Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Goals and objectives
 Case studies
 Phase 1 concepts
 Phase 2 concepts
 Sustainability exploration
 Preliminary master plan and storm...
 Final master plan

Title: Sustainability & the user experience : Turner Field
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100155/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sustainability & the user experience : Turner Field
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Beane, Nicole A.
Publisher: College of Design, Construction & Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100155
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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Table of Contents
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Acknowledgement 1
        Acknowledgement 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Goals and objectives
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Case studies
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Phase 1 concepts
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Phase 2 concepts
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Sustainability exploration
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Preliminary master plan and storm analysis
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Final master plan
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
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        Page 100
        Page 101
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        Page 103
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Full Text

Sustainability & The User Experience: Turner Field
Senior Capstone Project

Sustainability &

The User Experience: Turner Field
Senior Capstone Project

Presented To:
University of Florida
Department of Landscape Architecture

Prepared By:
Nicole A. Beane
University of Florida
Department of Landscape Architecture
College of Design, Construction & Planning
Senior Capstone Spring 2010

Faculty Advisor:
Kay Williams


I dedicate this book to:

My loving and wonderful family. Thank you for believing in me and
supporting my future career as a landscape architect.

My best friend & future husband, Caleb. Thank you for always sticking
by my side and keeping me grounded throughout the past five years.

Special thanks to:

My faculty advisor Kay Williams. Thank you for the immense amount of
time spent working with me on a weekly basis and always pushing me to
"think outside of the box."

My professor Glenn Acomb for assisting me with anything and everything
that dealt with stormwater, green roofs, and green walls. Thank you for all
of the time and knowledge you shared with me throughout this project.

Mr. Kerry Blind, President of Ecos Environmental Design, Inc. based in
Atlanta, Georgia for providing base maps and helpful information that
assisted me throughout my capstone process.

My friends and roommates, Chelsea & Yenlys, for their continued motivation
throughout the semester. Thank you for late night visits to Cold Stone & the
countless number of times we went to McAlisters just for iced tea.

Table of Contents

Goals & Objectives
Site Location
Existing Conditions
Site Photos
History of Turner Field

Case Studies
Case Study 1
Case Study 2
Case Study 3

Existing Land Use
Site Topography
Existing User Experience
Mass Transit
Parking Analysis
Traffic Flows

Opportunities & Constraints

Phase 1 Concepts
Concept 1 The User Experience
Concept 2 Multi-Purpose
Concept 3 Sustainability

Phase 2 Concepts
Concept 4: Green Space
Concept 5: Rain Gardens

Environmental Sustainability Exploration
1. Green Roofs
2. Green Walls
3. Stormwater Gardens
4. Cisterns

Preliminary Master Plan & Stormwater Analysis
Preliminary Master Plan

Final Master Plan

Focal Areas
Focal Area 1: Green Roof Parking Deck
Focal Area 2: Parking Lot Rain Gardens
Focal Area 3: Hank Aaron Green
Focal Area 4: Main Entry Walk
Focal Area 5: Commercial Connection





For this project, I set out to accomplish a hypothetical proposal which would increase the sustainability
and improve the overall user experience at Turner Field in Atlanta, Georgia. I originally took on this
project to explore and improve my knowledge of green roofs, green walls, and stormwater management
within a dense urban area. As the project progressed, I realized that the term "sustainability" had
a much broader meaning. Environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, and one of the most
influential factors throughout the design process, social sustainability, quickly became the major focuses
of my project.

I analyzed the existing site and focused primarily on vehicular circulation, pedestrian/vehicular
conflicts, the overall user experience, and topography. My goals and objectives helped in the
development of multiple concepts and a preliminary master plan. Several focal areas were selected and
I explored each area in greater detail. After evaluating the pros and cons of each concept, a final master
plan was developed.

In conclusion, this proposal aims to hypothetically explore and fuse together the existing Turner Field
site with the newest sustainable ideas and technology, decrease the amount of stormwater running off
of the site, and by allowing Turner Field to become a multi-purpose space that can be used for baseball,
festivals, weddings, concerts, and more.

Goals & Objectives

Goal 1: Reduce stormwater runoff
Reducing the amount of impervious parking and
increasing the amount of open green space
Implementing green roofs and permeable paving
to allow storm water to be retained
Reuse storm water as irrigation for the proposed
living green walls or for surrounding vegetation
Redirecting stormwater into a proposed detention
basin and reusing it instead of letting it runoff
into the city sewer system

Goal 3: To improve wayfinding for visitors at Turner Field
Help fans find their vehicles after the game
Improving signage (parking lot i.d., directional,
use areas, etc.)
Using lighting as needed in parking areas to
improve safety yet remaining sustainable
(reduce light pollution)

Goal 2: To make sustainability apparent in the design and fun!
Making the parking structure aesthetically pleasing by
adding vegetation and green walls to the sides
(showing them something they've never seen
Allowing visitors to interact within the sustainable
efforts by designating recreational and tailgating
areas within open green spaces on the site
Make processes visible

Goal 4: Provide Multi-Use Areas
Increasing the size of the designated tailgate areas
Providing a small outdoor dining area where visitors
can buy refreshments and food before games
Providing more shaded areas with vegetation to
improve the microclimate and make summer
days less uncomfortable for visitors


Site Location

Turner Field is located in Atlanta, Georgia within Fulton County. Downtown
Atlanta is located just 1 mile to the north and major Atlanta attractions such
as the Georgia Dome, the Georgia Aquarium, the CNN Center, Centennial
Olympic Park, and the World of Coca Cola are within a 2 mile radius of
Turner Field Multiple major highways run along the site boundaries which
allow easy access for out of town visitors but interfere with the main
connections of Turner Field to the rest of Atlanta.

