Group Title: Struggle (Kingston, Jamaica)
Title: Struggle
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Struggle official organ of the Workers Liberation League
Uniform Title: Struggle (Kingston, Jamaica)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 41 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Workers' Liberation League (Jamaica)
Workers' Liberation League (Jamaica)
Workers Party of Jamaica
Publisher: The League
Place of Publication: Kingston
Publication Date: June 9, 1976
Frequency: bimonthly[mar.-apr. 1986-]
biweekly[ former -july 13, 1984]
monthly[ former aug. 1984-feb. 1986]
Subject: Labor movement -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Summary: Struggle was published first as a mimeographed newsletter in 1974 when the Workers Liberation League was formed. It was edited by Rupert Lewis and he continued as editor when Struggle became the organ of the Workers Party of Jamaica in 1978. In the 1980s editors included Elean Thomas, Elaine Wallace and Ben Brodie. The Workers Liberation League grew out of the political initiative of academics - Trevor Munroe, Rupert Lewis as well as Don Robotham, Derek Gordon who studied in the University of Chicago in the early 1970s and were connected to activists in the Black Panther Movement and African-American radicals in the Communist Party of the United States. The latter group formed the Paul Bogle League which brought together academics, working class and community activists who read and discussed Karl Marx’s Capital and Lenin’s political writings and sought to build on Jamaica’s radical traditions in the trade union movement and in the People’s National Party from the 1930s to the 1960s. The Paul Bogle League was also involved with the formation of the University and Allied Workers Union in the early 1970s and worked with the Independent Trade Union Action Council. Politically the Workers Liberation League gave critical support to Michael Manley’s democratic socialist program in the 1970s.
Issuing Body: Vols. for -1978 issued by Workers' Liberation League; 1979- by Workers' Party of Jamaica.
General Note: Description based on surrogate of: Issue no. 28 (June 16, 1977); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Apr.-May 1986 (surrogate).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100337
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Holding Location: Florida International University: Digital Library of the Caribbean
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05378247
lccn - sn 91021299
oclc - 5378247

Full Text

page I



IN A SPEECH to the Annual Meeting of the
Police Federation on May 26th, the
Chairman of the Federation, Sgt. C.
Jones, attacked those who criticized
police brutality and called for "super-
ior violence and swift justice" to quell
the present violence. Sgt. Jones is re-
ported as describing the Citizens Com-
plaint Board as "a monster which is
silently eroding the confidence of the
police force in the daily performance of
its duties". He called for its break-up
and advised the policemen not to appear
at any enquiry held by the Board into
complaints against the police.

The Citizens Complaint Board is an im-
portant, if still inadequate avenue for
citizens to seek redress against police
actions, such as unwarranted attacks and
destruction of personal property. It
has been estimated that over the last
year over $100,000 in damages has been
paid to citizens as a result of these

Headed by the former Supreme Court
Judge, Sir Cyril Henriques, a well-known
civilian who could in no way be accused
of being hostile to the police, the
Board is a legally constituted organ of
the government similar to many civilian
review boards set up in other countries
to see that the security forces do not
take the law into their own hands.

refuse to cooperate with the Board, to
secure its abolition? Is the Police
Federation perhaps already beginning to
feel that it should not be subject to
rule by civilian government?

When trends within the Security Forces
begin to surface with calls to throw off
normal civilian legal restraints on
their power and to defy organs of the
duly elected government such as the
Citizens Complaint Board, we are headed
down a road which if not blocked, can
only lead to FASCISM. Fascism is the
naked dictatorship of the reactionary
forces which crushes all democratic
rights and liberties of the people in
the name of capitalism and in the cause
of imperialism.

This is what the CIA and the local reac-
tionary fanatics want. By creating a
state of chaos, they prepare the way for
reactionary minded police and military
officers to step in and seize power from
the elected government.

As the CIA steps up the violence, the
government of Prime Minister Manley is
being forced more and more to turn to
the Security Forces to patrol the
streets day and night, set up roadblocks
and curfews and carry out "search and
destroy" missions.

