Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00010
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: April 12, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Abstract: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text



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Prc. 6d.


No one should be surprised
that the Anguillans, through their
elected leader, Ronald Webster,
are once more protesting against
the manner in which the "agree-
ment" between themselves and
the U.K. negotiated at the point
of British bayonets about two
weeks ago, is being implemented.
As with the agreements of July
1967 and February 1969 when
the West Indian Governments
conspired with Britain to use
British troops against the Anguill-
an people, the people have once
again rejected the high-handed
attempts of the British and their
arrogant Civil Servant, Lee, to
control them.
Now the Great White Chief,
Lord Caradon, has had to reurn
to Anguilla, and it is reported
that Webster wants a West Indian,
probably Jamaican, Civil Servant
to come and advise the people
of Angula
But will any West Indian Civil
Servant who goes to Anguilla help
the people of that country, or
will he find himself acting as
Caradon's house-slave in helping
the British Government to imple-
ment the latest "agreement"?
For every time the West Indian
Governments have got together
with the British to discuss Angui-
Ua, they have revealed their impo-
tence by agreeing to everything
that the Brjtish want and then,
after the British have gone, bawl-
ing out that they disagree.
Why have the West Indian
Governments since May 1967 not
got together without the British,
and agreed to offer the Anguillans
economic, technical, political and
administrative assistance? Why
was the University which exists
to help the people of this region,
not offered during the two years
of Anguillan independence, to
assist the Anguillans in drawing
up plans for the economic and
social development of the island?
Any Jamaican Civil Servant
who goes to assist Webster and
his colleagues must be told:
I. To give them absolute support
for their demand that the o-
caled Commissioner Lee be sent
back to his country.
2. To support them in their
demand that British troops must
3. To tel the British Government
that the self-determination and
independence of the Anguillaus
i a fact What political and
uin l arrangements the Angui-
Ians wish to make to maintain
that independence is for them
to decide.
Any arrangement that does
not satisfy these demands will be
a betrayal of the people of
Anguil and of the West Indies.

imately 7:20 a m. as I was about to enter my
bathroom, seven plain-clothes policemen, some
of whom were armed with guns, came to my
apartment Responding to the knocking, I open-
ed the door gently and was faced with five
pairs of rigerlooking eyes staring at me Not
recognizing who these "raiders" were, Idecided
to close the door but was refrained from doing

One of the men identified himself to me in
the words, "We are from the police "L.enquired
of him if I could be of any help. He replied
that "We are sent to search your quarters" and
asked me if I had any "prohibited literature"
in my possession I did not answer the question
but rather asked the one who seemed to be the
leader of the 'gang' for the warrant they were
supposed to have had before any searching could
hbe dIone: Tl'fy lidl ntl read it. neitherallow me



Moderate protein-clorie malnutri-
tion in a pre-school-age child, show-
ing body disproportion (large-
seeming head, small chest, thin
limbs, long-seeming body and feet)

Dr. H.C. Dyer of the UWI Dep-
artment of Social and Preventive
Medicine has revealed the terrible
facts that the toll of malnutrition
is taking in this country. He was
addressing a luncheon of the Home
Economics Association last week.
Dr. Dyer said that too many
children in Jamaica are dying of
malnutrition. Too many are being
admitted to hospitals, suffering from
malnutrition. And too many child-
ren are below generally accepted
standards of weight for their age.
Dr. Dyer referred to the results
of a survey done by the University
in the corporate area. According to
the survey at least one of every ten
children dying under 5 years died
because of malnutrition. He also
added that at least one of every
four Jamaican children is under-
Although Dr. Dyer did not refer
to this, there is evidence that the
state of chronic malnutrition applies
to older children and adults as well.
From scraps of evidence published
by Government, our average con-
sumption of most nutritious foods
seems to be only a quarter of what
it should be. The average Jamaican
gets only lh Ibs. of fresh meat and
2% Ibs. of milk plus 5%' ounces of
butter, 3 ounces of cheese and 3
eggs a month.

