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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00047
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v.15, n.3, 51p.: ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 2002
Frequency: bimonthly
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 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100143
Volume ID: VID00047
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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Succeeded by: Journal of Caribbean Ornithology

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text














EL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Fall 2002 Vol. 15, No. 3
(ISSN 1527-7151)



CONTENTS

THE AVIFAUNA OF PALPITE, CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, CUBA, AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AREA FOR GLOBALLY THREATENED
AND ENDEMIC BIRDS. Guy M Kirwan andArturo Kirkconnell .................................. ............................................................ 101
SEARCHES FOR SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES. Natalia Collier, Adam C. Brown, and Michelle Hester .... 110
UNUSUAL FEEDING BEHAVIORS IN FIVE SPECIES OF BARBADIAN BIRDS. Simon M. Reader, Julie Morand-Ferron, Isabelle
C6ot, and Louis Lefebvre ... ................ ..... .... ........................................ ......... 117
COMPORTEMENTS ALIMENTAIRES INHABITUELS CHEZ CINQ ESPECES D'OISEAUX DE LA BARBADE. Simon M. Reader, Julie
M orand-F erron, Isabelle C t and Louis Lefebvre ................................................................................... ............................... 121
SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY LISTSERVER ........................................ ........................ ....................................................... 123
ABUNDANCE AND TIME OF DAY VARIATION IN RAPTOR POPULATIONS IN MARACAS VALLEY, TRINIDAD. Brett D. Hayes and
Floyd E. H ayes ............... ...................................................................... 124
W HITE-CROW NED PIGEON W ORKING G ROUP .......................................... .................................... ....................................................... 126
HIGHEST SINGLE-DAY COUNT OF MIGRATING OSPREYS (PANDION HALIAETUS) FOR CUBA AND THE INSULAR CARIBBEAN.
Freddy Rodriguez Santana, Mark Martell, and Keith L. Bildstein .............................................................................. ............... 127
FIRST RECORDS OF WILSON'S PHALAROPE (PHALAROPUS TRICOLOR) FOR TRINIDAD. Floyd E. Hayes, Geoffrey Gomes, and
M artyn K enefick ........................................ ................................................................................. ............... 129
NOTAS SOBRE LA CONDUCT REPRODUCTIVE DE LA FERMINA, FERMINIA CERVERAI (PASSERIFORMES: TROGLODYTIDAE).
A lejandro L lanes Sosay C arlos A M ancina ........................................... ........... ..... .................................. ........................... 131
PRIMER REPORT DE DENDROICA PINUS (AVES: PARULIDAE) PARA ORIENTED, CUBA. Carlos Pefna, Daysi Rodriguez, Alejandro
F ern n d ez y D avid L am b rt ........................................ .......................................................................................... . .............. 133
NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES ACUATICAS PARA EL HUMEDAL COSTERO DE LA LAGUNA EL MANGON, PENINSULA DE
HICACOS, MATANZAS, CUBA. Carlos Manuel Periz Cabanas y Pedro Blanco Rodriguez ................................ ................... 134
INTERESTING RECORDS OF SHOREBIRDS ON SAINT LUCIA. John Pilgrim ....................................................... ................................ 136
NEWS FROM THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK AND WETLANDS CONSERVATION PROJECT ..................... ........ ...................... 137
BOOK REVIEW
AVES COMUNES DE LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA (COMMON BIRDS OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC), by Steven C. Latta.
Josep h M W underle, Jr. ..................................................................................................................................... .............. ..... 140
ANNOUNCEMENT
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL SOCIETY GRADUATE STUDENT MEMBERSHIP AWARDS ........................................................... 140
FIRST CARIBBEAN ENDEMIC BIRD FESTIVAL. Adrianne G. Tossas ............................................. ..................................................... 141
ANNOUNCEMENTS
BIRD REPORTS FROM THE CARIBBEAN WANTED ............... ................................................ 142
NEW FACT SHEET ON RADIOTELEMETRY AVAILABLE FROM ORNITHOLOGICAL COUNCIL ........................................................... 142


Continued on back cover


SOCIEDAD CARIBEITA DE ORNITOLOGIA


Yrvuw~ :;










EL PITIRRE

THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


Editor: James W. Wiley, Maryland Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 1120 Trigg Hall, University
ofMaryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, Maryland 21853, USA; Telephone: (410) 651-7654; Fax:
(410) 651-7662; e-mail: jwwiley@imail.umes.edu
Associate Editor: Adrianne G. Tossas, Department ofBiology, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR
00931; e-mail: agtossas@hotmail.com
Associate Editor for French West Indies: Philippe Feldmann, CIRAD-Micap, TA 179/03, F-34398 Montpellier
cedex 5, France; e-mail: philippe.feldmann@cirad.fr
Associate Editor for Spanish-Language Materials: Jos6 Placer, Coereba Society (www.coereba.org); e-mail:
jplacer@coereba.org
News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the Editor or an Associate Editor for inclusion
in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al Editor o Editor Asociado para inclusion
en el boletin.


THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anselme
SECRETARY: Dr. Anne Haynes Sutton
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific
study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and
those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
conservation groups in the Caribbean.
La Sociedad Caribefia de Ornitologia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el estu-
dio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia caribe-
fia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o datos
a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.


MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS
Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
All members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year. Institu-
tional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay regular
dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name and
address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, PO Box 863208, Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA.








Society of Caribbean Ornithology thanks Winged Ambassadors and the
Division of International Conservation of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for their support.

COEREBA
We thank the Coereba Society (www.coereba.org) for their editorial and translation assistance.






























THE AVIFAUNA OF PALPITE, CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, CUBA, AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE
AREA FOR GLOBALLY THREATENED AND ENDEMIC BIRDS


GUY M. KIRWAN1 AND ARTURO KIRKCONNELL2
174 Waddington Street, Norwich NR2 4JS, UK; and 2AMuseo Nacional de Historia Natural, Calle Obispo 61, Plaza de
Armas, La Habana, CP10100, Cuba


Resumen.-LA AVIFAUNA DE PALPITE, CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, CUBA, Y LA IMPORTANCIA DEL AREA PARA AVES
GLOBALMENTE AMENAZADA Y ENDEMICO. Presentamos aqui los resultados de trabajo de campo en el bosque semi-
deciduo y bosque de ci6naga temporalmente inundados en la region de Palpite, Ci6naga de Zapata, Cuba, durante
los afios de 1998 al 2002, y los meses de enero-mayo, julio, septiembre y octubre. En total, 99 species de aves han
sido registradas en la area, incluyendo seis globalmente amenazadas o casi-amenazadas, y 15 endemicos, una pro-
porcion bastante alta de species. La abundancia relative en todas estaciones se present para todas las species,
con notas sobre la nidifaci6n, estructura de la vegetaci6n, alimentaci6n y habitat. Adicionalmente, el Potu Nyctibius
jamaicensis ha sido registrado en la area, el cual se registry recientemente para Cuba y conocido en pocas localida-
des. Notas sobre las poblaciones de species amenazadas en la area son presentadas, con otros interesantes regis-
tros.
Palabras clave: avifauna, Catharus fuscescens, Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba, endimico, species amenazada, Geo-
trygon caniceps
Abstract.-We present the results of fieldwork in the semi-deciduous and seasonally inundated woodland around
Palpite, in the Ci6naga de Zapata, Cuba, from 1998 to 2002, in January-May, July, September, and October. In
total, 99 bird species occur in the area, including six considered globally threatened or near threatened, and 15 that
are Cuban endemics, a remarkably high proportion of the overall total. Relative and seasonal abundance is pre-
sented for all species, along with notes concerning habitat use, foraging strata and breeding. Additionally, Northern
Potoo Nyctibius jamaicensis has been recorded in the area, a species only recently found in Cuba and still known
from few localities in the island. Notes concerning the populations of threatened species in the area are also pre-
sented, along with other interesting records.
Key words: avifauna, Catharus fuscescens, Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba, endemics, Geotrygon caniceps, threatened
species



INTRODUCTION 1997; Pefia et al. 2000a,b) but, thus far, few such
THE LAST TWO DECADES have witnessed the pub- have been presented for any part of the omithologi-
lication of basic avifaunal lists for diverse areas of call rich Zapata Peninsula (only Gonzalez Alonso
Cuba (e.g., Hernmndez Suarez et al. 1999; Kirkcon- et al. 1992, 1993). A complete list of those species
nell 1998; Kirkconnell et al. 1993; Navarro et al. known from the Cidnaga de Zapata was presented at


SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA



: EL PITIRRE

SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


Fall 2002 Vol. 15, No. 3









KIRWAN AND KIRKCONNELL-AVIFAUNA OF PALPITE, CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, CUBA


a recent conference of the SCO (Bacallao Mesa et
al. 1999), however, and an earlier and less complete
list of birds and other terrestrial vertebrates was
published by Garrido (1980). Such inventories pro-
vide important material for environmental planners
and decision-makers, as they represent an invalu-
able first step in the prioritization and targeting of
conservation resources. As part of a broader project
to identify the key sites for birders visiting the Za-
pata region, we prepared avifaunal lists for 19 such
areas (Kirkconnell et al. in prep.), one of which, the
woodland immediately to the west of the village of
Palpite, was surveyed regularly in several months,
and is the subject of this paper.

