Group Title: Struggle (Kingston, Jamaica)
Title: Struggle
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100337/00039
 Material Information
Title: Struggle official organ of the Workers Liberation League
Uniform Title: Struggle (Kingston, Jamaica)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 41 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Workers' Liberation League (Jamaica)
Workers' Liberation League (Jamaica)
Workers Party of Jamaica
Publisher: The League
Place of Publication: Kingston
Kingston
Publication Date: November 17, 1977
Frequency: bimonthly[mar.-apr. 1986-]
biweekly[ former -july 13, 1984]
monthly[ former aug. 1984-feb. 1986]
bimonthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Labor movement -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Summary: Struggle was published first as a mimeographed newsletter in 1974 when the Workers Liberation League was formed. It was edited by Rupert Lewis and he continued as editor when Struggle became the organ of the Workers Party of Jamaica in 1978. In the 1980s editors included Elean Thomas, Elaine Wallace and Ben Brodie. The Workers Liberation League grew out of the political initiative of academics - Trevor Munroe, Rupert Lewis as well as Don Robotham, Derek Gordon who studied in the University of Chicago in the early 1970s and were connected to activists in the Black Panther Movement and African-American radicals in the Communist Party of the United States. The latter group formed the Paul Bogle League which brought together academics, working class and community activists who read and discussed Karl Marx’s Capital and Lenin’s political writings and sought to build on Jamaica’s radical traditions in the trade union movement and in the People’s National Party from the 1930s to the 1960s. The Paul Bogle League was also involved with the formation of the University and Allied Workers Union in the early 1970s and worked with the Independent Trade Union Action Council. Politically the Workers Liberation League gave critical support to Michael Manley’s democratic socialist program in the 1970s.
Issuing Body: Vols. for -1978 issued by Workers' Liberation League; 1979- by Workers' Party of Jamaica.
General Note: Description based on surrogate of: Issue no. 28 (June 16, 1977); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Apr.-May 1986 (surrogate).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100337
Volume ID: VID00039
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05378247
lccn - sn 91021299
oclc - 5378247

Full Text







10C
___ November 17

1977


OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE WORKERS LIBERATION LEAGUE Issue No.39









"PEOPLE IN DANGER"


Inside
Reactionaries go to any length
Seaga meets 'friends' in Washington
CIA plots revealed
Arsenic another CIA weapon


EDITORIAL


Seaga

The reactionary press has been despe-
rately trying to play down the treacher-
ous nature of Seaga's activities abroad.
They claim that what he has done in the
US is harmless.
But how can it be harmless to be mee-
ting with the former Deputy Director of
the CIA, Mr. Ray Cline? How can it be
harmless to be meeting with right wing
organisations such as the John Birch Soc-
iety which oppress the black people of
America and seek to crush the struggles
of the peoples of the Third World?
The Seaga clique does not represent
the downtrodden masses of the JLP who
suffer under the capitalists, but the
dying ruling classes who are trying to
hold on to their power by violent means.
The Censure motion by the government
against Seaga was completely justified.
Seaga significantly did not attempt
to defend himself from these charges
in the House, pleading that he was
sick. He could not do so because he
would then have to tell the country
what are his associations with Peter
Whittingham, who the Seaga clique have
claimed was innocent of the charges
made against him by Prime Minister
Manley. What has happened to the $10
million which the CIA is alleged to
have given the JLP clique.
He would have to satisfy the
country that his clique has nothing
to do with the wave of reactionary
criminal violence being presently
launched on the working people.


Rihwn ofeniv in ge


PETER ;~:.'i-rG.-,L:': S-hoping ;


The Enquiry in-
to whether working
journalists should
be represented on
the Editorial Com-
mittee of the Dai-
ly News ended rec-
ently with final
submissions from
the attorneys for
the company and for
the workers.
The workers at
the Daily News are
awaiting the "find-
ings" of the Commi-


ssion against the
background of incr-
easing insecurity
and anxiety in the
wake of close-down
threats by the man-
agement.
Members of top
management (with
close links to ITT,
NCC and D&G) have
been "letting it
slip" to various
workers that the
Daily News will
have to close by


the end of this
month if there is
not a "massive in-
jection of capital"
into the newspaper.
One top member of
management was hea-
rd to say that if
the Enquiry rules
in favour of giv-
ing professional
journalists a real
say in what goes
into the paper, he
"will pull out".
In the meantime,


the management is
backing up these
threats with other
action to divide
and rule the work-
ers. Following the
dismissal of Canute
James, the manage-
ment (Hendrickson
& Ganguli) had set
up a 3-man committ-
ee to run the edit-
orial department.
This committee is
See Page 2