Those are average figures. The
well-off get a lot more than these
averages and poor people get a lot
less. Since the poor are the majority
of people, these averages don't tell
the full story.

Another distressing aspect of the
state of malnutrition among child-
ren is that there is now convincing
medical evidence that those mal-
nutritioned children who manage to
live grow with underdeveloped br-
ains. So we are penalizing future
generations by present national neg-
lect. It is nothing short of national
irresponsibility that not one political
leader (of either side) has expressed
public concern over the matter.

The main lesson, however, is that
something is definitely wrong with
any economic system which, like
ours, cannot supply enoughfood
to sustain the life of its people,
while a quarter of our farm land
and a quarter of the labour force
are unused. While 200,000 acres are
kept idle by foreign bauxite produc-
ers, while another 200,000 acres of
the best agricultural land is held by
sugar companies to produce a comm-
odity with no nutritional value and
which cannot be sold abroad with-
out strings.

No one can deny that a system
which produces such a situation
needs to be changed. But all the
big shots in the system seem to be
more concerned with preserving the
system than with improving the
welfare of poor people. For them
it is system first, people second. So
welcome foreign investors!

"We would like to ask the
public this one question about
this our so-called Prime Minis
ter who goes away when he
feels a mind and come back
when he feels. The question
which the Abeng is about to
ask is whose money does
Shearer take and go out of
the country and come back, is
this money belong to him or
is the peoples of this country
money? (We would rather say
then the tax payers money.)
He had left on the 3.4.69 to
the U.S. on private business.
If Mr. Shearer want to go on
private business as what he
called it, he must therefore
take his leave and then he goes
wherever he want to go, no-
body can stop him that time.
But while in his Ministry of
the country in which his port-
folio falls as Prime Minister,
Minister of External Affairs,
and Minister of Defence at a
time like this when the coun-
try was celebrating Easter,
anything can happen. What
kind of man is this? But we
want to tell him and his coll-
eagues that the day will come
when he will want to leave
this same country and he has
to come and ask us question
about his departure outofthis

then left. presumably to return in anotherforrr

OF POLICE: advise these misguided men in the
Force, when and how to disturb decent citizens
Actions like these only aggravate the already
bad relationship existing between the police and
the public No one can deny that these politic-
ally inspired provocative misdeeds of Her Ma-
esty's Servants are only carried out on the black
people of this community. These men as I see
it, are trying desperately to take away the
character of the black man who tries to help
his brothers and sisters to regain their identity
and to know themselves But as one great
African intellectual said, "Ifa man tries to take
away the character of my people I'll never
forgive him" Let these men beware lest when
they think they stand, they fall Black people
are not going to put up with these embarrass-
ments much longer.



to do so, but only showed me a file with my
name attached to it.
That did not convince me that they had a
warrant, but since they were seven in number,
and were -armed, I could do nothing but allow
them to search.
At the end of their dramatic performance at
8:15 a.m. I had to begin cleaning and clearing
up all the 'mess' left by them They came like
'dumplins' and left like 'Johnny Cakes' anyway,
because they did not even know what they were
looking for, therefore they could find nothing.
Even a list of 'prohibited books' they were
supposed to have could not be shown to me
and therefore they were "not certain"if a spec-
ial book was on the list.
At about 8:25 they hung their heads in great
disappointment-not only because they did not
find any 'prohibited literature', but because
throughout the raid I kept a vigilant eye on
them so that nothing tricky could be done They


I was born in Port Morant, St. Thomas, in February
1934. 1 attended Port Morant School under the head-
masterships of H.H. Watson and Pinnock. At about
the age of 8 when the Government raided Howell in
Spanish Town and break down Pinnacle my mother
use to speak about Rasta jingbang they are coming
down from Pinnacle. At that age I was never conscious
about what Rasta was. At 14 I happened to meet
2 Rasta brothers and I come to the full consciousness
of Rasta. While I was there going among them as a
small boy I get to find that they prove some form of
genuineness in them. When I say genuine I mean some-
thing humanitarian, that is, they teach love.