Irirmsm Site Boundary

10, Feet
0 150 300 600 900

Existing Conditions

anmum Site Boundary

-.. Olympic Torch Monument

Entry Plaza

0 200 400 600 8(

Field Main Entrance

SHank Aaron Monument


,-? Parking Entrances

*Turner Field


Original Wall
*sea* Underground


fS ^

Crushed Rubble from Demolished
Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium

Tailgating Parking


20' Historic Wall

Lower Parking Areas

Hank Aaron Monument

Context Map



_ _

Site Photos

HanK Aaron Monument

Stadium Footprint

I typical MAK IA Bus Stop

Facing lurner Field trom one
many parking areas

*i, r

The Historic Atlanta Fulton County Stadium Wall


General Facts

Built: 1965
First Braves Game: April 12, 1966
Last Braves Game: August 2, 1996
Demolished August 2 1997
Cost 18 Million Dollars


Atlanta Fulton County Stadium Aerial in 1993
The Atlanta Fulton County Stadium was built in 1965 an used as a multi-use
facility The Braves moved to Atlanta from Milwaukee 1966 and baseball fans
within the city look a quick liking to the new team The circular structure of the
field was the first of its kind and its close location to the city center made it easily

One of baseball's greatest home runs was hit at Atlanta Fulton County
Stadium in 1974 by Hank Aaron He hit his record breaking 715th home run
.lA... ..... and broke the title previously held by Babe Ruth.
www.atlantatimemachine.com 1966

0 4

, Bill ~

Turner Field

General Facts

Built 1996 for the Olympic Games
Capacity 85,000
Parking Spaces On Project Site 6174
Total Parking Spaces 7374
Home Team Atlanta Braves
Cost 235 Million Dollars

Current Turner Field Aerial
Turner Field was bullet in 1996 for the Olympic Games in Atlanta
while the old Allanta Fullon County Stadium was demolished to
allow more parking Although the old stadium no longer stands.
there are many focal points that currently exist in its memory
Part of the original wall still stands within the parking lot and an
exact footprint of the old baseball diamond is shown in paving
A monument where Hank Aaron s 715th home run ball landed
stands on the site for all fans to see Turner Field also added
parking to the west of the main highways to keep up with the
increased number of fans that attend baseball games today A S

Case Studies

Case Study 1

General Facts:

Location: Arlington, Texas
Size: 73 Acres
Built: May 29, 2009
Cost: 1 Billion Dollars
Home Team: Dallas Cowboys
Parking Spaces: 12,000

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Cowboys Stadium Arlington, Texas

The brand new football stadium of the Dallas Cowboys has just
opened and its design is very fan friendly. The parking that surrounds
the Cowboys Stadium is broken up by green spaces designated for
pre-game tailgating. Two main plazas at the east entry gate and the
west entry gate are also main pre-game spaces for fans.

The plazas contain are the site for pre-game festivities which include
performances by live bands, Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders, and
Dallas Cowboys Rhythm and Blue Dancers. Restrooms, outdoor bars,
concessions, and large video screens are located within the outdoor
plazas which help to improve the visitor experience and get the fans
excited even before entering into the area.

Rogers Centre Toronto, Ontario Case Study 2

General Facts:

Location: Toronto, Ontario
Size: 12.7 Acres
Built: June 3, 1989
Cost: 500 Million Dollars
Home Team: Toronto Bluejays
Parking Spaces: 17,500 Underground Spaces
Pre-game tailgating at the Rogers Centre http://www.flickr.com

AL -- IKingreet The Rogers Centre is a sports complex
ngSteet located in Toronto, Canada. It is located
directly next to the famous CN Tower and a
[14 acre green space called Roundhouse
wellingtonstreet 3 Park- The park is easily accessible from the
Rogers Centre and is used as a green
7, D"\i space for tailgating and pre-game festivities.
r -- Front Street
Two main parking options exist at the
roundhouse Rogers Centre. There is an underground
i P rk parking area located directly under the
,3 rne I stadium and there is local parking around
the stadium a short walking distance away.
Incorporating underground parking within a
Lakeshore Bvd. city is an ideal solution when considering the
space restrictions of an urban area.

I Parking A PublicTransit Road Closure Parkinglo locations subject tochange.

Case Study 3 Rangers Ballpark -Arlington, Texas

General Facts:

Location: Arlington, Texas
Size: 270 Acres V _. _
Built: September 12, 1999 .
Cost: 290 Million Dollars
Home Team: Texas Rangers
Parking Spaces: 12,000

Rangers Ballpark is located just down the street from
] E I the new Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas. It has
S an expansive green space on the site called the North
Lawn. A small body of water runs through the North
Lawn and fans enter the ballpark grounds over a
Bridge that connects the parking areas. The North
/// ^ Lawn is used by fans on game days and is also used
SI .__ ;" by the community for music events and craft fairs.

Progressive Field Cleveland, Ohio Case Study 4

General Facts:

Location: Cleveland, Ohio
Size: 12 Acres
Built: April 4, 1994
Cost: 175 Million Dollars
Home Team: Cleveland Indians
Parking Spaces: None on Site
Promote public transit & Downtown
Cleveland Parking Garages 30,000 Spaces

Entry Gate to the cemetery adjacent to Progressive Field Google Earth

Progressive Field is a baseball stadium located within
the city of Ohio. It is tightly situated next to a major
highway and dense buildings. Although there is no
official parking on site, fans can find parking for the
games easily by using one of the many multi-level
parking garages nearby. Accessible parking in a great
area of the city makes pedestrian walking to and from
Sthe baseball field pleasant. There are also small strips
of green spaces that surround the stadium in an effect
to beautify the stadium. One of the larger green
spaces is currently being used as a cemetery,
however, the idea of tying in larger green spaces will
be critical as I apply these ideas within my design ideas
for Turner Field.

