Title: Abeng
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100338/00003
 Material Information
Title: Abeng
Physical Description: 1 v. : illus. ; 46 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Abeng Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date: February 15, 1969
Copyright Date: 1969
Frequency: weekly
Subject: Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Social conditions -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Race question -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Summary: The weekly Abeng newspaper (February 1 - September 27, 1969) was published in response to the Black Power and protest movement that emerged after the ban on Dr. Walter Rodney, the Guyanese and University of the West Indies historian, who was prohibited from landing in Kingston on October 15th, 1968 after attending a Black Writers conference in Montreal, Canada. Rodney was known in Jamaica for his lectures and talks on African history and the liberation movements in Africa. These talks were given not only on the campus but in communities of the urban and rural poor. The ban triggered protests by UWI students and the urban poor in Kingston and led to public debate about the state of Jamaican social, economic and political life. The Abeng newspaper‘s Managing Editor was Robert Hill (UWI graduate student) and other editors included George Beckford (UWI lecturer), Rupert Lewis (UWI graduate student) and Trevor Munroe (Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University). The Abeng group was a political centre for the Black Power movement, socialists, the independent trade union movement, Rastafarians, supporters of the opposition People’s National Party and people disaffected with the two main political parties. Abeng therefore became a focal point of critique and activism against the ruling Jamaica Labour Party and a harbinger of the radicalism in Jamaica in the 1970s.
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- (no. 1- ); Feb. 1, 1969-v. 1, no. 35 (Oct. 3, 1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100338
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05001780
oclc - 5001780

Full Text

VOL 1. NO.3 FEBRUARY 15 1969





Boos and shouts of "Pharoah
Share-out," greeted Shearer on his
arrival at Victoria Pier on Tuesday
The occasion was a state welcome
for the Governor General of Canada.
It seems as if Searer cannot
make a public appearance without
being booed Th;' is the third time
that he has been booed in about a
month He was booed in London
by Jamaicans when he attended a
West Indian fete during the Corn
monwealth Prime Ministers' Confer-


ence. And just two weeks ago it is
reported that he had to beat a
hasty retreat after he was booed
at Caymanas Park.
Something is seriously wrong
in the country when a Prime Mini
ster attracts so much hostility both
at home and abroad. A study of the
words "Pharoah, Share-out," will
give a clue.
The word Pharoah has always
been used by black people to mean
oppressor. Black slaves reading the
Bible about Pharoah, the king who
held the Israelites in slavery and,
Pharoah the king who had a lot
of food while others were dying
of starvation in a land of famine,
saw themselves as Israelites and the
white slave masters as Pharoah. The
Negro Spritual 'Let My People Go,"
which tells of the slaves wish to
have God strike down the slave
master Is a good example of the
use black people made of the Isra-
lite struggle against Pharoah to suit
their situation.

That is why Prince Buster's
record "Pharoah House Crash" had
to banned.. But the Prime Minr
t requnt booing seems to in-
ato sti Jamalcans will have no

Several of the farm students who closed down the Jamaica
School of Agriculture and demanded the resignation of the principal,
G F. Gayle, were beaten and injured by riot police.
Neville Farquharson was beaten to the ground, cut on the
cheek and sustained other injuries.
Patricia Rhoden, a woman student, was kicked and hit by a
stone thrown at her.
Eva McKenzie, another woman student, was hit twice with a
baton and beaten to the ground.
McKetty was beaten until he fell over a wall and then trampled
Two students, Blount and
Kerr, were arrested. Blount was in STUDENT SUPPORT
jured when the Principal raced his The term students have re
car through a group of demonstrat ceived support trom the UWI
ing students, students, certain teacher training

colleges, and other student bodies

We would like to draw at
tention to these facts.

1. At no time did students
go outside the gate.

2. At no time did they threa-
ten, attack, or resist the
the police.

In spite of the brutality and
the inaction of the Board of Gov-
ernors, the entire student body re-
fuses to give in until their demands
are met.
Some of the placards carried
by JSA students read: "PUT AN
The inspector leading the at-
tack on the students shouted at
them, "Who doan want lick, run."

more of this "Pharoah Share-Out

3. They were not only dis
banded at the gate, by un-
necessary brutality, but
even inside the compound,
they were chased and beat-
en by the police.
4. The Principal has no re-
gard for student opinion.
ABENG therefore demands
1. The resignation of the Prin-
2. Immediate suspension of
the inspector who led the
police attack,
3. A full public enquiry
See page 4, column 5