At 141 didn't stop trimming my hair as I was develop-
ing the concept on the reality surrounding the religion. The fact
that really surround the religion is the dignity of black people.
"Before I come to the state of locks I worked as a
painter doing private work or work with Public Works contractors
As for now, I hardly have a way of survival, some time I work
30 in December but hardly any more after that.
"The contribution that Garvey has given us black peo-
ple in Jamaica cannot be bought, cannot be sold and cannot be
paid for I see Garvey as the foundation stone-layer of Black
Revolution of black people not only in Jamaica but the world
over He has even given visions to other nations as he gave to the
black people The reason why Garvey had to stress on black is
because they are the people who suffer most of all, seeing that he
is a black man and seeing his race is in a degraded state, Garvey
saw himself before anyone else. So Garvey was a prophet that
sparked off the light of some form of re-culturing of black people.
"Well, the youth are willing to co-operate with black
struggle and to advance themselves in the cultural field. But
right at this moment the oppression of the society make the
youth concentrate less on their culture and more on crime.
When I say concentrating on crime it is not because they
are born criminals but the system forces them to resort to
crime as a way of survival The only way that these things
really can be liquidated is if those responsible for the imple-
mentation of things that cause crime are removed from influence
in the society. This present society doesn't want to be merely
reconstructed, it wants to be completely wound up.
Some Pasta youth may distrust Abeng because they
don't understand the use of a paper like this. Remember at the
meeting at the Extra-Mural when the youth get up and sy
we should be building schools and things like that. If he had
understood the struggle he wouldn't have spoken like that
because the establishment of Abeng can lead to the full process
of establishing the backbone of change. It can develop suffl-
cient funds to establish the press so broadly and convert the
people from this society class who are of goodwill. For, there
are many who see the injustice but ar afraid to stick out
their necks because of intimidation.
Abeng itself can be the horn of freedom. I wouldn't
say it is that horn at this present moment It can be and I have
hopes in it and I personally do not see where it is an opportunist
paper within my concept. I will do everything to try to get
the youth more conscious towards the paper.
The Abeng is a news media and if the people
give it the support that it needs I feel that it will be a paper
to carry the substantial sound that should stir the people to
think for themselves, and that is what the people want. They
want criticism about how the society is presently being ruled.
Stiff criticism that can show them the facts of things that are
done and they don't know about and also show them the dangers."
"To my mind the paper that is telling the truth
cannot be subversive. But in this society those who are bad-
handling the society would call it subversive. Just as how
they blamed Rodney for October 16. That shows what they
intend to do with any form of news dealing with justice.

doctors in


Behind the high grey walls of
our prisons, where men and women
go to pay for their crime, some are
guilty and some aren't
Now on entering the prison as a
first offender, you will find that
you are on an island of doom. For
inside the prison you enter wearing
your own clothing as long as three
to four months because you are not
yet classed out to work. One can
also avoid beingclassed out for work
by paying the classing officer a fine
or ten shillings.
Within seven days after entering
the prison your blood is taken for
the blood bank. You are called to
see the doctor for medical observat-
ion in order to class you for labour;
you are lined up in a queue of ninety
or more persons. On entering the
room of the doctor an officer calls
your name, you then enter, the
officer exclaims "Outside! Next!
Outside!" The doctor, without lift-
ing his head at this stage, does not
even examine you to see what is
wrong; he merely signs the docu-
ments set before him.
The prisoner cannot ask him any
question not even to say, "doctor
I'm sick," for if you have to do such
a thing you might be made better

12 Princes Alice Drive, Kingston 7
off Mona Road near Hermitage and
August Town

at 9:00 p.m.