CN Sunday, Nov-
ember 6, the work-
ers in the Univer-
sity & Allied Work-
ers Union who defe-
nd democracy and
want the union to
continue to put the
workers first sco-
ied a victory at
the annual Congr-
ess of the Union.
The views of
the majority pre-
vailed as over
500 delegates ele-
cted the Officers
of their choice.
Dr. Trevor Mun-
roe, General Sec-
retary of the
Workers Liberati-
on League was ele-
cted President,
Lambert Brown 1st
Vice President; Ke-
nneth James, 2nd
Vice President,
Standford Duckett
3rd Vice President;
Muriel Johnson, Ge-
neral Secretary and
Lorraine Walker,
Treasurer.
The Congress
was an important
one because it was
the climax of a se-
ries of lies and
slander against
Dr. Munroe and oth-


UAWU


naries in the Glea-
ner. They launched
an anti-communist
campaign against
Dr. Munroe and Mr.
Brown hoping this
would confuse the
workers and mash
up the union.
This campaign
was rejected by the
Managing Delegates
Council at one of
its largest meeti-
ngs attended by ov-
er 30 officers and
worker/delegates on
October 31.
An attempt was
made to mash up the
Congress when Mr.
Jones assualted Mr.
Brown. Delegates
rushed on the pla-
tform to Mr. Brow-


workers choose
n's defence. Mr. '
Jones only recei-
ved a few scratches
and his shirt was
torn although the
Gleaner's report
claimed that Mr.
Jones was mauled
and had "serious
injuries".
In a news confe-
rence following the
Congress, Mr. Jones
told more lies on
the union officers
than before. The
Gleaner, which some
days before had jo-
ined the campaign
by attacking Dr. 7y wrke choose C eade at Co^rr
Munroe in a "List-
ening Post" article, The outcome of igned from the un
carried the details the congress and on since showed
of the news confer- the fact that wor- that the majority
ence extensively. kers have not res- of the workers dii


// / Ilist~~c
y~ U) *

'I- aGfiieT! *


;)~L4- b


er officers in the
Union being spread ',
by Mr. Douglas Jon- j
es, former Preside-
at and the reactio- ..


Rostafafrins Reaction in the

d made up of the But even before
at a wke Sports Editor Tony the hearings into
THIRTY Rastafa- munity who had gat- Becca, News Editor the Enquiry starte
rian elders and br- hered to witness Terry Smith, and the Daily News man
ethren of the Ethi- the incident. Features Editor Ric gemrert set up anot
opian Theocracic After all that Mentus. her editorial comm
Government are now was done, the poli- Many editorial ittee with workers
being held at the ce then seized a workers however, chosen by them.
Morant Bay Police number of knives have observed that Tony Becca, Ric
Station following and a machete which veteran and well- Mentus, Carl Wint
a raid on a Nyah- the brethren used respected journalist and Jennifer Ffren
bingi being held to prepare their Terry Snith has be- ch have been chose
at Willowf'eld. meals. It is said en Made a very "ju- by the nanagerent
It is reported that the thirty rior partner" in to be on the commi
that at about 8:00 brethren were held this arrangement. ttee. It is not
am on November 4 a for possession of It is reported that known whether news
detl4jnment of Poli- ganja. rmangorent has sho- editor Terry Smith
ce officers from A check with the wn reluctance to has been chosen by
the Morant Bay Pol- Commissioner of Po- allowjai Smith any the management to
ice station swarmed lice to seek just- real say in what serve on this corm
down on the gather- ice proved futile goes into the pap- ittee. Neither is
ing and started fir- as the Head of the er or a continuing it known what is
ing shots at the Force was not in basis. the status t this
congregation, brea- office and the bre-
king up oil lamps thren were told to
and kicking off fo- contact Supt. Brown
od from the fire. in charge of the
The Police gunbutt- Bull Bay-Marant Bay
ed some of the Ras- area.
tafari4ns attend- The attack on
ing the eight-day the Rastafarian ge-
celebration which lehration was led
was taking,~iace by Supt. Verge of
and then went on the Morant Bay Pol-
to disperse other ice Stati.m,
members of the com-


s orn yitvrCtwr Yrn.


d
i-.