Among sufferers the feeling is that the new "Leader of Her
Majesty's Loyal Opposition is a danger to them He represents the
people who own Jamaica and who therefore control its politics
ABENG feels that the time is right far a look at our two-party
so-called democracy, how it started and what it has meant u- not
meant for our people.
Firstly, the PNP and JLP came about because or division
between the black masses and brown middle class This division
was easily exploited by the imperial power In the circumstances
no single organization could hold together the black masses and
their brown better-offs. This conflict has got worse, not better.
The two-party system has tried to break up and hide the struggle
of sufferers against the rest, under the net of the unimportant
PNP/JLP game,
In the 1938 "sufferers rebellion", black people took over
Jamaica roads, properties, and entire towns But unaccustomed
to collective organization and unsure of their united strength the
masses showed little concern for politics, looked to trade-unionism
for bread and Bustamante for leadership.

The brown middle class knew exactly what it wanted to
capture government. The PNP was to be the tool But black people
saw this and, for some time, would have little to do with the
Manley party because many of its leaders were seen as friends of
the oppressors.
The JLP/BITU looked sincere. It promised poor people more
bread although Bustamante clearly wanted the small man to know
his place and not try to take control of the whose! society
Bustamante and Manley aroused hopes ,hich people were
prepared to give them several chances to fulfill. But most impor-

tant, the 'haves'. realising that they couldn't win votes themselves
withdrew behind the scenes to control those who could.
In the meantime, the Gleaner, the parties, the unions, in
fact everybody who stood to lose if black people took over their
own society, tried to brainwash people into beiiaving that there
could be no democracy without two parties.

And they were right. For their democracy meant votes for
the small man and everything else for the big man. For that "demo-
cracy to last, worker had to fight worker over politics; the black
man had to bh distracted from taking charge to casting bogus
Michael Manley has taken over a dying buisness -- 250 six
man groups in aq adult population of 900,000. This explains why
much' of what he has said sounds like a death-bed repentance
He is going to "begin" to meet the people after fifteen years
in politics!
After him and Shearer there can be no more talk that what
we need is a new leader. The crap that both of them talk has no
appeal to the % million Jamaican youths between fifteen and
thirty, almost the same number of unemployed of all ages, and
an increasing number of the older heads who have seen it all before
It is these people who will have nothing to do with the gaup ot
men who calt thems es the two party system. And this is the
real progress since 1938- the people now know that only the',
can free themselves,


VOL 1 NO 3 FEBRUARY 15 1969





IThis is the second in a series of three articles The third
says hat Black People Have To Do".

We have no work because we do not own and run this country but are mere squatters on the land. All the
other reasons why we have no work come from this fact
Our economic life has always been run by the wealthy fewto satisfy the needs of Britain, and more recently
the United States and Canada. We cannot genuinely say we are working for ourselves. As in slavery when we,
grew their sugar we still work for them.

The Editor
The voluntary services in Jamaica
have been for a long time an im-
portant way in which people have
expressed their concern for their
involvement in its life They have
provided many thousands of per-
sons the opportunity to particip-
ate constructively, and they have
given to many hundreds of thous-
ands the help. support and person-
al interest in their problems which
they would not otherwise have
have found We had believed that
they were a welcome and accepted
part of the Jamaican way of life.
But it seems that a new and start-
ling principle is being enunciated
these days in what is perhaps the
most sensitive spot in our country -
West Kingston. It is this that it is
the right of a Member of Parliament
to say what voluntary organizations
may or may not exist in his consti-
tuency. What appears to be evidence
for this extraordianry state of aff-
airs has come to the attention of the
Council of Voluntary Services from
two, at least, of its associate organi-
sations which do work in West King-
ston. These are the Child Welfare
Association and Operation Friend-
Some publicty has already been giv-
en to the use of discretionary pow-
ers given to the Minister of Hous-
ing, to declare as a housing
area the land belonging to the Me-
thodist Church which was being
developed, without expense to the
Government, to provide a decent
home for the basic school which
has been in operation since 1960
and to extend further the services
offered by Operation Friendship in
the area.
The order was made without prior
consultation and the Managing Com-
mittee of Operation Friendship met
with scant courtesy from Mr. Hill
and Mr. Seaga when they protested.
The case of the Child Welfare As-
sociation may not be as well known.
This organisation has since 1956

