Title Page
 Bicentennial commission of...
 General editor's preface


A tour through the southern and western territories of the United States of North-America
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100323/00001
 Material Information
Title: A tour through the southern and western territories of the United States of North-America
Series Title: Bicentennial Floridiana facsimile series
Physical Description: xxxi, 105 p. : ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pope, John, 1749-1802
Publisher: University Presses of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Copyright Date: 1979
Edition: A facsim. reproduction of the 1792 ed. with an introd. and index -- by J. Barton Starr.
Subjects / Keywords: Creek Indians   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Early works to 1800 -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Early works to 1800 -- Ohio River Valley   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Early works to 1800 -- Southwest, Old   ( lcsh )
Genre: Early works to 1800   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
autobiography   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: "A University of Florida book."
General Note: Photoreprint of the ed. printed by J. Dixon, Richmond.
Statement of Responsibility: by John Pope.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University Press of Florida
Holding Location: University Press of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04493499
lccn - 78026408
isbn - 0813004187 :
alephbibnum - 000068517
oclc - 4493499
System ID: UF00100323:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Bicentennial commission of Florida
        Page iii
        Page iv
    General editor's preface
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
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Full Text


T 0 U








BY J. Barton Starr.


A University of Florida Book
University Presses of Florida
Gainesville 1979.

published under the sponsorship of the
SAMUEL PROCTOR, General Editor.


All rights reserved.


Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Pope, John.
A tour through the southern and western territories
of the United States of North-America.
(Bicentennial Floridiana facsimile series)
"A University of Florida book."
Photoreprint of the ed. printed by J. Dixon, Richmond.
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Southern States-Description and travel. 2. Ohio
Valley-Description and travel. 3. Southwest, Old-
Description and travel. 4. Creek Indians. 5. Pope,
John. I. Tide. II. Series.
[F213.P82 1979] 917.3 78-26408
ISBN 0-8130-0418-7


Governor Reubin O'D. Askew, Honorary Chairman
Lieutenant Governor J. H. Williams, Chairman
Harold W. Stayman, Jr., Vice Chairman
William R. Adams, Executive Director

Dick J. Batchelor, Orlando
Johnnie Ruth Clarke, St. Petersburg
A. H. "Gus" Craig, St. Augustine
James J. Gardener, Fort Lauderdale
Jim Glisson, Tavares
Mattox Hair, Jacksonville
Thomas L. Hazouri, Jacksonville
Ney C. Landrum, Tallahassee
Mrs. Raymond Mason, Jacksonville
Carl C. Mertins, Jr., Pensacola
Charles E. Perry, Miami
W. E. Potter, Orlando
F. Blair Reeves, Gainesville
Richard R. Renick, Coral Gables
Jane W. Robinson, Cocoa
Mrs. Robert L. Shevin, Tallahassee
Don Shoemaker, Miami
Mary L. Singleton, Jacksonville
Bruce A. Smathers, Tallahassee
Alan Trask, Fort Meade
Edward J. Trombetta, Tallahassee
Ralph D. Turlington, Tallahassee
William S. Turnbull, Orlando
Robert Williams, Tallahassee
Lori Wilson, Merritt Island


MANY Americans after the Revolution
were curious about the western and
southern lands ceded by Britain to the United
States in the Paris peace agreement of 1783. Only
a handful of travelers had journeyed through this
area, and little was known of the land or of the
peoples who lived there. Most Americans satis-
fied their curiosity by reading the few published
travel accounts of the more adventuresome, or
the more reckless, of their fellow citizens, who
were willing to take a chance of being murdered
by an Indian, gored or eaten by a wild beast, or
taken captive by some unknown enemy.
One of those who traveled in 1783 and 1784
into "the southern territories" of East Florida
was a German named Johann David Schoepf. He
published an account of his journey in a volume
entitled Travels in the Confederation. Schoepf
sailed south from Charleston and along the coast
of Georgia to St. Augustine. There he lodged
with a German baker and his wife and explored


the surrounding countryside. Schoepf describes
the vegetation, climate, animal life, the people,
their houses and churches. This valuable and in-
sightful account, written in German, was trans-
lated and published in the United States in 1911.
Of more importance is the travel journal of
Colonel John Pope of Virginia who toured the
"Southern and Western Territories of the Uni-
ted States" in 1790. The good colonel is an
enigma about whom very little is known. Some
historians have wondered if he ever existed at
all and if his travel account is not a work of fic-
tion. Professor J. Barton Starr, who has edited
Pope's Tour of the Southern and Western Ter-
ritories of the United States for the Bicentennial
Floridiana Facsimile Series, has established that
John Pope was a real person and that his "tour"
did indeed take place. Pope began his peregrina-
tions the year following the adoption of the
new constitution in Philadelphia. In Europe, the
French Revolution was sending forth shock
waves to every part of the continent. These
events in Philadelphia and in Europe would
change the world, but Colonel Pope seemed little
aware of them; he makes no mention of these
stirring episodes in his travel account.
America was moving in 1790, and Manifest
Destiny was fast becoming an American passion.
There was no limit to how far the country's
boundaries would eventually be extended, many


of its citizens believed. First, however, the newly
acquired lands would have to be "examined," and
this was the role played by men like John Pope.
Pope started his journey from Richmond on
June 1, 1790, and four months later he had
reached Pittsburgh. Turning south to Louisville,
he then proceeded down the Ohio and Missis-
sippi rivers to New Orleans. From there he jour-
neyed to West Florida. His visit to Pensacola
provides important historical information on the
city, its people, and their business activities, par-
ticularly the trading firm of Panton, Leslie and
Company. After stopping with Alexander Mc-
Gillivray, the half-breed chief of the Creeks,
Pope traveled through Georgia to Augusta. He
tried to get into East Florida, but when the
Spanish refused to allow his ship to enter the St.
Johns River, he put in at St. Marys, Georgia.
From there he returned North, ending his long
sixteen-month tour in Philadelphia.
Colonel Pope published his travel account in
1792. How popular the book was, no one can
now ascertain, but it has become over the years
a very rare volume. J. Barton Starr, the editor
of this facsimile volume, which is published by
the University of Florida Press for the American
Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Florida,
is a member of the history faculty at Troy State
University at Fort Rucker, Alabama. A native of
Pensacola, Dr. Starr is a graduate of Samford

University and Florida State University. His
publications include two books: Tories, Dons,
and Rebels: the American Revolution in British
West Florida, 1775-1783 (Gainesville, 1976)
and Alabama: A Place, People, a Point of View
(Dubuque, Iowa, 1977). He is also the author
of a monograph, To Live (and Die) in Dixie
(Troy, Alabama, 1978). His scholarly articles
have been published in the Florida Historical
Quarterly, the Alabama Review, and the Ala-
bama Historical Quarterly, and he has delivered
papers at a number of professional meetings and
conferences. He is the recipient of a Fulbright-
Hays Senior Lectureship to spend a year in
Hong Kong.
General Editor of the


HE was never born, lived only two years,
wrote his travel account from a comfort-
able chair in Richmond, and never died. After
roughly six months of intensive research involv-
ing nearly as much travel as is contained in the
book under investigation, I had just about
reached this conclusion concerning Colonel John
Pope. In the course of my research for this in-
troduction, I discovered that numerous other
historians had attempted to unearth Pope, only
to give up in frustration. Such a challenge made
me even more determined to locate the pertinent
material. After doing research in fifteen different
depositories and corresponding with approxi-
mately thirty-five others, I must regrettably now
take my place among the confounded, but not
among the conquered. Colonel Pope and his tra-
vel account proved as elusive as the proverbial
pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. I have,
however, through persistence (perhaps stub-
bornness is a better word) and pure luck, been

able to verify the existence of Pope and the au-
thenticity of his travel account. In so doing, I
have developed a profound admiration for a man
who could make the exhausting trip of several
thousand miles, remain lucid enough to write a
useful record of that trip, and at the same time
visit with over sixty people-including many
prominent people such as George Rogers Clark,
General Adam Stephen, Senator Pierce Butler,
Hugh Henry Brackenridge, General Horatio
Gates, Governor Manuel Gayoso de Lem6s,
Commandant Carlos de Grand-Pre, Joseph Ha-
bersham, Alexander McGillivray, Daniel Mor-
gan, Governor Arturo O'Neill, Governor Ed-
ward Telfair, Charles Washington, Secretary of
War Henry Knox, and Colonel Isaac Zane-and
manage to be mentioned in the papers of only
two of them. Pope apparently then returned to
Richmond to publish his book where his only
legacy is a handwritten note on the last sheet of
the University of Virginia's copy of his magnum
opus: "Pope you are a damned fool."
But Colonel John Pope's Tour through the
Southern and Western Territories of the United
States of North-America . .is an entertaining
book of some importance. While "Mere Occur-
encies, and the most conspicuous Traits of Men
and Manners, are the principal objects of my In-
vestigation,"' Pope's observations-occasionally
quite florid and fanciful-are basically accurate.


He commits an occasional error, but it is unin-
tentional, as his aim was to present an accurate
account of his tour as he perceived it. But who
was Colonel John Pope, and why did he make
the extensive journey?

"Almost nothing is known about the author";
"extended search has brought to light little con-
cerning him"; "you ask the million-dollar ques-
tion . respecting biographical data on John
Pope"; such is the secondary evidence concern-
ing the baffling Pope.2 Virtually nothing has
come to light concerning Pope's early life, but
from textual evidence (page 79), Pope lived in
Amherst County, Virginia, at the time of the
American Revolution. The text (page 9) also
clearly indicates that he served as an officer dur-
ing that conflict. While there are several John
Popes from Virginia listed as having served in
the Revolution,3 the evidence is conclusive that
John Pope, Jr., of Amherst County was recom-
mended as a major in the militia in June 1780,
and in May 1781, "John Pope Jr. Gent." was
recommended as a lieutenant colonel of the first
battalion of the militia. A month later he quali-
fied as lieutenant colonel. While there is no clear
service record for Pope, his battalion saw duty
at Lynch's Ferry, Cowpens, Rockfish Gap, and
the Battle of Jamestown, and joined the "Main

Army under Gen. Lafayette & other generals"
for the Battle of Yorktown.4
After Yorktown, Pope apparently returned to
Amherst County where he was listed as residing
in the 1783 and 1785 censuses.5 As a militia offi-
cer and styled a "Gent.," Pope undoubtedly was
in the upper level of Amherst County society
and took his community responsibilities seriously,
for in May 1782, he was appointed "Surveyor
of the Road."6 Little else is known of Pope dur-
ing this period, although as late as 1785 he was
listed in the Amherst County Personal Property
Book, and in 1791 he was shown in the Land Tax
Books for the same county as holding 719 acres.
Page 52 of the text of Pope's Tour clearly im-
plies that he was residing in the area of Rich-
mond and Manchester by 1790. The land records
for Amherst County verify that in 1790 Pope
sold all of his land to William Duval.7 While he
indicates that he moved to the Richmond and
Manchester area of Virginia, there is nothing in
the records of Chesterfield County or Richmond
City to indicate such a fact. There is a John Pope
listed in the Land Tax Books for 1787-1790, and
in the Personal Property Books from 1786
through the early nineteenth century in Rich-
mond County on the Northern Neck of Vir-
ginia.8 There is, however, nothing to definitely
authenticate that this is our Colonel Pope. Pope
was a common name in late-eighteenth-cen-

tury Virginia, and there are a number of "John
Popes" listed in contemporary records. The only
safe conclusion is that Colonel Pope lived in Am-
herst County until around 1790 when he moved
to the neighborhood of Richmond and Man-
chester, whence he began his tour.

That Pope moved appears obvious, that he made
a tour is certain, but why he made the trip is
open to question. The most obvious explanation
for the trek through the American wilderness
is intellectual curiosity and a desire for excite-
ment. Apparently well-educated, as evidenced
by his writing ability, his occasional use of Latin,
and his frequent quoting from such diverse
sources as Milton, Voltaire, Dryden, Samuel
Butler, Aristotle, Robert Burton, and Alexander
Pope, the prospect of mental stimulation must
have had a strong appeal to Pope. On the other
hand, after the excitement of watching "the
world turned upside down," the gentry life of
Amherst County might have been dull to the
Revolutionary War officer. The certainty of
new adventure undoubtedly attracted Pope. Or
it may well have been, as former President Theo-
dore Roosevelt would put it over a hundred years
later, it was his "last chance to be a boy."
Whatever personal reasons Pope may have had
for his tour, there apparently was also a very


practical reason for the journey. In a later meet-
ing with Secretary of War Henry Knox, Pope
informed the secretary that he had undertaken
the trip as an agent of Patrick Henry and David
Ross of the Virginia Yazoo Company.9 By the
time Pope traveled to the western regions of
Georgia, Patrick Henry's land speculation com-
pany had been granted over seven million acres
of land on the Tennessee River for $93,741, and
it is therefore possible that Pope made the tour
on business connected with the company. There
is, however, nothing in the major collections of
Patrick Henry's papers to indicate that he even
knew John Pope, much less that the traveler
served as his agent. In addition, Pope's Tour is
not concerned with land and prospects for future
development but is instead a hodgepodge of gen-
eral observations. While it is possible that Pope
served as a representative for the Virginia Yazoo
Company and made a second report, there is
nothing to verify this, and it is unlikely that such
a trip would have completely escaped Henry's
Whatever the motivation for the journey,
Colonel John Pope left Richmond on June 1,
1790, on a trip that would carry him through
populous cities and small villages, across rampag-
ing rivers and quiet streams, and into Indian
country and hostile Spanish territory. Not know-
ing what lay ahead, Pope would venture into the


unknown for sixteen months before ending his
journey in the nation's temporary capital at Phil-
adelphia. Constantly plagued by rheumatism,
colds, snakebite, and various other illnesses, as
well as by horse thieves and occasionally hostile
Indians and Spaniards, the colonel's venture is
remarkable for the late eighteenth century.
While other travelers wrote more detailed or
more colorful accounts than John Pope, few ad-
venturers of the period could match his endur-
ance. The sheer distance involved makes Pope's
expedition one of the outstanding accomplish-
ments of the last quarter of the eighteenth cen-
After leaving Richmond, Pope quickly passed
through Virginia to Winchester, where he re-
mained several days. While there he visited with
General Daniel Morgan and had his horse stolen
by a former soldier in his regiment. From Win-
chester he journeyed through Berkeley County,
Shepherd's Town, and Martinsburg, Virginia,
on his way to Redstone on the Monongahela
River. Along the way he met with Charles
Washington, General Horatio Gates, and Gen-
eral Adam Stephen. Forced to remain for a week
at Redstone-the usual gathering place for ex-
peditions down the Monongahela-Pope finally
reached Pittsburgh in October 1790. Remaining
in the city for ten days because of illness, Pope
here met the "celebrated" Hugh Henry Bracken-


