I DOCUMENT, THEREFORE I AM
MICHELLE TILLANDER, CHAIR
CRAIG ROLAND, MEMBER
ROBERT MUELLER, MEMBER
JANET DAVIES, SPECIAL MEMBER
A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO
THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2010 Lindsay Lovequist
I would like to thank my parents, family, and supervisory committee for their
constant commitment and support through my educational journey. I also thank
Brentwood School for allowing me to participate not only as a volunteer and researcher,
but also as an educator. Special thanks go to the children and parents of the Brentwood
Kindergarten Class of 2010 for their generosity and acceptance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOW LEDGMENTS.......... ..... ......................... ......... ..... ....... ... 3
LIST OF FIGURES .......................... ............................ 5
SUMMARY.......................................... ................ 6
1 IN T R O D U C T IO N .................................... .............. 7
2 LITE RA T U R E R EV IEW ............................ .. ........... .. ...... ... ... 9
3 RESEARCH DESIGN........................ ................. .... 21
4 PROVOCATIONS ............... .................. ....... 24
5 REFLECTIONS ............... ............................ .... ... .......... 28
APPENDIX ............ ........................ ........... 40
LIST OF REFERENCES.............. ..... ........... ...... ............................ 43
BIO G RA PH ICA L SKETC H ............................................. ................................. 46
LIST OF FIGURES
3-1 Two Blogs Developed for Research............ ..... ................. ...............22
4-1 Change in Style of Blog. ............... ... ................ ..2......24
4-2 Photograph of Experiencing............................... ... ........... .........26
4-3 Sample of Observational Field Notes............ ............... ...........27
5-1 W leaving a W eb and Yarn as Provocation.........................................29
5-2 Ms. Davies Documenting our "Safari in Africa"............ ................ 31
5-3 Accordion Book: Maps of Kindergarten and Accompanying Box ...............38
5-4 Folio of Students Artwork: "Our Class Drawing"........... .... .............39
Summary of Project in Lieu of Thesis
Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Master of Arts
I DOCUMENT, THEREFORE I AM
Chair: Michelle Tillander
Major: Art Education
The purpose of this research was to discover how documentation within one Reggio
Emilia and Montessori inspired kindergarten classroom might translate and inform the field
of art education. The kindergarten class, made up of twenty-five students and two teachers,
allowed me for one semester to observe, participate, provoke, and document, as they
explored, discovered, and experienced daily happenings on their inventive voyages from
continent to continent. Qualitative research methods were used to collect data throughout
the semester to inform the development of possible strategies for art educator use.
Specifically, data collection ranging from observational field notes, photographs,
discussions, and current literature were collected and reflected upon throughout the field
experience as documentation for multipurpose reflection. The study also inspired a
classroom blog I developed to engage parents, administration, and most importantly,
children in the use of documentation as part of teaching and learning methods, such as
reflective learning. Strategies and dilemmas within the documentation process were
identified, and results from the study are showcased through individual documentation of
children's art and work for the teachers, parents, and children of the kindergarten
After studying the early childhood education Reggio Emilia approach in previous
courses, I became captivated with documentation, a key element of the approach.
Struck by documentation's impressive nature and abilities as an informative and
reflective tool, questions began to overflow regarding the implementation of
documentation within the art education field, a field naturally favorable to documentation
by its very nature.
My mother has always said that as a child I constantly asked the question "why."
As I've gotten older, my questioning ways have not derailed and were further ignited by
my immediate passion for documentation. I began to wonder if documentation was
something American K-12 art educators currently practiced, and if it was in the same
way and with the same intentions that Reggio educators proposed. Through a previous
pilot study (Lovequist, 2009) asking this question to local art educators, results indicated
that art educators do document, but not in the same ways or for the same reasons. This
conclusion led me to my proposed research question, "What strategies can be
developed to implement informative and reflective documentation, like that of the
Reggio Emilia approach, into K-12 art classrooms?"
Throughout this research, the proposed question has provoked a number of
other questions to be answered. For example, what are the dilemmas with implementing
documentation in the classroom? How can one art teacher implement documentation on
a consistent basis where on an average day s/he might teach approximately six classes
of twenty-five students each?
To answer the proposed research question, I reviewed literature pertinent to
documentation in both Reggio Emilia and American education, and conducted research
to discover how documentation within one Reggio Emilia and Montessori inspired
kindergarten classroom might translate and inform the field of art education. The
kindergarten class, made up of twenty-five students and two teachers, allowed me for
one semester to observe, participate, provoke, and document, as they explored,
discovered, and experienced through their daily lives, on their inventive voyages from
continent to continent. Specifically, data collection ranging from observational field
notes, photographs, discussions, and current literature were collected and reflected
upon throughout the field experience as documentation for multipurpose reflection. Two
blogs were also developed as informative and reflective tools.
While some forms of documentation are currently being used in the field of art
education, for example portfolios, I question the intentions for which they are being
used. This research on documentation has contributed to wider debates about the value
of documentation by determining benefactors of documentation. With five approaches
determined, any number of art educators in the field have the potential to further their
professional development through the use of documentation as informing their teaching
practices, connecting to children's curiosities and ideas, and among many other things,
informing a broader audience of what is being learned through visible documentation.
The Reggio Emilia approach has been cited by Newsweek magazine as the best
approach in early childhood education, catapulting its popularity throughout the world
(Kantrowitz & Wingert, 1991). Throughout this research I reviewed countless books,
journal articles, and websites to discover that very little has been written about the key
element of documentation in an art education context. In this chapter, documentation
and its underpinnings in the Reggio Emilia approach are explored, as well as the
confusion and issues with its context in American education, words more frequently
used within American education that might appear to be related to documentation, their
similarities and differences within this context, and reasoning surrounding
documentation as an approach.
Underpinnings in Reggio Emilia
Carlina Rinaldi, the President of Reggio Children and Director of the Loris
Malaguzzi International Center in Reggio Emilia, Italy says, "Documentation is this
process, which is dialectic, based on affective bonds and also poetic; it not only
accompanies the knowledge-building process but in a certain sense impregnates it"
(Rinaldi, 1995, p. 70). This dialogue, Rinaldi refers to, comes from the documentation
that provokes reflection, learning, and self-assessment.