been operating the Iris King Clinic
and Creche from premises leased
to them by the K.S.A.C. and has
recently built on these same lands
from money raised wholly by pub-
lic subscription, a basic school. Ear-
ly this year they got a letter from
the K.S.A.C. which informed them
that the Corporation had received
a letter signed by Mr. Felix Fox,
the President of the West King-
ston Trust, asking them to termi-
nate the lease of- these premises
to the Child Welfare Association as
the Trust wished to take over the
work they were doing.
It may be significant that all at-
tempts by the Child Welfare As-
sociation and the CVSS to get from
Mr. Fox information about the ter-
ms of the Trust and the scope of
the work that it is proposing to
undertake in West Kingston, and
in particular its relationship as one
voluntary body with other volun-
tary bodies already working in the
area, have failed. Understandably
enough, all the voluntary bodies
working in the area feel threatened
by the unexpected actions which
have already been taken against two
of their number. Their fears have
been intensified by the apparent
reluctance of the West Kingston
Trust to declare openly what, be-
side the construction of buildings
at Tivoli Gardens, they are about.
The Council of Voluntary Services
always welcomes initiatives in the
field of providing additional services.
particularly in an area such as West
Kingston where there are still so
many and such varied needs to be
met It is perturbed however, that
one organisation, which all the pub-
licity has made clear was set up at
the initiative of the member for
West Kingston, should assume the
right to tell other organizations to
cease or curtail their work in the
area. There has not even been the
courtesy of consultation in the mat-
Yours faithfully,
Gloria E. Cumper,
Chairman CVSS.

Hello Abeng, my journalist-photographer brother
Welcome to the fore-front of the in New York. I hope he'll decide to
"news-field.- Pardon the pencil. s support you.
midnight and I'm just free from If you appreciate my note, drop
work so I glanced at your paper, a line in your paper next week.
I bought in Brown's Town. I know "Supporter."
what I like, and I like what I see Bounty Hall P.A. Trelawny
so here's hoping the infant grows First I must say how greatly im-
to maturity in good time- f I wait pressed I am after reading the Abeng
until Monday i ll never write so newspaper, in which I am interested
take this as it co and am willing to take part. I don't
I do miss the sound of the cow. know if I will be able to do much
horn that used to warn us of the owing to the fact that I am not
approach of a herd of cows on the educated or wealthy.
road when I was a child. Maybe "Plas 0ff. details, of ast lhelip
if the young Jamaicans could et, is required. B of luck f 4 t
a touch of old Jamaice life would awais youred. lyr, r u
be a lot more worthwhile, ISYMPATHIZER.
l'm no journalist, but maybe I EDITOR'S NOTE Winenmjlher
could write something for you. I'm from everyone speoi lly the po&
sending my copy of your paper to and the sufferers.

It may surprise many that
Jamaica, with one of the highest
rates of economic growth in the
world, also boasts one of the high-
est rates of unemployment any-
where today
Firstly, the educational system
is no use. This is because there is
no general view of how this country
ought to be run for us. If we had
this view then the educational
system could fit in.
Because we lack this, thous-
ends of young people are left idle
at the age of fourteen and some-
times before this.
Secondly, when the American
investor brings a factory here, there
is a limit to the amount of labour
the factory can employ. American
factories in Jamaica are not geared
to our needs. They are established
here to make profits to carry with
theme to America.
Thirdly, we import too much
of the goods we use. Because of this
a large part of our income provides
jobs for countries which are already
developed. It is true that vm are
a small country and lack some
natural resources, so we have to
import some of our requirements.
But certainly not to the extent that
we do. A large part of our import
bill is due to the backwardness of
our agriculture and the backward-
ness of our mineral industry.
Those who ruled Jamaica
made sure that our agricultural
economy benefitted foreigners.
Today our land is put to the same
evil use. international companies
such a' Tate and Lyle produce raw