ridge. Enthralled with Brackenridge's recent
marriage to Miss Sabina Wolfe, author Pope
wrote a poem to Brackenridge "on his being
fairly Noos'd." Pope reports that Brackenridge
published the poem in the Pittsburgh Gazette,
but unfortunately this journal is not extant for
the last six months of 1790. The poem is includ-
ed in Pope's Tour and is an example of the type
of poetry Pope frequently wrote and included
in his work. He is "little noted nor long remem-
bered" for his poetry.11
Colonel Pope departed Pittsburgh in Novem-
ber 1790 for the long journey down the Ohio
and Mississippi rivers to New Orleans. Passing
through Limestone and Danville, Kentucky, he
arrived at Louisville in December to visit Gen-
eral George Rogers Clark. Fearing that the gen-
eral "hath actually been in a profound Slumber
of upwards of four Years, without the least
Symptoms of Wakefulness whatever," Pope was
undoubtedly pleased to find that Clark "immedi-
ately recognized me." Pope also commented on
the "southern hospitality" of the people of
Louisville: "for such is the extreme Hospitality
of the People, that unknown to their Guest, they
will confer, or rather impose Acts of Benefi-
cence, which cannot be refused without Rude-
On March 4, 1791, Pope began the longest
leg of his journey, leaving Louisville for his trip
down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans


and the Gulf of Mexico. Briefly stopping at New
Madrid (or Greasy Bend), where he dined with
the Spanish commandant Pedro Foucher, Pope
proceeded down the Mississippi to Natchez. Be-
fore reaching that community, however, his
party encountered Louisiana Governor Manuel
Gayoso de Lem6s, who entertained him aboard
the governor's "barge." Pope speculated that
Gayoso's destination was Walnut Hills at the
junction of the Yazoo and Mississippi rivers, and
he then editorialized in his journal concerning
the desire of James O'Fallon of the Yazoo Com-
pany to cultivate that region. He added, how-
ever, that the recently married O'Fallon, "having
pitched his Tent in the Grotto of Miss Clarke,
his Ardency, like his Constitution, will turn into
downright Frigidity."12
Arriving in Natchez on March 27, Pope
dallied there a week and recorded some of his
most careful observations of his journey. He
dined with Carlos de Grand-Pre, the comman-
dant of the Spanish troops at the frontier outpost.
Taking his leave of Grand-Pre and the citizens
of Natchez, Pope continued down river with
little to occupy his time except for casual obser-
vations about Loftus' Bluffs and Point Coup6e
and complaints about the "Musquettoes" which
harassede" his party.
Pope was greatly intrigued by New Orleans.
Landing there on April 4, he remained nearly
six weeks, observing the physical aspects of the


city, viewing its religious ceremonies, and judg-
ing its inhabitants' moral behavior by the stan-
dards of Alexander Pope. From New Orleans
John Pope traveled to Pensacola-"the Metropo-
lis of West Florida." After briefly describing the
town, he reported that Governor Arturo O'Neill
had informed him that in the eleven years he
had lived in Pensacola "he had never experienced
a Moments Sickness; and that all the Citizens en-
joyed uninterrupted Health." Certainly such a
boast-for whatever reason it may have been
made-does not square with the facts. Pensacola
had in the past and would continue to have prob-
lems with sickness, particularly those diseases en-
demic to the Gulf Coast, such as yellow fever.
Pope does concede that illness was present among
one class of residents, the Spanish soldier, "whose
Mode of Living, will, at all Times, and in all
Places, be productive of complicated Diseases.
Inordinate Use of Ardent Spirits and bad Wine,
superadded to high seasoned Meats and promis-
cuous Intercourse with lewd Women, will dis-
order any the most robust Habit of Body."
Pope also reported on the activities of the im-
portant Indian trading firm, Panton, Leslie and
Company, that had its offices in Pensacola. His
information concerning Panton's ownership of
a salt works on New Providence Island and the
general markup of 500 percent is basically ac-
curate. In confirming these figures, William S.


Coker, editor and project director of "The
Papers of Panton, Leslie and Co.," writes: "In
general I would have to agree with Pope's com-
ments. .. We know there was a substantial
mark up in the prices, but all justified on the
grounds of the added cost to the company for
getting it to the Indians via traders, etc. and, of
course, on the problem involved in getting the
skins to London. The risk of skins 'spoiling' or
being ruined by worm damage was great, prices
on the European market varied greatly, and in-
surance, shipping charges, etc. all brought the
price of merchandise up considerably. So, 500%
may not have been an unreasonable increase in
Pope departed Pensacola after a week, and to-
gether with an escort of eleven Indians, he en-
tered Indian territory to visit Alexander Mc-
Gillivray. Traveling as an "English Ambassador
Incog."-a title which he labeled "ludicrous"-
Pope arrived at McGillivray's house on the Coo-
sa River on June 1, 1791, only to find that Mc-
Gillivrav was at his "upper Plantation," six
miles farther up the river. It is here that the most
intriguing part of Pope's trip unfolds. While
visiting the Creek chief, whose father had been
a Scotsman, Pope engaged in his usual observa-
tions and wrote among other things an account
of the Indian ball games. Impressed with McGil-
livrav's abilities, he included in his book two


samples of the chief's writing in the form of
hastily written letters which Pope was to deliver
when he arrived back in Richmond.
The most interesting and intriguing part of
Pope's visit with McGillivray, however, does
not appear in Pope's published account of his
tour. While at McGillivray's house Pope wrote
a letter on June 4 to Tairux Wilcox of New Or-
leans in which he reported on his stay in Pensa-
cola and his visit with the chief. In this letter,
which is almost meaningless to the historian be-
cause of Pope's careful concealment of its intent,
he concluded: "Ambiguity of expression must
satisfy you now; as prudence forbids a full
eclairecissement of what you are so anxious to
know, see and enjoy."14 By some unknown cir-
cumstance, McGillivray obtained a copy of
Pope's letter, and on June 8, he wrote Estevan
Mir6 concerning the Virginian's visit and letter
to Wilcox. McGillivray reported that he was in-
formed that Pope had "sketches and designs" of
the forts at Natchez, New Orleans, and Pensa-
cola and that Pope had been sent on his trip by
"Enrique Clark of Kentucky" to obtain that in-
formation. He further added that Clark had been
authorized by the state of Virginia to attack
Spanish posts on the Mississippi and was prepar-
ing for such an adventure before the following
spring. Undoubtedly McGillivray was referring
to George Rogers Clark, for he mentioned that


Pope, who had recently visited Clark, had stated
that Clark wanted the Indians to remain neutral
"in case there should be a sudden attempt against
the Spanish posts."15
While McGillivray reported that such an at-
tack had been rumored for so long "that I did
nothing other than laugh,"16 clearly he felt the
Spanish officials would wish to receive such in-
telligence. His expectations were correct, for on
July 6, 1791, Mir6 informed McGillivray: "I
received the information you gave me upon the
famous Pope and will make proper use of it.""
Eleven days later, Mir6 sent all of the corre-
spondence to Luis de las Casas in Havana with
his evaluation: "It [the letter from Pope to Wil-
cox] is very confused but I understand that it
refers to the projected expedition of O'Fallon
which Clark should be leading as he is his father-
in-law."18 Las Casas replied to Mir6 that as Pope
had revealed the American plans, he was not a
"true commissioner" but was a "despicable ad-
venturer." Should Pope be a Spanish subject in
Louisiana, las Casas ordered Mir6 to question him
carefully concerning the American plans. If,
however, Pope was not a Spanish subject, Mir6
was to reprimand the commanders at Natchez,
New Orleans, and Pensacola for carelessly allow-
ing a stranger to draw sketches of the posts.19
Unfortunately, there is nothing to prove or dis-
count the reports of espionage, and it must re-


main merely an intriguing episode in an other-
wise mundane trip.
While among the Indians, Pope recorded
much concerning their lives. Included is an In-
dian folk tradition concerning the Giant-King
called Billy Pig whose foot could dam the Chat-
tahoochee River; a description of their annual
corn festival; a discussion of their methods of
punishment for adultery, their burial ceremonies,
and agricultural methods; and an extraordinary
speech by an old "Conjuror" during a period of
distress. Pope also included in his published ac-
count a list of Indian words and their translations.
Finally departing the Creek Nation in late
June, Pope spent the next several weeks wander-
ing through Georgia.20 Crossing the Flint, Oc-
mulgee, and Oconee rivers, and passing through
Washington (which he misplaced south of the
Ogeechee River), he arrived at Augusta. Pope
was pleasantly surprised by the village and pre-
dicted its future greatness. He also briefly visited
with Georgia Governor Edward Telfair (whom
he misnamed William). Proceeding down the
Savannah River, Pope stopped briefly at Ebene-
zer and passed the "small and almost depopulated
Town" of Purisburg before arriving at Savannah.
He remained there only three days-mainly
visiting Colonel Joseph Habersham and General
Lachlan McIntosh-before he took passage on
the schooner Thomas, which was bound for

Charleston. On board Pope found himself in the
company of Senator Pierce Butler. Although
the voyage was brief and quite rough, Pope de-
scribed the senator as "a lively conversable
Gentleman, possessed of a great Fund of Wit,
sound Judgment, and good Breeding."2'
Upon his arrival in Charleston on August 1,
Pope took a room in M'Crady's Hotel (the same
hotel in which George Washington stayed dur-
ing his visit to Charleston earlier in 1791). Pope
found the city's citizens to be "a gay, luxurious
People, fond of Dress and pompous Equipage"
and the city itself "eclipses all other Cities in the
Union and is inferior to only Three in Size,
Wealth, Population, Trade and Elegance of
Buildings." While in Charleston, Pope visited
the local dignitaries, including Colonel William
Washington, and managed to mediate success-
fully a dispute which threatened to end in a
Colonel Pope took the schooner Exchange
from Charleston for his last bit of adventure be-
fore returning to the more settled regions of the
United States. His destination was St. Marys,
Georgia, on the river by the same name, but
through an error the vessel entered the St. Johns
River where the Spanish officials politely but
firmly refused permission to land. Finally arriv-
ing at St. Marys, Pope found himself with little
to do. He and a companion set out to explore


the interior of East Florida. As they approached
the "Neighbourhood of St. Augustine," they re-
ceived repeated warnings to return to St. Marys.
Although Pope admitted lacking prudence, the
crew of his "small keel-bottomed Boat" made
the decision for him and returned him and his
companion to Georgia.
At this point in his narrative, Pope interrupted
the flow of his account to present a five-page
catalog of "medicinal Plants, Herbs, &c." which
he "promised" some unknown being. Finally on
September 2, Pope left St. Marys on the Ex-
change and arrived in New York thirteen days
later after an uneventful trip.22 He remained in
New York for two weeks before journeying on
by ship to Brunswick, New Jersey, and from
there by stage through Princeton and Trenton
on his way to Philadelphia. While it is not cer-
tain when Pope arrived there, it is clear that he
was in Philadelphia on October 5, for on that
date he met with Secretary of War Henry Knox
and reported on his trip. It is evident from the
memorandum that Knox wrote to himself con-
cerning the visit that he had never met Colonel
Pope, whom he described as "a man of candor
and observation."23 Pope apparently was equally
impressed with Knox for, other than a sixteen-
line apology for the type of book he had written,
he closed it with "a few Lines of doggrel Verse,"


dedicated to and concerning Knox, Attorney
General Edmund Randolph, and Philadelphia
merchant Samuel Pleasants.
Although the book does not say so, presum-
ably Pope returned to Richmond to write his
account of his journey. It was a little over a year
before the volume was ready to be offered to the
public. John Dixon, who had recently moved
from Williamsburg and who was editor of the
Virginia Gazette and Public Advertiser, printed
the book for Pope and his three children: Alex-
ander D. Pope, Lucinda C. Pope, and Anne
Pope. The first notice of its publication, how-
ever, appeared in James Carey's Virginia Gazette
& Richmond Daily Advertiser on November 27,
1792: "The public are hereby notified, that
COLOL POPE'S JOURNAL is ready for de-
livery to the respective subscribers of this city
and its vicinity. Those who reside at a remote
distance may expect that care in deliverance, and
dispatch in conveyance will be particularly at-
tended to by Mr. John Dixon, printer, Rich-
mond." The ad was repeated on December 7.
It was not until December 29 that Dixon got
around to printing an advertisement in his own
paper, a notice which he repeated on January
12 and 19, 1793.24 There is nothing in the ad-
vertisements to indicate the number of copies of
the Tour that were printed or what they cost,


but certainly Dixon and Pope would both be
astounded to find a recent book dealer of
"Southern Americana" offering the scarce 1792
edition for the sum of $14,000.25
One indication of the continuing interest in
Pope's travel account is the history of its reprint-
ing. While the mere republication of a work is
certainly no valid measure of its worth, the work
must be of sufficient interest to command the
expense involved. The first reprint of Pope's
Tour appeared in 1888. Charles L. Woodward,
an obscure book dealer variously self-described
as a "Book Peddler" and as a "dealer in Rare
Books and Pamphlets Relating to America," an-
nounced his intention to publish a new printing
of the book.26 He announced that he would
furnish copies for two dollars to those who
ordered them in advance in order to defray the
cost of his own copy. He asserted that there
would be none printed beyond those ordered:
"probably some few people who will not hear
of it until it is too late to secure one will want
to buy a copy, but they must not expect to buy
mine."27 Whether or not Woodward printed
only those ordered and how many copies he
printed is not known, but in 1888 the "Book
Peddler" did reprint the 1792 edition with the
addition of an index. The only other reprint edi-
tion of Pope's account was a 1971 reprint of the
1792 edition with no editorial additions.


Colonel John Pope's claim on the title page
that the book will be of interest to everyone is
obviously an overstatement. That it is a book of
merit worth the attention of serious scholars of
the late-eighteenth-century South is apparent.
Pope's evaluation of the settlements he visited,
of individuals with whom he talked, of the In-
dian tribes he observed, are all a part of the
American tradition of personal travel accounts
that must be consulted when trying to obtain an
"accurate" picture of a subjective topic-the cul-
ture and society of the antebellum South. Pope's
book has left its mark on America's heritage;
unfortunately, the same cannot be said for the
author, who vanished more rapidly than he ap-
peared on the pages of American history.

