rubbish. Black men are as good and as brainy
as any White man. There are many Black people who have invent-
ed many things. In fact it was the Ethiopians who were the first
people to navigate by the stars. Before the Europeans raped
Africa for slaves, there was a University of Timbuctu; and, the
Ashantis of the Gold Coast and the Yoruba of Nigeria possessed
a highly organized and complex civilization. Even in modern times
there have been Black men iike Booker T. Washington. George
Washington Carver (the Black scientist who extracted 12? differ-
ent uses from the peanut) and many others too numerous to
White: I have never heard of this before. This sounds like Black
Power. I believe in Black Power, but not this type, that will make
people become violent and shoot up rich people.
Black: The reason why you have never even heard of men like
Carver is the European twisted history to suit themselves and
hid all the good things that Black people contributed to the civil-
ization of man.
White: That kind of talk is not good for Black people in Jam-
aica, because I know from experience that Jamaicans only want
to sit in the shade drinking and sleeping. They have no brains -
look how the Chinese and Syrians have made it rich. You see the
Black man does not have any real claim to Jamaica because they
have been here for just over 100 years
Black: One thing is certain you do not know anything about
Jamaican history because the Black man was first brought here
by the Spaniards a few years after they came to Jamaica, in fact.
Black slaves were brought here in 1509, and also by the British in
1655. From the day the European enslaved the Black man he
began a systematic destruction of his religion, language and his
personality. He brought the Black man down to the level of an
animal. The Chinese, the Syrians and the Jews were given every
opportunity to uplift themselves at the expense of the Black
people, because the law that existed then prevented the Black
man from owning a goat or a sheep.
White: You have a Black man's mentality. I could never talk to
you agan.

Illustration by Author.

(Abenii,'. prvlee to bigtitredrthsfrtan rpotn"D etionCm


pu ~

report la

Vol. 1 No. 14 May 3, 1969

If the utter bankruptcy of the men who to contact with the supermarkets only as beggars.
control and manipulate the economic and social The luxury plazas, bloated full with food, clothing,
order is manifested anywhere, it is in this sheer jewelry and the other good things of life, are
incapacity to provide the suffered with bread ata nothing more than constant reminders of black
reasonable price. The economic system, dominated suffering in Jamaica. However times have changed.
as it is by white imperialism, functions with at Consciousness by the black man of his suffering in
least two predictable results. One is that the prices Jamaica has grown. The upper classes are frighten.
of everything the sufferer require for their exist- ed at this new surge of cultural development. They
ence will rise consistently the other is that the no longer shout out at high prices. Instead they
number of black men without jobs in the country clamour for a state of Emergency to wage further
will, with equal consistency, continue to rise. war against the black sufferers.
Meanwhile over the years, on the little scrap
Over the past twenty years rents, transport- of land where the peasant toils and scrapes for a
ation charges, fuel, food and clothing have risen living, none of these price increases have been
to such a level relative to incomes that starvation passed on to him in the form of higher income
is capturing an endlessly increasing number of from his produce or moreland Instead the cost of
sufferers every day. Even the so-called 'controlled' fertilizers, feedstuff and agricultural implements
price of sufferer food has risen uncontrollably. have risen. Foreign ownership of the land has inc-
Eighteen months ago the regime started off eased. The new schemes for Port Royal, Negri],
a new spiral of price increases when they devalued Kingston Waterfront Development areas and Ocho
the currency in imitation of imperialist Britain. Rios herald a new round of dispossession. Added
Devaluation, despite appearances, was a calculated to this the white' retail and wholesale merchants
decision to protect imperialist interests, such as the have landed like leeches on the peasantry. They
big sugar companies. Since then price increases stand between the suffering peasant and the
have been extraordinary, yet the official statistics consumers in the towns.
claim that price increases have only been 3 per cent. All this the present regime and the economic
But everybody knows that this is a lie. Even the and social order they defend are incapable of
exploiter do. attending to. Their response is the natural one.
A little over a year ago when the Kingston More and more allowances to foreign capitalists
dn St Ar ..... .I.... d ^ I^, I. h

The Citizens Association met on
the 27/4/69 last Sunday at Buff Bay
after three months of organizing.
We elected President, Secretary and
Treasurer. Brother H.J. Campbell
founder of the Association took the
Chair for the election of new offic-
ers. The first nominee for the posi-
tion of President was Brother A.
Young who was elected unopposed.
Sister J. Gray was elected as Secre-
tary unopposed and Brother A.
Welsh selected Treasurer unopposed,
Brother A. Young in taking the
Chair emphasized greatly on the
needs of the citizens of Buff Bay
he mentioned about the need for
more sanitary conveniences in the
town and he also spoke of the need
of unemployment that is greatly
among the people and of the youths
who are left along, he also went
further to say that the Association
will at an early date write the head
of Government and the M.P for
this constituency to help us in this
situation especially tile youths hbec
ausc there may come a time when
these kids maybe the greatest crim-
inals and rebels of Burf Hay and
other surroundings Our enrolment
stands at 185 including officers.

cut across all sectional interests and
get at the real causes. A State of
Emergency will only calm things for
a while but after a while this mon-
ster will appear again with two heads
where before it had one.