Case Study 5 Sun Life Stadium Miami, Florida

General Facts:

Location: Miami, Florida
Size: 270 Acres
Built: December 1, 1985
Cost: 115 Million Dollars
Home Team: Florida Marlins, Miami Dolphins
Parking Spaces: 22,000 http://www.sunlifestadium.com

Sun Life Stadium primarily uses grassy permeable paving
throughout their parking areas. Permeable pavement
allows stormwater to seep into the ground without having to
incorporate a catch basin or underground drainage system
below typical asphalt parking. Alternating strips of grass
and asphalt simultaneously allow for parking, tailgating, and
fire lanes for emergency vehicles to coexist.

hbLq r

Google Earth

New Anfield Stadium Liverpool, United Kingdom Case Study 6

General Facts:

Location: Liverpool, United Kingdom
Built: In Progress To be Finished 2011
Cost: 4000 Million Pounds
Use: Multi-Use Sports Complex
Parking Spaces: None on Site
Promote public transit o
liverp a post.co.uk

Liverpool Football Club is proposing to build a new
S1 Istadium that would include many green elements
within its design. It will be built on the perimeter of
.*c Stanley Park, an existing 110 acre park located in
Liverpool. Incorporating Stanley Park into the design
S/ of the new Anfield Stadium hopes to revitalize and
regenerate the area. New housing and retail areas
SSalong with the proposed stadium may boost the
economy and enhance the infrastructure within the
Area. The new grounds will be very green and include
Sa water retention system to re-use rainwater within the
site. Fans will be encouraged to use public transit and
incorporating Stanley Park nearby will provide
0 pedestrians a pleasant walk to the stadium.

Context Map


Existing Land Use of Atlanta

0.5 1 2 3Miles

Turner Field is currently located within a
commercial land use area. Commercial land use
is designated in bright red and extends up
through the city of Atlanta to the north of the
site. Multiple major highways, shown in grey,
cut off all connections Turner Field has with the
rest of the commercial land use areas. Low and
medium density residential areas surround
Turner Field to the east, west, and south.

Due to the major highways isolating the site
and residential areas surrounding the rest of
the site, Turner Field is set apart from the rest
of Atlanta and exists within its own "bubble."
This isolation leads to the assumption that
fans who visit Turner Field rarely venture past
the ball field's site boundaries. It is an
attraction on it's own.

C City Limits
A Streets
Existing Land Use
1 Commercial
SIndfComm Complexes
1 Urban-other
Ag-confined feeding
1 Wetlands
- Exposed Rock
- Iransitional
Res-low density
Res-med density
Res-high density
Res-multi family
Res-mobile home pk
l Institutional-intensive
I Institutional-extensive
Ltd Access Highways
Golf Courses


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Water Flows The existing topography shows where the majority of the water is flowing off of
the site. This is important when determining where to implement new storm
water detention areas on the proposed master plan.
..--:_! deen-o _-:_s }~ : ,, .,se /"e p,... .. .

0 150 300 600 9(

.... L.... Vehicular Traffic

***I* Pedestrian Traffic


Pedestrian Traffic Only
During Baseball Games



User Experience

Existing Pedestrian Gateways

SThe entrance to the west is decent but needs improvement.

U The main entrance into Turner Field is excellent. Very easy to find.

Pedestrian underpass strongly directly pedestrian flows to the main
gate of Turner Field. Pleasant walk and aesthetically pleasing
streetscape. Possible safety issues within the underground tunnel.
Nice visual entry with the Olympic Torch and the beginning of the
streetscape. Unsafe perception when the parking lot is empty. Great
potential connections to the metro rail lines.

Unclear pedestrian pathways throughout existing parking
lots cause possible vehicular/pedestrian conflicts.



Mass Transit

Rail Map

Medical Center


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Edgewood Ave NE
Hurt Park

:;: Georgia State

Rail Station ..

Mmorjnial Di SE
- Momrki S
6. S-
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Love St


SRichmond St SE
-4 Crumley St SE

i E

Georgia Ave

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Little St SE

South Ave SE

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LItl St SE

There are two ways fans can utilize the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid
Transit Authority (MARTA.) The first way is arriving to Turner Field by
MARTA Rail. Although there are no rail stations directly surrounding
Turner Field, it is suggested that fans wanting to use the MARTA Rail
System take the train to the Georgia State Rail Station.

Upon exiting at the Georgia State Rail Station, Turner Field is only
a short walk south on Capitol Ave. The walk is approximately 1 mile
and takes about 22 minutes to complete. Fans using the MARTA
Rail System help reduce the number of vehicles that need parking
spaces at Turner Field.


82 West End

) S3 Oaklana Ciry
) 4 Lakewood'FI McPnerson
SS East Point
IS6 College Park ,

The Braves Shuttle

Braves Shuttle drops off at
Forsyth Street entrance
after the game

Alabama Street

Fv Pont


Martin Luther King Jr. Drive

Braves Shuttle Buses
depart from
Steve Polk Plaza

The second way that fans can utilize the MARTA is by using the Braves Shuttle
Buses. Fans using the MARTA Rail should exit at the Five Points Rail Station
and continue walking through Underground Atlanta. This short walk will quickly
bring you to the Steve Polk Plaza where the shuttle departs.

The Braves Shuttle Buses start running 90 minutes before the start of the game
and continue running at 15 minute intervals throughout the game. This shuttle
service ends 1 hour after the final out. The Braves Shuttle Buses are free for
anyone who transfers from the MARTA Rail. Round trip tickets for fans that do
not have a transfer ticket can be purchased for $4.50.