While acknowledgments in a book of this nature may be
unusual, because of the number of institutions that
have attempted to help me track down the elusive Pope,
I feel it incumbent upon me to express my gratitude to
those depositories I visited. I am deeply indebted to the
following institutions for their assistance and patience in
opening their holdings to me: the Archives Division of the
Virginia State Library, the Virginia Historical Society,
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the National Ar-
chives (Atlanta branch), the Georgia Historical Society,
the South Carolina Historical Society, the Charleston Li-
brary Society, the South Caroliniana Library of the Uni-
versity of South Carolina, the Southern Collection of the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the li-


braries of Louisiana State University, University of West
Florida, Troy State University, Florida State University,
University of Georgia, and Duke University. To the
thirty-five or forty other institutions and individuals with
whom I corresponded concerning Pope, I also wish to
express my deepest appreciation.
The Troy State University Research Committee also
provided funds which helped to defray the expenses in-
volved in searching for Colonel John Pope.
University Presses of Florida wishes to express its ap-
preciation to the Tracy W. McGregor Library of the
University of Virginia for its assistance in the publication
of this volume.

1. John Pope, A Tour through the Southern and West-
ern Territories of the United States of North-America ...
(Richmond, 1792), p. 19.
2. Thomas D. Clark, ed., Travels in the Old South: A
Bibliography (Norman, 1956), 2:53; Samuel Cole Williams,
ed., Early Travels in the Tennessee Country, 1540-1800
(Johnson City, 1928), p. 317; Letter from John Melville
Jennings, Director, Virginia Historical Society, Decem-
ber 21, 1976.
3. See John H. Gwathmey, Historical Register of Vir-
ginians in the Revolution (Richmond, 1938), p. 632; Louis
A. Burgess, comp. and ed., Virginia Soldiers in 1776 (Rich-
mond, 1927), pp. 383-84.
4. Lenora Higginbotham Sweeny, Amherst County,
Virginia in the Revolution (Lynchburg, 1951), pp. 35, 37,
38, 89, 97, 107, 127-28, 129, 131-33, 148, 154, 156, 163-64,
5. Heads of Families at the First Census of the United
States Taken in the Year 1790: Records of the State Enu-
merations: 1782-1785: Virginia (Baltimore, 1966), pp. 47,
6. Amherst County Order Book, 1782-1784, Archives
Division, Virginia State Library.
7. Amherst County Personal Property Books, 1782-1789,
and Amherst County Land Tax Books, 1781-1792, Ar-


chives Division, Virginia State Library. It is not clear why
Pope is listed in the latter source as the owner of the land
for tax purposes while the same book shows the sale to
8. Richmond County Land Tax Books, 1785-1810, and
Richmond County Personal Property Books, 1785-1812,
Archives Division, Virginia State Library.
9. Memorandum, Oct. 5, 1791, Henry Knox Papers,
28:137. Microfilm, The Florida State University (hereafter
cited as Knox Papers).
10. Samuel Guyton McLendon, History of the Public
Domain of Georgia (Atlanta, 1924), pp. 35-36; Robert
Douthat Meade, Patrick Henry: Practical Revolutionary
(Philadelphia, 1969), pp. 422-23; William Wirt Henry,
Patrick Henry; Life, Correspondence and Speeches (New
York, 1891), pp. 507-8, 511-12. The Virginia Yazoo Com-
pany never received the land granted to it by the Georgia
legislature. Despite Henry's charges of "Deception" and
years of efforts, the company never obtained compensa-
tion for its efforts.
11. Pope, Tour, pp. 14-17. The Pennsylvania Mercury
for September 4, 1790, reports on Brackenridge's marriage:
Hugh H. Brackenridge, Esq. to Miss Sabina Wolf, a
young girl of obscure German parents, on the waters of
the Ohio; and has brought her to this city [Philadelphia]
to spend the ensuing winter, and receive the advantage of
some education.
'Tis easy to admire the flower
With which the gard'ner decked his bow'r;
Because, it must be excellent or rare,
Before his judgement could have plac'd it there:
But not so easy, in a wood or vale,
The virtues of a plant or flower to tell-
Discern its proper class-pronounce its name-
Select it thence, without least fear or blame,
And say it has a right to better place and fame.
See also Hugh Henry Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry, ed.
Lewis Leary (New Haven, 1965), pp. 12-13; Daniel Mar-
der, Hugh Henry Brackenridge (New York, 1967), pp.


12. "Miss Clarke" is Francis Eleanor Clark, the sister of
George Rogers Clark. Describing Miss Clark, O'Fallon
writes: "I seen her by accident-, and married her in a
fortnight afterwards. Veni, vidi, et vici: I am very happy.
The Girl is young, amiable, and beautiful": O'Fallon to
Henry Osborne, May 22, 1791, James O'Fallon Papers,
1791, Georgia Historical Society. For a biography of
Gayoso, see Jack D. L. Holmes, Gayoso: The Life of a
Spanish Governor in the Mississippi Valley, 1789-1799
(Gloucester, 1968).
13. Letter from William S. Coker, July 26, 1977.
14. J. Pope to Tairux Wilcox, June 4, 1791, AGI, PC,
leg. 2371; a Spanish translation is in AGS, leg. 6928. A
copy of this letter is also in Lawrence Kinnaird, ed., Spain
in the Mississippi Valley, 1765-1794 (Washington, 1949),
15. McGillivray to Mir6, June 8, 1791, AGS, leg. 6928.
16. Ibid.
17. Mir6 to McGillivray, July 6, 1791, ibid.
18. Mir6 to las Casas, July 17, 1791, ibid.
19. Las Casas to Mir6, Aug. 12, 1791, ibid. Copies of all
this correspondence concerning the alleged espionage are
also located in AGI, SD, leg. 2556 (microfilm copies lo-
cated at Loyola University, New Orleans).
20. Pope later reported to Henry Knox that he stayed
with McGillivray seven days and in the Creek Nation
seven weeks. Memorandum, Oct. 5, 1791, Knox Papers,
21. The sailing and arrival of the Thomas, with "Ross"
as captain, is confirmed by the Georgia Gazette (Savan-
nah), Aug. 4, 1791, and the City Gazette (Charleston),
Aug. 2, 1791.
22. While Pope does not mention the specific date of his
departure from St. Marys, the date of his arrival in New
York, or the ship on which he was traveling, it is safe to
assume that he was still aboard the Exchange with "Baine"
as captain. He mentioned that he arrived after thirteen
days' passage, and on September 15, 1791, the Exchange
schooner arrived in New York from Charleston with
"Bean" as captain. The Federal Gazette and Philadelphia
Daily Advertiser, Sept. 16, 1791; Pennsylvania Mercury,
and General Advertiser (Philadelphia), Sept. 20, 1791.


23. Memorandum, Oct. 5, 1791, Knox Papers, 28:137.
24. On Feb. 9, 1793, Dixon ran a notice in his paper that
"On or before 10th day of March will be submitted to
the inspection of the Public, A POEM entitled the DE-
CEMVIRI, by John Pope." I have, however, been unable
to locate a copy of this poem-if it was ever printed. Vir-
ginia Gazette and Public Advertiser, Feb. 9, 16, 1793.
25. Flier from Broadfoot's Bookmark, Wendell, N.C.,
June 1977.
26. Letter from The New York Public Library, Manu-
scripts and Archives Division, March 29, 1977.
27. Advertisement in Catalogues Issued by Chas. L.
Woodward; no. 1-45, 1876-1896; original in New York
Public Library.











EVERY Man who commits his Sen-
timents to public Criticifin, Wvhe-
ther his Motive be Honor, Intereft, or
other Confideration, willbe fitppofed
to hope fJr Public 'Patronage, or Ap-
plaufe. But the Man owho ball fer-
vily condefrend to obtain Succefs; who
Jfall by debating himself, attempt to
elevate or exalt another, deserves not
private Regard or Tublic Favor.
The Author of the following Sheets,
isfirongly impreffed with thefe Senti-
ments, and altho' he feels as all Au.
thors muft do, wvho commit themselves
A a to



to the World. Altho' he knows many
great and ref/eflable Men, whofe
Friendjhizi would fleafe him, and
whofe Patronage would do him Ho-
nor; he prefers to obtain their Af-
fentation to his Labors, as the volun-
tary Effufions of their own Hearts,
than as the Tribute to his Flattery or
Solicitation. Thus thinking, none will
blame, thus acting, all will aipflaud,
who are admirers of the native Inde-
fendancy, which is the Birth-right of

Inaccuracies will, in this Work,
probably obtain, but let the Rea-
der reflefi, that it is the genuine
Offspring of fofitive Obfervation,
taken sometimes on Horfeback, fome-
times on a Stump, but always in
Hafle, amid/f the Hurly Burly of un-
informed and generally Indian Com-


TOU R, &c.

ON the firft Day of June, 1790, I took
my Departure from the City of Rich-
mond, with an Intention of visiting the Wef-
tern Regions of Kentuckey, and exploring the
Spanifh Dominions of Louifiana and the two
Floridas; as alfo the Territories of the Creek
Nation, now under the Governance of Alex-
ander M'Gillivray, Efq; who from the con-
current Approbation which he hath merited
and received from the whole Nation, may,
with Propriety, be faid to hold imperial Pow-
er, having many Kings and Princes fubordi-
nate to him.
How far I have succeeded in the Explora-
tion of thofe Countries, the Reader will de-
termine from a candid Perufal of my Jour-

June xoth. Contra6ted a violent Rheu-
matifm from wetting my Feet, in an Attempt
to crofs the Rapedan, which retarded my Pro-
A 3 grefs

( 6 )

grefs for about eight Weeks in the County of
Culpeper; where the Humanity and Politenefs
of Col. John Thornton and his Lady mitigated
my Diftrefs, and ultimately restored me to my
priftine Health and Vigour. This Gentle-
man, as well as his Brother William, poffeffes
a rare mechanical Genius, and to which he
hath fuperadded a pra&ical Knowledge in Me-
dicine and Surgery; the Advantages of which,
his poor Neighbours often experience with
Tears of Gratitude.

Some Years fince, the Affembly of Virgi-
nia voted a Premium to Mr. John Hobdy, for
his Invention of a Machine, which he fub-
mitted to their Infpe&ion, well calculated for
the Purpofes of beating out Wheat and other
fmall Grain. Col. William hath improved
upon Hobdy's Invention by conftrufing a Wa-
ter-Mill, which without the Aid of animal
Exertion, shatters out and prepares more fmall
Grain of any Kind in one Day, than Hobdy's
can in one Week. With this Mill alone, he
fpeedily prepares his Flax and Hemp for Mar-
ket or the Diftaff. It is a Model well worth
the Attention of every opulent Farmer, or of
thofe who raife large Crops of Flax and

( 7 )

Auguft 1o. Croffed the Blue-Ridge, and
halted for three Days at New- Town, within
about eight Miles of Winche/Zer. This
flourishing little Town I think, bids fair to
eclipfe Winchefler in a few Years, or, be con-
ne&ed with her by a lengthy Village: Its Lo-
cality gives it a decided Preference to Win-
chefler, as being in a fertile Neighborhood,
and nearer to Mills, Iron-Works and the fu-
ture Navigation of the Shenandoah.

From this Place I made fome few Excur-
fions into the Country, particularly to the
Houfes of Colonels Zane and Thruf/on; the
former of whom poffeffes a greater Originali-
ty of Thought, Speech and Aaion, than any
other Gentleman I ever was acquainted with.
O'er many Waters he hath been,
And Knowledge great acquired,
From reading Books as well as Men,
For fining Parts admir'd:
From ev'ry great Metropolis,
He fome InfItrulion draws,
By afcertaining its Police
Of Manners, Cuftoms, Laws.
He is the Proprietor of the Iron-Works,
which, under his judicious Management yield
an amazing Profit. All the Works which
are very complex, are driven by the Water if.
A 4 fuing


fuing from one Spring, whofe Source is not
above a Quarter of a Mile from the Spot.

Augufl 14th. Found myfelf happy in the
Family of the fenfible, humane and generous
Col. G. M. Thruflon, whofe public and pri-
vate Chara&ers will bear the ftri&eft Scrutiny.
His late Difplay of unparralled Generofity to
a diftreffed, though reputable Family, will be
enrolled in the Court above; and from the
recording Angel, instead of a Tear, extort an
approbative Smile. This Gentleman at an
early Period of the War, laying afide his fa-
cerdotal Habit, appeared at the Head of a Re-
giment in Defence of his injured Country.
His Achievements in the Field, his Wifdom
in Council, and the general Tenour of his
Condu&, through the various Scenes of Life,
do him Honour, and claim from a grateful
Country its warmeft Acknowledgments.

On this Gentleman's Farm I obferved about
an Acre of Ground well befet with Jerufalem
Artichokes, of a most luxuriant Growth; the
Colonel told me that he was confident the Pro-
dufion would exceed one Thoufand Bufhels.
To this Vegetable, Swine and horned Cattle
of every Defcription, particularly Sheep, are
furprifingly attached-I do not difcover it to

be any Way inferiour to the Garden Artichoke
for Table Ufe.

AugufJ I7th. Arrived in Winchefter much
relaxed from the Heat of the Weather, and
whilft lolling on a Couch, was faluted by a
Mr. John Welch, who had served in my Regi-
ment in the Capacity of a common Soldier du-
ring the laft War. With great Self-Compla-
cency he informed me, that fince the War he
had been profperous in Life, had acquired a
fnug little Retreat in the Country, and then
had a large Drove of Cattle within four Miles
of the Place, which he meant to difpofe of to
the French emigrants then stationary in Win-
chefler-that he wifhed to go back, meet the
Drove and hurry them into Town, leaft others
might fupplant him in the Sale; but that he
had fent his Horfe to the fame Pafture where
his Cattle were, fo that he should be under the
Neceffity of going on Foot, unlefs he could
beg, borrow or fteal a Nag to ride that fall
Diftance: Mr. Welch, I am happy to hear of
your Profperity, and you are entirely welcome
to the Ufe of my Horfe to ride that Diftance-
Sir, you are very good, and I'll embrace your
generous Offer, and on my Return this Even-
ing give myfelf the Pleafure of Dining with
you. I fear fome Accident has happened to
Mr. Welch, as I have neither feen him, the

( o1 )

Horfe, Bridle or Saddle from that Hour to
this! In this Situation, on a Journey with
I80 Miles in Rear, and 500 in Front, I be-
gan like Strap to moralize, with only this
Difference, he faid "A Fool and his Money
is foon parted;" I ufed the Word Horfe in-
ftead of Money.

During my Continuance in Winchefler, I
was frequently in the Company of General
Morgan, whofe Charater as a Military Man,
is held in high Eftimation even by his Ene-
mies-Poffeffed of an eafy Fortune, he now
enjoys all the Sweets of Domeftication, and
the Heart felt Pleafure arifing from a conscious
Re&itude. He is fond of the social Pleafures,
and will sometimes in his gayer Moments,
amufe the Company with Narratives of mar-
tial Feats, and how Somebody, and who it
was, that plucked the Laurels from fierce
Tarlton's Brow.