Dealers in


The Name you Know and Trus
Phone 67059-68706
Phone 22475

Jamaica's No. 1 Radio & TV
Phone 26272

or worse by a half dozen baton licks
in the presence of the very doctors.
However if you are brave enough to
say in his presence, "doctor I am
sick," and his attention is drawn to
you he would probably say,"come
on the sick parade."
However you are not going to see
the doctor himself, you would see
a substitute a prison officer who
travels with a stethoscope on the sick
parade. One would wonder why this
officer walks about with this instru-
ment as if he is a doctor when he
himself is as deaf as a bat You the
sick reaching before him would be
asked a loud question, "A wha do
you" as if you are also deaf. You
the prisoner may know your ailment
as an acute appendiitis. The prison
keeper may explain to the 'Orderly
man' who travels with the medicine
box. "give him a wash out" This

wash out consists of salt physic
and ailing you may then be with
your acute appendicitis find your
ward and drop down fainting. If you
want to see the true doctor you
would have to pay the officer or
the orderly man who is at the doc-
tor's office; then you would have
the opportunity of seeing the doctor
There is still another way of sae
ing the doctor, this is by being a
defaulter, and the same process is
used as upon admission to the prison.
So the drugs used up in prison are
not being distributed to the prisoners.
I am not trying to allow the puss
to come out of the bag so I am only
merely writing on "what goes on
inside of the prison"
From this one can tell that the
Government 2/- payment plan to
go to the Public Hospital for treat-
merit works even inside of prison.
This shows that some are getting
money under false pretenses, but
anyhow it is traditionally known
that if the top of the stream is dirty
so the bottom must be also.
The next chapter is "The Mating
ofMantoMan in Prison and Women
to Women".

"Walls, wals, and all that passed between them... a man
unmanned, un-countenanced. given over to the naked stare of
self-pity ... society, and the cankering, unyielding sore... enclosed
within these walls a man was shut from light, like a seed
within these walls a man was shut from light, like a seed
struggling toward the sunlight from between damp stones ...
shut away like this a man lost his manhood and became a
cypher, and lost his spirit and became insensible stone ... shut
in like this, with the rats scampering in the ceiling, and the
stale smell of human waste and offal, and the vultures circling
eternally in the sky. a man became at last lost to himself
utterly and to the world ... shut away a man like thisandall you
had was his skin stretched tightly against his body that knew
the pang and torture and bitterness and degradation of whip
and bludgeon and anklechain, and his shame, and the shame
of others with him, all. all of the man that you shut in here
was one with the bricks that went 'into the hideous walls
never to come out again, like the bricks that held together
the hideous cells in darkness, and the mould that grew and
ripened on the damp and reeking walk
All of the men enclosed within these deadening walls,
within this sightless, unfeeling darkness stayed here with the
generations of lost men that were brought here damned to
insensible negation out of sight of the world.. the lost genera-
tions came here, were taken up, caught up. lost without memory
of the living world... lost without end in darkness, the spiritles,
succeeding generations upon generations the murderers and
rapers of young girls, the spoilers of others the arsonists, the
cut-throats, their manhood slowly squeezed from them, to be
drunk up at last by the screaming murderous wa
The vultures circling eternally outside made shadows on the
trampled parade ground ... the vultures seeking offal, drawn
there by the close stench, by the reek of dead men stoop up,
stinking to the sky. They were free, the vultures comi r to
rest on the parae ground, they eyed the stood-up dead contempt-
uously, they hopped and cawed and fought over hideous refuse,
and were free .they flpped their wings and circled low and
lifted and topped the wall .free as air, the contemptuous
vultures, the bald, hornbeaked. beady-eyed, the respectable
clerical-looking reverend John Cows.

S Viit Clsey's tl he litea in
Foreign and la Recodst.
Open ntil 9 p.m. aneryy.

122 geordOra
122 Oronge St. Kgn. Jmenoica.

August 12, 1865 and after:

At a public meeting beld in Mor.
ant Bay Paul Bogle was chosen to
lead a deputation to Spanish Town
to inform the Governor of the
suffering of the St Thomas people.
Bogle and the other representatives
walked the 45 miles from Stony Gut
to Spanish Town, but Governor Eyre
refused to see them.
Bogle sent a letter to Queen Vic-
toria telling her of the suffering. Her
reply was the people of Jamaica
should work harder and their suffer-
ing would end.
They were in the midst of a drou-
ght, no work was available, and yet
they were told to work harder.
Bogle started organizing from his
church in Stony Gut. He set up local
government in Stony Gut, with
courts to settle land disputes and
quarrels among the people.
Moses Bogle, Paul's brother, and
a man called McLaren organized the
people of Stony Gut, Coly, Spring
Gardens and Fonthill.
October 7:
Paul Bogle and a group of people
from Stony Gut and other districts
attended the trial of Lewis Miller
who had been charged with trespass-
ing on an abandoned estate near
Stony Gut. That same day a youth
charged with assaulting a young
woman was being tried. The youth
was found guilty by the magistrate,
the Courthouse murmured with dis-
content and Bogle's cousin, James
Geoghagen, shouted to the youth:
"Pay the fine but don't pay the
costs" The Judge replied: "Arrest
them. Bring that man to me!" The
police advanced. Paul and his brother
Moses Bogle, with their supporters,
moved as one into the aisle and
blocked the policemen. James escap-
October 9:
Bogle and his followers returned
Monday to hear the trespass case.
On his way down he posted a peti-
lion to the Govenor protesting
against the injustice of Saturday's
"For three years now, no rain has
come. Grass-piece and yam-vines are
brown with dryness, cane leaves have
not much green to them. Thirst and
hunger walk through our land, four
hundred thousand people have no
Osuburgs to their backs!"
That day warrants were issued
for the arrest of Paul Bogle and 28
followers for having rescued James
Geoghagen from tie poicc.

October 10:
A police constable, George Os.
born, a Maroon, went with fori
other policemen to arrest Bogle.
That morning they arrived at Stony
Gut, and held on to Bogle. Around
500 armed men and women emerged
out of the cane piece and from
Bogle's chapel. The policemen were
taken prisoners, interrogated and
released only after they had taken
an oath that they would "JOIN
October 11:
McLaren, Moses Bogle and Capt-
ain Grant organized the men of
Stony Gut, drilled and disciplined
them in a military manner. There
were three companies, each consist-
ing of 100 men, armed with cutlass-
ed and lances. The captains of each
company were James Bowie, Moses
Bogle, and James Dacres Recruits
from Coley, Sommerset and Mount
Labanus districts had already joined
the Stony Gut forces. Mid-day Paul
Bogle and 600 men and women set
out from Stony Gut. At Coley the
marchers divided into two sections:
One led by Moses took the road
through Spring Garden and Station
estate entering Morant Bay from the
East where they first attacked the
police station and seized 31 muskets,
some bayonets and some police
uniforms. The other section led by
Paul Bogle marched through Blue
Mountain Valley and entered the
town from the West.

"We the pettioners of St. Thomas in the
East do send to inform your Excellency of
the mean advantages that has been taken of
us from time to time, and more especially
this present time, hen on Saturday 7th
of this month an outrageous assault was
committed upon us by the policemen of this
parish, by order of the justices, which
ocasion an ooutbreaking for wluch warrants
have been issued against innocentpersons
of which we were compelled to resist.
We therefore call upon your Excellency
for protection seeing we are Her Majesty's
loyal subjects, which protection, ifrefused,
ue uill be compelled to put our
shoulders to the wheel, as we have been
imposed upon for a period of27 years,
with due obeisance to the laws of our Queen
and country and we can no longer endure
the same; therefore is our object of calling
upon your Excellency as Governor in
Chief and Captain of our islnd."

Both sections
reinforcing their ranks on the way.
Moses' column arrived first. Vest
ry was in session. Special Constables
were on guard before the Court-
house. When they tried to prevent
them from entering the square-
REAT. Paul Bogle and his warriors
soon arrived. Custos von Ketelhodt
appeared on the balcony and told
the people that they had no right
to be there. After seeing the angry
mood of the people he toned down
and cried for "Peace! Peace!" This
was met with "War! War!" Paul
Bogle shouted: "You know the
taxes buckra Englishmen h asked
us to pay is more than we can bear.
Look how many of you have blood
relations in lock-up right now bec-
ause them can't pay'taxes."
"Yes yes, is true that! True
that Deacon!"
Volunteers had been called loge-
ther by the Custos to meet the
armed might of the St. Thomas
people The Custos started reading
the Riot Act. While readingit, stones
were thrown at the volunteers and
Captain Hitchens, their Commander
was hit on the head. Customs instruct-
ed Captain Hitchens to open fire on
the people.
Bogle had anticipated this. All
the Constables fired at once and so
they all had to reload the same time.
He had ordered his forces to attack
the Constables as they tried to re-