sugar here for refining in Britain. OWN DESIGN ENGINEERS TO!
and a preferential system artificially USE ALUMINIUM INSTEAD OF
supports the price and output of an STEEL TO SATISFY SOME OF
antiquated industry. OUR METAL REOUIREMEINTS
MODERN AGRICULTURE But this is not the only polM
A modern agriculturl industry It o nappem that In Jmalm '
could cut the share of our income buxitethechief component beld
going abroad. We must replace many alumina, is none ter th
of the foreign goods sold here. We oxide After the alubmine extrert
have some of the tastiest fruits in at Kirkvine and Ewarton and aln
the world and the rest of the at Gramercy and Baton Rouge In
Caribbean-maoes, swesop, sour- the United States, the red mud
sop, starapple. Thee must be used whil the leftover and whis
to our benefit. Another way is by simply forms an over-growing lake.
research into the use of cassava and has plenty iron-oxide To smelt pi
breadfruit flour instead of imported iron from the lefto er would require
wheat flour. cheap power for blast furn the
same cheap power which would be
MODERNMANUFACTURE needed to etr emilm m
A modern manufacturing from alumina
industry will increase the contribut-
ion of agriculture to our needs.
This means not only supplying foods However, this doesn't suit the
for procesing, but also supplyin powerholders. Our bauxite, when we
materialsfor manufacture. For mine, process and prepare semi
example, why is our shoe industry finished aluminium product for
based on imported leather We sale, can give employment to about
should plan our beef and dairy 50,000 people.
industry in such a way as to provide 'e are waging our natural
the hides fore tanning industry and wealth. We cannot continue lining
from there the leather for the foot- the pockets of the already rich when
wear industry. we know what can be done.
A second reason for our high We hear of many "Develop-
import bill is the backwardnass of ment" and "ReDevelopment" plans
our bauxite-alumina industry. The but we do not benefit It is not good
bulk of our importsof manufactured enough when we hear from the
goo9 s is made of metals, chiefly Chairman of the Jamaica Industrial
iron and steel. At the sme time we Corporation that 22 factories were
are exporting our principal natural set up in 1968 nd th created
resource-b uite- without trans 1,300 iobs. Governmemntmustrealz
fore rceg it into metal-alumini that itsfirst duty is to the thousand
fo ing it into metal-aluminium of us without work. Therefore
IF WE PRODUCED ALUMINIUM present deelopmentplans may hn
FROM OUR OWN BAUXITE to be scrapped. Black people meu
COULD WE NOT TRAIN OUR put an and to this.



Men of position and integrity and of gond standing in the
community with impunity defy all justice and morality, rob children
and devour "widows houses". And we hear nothing in condemnation of
this unholy system from the Leaders and Representatives of the people.
That landed Proprietors could have built up and secured the silent
approval of such a vicious scheme in a British community is beyond
understanding. Its evil effects have literally enmeshed the country, and
everywhere the Landed Proprietor is established the Common People are
slaves both morally and economically.
In another decade we shall be ONE HUNDRED YEARS from
slavery but we still war the shackles of that inexecrable system.
The white slave-holder or his successor the Landed Proprietor still
does not want to work for himself. And this principle manifests, if not as
in time past through the taskmaster's whip, yet the vile thing shows itself
in the seizure of the results of the toil of honest black people, who
believe they must live by the sweat of their brow, who believe that if a
man will not work, neither shall he eat, just in order to gratify the
insatiable greed and the lust of the Landed Proprietor.
The case cited in our columns is typical in many respect. We
notice the overseer told the woman to whom was mated out thi iillale
Itreatmn to take the ase to Court. It has been well said thiO lClpW
are courts of law end not of justice. We have the highest reMei Jall-
REVERENCE FOR BRITISH JUSTICE but we beg tah, titt the
findings of these courts upon most palpable eviduMgrewl'e dIst
travesty of justice-British justice with Colonill d I I Uly a

time the Landed ProprietlI
his labours has been seizedin
One invariable plea
with tenants is, as in this
This lie is generally the cldi
other scheme but the uncil
to bind the tenant, his chin
to him for all time.
Investigate the pesws
that have kept the Comne
SERFDOM even though a,
bondage for well nigh one ln
An empty pose of hi
and respectability, caDkenre
and lying, degraded by nain
itslf on despoiling the petu
children to beg or stas an
from his despoiler. The pro
Proprietorin a nulrifioent Inl
in charecta. Ald yet we In I
service from people who eam
Tie ays of the La P
TORTUOUS. They are thi
w iapd bestir himself. Coull
ti boInds from off his nei
niuwr at his command lari
The question of Land Rik,
direction. The Land Gdstail i
be remedied and that eniya t
in his hands. This is a factii
rule. Do not hesitate. Makey;
evi in the next Loqlgo iSl


(This is the second part of GEORGE iECKFtO ';i aory" of
Our Disossession'".)
The question in 1938 was not if the pot would overflow, but when. In 1865, the Morant Bay "Rahbllion"
took place under organized leadership and was rooted in a cerrain section of the Island. In 1938, the people moved
by themselves. Riots broke out spontaneously, all over the Island.
The riots of 1938 were quelled by imperial troops. The report of the Moyne Commiion, which had bean
sent out from England to enquire into these riots, opened up a new phase in the historyy of the society.