With their increased powers, bad ele-
What then is the meaning of this call to ments in the security forces are begin-
^ ^

ning to get contemptuous of the civil-
ian government and accustomed to lord-
ing it over the people. At the same
time the people grow increasingly re-
sentful of the heavy-handed and indis-
criminate application of "superior
violence and swift justice", as in the
case of Clive Adams, 18, from 35
Waltham Park Road who was shot dead by
policemen on June 5th, leading to de-
monstrations in the community.

This cycle of events, where the securi-
ty forces, originally called out to
suppress CIA inspired violence and dis-
turbances, gradually begin to take more
and more power in their own hands, has
led in Chile and Uruguay to the over-
throw of civilian government and a
reign of terror against the people. If
Sgt. Jones and the Police Federation
want to assist in crushing the efforts
of the CIA, then they should withdraw
their threat to refuse to cooperate
with the Citizens Complaint Board, and
desist in their calls for increased
military powers and harsher laws to
curb human rights.

Vol.3, No. 10 JUNE 9 1976
Editor: Rupert Lewis

Press Association:

ONE OF the 42,000 soldiers who still occupy South Korea des-
pite the protests of the Korean peoples, and a 1975 United
Nations vote for reunification of the country. In solidar-
ity with the Korean peoples, COMMITTEES FOR THE REUNIFICA-
TION OF KOREA have been formed in Jamaica, Peru, Ecuador,
Guyana, Panama, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela and Costa Rica.
These were some of the countries visited by a fraternal two-
man delegation, Comrades Kim Yong Sun and Oh Ki Bolvg, from
the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North), recently.

partner to reaction
KEN CHAPLIN, Secre- zation. This posi- m
tary of the Press tion is held by the c
Association of reactionaries who c
Jamaica and head of want to lull the e
the Jamaican dele- Jamaican people in- w
gation to the First to complacency c
Congress of Latin about US imperial- t
American journal- ism's role in ci
ists, opposed a re- Jamaica. ou
solution condemning ar
the role of the Jamaica's experi- in
United States in ence today is no ar
undermining the new thing to many ar
Jamaican and Guya- Third World coun- st
nese governments, tries that have th

In defending his
action Chaplin said
that the question
was a political one
and the press had
to take a "dispass-
ionate stance". He
also said that
there was no evid-
ence of US involve-
ment in destabili-

taken actions which
are not in keeping
with US imperialist
interests. Ameri-
ca's role in Jamai-
ca cannot be under-
stood without tak--
ing into account
the experience of
other countries
such as Chile where
the US Government



aster-minded a
oup with the but-
her Pinochet The
experience of Chil(
ith the bad Ameri-
an press, the cut-
ing off of finan-
ial aid, buying
it officers of the
-med forces, brib-
ig people in all
teas of government
id provoking
rikes indicate
at Jamaica is not
missing through a
ique experience.
iaplin's position
ntradicts state-
nts made by the
ime Ministers of
yana, Barbados
.d Jamaica which
ggest CIA in-
lvement in under-

itinued on page 4


Page 2

Community defence

in Greenwich Town

I;: MORE and more of
the coaranities ef
the pecr, the awrk-
ing people and
-cu e s are seeing
the need to unite
to defend their
co-unities from
the armed thugs who
Invade, leave death,
destruction and
confusion. ,nen
these attacks are
carried out, all
the people in the
co-r.ities suffer.
All live in fear,
,re-ardless of party
affiliation or

,_ile ra.y of the
working people had
to flee their com-
m-nities in the
wake of reactionary
'violence, some had
nowhere to run.
And so the question
of community defense
became an iLmediate

The move toward com-
munity defense is a
definite step for-
ward and many les-
sons can be learnt
from the experience
of some of those
communities which
have already start-
ed on this road.