load. Many Constables were killed
and wounded in this attack, while
the others fled into the Courthouse.
Captain Hitchens,lay bleeding from
a head wound he had received from
a woman who threw a bottle at him
the moment he gave the word to
open fire.
Bogle's Captain Grant then suri
wounded the Courthouse placing men
at all escape points. At least eight
were killed when they tried to
The enemy was locked in the
Courthouse. At 5:30 p.m. the school
beside the Courthouse was set ablate
and tne flames quickly spread to set

the Courthouse on rire-
The Custos picked ;rd ran out
of the Courthouse straight into Whe
hands of Paul Bogle iwho, iruihe:i
him with one blow on the head
Mr. Price, a black Atooge of the
oppressors who had also robbed and
exploited the peasants, took iretRge
in a little kitchen htit he wisa dis
covered and put to death.
Before they left for Stiony Gut,
Bogle'i reii overpowered the prison
guards, tor:k control of the prison
and released a11 the prisoners many
of whom joined the ranks of the
revolutionaries and marched with
them back up to Stony Gut.










Some people are born into a system and never enquire
about it Sometimes they are dragged in the mud and
mire, but those who understand the system BOSS IT.
I refuse to be in rags. I am determined to be a man
among men.
I was born 50 years ago in a West Indian country town
in Jamaica where black men have no special advantages
but disadvantages; where you are salted to be a cowhand
or labourer, a blacksmith or shoemaker etc....
I looked at the system that men fixed up for me and I
said it did not suit me. If you have not the ability to fix
yourself up some of you are darned well fixed up
right now.
And you will stay fixed up until you clear your minds
"Three hundred years we were brought it,.i Africa to
these parts. We have suffered because we knew no better. We must
make it right
"I refuse to swallow any theory that agrees with the
system of social life in which I find myself. We must do something to
get out of it
"That system was inclined to sew me up in a bag, but
I ripped the bag. and got out and no man shall sew me up again!
"I know how nervous you were, getting this meeting
arranged. This is a small place and things of importance do not happ-
en here very often. So anyone coming in from outside is regarded
with suspicion. But you need not be afraid.
"Your island is a Garden of Eden-viewed from the
waterfront it looks like a Paradise. I have not come here to steal
anything. What I would like to steal away is ignorance, so that when
I cross the Caribbean I can dump it into the deep Atlantic.
Black Man Magazine
December 1937



10 & 10h SLIPE ROAD
TextaI, Rudy-to-War, Knitear and Footwer

Tel, 21275 Nap. S.D. GUNTLEY

". The Chief Organisers and leaders in the
r"lion, Paul and Moses Bogle and old
Bowie, were funged on the ruins of the Court
house, the notorious Paul in the centre,
Mons an his left hand, old Bowie an the
right all haragerd from the centre arch, on
which the no fen notorious George William
Gordon perished so ingloriously."
Oct. 27, 1865

Tel. 27278



Vol 1 No. 11 April 12, 1969

ABENG is both an example and a means
toward a new kind of social outlook in Jamaica.
The paper attempts to practise what it preaches
and through its behaviour to live up to its
For instance, the knowledge that Jamaica's
ills arise from the fact that Jamaicans do not
control Jamaica's wealth means firstly that
ABENG has to avoid being controlled by a few
men. local or foreign. If a feu men ran this
venture then it would not be breaking with the
society where the people take orders from the
big man and his agents. It is time therefore for
a newspaper to defend the interests of the
Since ABENG is their pape in word and
deed, then the big man will do everything to
suppress it. Both to present a united front again-
st this as well as show what we can do, all those
whose labour goes into the paper must control
it. Every vendor is a political share-holder;
every comment from a supporter a force on the
decisions it makes. If this were not so, then
ABENG would be like the PNP and the JLP
and the old society they help preserve in which
the small man is to take orders but control
ABENG politics is therefore designed to
ground itself in the awakened energies of the
people. It cannot and does not survive on