I have worked as a nurse in public
hospitals in St Mary and Kingston.
I started my training in England on
my own in 1961 and completed in
1964. I was staffed as a Registered
Nurse for one year and then went
on to do midwifery After that I
returned to training,
I came back to Jamaica because I
felt that as a trained person my ser-
vices would be needed and appreci-
ated in this country. I leave Jamaica
to work in the United States this
year, feeling very disgusted with the
evil conditions nurses have to put
up with.

Apart from low salaries there is
bad management in the hospitals
and nurses complaints could never
have been made. No attention is
paid to them.

Smooe behalf the accumulated result of
Ictly behind the Bench.
ification of such high handed dealing
the lie that they have not paid rents.
Sa tissue of falsifications which enter no
rules designed by the Landed Proprietry

i and grandchildren in dumb allegiance

Sand we find a summary of the wrong
eaple of this country IN PERPETUAL
ave seen Emancipation from physical
ed years.
r and integrity, a vain show of decency
ough and through by dishonesty, deceit
ad lust that stops at nothing, but prides
n, oppressing his widow and leaving his
tually to work for the merest pittance
re is not overdrawn. . The Landed
and dressed in fine clothes is a bankrupt
honesty and integrity, loyalty, devoted
and by compulsion in the school of the

Proprietor are CROOKED AND EVEN
Sof the days of slavery. Let the Negro
apathy and indifference, arise, and break
li vote is his mighty weapon. With all the
Suse it in the coming General Election.
will settle all disputes in this particular
it stands is an evil in our midst. It must
Sthe Ten Shillings Voter has the remedy
him realize hi power. The majority must
our mind now that you will remedy this
cil. Act at once. He who hesitates is lost.
ad MaO" Editorial
V, April 17, 1929

I am very cut up about the placing
of nurses in the hospitals A friend
of mine who recently left for Ameri
ca had applied for a job in Kingston
because her family was living here.
Instead they placed her in West-
moreland Of course she didn't go
and the hospitals lost her service
because she left the island. The hos
pital administration takes little con
sideridion of the nurse.
Say. for instance, if you like sur-
gerv, they place you in a medical
ward Placement is not done acc-
ording to your specialist qualifica-
tion but in a very haphazard way.
so the nurse is very unhappy in her

We are very understaffed. I, for
instance, once nursed 47 patients
for four hours dealing with admits
sons, discharges and treatments.
The nurse is also involved in admini-
strative work. For a Kingston dis-
charge we see that transportation
is booked for the patient and if he
can't afford it the hospital is respon-
sible. When the patient is sent
straight from the casualty to the
ward the nurse handles it. The nurse
at the same time keeps an admis-
sion book for the patient who
comes through admission.
I remember on one ward four st-
aff nurses left and there was no
replacement for months. The nurse
is oftentimes discouraged because
she is overworked and can't achieve
the thoroughness she would like.
Yet there are many Jamaican nurses
abroad who have excellent profes
sional recommendations. When
great difficulty in gening them. I
know a Jamaican who had been a
Sister in England for three years.
She made an application for a Jun-
ior-Sister post at the University Hos-
pital. They had her going back and
forward with interviews when fin-
ally they expressed doubts about
her age. I don't think 28 is too
young for a Sister. A doctor in the
English hospital where she works
brought his male child to the female
ward so that this Jamaican nurse
could care the child. It's a lot of
foolishness to talk about purses be-
ing disloyal to their country when
they ae not encouraged out here
but showed aside.