Nevertheless, documenting is more than merely explaining. Transcriptions of
children's remarks and discussions, photographs of their activity, and representations of
their thinking and learning using many media are carefully arranged by the atelierista,
along with the other teachers, to document the work and the process of learning. Katz
and Chard's article "Documentation: The Reggio Emilia Approach" (1997) elaborates on
the idea of documentation by listing six ways in which documentation of children's work
and ideas contributes to the quality of an early childhood program. The authors
encourage the use of documentation (through extensive record keeping and
observation of children) as a standard classroom practice. According to Katz and Chard,
the six ways in which documentation in Reggio Emilia schools contribute to the quality
of an early education program are: enhanced learning, taking children's ideas and work
seriously, continuous planning and evaluation, parent participation, teacher research
and awareness, and making learning visible (pp. 16-17). Effective documentation on
any educational level can produce any number of these benefits they have listed, not
only enhancing the quality of an early childhood education program, but potentially the
quality of any art education program.
In the Reggio Emilia approach, documentation of works in progress is made
visible on large panels throughout the classroom, keeping the memory of the work for
reflective practice, as well as acknowledging the children's voices as important. Panels
consist of collections of data, photographs, artifacts, written explanations, and so on,
thoughtfully organized to offer insights about the conceptual underpinnings of the
investigations and discovering what they signify. Broderick (2008) said, "Documentation
panels consider the ways that materials guide the thinking and learning of adults and
children and the ways conversations are shaped through the dynamics of inquiry" (T 2 &
3). Often, teachers and learners can collaborate in panel making. Documentation panels
have an interactive format and are often displayed in high-traffic areas; depending on
the intended audience, the height level of the panels is adjusted accordingly.
Issues Defining Documentation
There are sticky issues with defining the term documentation within an American
educational context. For example, defining the differences between documenting and
displaying can be confusing.
As previously mentioned, documentation panels are a major component within
Reggio Emilia documentation. However, how do we know the difference between
displaying on bulletin boards and documentation? The answer according to Brown-
DuPaul (2001) is that "documentation panels are educational and are not simply
attractive bulletin boards" (p. 211). Brown-DuPaul suggests that careful consideration
should be taken into account with balancing the message trying to be conveyed on the
panel: potential colors and materials, along with the photographs, children's dictation,
work samples, and observational notes that could potentially be used to create a
professional documentation panel. Carter and Curtis (1996) give further specific
recommendations for designing appropriate documentation panels.
A dissertation by Chang (1996) explains how documentation was conducted in a
classroom in the Vanderbilt Child Care Center, involving thirteen three- and four-year-
old children. Chang's extensive and prolonged participation, observation, detailed field
notes, audio recording and videotaping, collecting of children's artifacts, and countless
photographs were adopted as means of data collection. The data were primarily
collected from daily group sessions and used as documentation to analyze the
children's work. Their work was analyzed on a daily basis, as a means of devising the
appropriate plan fitting desires of children in exploring the next direction.
In my pilot study (Lovequist, 2009), eight local Gainesville art educators were
interviewed regarding their current documentation practices. Findings from interviews
indicated that art educators do currently use some forms of documentation within their
classrooms. These forms of documentation were identified as records for taking roll,
exhibiting artwork, and even photographing works for reflective practice. It is important
to note that these art educators were unfamiliar with the Reggio definition of the term
documentation and had their own ideas of what documentation meant and the purpose
it served. Purposes and benefactors of documentation were also determined. Four
benefactors were determined: the student, the parents, the teachers, and the
community, (all which Reggio identifies as protagonists). While a variety of answers
were given on the purposes of documenting in the classroom, most of the given
answers benefited the student. Two of the responses were beneficial to all stakeholders
identified, "evidence of growth, and making work visible to everybody" (p. 5).
Although there is no perfect translation of "documentation" within the terms of an
American educational context, Webster's Online Dictionary defines a document as
"something (as a photograph or a recording) that serves as evidence or proof,"
("document," n.d.). It defines documentation as "the act or an instance of furnishing or
authenticating with documents; documentary evidence," ("documentation," n.d.). The
terms "evidence" and "proof" beg the question, what are we trying to evidence? What
are we trying to prove, and to whom, and why? Though American documentation might
be evidencing learning, it is not specifically searching for an end result of what a child
has learned, but instead attempting to capture the processes through which children are
discovering and exploring. Documentation, visually and verbally, explains how children
get from point A to point B with every twist, turn, and loop in between.
Terms such as assessment, evaluating, and evidencing were not initially
considered, however throughout this research these terms consistently appeared and
are addressed in this section. Where these terms fall in relation to documentation can
turn into a game of semantics. Other questions arise such as what is "evidence-based
An article by Cooney and Buchanan (2001) argue for the transformation of
documentation of personal notes, into documentation that was made visible to children,
parents, and other teachers. The authors use documentation in what they call "authentic
assessment," assessment that is made visible (p. 10). They describe the use of
documentation as a means for assessing and recording student progress toward
Individualized Education Plan (IEP) goals and they illustrate this process with examples.
Although it is not mentioned in the article, this method is commonly referred to as
evidence-based practice, and has numerous meanings depending on the stakeholder.
Its origins are largely found in medicinal practice, and have been transposed to
education; it is commonly used within the special education field and in recent years has
made its way into early childhood education (Pring & Thomas, 2004).
Through my research I have found that the term documentation serves a large
purpose in the field of special education (hence the term IEP). Every child has special
needs in one way or another, whether physically, mentally, or otherwise. No child learns
the exact same way, or at the exact same pace. Unfortunately, unless children have
severe learning, physical, or emotional disabilities, they are not treated as though they
deserve special attention or that they are worthy of differentiated instruction. The term
documentation frequently found in the field of special education serves the sole purpose
of assessment; it's used to move children along a linear path for achieving
On the contrary, documentation can be far more than "authentic assessment," as
stated by Cooney and Buchanan, in that it goes beyond mere assessment into
something more informative. Often assessment is used strictly for teachers, and
administration, and systematically sent home to the parent in the form of a report card. It
can also be said that assessment in American schools is typically seen as something
done to students, rather than for students. However documentation by Reggio terms
moves beyond assessment by assuming the role of numerous functions such as
reflective learning for children, engaging parents in conversation about what happens in
the classroom, and informing the public of children's explorations and discoveries, not
failures and achievements of predetermined goals set up by teachers and
An article by MacDonald (2007) explores the issue of assessment by introducing
pedagogical documentation in five kindergarten classrooms over a six-month period.