I


not believe the
lies and stood fir-
mly against Douglas
Jones and the Glea-
ner reactionaries.
They could see
that Dr. Munroe and
Mr. Brown as cormu-
nists, and other
progressive offid-
ers in the union
always defended the
rights of the work-
ers and worked in
the interest of the
union.


the democrat i met-
bers of the UAWU
is a victory fbT
all progressive pe-
ople againht,those
who want to sIa
anti-comnmunist pro-
paganda to divide
the workingg people.
Workers must be on
the lookout for
these noves by the
reactionaries.
The UA'I viotory
proves that no rea-
ctionary campaign
can be successful
against the intere-
st of the people -
whether they are


media (from Page 1)


d
a-







n


committee in lig-
ht of the struggle
of the Daily News
workers to have a
majority of worki-
ng journalists,
elected by them,
on the board which
is responsible for
editorial policy,
And widpApread
protests have gre-
eted the return
of nude pictures
and divorce cases
in the Star, foll-
owing the comple-
te take-over of
that paper's edit-
orial policy by
Hector Wynter and
Oliver Clarke.
The Lprg;est.was
led by.t- Ptar '.
workers tnsetles
who Qompar6d wht.:
the Star now car-
ried to the cont-
ant when editor
barbrIa "'te.ila"
Gloudon was in
charge of tnr.e .ap-
er,
The .aocil3 or-
betra rt^ocisitior.


Jamaica Teachers
Association, the
Bar Association of
Jamaica, the Co-
ittea of Wome tfor
Progress, the Uni-
on of Journalists
& Allied Employees
the Press Associa-
tion of Jamaica,
have been among
:thoae Qgantsati-
on which ,ave oo-
ndeajed 't. Star
policy.
The Star mana-
gement has so far
reacted to these
protests with an
at a* on these
organizations.,
2r the mewati-
me, ~he transform-,
ation of the Star
into a reactiona-
ry rag-sheet has
been stepped up,.
Working journa-
litsa ap4,the pao-t
ple of Jamaeic ha-'
e to step up their
efforts to end
_capitalist qnt*r-
ol of the media.












Reaction will go to any




lengths by Josin Black


"OUR PEOPLE ARE IN DANGER," the WLL war-
ned in a pamphlet in October 1975.
And at that time, communists and oth-
er sections of the progressive movement
began a campaign to educate our people
about the plan of the CIA and the local
reactionaries to destabilize our count-
ry and overthrow the Manley Government.
The working people rallied and brou-
ght a temporary defeat to the plan on
December 16, 1976.
But as the months of 1977 unfold, it
is becoming clearer and clearer to more
of the Jamaican people that the plan is
still in place.
Seaga breakfasts in Washington, and
whom does he choose as his bosom frien-
ds? Some very questionable characters
indeed. Reactionary criminal violence
is stepped up against the working peop-
le. JLP Senators are said to be invol-
ved in plans to create anti-government
riots in December. The JLP's Peter
Whittingham, a leading member of the
Seaga clique is held in Miami, charged
with being part of an international rea-
ctionary operation of drug trafficking;
two American journalists writing in
"Penthouse" magazine reveal activities
of the CIA against Manley and the PNP
government, and D.K. Duncan is poisoned
with arsenic.
The reactionaries in the Gleaner and
their agents who phone in to the radio
stations are trying their best to down-
play the censure motion against Seaga.
They are trying to scoff at the motion
hoping to divert attention from the acti
vities out of which the censure motion
came. Some of them have even gone so
far as to "commend" Seaga.
Seaga takes one of his frequent trips
to the United States. He is met by a
former deputy Director of the CIA, and
a Director and Officer of the COUNCIL
ON INTER-AMERICAN SECURITY. His bosom
companions during his visit are right-
Fing racists and reactionaries, (inclu-
ling Ronald Reagan) of the AMERICAN CON-
IERVATIVE UNION, FRIENDS FOR A FREE JAM-
ICA, YOUNG AMERICANS FOR FREEDOM, JOHN
ITRCH SOCIETY, and the SOUTH AFRICAN FO-
NDATION.
All these organisations have well-
mown and proven records of subversive
Activities against progressive peoples
lipd governments, against Black peoples
in the United States, the national lib-