1938, called for the beginning bottom. Black people still have no
of a new order, as 1838 had done. economic power White culture still
Once again, this did not take place. reigns supreme.
All that was achieved was limited Thus the constitutional frame
constitutional advance based on work of "independence" provides
adult sufferage, and British style for a two party system which
party politics encourages debate about phony
This made the political power of the issues while allowing for a waste of
masses negative. The social and resources- particularly in men and
economic institutions of the slave land; an English Queen as head of
plantation system remained un a state to formalize symbols of
changed, white status and continued dominant
THE MYTH OF INDEPENDENCE ion of a European and white ruling
Today. in spite of our "inde- class; and a strong central govern
pendence" real power is still in the ment which denies popular partic
hands of foreign white people who pation in decision-making.
The values of national leaders
own our basic resources. The social The valu of national eaders
structure isstill white on top, brown since 1938 have remained essentially
in the middle and black at the the same as those of the imperial
administrators they replaced. Thei,




philosophy for development in
Jamaica relies on creating the right
environment" to attract foreign
investment This reflects an absence

History again provides us with
some clues For a brlet priod
during the -cond od orld War the
Jamaican economy began to undergo
a change in character We launrhen
a massive drive towards the product
ion of food and to a lesser extent,
tie production of raw materials aso
nufactured goods because fore'ig
suoples were limited This provided
a stimulus for the production and
use of local materials and 1;o,
because machinery was scrce f',r
the adoption of sultabhe laSiur
intensive processes
So the war forced the -ln
economic institutions to make ec.-f
move away from their tfrditional
iole of keeping the system adiustie
to outside influences Irpcrt and
export controls helped to cut oti
the economy from the outs de
world. The system of rationing .,
also introduced And althoiigt I

r'iM~iL I

. '; e' /


In a country hospital I know onr
thermometer serves two thirty bed
wards. You have to be tactful and
quick to pick uJp the thermometer
first. Sometimes you have ten or
twelve dressings and two forceps.
In several parish hospitals because
they are ill-staffed the nurse admits
takes details about the patient, dia-
gooses and gives treatment The pat-
ient's life is in danger because of
our limited training. In the parish
hospitals the nurse has to go far
beyond her training.
I would recommend the following
improvements in the Nursing Service
An improved salary scale for nurses
That younger nurses be considered
for early promotion. That nurses be
placed in their choice field of nurse
ing That student nurses be encour-
aged to love their school and not to
carry a bitter dislike for it Last
of all that administrative staff do
regular training courses abroad.
I'm not in a hurry to return I'll
stay abroad as long as I can tolerate
the cold weather. If I return to
Jamaica it will definitely not be to
work in a Government ward but in
private nursing.


"It is very difficult for many
liberal intellectuals to understand
that violence is not always accom-
panied by the boom of guns and
the clatter of bayonets When a
little African boy is compelled to
die of starvation in a world where
there is abundance, I call that vio
lence When an old black man in
Harlem is made by his fellow men
to live all his days sharing dinghy
tenements with rats, I call that vio-
lence When I see that Africa is the
richest continent in the world and
Africans are the poorest people on
the sae planet, I call that violence
...And whe I see that the leather
of my English landlord's shoe
could be from my home, the mat-
erial of his clothes mine, the stick
of his rolled umbrella mine, the
gold of his wife's iewellary mine
the copper of his cigarttecae and
the tobacco in it too mine, when
that even the manganese of his
industry and the oil that runs the
machines are all from my home,
while my own mother a woman
who, judging by the standards of
her faraway English dependent.
should be living like a queen
- is living on the hunger-line, I call
that violence.
young Nigerian Novelist

functioned imperfectly. it represen-
one of the few mechanisms knoisn
to have been introduced into the
Jamaican economy which, by is
character, could not discriminate by,
class. As such, it was one of the fev
blows for equality in the economic
sphere ever to be introduced by the
administration. Thus, during the war
the economy was sub acted to
controls which to some extent
promoted both equality and
Devices such as those used
during the last war and the estab
lishment of appropriate local
Government authorities are needed
to lay the foundations for the
reconstruction ahead The instabiitry
of our social order has already led
to at least two major social explo-
sions The first-the so called Morant
Bay "Rebellion" of 1865-was an
expression of discontent by the
peasants against the planters who
were trying to force them to remain
a source of cheap labour on the
sugar plantations. The second-the
"riots" of 1938-was an expression
of discontent by the dispossesed
working class A third maar explo-
sion is imminent: it will be an
expression largely of the unehi
The signs of unrest and
ferment of the 1930's are again
clear. The pot of discontent is
boiling. The brim has been reached.
If a new social Ofer is not cstraed.
and created quickly, "tomorn w"
it will surely overflow.


of confidence in themselves and
in the people of the country to
mobilize resources for our own
material advancement. It is clear
that such a philosophy is inconsist
ent with the demands of the bulk
of the population for a better life.
For to create the "right environ
ment" for foreign investors is to
ensure them of a reliable pool of
cheap labour.
Since real economic power
still lies outside the society the
politics of constitutional independ
ence can only take the form that
one observer has described as
"cuckoo politics"-like the cuckoo
bird of the clock, it is purely
decorative and has no real function.
It can have no real function as
long as the institutions and values
of slavery days are still with us. tt
can have no real function as long as
the masses have no economic power
and the creation of a new social
order is ignored.