STUDY AREA
Pflpite lies approximately 5 km north of Playa
Larga, which is at the head of the Bahia de Cochi-
nos (Bay of Pigs). The principal area of semi-
deciduous forest in the vicinity of the settlement,
and that investigated by us, lies immediately to the
west and south, and is included within the Cidnaga
de Zapata Biosphere Reserve, but not in the Cidnaga
de Zapata National Park. Typical tree species of this
forest, which grows on thin soils with a limestone
substrate, include Cedrela odorata, Bursera sima-
ruba, Cordia gerascanthus, Spondias mombin, and
Oxandra lanceolata (see Garrido and Kirkconnell
2000). Canopy height is typically 7-10 m. Ground
cover is comparatively sparse. Mean dbh of canopy-
height trees was calculated as 66.1 cm from 30 ran-
domly selected trees within 2 m of the main trail.
These woodlands become partially inundated sea-
sonally, principally in June-October. Basic climatic
data for the Zapata region were presented by Al-
fonso et al. (1985): mean daily temperatures range
from 200C in January to 270C in July. The nature of
the study area was fundamentally impacted by Hur-
ricane Michelle in early November 2001, with many
small areas being partially cleared as a result of tall
trees being felled in its wake, and other, much lar-
ger, areas of up to several hectares or more now
solely containing dead trees. In addition, the wood-
land is subject to small-scale human impacts, with
subsistence hunting and tree harvesting, principally
for house construction, occurring locally. Indeed,
the destruction of much of Palpite as a result of the
same hurricane, placed additional, short-term pres-
sure on these forests.

METHODS
We performed transects along the first 2.5 km of
a human trail that runs south from Pflpite towards
Playa Larga. These surveys were undertaken on a


total of 28 days from September to May (the major-
ity in January to April) in the years 1998-2002,
with more detailed fieldwork being undertaken from
17 to 26 July 2000 and 12 to 26 July 2002. Surveys
were usually conducted in the first or last three
hours of daylight, on days without rain or strong
winds, to coincide with the peaks in bird activity,
although were occasionally performed at other less
ideal times of day, and were designed only to gain
an impression of those bird species present and their
general level of abundance, using broad indices sug-
gested by Parker et al. (1996), not to establish spe-
cific estimates of density. At other times of day we
censused adjacent areas, around the village, princi-
pally areas of second growth and gardens. In total,
52 days of fieldwork were undertaken. All contacts
with a bird species were registered, both aural and
visual (the two senior authors are thoroughly famil-
iar with the vocal characteristics of virtually all spe-
cies recorded in Cuba), and we occasionally made
voucher tape recordings. For this purpose, Kirwan
used a Marantz PMD-201 recorder and Sennheiser
ME-66 microphone, and Kirkconnell a Sony TCM-
5000 recorder and Sennheiser ME-66 microphone.
Several recordings by Kirwan have been archived at
the National Sound Archive, London (UK). In addi-
tion, we noted any direct evidence of breeding ac-
tivity (e.g., observations of food-carrying, nest at-
tendance, adults feeding dependent young).

RESULTS
Ninety-five species, of which 15 are Cuban en-
demics, have been recorded in the study area. With
the exception of one, Northern Potoo Nyctibius ja-
maicenis, all were recorded during the course of our
surveys. Nyctibius jamaicensis was only recently
discovered in Cuba, and has thus far been recorded
from five localities, including Palpite (Martinez et
al. 2000, Kirwan 2001). It is worth noting that we
have specifically searched for this species at the
study site, most recently in July 2000, using tape
playback, but without success. In addition, we re-
corded six species of global conservation concern
(BirdLife International)-Gundlach's Hawk Accipi-
ter gundlachi (Endangered), Gray-headed Quail-
Dove Geotrygon caniceps (Vulnerable), Blue-
headed Quail-Dove Starnoenas cyanocephala
(Endangered), Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala
(Near Threatened), Cuban Parakeet oi, ,ri'ii euops
(Vulnerable), and Bee Hummingbird Mellisuga
helenae (Near Threatened). Given the recent pro-
posal that nominate G. caniceps (in Cuba) and the
form leucometopius (from Hispaniola) be treated
specifically (Garrido et al. 2002), all five of these


El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 102












Table 1. Seasonal abundance, habitat foraging height and threat status of all bird species recorded at Palpite, Ci6naga de Zapata, Matanzas province, Cuba. Those species
highlighted in bold text are Cuban endemics (see note in the main text concerning Grey-headed Quail-Dove Geotrygon caniceps and Cuban Martin Progne cryptoleuca).
Codes defining seasonal abundance are taken from Parker et al. (1996): U = uncommon (1-4 pairs per km2), R = rare (less than one bird/km2), C = >15 birds/km2. In the
Habitat column, 'Other' refers to areas immediately around the village, including gardens and scrub therein, and a small pool just to the east of the settlement. In the breeding
evidence column, all species for which we have observations indicating nesting in the study area are denoted 'B'. Threat status is taken from BirdLife International (2000).


Scientific name


Habitat


Strata Dec-Feb Mar-May Jun-Jul Aug-Nov Breeding Threat status


Great Blue Heron
Cattle Egret
Green Heron
Black-crowned Night-Heron
Wood Stork
Turkey Vulture
Gundlach's Hawk
Broad-winged Hawk
Red-tailed Hawk
American Kestrel
Spotted Rail
Limpkin
Killdeer
Black-necked Stilt
Lesser Yellowlegs
Solitary Sandpiper
White-crowned Pigeon
White-winged Dove
Zenaida Dove
Mourning Dove
Common Ground-Dove
Key West Quail-Dove
Gray-headed Quail-Dove
Ruddy Quail-Dove
Blue-headed Quail-Dove
Cuban Parakeet
Rose-throated Parrot
Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Great Lizard-Cuckoo
Smooth-billed Ani
Cuban Pygmy-Owl
Stygian Owl
Short-eared Owl
Northern Potoo


Ardea herodias
Bubulcus ibis
Butorides virescens
Nycticorax nycticorax
Mycteria americana
Cathartes aura
Accipiter gundlachi
Buteo platypterus
Buteojamaicensis
Falco sparverius
Pardirallus maculatus
Aramus guarauna
Charadrius vociferus
Himantopus mexicanus
Tringaflavipes
Tringa solitaria
Columba leucocephala
Zenaida asiatica
Zenaida aurita
Zenaida macroura
Columbina passerina
Geotrygon chrysia
Geotrygon caniceps
Geotrygon montana
Starnoenas cyanocephala
Aratinga euops
Amazona leucocephala
Coccyzus americanus
Saurothera merlini
Crotophaga ani
Glaucidium siju
Asio stygius
Asioflammeus
Nyctibius jamaicensis


Other
Other
Forest
Other
Other
Edge/Other
Forest
Other
Other
Edge/Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Forest
Edge
Forest
Edge
Edge
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Edge
Forest/Edge
Forest
Forest
Other
Forest
Edge
Edge
Forest


R R
R


Canopy


C C
R R
R
R
U U


Canopy C
U
All U
U
C
Low U
Low U
Low U
Low U

Canopy U
Mid
Low/Mid C
C
Mid/Canopy U


C C
U U
U U
U U
C C
U U
U U
U U
U U
R
U U


Endangered


Vulnerable


U Endangered
Vulnerable
U B Near Threatened


Mid/Canopy


see Martinez et
al. (2000)


n
-e


Species














Species


Common Nighthawk
Antillean Nighthawk
Cuban Nightjar
Cuban Emerald
Bee Hummingbird
Cuban Trogon
Cuban Tody
Antillean Palm-Swift
Belted Kingfisher
West Indian Woodpecker
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Cuban Green Woodpecker
Northern Flicker
Crescent-eyed Pewee
La Sagra's Flycatcher
Eastern Kingbird
Gray Kingbird
Loggerhead Kingbird
White-eyed Vireo
Cuban Vireo
Yellow-throated Vireo
Red-eyed Vireo
Black-whiskered Vireo
Cuban Crow
Cuban Martin
Tree Swallow
Northern Rough-winged Swallow
Cave Swallow
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
Veery
Red-legged Thrush
Gray Catbird
Northern Mockingbird
Blue-winged Warbler
Northern Parula
Magnolia Warbler
Black-throated Blue Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler
Yellow-throated Warbler