Their goal was to investigate the use of documentation as not only a means of formative
assessment, but to communicate learning to students' families through tape-recorded
interviews, video, wall hangings, and so on. Findings indicated that the parents
interviewed found this form of documentation useful in highlighting classroom
instruction. In particular, parents believed that the documentation assisted them in
achieving a better perception of the processes used in the classroom and also
promoted learning supportive strategies for their children.
Rinaldi (1995) states, progettazione is "a strategy, a daily practice of observation-
interpretation-documentation" (p. 206). Similarly, Moss (2005) discusses progettazione,
the concept and term formed by Reggio as meaning:
...a flexible approach in which initial hypotheses are made about classroom work
(as well as about staff development and relationships with parents), but are
subject to modifications and changes of direction as the actual 'project work'
progresses. There is no place here for predetermined outcomes and linear
progression, but an openness to the unexpected and new thought by children
and adults alike (p. 27).
Moss claims that the Reggio approach possesses its own assumptions on evaluation
and that rather than assessing children against predetermined criteria, they use
"evaluation as a participatory and interpretive exercise involving teachers, children,
parents and others in the community, and working with the powerful tool of pedagogical
documentation" (pp. 26-27). He argues for making pedagogical (or other) work visible
and subject to interpretation, dialogue, argument and understanding.
The term "documentation" fosters a variance of ideas and disagreements, and
does not claim to search for a consensus among any group of people. Pedagogical
documentation is a versatile instrument and method for evaluation, but it is also a way
for educators to make inquiries regarding children's learning processes; it facilitates a
connection between theory and practice on a daily basis; it provides professional
development; and it is democratic practice that creates for a transparent environment
Comparisons of American and Reggio Emilia Education
Many educational terms that have a relationship with the word documentation are
loosely defined and often have intertwined connections. This makes it harder to define
them within the cultural and educational context of American society.
In the next section, I attempt to compare and contrast the educational
pedagogies and theories of Reggio Emilia education and its juxtaposition within
American schools. While there are multiple similarities and differences among many of
the American educational pedagogies, it is too complex to attempt to analyze all of
them, or any number of them in this project. Instead, I will focus on general assumptions
about historical American education in comparison to the philosophy of Reggio Emilia.
As a starting point, we must recognize the differences between American
education and the Reggio Emilia approach in early childhood education. While I
understand there are four models in American education that stick out as having
similarities to Reggio Emilia education (such as: choice-based learning, project-based
learning, theme-based learning, and discovery learning), I also acknowledge the
historical qualities of American education.
While philosophies and theories in American education have multiple ebbs and
flows of trends and popularity, there has been a recent attempt to move toward a
centers approach beyond early childhood education. Nonetheless, traditional American
ideals are based on individualized learning. Instead of groups, desks are placed in
single rows all facing one direction. Each grade level is designed to prepare students for
the next grade level, and eventually to prepare them for political and economic
competitive participation in society. Textbooks are provided for each student and the
teachers set a subject-centered predetermined curriculum. This is much like the method
of learning where children are empty vessels or sponges, waiting to be filled or soak up
information from their "all-knowing" teachers. The environment is often an afterthought
and parents are typically involved only during "open house" and during parent-teacher
conferences. The community as active observers is non-existent. While these traditional
ideals may work for some, maybe even many, they are contrary to the ideals of the
Reggio Emilia approach.
As stated in The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Approach-
Advanced Reflections (1998), founder Loris Malaguzzi and the community of Reggio
Emilia came together to create an approach based on long-term projects through
student-directed curriculum. Children learn through experiences as opposed to
textbooks and become co-constructors of knowledge. Reggio believes that children
have numerous languages to communicate with, not just verbally, but with drawing,
music, painting, dancing, acting, etc. Much trust is placed within the children to know
what is interesting and important to investigate and experience, facilitate and provoke,
because of the view of the child. There is the intrinsic trust in the teachers to know how
and when to guide, a belief in value, and trust in parents to play an active and informed
role within the educational team. Most importantly, children are viewed with respect and
become producers of knowledge, or co-creators of knowledge with control over their
own learning, as opposed to consumers of knowledge. The environment serves as a
third teacher, (as there are two teachers in every Reggio classroom) granting those
involved a latitude of improvisation, chance, and free play due in the creative process.
As has been previously established, documentation is another major component of the
Reggio approach, which allows teachers to become learners, as well as provocateurs. A
provocateur is "one who complicates the child's already complex thinking process,
expands the notion of operating within the child's zone of proximal development," (p.
273). Lastly, community support and parental involvement play a vital role in this
educational approach by broadening connections and the learning environment, which
is fostered mainly through documentation.
Rinaldi (1998) interviewed Lella Gandini on curriculum constructed by
documentation. Gandini, one of the world's leading experts on the Reggio Emilia
approach, said this about documentation:
Documentation... does not mean a final report, a collection of documents in a
portfolio that merely helps in terms of memory, evaluation, or creating an archive.
It is instead a procedure that is part of progettazione, and that sustains the
educational process (teaching) in the dialogue with the learning processes of the
children. Documentation is a point of strength that makes timely and visible the
interweaving of actions of the adults and of the children; it improves the quality of
communication and interaction. It is in fact a process of reciprocal learning.
Documentation makes it possible for teachers to sustain the children's learning
while they also learn (to teach) from the children's own learning (p. 116).
The term documentation has different meanings in different environments. The literature
reviewed has brought many reasons for documenting, and in the following section these
reasons are highlighted.
Reasons for Documenting
Documentation serves many functions but most of all it is used as a research tool
for studying children's knowledge processes. Documentation is about what children are
doing, learning and grasping, and the result of documentation is a reflection of
interactions among teachers and children, and between children. Hong (1998) claims
documentation provides a growing theory for daily practice. He also identifies other
reasons for documenting including, "facilitating continuity since new activities evolve
from earlier experiences, allows revisitation, making parents aware of children's
experiences and maintaining their involvement, promotes professional growth, creates
an archive that traces the history of the school and it offers a research orientation to
instruction," (p. 51). As Hong suggests, because documentation is done on a daily
basis, it serves as a medium through which teachers discuss curriculum, keep it fluid
and emergent, and develop a rationale for its course.