The basic requirements for
real independence and the creation
of a new social order are a radical
change in values and cultural
orientation? the control of econ-
omic power within the society; a
greater reliance on production for
domestic markets; and the de-
centralization of political power.
An economy unsurely founded with
reliance on exploited labour.
unsecured external markets and
foreign management. can never
bring sufficient material benefit to
the bulk of the population. We
must start adapting our economy
to our environment


We will soon hrve while foreigners patrolling the streets of
Montgo Bay with the authority to arrest. shoot or kil black
This was revPaleil by the Custos of Fi James, Walter Fletcher, at last
week's lus., of the Montego Bay Rotarian Club when he made a call
foir viiilaple" volunteers. Fletcher announced that the volunteers
will be sworn in as Special Constables to patrol the streets in an
effort nr tf and prevent the setting of fires.

This reminds is of 1938 when Jamaica armed the privileged to
the erilh ol oniial government of shoot down black people who were






La week Eduardo Mondlane was murdered in Dar-es-Salaam,
the capital of Tanzania A bomb had been placed under his chair
in his office, and he was killed when it exploded. Yet another
African leader, therefore, has died on the African battleline. It
is an imoortant event, and in order to understand it we must ask
live uestions Who was Eduardo Mondlane? Who killed him?

Mondlane was the leader of Frelmo
whii.h means Front for the Libera-
li~n of Mloambique. Mozambique
is a 'arge tesitory in East Africa
pnd ii a colony of Portugal, which
has 'ileo over it foi hundreds of
vc~ir In all that time the African
people of Mozambique have gained
nothing from Portuguese rule except
poverty and exploitation.
^tihiihigh 'he trtruguese arrested
,1 icrnsotirc every black man
i\l, spoke out against these condi-
tnc ; n f of then were able to
iti logethie led by Mondiane, and
.t Freli~io ',hen, a few years
, ) Frelhmo lauinhed a guerrilla
.dr ,ainst ithe Portuauese colon-
i -it President Nyerere of Tanz
ani. a lowe Mondlane to have his
hesdQaolters in Dar e Salaam, and
iti Frfvil. it eedom fighters would
g- firm there .recetly into adminis-
t-rtor or-t of the rural areas The
A'rian mrsses supported the free-
dom fighters and by late 1968
Fralimo had established its own rule
ova lamge parts of northern Mozam-
NI, the Fretinio leader has been
mrcered and iwe hare yet to see
wit osamagye tiis will do to the
truggie But wh-o killed him? It
eight hete i-en the Porltguese,
.io obviously hailed him. But it

seems quite likely that it was some
of his own people, members of Fre-
limo. Why should they kill their
own leader? Probably because he
was very close to the Americans.
He had been educated in the U.S A.
and his wife was an American. His
office was in the house of an Ameri
can, who worked for an American


demanding bread. But what is hap-
pening in Montego Bay is worse
than that. Most of the Rotarians
there are white. Many of them are
White men from the United States,
Cananda and England
It se'-s that what is corn
p'idiilqg the problem of the pro
Dertrel class in MoBay is that when

0 SHOOT AND Cockpit Country advertised by
~AT| lHeirlz, the "rent- maidl, rent-t-nar
ATI V ES." nie and rent.-gadeners," a.e
tised by the Jamaica Tourist Board.
firemen and police are called in to are eimi r
deal with the fire. looting still takes are ign r pmanty fro
place. It would appear that the fire- pilge
men and police are more syrm7 The Governmnt of Jamaica.
thetic to the sufferers than to the heir to the 938 revolt is unable
propertied and privileged to find enough "natives" willing to
protect the property of foreigners
Montego Bay is a symbol of So they enlist the aid of the foreign
what is happening in the whole of ners themselves to protect their
Jamaica The 'naties" from the own oronerty