Greenwich is a fish-
ing town situated
to the west of the
city, in the heart
of the reactionary
violence. The com-
munity is divided
by the train-line
into "Top Farm"
and "Bottom Farm".
It has a population
of about 3,000.
Even though sur-
rounded by many
large industries,
the people live in
very poor conditions

should be broken
up into several
committees to deal
with various prob-

Committees have
been formed to
control Home Guard
Units and organize
general defence,
to deal with bread
and butter ques-
tions as well as

But as well as un-
employment, housing
rctblems, lack of
skill training,
etc., the people of
Greenwich Town have
been the target of
-any terrorist at-
tacks in the last
few months.
Hores and busines-
ses have been bom-
bed and burnt by
armed thugs. In-
nocent youths have
been beaten, stab-
bed and shot. The
sharp increase in
violence and crime
made the citizens
fearful, especial-
1" since the secu-
rity forces were
unable to cope
with the situa-

The panic increas-
ed when, following
a quarrel between
a "Bottom Farm"
youth and a "Top
Farm" man, "tribal"
war was threatening
to break out. Most
of the youths re-
fused to take part
in any attack on
other youths. The
situation became
worse, however,
when armed thugs
from the nearby
Bumper Hall area
invaded South Ave.
and issued threats
of burning and
shooting to be
carried out in the


A joint meeting of
all youth clubs in
the area was cal-
led on May 3 to
discuss the situa-
tion. It was de-
cided that the
Community Council

curfew blocking
roads leading into
the community to
prevent gunmen tra-
velling in cars and
on motor-cycles from
entering and firing
wildly at the citi-

Strangers entering
the community are
questioned. All
suspicious activi-
ties are reported
to the police. The

Although the ini- Defence Group keeps
tiative came from up constant search-
the youths, the es of the community
whole community to keep it free
has rallied to the from illegal arms
defence. Discus and weapons. There
sions were held are nightly patrols
between "Top" ann and a 24-hour watch
"Bottom" Farm for all criminal
groups to unite the activities.
whole community.
The Defense Group The citizens have
cuts across party the cooperation of
lines and there is some police officers
active participa- in their task. But
tion of young and there are still
old, workers, shop- those who try to
keepers, unemployed, harass the people
socialist and non- on patrol instead
socialist, Rasta of joining with
and "bald-head". them to keep the
For Community De- community free of
fense to be success- criminal violence.
ful anywhere it
must be open to all Because the area is
people. This is the so large, the de-
experience of Green-
wich Town. Brethren
working there also
stress the import- '
ance of involving
the older factory
workers and the 'i
small shopkeepers
in the area who
bring experience,
knowledge and de-
termination to the
struggle. This
cannot be left up -
to youthful enthu-
The first plan of
action was to place %I
the community under

fense has to be or-
ganised from a base
and several sub-

The way has not
been easy. The
unity is being
built and all at-
tempts to bring any
form of tribalism
into the defense
has to be fought
against. One man
has been killed and
three citizens
wounded by armed
thugs trying to in-
vade the community.

But the successes
are significant.
The community feels
a sense of one-ness
which was not there
before. Crime in
the area has almost
been wiped out
since the Defense
Group was formed.
Five armed thugs
have been captured
and turned over to
the police and two
were killed when
they opened fire on
the police and
citizens, killing
one citizen.

In certain other
communities in
which the defense
movement has start-
ed to take root,
the problem of how
to get smooth-run-
ning organisation
is still a big one.
Some workers and
youth do nine hours
patrol each night
and go straight to

Page 2

*WORKERS at Col-
Company Limited
have been told by
the management that
"the company has 65
branches throughout
the world, and we
can make or break

rhis was part of
the evidence given
in the Half Way
Tree Court recently
by ex-chief dele-
gate for the DOCK-
Winston Williams.

Williams, along
with two other ex-
worker delegates at
the Company, Val-
rick Roberts and
Calvin Sutherland,
have taken Colgate-
Palmolive before
the Courts for un-
just dismissal un-
der the terms of
The workers are
charging that they

were dismissed from
their jobs at Col-
gate because of
their active mem-
bership in the
DMWU. In the two
days of the trial
so far, the Court
has heard evidence
from Williams.

Williams told the
Court of many occa-
sions when the Col-
gate management
tried to get him

and other workers
to leave the DMWU.
He said that work-
ers were continual-
ly harassed and re-
minded by manage-
ment that they had
a family to support.

He continued his
evidence that when
the workers said
they would report
what was happening
to the Prime Minis-
ter, a company of-

ficial, David Stin-
son, said that the
Company could make
or break govern-
ments as they had
65 branches through-
out the world.