Documenting children's day-by-day experiences and continuing projects gives
importance and uniqueness to all the children do. It is through the documentation that
teachers are able to achieve insight into the thoughts of children, decide further
investigation for working on topics, produce a history of the effort and generate further
The literature review in this chapter provides detailed information regarding
documentation and its underpinnings within the Reggio Emilia approach, as well as the
confusion regarding its context in American education, terms frequently used in
American education that appear to be related to documentation, their similarities and
differences within this context, and reasoning surrounding documentation as an
approach. The literature reviewed in this chapter served as a guide for this project, and
for future explorations of documentation within art education.
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to analyze and evaluate the
application of the philosophical ideas of documentation advocated by the Reggio Emilia
approach in various ways. Research was conducted at a local private school in
Gainesville, Florida, in a mixed Reggio and Montessori-inspired kindergarten classroom,
with a lead and assistant teacher. During this process, a blog was created to document
experiences and activities of children's ideas and explorations. A second blog was
created as reflective practice, which was open only to committee members.
Research was conducted over a three-month period from January to March 2010
where I observed and participated in a Reggio and Montessori-inspired kindergarten
class two to three days a week over the course of the spring semester. University of
Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval (Protocol # 2010-U-0026) was
obtained and letters and permission forms were sent home to each family (see
Appendix). There were multiple options for participation in the study including the blog,
Artsonia.com, and Voicethread.com. There were options for participation in all of them
with and without student's first names. An effort was made to not put any faces of the
children on the blog to protect the identity of all minors as required by the IRB.
Once forms were received, I examined the copious types of documentation used
(and those not used) in this learning environment in partnership with the teacher.
Additionally, I became a provocateur in the kindergarten class and kept a reflective
journal of my experiences. Interviewing children, making observational field notes, such
as detailed notes of conversations, taking pictures of activities and collecting images of
children's work/artifacts, and pictures of daily events, and were also a part of the role of
documentor and provocateur.
"Documenting a World of Experiences" and Reflections
During this process, two separate blogs were formed. One blog documented the
experiences of the Reggio-inspired classroom, and the other served as a place for
personal reflection of my experiences as the documentor. These blogs were developed
on Blogger.com and open only to particular audiences. The first blog mentioned was
open to committee members, teachers of kindergarten, school administration, and
parents of children in the participating class. However, restrictions were placed on the
blog allowing only the author to make postings. The second, a more personal blog was
open to committee members who were given site permissions and encouragement to
comment on postings/reflections (see Fig. 3-1).
doumntn a woldo
Figure 3-1. Two blogs developed for research.
Figure 3-1. Two blogs developed for research.
Tuesday, anuary 26,2010
Art Camp anld Sortig Bottle Capsin
Itha ben a busy week Ius Fartsaytheleas sakrday we had
Art Cn MangPaetterns wPm ng Everybmeld an t
uw Leave eingr extedandhappy (Nthb-use its~ovrbut
bea tw asr rud a dase) Not ordd yd we m.taterns
a sent ggestonand ideas were nduded nw hatpatens I I
hoI-enmwww I-so-hkngemeddron ad
writYteeltng to te Ub w oI manage her ahren atth
pbt ati yamu annsaddameteaer va
she was draws Haey decdk to ma e me a my fan (whldl she
*ened m make ,n Ms Dlals dcss) a uerlne wanted o make
abha. I dedtoshow heroto makethe W ,b t
hot da and hamrw fd nd KathennekePtups entreeme I
aeruehibenne shed folr her boo and enade upciar
end f thedemo, she iad n i have the youmade, aid
o forse Igavetto rhe s e d, "sr iyyauare ebeesI
Becaur alwaysdo e m est stufw r unl't met my heart
AND .beforeienmcunter, IWedtedh abI" andher
-iy and sdh a y e sad hll r a sme i ad her mo- m
verynvoralbut ey dngs, mataesom her abtou me
Voicethread.com and Artsonia.com were also considered in conducting the initial
research. However, the blog was chosen as a tool to initiate conversation among
parents, teachers, and children through blurbs of children's conversations, photographs,
images of their artwork, and records of activities that children participated in over time.
The data collected from these observations, field notes, photographs, artifacts and
questionnaires, assisted in a better understanding of the needs and expectations of
documentation within the field of art education.
Letters were sent home to parents of Brentwood kindergarten children informing
them of the research permitted by Brentwood and the University of Florida, along with
parental consent forms. A deadline was given and unfortunately only a few of the forms
were returned. After extending the deadline and personally reaching out to parents,
twenty-two of twenty-five forms were returned.
Children without parental consent forms were excluded from any participation in
the study. Twenty of the twenty-two consent forms were signed to allow their child to
"participate" in the study. Eighteen of the twenty-two children could participate on
Voicethread.com. Fourteen of the twenty-two children could participate on
Artsonia.com; three children could participate only if it did not include their first name,
and five of the parents said no to any participation on Artsonia.com. Fourteen of twenty-
two children were able to participate on the blog; three of the twenty-two children could
participate with no first name mentioned, and five of the students with signed parental
consent forms could not participate on the blog. Participants/parents were restricted
from commenting on the blog site, because of administration policy.
Participating in this practical field experience facilitated a better understanding of
how one classroom implements multiple types of documentation and for multiple
purposes in a way that everyone involved is informed. While the Reggio approach is
used in early childhood education, research and findings helped to determine how a
teacher who sees multiple classes a day in a K-12 environment might successfully
Blog: "Documenting A World of Experiences"
As photographs were collected, the class blog was developed and an immediate
visual dialogue was created. Formatting on the blog was adjusted as familiarity
occurred. The first few entries were filled with text and information; supporting images
were placed in the right-hand margin. After exploring other blogs for formatting, the blog
format changed to mostly images with captions and sometimes children's dialogue to
tell the story, as opposed to paragraphs and paragraphs of words (see Figure 4-1).
Figure 4-1. Change in style of blog, February 10, 2010 and March 6, 2010.
docuinenting a world of
experiences: nis. davics'and
ills. Walker's 2o I o
documciainga world of
experiences: ills. davics'and
ills. walker's 2oio
Because of comment restrictions placed on the blog, the "co-inquiry" aspect of
the blog was hindered. However, conversation remained active, and countless times
parents commented about the blog when dropping off or bringing their child to school.