September. Hearing that the Monongalia
and Ohio were innavigable, I resolved to fpend
my Time until they should rife among my
Friends in Berkeley County, which for its
Temperature of Air, Salubrity of Baths and
Fertility of Soil, juftly claims the Preference
of every other County in Virginia, but lefs fo
of Frederick than the reft, whether for the

( II )

Properties already mentioned, or the Hofpita.
lity and Independence of its People in general.

I paid a Vifit to Mr. Charles WaJfington,
the Brother of our beloved Prefident, where I
had the Pleafure of feeing a moft affectionate
Meeting between him and his Sifter, attended
with several Female Relations from Frede-
rickfburg. Mr. Robert Rutherford, a Mem-
ber of the Virginia Senate was alfo there, and
contributed much to the Chearfulnefs of the
Company, by singing several moft excellent
and sentimental Songs. I am indebted to this
Gentleman and Mr. Wafhington for furnifh-
ing me with a joint Letter of Introdufion,
to fome of the moft reputable Chara&ers in
Kentuckey: Meffrs. David Gray and Mo/es
Hunter are among the number of thofe who
have impofed Obligations on me.

October. Purfued my Route through
Shepherd's Town and Martin/burg, two flou-
rifhing little Towns. At the former I faw
General Gates and his Family on their Way
to New-York, and at the latter, General Ste-
phen, who observed that the Triumvirate was
now entirely diffolved, alluding to Generals
Lee, Gates and himself:


( 12 )

Whom Dame Fortune in a merry Mood,
Concenter'd in one Neighbourhood;
Evincing well, that Birds of Feather,
Always chirp and flock together.

Began to afcend the Alleghany Mountains
in Company with old Col. Shepherd, who
obferved that for many Years he had made
it an invariable Rule to take a hearty Drink
of Grog at a Spring near the Road-Side,
where the Eaftern and Weftern Waters very
amicably take their Leave of each other, in-
timating that we and our Weftern Brethren
ought to do fo likewife. I hall not under-
take a Defcription of a Sixty Miles Paffage
over thofe Alpine Hills, but content myfelf
with saying, that I paffed through the Sha-
dow of Death-faw General Wajhington's In-
trenchment at the Meadows, and undifmayed,
rode over Braddock's Grave. From the
Weftern Side of Laurel Hill, on a pleasant
Evening, I was ravifh'd with the Profpe&
of Beefon Town and the circumjacent Coun-
try. Ten Miles from Beefon Town lies the
Old Fort, at the Jun&ion of a fmall Stream,
called Red/fone, and the Monongalia. At this
Place we were detained about a Week, ex-
periencing every Difguft which Rooks and
Harpies could excite.


( '3 )

October. Went on Board a Kentuckey Boat
in Company with three Danville Merchants,
and a Mr. Fooley from the State of Maryland,
and in Twenty-three Hours reached Pittf-
burg. The laft mentioned Gentleman from
his Singularities and Fooleries merits a mi-
nute Defcription, which, however, I am at a
Lofs to give. Suffice it to fay, that Mr.
Thomas Fooley, of a very reputable Family in
Maryland, is about fix Feet three Inches
high, and every Way disproportionate in his
Shape and contradictory in the Lineaments of
his Face, which at firft View excited a Refi-
bility in the moft serious Beholder. The De-
formities of his ConduEt vie with thofe of
his Perfon. It was sometime laft Month that
Mr. Fooley eloped from his Lady, under an
Apprehenfion that fhe was preparing through
the Medium of her Friends an Inftrument of
Writing for him to fign, whereby a confider-
able Part of his Fortune was to be vefted in
the Hands of Truftees, fubje6t to her Con-
troul. To this Mr. Fooley was utterly op-
pofed-However, previous to his Elopement
he left her an unlimited Power of Attorney,
which he delivered into the Hands of his
Overfeer. At Redl/one he difpofed of his ele-
gant Horfe and Furniture for an old Brafs
Watch, which has the Property of being

( I4 )

right once in every Twelve Hours: Not-
withftanding this, Mr. Fooley is a Gentleman
of Refinement, being both a Philofopher and
Politician, with fome Knowledge of Aftro-
logy and Palmiftry.

O0lober. Apprehending a Return of the
Rheumatifm, I resolved to awart the Event
in Pitt/burg, where I could be comfortably
lodged and duly attended; I flaid ten Days.
Here I faw the celebrated Hugh Henry Breck-
enridge, Author of the fix political Sermons
in the beginning of the War, and of various
other Traits fince-He had been lately mar-
ried to a Mifs Sabina Wolfe, Daughter of an
old Dutch Farmer in Wa/hington County-
The Circumftances of his Courtfhip, Mar-
riage and fubfequent Condu6t I hall relate,
with fome flight References to the Perfon,
Temper and Difpofition of the Man.
Mr. Breckenridge on his Way from Wa/h-
ington Court, called in at Mr. Wolfe's to
have his Horfe fed and efcape a Rain which
was then descending. The Horfe was fed, the
Rain had fubfided, and Mr. Breckenridge to
avoid wet Feet, ordered his Horfe to be
brought to the Door; Mifs Wolfe was di-
re&ed to perform that Office.


( I5 )

Nut brown were her Locks, her Shape was full ftrait,
Her Eyes were as black as a Sloe ;
Milk white were her Teeth, full fmart was her Gait,
And fleck was her Skin as a Doe.
Thefe Allurements made a deep Impref-
fion upon the fufceptible Heart of Brecken-
ridge-He prevented her in the fervile Office,
mounted his Nag and off he went. He had
not gone more than a Sabbath Day's Jour-
ney, (for fuch his really was) before his
Horfe, at the Inftigation of the Rider, turned
fhort about and revifited Mr. Wolfe's. A fa-
miliar Application was made to the old Gen-
tleman for his Daughter, which he confi-
dered as nothing more than Pleafantry in Mr.
Breckenridge, for which he is fo remarkable.
Mr. Breckenridge declared that he was feri-
ous, that his Intentions were honourable, and
that this future Happinefs refuted on the Event
of his then Application. Mifs Sabina had
been employed in Shrubbing the old Man's
Meadow, which faved him the annual Ex-
pence of about ten Dollars. This with him
was an infuperable Objetion to parting with
his Girl-Mr. Breckenridge obviated the Dif-
ficulty by paying down a Sum of Money,
obtained the Young Lady's Confent, married
her, and fent her to Philadelphia, where fhe
now is under the Governance of a reputable

( 16 )

female Character, whofe Bufinefs will be to
polifh the Manners, and wipe off the Rufti-
cities which Mrs. Breckenridge had acquired
whilft a Wolfe.

As an IntroduEtion to an Acquaintance
with this Gentleman, I composed, inclofed
and fent to him on the Evening of my Arri-
val, the following hafty Production, which
without my Knowledge or Confent, he had
inserted in the Pittfburg Gazette.

To H. H. BRECKENRIDGE, Efq; on his being
fairly NOOS'D.

THY great and independent Soul did tow'r,
And from the faireft Stalk felel the Flow'r:
Which in the Wild unknown to public View,
In mild Pudicity fo fweetly grew.
SABINA learn It was not giddy Chance,
That led fair Merit up to high Advance ?
No, 'twas Heaven which opened on his Eyes,
When Love and he firft view'd thee with Surprize.
The Matron fall e'er long by him be taught,
To fpeak and ad aboon the vulgar Thought.
His plastic Hand fall fashion and fo mould,
And turn as werer, thy unwrought Ore to Gold.
That neither in Idea nor Romance,
Or in Metropolis of polifh'd France;
Shall any Dame be found to equal thee,
In Manners foft, and true Gentility.


( 7 )

Thus augur I of thee, oh purelefs Dame,
Whose Condut foon fall well the Trump of Fame.
And well evinc'd when form'd on Wifdom's Plan,
Who can reward and foothe an honeft Man.

In Company with this Gentleman I view-
ed the Fort and neighboring Eminencies of
Pitt/burg, which will one Day or other em-
ploy the historic Pen, as being replete with
ftrange and melancholy Events. The Town
at present, is inhabited with only fome few
Exceptions, by Mortals who a& as if pof-
feffed of a Charter of Exclufive Privilege to
filch from, annoy and harrafs her Fellow
Creatures, particularly the incautious and
neceffitous; many who have emigrated from
various Parts to Kentuckey can verify this
Charge-Goods of every Defcription are
dearer in Pitt/burg than in Kentuckey, which
I attribute to a Combination of penfioned
Scoundrels who infeft the Place.

Some Men in Pow'r and Trufts, have made
The one Hand with the other trade;
Gain'd vaftly by their joint Endeavour,
The right a Thief, the left Receiver ;
"And what the one by Tricks foreftalld,
The other by as fly retail'd."




( 18 )

Was a Spaniard to refide among the Pitt/-
burgers only one Week, he would be apt to
exclaim in the Words of Quevedo:
Menca la cola el Can,
No por ti fino por el Pan."


STis notfor thee; butfor thy Bread,
Tray wags his Tail and fhakes his Head.

November. I proceeded down the Ohio in
Mr. Beall's Boat, which was a moveable
Fortification; having about one Hundred and
Fifty Salt Pans fo arranged, as to render a few
Men within, capable of repulfing ten Times
their Number without. Nothing materially
occurred-We had a tolerable Paffage of five
Days and Nights down to Limeflone, a little
Town, fituate on the Banks of the Ohio, at
the Mouth of Limeflone Creek, where Emi-
grants from Virginia and all the Eaftern
States moft commonly debark. Leaving this
Place, I paffed on in a dire& Route through
the moft fertile Parts of Kentuckey, by Wa/h-
ington, Bourbon and Lexington Townfhips to
Danville, the present Metropolis of the Dif-
trit. In this Place and its Vicinage I con-
tinued about a Month, experiencing every
Civility and Hofpitality which fo remarkably

( 19 )
charaaerize the People. The Topography
of Kentuckey is foreign to my Purpofe, as
Mr. Filfon and others have treated that Sub-
je& with great Candour and Preciffion. Mere
Occurrencies, and the moft conspicuous
Traits of Men and Manners, are the principal
Obje&s of my Inveftigation. General Wil-
kin/on and Scott are too generally known both
at Home and abroad, to require any Eulogi-
um from me : I hall, therefore, wifhing them
every Profperity, proceed on to Louifville and
its Neighbourhood, and roufe up Gen. George
Rogers Clarke, who, the Kentuckians fay,
hath a&ually been in a profound Slumber
for upwards of four Years, without the leaft
Symptoms of Wakefulnefs whatever.
December i5th. Arrived at his Houfe un-
der an Apprehenfion that he had forgotten
me. He immediately recognized me, and
without Ceremony, entered into a familiar,
though defultory Converfation, in which I
was highly pleaded with the Atticifm of his
Wit, the genuine Offspring of native Genius.
On serious and important Occafions he dif-
plays a Profundity of Judgment, aided by
Reflection and matured by Experience. I
cannot difmifs this Gentleman without ob-
ferving, that fome few Years fince he fhone
forth in all the Glory of military Prowefs.
B 2 He

( 20 )

He appeared from his Plans and Succeffes to
have poffeffed an intuitive Knowledge of the
Manoeuvres and Defigns of the Enemy, hav-
ing in no Inftance out of many concerted his
Operations injudicioufly.
At Louifville the firft Obje& that caught
my Attention was the ludicrous Mr. Fooley-
Having exhausted all his Cafh, he had ex-
changed his fine long tail'd broad Cloth Coat
for a Sailor's coarfe Jerkin, which reached
within four Inches of the Waiftband's of his
red Plufh Breeches-He had fwapped his
Beaver for a coarfe high crown'd narrow
brimm'd Wool Hat, which he thought ex-
pedient, though contrary to all Precedent, to
throw into a fmart triangular Cock; by the
laft Exchange he gained a round Half Dollar
Piece. In this Garb, our Hero fraught with
consummate Impudence, fet out in Queft of
Adventures. As he had been a Fellow Tra-
veller in a strange Land, I could not help re-
monftrating with him upon the Impropriety
of his Condudt, which, however he endea-
voured to defend, by obferving that his then
Appearance was in Honour to the Memories of
Mr. Sterneand Lord Verulam.-For Sir, added
he, Mr. Sterne, hath written exprefsly on the
Subje& of Jerkins in thefe Words, "A Man's
Body and his Mind, with reverence I fpeak

( 21 )

it, are exadly like a Jerkin and a Jerkin's
Lining-Rumple the one, you Rumple the
other:" And as to my Lord Verulam, "Smell-
fungus in his Hiftory of England represents
his Lordfhip's Chappo, as similar to what
now covers the Noddle of your humble Ser-

In the Neighbourhood of Louifville I con-
tinued upwards of two Months; thofe with
whom I affociated, were affable and humane:
The Stranger here may consider himself as at
Home-for fuch is the extreme Hofpitality
of the People, that unknown to their Gueft,
they will confer, or rather impofe A&s of Be-
neficence, which cannot be refused without

March 4th. 1791. Proceeded down the
Ohio in Company with a Frenchman, who
was taking his American Wife and Children
along with him to Langue la Graiffe, or, the
Greafy Bent; now called by the Spaniards
Neuvo Madrid, on the Weftern Side of the
Mizzfippi. The Governor of Penfacola fays,
that the Etymology of Langue la Graife ori-
ginates from the Rivers forming an extensive
Curve; where, upon the firft Settlement of
the Place, great Quantities of Bear-Meat
were ftored up for the Ufe of the Garrifon and

( 22 )

the French and Spanih Navigators up and
down the Miifppi, which Meat is of a very
oleofe Quality; though in my Opinion, the
Greafinefs of the Soil, with the Devexity of
the River, sufficiently juftify the Epithet.

During our Paffage from Louifville to this
Place, we were frequently alarmed at the hof-
tile Appearance of Indians on both Sides of
the Ohio and Mifffippi; fufpeting our Num-
bers to be fuperiour to their own, they were
deterred from coming against us in Force;
which had they done, we should have fallen
Vifims without a Poffibility of Efcape to
their mercilefs Barbarity.

March i2th. 1791. Breakfafted and dined
with Signior Pedro Foucher, Commandant at
Neuvo Madrid. The Garrifon confift of about
Ninety Men, who are well supplied with
Food and Raiment; they have an excellent
Train of Artillery, which appears to be their
chief Defence-Two Regular Companies of
Mufqueteers with charged Bayonets might take
this Place. Of this Opinion is the Com-
mandant himself, who complains that he is
not sufficiently fupported-He is a Creole of
French Extra&ion, of Patagonian Size, po-
lite in his Manners, and of a moft noble
Prefence. On the Evening of this Day em-

( 23 )

barked in a Boat called the Smoke-Houfe,
bound to New Orleans, and anchored on the
Georgian Shore, about Thirty Miles below

13th. Setting at the Veffel's Head I ef-
pied about a Dozen Fowls as large as Mufco-
vite Ducks, of a bluifh grey Colour, with
remarkable fhort Necks, the Name of which
no one on Board knew, as never having feen
any of the Kind before, though they had
long been accustomed to the Navigation of
the Mzifffippi, and vifited moft Parts of the
habitable Globe. An Hibernian on Board
fwore that from the fhortnefs of their Necks
they were either Cygnets or young Cranes;
for that the old Ones had Necks ten Times
as long.