Scientific name


Chordeiles minor
Chordeiles gundlachii
Caprimulgus cubanensis
Chlorostilbon ricordii
Mellisuga helenae
Priotelus temnurus
Todus multicolor
Tachornis pheonicobia
Ceryle alcyon
Mlelanerpes superciliaris
Sphyrapicus various
Xiphidiopicus percussus
Colaptes auratus
Contopus caribaeus
Myiarchus sagrae
Tyrannus tyrannus
Tyrannus dominicensis
Tyrannus caudifasciatus
Vireo griseus
Vireo gundlachii
Vireoflavifrons
Vireo olivaceus
Vireo altiloquus
Corvus nasicus
Progne cryptoleuca
Tachycineta bicolor
Stelgidopteryx serripennis
Petrochelidonfulva
Polioptila caerulea
Catharus fuscescens
Turdus plumbeus
Dumetella carolinesis
Mimus polyglottos
Vermivora pinus
Parula americana
Dendroica magnolia
Dendroica caerulescens
Dendroica virens
Dendroica dominica


Habitat


Edge
Edge
Forest/Edge
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Other
Other
Forest/Edge
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest/Edge
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Edge
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest


Strata Dec-Feb Mar-May


Low
Low/Mid
All
Mid/Canopy
Low/Mid


Mid
Mid
Mid/Canopy
Mid/Canopy
Low/Mid
All
All
Canopy
Low/Mid
Mid
Low/Mid
Mid
Mid
Mid/Canopy


Mid
Low
Low/Mid
Low/Mid

All
All
All
Low/Mid
All
Mid/Canopy


Jun-Jul Aug-Nov Breeding Threat status


Near Threatened


C B

C B


U U
C C C
R
C C C C
R

C C
U U U
R


R

C

C C B

C C


C U
C U
C
U U













- Species



S Prairie Warbler
Palm Warbler
Black-and-white Warbler
American Redstart
Worm-eating Warbler
Ovenbird
Northern Waterthrush
Louisiana Waterthrush
Common Yellowthroat
Yellow-headed Warbler
Hooded Warbler
Bananaquit
Red-legged Honeycreeper
Western Spindalis
Summer Tanager
Scarlet Tanager
Cuban Bullfinch
Yellow-faced Grassquit
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Tawny-shouldered Blackbird
Cuban Blackbird
Greater Antillean Grackle
Shiny Cowbird
Greater Antillean Oriole
Baltimore Oriole
House Sparrow


Scientific name



Dendroica discolor
Dendroica palmarum
Mniotilta varia
Setophaga ruticilla
Helmitheros vermivorus
Seiurus aurocapillus
Seiurus noveboracensis
Seiurus motacilla
Geothlypis trichas
Teretistris fernandinae
Wilsonia citrina
Coerebaflaveola
Cyanerpes cyaneus
Spindalis zena
Piranga rubra
Piranga olivacea
Melopyrrha nigra
Tiaris olivacea
Pheucticus ludovicianus
Agelaius humeralis
Dives atroviolacea
Quiscalus niger
Molothrus bonariensis
Icterus dominicensis
Icterus galbula
Passer domesticus


Habitat



Forest
Forest/Edge
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Edge
Forest
Forest
Edge
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Forest
Other
Other
Other
Other
Forest
Forest
Other


Strata Dec-Feb



Low/Mid U
Low/Mid U
Low/Mid C
All C
Low/Mid U
Low U
Low U
Low
C
Low/Mid C
Low/Mid R


Mid/Canopy
Mid/Canopy
Mid
Mid
Low/Mid
All
All




Low/Mid
Low/Mid


Mar-May



U
U
C
C

U


C
C


Jun-Jul Aug-Nov



U
U
R C
C
U
U

R

C C
R


Breeding Threat status


R R
U U
R
R
C C C C
C C C C
R
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C


C C C C B









KIRWAN AND KIRKCONNELL-AVIFAUNA OF PALPITE, CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, CUBA


may be considered endemic. Among the 19 sites
reviewed by Kirkconnell et al. (in prep.), just six
support more endemic species than Phlpite and yet,
in contrast, only seven areas hold a lower total num-
ber of species, demonstrating the relatively high
proportion (16%) of endemics within the avifauna
of the study area. (Note that for our present pur-
poses, and our work in progress, we consider Cuban
Nightjar Caprimulgus cubanensis as an endemic
species (following Garrido and Reynard 1998) and
Cuban Martin Progne cryptoleuca an endemic
breeder, whose wintering grounds are subject en-
tirely to speculation. Otherwise, our taxonomy and
nomenclature follows American Ornithologists' Un-
ion 1998.)
In Table 1, we present the relative abundance of
all species recorded in the area, according to the two
main seasons. Those species for which specific evi-
dence of breeding in the area is available are de-
noted, and notes on the habitats used around Phlpite
and principal foraging strata for those species re-
corded in forest are also presented.

SPECIES ACCOUNTS
Gundlach's Hawk Accipiter gundlachi.-Only
rarely recorded in the study area: one in typical low
dashing flight on 15 February 1999, one on 26 July
2000, one in soaring flight on 24 April 2002, a pair
alarm-calling on 17 July 2002, and a recent kill
which was presumed to belong to this species
(given that it clearly was that of an Accipiter) on 21
July 2002.
Spotted Rail Pardirallus maculatus.-One was
found dead in the town on 9 September 2002; it had
probably hit an overhead electric wire at night.
Gray-headed Quail-Dove Geotrygon cani-
ceps.-Reasonably common, being recorded on
most transects and in the wet season (May to Octo-
ber) appears to be the commonest quail-dove at the
study site. We have no definite evidence of breeding
at this locality but cannot conceive that it does not
do so, and perhaps in some numbers. We have re-
cords from 10 localities in the Zapata region (one of
which was largely destroyed by Hurricane Mi-
chelle), which is clearly one of the species' major
strongholds, and acquires even greater importance if
one considers G. c. caniceps at the specific level
(Garrido et al. 2002; Kirkconnell et al., in prep.). It
is important, therefore, that areas such as the wood-
lands surrounding Phlpite, as part of the Biosphere
Reserve, are adequately protected.
In addition, we take the opportunity here to com-


ment further on apparent differences between nomi-
nate caniceps and leucometopius of the Dominican
Republic. In an earlier contribution to this issue,
Garrido et al. (2002) remarked on the lack of spe-
cific vocalization data to compare the two forms in
this respect. In particular, the lack of recordings
from Hispaniola thwarts effective analysis of any
differences, but it is worth noting the overlooked
remarks of Wetmore and Swales (1932) that leu-
cometopius changes from its fast song to the slow
song. Neither Garrido or Kirwan have experience of
this form's ability to change from one song-type to
another (Kirwan having heard only the fast song),
but both observers, and Kirkconnell, have vast ex-
perience with nominate caniceps, which we have
only witnessed to change from the slow to the fast
song. Whether this potential difference in the vo-
calizations of the two forms is real must be the sub-
ject of future research.
Blue-headed Quail-Dove Starnoenas cyano-
cephala.-At Phlpite, this species appears to be the
rarest of the four quail-doves. Whereas all are
treated as Uncommon in Table 1, according to the
criteria for assessing general status employed here,
the number of encounters with this species during
our fieldwork suggests that Starnoenas is rarer than
the three Geotrygon in the area.
Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops.-Few records
in the study area, and perhaps almost certainly
largely absent in the dry season (November to
April). Most regularly recorded in July 2002 when
three were observed on 16th, four on 18th, one on
19th, and four on 21st. These records may suggest
local movements in response to local changes in
food supplies following Hurricane Michelle, local-
ized habitat changes caused by the same climatic
event, or more probably that the species exhibits
seasonal foraging patterns (though the species was
not recorded in July 2000, when equal-effort field-
work was conducted in the study area), for which
limited evidence is available from the mountains
around Trinidad (Collar 1997; Kirkconnell, pers.
obs.).
Bee Hummingbird Mellisuga helenae.-
Recorded regularly throughout the study period,
with up to six recorded per day. Singing males were
most frequently encountered in April to July. Ac-
cording to our research, Phlpite appears to be one of
the species' strongholds in the Zapata region,
which, in turn, is perhaps the most important area
on the island for this Near-Threatened species.
Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor.-
Garrido and Kirkconnell (2000) consider it to be an