The permission forms sent out had numerous options allotted for parent signatures and
check marks, thus making the forms difficult to understand, which could have led
parents to not want their children to participate (see Appendix).
Photographing the Experiences
Digital photographs were consistently taken throughout the process. Over time, it
became clear what was important to document, and what could be left out of the story. It
also became clear that important choices were going to have to be made regarding
what was going to be documented and what was not. This is not to suggest that some
things that occur throughout the day do not matter, but findings suggest that some parts
must be left out, while still being able to visually communicate the whole story.
Reflections on photographs suggest that sometimes the most interesting things
happen without spoken language at all. Instead it is an exchange of looks or gestures.
These photographs often communicate more information than verbal or written
language could. For example, when Ms. Davies gave each student wire to bend while
she read a book about an African boy who made galimotos, photographs were taken to
capture their little hands bending and twisting the wire (see Figure 4-2).
Figure 4-2. Photograph of Experiencing: Twisting wire to create a galimoto.
Observational Field Notes
As more interesting conversations flourished, it became essential to have paper, pencil,
and a clipboard handy at all times when capturing important ideas, revelations, and
conversations. Since children's ideas and thoughts shoot from one branch to the next,
being prepared in this regard was most beneficial when trying to capture this
communication process. Details were important, so to try and leave these conversations
to memory was to every stakeholder's disadvantage. In Figure 4-3, observational field
notes were taken of conversation and events that occurred while sorting caps collected
from the previous month. From these notes, interesting ideas emerged as more and
more groups' conversations were recorded. While different groups each offered
numerous ways to sort the caps, most groups ended up sorting them in the same way:
by color. Other problems and solutions were recorded as well. For example, when a
bottle cap had multiple colors or when they could potentially fit into two of the colors,
and not just one, children were forced to make choices, choices that would potentially
inform the next provocation.
Figure 4-3. Sample of Observational field notes from sorting bottle caps.
Artwork and Artifacts
Keeping track of children's artwork and artifacts was another interesting feat.
More often than not, educators are not able to keep students' original artworks, making
it crucial to rely on a good copier and scanner. It was also important to establish a place
for these objects when they are not being used for documenting purposes. Once that
home was established, these artifacts and artworks were often pulled out and revisited.
Through this experience at Brentwood, it was also interesting to find the number of like
artifacts that had been collected over the months from different children. This
observation sparked new interest and provocations with the children. For example,
numerous books and fans were made by different children and then given as gifts.
Unique maps of where to find imaginary friends and treasure were also largely popular
among the girls. These like artifacts might also have gone unnoticed if they weren't
properly kept track of and stored for easy access.
Before and after each blog entry, time was spent reflecting on that day's events,
and also on what I had learned from the perspective of an art educator. Through my
reflections, I established approaches and identified dilemmas with implementing
documentation into art education by identifying what to document, how to document and
tools for documenting, when and where documentation should occur, and whom we
should be documenting for.
Approach 1: Documenting Everything = Documenting Nothing
When considering what to document, one can easily become overwhelmed by
thoughts of all the potential moments that can be documented in one school day. It is
enough to make any future documentor hesitant. No educator wants to miss capturing
the right moments, but this does not mean educators should try to document everything
either. Essentially, documenting everything is documenting nothing because if
everything is documented, then nothing is important. In the same sense, what we
choose not to document becomes just as important as what we choose to document.
Confusing perhaps, but the strategy is to be prepared for actions, moments, or events
that are out of the ordinary routine (unless you want to document what occurs on a
regular basis). Be ready with essential documentor tools, even if it is just a piece of
paper and pencil. It is also wise to document anything you choose to provoke the
children with, to see where it leads. For example, when teaching the strategy "Weaving
a Web of Understanding," it became clear that children were fascinated with the yarn
beyond "weaving the web." Once we were done with the activity, the yarn was left on
the rug to provoke further interest with this material. It became important to document
not only when we were "weaving the web," but documenting how they interacted with
the yarn afterwards when they were placing bugs on the yarn, or carefully tiptoeing over
the yarn, and even picking it up and wrapping themselves in the yarn (see Figure 5-1).
Sometimes it is successful and sometimes it is a bust, but either outcome provides
information about what is being paid attention, and what is not interesting to the
Figure 5-1. Weaving a Web and Yarn as Provocation.
It was also important to make a habit of collecting artwork to make good quality
photocopies. Whether you have the time and funds to collect everyone's artworks, or
just a few for representation is up to the educator and the outlying circumstances.
Approach 2: Consider "How" and with "What" Tools
How documentation occurs depends on a number of variables; for example, the
age of the children, the grade level, and the needs of the children. Teaching children the
importance of how and why to document can alleviate some of the stress of one teacher
doing it all.
Traditionally, portfolios have been used as the art educator's source of
"documentation" of learning, but unless it is displayed online in a public domain who is
privileged to see them or benefit from knowing about their artwork? More often than not,
portfolios serve as a place to keep your students' best artwork. What about all the "in
between" of how each student reached those ideas and concepts? While art teachers
become familiar with what children are producing, they often can make visual and
verbal connections to progress attained (or not attained) by students. Why can't art
educators free that knowledge from the portfolio to Reggio-inspired documentation that
allows school administration, parents, other teachers around the school, and the
community as a whole to let them in on the learning that is taking place?
One might also argue that art educators and students already put their students'
artwork on display in art shows or in a gallery for parents and the community to see. I
reemphasize that documentation is about capturing the process and how students move
from one idea to the next. What conversations were they having with their neighbor
when they were creating these artworks? How many pieces did they create before they
reached the final piece? How did the ideas for the artwork evolve? Capturing these
processes of the "in between" is where the true story exists.
How we should document depends largely on the tools we choose to use. There
are a few essential tools that are a must for documenting. First is a pen and paper. Pen
and paper are used to jot down ideas that are brought up in conversation by any of the
stakeholders. They can be used to record important conversations that children have
with each other and yourself. For example, when we took a class "safari in Africa," Ms.
Davies and I had pencil and paper ready at a moment's notice to record conversations
among the students (see Figure 5-2). Pen and paper can also be used to sketch
different happenings and interactions between children.
Figure 5-2. Ms. Davies Documenting our "Safari in Africa."