14th. The Trees on the Margin of the
River in Verdue. At 9 o'Clock encounted
a Congeries of Aiots and paffed the firft
Chickafaw Bluff, where the River is about
Five Hundred Yards wide-At T2 o'Clock
we loft Sight of Monfieur's Boat in a strong
Gale of Wind-8 o'Clock at Night one of
Mr. Craigs Tobacco Boats, with Forty Hogf-
heads of Tobacco, and a large Quantity of
Flour and Plank paffed us whilft we lay in
Harbour, fhe had loft her Rudder and fprung
a Leak

( 24 )
a Leak. In this Situation, with only three
Hands on Board, they implored our Aid,
which through prudential Motives was de-

15th. At Sunrife efpied the Frenchman's
Boat in good Harbour and uninjured; but
different was the Fate of Mr. Craigs, which
had fprung a Leak in her Bow and appeared
to be stranded opposite to the second Chick-
afaw Bluff, where the River is about Four
Hundred Yards wide. At 9 o'Clock we
viewed the third Chickefaw Bluff, opposite
to the Bayone St. 7ohn, where the River is
not quite Four Hundred Yards wide. The
Colours of this Bluff are white, red, yellow,
blue, grey, black, brown, purple, &c. Here
the Chickafaws once had a fmall Pottery-
Upon this Bluff is the moft eligible Situation
for a Town which I have as yet feen on the
Banks of the Mifflfippi.-Juft under this
Bluff, within fix Feet of the Shore, a fitft
Rate Man of War might ride in Safety, un-
affailed by Winds, &c. At the upper End
of this Bluff is an old Blockhoufe, built by
a Captain Befheare's Company, who had the
Convoy of military Stores for the Chickafaws,
which they depofited therein, until they
could procure the Affiftance of additional and
frefh Hands. From the lower End of this

( 25 )

Bluff, the River suddenly opens to the ama-
zing width of four, five and fixth Miles.
Upon Examination, I find our Crew confift
of one Irijhman, one Anfpacker, one Kentuc-
kean, one Perfon born on Sea, one Virginian,
and one Welchman; fix Total. At 12
o'Clock came on a violent Storm, which
wih Difficulty we evited, by exerting every
Nerve to gain the Shore.

March i7th. 1791. The Irihman in Ho-
nour of St. Patrick, purloined all our Bran-
dy, Sugar and Eggs to make a Tub of Egg-
Nog, of which he drank fo copioufly, that
whilft at the Helm, he infenfibly run the
Veffel into a strong Eddy, to get her out of
which, employed all Hands in hard Labour
the Balance of the Day.

March i8th. At Sunrife came on a flight
Snow, which formed a curious Contraft to
the Verdure of the Trees-All the Afternoon
of this Day we run due North.

19th. At 8 o'Clock we run due South-
All this Day the Weather was intenfely cold,
the Wind blowing from North. About Noon
fix Indians of the Cha6law Nation came on
Board and presented us with two Strings of
jerked Venifon, for which we in Return gave
C them

( 26 )

them fix Pound of Bacon and a Peck of Salt,
which they pronounced to be very good. At
I o'Clock we were hailed by a Pennfylvanian
and a Lad in a Perock, laden with Bear and
Buffaloe Meat, taken on the St. Francis Ri-
ver, and bound up the Ofarque River, where
there is a Settlement of Thirty Families about
Thirty Miles from its Mouth. At 3 o'Clbk
overtaken by two Boats laden with Flour and

2oth. At Sunrife drew up a Kitten of about
Twenty lbs. Weight, which with the Help
of GoD and an Irijh Cook, we made into
moft excellent Broth. At 9 o'Clock came
up with two large Pittfburg Boats at Anchor
laden with Flour, on the Shore, opposite to
which, was a Concourfe of Ofarque Indians.
An old Man among them was in Mourning,
having his Face blacken'd over with a Com-
mixture of Bear's Oil, Charcoal and Turpen-
tine: Juft under his Jowls were two Streaks
of red and white, which ran parallel to each
other-The Indian Ladies very innocently
displayed their Navels, and the curious Eye
might have explored other Parts which civi-
lized Nations induftrioufly conceal. Twenty
Miles up the Ofarque River are their Wig-
wams, opposite to which, on the Eaftern Side,
is a Spani1h Garrifon of Twenty-nine Men-

( 27 )

The Place is high, well watered, and as yet
the Garrifon have experienced no Sicknefs.

21ft. At 8 o'Clock defcried a Keel bot-
tom'd Boat with a fquare Sail, bound to New
Madrid-Her Progrefs under a fair Wind
was at the Rate of two and a half Miles per
Hour, which might have been accelerated by
the Addition of Oars. At ten o'Clock en-
tered a narrow Part of the Mizfffippi, where
it is not more than Two Hundred Yards wide.
At 12 o'Clock discovered another Keel bot-
tom'd Boat, defined to the fame Place with
the former. At Sunfet, three of Mr. Craig's
Tobacco Boats came up with us whilft we
lay in Harbour, the fourth being ftill under
the Command of the Rear Admiral, whofe
Intrepidity hath often endangered his Veffel
by opposing the poor Planters and Sawyers,
who have taken up their Refidence in this
fpacious River. It is shrewdly fufpe&ted that
the Rear Admiral will be tried by a Board of
Dons, fo foon as he makes the Port of

22d. At Sunrife, efpied a Veffel of Ge-
neral Wilkinfon's, under the Command of
Captain Swaine, bound to New Orleans-At
8 o'Clock we had in View fix Sail of the

C 2


( 28 )

23d. At 12 o'Clock we ran North Weft-
wardly-Here the Miz7ffippi forms on the
Spanizh Side an exa& Refemblance of an Horfe

24th. At Break of Day efpied the Wal-
nut Hills about ten Miles below the Yafous
River, which his Catholic Majefty limits as
his Boundary, and below which, his Vice-
gerents fay, that Citizens of the United States
hall not inhabit, unlefs they throw them-
felves under the Laws, Banners and Protec-
tion of the King of Spain. At Io o'Clock
efpied a Shingle roofed Houfe, occupied by a
Family of New-Yorkers-Near this Spot the
Governor of the Natchez hath fixed upon an
Eminence for the Ereftion of a Fort. The
Family informed, that the intended Garrifon
were at the Natchez, taking in military
Stores and Provifion. The River opposite
to the intended Fort is about Six hundred
Yards wide. Whoever undertakes a Def-
cription of the Walnut Hills, muft have a
fertile Imagination, be happy at Landfcape
Painting, and ufe Something like Romance,
or he will fall infinitely fhort of that Eulo-
gium which the Place fo juftly merits.

23d. At Sunrife, faw two fmall Houfes
on the Eaftern Side of the River upon a beau-

( 29 )

tiful Eminence, from whence runs off a great
Extent of very level fertile Ground: The
Eminencies resemble the round Hills of Staf-
ford County, in the Northern Neck of Vir-
ginia. At 2 o'Clock I went on Board the
Governor of Natchez' Barge, his Name is
Gayofo. Here I was regaled with delicious
Nuts and excellent Wines. This Gentle-
man has a majeftic Deportment, softened by
Manners the moft engaging and polite. Hav-
ing been brought up at the Court of London,
he is well acquainted with the Etiquette of
Mortals who move in the more exalted and
splendid Scenes of Life. He had in Com-
pany with him two Vidtualling Boats and an
armed Schooner, laden with military Stores.
I could not afcertain their Deftination, tho'
it was probably to the Walnut Hills. His
Soldiery including Mariners and Mechanics,
did not exceed one Hundred Men. Do&tor
O'Fallan, Agent for the Yafous Company,
ardently pants for the Cultivation of this de-
licious Soil; but by Connoifeurs, it is fhrewd-
ly conje&tured, that having pitched his Tent
in the Grotto of Mifs Clarke, his Ardency,
like his Conftitution, will turn into down-
right Frigidity.

24th. At Sunrife, we fhot the Grand
Gulph, opposite to which, on either Side,

( 30 )

the Cane grows to the enormous Height of
Forty and sometimes Forty-five Feet. At 8
o'Clock an impervious Fog arofe, fo as to pre-
vent a Difcovery of Sawyers and other Ob.
ftacles not more than ten Feet from us. It
might with Propriety have been called
"Darknefs vifible." At 9 o'Clock paffed
the Bayone Pierre, on the Banks of which
are three fmall Houfes and about Thirty
Acres of Ground under Cultivation-About
ten Miles higher up the Country it is pretty
thickly inhabited by Virginians, Carolineans,
Georgians, and fome few Stragglers from the
Eaftern States.

26th. At Sunrife came in Sight of the
Town of Natchez, fituate on the Eaftern
Bank of the River. It contains about an
Hundred Houfes, and is the Metropolis of
the Diftri& and Refidence of Don Gayofo,
the Governor laft mentioned. In this Town
and its Vicinage we continued about a

27th. On Sunday I took a View of the
Governor's Palace, as alfo of the Fort; which
from its elevated Situation has a fine Com-
mand of the River for about a Mile up, and
double that Diftance down it: though I
think it might be affailed with Succefs by a

( 3i )

single Regiment, or taken by Surprize with
a lefs Number. The lying of the back
Ground, and the Paucity and Infignificance
of the Garrifon would favour either Plan.
They have a good Train of Artillery, though
very injudicioufly arranged; the back Part
of the Fort being pregnable to a Dozen

28th. Paid a Vifit to Don Granfrey, Com-
mandant of the Regular Forces throughout
the Natchez Diftri&t: he lives about Two
Miles from Town. Here I was regaled
with different Kinds of Fruits, Wines and
Parmefan Cheefe, which were fucceedent to
a very good fubftantial Dinner. Hofpitality
and Urbanity presided at his Board: His
Lady is young, handsome and polite-His
Vifitants confifted of five reputable Gentle-
men and three Ladies. One of the Gentle-
men fpoke the Englilh and Spanijh Languages
with great Propriety and Eafe. Him we
fixed upon as Linguift to the Company, and
through whom we carried on a brifk and chear-
ful Converfation. The Spanifl Gentlemen
and Ladies with whom I had an Opportunity
of converting, do not poffefs that Aufterity
and Referve, which are fo generally afcribed
to their Nation. The Chara&er of the
Spaniards is thus drawn by the celebrated

( 32 )

Mr. Swinburne, after his late Travels through
the Country.
"The Catalans appear to be the moft ac-
tive, stirring Set of Men, the beft calculated
for Bufinefs, Travelling and Manufa&tures-
The Valencians a more fullen, fedate Race,
better adapted to the Occupations of Huf-
bandry, lefs eager to change Place, and of a
much more timid, fufpicious Caft of Mind
than the former-The Andalufians feem to
be the greatest Talkers and Rhodomontadoes
of Spain-The Ca/filians have a manly Frank-
nefs, and lefs Appearance of Cunning and
Deceit-The New Caflilians are perhaps the
left industrious of the whole Nation-The
Old Cajlilians are laborious, and retain more
of antient Simplicity of Manner; both are
of a firm determined Spirit-The Arragonefe
are a Mixture of the Caflilian and Catalan,
rather incling to the former-The Bifcayners
are acute and diligent, fiery and impatient of
Control, more resembling a Colony of Re-
publicans, than a Province of an absolute
Monarchy-And the Galacians are a plod-
ding Painftaking Race of Mortals, that roam
over Spain in Search of an hardly earned Sub-
From this Defcription; thofe with whom
I converted are certainly Caflilians, or of that

( 33 )

Pedigree. To Mr. Swinburne's CharaEter of
the Nation I hall have frequent Reference,
as I hall be much among them, and proba-
bly fee Mortals anfwering each provincial
Defcription. About fome ten or fifteen
Miles above the Town of Natchez, lies the
Settlement of the Bayoue Pierre-lt compre-
hends a Neighbourhood of about Thirty
Miles in Length and Twenty Miles in Width,
composed generally of People who have
moved, and fill continue to move in elevated
Stations, when compared to thofe, who,
though now poffeffed of Wealth, ufhered in-
to Life without the Advantages of Fortune,
Family, or Education.

29th. At the Natchez I observed an Ad-
vertifement relating to a ftray Horfe, for the
Setting up of which, the Owner was obliged
to get the previous SanAion of a Magiftrate.
An Inhabitant under the Jurifdi6tion of Spain
may be faid to be,

Homo fine Spe, fne Sede, ine Re."

The Soil of this Diftri&t is better adapted
to the Growing of Corn, Rice and Indigo,
than of Tobacco, the Cultivation of which,
is gradually falling into Difufe; as an Ad-
mittance of it into the King's Store is now
D positively

( 34 )

positively refused, from fome political Mo-
tives, which the Governor thinks himself
under no Obligation to communicate; though
the present Crop was raised under a Confi-
dence repofed in his Promife, to receive and
allow eight Dollars per Hundred for it.

3oth. At Io o'Clock discovered the
Wreck of one of Mr. Craig's Tobacco Boats,
which he had directed to be got under Way.
Into this Boat, exclusive of Tobacco, he had
flowed a considerable Quantity of Bacon,
Butter, Flour and Plank-He loft almost the
whole. His Boatfmen (for whom he now
no longer had Occafion) appeared to bear his.,,
Lofs with great Compofure and Chriftian
Fortitude. At I o'Clock moved from the
Natchez, and in two Hours viewed the white
Bluff on the Eaftern Side of the River. This
Situation is Romantic and boats a Gentle-
man's Seat, near which lay three large To-
bacco Boats unlaunched. Mr. Ellis, from
Amelia County, of Virginia, refides at this
Place. Here I discovered the firft Pine Trees
fince I croffed the Allegheny Mountains.

3ift. At 12 o'Clock paft Loftus's Bluff,
where the River is about Two Hundred Yards
wide. This Situation is beauteous, and has
two Plantations on the fummit laid off in ob-

( 35 )

long Squares, and a little Way below, a fine
extensive Meadow. At 3 o'Clock hailed by
a Row Galley from New Orleans, bound to
New Madrid. At 4 o'Clock efpied the Long
Reach, where the Eye may take in an unin-
terrupted Water Profpet of Twenty-three
Miles. At our Entrance into the Long
Reach we viewed the Red River, about a
Quarter of a Mile wide, on the Weftern Side
of the Mi/ifiippi; and three Miles below it
the Bayoue Chappaliere, which taking its
Leave of this River, difembogues its gentle
Stream into the Gulph of Mexico, several
Leagues from the Mouths of the Miifffippi.