IK. Duncan: "The reactionaries will go to any lengths."


eration movement in Africa and against
the Jamaican Government and people.
These are Seaga's*friends.
In his speech to the breakfast meet-
ing which was also attended by some US
Congressmen, Seaga invited the United
States to tie strings to any aid it is
giving to Jamaica. According to Seaga,
the US should intervene in Jamaica's
affairs to ensure "that democratic righ- Michael Manley: "Too left for the reationaries"
ts are maintained by virtue of an open
door policy". Seaga also called on the
IMF "the central lending agency of "The CIA was heavily involved with
the capitalist system", to "discipline" the JLP and the Jamaican upper classes",
Jamaica. Is this the patriotism which the article says.
the Gleaner and Broderick praise? "The CIA quickly sought to organise
during the State of Emergency last and expand the (party political) vioZ-
year, Prime Minister Manley told the ence, shipments of guns and sophistica-
year, Prime Minister Manley told the ted communications equipment began to
nation of documents outlining "OPERA- be smuggled into the island. In one
TION WEREWOLF", a terrorist plan and a shipment lone, which was grabbed byIn one
shopping list for sub-machine guns, dy- himey' s security forces, there were
namite and other forms of explosives. M0eys sechri forces, tre were
These documents were said to be found 500 sub-machine guns. "
esaid to be found "The security services were helpless
in a briefcase belonging to ex-JDF cap- a The secret d services were helpless
tain, JLP candidate Peter Whittingham. st the flood of guns" the American
"Manley and the government is slander- journalists say. "They made sane seiz-
ing this innocent man. Take your char- ures.... but thousands of guns got thro-
ing this innocent man. Take your char- ugh."
ges before the Courts...", the tools of h jur c
reaction in the Gleaner bawled. The journalists call names:
reaction in the Gleaner bawled. "One particular surveillance target
Well charges will in fact be brought "as e particular surveilance target
to Court.... a Miami Court. Whitting- was the JLP leader, Edward Seaga, an
to Court.... a Miami Court. Whitting- American-trained economist and a bitter
ham has been held by the Fort Lauderdale o e tfae eomst and a
police with one Derek Sang. opponent of Manley who, on several occa-
sions was spotted slipping off to a mot-
^i> el to meet with known CIA agents in what
was believed to be strategy sessions.
Seaga has vehemently denied having any
connection with the CIA, but it is a
fact that he was holding meetings with
American Intelligence officials and that
his party was receiving funds from some
bauxite interests who were acting as
Scut-outs third party intermediates in
intelligence parlance his CIA connec-
tions became so notorious on the island
nns that Jamaicans took to writing CIAGA on
walls of buildings."
The article warns that although the
SCIA plot had been temporarily defeated
by the State of Emergency and Manley's
election victory, it had been dusted
off and put back into operation from
early this year.
Ferdie Neita, PNP-MP was shot on the even-the elec- "In the shambles of its plan, it re-
tion. He ran against Peter Whittingham constructed a revised operation, beginn-
Did Whittingham "go shopping" in Mia- ing early this year, which focussed nar-
mi taking along his foreign exchange in rowuy on Manley's old achilles heel -
the form of ganja $11' million worth? economics..... American intelligence
In the midst of this comes the expo- officials note that "John" (the CIA
sure of CIA plots against Manley and Station Chief) and some of his top aid-
the government. American journalists es are still in Jamaica...."
Ernest Volkman and John Cumnings reveal It is against the background of all
how between 1975 and '76 the CIA tried these events that the criminal violence
to kill Manley three times. This was now being waged against the working peo-
part of a whole plan of destabilization ple has to be viewed.
against the Manley government. The maid And it is against this background
planks of the plan, as outlined by the that the poisoning of D.K. Duncan, MP
journalists were: for East Central St. Andrew, former PNP
* Covert financial support for the opp- General Secretary and Minister of Mobil-
osition JLP, ization, must be viewed.
* Stirring up labour unrest, All the reports say that on both occ-
* Covert shipment of arms and other asions (July and October) when Dr. Dunc-
equipment to opposition forces, an was poisoned with arsenic, the evid-
* Economic destabilization, ence show a well-organised and sophisti-
* Mobilization of the middle-class into cated operation.
CIA-created anti-government organisa- As both Dr. Duncan and Prime Minister
tions to carry out well-publicised Manley have pointed out, and more of the
demonstrations, Jamaican people are coming to realise,
* Infiltration of security services and the reactionaries will go to any lengths
armed forces to turn them against the to defeat progress and turn back the
-government, country.





