Using the Braves Shuttle Buses will not only free up parking spaces for patrons
unable to use the MARTA but it helps to minimize the traffic buildup on the
surrounding streets along Turner Field. Another advantage of using the
MARTA is that the Braves Shuttle Buses will drop off patrons right across the
street from the stadium and minimize the amount of pedestrians crossing the
busy streets and parking lots. It's more convenient and safer!


Game Day Parking









_r -




ibs -,
4 s






Turner Field has many different options for parking if patrons
choose not to use the MARTA.

The first lot to open on game day is the Green Lot. The
Green lot opens at 8am and cost $12. Early tailgating is
encouraged within this lot due to the early opening time.

All remaining lots open 3 hours before game time and costs
range from $8 $12. The Diamond Preferred Lot is a special
Valet Parking Lot. The Lexus Parking Lot only
accommodates guests who drive a Lexus.

There are 160 handicapped parking spaces available in the
Green Lot. These spaces cost $10 $12 and are available on
a first come first served basis.

All patrons who park in the lots to the west of Interstate 85
and Interstate 75 must walk to Ralph David Abernathy and
follow that street east to Turner Field in order to cross
underneath both interstates. Fans parking in the North East
Silver Lots can walk along Central Avenue south to Ralph
David Abernathy or follow Fulton Street east to Washington

Fans who park in the Orange Lot and Gold Lot are
encouraged to use the underground pedestrian passage way
to cross Hank Aaron Drive. The underground passage way is
located directly in the middle of the Orange Lot and Gold Lot.
Fans who park in the Lexus lot can use the pedestrian
crosswalks to cross over Hank Aaron Drive and Georgia
Avenue over to Turner Field.

T .

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Game Day Traffic Flows

Incoming Traffic Flow
The incoming traffic flow map shows that the majority of the vehicular
traffic is coming from downtown Atlanta to the north of the site and the
two adjacent highways to the west of Turner Field, 1-75 and 1-85.

Outgoing Traffic Flow
As with the incoming traffic flow map, the outgoing traffic flow map
shows that traffic flows are heavy on Central Avenue and Hank Aaron
Avenue driving north towards downtown Atlanta. Fulton Street is also
busy as it is the main entrance onto 1-85 from Turner Field.


User Experience

Multi-Use Areas

Designated Tailgating

Pedestrian Pathways

Handicapped Parking

Outdoor Dining


Transportation Elements

Bus Stops

Parking Garage 1

Parking Garage 2

Parking Lots

Program Diagram
The program diagram shows that the
majority of the program elements are
connected directly to the Atlanta- Fulton
County Stadium Footprint. This shows
the importance of this space not only as
a gathering areas for fans pre-game but
also an opportunity as a multi-use area
for other events aside from baseball.


Green Roofs

Green Walls

Stormwater Collection

Focal Elements

Turner Field

Hank Aaron Monument

Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium Footprint

Historic Wall

Program Diagram

Adatla FuWon
Count W



Site Synthesis

mrnmsrm Site Boundary


4L~A4r -j

* Location near a major highway which proves
easy access
* Great attention-getting focal points
scattered throughout the site
* Strong connections pedestrian connections
make it easy to avoid vehicular conflicts

* The existing highway causes undesirable
views and noise issues
20 Ft. Elevation drop in the middle of the site
Undesirable views from the parking lots
farthest away from the field

q RtI

k 4

eet <

Primary Roads

Secondary Roads
Undesirable View
Strong Pedestrian
Weak Pedestrian
20 Ft. Elevation

Desirable Views


Noise Buffer

Major Focal Points


Phase 1 Concepts

Phase 1 Concepts

The Process

The first phase of concepts concentrated on meeting the needs of my original goals and
objectives. I evaluated the primary pedestrian and vehicular circulation and located the
specific spots where conflicts between the two arose. I also analyzed the site to determine
the opportunities and constraints.

Three Concepts:
1. The User Experience

2. Sustainability

3. Multi-Use

Main Concerns

- Opportunities and constraints of the site
- Circulation patterns
- Initial program identification

- Visitor accessibility to Turner Field
& main focus areas
- Wayfinding

Concept 1: The User Experience


Concept focuses directly on pedestrian
Open green space for tailgating

- Parking garages located in two accessible areas
- Vegetated buffer for highway noise reduction
-Accessible dining & bathrooms

Concept 2: Multi-Use

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- Green space weaves throughout the
entire site.
- Various sizes of open space / multi-
purpose spaces

- Parking garage located near the main tailgating
space to allow for multi-use of space
- Main tailgating space located in the center of the
site for easy accessibility

Concept 3: Sustainability

J -- - - N ...
S --- Sto "rnf Water I
R f 1 Taligatingo
Skater C Catalenthme

9 I Open Space l ,

Tailgating NTur
Ma;GMain Entry T

S T Vehicular Circulation

Increased green space "Community" tailgating areas throughout

Stormwater catchment areas parking lots
Rain garden medians in the parking lots Green roofs covering the parking garages

Increased green space "Community" tailgating areas throughout
Stormwater catchment areas parking lots

Phase 2 Concepts

Concept 4: Green Space



of wW


- Increased green space
- Stormwater catchment areas
- Rain garden medians in the parking lots

- "Community" tailgating areas throughout
parking lots
- Green roofs covering the parking garages

Concept 5: Rain Gardens


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- Considered context of site
- Looked at possible connections to existing
residential and commercial
- Increased green space

- Rain garden medians in the parking lots
- "Community" tailgating areas throughout
parking lots
- Green roofs covering the parking garages

Sustainability Exploration

Green Roofs

What is a Green Roof?

A green roof is simply a vegetated roof garden that replaces
the typical bare roof shingles or tiles. These roof top gardens
come in all shapes and sizes and have been built on the tops
of commercial buildings, private homes, and parking garages.
Here in the United States, green roofs have become very
popular in cities such as Chicago and Washington, DC.