April ift. At Sunrife we heard the Re-
ville beaten on the Weftern Side of the River,
where there is a fmall Spanizh Garrifon.

2d. Hailed by two Perochs, one bound
to the Natchez, the other to the Bayoue Pi-
erre. For two Days paft we have been much
harraffed by Muf/uettoes-The poor Indians
who go almost naked, conftru& an elevated
Bed of Reeds, which they Suffumigate, fo
as to banifh Infe&ts of every Defcription from
their Lodgements. Slight whitewafhed airy
Buildings become more common on the Eaf-
tern Side of the River, and are, in general,
occupied by People from the United States.
D2 Here

( 36 )

Here are the moft delightful Profpe&s that
ever caught my View-On the Weffern Side
there is a Meadow three Miles in Length and
Half a Mile in Width, befet with Englijh
Clover about eighteen Inches high, which
departures about Three Hundred Head of
Horfes, and an equal Number of horned

3d. At io o'Clock viewed Point Coupee,
a Village Twenty-one Miles in Length,
though narrow, confifting of inferiour Build-
ings, interfperfed now and then with dwelling
Houfes, and Chapels of tolerable Elegance.
At 4 o'Clock faw eight Country Seats on the
Eaftern Bank, and at the lower End of fome
high Bluffs, a large Building of extraordinary
Workmanfhip, and a Dock-yard about Half
a Mile below it. At 6 o'Clock viewed the
Alexandrian Bluffs, from which on both
Sides of the River there is a Continuation of
beauteous Farms and elegant Buildings for the
Diftance of Sixty-one Miles. The general
Width of the River all this Day is about
three Quarters of a Mile, or rather lefs.

4th. About Noon efpied the Suburbs of
New Orleans, and at 2 o'Clock came abreaft
of the City on the Eaftern Side of the River,
in an Ifland formed by the Miz.fijppi and the

( 37 )

Bayoue St. 7ohn. This City is the Refidence
of Don Miro a Spanif Viceroy, and Empo-
rium of Louzfiana and the Indian Territories
dependent thereon-It lies in almost an exa&
Square. The Streets which are wide, and
fome of them well paved with Brick, interfe&t
each other at right Angles. The public
Buildings are capacious and elegant. The
private Houfes generally neat and commo-
dious. Both Defcriptions lie compact and
cover a Space of Ground of rather more than
Half a Mile fquare. As the Situation of
New Orleans was originally Nothing more
than an extensive Morafs, and fubje& to the
Inundation of the Miffijipi, it became ne-
ceffary to exclude the Water, by conftruting
Dikes from about ten to fifteen Feet in Height,
and double that Meafure in Width. The
fteady Exertions of many Hands were, and
ftill are employed in the Bufinefs; notwith-
ftanding which, the Dikes are sometimes
broken through, and considerable Damage
fuftained by the Influx of Water into their
Cellars, Gardens and lower Rooms.

Along a spacious Canal from the Bayoue
St. 7ohn, to the Weftern Entrance of the
City, both Fifh and Fowl of every Kind in
great Abundance are brought to their Mar-

( 38 )

ket; which is alfo well supplied with frefh
Meats from various other Quarters.

April 7th. The French and Spanijh Sub-
je&s of Louifiana, are ftriA Romanijis, and
therefore, enthufiaftically fond of Pageantry
in their religious Feftivals. This I can
avouch from a Proceffion of Yefterday, when
a crucified Redeemer was crucified afrefh, in
being represented like a Felon, in the Habi-
liment of a 7efuit. The Virgin-Mother was
drefs'd out a-la-mode de Paris; and Traitor
Judas, for political Reafons, appeared in the
Regimental Uniform of a Spanijh Soldier,
under Sentence of Death, for having divul-
ged the Counterfign to the Enemy in Confi-
deration of a Bribe.

In this Proceffion, I observed a young Ken-
tuckean who had been educated in all the
Stri&nefs of Prefbyterianifm, from which he
had apoftatized, and embraced Anabaptifm
and Methodifm, which he highly honoured,
by ufing each Profeffion alternately, as Hy-
pocrify might fuggeft. He was presented
with a waxen Candle, which he devotionally
received; and, like the Knight of the woeful
Countenance, joined the cheating and the
cheated Throng.

(39 )

On the Morning of the Proceffion, I planted
myfelf near the Door of the Monaftry, and
had a faint Glimpfe of the Nuns whilft they
were adjusting their Capuchins. The Mo-
naftery is near the Centre of the Town, and
remarkable only for its Length, which if I
mistake not, is about Two Hundred Feet.
The Hospital is fituate in the Weftern Edge
of the City, where Nothing interrupts its
Ventilation from the Eaft, South and North;
but unfortunately, as if intended to banifh
Chearfulnefs from its Manfions, the Priefts
have laid off a Burial Ground, which is en-
clofed on one Side by the Front Wall of the
Building. The Chapel is in a ruinous State,
and will not be repaired-A new one is eret-
ing, to which, all the internal Decorations
of the Old will be transferred.

Don Andrea, a Catalan, arrived in New
Orleans about Twenty Years ago:
"Propt on a Staff, deform'd with Age and Care,
"And hung with Rags that flutter'd in the Air."

For ten Years paft he hath been the richeft
Subject in Louiziana or either of the Floridas.
About three Years fince, he got difgufted
with his Lady, against whom he prayed and
obtained a Divorce a Vinculo Matrimoni4, and
a Difpenfation from the Archbifhop of To-

( 40 )

ledo, Primate of Spain and great Chancellor
of Cajlile, for an inceftuous Marriage with
her younger Sifter. To procure an Indul-
gence of this Kind, required a considerable
Largefs from the Coffers of the old Mam-
momift. He is now erefing to the Glory of
God, and in Atonement of his Rafcalities a
fuperb Church and Hofpital. No Doubt
when thefe hall be completed, but that he
will be reminded by the Priefts, who will
know how to excite the Paffions of Hope
and Fear; that fome other expiatory A&s
remain, and which he is indifpenfably bound
to perform, under no lefs Penalty than of
having his Soul everlaftingly damned in the
liquid Flames of Hell-fire. To foothe his
Vanity, his Name and Pious Deeds, will be
enfculptured over the Front Doors and other
Parts of the Buildings.
Who builds a Church to God, and not to Fame,
Will never mark the Marble with his Name."
The Orleanois as I observed before, are
ftaunch Romanifts, and consider People of
all other religious Denominations as Here-
tics, and to whom they not long fince de-
nied chriftian Burial. Their Cuffom was to
throw the Body of the deceafed, unfhrouded

( 41 )

and uncoffin'd into the Mizffifipzi. Not many
Years ago, an Englizman, by the Name of
Howard, influenced by Motives to Huma-
nity, purchased about four Acres of Land in
the Suburbs of the City, and generously af-
figned it as a Burial Ground for Proteftants
and Strangers. I faw the Interment of a
Corpfe. The Grave was about four Feet
deep. The Water rofe within ten Inches of
the Surface, and the Coffin was funk down
with heavy Stones.

Private Adventurers from New- York, Phi-
ladelphia and Baltimore, carry on a tolerable
Trade at this Place-They have an Advance
of Cent per Cent on their Goods, which are
neverthelefs cheaper than Spani/k Importa-
tions. I could not afcertain what Impoft is
exalted here, but imagine it to be about fif-
teen per Cent ad Valorem.

During my Continuance in New Orleans,
I got acquainted with the celebrated Major
Fairlamb, whofe Name will be memorable
from the Circumftance of his having in the
Courfe of the laft War, with only Sixty-
three Men in a Blockhoufe, withftood and
repulfed General Wayne's whole Brigade. He
is now Surveyor-General for the King of
Spain in Louifiana. I had an ironical Mef-
E fage

( 42 )

fage from him to General Wayne, whom I
had not the Pleafure of Seeing, in my Route
through Georgia.

.May 16th. Went on Board the Gover-
nor's Packet at the Bayoue St. 7ohn, bound
to Mobille and Penfacola. In this Bayoue I
counted Seventy-three Alligators, which the
Eye could eafily take in at one View. The
Tail part of this Animal yields a very nu-
tritious Food, and on which, the Indians and
Negroes voracioufly englut and gormandize.
They are eafily killed with a Rifle Ball, dif-
charged about an Inch below the Eyes-All
other Parts except the Belly, are clothed with
impenetrable Scales. The ufual Length of
thofe I faw, were from fix to ten Feet; though
fome few are now and then feen, which mea-
fure upwards of Twenty Feet. I was in-
formed by an intelligent Spaniard that they
are of the fame Genus with the Crocodile on
the River Nile, many of which he had criti-
cally examined in the Courfe of his late Tra-
vels. On Board of this Veffel were Paffen-
gers, ten miserable Spaniards and a poor Ne-
gro, laden with combrous Chains, whofe in-
ceffant clangous Sounds, united with Heart-
rending Groans, tranfpierced my Ear, and
fadden'd all my Soul. They were under the
Care of an Enfign, whofe Feelings appeared

( 43 )

to be equally wounded with my own. Their
Fate will be confinement in a Prifon Ship,
till they, with many others, now in the Cal-
liboufe at Mobille, reach their ten Years gloo-
my Abode in the Copper Mines, where they
will be excluded from the Light of Heaven,
and drag out a miserable Exiftence under the
Iron Rod of ruthlefs Oppreffion, in hard and
unremitting Labour. Providence was kind
to thefe poor Wretches. At times they were
cheerful, and by no Means feemed to antici-
pate the fubterraneous Horrors which await

I7th. Arrived at Penfacola, the Metro-
polis of Wej/ Florida. There are fome ele-
gant Buildings in this Place, particularly the
Palace, Barrack and Chapel. Whilft Pen-
facola was in Poffeffion of the Britijh Go-
vernment, it was under an excellent Police,
and wore a very different Afpe&t from what it
now does; a great Part of the Town being
in a ruinous State. There is but one Tavern
for the Accommodation of Americans and
Foreigners, and its Rates are enormously high.
Their Market is well supplied with aquatic
Productions of every Species peculiar to the
Climate, and with flight Induftry, might vie
with Northern Markets in Mutton, Beef and
Pork, with the fuperiour and additional Ad-
E 2 vantage

( 44 )

vantage of Venifon. Perennial Fruits of all
Kinds, except Apples, they have in the great-
eft Profufion.

Don Arturo O'Neil, Governor of this Pro-
vince informed me, that during an eleven
Years Refidence in Penfacola, he had never
experienced a Moment's Sicknefs; and that
all the Citizens enjoyed uninterrupted Health,
except the Spanijh Garrifon; whofe Mode of
Living, will, at all Times, and in all Places,
be productive of complicated Difeafes. In-
ordinate Ufe of Ardent Spirits and bad Wine,
fuperadded to high feafoned Meats and pro-
mifcuous Intercourfe with lewd Women,
will disorder any the moft robuft Habit of

Immediately back of the Town is a de-
lightful Acclivity, from whence iffue many
bubbling Fountains of wholefome, pleasant
Water, filtrated through the Sand which con-
ftitutes the Hill. The upper and lower
Creek Nation trade to this Place, where they
are uniformly impofed upon by a Mr. Pan-
ton, who hath monopolized their Trade.
The poor Indians barter their Deer Skins at
fourteen Pence Sterling per Pound, for Salt
at nine Shillings Sterling per Bufhel. Pan-
ton is Part Owner of the Salt Works in the

( 45 )

Ifland of Providence, and has it brought to
Penfacola in his own Bottoms, at the Ave-
rage Expence of about three Pence per
Bufhel. I think his Goods at Mobille, Pen-
facola and St. Marks, are generally vended at
about Five Hundred per Cent on their prime

After having fpent about a Week in Pen-
Jacola, experiencing greater Civilities from
his Lordfhip than my moft fanguine Expec-
tations could have depided, I departed with
an Efcort of eleven Indians, to whom I was
introduced by the Governor, as an Englifz
Ambaffador Incog. This ludicrous Title I
endeavoured to support, during my Paffage,
through a Wildernefs of Three Hundred
Miles, by affuming wife Catonia Looks, big
with momentous and myftical Concerns. My
mock Gravity forfook me whenever I drew
over the Stage of Imagination, a Groupe of
old Acquaintance viewing me in my new and
farcial Capacity of Ambaffador from the
Court of London to an Indian Emperor.

My Indian Companions (from their Con-
dud I judge) were much pleaded with vari-
ous Parts of my Drefs, which they would
in my Prefence, try on and pull off, and pack
away in their Budgets; always remembering

( 46 )
to make a Bow and fay, "Tank you Sir,"
which extorted from me a Nod of Confent,
with the Addition of, You're welcome Gentle-
men. The very ample Stock of Rum, Wine,
&c. with which the Governor had supplied
me, was, with like Ceremony by them, and
other Parties which we frequently met, con-
fumed in about three Days. In about 20
Miles from Penfacola we reached the Indian
Boundary, no Part of their Territory ever ap-
proaching nigher than that Diftance to the
Sea-board. Notwithftanding the natural Ste-
rility of Soil from Penfacola almost to the Tal-
lipoofee River, the Long-leaf'd Pine, Hickory,
Oak, Poplar, and Walnut Trees grow to their
ufual Height, and protect from the fcorching
Rays of the Sun the tall and tender Grafs;
among which Plants, Shrubs and Flowers of
variegated Hue, and of rare medicinal Virtues,
are interfperfed; a Catalogue of which, hall
be fubjoined to fome future Page.

Tune Ift. Arrived at General M'Gillivray's
Houfe, fituate on the Coufee River, about 5
Miles above its Juntion with the Tallizoofee,
which forms the Alabama, whofe Confluence
with the Tombigbee forms the Bay of Mobille.
-At the Mouth of Mobille River, which
empties into the Bay, is a Town of similar
Name, of which, having only a tranfient

( 47 )
View, I hall not attempt a Defcription; but
only obferve that it is garrifon'd, and from its
Locality, muft 'ere long furpafs Penfacola, in
Population, Trade and Buildings.-The fer-
tile Grounds upon all the above laft mention-
ed Rivers are fettled and fettling by Corn,
Hemp and Tobacco-Makers, who will have
a nearer and better Navigation to Mobille than
to Penfacola-add to this the Peltry-Trade,
which will trebly exceed that of Tenfacola, as
being nearer to the Hunting-Grounds from
whence they may have Water-Carriage, except
at one or two places, where a very flight Por-
tage will be neceffary.