This big capitalist
attitude was re-
cently experienced
by the people of
Barbados. After
the Government im-
posed a price con-
trol order on

toothpaste, Colgate-
Palmolive reacted by
keeping toothpaste
in their storerooms
until the Government
,came to the nego-
tiating table.
Stinson also told
the workers that
the management had
to keep the DMWO
out of the plant
because that Union
stood for worker
control and this
was "against the
company's policy".

The trial continues
on June 28.


work in the morning
Already, however,
moves are being
made to correct
this by organising
shifts. But the
biggest roadblock
is how to unite the
community. As one
worker put it "We
can't allow any one
group to take over
and control commun-
ity defence. This
is what those who
are creating the
fear want. To
divide us further
and turn one sec-
tion of the commun-
ity against the
To really ensure
defense of the com-
munity from armed
thugs people in
other communities
peed to learn from
the Greenwich ex-
perience that re-
gardless of politi-
cal affiliation
they have to organ-
ise themselves,
make use of the
Home Guard and or-
ganise their own
People in the
Greenwich area are
beginning to rea-
lize that if they
can take on defense
then what is to
stop them coming
together to deal
with poor housing,
high rent, unem-
ployment and the
many other ills
plaguing our peo-


art for the people

CURTIS Johnson has
recently completed
a small bust of
Marcus Garvey which
he intends to have
mass produced.
Through his art he
wants to make us
aware of our cul-
tural heritage and

Page 3


Curtin Johnson men-
tioned how he went
into a Kingston
primary school with
his model of Garvey
and asked the chil-
dren who this was.-
None knew it was
Garvey. When told
it was Garvey they
hadn't the faintest

idea of who Garvey
was or what he had
done. Johnson is
interested in work-
ing on historical
themes and for sev-
eral years has been
undertaking a study
of the history of
Jamaica. He be-
lieves that much
can be achieved
through art and
music to raise the
awareness of our

This artist was
born in the 1930's
and has been a
sculptor for most
of his life. He
was tutored by
Ferdinand Escoffery
whom he regards as
a master-sculptor.
Escoffery could not
make a living from
sculpture and be-
came a JOS bus
In 1971 he gained

wOrld Guyana defies

affairs imperialism

TWO important developments marked
Sthe 10th anniversary of independence
at the end of May in Guyana the nation-
alization of Bookers McConnell and the
decision of the People's Progressive
Party, led by Dr. Cheddi Jagan, to end
its boycott of Parliament. These events
could lead to growing unity in the strug-
gle against imperialism and open up new
avenues for the advance towards socialism
in that country.

The Government of Guyana has recently
come under heavy attack by US imperial-
ism for its increasingly anti-imperial-
ist stance and ever closer relations
with the socialist countries. A cam-
paign of false reports about the pre-
sence of thousands of Cuban troops in
Guyana has been accompanied by stepped
up border provocations by Venezuela and
Brazil and the massing of Brazilian
troops on the Guyanese border. These
acts, coordinated by the CIA, are de-
signed to cow the Burnham government and
whip it back into line with imperialism.

The concentration by imperialism on acts
of external aggression underlines the
importance of the decision by Dr.
Jagan's party to end the three year old
boycott of Parliament called in protest
against gross abuses of civil and polit-
ical rights by the Burnham government,
and to propose a policy of "critical
support". Imperialism has been forced
to concentrate on external aggression
because Dr. Jagan's act of unity against
imperialism has narrowed considerably
the field for internal subversion and
destabilization, isolating the reaction-
aries and pro-imperialists among both
Africans and Indians and lessening the
possibility of stirring up racial
strife. It is significant that reac-
tionary Indian businessmen are now cry-
ing out that Jagan has sold out their
Indian (capitalist) birthright and are

trying with American aid to form a new
party. They are hardly likely to find a
receptive ear amongst the Indian masses.
Dr. Jagan explained at a press confer-
ence on May 28th that his party's policy
of critical support is based on the
growing recognition in Guyana amongst
all progressive forces of whatever race
that the independence and territorial
integrity of the country could not be
maintained without the PPP. nnr ro-ilr

national recogni-
tion when the In-
stitute of Jamaica
awarded him a
bronze Musgrave
medal for sculp-
ture. He regards
his sculpture as
committed to the
building of our
national culture.
He is a man of
strong progressive
politicaland cul-
tural views. In
the 1960's he did a
bust of Lenin, lea-
der of the social-
ist revolution in
Russia and founder
of the Soviet Union.