Green roofs are composed of multiple layers that separate the
plant material from the bare roof. These layers include a root
barrier, waterproofing, and light weight soil aggregate that the
plants grow in. The number of layers can vary greatly
depending on the specific type of green roof desired.

Two Main Types of Green Roofs:

1. Extensive Green Roofs
-Low Maintenance
-Shallow Soil Depths
-Typically No Public Access

2. Intensive Green Roofs
-Wider Variety of Plants & Trees
-High Maintenance
-Deeper Soil Depths
-Typically Designed for Public Access

Nanyang University, Singapore

Ghilcago Gilty Hall

1"" 41 R

-Helps cool and regulate temperatures
-Creates biodiversity for plants and animals
-Filters out dust, smog particles, and other
contaminates from the air and rainfall

Technical & Economical Benefits
-Increased life expectancy of the roof
-Reduce storm water run-off by 50% 90%
-Additional usable space
-Visually appealing
-Sustainability is apparent in the design

source Michael Layefs ..I
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA

Ialais Omnisports de anrs-bercy

-Materials and construction labor
-Irrigation & drainage

Material Issues
-Possibility of water leakage through
the roof
-Possibility of plant roots growing
though the roof
-Material uplift from strong winds



Green Roofs Types: Extensive

Extensive Green Roofs:

Green roofs suited for roof locations that need little or
no maintenance are called extensive green roofs.
They are very lightweight due to their shallow soil
depths. Typical soil depths range from 3" 6" of
media. Extensive green roofs can be constructed on
flat roofs or sloped roofs up to 45 degrees. When
constructed on sloped surfaces, special materials
and measurements must be taken into consideration
to avoid wind and gravity slips. Extensive green roofs
are not intended for recreational or public use, how-
ever, they are implemented for attractive views and to
reduce and cool the air caused by the urban heat
island effect.

-Reduce and delay stormwater runoff
-Regulate urban heat island effect
-Requires minimal maintenance
-Ideal for inaccessible roofs

-Not intended for recreational use
-Smaller variety of plants can be grown
due to shallow soil depths
-Plants must be drought, wind, and frost

Vancouver City Library, Vancouver, BC

Plaza at PPL Center, Allentown, PA

itute for Advanced Study
Princeton, NJ

Extensive Details


1. Vegetation
Low maintenance plants that are
drought resistant and self generating

2. Media
Light weight with depths from 3"-6"

3. Filter
Prevents small particles from washing
into drainage layers

4. Drainage
Drains & aerates excess water

5. Insulation
Moisture resistance

6. Root Barrier
Prevents roots from growing into the
structural roof

7 & 8. Roofing Membrane
Layer that is applied directly to the
roof for protection

9. Roof
Structural roof of the building

jurckGlennAcomb, FASL. I
UF Charles R. Perry Construction Yard, Gainesville, FL


California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA


Ballard Library, Seattle, WA

Green Roofs Types: Intensive

Intensive Green Roofs:

Intensive green roofs are often accessible to the
public and designed for recreational use. They have
deeper soil depths in order to maintain and support a
wider variety of plants. Typical soil depths range from
6" 36" of media. Regular irrigation and maintenance
are required for intensive green roofs.

-Wider variety of plants to select from
-Reduce and delay stormwater runoff
-Regulate urban heat island effect
-Multi-use spaces
-Accessible to the public

-Costs of materials & construction
-Regular maintenance
-Required irrigation
-Roofs must be able to with stand the
heavy intensive materials

Intensive Details


1. Vegetation
Wide variety of plants can be used

2. Media
Deeper media with depths from 6"-36"

3. Filter
Prevents small particles from washing
into drainage layers

4. Drainage
Drains & aerates excess water

5. Aggregate
Crushed stone to slow infiltration

6. Root Barrier
Prevents roots from growing into the
structural roof

7. Insulation
Moisture resistance

8 & 9. Roofing Membrane
Layer that is applied directly to the
roof for protection

10. Deck
Structural roof of the building

LDS Assembly Hall, Salt Lake City, UT


Church Street Station, Evanston, IL

The Solaire, New York, NY

Living Green Walls

What is a Green Wall?

A living green wall is a free standing or structural wall that is
partially or completely covered with vegetation. They can be
attached directly to the wall within the architecture of the build-
ing or free standing with small between the plants and the

Three Main Types of Green Walls:

1. Panels

2. Containers

3. Free-Forming



-Aesthetically Pleasing
-Building Protection from sun, rain,
and temperature changes
-Reduce Noise Pollution
-Filters smog and other pollution particles
from the air
-Marketable Green Feature
-Can be used as vertical farming for
specific types of crops

-Varying Maintenance
-Possible Irrigation Concerns
-Could be considered "greenwashing" and
unsustainable is not properly designed
-Green walls are such a new technology that not
enough sufficient testing has been done to prove
that it is sustainable

Green Wall Panels
Green Wall Panels

Living Green Walls Panels

Green Wall Panels
A modular system of planting material that is
composed of individual trays.

-Quick assembly of wall
-Easy spot replacements
-Wall panels can be easily removed


-Maintenance & overgrowth
-Required Irrigation

Green wall constructed with panels



iing Technoiogi-i



7711- 7. 7W I Rb 17Eln
PNC Headquarters, Pittsburgh, P

Panel Details

Construction Detail

Irrigation Model

Mu Rail

Green Wall Panel



35" 3"+

Source: G-Sky

Each individual green wall panel is
attached to a mounting rail. This rail is
usually constructed out of metal and acts
as the structural support for the green
wall. The mounting rail is also the at-
tachment that connects the green wall
panels to the wall. The illustration above
is a detail of the typical green wall panel
produced by G-Sky.