On my Arrival at M'Gillivray's where my
Indian Efcort left me, I was informed that
he had juft gone to his upper Plantation, on
the fame River, about 6 Miles diftant from
his present Refidence: Thither I impaired in
Company with his Nephew, who supplied
me with an Indian's ftray Horfe.-We had not
ridden far, before we unfortunately met the
Owner, who, with a menacing Countenance
and fans Ceremonie, feized the Bridle and or-
dered me to difmount immediately.- An
Hour's Walk brought me to the Place, where
the General was fuperintending fome Work-
men in the Eretion of a Log Houfe embel-
lifhed with dormer Windows, on the very

[ 48 ]

Spot where his Father refided whilft a Trader
in the Nation. Here are fome tall old Ap-
ple-trees planted by his Father, which make a
venerable Appearance, tho' greatly obftruct the
Profped to and from his rural humble Palace.
He received me with Franknefs and Civili-
ty; modestly enquired into my Bufinefs, and
promised every Affiftance in his Power to-
wards my Accomodation, whilft I should
think proper to make his Houfe my Home:-
Do they order Things better in France ? This
Gentleman to Appearance is at leaft Five and
Forty, tho' in Fat only Thirty-two Years of
Age-Diffipation marked his juvenile Days,
and fapped a Conftitution originally delicate
and feeble.-He is fubjet to an habitual
Head-Ach and Cholic, notwithstanding which
his Temper is placid and ferene, and at In-
tervals of Eafe quite joyous. He poffeffes an
Atticifm of Diftion aided by a liberal Educa-
tion, a great Fund of Wit and Humour,
meliorated by perfect good Nature and Po-
litenefs.-His Lady considering the Mode of
Education to which the was fubjedted in the
early Part of Life, is a Model of Prudence
and Difcretion; and could her Complexion,
which is olive, be commuted for the lovely
Tints of red and while, fhe would be
"A Woman lovelieft of the lovely Kind,
"Perfelt in Body, and complete in Mind."

( 49 )
By this Lady the General has two lovely
Children, Alexander and Elizabeth. They
fpeak the Englifh Tongue as well as Children
of a similar Age usually do among us.
He has a considerable Number of Negroes
at his different Plantations, probably more
than Fifty, and common Report fays, double
that Number in the Spanifh Weft-India If-
lands; as alfo large Stocks of Horfes, Hogs,
and horned Cattle. Two or three White
Men fuperintend their refpe&ive Ranges, and
now and then collect them together in Order
to brand, mark, &c: This they effe& by giv-
ing them a little Salt in their Inclofures. His
Table fmokes with good fubftantial Diet, and
his Side-board displays a Variety of Wines
and ardent Spirits.-The General encourages
his People in all Kinds of gymnaftic Exercifes;
his Motives for which may be eafily conjec-
tured- He invited me to a Ball-Match, about
io miles from his Houfe, between two Town-
fhips. Sixty-two alert young Fellows were
fele&ed from each Town. The Goals were
fet up about a Quarter of a Mile apart, near the
Center of an extensive Campaign or Praire.-
They confift of two blazed Saplings fixed in
the Ground about o1 Feet afunder at either
End, thro' which every. Time either Party
throws the Ball with their Rackets, they are
F entitled

( 50 )

entitled to count one-The Number of the
Game is arbitrary. -Midway between the
Goals, the Ball is thrown up alternately by
two old Men, who are mutually chofen by
the contending Parties to decide, all Contro-
verfies which may arife in the Courfe of the
Game-Upon throwing up the Ball a violent
Struggle enfues between the Parties which
sometimes lafts 8 or io Minutes, before either
Side can give it a caft; and when they do,
there are others of their Opponents ready to
intercept and give it an adverfe Direftion.-
On this Game Property to a very considerable
Amount is generally rifqued, confifting of
Broaches, Bracelets, Gorgets, Medals, Paints,
Arms and Ammunition piled up in a pyrami-
dical Form. Sometimes their whole Family
Stock of Food and Raiment is hazzarded.-
A diflocated Joint or fractured Bone is not un-
common: Suffer what they may, you'll never
fee an angry Look or hear a threatening Word
among them.
The Players deveft themselves of all their
Cloaths, except their Flaps. They ingeni-
oufly difguife themselves with various coloured
Paints and affume the Semblance of Rattle-
Snakes entwin'd about their Legs Thighs and
Arms; whilft fpiral Streaks of red, white, black
and blue, alternately adorn their other Parts.-

( 51 )

The vanquifhed Party immediately upon the
Conclufion of the Game, betake themselves
to their Heels, in Order to avoid the Scoffs
and Ridicule of their boaftful Conquerors.

Our Prefident, whilft M'Gillivray was in
New- York, complimented him with a Seleftion
of elegantly gilt bound Books; as alfo with the
Golden Epaulet which he had worn through-
out the War. The latter M'Gillivray confi-
ders as a great Honor conferred upon him;
and therefore, fays, he "prizes it far above
Rubies and much fine Gold." He receives an-
nual Prefents from his Father in Scotland,
which he modeftly displays to his Friends,
saying, thofe I received from my natural, thefe
from my political and adopted Father.

The Reader is here presented with a Speci-
men of M'Gillivray's epiftolary Compofition,
extracted from two Letters addreffed to Meffrs.
Boyd & Ker of Richmond, and to Mr. Collin
Douglafs of Manchefler, both written in Hafte,
and in a Circle of many Chieftains, whofe
Garrulity would have confused any other
Man than M'Gillivray.
"Little Tallifee, Upper Creek Nation, 5th June, 1791.
M R. Pope having called here on his Way Home, I em-
brace the Opportunity of making you my warmer
Acknowledgements, for the polite Attention which you
were pleaded to fhew to me, when I had the Pleafure of
being with you laft Summer. The

( 52 )

The Indifpofition with which I was attacked at New-
"York, rendered me unable to return by the Route I had
promisedd myfelf, and induced me to make a Paffage by Sea,
"neceffary to eftablifh my Health.
In the Hurry of getting out at an early Hour from Rich-
mond, I forgot to discharge a fmall Account I owed you;
Not recolleting the exa& amount; but imagine it to be
within the Compafs of a Guinea; I have given Col. Pope
one to deliver to you on my Account.
Wifhing you every Profperity, I remain
Gentlemen, your very obliged
Humble Servant,

Upper Creek Nation, 8th June, 1791.
" THE Bearer Col. Pope being on his Return Homeward,
" 1 from a Weftern Tour, and learning that he lives
" in your Neighbourhood, I embrace the favourable Oppor-
" tunity to make you and your very accomplished Lady my
" warmeft Acknowledgements, for the polite and friendly
" Attention ihewn me when on my Tour laft Summer.
The Effects of a severe Indifpofition at New-York rendered
me incapable of returning by the Route in which I came;
and after a tolerable Paffage of Fifteen Days, we landed at
St. Mary's in Georgia.
I felt great Regret that it was not in my Power to make
my Refpeas in Perfon, to the hospitable and friendly
Gentlemen of Manchefter and Richmond: but be affured
I hall long remember them- And "Sweet Jim of Aber-
deen," till vibrates on my Ear.
That you and your accomplished Lady may long enjoy
" Happinefs, and every Profperity, is the Wifh of
Your moft obedient
Humble Servant,

Having fpent an agreeable Time among the
upper Creeks, I took my Departure on the
General's Horfe, with his Overfeer as an Ef-
cort to the Lower Towns of Coweta, Broken-

( 53 )

Arrow and Cuffatee. The two former lie on
the Weftern, and the latter on the Eaftern Side
of the Chattakoutchee River, which takes its
Name from two Indian Words; Chatta, a
Stone, and Houtchee, which fignifies marked
or infcribed. This Stone lies about 3 Miles
above the Coweta, at the Rapids, covered over
with hieroglyphic Infcriptions, which the
present Race do not understand. On the
Weftern Side of the River, upon the low
Grounds of the Cufatees is a Mount, on whofe
Summit are the evident Traces of a Parapet
sufficiently large to have contained one Thou-
fand Men. This Mount appears to have been
the Work of Ages and of many Hands, being
upwards of 600 Yards in Circumferrence at
its Bafe, and about Ioo Feet in perpendicular
Height. On the Weftern Side and imme-
diately opposite to the Mount, are the Veftiges
of a very large and deep Intrenchment, thrown
up in a circular Form by the Anceftors of the
present Race, as a Defence against a nume-
rous Tribe of the Seminolies, whom the Creeks
after a long and bloody Conteft of 20 Years,
extirminated, and re-peopled the defeated Vil-
lages by flow Emigrations from their own
vi&orious Tribes. This Event according to
the oral Tradition of the Creeks, happened
about Ten Thou/and Years ago,when they had

( 54 )

a Giant-King of moft ftupendous Size, called
Billy Pig, who in Times of Dearth, would
flop the Chattahoutchee with his Foot, and di-
vert the Current over all the neighboring
Fields: That the Alligators got offended at
his Condu&, and begged their King to fnap
off his great Toe; the Lofs of which pre-
vented him from damming up the Water any
more with that Foot; and fo he died of Grief,
and was buried under the circular Mount al-
ready mentioned, coil'd up like a Rattle-Snake.
During my Tarriance at the lower Towns,
I formed an Intimacy with the Little King of
the Broken Arrow, who is friendly, commu-
nicative and intelligent. Through him, with
the Aid of an Interpreter, I attempted to com-
pofe a fmall Vocabulary of the Creekijh Tongue,
particularly offuch Words as moft frequently
occur in common Intercourfe. In the pro-
fecution of this, I enquired of him what Ap-
pellation he had for God? he replied, Sawgee
Putchetajee, which fignifies the Giver and
Taker of Breath: And pray with what Epi-
thet is your Majefty pleaded to honor the poor
old Devil? with Emotions of Contempt he
replied; there is no Devil: God Almighty is
too much of a Gentleman to keep bad Ser-
vants about him. Juft at this Inftant, his
Majefty received an Invitation to a Rum-

( 55 )

Drinking, which in Oppofition to all my Dif-
fuafions, he resolved to honour with his Pre-
fence. This Rum-Drinking or Spewing-
Match was held in the public Square, conti-
guous to their Hot-Houfe; in one or other
of which Places, as the Seafon may require,
the Wittenagemote of the DiftriA affemble for
the Difcuffion of all Subje&s, whether civil
or military, moral or divine. Here alfo they
hold their War Dances, display their Tro-
phies of War, and keep their annual Feftival
called the Bufk. This Feftival generally com-
mences about the middle of uly, upon the
firft Difcovery of ripen'd Corn, and is the
grand Epocha of the Creeks. All the Male
Clafs who have attained the Age of Puberty,
religioufly abstain from all Intercourfe with
the other Sex, and every Kind of Suftenance,
except Water, for three Days; which from
the Cathartics and Emetics they then fwal-
low, are called the Days of Purgation. Thus
cleaned from the Impurities of the former
Year, they extinguifh every Particle of Fire
throughout their DiftriA, and rekindle more
by the Frifion of a round Safafras Stick, in an
Augur Hole bored into a Piece of dryPoplar.
This Relighting of the Fire, is performed by
their Chief Prieft or Sachim, and communi-
cated by Torches to the Mafter or Miftrefs

( 56 )

of each refpe&ive Family. This done, a mul-
tifidous Mefs of new Corn, cooked over the
new Fire, is brought into the Centre of the
Square, and distributed with great Formality
among the Guefts, agreeable to Seniority and
Rank, by old Men and Women deputed for
that Purpofe. When the Repaft is over, they
rife up with one Confent, and with many
ftrange Gefticulations and loud Shouts of In-
dian Triumph, dance down the Sun, Moon,
and Seven Stars. At the Clofe of almoft every
Day throughout the Year, about 15 or 20
principal Townfmen affemble in the Square,
for the Purpofe of giving or receiving the moft
recent Intelligence, whether foreign or do-
meftic, which if important, is reported to their
grand Council, and by them to the National
Affembly, whole Decrees on the Occafion,
are generally ratified by their Emperor, who
has Power alfo of reje&ing them.-The Creeks
consider Fornication as a Faux Pas or venial
Crime at moft: but Wo! to the Sons and
Daughters who commit Adultry: Vengeance
in a fwift Career purfues them and cannot be
appeared, but by the corporeal Sufferance of
the Aggreffors. Upon a Detedion of the
Crime, about 50 or 60 Perfons of each Sex,
repair to a Thicket, and fupply themselves
with Hickory Clubs; this done, the Men de-

( 57 )

termine upon the Meafure of Punifhment to
be inflicted on the Woman and permit the
Women to decide upon the Man's. They then
separate, brandifhing their Clubs; the Men
in Queft of the Woman, the Women in Queft
of the Man. The Adultrefs when found, is
feized upon, and ignominioufly dragged into a
Circle formed by the Men, who beat her
with their Clubs till fhe can no longer ftand;
and whilft extended on the Ground, the A-
vengers proceed to dock her Hair, crop her
Ears, and flit her Noftrils ; of all this her Ina-
morato, is made an unwilling Specator, and
sometimes an Agent; who, in Turn, fuffers a
similar Difgrace in the Circle of the Women,
his fair Dulcinea looking on. What I have
here mentioned are the higheft Punifhments
they ever infli&, even upon the moft atrocious
Offenders.-Sometimes they difpenfe with
cropping their Ears and flitting the Noftrils,
and content themselves, with giving the Of-
fender a found Drubbing and a fhort Dock :-
This Lenity was extended a few Days ago to
a Mr. Patrick Murphy,who plead Juftification;
alledging that he was a Foreigner, ignorant
of their Ufages and Laws; that the Woman
was no Chriftian, having never been baptized;
and that not having the Fear of God before
her Eyes; what he had done was altogether
accidental. G If

( 58 )

If the Club Bearers ever relinquish, or lay
down their Clubs through any Mifhap or Ne-
ceffity; before they encircle the ObjeA of their
Vengeance, they dare not refume them again,
as it is prefumed, that it was fo ordered by
their God, in tender Mercy to the Delinquents,
who are accordingly acquitted of that Offence.
Upon the Deceafe of an Adult of either Sex,
the Friends and Relations of the Decedent re-
ligioufly colleA whatever he or fhe held moft
dear in Life, and inter them clofe by and fome-
times in their Owner's Grave. This pious
Tribute to their Dead includes Horfes, Cows,
Hogs and Dogs, as well as Things inanimate.
A Girl of about 16 Years of Age died a
few Days before I left the Nation. She had
procured from a Spanik Officer at Penfacola,
a likely Boar-Pig of the Spanih Breed, which
fhe brought Home, and cherished in her Bo-
fom, until he waxed strong, and became an
ufeful Member in his Generation. Now when
her Brethren, and the young Men of the Land,
perceived that the Damfel was dead; they
arofe up and purfued after the Boar and flew
him. And a certain young Man of the Houfe
of Illefenekaw flood up in the Midft of the
Congregation, and faid; I will go unto my
Lord the King and unto the Elders and Chief
Men of the Land, and fay unto them, Verily

( 59 )

the Big Boar of Chattahoutchee is flain; by
the Arrows of the Sons of Ninewaw is he
fallen! And they faid unto him Go: And he
departed and went unto the King, and unto
the Elders and Chief Men of the Land, and
reported all thefe Things; faying, Verily the
Big Boar of Chattahoutchee is flain, by the
Arrows of the Sons of Ninewaw is he fallen.
And when the King and the Elders and Chief
Men heard thereof, they drank strong Drink
and grew exceeding Wroth, faying; the Blood
of the Boar be upon the Head of thofe, who
have wrought this Evil in Coweta; for they
wift not that the Damfel was dead- This
extraordinary Circumftance extorted from me
an Epitaph on the Damfel and the Boar, who
are now Jointenants of one Grave.
Beneath this Turf a Woman,
Lies buried with a Boar;
Which to all Sows was common,
As /he to all Men, Whore.