Another key tool is a digital camera and its respective battery charger. A camera
is essential in making the documentation more than just words. The infamous quote, A
picture is worth a thousand words," is completely applicable to these situations. This
imagery captures what cannot be completely described with text.
Two devices that are useful, but not completely necessary, are a video camera,
(such as a flip video) and a tape recorder. A streaming video can capture happenings
as they occur in conversation versus a series of photographs and text to describe the
images. The tape recorder is also useful when conversations arise that might be hard to
write down quickly on paper. For example, on our imaginary safari through Africa, Ms.
Davies and I attempted to write down everything that was said on the trip around the
playground, which served as our jungle. It might have been more useful for one of us to
record the conversation with the tape recorder and the other to write down what was
said and happening and then compare and contrast afterward. A limitation of the use of
tape recorders is that the recorded conversation would later need to be transcribed to
be of any particular use with regards to documenting.
A free online blog site such as Blogger.com can also be an extremely useful tool
in presenting documentation to the public. A blog allows a consistent stream of
information and documentation while still remaining focused on the stakeholders. Using
a blog also frees up wall space for other in-class documentation. It also provides a
visual record of documents and events all in one easy-to-access place.
Two other websites initially considered for documenting student's artwork were
Voicethread.com and Artsonia.com. These online resources serve as containers for
information, such as documentation. With Voicethread, for example, imagery can be
loaded onto the site and voices can be recorded over the images as they progress.
Artsonia is the world's largest online web gallery of student artwork and can also be
viewed by stakeholders. However, Artsonia only allows the end product of the artwork to
be shown; whereas with Voicethread, any number of images can be used to create a
story. The ways which an educator could document are limitless; however, the
categories of analog and digital containers emerge throughout this discussion, and
whether one serves a better purpose or is more efficient depends on what is being
documented. Certain situations call for certain types of documentation.
Approach 3: Document When the Time Is Right
When to document is an important choice only you can make. However, you
should be prepared for documenting situations that you know will have sparked interest
and conversation. For example, would it be more interesting to document what the
children are conversing about when they are making artwork, or would it be more
interesting to ask individual children to write down what and why they are making
whatever it is they are working on? These are decisions that must be made on a case-
by-case basis. One important piece of information when it comes to making these
choices is to be happy with the choice you made, no matter what that choice was. At
any point we can look back and say, "I wish I did this or that," but trust that you made
the best decision at the time for documenting what was crucial at that point in time.
Deciding when you have spent enough time documenting is another precarious
question. It has been determined that one hour per day, five hours per week is a
sufficient amount for collecting and reflecting on data (through the creation of
documentation panels, bulletin boards, blogs, etc.). It could be done during planning
periods, during lunch, and even when students are diligently working on their art.
Approach 4: Consider Where Documentation Might Reside
Placement of public documentation should also be taken into account. You must
ask yourself: will it be at the child's eye level or the parent's eye level? Will it be placed
inside the classroom, outside or down the halls, or even near the front office? Is it made
public through the use of the Internet or available only to certain stakeholders? These
questions should be given consideration when attempting to implement documentation
in your classroom environment. Should every wall be covered with documentation?
Probably not: each panel or documentation should have its own designated area, with
room to breath. The goal is to highlight key findings, not overwhelm everyone with
Techniques mentioned thus far are only a few of the possible techniques used
with research and documenting. Each type of documentation serves a purpose with
different provocations and functions, so the happenings taking place determine the type
of documentation you would want to use.
Approach 5: Document for Stakeholders
As previously mentioned in the literature review, stakeholders were divided into
four categories: teacher, child, parent, and community.
While the teacher is also the documentor, it is also the teacher who benefits
tremendously from this documentation. As an educator, consider that documentation
informs where to guide students next on their explorations. Knowledge of when to
provoke a conversation, and when to lead and when to follow lives in the documentation
collected. However, it must first be analyzed and reflected upon by the educator before
further provocation and meaning can be constructed. Documenting for the teacher also
serves as professional development and forces self-reflection on teaching strategies
and philosophies. Thus, if you don't document for anyone else, document for yourself.
Consider the blog developed for reflection on my experiences at Brentwood; the blog
and the creation of the accordion book both aided in the development of these
approaches brought about in this paper, and certainly they have both influenced the
direction of projects, and how I approach teaching and learning.
Most importantly educators document for the children. The approach of posting
documentation allows children to reflect on previous knowledge gained and to further
that knowledge by continuing to explore that subject; or to change their stance on
previous opinions based on newly constructed knowledge. Making children's work
publicly visible also validates that what they are contributing to the class is important.
Children know that their voices are heard and endorsed by their peers, teachers,
parents, and even the community.
The parent benefits from displayed documentation through documentation
panels, blogs, etc, by allowing active explorations not only with their child, but their
child's interactions and involvement within the class environment. This knowledge of
their child's explorations allows parents to continue provocation and exploration outside
the classroom. For example, as kindergarten uses their imagination to travel from
continent to continent, parents are able to see where they have been and what they
were doing through documentation on the bulletin boards and through the blog. Parents
were also asked to take travel journals for their child when they go on trips, to continue
the ideas and conversations. Parents are then once again identified as key stakeholders
in their child's education.
Not only do the children, parents, and teachers involved benefit from
documentation, but so does the community. When the community becomes aware of
what is taking place inside the classroom, they become invested stakeholders in the
children's education. Whether it is simply the school community, or the community at
large, these stakeholders begin to recognize that what children are exploring and
constructing as being significant and important.
These five approaches are useful in implementing documentation. However,
there are potential dilemmas with trying to put documentation into practice. For
example, anyone could easily be consumed with trying to document everything, when
we know that this really is not possible. Also knowing what is worth documenting for the
sake of further conversation and reflection can be a potential predicament. How do you
choose the work that will represent the ideas trying to be conveyed? What if it is the
same student's work every time? Other questions that might come up: Do I fill every
wall with documentation? How much is enough? When is it time to move on to the next
documentation panel? How much time should one spend being a documentor? All these
questions and more will arise at one point or another during your time spent
documenting, or reflecting on the documenting. While there are no set or predetermined
answers, using our intuition and our best judgment is often the best case for revealing
Through this research a number of documents, artifacts, and artworks were
produced. This included an informative blog, a reflective journal/blog, folios with images
of children's artwork, and an accordion book that serves as a map of experiences
throughout my Brentwood research project, with five approaches determined as a result
of this research, all serving as documentation.