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KIRWAN AND KIRKCONNELL-AVIFAUNA OF PALPITE, CIINAGA DE ZAPATA, CUBA


uncommon transient through Cuba, making the ob-
servation of 40 on 9 September 2002 somewhat un-
usual.
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus.-
Considered a rare transient in Cuba (Garrido and
Kirkconnell 2000) making the observation of c. 100
on active migration on 9 September 2002 excep-
tional.
Veery Catharus fuscescens.-One on 26 Febru-
ary 2001 is the first February record in Cuba and the
West Indies of a scarce transient through the region
(Raffaele et al. 1998, Garrido and Kirkconnell
2000). Remsen (2001) re-evaluated the winter range
of this species. For his purposes, he defined winter
as being from 2 December to 20 February; all re-
cords from this period were from three small areas
at the periphery or south of the Amazon basin, in
South America. He located no records from the
West Indies, Mexico, and Belize from November to
March, or from elsewhere in Central America from
December to February. Given Remsen's findings, it
seems unlikely that the Phlpite record was anything
other than an exceptionally early migrant (a hy-
pothesis we favor). However, the possibility exists
that tiny numbers could perhaps winter somewhere/
occasionally in the Caribbean region, a supposition
perhaps confirmed by the presence of one with a
damaged leg, which was photographed, at Soroa,
Pinar del Rio province, on 1 January 2003 (P. Mor-
ris, in litt. 2003). That this latter individual had a
damaged leg does mean that it may have been
forced to winter in the West Indies. However, the
date of the record does suggest that it was either
able to do so, despite its injury, or that it had already
'elected' to winter in the Caribbean and only in-
curred the damaged leg subsequently.
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia.-A
female present within a flock of Black-whiskered
Vireos Vireo altiloquus, Yellow-headed Warblers
Teretistris fernandinae and Cuban Bullfinches
Melopyrrha nigra, on 20-22 July 2002 at least, is
the earliest fall report for Cuba (Garrido and Kirk-
connell 2000).
Bananaquit Coerebaflaveola.-One in a garden
in the village on 23 July 2000 is the first record
from the well-watched Zapata region, and one of
only four localities in mainland Cuba where the spe-
cies, which is mysteriously scarce in the country,
has been found (Wallace et al. 1999, Mazar Barnett
and Kirwan 2001).
Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea.-A male on


4 May 2002 is the latest spring report in Cuba of
this rare transient, which is more frequently noted in
the fall (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000), and proba-
bly one of the few West Indian records in this
month (Raffaele et al. 1998).
Records of the following species are also of inter-
est, they being uncommon in Cuba: Blue-winged
Warbler Vermivora pinus (male on 15 February
1999), and Summer Tanager Piranga rubra
(female/immature on 29 October 1999).

DISCUSSION
Cuba and its related cays was considered an En-
demic Bird Area (Stattersfield et al. 1998), which
harbors 25 endemic species (a total which did not
include Geotrygon caniceps and several other taxa
that will probably be considered as species in forth-
coming taxonomic revisions). Ten species that are
treated as range-restricted (i.e., their historical
ranges are judged to occupy less than 50,000 km2)
are known from Cuba (Stattersfield et al. 1998) but
only one of these, Yellow-headed Warbler Tere-
tistris fernandinae, has been recorded in our study
area. However, of the 23 globally Threatened or
Near-Threatened species known from Cuba
(BirdLife International 2000), six have been re-
corded at Palpite. Just five of the 19 sites in the Za-
pata region identified by Kirkconnell et al. (in
prep.) hold more threatened or near-threatened birds
(all harbor seven). Thus, given the occurrence of so
many species of conservation concern and endemic
to Cuba within this small area, the conservation of
the seasonally dry deciduous forests around Palpite
should be considered a priority within the overall
protection of biodiversity in the Zapata region. De-
spite the entire Zapata Peninsula having been desig-
nated a protected area (Scott and Carbonell 1986),
considerable threats still face many bird species in
the area; those threatening some of the hole-nesters
were succinctly illustrated by Mitchell et al. (2000).
An environmental education project is currently un-
derway in the region (Lowen 2002), which should
provide a much-needed boost to conservation ef-
forts in Zapata. Visiting birdwatchers are urged to
ensure that landowners, hotel owners, and local peo-
ple are made aware of their interest in birds and
natural history, and their reason for visiting the area.
Only through such actions will the local population
be made more clearly aware of the exceptional im-
portance of the Zapata region to wildlife, and the
need to protect the area.


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KIRWAN AND KIRKCONNELL-AVIFAUNA OF PALPITE, CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, CUBA


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank all of those people in the village of
Palpite who have kindly assisted our fieldwork. In
particular, Kirwan warmly acknowledges the courte-
ous and helpful role played by all members of the
Chavez family, who have consistently made him a
welcome guest in their home. Without them and their
kindness, this paper would have been impossible.
Peter Morris provided details of his Veery record
from Soroa. Kirwan dedicates this contribution to
Dayl6n Chdvez Bonachea and Marco Alejandro Kir-
wan Chdvez.

LITERATURE CITED
ALFONSO, A. P., H. ELIZADE, AND O. SOLANO.
1985. El mesoclima de la peninsula de Zapata.
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AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7th ed. Washington,
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BACALLAO MESA, L., O. MARTINEZ GARCIA, AND
A. LLANES SOSA. 1999. List of the birds of Zapata
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COLLAR, N. J. 1997. Family Psittacidae (parrots). Pp.
280-477 in Handbook of the birds of the world
volume 4. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal
(Eds.). Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
GARRIDO, O. H. 1980. Los vertebrados terrestres de
la peninsula de Zapata. Poeyana 203:1-49.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
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GARRIDO, O. H., G. M. KIRWAN, AND D. R. CAPPER.
2002. Species limits in Grey-headed Quail-dove
Geotrygon caniceps, and implications for the con-
servation of a globally threatened species. Bird
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Greater Antillean Nightjar, Caprimulgus cubanen-
sis (Aves: Caprimulgidae), a composite species?
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HAMEL, M. ACOSTA CRUZ, E. GODINEZ, J. HER-
NANDEZ, D. RODRIGUEZ BATISTA, J. A. JACKSON,
C. MARCOS GREGO, R. D. MCRAE, AND J. SIROIS.
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sula de Zapata, Cuba, 1988-1989. Pp. 131-142 in


Ecology and conservation of Neotropical migrant
landbirds. J. M. Hagan, and D. W. Johnston (Eds.).
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WALLACE, D. RODRIGUEZ BATISTA, B. SANCHEZ,
M. ACOSTA CRUZ, D. FILLMAN, P. BLANCO, E.
GODINEZ, AND A. LLANES. 1993. Evaluaci6n de
las comunidades de aves en seis habitats boscosos
de la Cidnaga de Zapata, Cuba. Pitirre 6(3):5.
HERNANDEZ SUAREZ, D., X. A. GUEMES, AND R. T.
PEREZ GOMEZ. 1999. Listado de la avifauna de
Ceja de Francisco, Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del
Rio. Pitirre 12(1):4-7.
KIRKCONNELL, A. 1998. Aves de Cayo Coco, Ar-
chipidlago Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba. Torreia
43:22-39.
KIRKCONNELL, A., G. M. KIRWAN, AND O. H. GAR-
RIDO. In prep. Finding birds in Cuba.
KIRKCONNELL, A., R. M. POSADA, J. BEROVIDES,
AND J. MORALES. 1993. Aves de Cayo Guillermo,
Archipidlago Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba. Poeyana
430:1-7.
KIRWAN, G. M. 2001. Further records of the North-
ern Potoo (Nyctibius jamaicensis) in Cuba, and a
correction to Martinez et al. (2000). Pitirre 14
(1):10.
LOWEN, J. 2002. Neotropical Bird Club Conserva-
tion Awards. Cotinga 18:9.
MARTINEZ, O., O. H. GARRIDO, G. B. REYNARD, W.
SUAREZ, A. KIRKCONNELL, AND J. W. WILEY.
2000. A new family and genus of bird (Aves: Ca-
primulgiformes: Nyctibiidae) for Cuba. Pitirre 13
(3):65-67.
MAZAR BARNETT, J., AND G. M. KIRWAN. 2001.
Neotropical notebook: Cuba. Cotinga 16:73.
MITCHELL, A. D., A. KIRKCONNELL, AND L. J.
WELLS. 2000. Notes on the status and nesting
ecology of Femandina's Flicker Colaptes fernan-
dinae. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 120(2):103-112.
NAVARRO, N., J. LLAMACHO, AND C. PENA. 1997.
Listado preliminary de la avifauna de Sierra de
Nipe, Mayari, Holguin, Cuba. Pitirre 10(2):65.
PARKER, T. A., D. F. STOTZ, AND J. W. FITZ-
PATRICK. 1996. Ecological and distributional data-
bases for Neotropical birds. Pp. 131-436 in
Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. D. F.
Stotz, J. W. Fitzpatrick, T. A. Parker, and D.
Moskovits (Eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago
Press.
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REYES, AND S. SIGARRETA. 2000a. Avifauna aso-
ciada al sector costero de Playa Corinthia, Hol-
guin, Cuba. Pitirre 13(2):31-34.
PENA, C. M., N. NAVARRO, A. FERNANDEZ, AND S.
SIGARETTA VILCHES. 2000b. Listado preliminary de
la avifauna del Yunque de Baracoa, Guantinamo,
Cuba. Pitirre 13(1):12-14.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton: Princeton University
Press.
REMSEN, J. V. 2001. True winter range of the Veery
(Catharus fuscescens): lessons for determining
winter ranges of species that winter in the tropics.
Auk 118(4):838-848.
SCOTT, D. A., AND M. CARBONELL. 1986. A direc-
tory of Neotropical wetlands. Cambridge, UK:


IUCN & Slimbridge, UK: International Waterfowl
Research Bureau.
STATTERSFIELD, A. J., M. J. CROSBY, A. J. LONG,
AND D. C. WEGE. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of
the world: priorities for biodiversity conservation.
Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
WALLACE, G. E., E. A. H. WALLACE, D. R. FROEH-
LICH, B. WALKER, A. KIRKCONNELL, E. S. TOR-
RES, H. A. CARLISLE, AND E. MACHELL. 1999.
Hermit Thrush and Black-throated Gray Warbler,
new for Cuba, and other significant birds records
from Cayo Coco and vicinity, Ciego de Avila
province, Cuba, 1995-1997. Florida Field Nat.
27:37-51.
WETMORE, A., AND B. H. SWALES. 1932. The birds
of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. US Natl.
Mus. Bull. 155.


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SEARCHES FOR SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES


NATALIA COLLIER, ADAM C. BROWN, AND MICHELLE HESTER
Environmental Protection In the Caribbean, 200 Dr. Martin Luther King
Jr. Blvd., Riviera Beach, Fl 33404; e-mail: ncollier@epicislands.org



Abstract.-Information is presented which updates current seabird breeding colony locations in the Lesser An-
tilles. No evidence of breeding was found for Black-capped Petrels (Pterodroma hasitata) in Dominica. Audu-
bon's Shearwater (Puttinur lherminieri) was found nesting on the St. Martin islet of Tintamarre. Incubating Red-
billed Tropicbirds (Phaethon aethereus) were recorded in Anguilla and St. Martin. White-tailed Tropicbird
(Phaethon lepturus) nesting was confirmed in St. Martin. An important and possibly recently established Carib-
bean Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis) breeding colony in St. Martin is described. Our investi-
gations have resulted in significant findings regarding Caribbean seabird conservation. More surveys, however,
are necessary in the region to identify seabird breeding locations and evaluate the sustainability of known popula-
tions.
Key words: Anguilla, Audubon's \i, ,,1 i, Black-capped Petrel, Brown Pelican, Dominica, Lesser Antilles,
Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis, Puffmus Iherminieri, Phaethon aethereus, Phaethon lepturus, Pterodroma ha-
sitata, Red-billed Tropicbird, status, St. Martin, White-tailed Tropicbird
Resumen.-INFORME CORRIENTE SOBRE COLONIES DE CRIANZA DE AVES MARINAS EN LAS ANTILLAS MENO-
RES. Se present informaci6n que actualiza las ubicaciones de las colonies de crianza. No se encontro ninguna
evidencia de crianza de Pterodroma hasitata en Dominica. Se encontro que Puttini, lherminieri tiene nidos en un
cayo de St. Martin. La incubacion de Phaethon aethereus fue documentada en Anguilla y St.Martin. Se confirm
que Phaetheon lepturus tiene nidos en St. Martin. Descripci6n de una colonia de tamano significant de Peleca-
nus occidentalis. Estas investigaciones dieron resultados significantes sobre la conservaci6n de las aves marinas
del Caribe. Sin embargo, mas studios de la region son nesesarios para identificar los sitios de los criaderos de las
aves marinas y para evaluar el mantenimiento de las poblaciones conocidas.
Key words: Anguilla, Antillas Menores, Dominica, status, Pampero de Audubon, Pampero de las Brujas, Peli-
cano, Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis, Phaethon aethereus, Phaethon lepturus, Pterodroma hasitata, Puffinus
Iherminieri, Rabijunco, Rabijunco de Pico Rojo, St. Martin


INTRODUCTION
MANY ISLANDS OF THE LESSER ANTILLES have not
been thoroughly surveyed for breeding seabirds. For
successful conservation planning in the region, sea-
bird population status, timing of breeding, and criti-
cal habitat must be determined. The goal of our re-
search during the winters of 2001 and 2002 was to
identify Lesser Antillean breeding areas for seabirds
which were previously unknown or unconfirmed.
Identification of breeding colonies is the first step in
the process of protecting or restoring these popula-
tions and habitats. To meet that goal, we conducted
searches for seabird breeding colonies in Angulla, St.
Martin, Saba, and Dominica (Fig. 1). In addition, we
took note of potential threats that may limit breeding
success.


SPECIES ACCOUNTS
Black-capped Petrel.-The Black-capped Petrel
(Pterodroma hasitata) breeds only in the Caribbean
(Lee 2000) and is listed as Critically Endangered
(Schreiber 2000). This species nests in burrows in
steep mountainous terrain, returning to land at night,
and only during the breeding season. The only known
extant breeding colonies are in the mountains of His-
paniola. The Black-capped Petrel has historically
nested in Dominica and, as recently as the 1980s, was
observed flying over southern Dominica at Petit Couli-
bri near Morne Verte (Evans and James 1997). Sur-
veys conducted this century for the petrel on Morne
Diablotin and coastal mountains of southeastern Do-
minica, including our own during two days in January
2002, have resulted in no conclusive evidence of


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COLLIER ETAL.-SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES


Fig. 1. Islands covered during seabird surveys, 2001-2002 (United Nations Environment Program).


breeding (Evans and James 1997; Brown and Collier
2001).
Southeastern Dominica's mountains are thickly
vegetated with forest. We conducted searches for
petrels at Morne Fou, part of the Petit Coulibri Es-
tate. More Fou rises almost vertically from the
ocean to approximately 1000 m. Three methods of
detection were used in searches for petrels during our
two-day search: The first method used was "call-
playback" attraction in which a loop tape of Black-
capped Petrel calls, obtained from George Reynard,
was played at night in a suspected breeding area.
This method has been used successfully to attract
other nocturnal burrowing seabird species (Warham
1990). The tape was played at full volume on a port-
able stereo player from one hour after sunset until
midnight. On the night of 29 January 2001 a loop
tape of the call of the petrel was played from 19:30
to 00:00 h. The call was played for 90 min at each of
the three sites on Morne Fous, allowing all directions
to be covered by the sound. No petrels were seen.
The second method used was "call-playback" to
determine burrow occupancy. A hand-held mini-
cassette recorder was used to play petrel calls at the
mouth of burrows. Petrel chicks or incubating adults
will often respond to the call from within the burrow
(James and Robertson 1985). On 30 January 2001 a
daytime survey was made of the area below Morne
Fous on the southeastern facing side called "des
Sav" (15012.57' N, 061020.5' W). Because of the
large number of animals, such as land crabs which


create burrows in the area, many holes were present.
Using a hand-held tape player, the call was played at
the mouth of 31 burrows. No petrels were found.
The third method used a burrow camera to deter-
mine occupancy. The camera was on the end of a 3-
m flexible tube, used to guide the lens through bur-
rows. Infrared lights illuminated the burrows and
contents were viewed through a hand-held monitor
(Dyer and Aldworth 1998). On 30 January at des
Sav, seven burrows were checked visually using the
camera. No petrels were found.
Time of year should not have been a factor be-
cause petrels are most often found breeding from
November to May. However, breeding colonies have
been found in Hispaniola year-round (Woods 1987).
It is also possible that the stereo player did not am-
plify the sound enough to attract petrels, although an
unidentified owl hovered overhead at one point.
We played the recording for the groundskeeper at
Petit Coulibri Estate, approximately 100 m below
Morne Fous, and he reported that he had not heard
the call of the Black-capped Petrel in the area during
the 40 years he had worked, lived, and hunted there.
A fisherman in the area, however, reported that he
had heard the call while fishing at night below
Morne Fous. Two other individuals, upon seeing
drawings of the bird, reported that the bird is seen in
the mountains of the Grand Bay area.
These local sightings are encouraging and the
Black-capped Petrel may yet be found in Dominica


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COLLIER ETAL.-SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES

Table 1. Surveys for Audubon's Shearwater on Saba, Lesser Antilles, 2001-2002.