Curtis Johnson

socialism be built in Guyana without his -COURTE'E Y BRO?.
party. But Dr. Jagan emphasised that
the PPP's role in national life could R e
only be assured by its own independent
strength and determination to struggle
for a consistent anti-imperialist line
and a revolutionary democracy which l l F
would open the way to socialism in p E 11 I dl E' .

The other major event, the nationaliza-
tion of Booker McConnell, ends the cen-
tury long domination of this British-
owned firm over the Guyanese economy. U I
Bookers dominated the entire sugar in-
dustry, and had spread its tentacles in-
to every area of Guyanese economic life., N
It is estimated that Bookers at the time'
of nationalization controlled at least
40% of the national economy. The set-
tlement, which involves the payment of / IIIT
J$50m over 20 years, now expands the
state sector to include about 80% of U
the national economy, and virtually all
of its foreign trade.

Amidst these generally cheering develop- WILL BE REPEATED ON
ments, progressive forces in the Carib- atd l' f 2l
bean are expressing some concern for the ray U
disturbing clashes between the Burnham Cl atie A C t Ir U
government and the recently formed Work- c rtilfV Aflr Cll r Ur
ing People's Alliance which includes
such internationally respected figures 7.30 p.m.
as Eusi Kwayana, Dr. Clive Thomas and ADMISSION $1.00
Dr. Walter Rodney. \\\\\\\\




The enemy is at the door
Don't expect him to knock
He is not polite.
Don't expect him to whistle
His lips are sealed in a thin line.
Don't expect him to drag his feet
He moves too swiftly,
Don't expect him to clear his throat
He hardly ever catches a cold.

The enemy is at the door
Expect him to kick it in
He is ill mannered
Expect him to spray the occupants within
Machine gun aimed at belly level
Expect him to do a death dance on our
Expect him to bathe in our blood and

Are we ready to face the enemy?
Dominoes on the table
Instead of a plan of battle,
Dancing and singing, instead of barricad-
ing the doors and windows
Flashing lights and grandiose speeches
Instead of the utmost seriousness.

The enemy is at the door
Dominoes can't stop bullets:
Dancing and singing can't stop a tank
Parties and fashion shows can't defuse a
What can? What can?

The revolutionary movement
Of the working people,
Like a gathering storm cloud
Like a torrent of hail.

PWith the stabbing flashes of lightning
Cleansing the path of tanks
Guns, bullets, poverty and fear
The enemy is at the door
Are we ready to face him?
Are we?


communist party

f the working

class -




O_ D oMANY comrades have read oer har it

S ..... ..... ....... .. THE BACKWA
said that the Communist Party is a
"vanguard party". Not many comrades But at th
fully understand what this means and how ist societ
this so-called vanguard party actually iety after
operates. overthrow
The term "vanguard" means "in the worker.
front". It might be said then that the that thin
Communist Party is made up of people, th he c
articularly workers, who are "in the the capitE
front" and that it leaves out those who worker he
are "in the back". This difference bet- side of t
ween those who are "in the front" and carries ne
those who are "in the back" is always other work
there among the workers and the recogni- fis i
tion of this difference is very import- his job or
ant to building the Communist Party. strike he
What is the difference? Every day in line; he u
the factories and on the farms, the business t
workers, as an exploited class, exper- If the str
ience a thousand and one instances of s e
oppression. One week the management capitalist
draws too much money out of the worker's looking s
pay; another week a supervisor or fore- reay he
man suspends a worker for little or no really hel
reason, to show off his power over the
worker; a worker loses a limb on the job TWO TYPES
and management says they have no money The capital
to compensate the worker and so on. he capital
these two
Every time there is a wrong done by the large fact
exploiters, there are two reactions towns, the
amongst the workers. ges and pr