The Creeks regularly make a Burnt Offer-
ing of what they conceive to be the moft de-
licious Parts of every Animal taken in Hunt-
ing, before they prefume to tafte a Mouthful.
The Parts they commit to the Flames are
proportioned to the Size of the Animal, pro-
bably about 2 or 3 lb. from a Buffalo, and
fill lefs in a regular gradation down to the
fmalleft Quadrupede, Fifh or Bird. The

( 60 )

The Creeks like the Otakeiteans as menti-
oned in Cook's Voyages, have a Cuftom of
Tatowing themselves, and probably upon fimi-
lar Principles. The young and old of both
Sexes undergo this Operation in Silence, and
without the leaft mufcular Diftortion. I faw
it performed upon a Child of 4 Years old, who
when released gave a Shout, and faid, now
"I'm a Man, and a Warrior too."
Thofe who live in Townfhips are Tenants
in Common of large extensive Fields of Corn,
Rice and Potatoes, which commonly lie on
the fat low-Grounds of fome River conveni-
ent to their Towns.
The Cultivation of the Soil and almost every
domestic Drudgery are impofed upon their Wo-
men, who are lefs prolific than ours; probably
owing to their hard Labour and exceffively
coarfe and fcanty Diet. A long rainy Seafon
had rendered their Fields fo quaggy that all
Cultivation was impracticable; they durft not
even venture to cut down the tall rank Weeds
which towered above their Corn. In this ge-
neral Diftrefs an old Conjuror, of the Name of
Senetahawgo ftept forth into the Square, and
thus harrangued the listening Crowd:
" Men & Warriors of Coweta, Broken-Arrow & Cuffatee,
"THE great God of Thunder and Light-
ning and of Rain, who ftands upon the aerial

( 61 )

Battlements of Heaven, hath raised his angry
terrifonous Voice, and with the Lightnings
flashing from his Eyes, hath rent the Bofom
of the Clouds! He hath hidden the Sun be-
hind the Moon, and covered her Face with a
Bear-Skin: With the Tails of numerous Bea-
vers, he hath concealed the twinkling Stars!
We have been Traitors to our God, to Hip-
po ilk Meco, to Lauco Waj ington We have
rejected the good Talk of Hippo ilk Meco, and
listened to the lying Talk of Cherokees! We
have infringed the Treaty with Lauco WVa/fl
ington in ftealing Horfes from his Children!
Our young Men refufe to hunt :-their Guns
are rufty and their Hatchets dull! They fell
their Horfes, Cloaths and filver Ornaments
for Rum. Our Women laugh at us and re-
fufe to work: they are Proftitutes and fuckle
the Children of white Men! Our Men are
worfe than the Excrement of Dogs or Spani-
ards:-Our Women viler than the Urine of
Pole-Cats or the Vomit of Buzzards! For
thefe Caufes are our Fields drenched by the
angry Clouds of the Firmament.
When will the gladfome Rays of Sol return
and deficcate our flooded Fields? Ah! never
till in Duft and Afhes we repent, and forfake
our evil Ways. Men and Warriors, let us
confefs our Faults and amend our Manners;

( 62 )

and then Sawgee Putcheha/fee will forgive us,
and bid the Sun to fhew himfelf, and with a
genial Warmth revive our drooping Corn.-
My Sons, I'm very old and chilly; the Mar-
row of my Bones is dry, and fcarcely creeps
the Blood along thefe Veins, which once in
rapid Currents flow'd-I want a Keg of Rum.
-My Daughters, I have fafted for three Days
and Nights, and invoked my God in your
Behalf.-I am hungry as a Wolf.-I want to
eat fome Hog and Hominy."

A plaintive dull Monoty constitutes the vo-
cal M ufic of the Creeks. They are paffion-
ately fond of instrumental Mufic, particularly
that of the Violin, to which like Perfons bit-
ten by the Turantula, they will dance for fe-
veral Hours without the leaft Intermiffion.

No People under Heaven are more attached
to, or fwerve lefs from, the Cuftoms of their
Anceftors than the Creeks. Whether this At-
tachment originates in filial Piety, or in Igno-
rance I cannot determine: But as a Clue for Con-
jecture, let me relate their Mode of Cropping.
They plant their Corn in Holes at an une-
qual, tho' never greater Diftance than Tobac-
co Hills, from one another. Twenty or thirty
Grains are frequently thrown into an Hole

[ 63 ]

which produce as many earlefs Stalks, and
which they will upon no Confideration fuffer
to be thin'd. They fay a plough is nothing
but a Horfe-trap, and therefore never ufe it,
contenting themselves with light Weeding
Hoes, with which they barely fcalp the graffy
Surface of their Fields. Their Inclofures are
Fork and Rail Fences juft high enough to
keep out horned Cattle. Whilft their Crops
are in the Ground they tether out their Horfes,
Hogs &c, to Trees, Stumps and Stakes. Tho'
they have numerous limpid Streams of excel-
lent Spring Water gufhing from their River
Banks, yet like old Seneca they prefer the tepid
Waters from their Creeks and Rivers. They
fcarcely ever weed, hill, prime, top or fuccour
their Tobacco, and always cut and cure it very
green over a hafty blaft of Fire, as they do
their Killicanic or Sumac Leaves, which when
mixed with Tobacco, emit a moft delightful
Odour from the Pipe. This Preparation of
Sumac and Tobacco, the Indians constantly
fmoke, and consider as a fovereign Remedy in
all cephalic and pedoral Complaints.

The Creeks in approaching the Frontiers
of Georgia, always encamp on the right Hand
fide of the Road or Path, affigning the left,
as ominous, to the Larvea or Ghofts of their
departed Heroes who have either unfortunate-

( 64 )

ly loft their Scalps, or remain unburied. The
Ghoft of an Hero in either Predicament, is
refused Admittance into the Manfions of Blifs,
and sentenced to take up its invifible and dark-
fome Abode, in the dreary Caverns of the
Wildernefs; until the Indignity fhall be reta-
liated on the Enemy, by fome of his furviving
Agriculture among the Creeks is little un-
derftood and lefs praftifed.-I know of but
one Man in the whole Nation, who poffeffes
tolerable Induffry, and that is a private Citi-
zen, called the Bully, who from a very hum-
ble Beginning hath accumulated an eafy For-
tune, confifting of the following Species of
Property, viz. Of Negroes, 16 Men, 19 Wo-
men and 26 Children. Of Horfes, 5 Studs,
32 Geldings, 127 Mares and 83 Colts. Of
black Cattle, 19 Bulls, 58 Steers, 326 Cows,
and 132 Calves. Of Hogs about 300 Head;
besides Houfhold Furniture, Peltry and Store
Goods, to a very considerable Amount. Two
likely young Wenches between the Ages of
15 and 20, are the only Children the Bully
has, and from his advanced Age, its probable
he will never encreafe the Number. It is
faid the Black Dog is a Man of Property, tho'
a moft egregious Sot and Sluggard.-I once
faw his Majefty in a Puddle of his own Ex-

( 65 )

ment and Urine, which attracted Swarms of
Spanik Flies and Beetles, whofe constant Buzz
had lull'd him into fweet Repofe. The Pow-
ers of their Kings appear to be very circum-
fcribed and nearly on a Par with thofe of a
common County Magiftrate with us, the Li-
mits of their refpe&tive Governments being
sometimes confined to a single Townfhip, or
a Spot of Ground not more than Ten Miles
Square. M'Gillivray who is perpetual Dic-
tator, in Time of War fubdelegates a Num-
ber of Chieftains for the Direfion of all mi-
litary Operations; and when the War con-
cludes, they, in Compenfation for their
martial Atchievements, are invested by the
Di&ator with civil Authority which fuper-
fedes the hereditary Powers of their Demi-
June 29th. The Little King of the Brok-
en-Arrow returned, and furnished me with
the following Catalogue of Indian Words,
with a literal Tranflation to each by Mr.
Darifoux, Linguift to the Lower Creeks.
Sawgee Putchehaffe, God, or the Sow a ki gee, Lie by his Side.
Giver and Taker of Breath. Cowawigee, Mr. Thomas Kerr,
Hippo ilk Meco, M'Gillivray, or or the Little Partridge.
the good Child King. Illefenekaw, the Baboon.
Honuntauchee, Do. or the Chulefenekaw, the mad Dog.
great Man. Ninewaw, lie in the Path.
Chuloehawjo, the mad Light- Senetehawgo, wait for the Day.
wood. luletiga, he efcaped from his
Chuleetawbe, the dry Pine. Enemy.
Mecohawjo, the mad King. Mifs Sukee,
H Putchefua

( 66 )

Putchefua, An axe,
Waweaw Nunnowaw, a Bull.
Chutkfacvu a Bridle.
Hatchee, a Creek.
Atchee, Corn.
Hocuffee, a Child.
Etchoo, a Deer.
Toatloa, an Eye.
Ak Hftee, my Friend.
Cappo took, an Hat,
Chatto, Iron.
Meco, a King.
Ocunna, Land.
Ifle Hatkee, a white Man.
Ije Chautee, an Indian or red
Ifee Lujte, a negro or black
Hoakta, a Woman.
Stignee, an Owl,
Catcha, a Panter.
Chitloc, an Horfe.
Itchca, a Gun.
Slaufcau, a Knife.
Capo, a Coat.
Cappo Lauco, a great Coat.
Chautee, Blood.
Stilliiga, a Moccofon or Shoe
lttee, a tree.
Toatka, Fire.
Tofeena, Bacon.
Wawcaw Pifee, Milk.
Wawcaw Piffee Nehaw, Butter.
WawcawPifee Tuckaliga,Cheefe
Tuckaliga, Bread.
Ockchaun/waw, Salt.
Hfawaw, Penes.
Hafnilcaw, Tefticuli.

Chulua, Pudendum Muliebre.
Hic/ka, Foeminam fubagitare.
Pifee, the Breaft.
Epha, a Dog.
Epha Hoakala, a Bitch.
Nawenffee, a Bear.
Chawcawcaw, a Goofe.
Futchu, a Duck.
Pinnua, a Turkey.
Ilklo, a Squirrel.
Fufwaw, a Bird.
Chofte, a Sheep.
Chofochee, a Hare or little Sheep
Wootcoo, a Racoon.
Suka, a Hog.
Suka Hatkee, an Opoffum or
white Hog.
Telafo, a Town.
Ponunga, an Indian Talk.
Ninnce Hee Mattee? is this
the Way?
Ife na af/cha ? where are you
going ?
Na aftcha Pen/acola, I am go-
ing to Penfacola.
Ife nata ifca ? where did you
come from ?
Nata efca New Otleans, I came
from New-Orleans.
Wee Hummee, Rum, or firong
Fo in Chumba, a Bee, or a Fly
in Sweetnefs.
Netta Ha/fee, the Sun.
Netlee Haffee, the Moon.
Cockeechumba, a Star.
Tuflaniga, a Warrior.

Telawgo Hatchee, Pea Creek, and Chaulee Hatchee, Red
River from a Bay of great Extent between St. Marks and
Wee launco Hatchee, yellow water River, makes a large Bay
in Sight of Penfacola.
Wee Lujtee, black Water Creek, empties into yellow Wa-
ter River.
Wee Hatkee, white Water Creek, and Wee Cuffappee, Cold
Water Creek, empty into Conakee Hatchee, which forms the
Bay of Penfacola. Took

( 67 )
Took my Departure from the Nation in
Company with a Mr. 7okn Turvin, who in
Courfe of the laft War, to efcape the Perfecu-
tion of the Georgians, fled for ProteCion to
the Britih Standard, where he continued till
the Surrender of St. AuguJline, from whence
he repaired to the Creek Nation, took a Wife,
and commenced a Trader. He is a friendly
honest Man, though very irritable when he
conceives the leaft Indignity offered to him.
To footh his captious Temper which involved
both him and me in frequent Difficulties, I
had Recourfe to Adulation, fuch as, I'm fur-
prifed Mr. Turvin, that a Gentleman of your
good Senfe should condefcend to word it with
fuch low-liv'd Wretches!-You, who have
been educated in the Britijk Camp, among
Officers of the firft Rank and Dignity!-Fie !
Fie! For a Gentleman to put himself upon a
Level with fuch Cattle!

rune 3oth. Late in the Evening we arriv-
ed at an old defeated Indian Village, fituate
on the Banks of Flint River, near an Hun-
dred Miles from Chattahoutchee, with which
it unites, and empties into the Ocean 50 Miles
South of St. Marks.-About 30 Families
from the Chattahoutchee Townfhips are re-
fettling this Place. The late Rains had
forced the River out of its Banks and rendered

( 68 )

it impaffable to Mr. Turvin's Horfes which
were loaded with Beaver-Skins. In this per-
plexity two young Fellows very opportunely
came up and proffered their Affiftance in the
Conftru&ion of a Raft, composed of the Tim-
bers from the old Village Houfes.-When
we had croffed the Stream, they proposed
going with us as far as the federal Fort on
the Oconee, to which we readily affected, and
found them very tra&able in rendering every
poffible Aid in similar Predicaments.

7uly 2 Encamped on the Banks of Ock-
mulga about 30 Miles from Flint. Here alfo
we had Recourfe to our Indian Friends for an-
other Raft as well as a Shelter from a moft vio-
lent Rain which was then defcending. They
foon conftru&ed both; the former with dry
Logs, the latter with the Bark of Pines.-
Ockmulga unites with the Oconee, and forms
the Alatamaha which empties into the Sea
North of St. Mary's River, and is navigable
for Veffels of 40 or 50 Tons Burthen 300 Miles
from its Mouth. Late in the Evening arrived
at, and continued on the Banks of the Oconee,
which was impaffible for two Days.-Here
our Proviffions were exhausted, and Turvin
and myfelf appeared like Men without Hope,
having left all our Ammunition on the South
Bank of the Ockmulga at our laft Encamp-