Location


Year Date


Time


The Landfill
Sulpher Mine
Sulpher Mine canyon
Sulpher Mine canyon
Sulpher Mine
Eastern & northern sides of Great Hill
Southern & eastern sides of Booby Hill
The Bottom
The Landfill
Hilltop above The Landfill


2001
2001
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002
2002


because many areas remain unsurveyed. This species
is of critical concern and more studies are needed.
Because of repeated acts and threats of violence from
residents, however, our search was severely re-
stricted and eventually forced to end.
Audubon's Shearwater.-There are an estimated
3000-5000 pairs of Audubon's Shearwaters
(P uriutin. Iherminieri) nesting in the Caribbean (Lee
2000) and they are listed as Near Threatened
(Schreiber 2000). However, their population and
breeding status is difficult to determine because of a
lack of research on the species. Chicks and eggs are
susceptible to predation by introduced predators such
as cats and rats, which may be causing a decline in
the population (Wingate in Palmer 1962). Because
Audubon's Shearwaters nest in burrows and usually
are active at the colonies only at night, they are diffi-
cult to locate. Our surveys during the winters of 2001
and 2002 revealed only one individual on Isle Tin-
tamarre and two on Saba.
Isle Tintamarre (1807.5' N, 62059.17' W) is an islet
3 km from St. Martin. It rises gradually from a beach
and scrub vegetation area to cliffs about 30 m high.
Breeding of Audubon's Shearwater was previously
suspected at this site but unconfirmed (Voous 1983).
Call-playback, flashlights, and a burrow camera
were used to determine burrow occupancy. Searches
were conducted on 16 February and 11 March 2002,
and covered approximately 100 burrows. One Audu-
bon's Shearwater was found on an egg on 16 Febru-
ary.
Saba is a steep, mountainous island with a range of
habitats, from cloud forest to dry scrub. Audubon's
Shearwater is known to nest on the island (M.
Walsh-McGehee, pers. comm.). We listened for
shearwater calls in appropriate habitat for six nights.


5 Feb
6 Feb
20 Feb
20 Feb
20 Feb
21 Feb
21 Feb
21 Feb
22 Feb
22 Feb


17:30-21:30
05:30-07:00
Diurnal
21:00-22:30
22:45-23:30
Diurnal
Diurnal
20:00-21:00
21:15-22:15
Diurnal


None observed
One seen flying
One adult on egg
Non observed
None observed
None observed
None observed
None observed
None observed
None observed


During the day, we inspected approximately 100 bur-
rows at each of four sites using a flashlight (Table 1).
On 20 February 2002, one Audubon's Shearwater
was found on an egg in a canyon wall near Sulpher
Mine. One shearwater was seen flying into Sulpher
Mine at 06:00 h on 6 February 2001. No other evi-
dence of nesting, such as feathers or dead chicks,
was found. No calls were heard during night obser-
vations.
Time of year may have been a factor affecting the
amount of breeding activity during our surveys.
Audubon's Shearwater nests have been found previ-
ously on Saba during December and January, but
were absent during another survey in March (Voous
1955a). Local residents said that in recent years the
shearwaters were seen landing on the roads in the
town of The Bottom. Residents said they had not
seen the birds in "some months," but could not re-
member the time of year when they are usually seen.
More observations are needed to describe attendance
periods on the island and appropriately design survey
efforts.
Threats to nesting shearwaters are numerous.
Many rats (Rattus rattus) were noted in the boulder-
covered hillsides above The Bottom and are likely
present on Isle Tintamarre as well. It is unknown
whether rats are reducing local populations through
predation on eggs and nestlings. Goats are ubiquitous
on Saba and Isle Tintamarre and may crush burrows.
Further studies are needed to determine conservation
needs for Audubon's Shearwater on Saba and Isle
Tintamarre.
Red-billed Tropicbird.-Red-billed Tropicbirds
(Phaethon aethereus) are classified as Vulnerable in
the West Indies with up to 2500 breeding pairs esti-
mated for the region (Schreiber 2000). They breed


El Pitirre 15(3)


Results


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COLLIER ETAL.-SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES


from Puerto Rico south to Trinidad (Walsh-
McGehee 2000). Our surveys during March 2001
confirmed a suspected breeding site on Anguilla
(18015' N, 63010' W). Surveys during February and
March 2002 confirmed nesting on Isle Tintamarre
and identified two potential nest sites on St. Martin.
We surveyed Windward Point, Anguilla on 4
March 2001. Although used for sand mining, this is
an otherwise undeveloped rocky point of land acces-
sible by dirt road. This was a suspected breeding area
for the species, which nests in other locations on or
near Anguilla (Karim Hodge, pers. comm.). We
found a Red-billed Tropicbird on an egg at Wind-
ward Point, Anguilla and estimated the presence of
seven potential nests based on the number of adults
flying around the area, available crevices, and site
use as evidenced by molted feathers. A more accu-
rate count of breeding pairs at this and other loca-
tions is needed.
Isle Tintamarre was surveyed weekly from the
French dump (1806.43' N, 6301.12' W) on St. Martin
from January to March 2001 and January to March
2002, using an 83 mm 50x scope. Habitat is clay and
sandstone boulders and cliffs. In 2001, 30-50 Red-
billed Tropicbirds were seen during most weekly
surveys. In 2002, the highest count was 14 individu-
als.
In 2002, boat access was possible and two ground
surveys were conducted (16 February and 11 March)
on Isle Tintamarre. We checked all crevices encoun-
tered and used a flashlight when necessary to deter-
mine the contents of a site. Nesting was confirmed
when 40 occupied sites were recorded on 16 Febru-
ary. A site was defined as occupied if a tropicbird
adult, chick, or egg was in a crevice. However, it
should be noted that the presence of an adult does
not necessarily indicate nesting.
During the second census on 11 March, 24 of the
previously occupied sites were checked. In addition,
three adults and three chicks were banded using
metal numbered bands. Of the 24 sites checked on
both visits, 62.5% (n = 15) had chicks or adults on
eggs on 16 February. By 11 March that number had
dropped to 20.8% (n = 5). Of the eight nests that had
eggs on the first visit, seven had disappeared by the
second visit. This high loss may be due to predation,
possibly by rats. In addition, the remains of two
tropicbird chicks (piles of downy feathers and some
flight feathers) were found outside crevices and ap-
pear to be the result of predation by a Peregrine Fal-
con (Falco peregrinus), which was seen during both
surveys.
Molly B'Day is a rocky islet off St. Martin, near


Pelikan Rock. It was observed during weekly sur-
veys from January to March 2001 and January to
March 2002 from Point Blanche using a spotting
scope. Two Red-billed Tropicbirds were seen going
into a crevice on the northern side of Molly B'Day
twice during 2001 and nine times during 2002. We
were unable to access the island to confirm breeding.
Precipice des Oiseaux is part of mainland St. Mar-
tin, near Bay Rouge. It was surveyed from an obser-
vation point (1804.17' N, 6308.7' W) six times during
February and March 2001 and February and March
2002. Eight Red-billed Tropicbirds were seen call-
ing, displaying courtship behavior, and disappearing
into crevices on 22 February 2001. Two were seen
on 10 March 2001. None was seen in the area in
2002. Access to Precipice des Oiseaux is the limiting
factor in determining the nesting population. Obtain-
ing access to these sites through cooperation with
landowners is needed.
Data on Red-billed Tropicbirds in St. Martin are
scarce. Preliminary surveys indicate a potentially
significant predation problem on Isle Tintamarre.
Small mammal surveys are necessary to determine
the size of the population and the extent of depreda-
tion on tropicbird eggs and chicks. More frequent
and standardized tropicbird nest surveys would pro-
vide a larger sample size and clearer picture of the
issue of predation.
White-tailed Tropicbird.-White-tailed Tropic-
birds (Phaethon lepturus) are classified as Vulner-
able in the West Indies (Schreiber 2000). Up to 3500
breeding pairs are estimated for the West Indies,
with only about 500 estimated for the Lesser Antil-
les. They range from the Bahamas south to Grenada
(Walsh-McGehee 2000). During January to March
2001 and January to March 2002, the Cupecoy area
of St. Martin was observed 5-7 days per week for
flying White-tailed Tropicbirds. Ground surveys
confirmed nesting at Cupecoy and identified another
potential nest site on St. Martin.
The Cupecoy study area is between Cupecoy
beach and Mullet Bay in St. Martin. Sea cliffs in the
area are limestone and exposed reef, 5-10 m in
height. The surrounding area is a mix of resorts, a
golf course, and scrub marine terrace. Using a spot-
ting scope, we made observations from a high point
in the town of Maho. The last known avian survey of
the area took place in 1975 when six pairs of White-
tailed Tropicbirds were found (Hoogerworf 1977).
Historically, however, this species has been recorded
in a larger area, including Maho Bay (Voous 1983).
Our first observation of pairs entering crevices at
Cupecoy cliffs was on 14 March 2002. In 2001 and