polf bkfoord
robrt ill
m1vr mionro
ruplrt lisb

advertising, much less on handouts. The only
alternative course is to base the paper on those
who buy it, recognizing that when support dies,
so will ABENG. The parties can keep going
even after popular support dies because they
get money from the big man to bribe people,
buy a few votes and stretch out their life a
little longer. Not having bribe money, ABENG
has to be one with the people. Furthermore, if
the paper failed to communicate and analyse
the roots of suffering correctly, sufferers would
mash it up.
This oneness with black people makes us
different from the PNP, the JLP, or any other P.
Their business is to control-Shearer tells work.
ers to obey their so-called leaden and not to
take things into their own hands. ABENG has
to identify with the workers who are now
taking things out of the hands of leaders who
betray them. The strategy of ABENG is from
the people to the paper; from the paper to the
people and back again. At each stage the paper
must raise itself and the people to a more solid

A paper written, edited, financed, produced
and distributed by committees of the people
must subvert the politics of exploitation, give
the people experience in collective action and
help form the forces for a national community
based on freedom and justice for all.


In a letter written by Marcus Garvey, Jnr.
published in the Daily Gleaner 31/3/69, the
following was left out:
"In conclusion I must ask Thomas Wright,
or should I say Thomas Wrong, to answer
honestly the following questions:
a) Is it wrong for black people to have the
same power in their countries which white
and yellow people consider necessary for
them to have in theirs?
b) Does Thomas Wright have a vested
interest, by virtue of his race or colour, in
the continuation of the present Jamaican
system which puts the white man at the top,
the yellow man next, and the black man at
the bottom?
c) What dignity can a black man have when
he lives in a society where the poor, the
underprivileged and the sufferers are black,
and the wealthy and powerful are white,
yellow or passing-for-white?"


This thing happened in the house of a
very well known person in Mormnt Bay.
Some time ago a lady of Seaforth district
sent out her little 13 year old daughter to
Morant Bay to get some money from her
father in Morant Bay. When coming down
she saw a car drive up and asked her where
she was going. The driver of this car told the
girl that she can come with him. At that time
the child did not understand what was coming
up for her. She was locked up in a big house,
kept in one room and was given food by the
washer-woman of the house. The girl was
kept there for 15 days. The father by this
time had been all about looking for her. He
heard what happened and went straight to
the Police Station at Morant Bay and made
a report
After he told the police what had happen-
ed they told him that he must go up there
and get the child and he told them no. They
refused to follow him. Some time in the night
the father went out to Church Corner,
Morant Bay. He saw the child, called her and
asked a Special Police to hold her and took
her to the station where she was being kept
up to the time I was sending this report.


-ical e N s


n fLetters must be sined Names withheld on reauarst. Ed)

Published by A g I'hubhshmglii I id, 4 (ollins Gi;en Ave_ Kingston 5 Robert A. Hill, Secretary, residing at II Calcroft Ave., Kingston 8. Printed by Brice Printing Ltd., 6 East St., Kingston. April 12 1969.


It is a fact that Garvey was the only true
leader to the nation. Garvey, unlike Busta
and Manley, had never thought of leading us
black people with abeastly two-party system.
It is quite true that Marcus Garvey did not
get the chance to free the black man from
colonial slavery. But he laid the foundation
of love and equality which would bring
forth justice and freedom.
A few years ago they gave honour and
praise to what they term as the late and great
Marcus Garvey. Why it is only now that
Busta and Manley and their successors are
seeing the great foundation that Garvey had
laid for the freedom of the black man not
only in Jamaica but in any country that the
black man stands as the majority? Where was
Manley and Busta when Garvey started the
struggle for the rights of the black man? Did
they join in the struggle in any possible way?
It is only the other day that Manley said that
he agrees with Black Power but not when
there is violence and bloodshed. It was
MarcusGarvey whom he hypocritically prais-
ed, said that the black will never live in love
and unity without bloodshed. And this I
believe if the two parties do not come toge-
ther as one and work for the people and not
the rich foreigners who only come to work
sweat and blood out of us for little or
D. Grant