SIntermediate Water Tank
S(optional for grey water)

Source: G-Sky

Green wall panels require an irrigation
system in order for the plants to survive.
The illustration above is a detail of the
G-Sky typical irrigation system. The
water tank is controlled by an automatic
moisture sensor that determines when to
irrigate the plants based on the dryness
of the roots. Water is sent up the drip
line and the plants are irrigated.

Living Green Walls Containers

Green Wall Containers
Green wall containers are individual containers that are
each attached to a small trellis type structure. The roots
of the plants are grown in the container and the plants
climb up each small trellis. These containers are set
away from the wall of the building and may also have a
maintenance pathway behind it. This type of green wall
is not as popular or readily available as the green wall
panels are.

-Containers can be bought with
plants already full grown up trellis
-Easy to install, remove, and replace
-Plants do not harm the building due to the
space between the building and green
wall containers

-Not as popular or readily available as the
green wall panels
-Irrigation required
-Minimal plant selection because you must
choose plants that are able to grow
up the attached trellis such a vines

Green Wall Container Example








The irrigation system for the green wall containers
is very similar to the green wall panel system. The
water is pumped upwards from a central water
supply box and a dripline delivers the water to the

The containers are made out of stainless steel to
prevent corrosion to the materials. Each container
contains plants that grow up the back wall
screening to form a vegetated green wall.


(1" DEPTH)



(1" DEPTH)

Source: G-Sky

Source: G-Sky

Living Green Walls Vertical Gardens: Patrick Blanc

Vertical Gardens: Patrick Blanc I

Patrick Blanc is best known for his Vertical Gardens. He is
based out of Paris, France, however, his work is known all over
Europe and parts of North America. His green wall creations
are an "artistic expression of his scientific practice." He spent
many years researching and finding out how plants live verti-
cally on trees and rocks. After coming to the conclusion that
plants do not need soil to survive, he perfected a technique
that enables urban plants to grow vertically without the need

-Highly customized green wall designs
-Very light weight
-Due to the lightness of the materials,
Patrick Blanc's vertical gardens are
able to be built on a variety of
structure types
-Eye-catching designs

-Extremely expensive due to customized
-Irrigation is required
-Routine maintenance is required
-Possible waiting list due to high demand of
Patrick Blanc's services

for soil. A system of slats is used to secure artificial felt and
thousands of strategically placed plant roots, with
automated watering and fertilization. "It's nothing short of
botanical architecture." For each location, he carefully se-
lects plants according to local climatic conditions and the
visual effect he wants to create. Patrick has won many
awards for his work and also gives lectures around the

Pont Max Juv6nal, Aix-en-Provence, France

Ir I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1

Vertical Garden in Process: Les Halles Avignon, France

TT ~~ hVTT'

The Process
The metal frame can be free standing or it can be hung on a wall.
Having this frame allows a layer of air to be able to pass between the
wall and the plants. Next, a 1 cm thick PVC is attached to the metal
frame. This layer strengthens the green wall and provides water-
proofing. The felt layer is made of polyamide and is stapled to the
PVC. The felt is rot proof and the porous composition allow for water
distribution. This felt is the layer that the plants grow directly on.

Plants can be installed on the felt layer as seeds, cutting, or full
grown plants. The density of the plants that Blanc uses is about
thirty plants per square meter (just over 10 square feet.) Irrigation is
provided at the top of the wall and has an automatic system.

The goal of Blanc is to have the entire weight of his Vertical Garden
creations to weigh less than 30 kg per square meter (less than 66 Ibs
per about 10 square feet.) This allows for any green wall to be con-
structed on any type of wall without size or weight limitations.


1. A metal frame

2. A PVC layer

3. A layer of felt

Completed Vertical Garden: Les Halles Avignon, France

Process: Plants inserted into felt layer

Rain Gardens

Rain Gardens
Rain gardens are vegetated stormwater catchment areas that filter debris from the
water and slow stormwater runoff. These catchment areas act as natural treat-
ment areas cleanse the water with vegetation and slow infiltration rates. Properly
constructed rain gardens have been known to remove a high percentage of heavy
metals from the water within the top few inches of catchment area. Rain gardens
can be constructed for residential homes, commercial areas, along roadsides, and
in parking lots.

-Aesthetically appealing
-Slows and reduces storm water
runoff especially within
impervious surfaces

-Erosion of rain garden materials
-Possible water flow clogs from
miscellaneous materials
caught in the rain water


Rain and stormwater wash
pollution into the rain garden

Water spreads into rain
garden where plants trap
litter and sediments

PP 7 Cleansed slormwater
is ,nfiltrated into the
ground and used by
Source: w, ngsIon .,,c go., au esting vegetation.

How does it work?

Stormwater flows off of a surface, usually
impermeable, and into the rain garden. The
rain garden is planted with vegetation that
specifically catch debris and can live within a
damp environment. The water is held
temporarily within the rain garden as it slowly
infiltrates below the surface.

0 Water seeps down
through the rain garden
and traps finer sediment
and pollutants

Sandy loam filter media

Rne sand transition layer

Stormwater passing through
system to conventional
drainage system of high quality

Water tight liner to
turn gravel layer into
water well

Temporary stormwater pond
Ground cover
vegetation -
reeds and Stormwater from
grasses road curbing diverted
Into tree pit


"L -Pollutants removed
as stormwater filters
through soil media
and plant roots


Gravel drainage layer
containing perforated
drainage pipes

Source: www.wtcc.sa.gov.au


What is a cistern?
Cisterns are water management devices that collect and store rain water for
future use. They can be built above ground or underground. Cisterns come
in all different sizes. They can be installed for use with a residential home or
a commercial building. The tanks vary in size depending on how big the water
catchment area is. The water stays in the tanks until it is needed for activities
such as irrigation. Cisterns are also constructed with a variety of different ma-
terials including stone, wood, steel, and fiber glass.