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COLLIER ETAL.-SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES


2002, the highest number of individuals seen flying
in the area was nine; all were displaying courtship
behavior and many went into crevices at Cupecoy,
some in pairs.
Two surveys for nests were conducted by rappel-
ling to the cliffs below Cupecoy Beach Club resort
(1802.26' N, 6307.25' W) and using a flashlight to
inspect potential crevices. Crevices were checked on
15 February 2001, but no nests were found. During
the next survey, on 13 March, an adult was found
sitting on an egg. The nest was in the cliffs 2 m be-
low the eastern part of Cupecoy Beach Club. By in-
specting the cliffs, we determined 18 potential nest-
ing crevices are present in the Cupecoy area.
White-tailed Tropicbirds were seen disappearing
near the caves at nearby Maho Reef in February and
March 2001 and 2002, but no breeding activity was
confirmed despite searches in the area.
Precipice des Oiseaux was surveyed by boat using
10x40 binoculars on 3 and 23 February 2002. Eight
White-tailed Tropicbirds were observed in courtship
flight at Precipice des Oiseaux on 3 February 2002.
On 23 February, one tropicbird was seen in a crev-
ice, but the species could not be determined from the
boat.
The White-tailed Tropicbird population in the Cu-
pecoy study area has most likely been affected by
exotic species, development, and human activity.
The occupied nests at Cupecoy and Precipice des
Oiseaux are on steep cliffs not easily accessible to
predators. Maho Reef, however, is at a low angle and
crevices are easily reached, which may account for
the lack of occupancy.
Brown Pelican.-The Caribbean Brown Pelican
(Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis) is classified as
Endangered in foreign territories by the United
States Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S. Federal Regis-
ter 1970) and listed as Endangered in the West Indies
by the Society for the Conservation and Study of
Caribbean Birds (Schreiber 2000). An estimated
1500 pairs nest within the Greater and Lesser Antil-
les (Collazo et al. 2000). With such a small breeding
population, the protection of individual nesting areas
is critical to the health of the subspecies.
Two pelican colonies on St. Martin were surveyed
weekly from 5 February to 14 March 2001 and 2
January to 12 March 2002. Fort Amsterdam (180
1.10' N, 6303.37' W), a previously unreported breed-
ing site, was used by approximately 48 breeding
pairs during 2001, but no evidence of breeding was
seen in 2002. Pelikan Rock (1800.54' N, 6301.57' W)
is a smaller islet colony and had active nests both
years.


Fort Amsterdam, a registered and protected his-
torical site, is on a point of land on St. Martin.
Vegetation is characterized by thorny scrub, com-
posed mainly of Acacia macracantha and A. tortu-
osa, reaching over 2 m in height. The presence of
nesting pelicans at Pelikan Rock is noted in the lit-
erature, but no mention of the Fort Amsterdam col-
ony has been found (Danforth 1930; Voous 1954,
1955a, 1955b, 1983; Voous and Koelers 1967; Pin-
chon 1976; Hoogerworf 1977; Halewyn and Norton
1984; Rojer 1997; Raffaele et al. 1998; Collazo et al.
2000). The only exception is a note by David Johns-
ton from the same year as our sighting (Norton and
White 2001). The size of the Fort Amsterdam colony
would seem to make it more obvious than the
smaller and more distant Pelikan Rock colony. The
area may have been overlooked in the past or possi-
bly it was recently colonized.
The colony was on the western side of the point,
below the fort. A smaller group of about 10 pelicans
was visible nesting on the eastern side of Fort Am-
sterdam, but we did not follow this colony. Weekly
population counts for the western side colony were
conducted from the Belair Hotel (1801.10' N, 63
3.37' W), a distance of approximately 0.5 km, using
an 83 mm 50x scope. Because age classes were diffi-
cult to distinguish from this distance, all birds capa-
ble of flight, or post-fledge individuals, were
counted. However, the thick vegetation obstructed
views of nests, which were not counted.
An index plot, approximately 200 m from the far-
thest nest, was used to gain a more accurate repre-
sentation of the composition of the colony. The in-
dex plot allowed us to survey approximately two-
thirds of the colony. Counts were made from the first
point of land past the Divi Resort, on the western
side of Fort Amsterdam (1800.56' N, 6303.37' W)
using a spottingscope. The following were counted:
number of immature birds, number of adults, number
of nest territories, and number of chicks.
To determine the number of nests in the index plot
and generate a breeding correction factor, a "nest-
territory" classification was used. The brush often
obscured a complete view of a nest, which is a pile
of dry vegetation. It was considered an active nest or
territory if one of the following parameters applied:
1) a chick was in the nest or just outside it; 2) an
adult was in incubation posture on the nest; or 3) if
the nest was not visible above the brush, two adults
had to be next to each other, indicating a pair (only
applied to brushy areas). A nest was not classified as
active if a juvenile, meaning a bird capable of flight,
was on or near the nest.


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COLLIER ETAL.--SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES


During 2001, the mean number of post-fledge
birds in the Divi Point index plot was 136 and the
mean number of nest territories was 39, producing a
breeding correction factor of 0.287. Therefore, with a
total mean count of 166 post-fledge birds from -
Belair, we estimated the mean breeding population at
Fort Amsterdam during our study to be 48 breeding
pairs.
In 2001, the average number of chicks recorded
from the index plot was 36. Although all phases of
breeding, from incubation to fully-feathered chicks,
were visible on all visits, some were more predomi-
nant than others. On February 21, most chicks seen
were downy to partly-feathered. By our final visit, on
March 14, it was becoming difficult to discern fully
feathered chicks from recently fledged individuals.
Even during the final observations in March, how-
ever, adults were still in incubation posture.
From January to March 2002, no nesting was ob-
served at Fort Amsterdam and non-breeding roosting
activity was minimal. This lack of nesting activity
may indicate that the site is used only during more
productive years or during periods in which no sur-
veys were conducted. Colony fidelity and synchrony
of breeding is not known for this area. There appears
to have been no change in the level of human distur-
bance from 2001 to 2002. A major disturbance event
may have occurred in our absence, however, causing
the pelicans to abandon the site.
Human disturbance is an issue at this urban loca-
tion. A resort lies approximately 500 m away. The
Fort ruins are approximately 10 m from the nearest
nest, but the thorny vegetation restricts visitors from
accessing the nesting area. The surrounding waters
are used heavily by watercraft, including jet skis,
dive boats, and parasail boats. The bay on the eastern
side of the point is a major cruise ship port. In 2001,
disturbance was noted only when a watercraft passed
quickly or loudly. Over 40 pelicans flushed when a
jet ski went by the colony at c. 400 m out. However,
a dive boat, only 10 m off the colony did not flush
any pelicans because it was going slow enough so it
did not produce a wake.
Pollution may also be a concern. Little Bay Pond,
where we observed pelicans feeding daily, experi-
ences periodic fish die-offs, most likely due to the
dumping of sewage. Pelicans regularly forage in sur-
rounding bays, one of which is a major port, but
these waters have not been tested for pollutants.
The Fort Amsterdam breeding colony is signifi-
cant not only in size but also in location. It is one of
the largest known breeding colonies of the Caribbean
Brown Pelican in the Lesser Antilles (based on com-


prisons with Collazo et al. 2000). Annual surveys
will aid in understanding factors affecting use of the
site by pelicans.
Pelikan Rock, also known as Guana Key, is a
small, inaccessible rock islet approximately 1 km off
Point Blanche, St. Martin. It lies within a marine
park and is protected. Nests were on a grassy slope
on the upper portion of Pelikan Rock. We surveyed
the site from Point Blanche, c. 1 km away, using an
83 mm 50x spotting scope.
In 2001, Pelikan Rock had a high count of 40 post-
fledge pelicans. Of the 19 nests recorded, one con-
tained two chicks. In 2002, a maximum of 10 nests
and 3 chicks were seen. The high count of post-
fledge pelicans was 24.
It appears Pelikan Rock may be a more stable nest-
ing site than Fort Amsterdam, perhaps because of its
remote location and low levels of human distur-
bance. Future surveys may reveal the limiting factors
affecting both of these sites.