The blog "Documenting a World of Experiences" was extremely beneficial to me
as an educator. It opened the floodgates for communication between teachers, parents,
children, and the Brentwood community. It served its purpose of informing and
reflecting, and grew beyond that into something that further enhanced dialogue.
The blogs were extremely useful in reaching their intended audiences. While a
dialogue did continue with the reflective journal, the dialogue was frequently in person,
not in the course of comments on the blog itself. Since I had contact with committee
members on a daily basis, it was easier to have conversations with committee members
about my reflections than to wait for them to comment on the blog. However, this meant
that conversations in person would have to be maintained in my memory or written
down in note format. In some cases this would be a more natural form of
communication, but other times it seemed easier to get feedback on the blog,
From my experiences of serving as a documentor and provocateur at Brentwood,
these approaches and dilemmas were transformed into an accordion-style book that
serves as a map of my experiences from the beginning to the end of my journey. The
book relies on documentation as background imagery, while also informing the
audience of the previously identified approaches and culminating questions as its main
content. The imagery has continuity throughout, and details the class projects and their
influences on subsequent ideas and events that occurred. The dashed line is an
indication of the path less traveled as it is winding and twirling from the top of pages to
the bottom and back again. This is indicative of the paths kindergarten traveled, as it
was not always the fastest way, but the most informative and ever lasting. Time was
taken to travel from place to place, and many things were experienced that could have
been potentially overlooked due to time schedules and deadlines placed on projects
and schoolwork. These experiences enabled these strategies and questions to form.
This book is the visual pairing to the overwhelming time I spent at Brentwood as
documentor. At times it often seemed to be sensory overload, but in a way that wholly
engages the mind in learning. The book and its box serve as the eternal documentation
from my experience in kindergarten as a documentor and future art educator (see
Figure 5-3. Accordion Book: Maps of Kindergarten and Accompanying Box.
For further practice in documentation, thirty folios filled with approximately twenty
postcard sized papers with the children's artwork on each card were given to each of
the students of the kindergarten classroom as part of engaging in reflection. It also
served to inform parents of our experience reading the book David's Drawing by
Cathryn Falwell. The folio contains information regarding the imagery and how this
imagery was formed. The front cover is a picture of "Our Class Drawing" where each
child drew pictures of what they remembered from the book generating collaboration.
These folios were handed out at the end of the year banquet which teachers, parents,
and children are invited to (see Figure 5-4).
Figure 5-4. Folio of Students' Artwork: "Our Class Drawing."
Questions for Further Study
Upon final reflections of this experience, further questions arose. For example,
how much did the parents actually benefit from documentation on the blog? Would the
results change if the blog were "co-inquiry"? Does analog or digital documentation affect
the outcome of the learning taking place? To begin answering these questions, a five-
question questionnaire for parents will be developed upon the completion of this
research, in hopes of discovering their take on documentation and if and how it played a
role in their children's education and reflection/learning process, as well as their
understandings of their children's environment.
APPENDIX: PERMISSION FORMS
January 26, 2010
My name is Lindsay Lovequist and I am a current graduate student at the University of Florida. Since
the Fall semester I have been interning at Brentwood with your child's kindergarten class and it has been
an absolute pleasure! I am continually inspired by their thoughts, actions, and artwork. This Spring I am
continuing interning with Ms. Davies, Ms. Walker, and your child two times a week on Tuesdays and
Thursday. As you may know, Ms. Davies uses a mixture of Montessori techniques and the Reggio
Emilia approach. As part of my research on the Reggio Emilia approach to education, I have chosen to
research documentation as a resource for future art educators.
I would like to share a quote with you from a 1996 article titled "The Contribution of Documentation to
the Quality of Early Childhood Education," by Lilian Katz and Sylvia Chard, two American educators
using Reggio inspired techniques. They believe that documentation in Reggio terms comes, "in the
forms of observation of children and extensive record keeping, which has long been encouraged and
practiced in many early childhood programs. However, compared to these practices in other traditions,
documentation in Reggio Emilia focuses more intensively on children's experiences, memories,
thoughts, and ideas in the course of their work. Documentation practices in Reggio Emilia preprimary
schools provide inspiring examples of the importance of displaying children's work with great care and
attention to both the content and aesthetic aspects of the display." These two authors describe the
importance of documentation in every classroom. With your permission, I would like to capture your
child's experiences, memories, thoughts, ideas, and contributions, by documenting them through photos,
video, audio, and writing their own words and posting them on a class blog, as well as Artsonia.com,
Voicethread.com, and posting works on bulletin board.
Enclosed with this letter is a parental consent form that provides more information about each of these
websites and my thesis project. If you and your child wish to participate in my research, please read the
consent form fully and return it to the Front Office by Tuesday, February 9, 2010. If you have any
questions, concerns, or comments please feel free to contact me, Ms. Davies, or Jennifer Morton in the
Front Office at any time.
Candidate for MA in Art Education, University of Florida
Approved by University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02 Protocol # 2010-U-0026
For Use Through 01-18-2011
Department of Art Education
PO Box 115801
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Parental Consent Form
I am a graduate student in the Department of Art Education at the University of Florida, conducting research on
documentation strategies for future art educators under the supervision of Dr. Michelle Tillander. The purpose of this study is to
document the student's artwork, daily activities, questions and conversations to promote reflection of learning and encourage
curiosities about students' interests. The results of the study may help art educators better understand documentation as a resource
for further holistic learning and reflection practices. Holistic learning is a process of fully engaging all aspects of the learer-
mind, body and spirit. Reflection practices include analyzing or evaluating one or more personal experiences, and then attempting
to generalize from that thinking. These results may not directly help your child today, but may benefit future students. With your
permission, I would like to ask your child to volunteer for this research.
The participating children will conduct their daily activities during Ms. Davies and Ms. Walker's class. With your
permission, twice a week I will be documenting your child working and playing, as well as their completed work through
photography, video, and blogging, as well as using the classroom bulletin boards. A blog will be set up on www.blogger.com.
This blog will only be available to Brentwood administration, Ms. Davies, Ms. Walker, and any parents interested in participating
on the blog. If you are interested, you can add your email to the bottom of the form so I can add you on the blog. The blog will
remain private to parents, teachers, and administration of Brentwood, with the exception of my thesis supervisory committee.