Mari Figueroa
BOW should we view the US $63.3m
'aid' package announced last week?
Firstly, it is a defeat for the most
reactionary elements in the imperiali-
st camp. It is a defeat for those abro-
ad like Kissinger, Ford and the CIA who
believe that the way to control Nation-
al Democratic Governments like the PNP
is by blockade, intrigue, destabiliza-
tion and force. It is also a defeat for
the local sections of reaction who feel
that this path is their only hope for a
return to power.
Secondly it shows that loans can be
obtained from the imperialists without
completely bowing to their line.
We may get a few more loans by foll-
owing the IMF path of squeezing the wor-
king people with $10 wage freeze and
continuing the policy of devaluations


put we -'' t:.-. that loas car. be
gotten froc irPerialist so'rcts wit:h-
out the IMF. Cuba. who rejected the
IMF proqramro in the early 60's and
stood up firily against inmerialisr,
still obtains loans and grants from
Western Europe and Canada. Manley's
visit to Sweden and Norway is thus a
positive step in broadening our rela-
tions in this regard.
Imperialism has left us with an ext-
remely backward economy which is tied
up in so many ways to world capitalism.
These conditions mean that for some time
we will have to try and obtain loans
from the imperialist countries.
But we can have no illusions about
the motive of imperialism in lending us
this money. It is only the other side
of the Kissinger-CIA policy. Last year
under that policy we received only $2.8
million in US-AID loans. However, this
year imperialism calculates that it can
entice us with AID loans on one hand
while beating us into line with IMF res-
trictions.
Another thing is that although loans
can play a positive role we must never
hide the fact that on whatever terms we
get loans from the imperialists, they
extract a heavy cost.


-? Lrdly we need to stress that bo
*ring frFp the imperialists cannot solq
the problems created by the imperialism
system.
In March 1977 the government owed fj
reign creditors $483m, one quarter (M)
of the value of all goods and services
produced in Jamaicafor 1976. That is
one quarter (k) of the Gross National
Product (GNP). This debt represented
84% or more than four fifths of all ee5
ort earnings for 1976.
we are just seeing the beginnings of
the burden felt by other Third World
Countries. At the end of 1976 it was
estimated that these countries owed dS
$180,000 million. For some countries
the debt had built up to more than tlut
ee quarters of their GNPs such as Zaire
72.4% and Botswana 94.2%. Payments on
old debts were using up as much as one
third of Egypt's earnings from exports
and more than one quarter of Peru's.
This is the true meaning of imperia-
list aid. In the short run we cannot
avoid borrowing but loans from imperia-i
lism is one form of dependence.
Independence requires the most rapid
development of ties with Socialism, whi
ch lays the basis for depending less on
imperialism and development of the nati
onal economy on a planned basis.