- nere tne

Page 4

educated, more disciplined, and are
THE VANGUARD taught to work together by the system
itself. Here the workers are more able
One type of worker always looks for a to see that it is their collective lab-
way to fight against the wrong-doing our which produces the food, the cloth-
he agitates his brothers and sisters to es, the machinery, the commodities of
show them that if management gets away every type which society needs, whilst
with a wrong against a particular worker the capitalist who does no work enjoys
then every worker in the plant is in the fruits of production. The condition
danger; he tries to organise a group of of these workers helps them to see that
workers to go and complain to the manage- production which is social or collective
ment or to demonstrate against the in- is held back when it is owned or con-
justice or to bring in the union. trolled by a private individual for his
personal benefit.
This type of worker is never willing to
sit down and take injustice just like Other workers have something for them-
that; he is always trying to persuade selves and tend to see a way out of op-
his fellow workers to stand up and fight pression by getting more for themselves
his slogan is "touch one, touch all". and forgetting about other workers.
These are the workers who are "in the Amongst these workers and amongst the
front" of resistance, "in the front" of less educated and less skilled in smal-
struggle against injustice. In every ler establishments the capitalist keeps
district and community, in every office down the worker more easily and breaks
and workplace, in every college or uni- down his will to struggle. In this
versity, in the various organisations of situation the worker more easily gets
the people, they are those who are not downhearted and believes the capitalist
prepared to sit down and grumble about idea that the worker should be thankful
oppression; they are looking to fight to the capitalists for giving him a job.
back and to get others to fight back To these workers, despite the hardship,
against the system. capitalism is the goose that lays the
golden egg.


Same time, in every capital-
:y and even in socialist soc-
the capitalist class has been
i, there is a different type of
This is the worker who knows
gs are bad but he doesn't feel
in do anything about it. When
list does wrong to a fellow

Unlike other so-called revolutionaries
communists recognise that capitalism al-
ways creates these differences amongst
the workers and the people, and that
capitalism always operates to make the
"vanguard" a minority and to keep the
mass of the workers in a backward condi-

is always likely to take the The working-class struggle demands that
re capitalist. This worker only the vanguard, only a minority can
ews to the capitalist; when the be admitted to the Communist Party and
kers decide to take action, his that the more backward elements are kept
Sis that he is going to lose out of the party.
Sto lose pay; if there is a
stays away from the picket On this basis communists always strive
ises the time to do his own to make contact with the vanguard ele-
:o help himself on the side. ments amongst the working class and the
:ike goes on for a long time he people, to help their struggles, to
7st to have sympathy for the build up their consciousness and to con-
. This type of worker is nect each particular struggle to the
mething for nothing, always overall struggle for freedom and social-
ick" of any struggle. He is ism. The more this vanguard is organis-
.ping out the capitalist. ed, the more it is disciplined. the more

list system always breeds
types of workers. In the very
ories, especially in the
system of production encoura-
epares the worker to struggle
workers are generally more

it is united within the-Communist Party
the more chance there is that the back-
ward elements outside the party can be
drawn away from the capitalists and on
to the path of revolutionary struggle.

General Secretary

Partner to reaction

mining their gov-
ernments. It con-
tradicts statements
made by Jamaica's
Foreign Minister
Dudley Thompson in
a London Financial
Times article that
there was a cam-
paign from the US
to overthrow Manley
and that the cam-
paign mounted from
the US was similar
to the one which
preceded the over-
throw of President
Salvador Allende in
Chile in 1973.
Thompson also ob-
se-ved that the US
Government had

granted $100m aid
to the Pinochet re-
gime while refusing
aid to Jamaica.

This campaign has
a military side to
it which is now
coming to-light.
Keble Munn, Minist-
er of National
Security, stated in
Parliament on June
2nd that people
have gone abroad to
raise funds for
guns to overthrow
the government.
There are reports
that the main area
of fund-raising is
in New York. The

Continued from Page 1

gun-slaying of pro-
gressive youth and
working people and
the intimidation of
many others are
linked up with this

What are we to make
of the hard-line of
the bauxite compa-
nies against the
workers? What are
we to make of the
hostility and the
battle the bauxite
companies have been
aaging against the

American imperial-

ism and the Central
Intelligence Agency
have been active in
Jamaica. Through
the capitalist
press they are try-
ing to numb the
people's minds
about the huge and
complex operation
now taking place in
our country.

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articles to
The Editor;
P.O. Box 187,
Kingston 7.
1 ______

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