The time has just come for me
to send my sincere regret for our
dear Brother Denis Sloly who passed
away from the scene of this land.
It is with great regret. I for one do
not worship the dead. But when one
has a loss like this one, one must
say something. I did not know this
Brother face to face, but by his work
that he did for the poor, I am not
speaking of his Law work, but a man
for black power and a fighter for the
poor and needy ones of Iris country.
May the God and King declare his
work and his soul Rest in Peace.
For when man on earth has done
his work the angel in heaven can't
do more. The Bible told I that.
- -

Instead of outright gambling in
the form of the National Lottery.
could not the Government have

I am a regular reader of your
Abeng edition. I must thank you
and your staff for the preparation
of this new newspaper 'Abeng' which
informs we the people of Jamaica
with general information that the
Daily Gleaner does not publish. I
hereby enclose Five Shillings to
help further preparations.

Dealers in


The Name you Know and Trus
Phone 67059-68706
Phone 22475





3I am.
om 3,


SLetters nmur be Adned. Nnat withheld on reauetr. CEd

Reports continue to reach the Abeng about the
activities of white foreigners throughout the Jamaican
countryside spying on black people, inciting and harassing
Santa Cruz in St Elizabeth seems to be a particular
target for thee aliens
This week Abeng publishes the names of some of the
more prominent among the so-called peace-corps engaged
in suspicious activity:
Kathy Snyder-white American about 27, teachaoat Munro,
pan-time at St Elizabeth Technical School.
Jack Beagley- white Canadian about 5'8", 27 years old.
MacDowel- 22, English VSO; teaches Physics and Maths
atSt Elizabeth Technical School.
Frank Golas- white American about 25, 5'7", fat face;
Area Supervisor of Industrial Art Internees
for Savlamar and Montego Bay.
Abeng warns these individuals to stop fooling around
Jamaica's business and calls on Government to investigate
all those aliens who are going around the country prying
into our peoples' lives.
ABENG is asking all its thousands of readers through-
out Jamaica to send us full and comprehensive reports the
moment they detect any of these foreigners engaging in
activity the least bit suspicious. This information is wanted

all Brothers and Sisters
of the Soul World
Place: BOWENS PLACE (Guys Hill
Date: 9th MAY, 1969
Time: 8:00 P'M. until anon
Admission: 3/-
Refreshments on Sale

n.. >. ,U1 u-ppe cI ass ueCs n i u LoIout onut to exploit our land, our resources and our people I notice trat the president of come up with a better solution to
the riing pricesof luxury items. the regime embark- In the face of mounting unemployment and rising the Jamaica Employers Federation unemployment' One of the real
ed upon a cynical publicity stunt, fending Price prices, they threaten the sufferers with more hascalledfora declaration ofaState reasons for unemployment is that
Inspectors around to check prices at a few super. violence. How long can this plundering of black of Emergency during which the sections of the country's labour
markets in town Even as it embarked on this endu? n ill e ig c present wave of crime should be force refuse to work forlthe bene-
nt t r eehumanity endure? When will the high cost of living dealt with. This is all very well and fits possible from our economic ps- NEW WORLD & CAR
stunt the regime knew that most sufferers come in- stop being the low price of a black man's life? good but 1 cannot help but reflect- tion. Another is that there aren't
ing on the fact that a couple years enough incentives for the working ARTISTS' MOVEM
ago when black men were shooting man to excell himself, Has Govern-
SUMMARY OF THE BUDGET (All figures in millions) black men in Kingston and St. ment or arny other civil bodies ever
ITIM Recurrent Spending Budget Capital Spending Andrew for political and other rea- given thought to the back-flow of pr ernt a Semmar
1969 19h Bd sons no such call was made even wages as direct investment n a "HE ARTS & THE M
AL1969 fit 3 io though as I remember it the shoot- company? The result being that
TOTAL ,113 million 79.4 67.1 329 ings were more frequent and serious wilee earning his wav. he is turning
Public Debtl chargess ... 11.0 8.4 04 than at the present time. Could it be his earning into proitable business.peakers
Education ... ...... 11.1 10.1 3.7 that now that black underprivileged This means that if a man is earning Wycliffe Benne
Police 4.6 3 8 0.1 men are now directing some of their 110 pe. week. it could be stipulated Hu Gentles
Rural Land Development ...... 0. 2 5 offensive against people in the Her- that lie must reinvest 1 per week
Agriculture & Filtrics .. 3.0 3.1 mIitage/Stony Hill areas for instance, in the company. At this rate, each' James Carnegi
Health 8.3 b.2 1.7 certain voices are now calling for year hIe would have invested 52
Loal Gotrrnmeniit .. 7.3 i3 the strongest possible action when in the company which is then partly Sunday May 4 -10.
Comurn aucatlon,& ,kork 7.1 70 5 two years ago these same voices lus. Then. a man wlf know th e day a4
Jamaica e.nce ore were still, because black men were i, working, nut just as a servant to Old Arts Lecture Ro
J.maic r a,.el ce orcc .... 1 2 sihootinl black n nen' a nasttr. but as a wldin uinoti himself.
i radr I IIdusr O II The president of the JEF is quak. I Ie irrore he works, Ile more profit U.W.I.
abour & National lisuraic ... I u9 ign wilh fear so much so that he has ihe will make nil his weekly contri-
Finantc & Platinig (ex debt cl.as ... S I -.- I rin distracted The approach to butlrn to development
Home Affam- Ie police 0.s II h I the probleiil of violence ha"s Iol to .G W
Published by Abeng Pubbhing (Co Ltd .4 Collis Green Ave., Kingston 5 Robert A Hidl, Secretary, residing at II Calcroft Ave., Kingston 8 Printed by Brnce Printing Ltd.. 6 East St., Kngston. %ity I 1969.

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