Students' artwork will also be made available on Artsonia.com, a children's art museum, which is the largest student art
gallery on the web. Children's faces will not be photographed. Names will not be used on the blog or Artsonia unless permission
is provided. At any time you may access the blog and Artsonia to view weekly activity. You will also be able to view the bulletin
boards with your child's work displayed. Only video/audio recording and other materials will be gathered from participants who
have parental permission. Voicethread.com will also serve as a resource for my research. This website allows children's artwork
to be placed on the site while their voice is recorded over their picture to share the story. This research will take place beginning
the end of January through the beginning of April. Results from this study will only be reported in the form of group data,
children's names will not be used. Participation or non- participation in this study will not affect the children's grades or
placement in any programs.
You and your child have the right to withdraw consent for your child's participation at any time without consequence.
There are no known risks or immediate benefits to the participants. No compensation is offered for participation. Group results of
this study will be available in May upon request. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at 352-
895-5453 or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Tillander, at 352-392-9977. Questions or concerns about your child's rights as research
participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352) 392-0433.
I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily give my consent for my child, to participate
in Lindsay Lovequist's study of documentation strategies as a resource for future educators. I have received a copy of this
I voluntarily give my consent for my child's first name to be included in the blog. Email address
I voluntarily give my consent for my child's first name to be included on Artsonia.com and Voicethread.com.
I DO NOT give my consent for my child's name to be included on the blog or Artsonia.com.
I have read the procedure described above. I DO NOT give my consent for my child, to participate in
Lindsay Lovequist's study of documentation strategies as a resource for future educators. I have received a copy of this
Parent / Witness Date 2nd Parent / Guardian Date
Approved by University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02 Protocol # 2010-U-0026
For Use Through 01-18-2011
Script for Child Assent
Hi, my name is Lindsay, and I'm from the University. I'd like to document your
school work and art work by taking photos and video and then putting them on
a website for you and your mom to see. Ms. Davies and your mom said it was
OK. I will do this while you are doing your daily activities in Ms. Davies
classroom. Would this be OK with you?
Approved by University of Florida Institutional Review Board 02 Protocol # 2010-U-0026
For Use Through 01-18-2011
LIST OF REFERENCES
Broderick, J. T. (2008). Innovative ECE Reggio inspired educational practices.
Retrieved from http://www.innovativece.com/docs.htm
Brown-DuPaul, J., Keyes, T. & Segatti, L. (2001). Using documentation panels to
communicate with families. Childhood Education, 77(4), 209-213.
Carter, M., & Curtis, D. (1996). Spreading the news: Sharing the stories of early
childhood education. St. Paul, MN: Red Leaf Press.
Chang, N. (1996). The role of the teacher in children's acquisition of concepts
based on Reggio principles and related theories. Available from ProQuest
Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI No. 9628504)
Ciccone, T. (2006). Reggio Kids Childcare Center. Retrieved from
Cooney, M., & Buchanan, M. (2001). Documentation: Making assessment visible.
Young Exceptional Children, 4(3), 10-16.
Davilla, D. E., & Koenig, S. (1998). Bringing the Reggio concept to American educators.
Art Education, 51(4), 18-24.
Documentation. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved from
Edwards, C., Gandini, L., & Forman, G. (Eds.). (1998). The hundred languages of
children: The Reggio Emilia approach-advanced reflections. Greenwich,
Connecticut: Ablex Publishing.
Helm, J. H., Beneke, S., & Steinheimer, K. (1998a). Windows on learning:
Documenting young children's work. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Helm, J. H., Beneke, S., & Steinheimer, K. (1998b). Teacher materials for
documenting young children's work: Windows on learning. New York:
Teachers College Press.
Hong, S.B. (1998). Documentation panel-making and revisiting using technology to
enhance observation and instruction skills in student teachers. Available from
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database. (UMI No. AAT9841879).
Kantrowitz, B., & Wingert, P. (1991, December 2). The best schools in the world.
Newsweek, Retrieved from http:///www.newsweek.com/id/123873/page/1
Katz, L. G., & Chard, S. C. (1997). Documentation: The Reggio Emilia approach.
Principal, 76(5), 16-17.
Lovequist, L. (2010). Documenting a world of experiences: Ms. Davies' and Ms.
Walker's 2010 kindergarten class. Message posted to
Lovequist, L. B. (2009). Documentation in Art Education. Unpublished manuscript,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
MacDonald, M. (2007). Toward formative assessment: The use of pedagogical
documentation in early elementary classrooms. Early Childhood Research
Quarterly, 22(2), 232-242.
Moss, P. (2005, November 24). It's your choice: The writings of Carlina Rinaldi reveal a
philosophy that challenges the fundamental concepts of mainstream education.
Nursery World Magazine, 26-27.
Pring, R., & Thomas, G. (2004). Evidence-based practice in education. Birmingham,
Alabama: Open University Press.
Rinaldi, C. (1995). In dialogue with Reggio Emilia: Listening, researching and learning.
New York, New York: Routledge.
Rinaldi, C. (1998). Projected curriculum constructed through documentation:
Progettazione: An interview with Lella Gandini. In Edwards, C., Gandini, L., &
Forman, G. (Eds.), The hundred languages of children: The Reggio Emilia
approach-Advanced reflections (pp. 113-126). Greenwich, Connecticut: Ablex
Lindsay Lovequist is a graduate student at the University of Florida and has been
a Graduate Teaching Assistant since 2009, teaching the lab component of "Teaching
Art In Elementary School" to undergraduate education majors. She received a B.A.
degree in art history from the University of Central Florida. She has been active in
multiple organizations including the local National Art Education Association (NAEA)
serving as the Graduate Liaison and Early Childhood expert. She also served as Vice
President of the graduate student organization Art History, Art Education and Museum
Studies (AHEMS); and student representative for Graduate Assistants United (GAU)
and Graduate Student Council (GSC). Her experience includes internships at the
Orlando Museum of Art in the Curatorial Department and the Harn Museum of Art within
the Education Department, as well as local area schools in Gainesville, both public and
private. Her current research involves study of the Reggio Emilia approach to early
childhood education, specifically implementing the key component of documentation in
the field of art education.