MEET MARCIA: A student at the university. Marcia wears her
Afro-hairdo and Dashiki proudly and recommends both.
This is the first in a series in which we intend to show




mining company. Most important On Saturday, February 8th,
of all, groups of Mondlane's sup- 1969, an are in Up Park Camp
porters were being trained in poll- was naed the Bustsmante Barracks
tics and administration in the U.S.A te
at the University of Syracuse. This to mark the 27th anniversary of
was the deceitful policy of the U.S.A the release of former trade unionist
- to supply arms to Portugal, which Alexander Bustamante from deten-
were then used to kill MOndlanes tion by the British Government
freedom fighters, and at the same The state was present in full cere-
time try to get influence over him mony. All that was missing was
by training his men. In that way Sir Arthur Richards himself in his
the Americans would be influen. colonial Governor's uniform.
tial whether the Portuguese won in
the end, or the African freedom BRITISH ARMY
fighters triumphed When Busta was detained
The influence of the Americans Jamaica was occupied by a British
over Mondlane would provide good Army under the command of
reason for his followers to kill him British officers Today the army
Africans must learn that an Imper- is Jamaican but there are at least
latest is an imperialist, whether he five British officers in the top ranks
tries to kill you, like the Portuguese of the Jamaica Defence Force Head-
or pretends to be your friend, like quarters including a major who is
the Americans Africans and black responsible for security intelligence.
people everywhere must learn to There is also at least one American
think before they put their trust officer at Up Park Camp and the
in those who mile at them. Government of the USA still has

ABENG hears that students of the Collage of Arts Science
and Technology, ar aralso going on strike to protest mal-administration.

i Ii
SJamaica s No 1 Radio & TV Personaliy h
,* ,r aECC- a
S.E Eco-... .I
0* ST(GE Sow.s Pone 2s272 j

100 acres of land for a naval and
air oase in Portland Ridge
Clarendon (See Jamaica Handbook
1967 p.930) a sad reminder of the
1941 West IndiesU.S. Bases
The JDF still uss the Queen's
Regulations and Manual of Military
Law which re based n the Engllsh
Army Act and every year there is
an exchange programme with a
British regiment which is romantic
cally called Caliypso Hop" to die
guise the fact t it affords am
opportUn ty for our soldiers to go
to England to reseiv Enalih army
insrmction!, aef for BrNtihb gliders
Bto sme hfre fi, mia hm oun
condition JUST IN CASE.


Students who expose tMier
ideas frreely run e risk of victtimi
Students ae treated like child
dren although the avere A of
the student body is 22 Decisions
taken by student committee with
staff representatives a re nored
Women students are gire no
privacy Watchmen are sent to ay
on them A watchman was actu-
ally found in one of the woren'$
bathrooms Some have been caught
peeping through windows
The JSA lacks a student Cou-
nrcil Whern me JSA was invited
tojoin aNational Unionof Spudente
with the UWI and other colleges,
the Principal opposed I
Although the school is a
farm school, the Principal does not
want the students to associate with
the poor. The principal has fied
to fore his personal likes and di-
likes on st udenth He has tried to
stop students wearing beards and
Afro-haircuts because he feels thse
may be identified with the poor

W NAMES The school is not an es
ciently. Staff and te Principal do
SOLDIERS AS STRIKE BREAKERS not get along oel Many o ;e
In 1941 when Busta was ffharesignedTheir post a
no been filled Machinery is rarely
detained, the role of the army was used y students but udents are
the suppression of popular discon- filed for not sweeping workshops
tent. Today, it performs the ame Students5 caution fee which
task. Not only was it used in Ocd tMey pay yearly. is not returned
bar last year but it has been used to tha No explanation is gen
The school reeiiveas 800 yearly in
to break Water Commission. Fire caution fee
Brigade, hospital and police strikes.
It has been paraded through the What has happened to the car of
steets in ftll military might in the two women who ware shot by
breach of the law; in so much so oldien in a night club during the
that the Government has had to police go-ow,
pass a special law to try and justify The Govearnept has not how
these misdeed. oued Bustairite by the naming
The tuth is that the Jamaica of the Busoeaants Barracks. They
Defence Force is not an army in would hae done him hInour if
defense of the people and their they had established a Trad nion
freedoan. Their constant use in ci'- library or a Workers Rasding Room.
ian matters in breach of the consti- But then nothing much fa cheArge
tion has not been without effect onlya FEWNAMES




With Compliments

o fn fln e 'la J/oIf

1.. ea CIe Cos .. a en
h*OK elst 9 *


Published by TheAbeng Publishing Company Ltd, 4 Collins Green Av., Kingston 5 nrinted by Brice Printing Ltd. 6 East Seetl, Kngt.,,

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