No human rights in Haiti


ON SEPTEMBER 21ST, 104 political pri-
soners were released in Haiti and hasti-
ly sent out of the country. Eleven of
those released came to Jamaica and four
have since left for other countries.
Struggle spoke with M lax Bourjolly who,
alonu vith Joseph Roney and Emanuel Fre-
derick, were recently refused visas to
France. Max explained to us the conditi-
ons in Haiti and the political struggle
being waged against the Duvalier dicta-
torship.
Today, nore than 75% of the polula-
ticn is illiterate. Extreme poverty
and malnutrition exist. The decline of
agriculture, severe drought, soil ero-
sion and imperialist exploitation have
led to death by starvation for tany.
In Haiti Chere are only 350 doctors
for 5 million people. These doctors
:ork mostly in the cities and charge a
Lot of money so the poor people cannot
re attended tc. There are only 12 ambu-
lances for the entire country and not
all of the.- are in order.
Massive repression
In 1976 the average income of Hait-
ians per year was $40. Foreign capita-
lists take advantage of low wages -
only $1.60 per day the ban on trade
unions, high unemployment, tax-free
concessions to super-exploit the work-
ers. As a result North American and
French cor anies rake a killing out of
sugar, bauxite and copper and are invo-
lved in a nur-er of assembly industr-
ies. Imagine, Haiti is the world's
largest producer of American baseballs.
Politically Haiti has been run by
the Duvaliers since 1957. Papa Doc
abolished his own party, the National
Unity Party, sc that his dictatorship
would be supreme. He dissolved the
national assertly and arrested elected
:T's, rany cf whomr died in Fort Diman-
che, c e i-ated pGiitical prison. The
rule uzily vnie r's Tntor. !acoutes
.ecr-t fc1lce) thqer. It is esatia-
tled/ c^ 4 pF--e were 1esiC
.frc. _- 19. T.his massive rere-
icr. iae it eCsler for Papa Zcc to
transfer rc.er -1 :. oc.
sCTn. The 1r=eC n-at are fi:iti' I


for a free and democratic Haiti is the
United Party of Haitian Communists.
Many Haitian Communists have died for
this cause. In 1969 the leadership of
the party was killed and hundreds of
cadres were murdered by Duvalier.
Max Bourjolly, who is 36 years old,
has been in the struggle during these
difficult years. At the age of 15 he
organised student demonstrations agai-
nst terrorism in the town of Aux Caves
in the South of Haiti where he was born.


Delegatian to the 1st Congress of the
Cuban Communist Party.
Comrade Max was first arrested in
1967 and was beaten with electric wire.
The tonton macoute intended to put him
in a bag and dump him in the sea but he
was saved by the intervention of the
Archbishop of the city and some musici-
ans with whom he worked. Imprisoned
again on July 26, 1967 in Fort Dimanche
for two months and six days he left pri-
son unable to walk and with sores all


.2A il tXIZS'. Frcom lft to right: Emacmuel Frederick,
.itr o.ro 'ly ard Joseph Roney.
During the final years of secondary Max's biograph
school he started to study Marxism and Joseph Roney spen
by the end of 1961 he made his way into months in prison
the ranks of Haitian Communists. Beca- and Emanuel Frede
use of his political views he was banned sugar worker, was
from studying architecture and had to than one year,
do law. His law studies were broken These omrade
by political work. In 1963 he worked release qf p4Qtij
With the Union Intersyndicale d-Haiti was due to the mo
but this was frustrated as Duvalier ional climate, th
tanned unions that year. Haitian people, a
in 1968 he left the country for the Rights policy whi
Soviet Union, where he remained until so list counr
1971. -.ile there he studied sociclr- aTe aiL stands
qy and attended the terational a ltian igh
tcrsnrp. Find Do
'OcT, 'uist meeting in Moscow as AssLst- to P FHaiti by
iat ~o the leader of te :aitlan Cele- t, n in Haiti b
o.n a stand in defens


over his body. He
was last imprisons.
on August 17, 1976
until his release
in September 1977.
During this last
imprisonment he
spent from Septem-
ber 5 to January
3 in solitary con-
finement in Dessa-
lines Barracks.

His wife Laure-
tte adte spent
six years and six
months in prison.
Max has four daug-
hters from $hoga *
has teen separated
my L auv lieri 9 ,4vt-
torahip.

y is not unique.
t seven years and 'wo
during his last spell
rick, 24 year old
impri5ned for *ore

foint out that t4,

re favoura a t oa
,e struggles O' t
rni .thato CZ'te 'N 1w
ch was diyeetSd agaiit
es .ackfixrd-il Hati.
in solidarity with -,-
ting tise ogvaliex dicel
t rore about the'situli
writirn to us and tako.
e c. uemccracy.




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