We would appreciate it if you could
declare plainly and trankly in your paper
your meaning of "Black Power". Who, in
your view, should partake in the Struggle?
What in your estimation is the criteria used
to judge whether one is a true Black Vowel
advocate or nay.
In a country as Jamaica which is predom-
inantly black and with a high illiteracy rate,
"Black Power" can be and is being misinter-
preted to mean enmity and hate by those
with black skins for those of every other
complexion or shade.
We believe in the principles of economic
strength and awareness and dignity for the
COLOURED races. These objectives, we
think, can be best achieved if those of us
who are learned, influential or possess special
skills would impart voluntarily some of our
knowledge and know-how to our less fortun-
ate"brothers". Karl A. Goodison
Hubert Jamieson
Valentine Symes






The death last week of Joseph
Kasavuhb removes from the scene
the last of the original "big three"
of Congolese politics. Patrice Lum-
umba was murdered less than a year
after the former Belgian Congo (now
known as the Congo-Kinshasa) bec-
ame independent in 1960. Moise
Tshombe, who led the attempt of
the province of Katanga to break
away from the rest, is now a prisoner
in Algeria after his plane was hijack-
ed. The unrivalled leader in the
Congo, therefore, is now the Presid-
ent, Joseph Mobutu, who is also a
General in the 38,000 man army.
Mobutu has seized power twice in
the Congo. In 1960 he took control .
only a few months after independ-
ence, deposed Lumumba, the legal
Prime Minister, and later handed him
over to Tshombe, who murdered
him. Tshombe's attempt to set up
Katanga as a separate state failed
but so strange are political menoeuv-
res in the Congo that by 1965 he
had become Prime Minister of the
whole country! However, he was
then overthrown by Mobutu in a
second army coup, which also push-
ed out Kasavubu, President of the
Congo since 1960. Mobutu has been
in power since then.
What lessons can we learn from
this complicated story? First of all,
the lesson of the dangers of foreign
interference in Africa. In 1960-61
the Soviet Union gave help to
Lumumba against Tshombe's break-
away Katanga, which was being
financed by Belgian capitalists.
The United Nations Organisation
also intervened, but the British and
Americans used it as a mask for their
own plans, particularly in getting
rid of Lumumba, the only genuine
nationalist leader. In the following
years American influence grew great-
ly through financial aid and tech-
nical assistance Now since Mobutu's

second seizure ot power, the Belg-
ians, the former colonial exploiters
of the Congo, have also returned in
large numbers-40,000 of them as
teachers, technical 'experts', judges
and businessmen. Mobutu is also
trying to attract Japanese, West
German, Italian and British capital-
isIs into the Congo. He is offering
them 'holidays' from taxes of up to
five years after they invest in the
Congo. free importation of equip:
ment, and tax allowances for depre-
ciation of equipment. This sort of
policy is frequently adopted by the
poor countries in order to attract
capital. But the Congolese and
black people everywhere should
remember that all such a policy
really does is make it easier for
foreigners to exploit them and take
huge profits out of the country.
The other thing that we may
lean from Mobutu's rule in the
Congo is that there re black leaders
who will use any means to stay in
power and exploit their people in
alliance with the whites. Mobutu
played a large part in the murder of
Patrice Lumumba, the most devoted
and honest leader in the Congo. Yet
now he has declared Lumumba to
be a National Hero, and says that
he is following Lumumba's ideas in
his wn policy A few months ago
Mobutu invited Pierre Mulele to
return to the Congo from exile.
Mulele had been one of Lumumba's
faithful lieutenants, and in 1964-65
led a rebellion of the sufferers
against the tyranny of the Congolese
government. When he trusted Mobu-
tu's word and returned, he was
arrested and murdered like his for
mer leader. Now we know that across
the African battleline we have to
face not only whites like Ian Smith,
but blacks like President Mobutu!

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