-Reuses water and lowers water bills
-Potential to be an exciting focal point
-Looks sustainable & is sustainable

-Construction costs for large
cisterns or underground cisterns
-Routine Maintenance


How Large Should My Cistern Be?

Cistern Diagram

n 120
z o

| 60
- 40

Area, square feet

The chart above shows a general estimation of
how large a cistern needs to be to retain storm
water. After the cistern is installed, the water
from the catchment area is led into the tank
through a pipe. The water remains in the tank
until it needed for use. Water overflow is taken
care of by a tall overflow pipe in the tank. The
overflow pipe leads extra water into the sewer

Source: edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Preliminary Master Plan & StormwaterAnalysis

Preliminary Master Plan

The preliminary master plan was designed after exploring and researching the initial concepts and
sustainable technologies. The location of the stormwater ponds and lake were based off of the existing
topography of the site. A three-story parking garage and two underground parking garages replace the
removed parking lots. Two above ground parking lots are located near the stadium to allow direct
connections to Turner Field.

Major Elements

-Green Roof Parking Garage
-Two underground parking garages
- Recreation and multi-use areas
- Designated tailgating areas
- Dining & bathrooms

- Stormwater catchment ponds
- A large lake surrounded by pedestrian paths
- Proposed commercial connection to existing
- Community gardens

Preliminary Master Plan

MFroposed Proposed
Commercial Commercial.
A Axpansio Expansion

" Underground R I ecreal qn Recreation
_n j -T-.
E n t r n c e 1 C~ o ; ~ Im ui- C F ie ld s l o @ l1-- IC r ll '
Parking Com. iny Fields.ks as. ---m Proposed .
Entrance gardens Commercia
e 'G. : r2 ,-- '': :
"-x's-n. Expansion.
pass .-- -
S. < Underground Parking
xist.ng.ly mplc:-- .,- -- -- ,,, .
oh Oepas Storm Water Ponds.
T o c T g!I e A [S t r .- I.
Taj o q;.. ,. ;. Al .Med..,, -
I-E ntra --ce Sto. -. ------
TnE fai rWal
G e".e oo...
a kig
G ilar ag -Wn-X
st I Q ~Medians C`?
S''toSp Stor
_-ac te Watr p


Stormwater Analysis

I -- _ v ^ '
3 _- .. . .; .', -.\ .-, ,,
' 'finitaln r --
*r 1^"51""""'"- L^'



The site is divided into eleven main watersheds. Each of these
watersheds directs water into either a natural catchment area
where the water will be cleansed of debris and fertilizer or the
water will be caught in cisterns for reuse as irrigation. The white
arrows show the direction of the water flow. The chart on the next

page shows that calculations and volume of the stormwater
runoff. These calculations determine if the proposed stormwater
catchment areas are appropriately sized for the volume of water
running off of the site.

Stormwater Calculations




Square Feet


Acres Runoff Volume (Acre-Feet) Runoff Volume (Gallons)


Watershed 1
Back up water source
may be needed.
Watershed 2
Proposed lake is too large
and will not receive enough
rain water to stay full.
Watershed 3
Proposed water harvesting
will work.

Watershed 4
Proposed stormwater
catchments need to be a
little larger or deeper

Watershed 5
Proposed stormwater
catchments will work.

Watershed 6
Proposed stormwater
catchments are too small

Watershed 7
Cistern for green roof must
be 130,000 gallons and
buried underground.
Watershed 8
Proposed water harvesting
will work.

Watershed 9
Proposed stormwater catchments
need to be larger.

Watershed 10
Proposed stormwater
catchments will work.

Watershed 11
Proposed stormwater
catchments need to be

Final Master Plan

Final Master Plan

1. Community Gardens
-Located on the roof of the underground
parking garage

2. Recreational Fields

3. Picnic Area 1
-Overlooks the vegetated rain gardens and
accessible to pedestrian trails

4. Vegetated Rain Gardens

5. Picnic Area 2
-Overlooks the vegetated rain gardens and
accessible to pedestrian trails

6. Walking & Jogging Trails
-Two separate trails that allow both leisure
walking and recreational jogging

7. Playground & Dog Park

8. Outdoor Dining
-Overlooks the playground & accessible to
the commercial and dining area

9. Commercial Areas
-Opportunity for dining areas and green roof
gardens on the top of the buildings

10. Existing Olympic Torch
-Restored for pedestrian crossing

Final Master Plan Key

11. Designated Open Space & Tailgate Area

12. Designated Open Space & Tailgate Area

13. MARTA Bus Stop

14. Designated Open Space & Tailgate Area

15. Three Floor Parking Garage
-Public accessible green roof on the top floor

16. Designated Open Space & Tailgate Area
Underground cistern location for the green roof

17. Rain Garden

18. Outdoor Dining & Bathrooms
-Available for rental & use with Hank Aaron Green.
Opportunity for green roof on proposed building.

19. Rain Garden

20. Low Plantings to soften existing blue wall

21. Existing Underground Pedestrian Crossing

22. Rain Garden

23. Parking Lot with Available Tailgate Space & Rain
Garden Medians

24. Main Entry Walk

Focal Areas

Five Main Focal Areas:

Focal Area 1: Green Roof Parking Garage
Focal Area 2: Parking Lot Rain Gardens

Focal Area 3: Hank Aaron Green
Focal Area 4: Main Entry Walk
Focal Area 5: Commercial Connection

FocalArea 1

Green Roof Parking Garage
Main Objectives:

1. Accessibility & Multiple Uses

3. Character

4. Fun & Apparent Sustainability

2. Views and Buffers

Green Roof Parking Garage Concepts

Concept 1
No Public Access

Concept 2
Minimal Public Access


Concept 3
Full Public Access

Highway Access Highway

More square footage for green roof
Increased rain catchment area

No public access
Unable to be seen unless on the roof

Lookout areas for public use
Areas specifically dedicated to
green roof plantings

Public areas are not large
Public use on roof is limited

tai'_r Stair

Large areas for public use
Solar and sloped green roof areas
provide visual interest

Specialized plants needed under
public use grates

Green Roof Final Recommendations

Green Roof Statistics Stairway Stairway
Access & Atlanta Skyline Views Access
Green Roof Type: Intensive Ba
Green Roof System: Custom
Roof Size: 89,000 sq ft.
Roof Slope: 1%
Access: Accessible, Open to the Public
Media Depth: 6 Inches

Highway filgate
View pace
The fully accessible green roof
concept was chosen due to its potential Buffered iews
for multi-use spaces and maximized
green roof coverage. The sloped green
roof buffer hides undesirable views and
noise from the adjacent highway. Solar
panels are scattered all along the main
walkway and public spaces to allow for -
lighting at night. The solar panel trees
also add visual interest to the site and
become focal art pieces. The grated Stairway Main Entrance Elevator &
pathways maximize the green roof areas Access Turner Field View Stair Access
by allowing the public to walk over each
of these areas.

Green Roof Water Drainage

)of Film Coating
Concrete Primer Finish
Mastic Gum Seal
- Flashing

During a rainfall event, the green roof absorbs the
water. The drainage layer of the green roof catches
enough water for the plants to use and extra water
that is taken in on top of this overflows and continues
downward. A 1% slope of the green roof allows the
rain water to flow towards the drainage pipes at the
edge of the garage. These drainage pipes follow the
architecture of the facade and lead to an under-
ground cistern. The cistern is large enough to hold
140,000 gallons of water to be reused as irrigation
for the green roof and surrounding plantings.

Reinforced Concrete -


Drainage to Cistern 4

SGR Cap Sheet (Joint Protection)
GR Cover W (Wall Application)

i '- '"

Infiltration .

Roof Soil (Growing Medium)
Green Roof System
Root Barrier
Waterproof Membrane

Py anensuaton

Polyurethane Insuiation

Source: G-Sky Green Roofs


Green Roof Details

Metal Grate Details

Pathway Grates & Solar Panel Trees

Solar Panel Trees

The proposed metal grate on the green roof serves as the
mutual connection between the functioning green roof and
human pathways within the green roof. The grated pathway is
suspended 1 inch above of the growing media and the openings
in the grates allow small sedum plants to receive light and water.
Foot traffic on the grates keeps the sedums from growing too
high over the grates. Allowing the sedums to grow onto the
pathways also allows the public to interact with the green roof in
a much different and more interesting way.

The solar panel trees add a creative and fun flair to the
atmosphere on the green roof. They also are the source
electricity throughout the parking garage and provide shade
from the sun on the green roof.

oveeflow dOtain

Source: ASLA Green Roof Detail

Green Roof Buffer Concepts

Concept 1 No Buffer


No extra building costs
No extra maintenance

Direct view to the highway
No noise buffer from
highway noise

Concept 2 Sloped Buffer


Directs views over
highway and to
distant communities
Noise buffer from highway
Extra storage under
sloped wall


Maintenance & irrigation
Costs for extra materials
for slope

Concept 3 Wall Buffer

Visually appealing
Provides storage
behind wall

Stops views within green
roof boundary
Maintenance of green wall





Green Roof Buffer Final Recommendations

The final green roof buffer recommendation is
the sloped application. The slope of the green
roof allows the views from the roof to be
directed up and over the undesirable highway
views. The slope also adds visual interest to
the green roof and invites user interaction.
The curiosity of visitors could lead to an inviting
tactile sensory experience. The sloped buffer
also allows for storage space underneath the
plants. This storage can be used for
maintenance equipment and other items that
may be needed on the green roof.

Characteristics of Buffer

Directs & buffers views

Absorbs and blocks highway noise

Storage under sloped buffer

Parking Garage Facade Concepts

Concept I A "high image" approach on the idea of baseball bats and baseballs
Pros Cons

Visually appealing
Identifiable from distances
Trees soften edges of garage

Not an apparent sustainable design
Cost and construction of facade

Concept 2 Incorporating vegetated planters within the garage facade
Pros Cons

Visually appealing
Vegetation softens garage
Suggests "sustainable"

Concept 3 Garage facade reflects the existing Braves wall
Identifiable from highway
Advertising for Turner Field from distances

Maintenance and irrigation of planters
Takes detailed design to make it work; site specific
Possible "green washing"

Not an apparent sustainable design
No vegetation to soften garage

Facade Final Recommendations

The final recommendation for the parking garage
facade was chosen because of its combination of
environmental sustainability, site specific design,
and excitement! The shapes on the structural
support of the parking garage are an interpretation
of baseball bats and baseballs. The materials are
partially transparent to allow visitors on the outside
of the garage and the inside of the garage to enjoy
the facade. Sunlight can also glow through the
translucent facade and produce multi-colored
shapes within the inside of the garage. Trees line
the facade to soften the feel of the garage. Roof
drainage is within the angled shapes. The
drainage is directed to the trees and also collected
in an underground cistern for the green roof.

FocalArea 2

Parking Lot Rain Gardens
Main Objectives:

1. Accessibility & Multiple Uses

2. Wayfinding

3. Stormwater Natural Filtering System
4. Fun & Apparent Sustainability

Concept 1: Combined Uses
Maximized tailgate and rain garden use areas
Shade near the tailgate areas
Lower maintenance of plants during baseball season
due to constant use

Grating might be uncomfortable for users
Only area specific types of plants would survive
Maintenance of plants and grates during off
season due to lowered use

Key Direction of
! water flow



Grate Over
Vegetated Rain Garden

Rain Garden Concepts







~ i

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