CONCLUSIONS
Much remains to be learned about seabird breed-
ing in the Lesser Antilles. There is a need to investi-
gate breeding success and causes of nesting failure
while determining threats to known seabird colonies.
In addition, a complete survey of islands and sur-
rounding islets is necessary to accurately assess
population levels and identify previously unknown
breeding sites. Information regarding seabird nesting
locations, timing of breeding, and conservation is-
sues should be made available to the proper local
governmental and non-governmental agencies.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Our research would not have been possible with-
out the generous support of Merchant's Market, Inc.
and Island Food Inc., and the helpful people there.
We would like to thank the Dominica Department of
Forestry and Wildlife for their assistance in survey-
ing potential Black-capped Petrel nesting areas and
providing us with information. Many thanks to Tony
Burnett of Petit Coulibri Estate for permission to sur-
vey the estate, his enthusiasm for the project, and
accompanying us during a night survey. Thanks to
George Reynard, who generously provided a re-
cording of the Black-capped Petrel call. We thank
Martha Walsh-McGehee for her much-needed hospi-
tality, support, and knowledge. We thank the Cupe-
coy Beach Club for access to Cupecoy cliffs. Thanks
to Maria Collier for Spanish translation. This is En-
vironmental Protection In the Caribbean contribution
No. 3.


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COLLIER ETAL.-SEABIRD BREEDING COLONIES IN THE LESSER ANTILLES


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tion Priorities for White-tailed and Red-billed
Tropicbirds in the West Indies. Pp. 31-38 in Status
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UNUSUAL FEEDING BEHAVIORS IN FIVE SPECIES OF BARBADIAN BIRDS


SIMON M. READER', JULIE MORAND-FERRON2, ISABELLE COTE3, AND LOUIS LEFEBVRE2
aBellairs Institute of McGill University, Barbados, West Indies; 2AMcGill University, Mlontreal,
Canada; 3School ofBiological Sciences, University ofEast Anglia, Norwich, UK



Abstract.-Field reports of new or unusual feeding behaviors may provide a valuable measure of behavioral
flexibility in both birds and primates (Lefebvre et al. 1997, Reader and Laland 2002). In birds, many of these new
behaviors are observed on islands and in urbanized habitats. We report here several unusual behavior patterns and
food sources in five bird species of Barbados, a highly urbanized island of the West Indies.
Key words: Barbados,foraging, innovation, novel foods, tool use
Resumen.-CONDUCTAS RARAS DE ALIMENTACION EN CINCO SPECIES DE AVES EN BARBADOS. Reports de
campo de conductas de alimentaci6n nuevas o inusitadas puden proveeer una media valiosa de flexibilidad de
conduct en ambos aves y primates (Lefebvre et al. 1997, Reader and Laland 2002). En aves, muchas de estas
nuevas conductas son observadas en islas y en habitats urbanizados. Nosotros reportamos aqui various patrons de
conduct y fuentes de alimento inusitadas en cinco species de aves de Barbados, una isla altamente urbanizada en
las Indias Occidentales.
Palabras clave: Barbados,forrajeo, innovaci6n, nuevos alimentos, uso de herramientas


IN MARCH 2002, an unusual feeding interaction
was observed between an adult and a juvenile Carib
Grackle (Quiscalus lugubris). An adult wild grackle,
captured that day using a baited trap, banded, and
housed with five other grackles in a large aviary for a
short learning experiment, was observed passing
food (bread and cooked rice) through the mesh cage
to a juvenile grackle. Similar observations had been
made twice, on 21 April and 29 August 2000, with
individually housed adult grackles passing food
through the cage to juveniles. It was not possible in
these two cases to identify the species of the juvenile
with complete certainty because grackles are com-
monly victims of Shiny Cowbirds (Molothrus bon-
ariensis), brood parasites thought to have first colo-
nized Barbados in 1916 (ffrench 1986, Evans 1990,
Davies 2000). It seems likely that the adults were the
parents of the juveniles, and if this is the case it is
impressive that the juveniles located a captured par-
ent and begged for food. In all three cases the cap-
ture had been made at least 50 m from the aviaries,
the aviaries were out of visual contact with the cap-
ture sites, and the captured birds had been trans-
ported in a manner so their transport to the aviaries


could not be observed. We could only find one report
of a similar behavior in our data base of over 2200
foraging innovations (Lefebvre 2000), a captive re-
habilitant magpie (Pica pica) feeding a free-living
conspecific outside its cage (Williams 1978), though
cowbird host parents have been reported to follow
cowbirds into a cage (Terpering 1999).
Carib Grackles are very diverse in their feeding
habits and foraging strategies (Raffaele et al. 1998).
In March 2002 we observed a single grackle pecking
under a car's windshield wipers in Holetown, St.
James, presumably feeding on trapped insects, a nor-
mal part of the grackles' diet (Evans 1990). This ob-
servation can be added to seven other cases in our
data base of birds searching on cars for insects; the
species include a congeneric of Q. lugubris, Q. ma-
jor (Schardien and Jackson 1978); House Sparrows
(Passer domesticus) in several parts of Europe
(Creutz 1981, Goethe 1981, Bankier 1984, Simmons
1984), North America (Richards 1962), Australia
(Wilson 1954), and New Zealand (Flux and Thomp-
son 1986); as well as the Red-legged Partridge
(Alectoris rufa, Brazier 1998) and the Greenfinch


'Current address, and address for correspondence: Dr. S. M. Reader, Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 ave-
nue Docteur Penfield, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A 1B1; e-mail: simon.reader@mcgill.ca; Tel.: (514) 3984116; Fax:
(514)3985069


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READER ETAL.-UNUSUAL AVIAN FEEDING BEHAVIORS

(Carduelis chloris, Flux and Thompson 1988).
Our third observation of unusual feeding was on
Gray Kingbirds (Tyrannus dominicensis). Kingbirds
usually forage in the daytime, but Raffaele et al.
(1998) note that some Gray Kingbirds take advan-
tage of street lights to feed at night on the attracted
insects. Nocturnal feeding has been reported previ-
ously for Gray Kingbirds in the Bahamas, Cuba, and
Guadeloupe (Brudenell-Bruce 1975; White 1991;
Smith and Jackson, in press), and has also been re-
ported for Western Kingbirds (Tyrannus verticalis)
in Nebraska and Texas (Stevenson and Anderson
1994). To this literature we add two observations of
nocturnal feeding in Barbados. The first observation
was made on 6 April 2000 between 21:00 and 22:30
h, at a beach in Fitt's Village on Barbados' western
coast. A kingbird fed near a restaurant floodlight,
repeatedly perching in nearby trees before swooping
in front of the light. The second observation was
made on 3 October 2000, in Mullins Terrace, St. Pe-
ter, approximately 7 km north of the first observation
site. At 21:35 h a kingbird was seen to swoop twice
in front of a streetlight in a typical feeding flight be-
fore returning to perch on utility wires. Several spe-
cies are known to use artificial lights to feed on in-
sects attracted to them at night. These species in-
clude gulls (Larus haurtlaubi, Simon 1977), corvids
(Dicrurus adsimilis, Underhill 1988), nightjars
(Caprimulgus asiaticus, Bharos 1992), falcons
(Falco tinnunculus, Tryjanowski and Lorek 1998),
rollers (Coracias benghalensis, Bharos 1992), swifts
(Tachybarptis melba, Freeman 1981; Apus unicolor,
Rodriguez 1988), swallows (Delichon urbica, Hi-
rundo rustica, Bulgarini and Visentin 1997; H. neox-
ena, Hobbs 1967), and songbirds (Saxicoloidesfuli-
cata, Bharos 1997; Parus caeruleus, Blackett 1970;
Setophaga ruticilla, Bakken and Bakken 1977).
A fourth set of observations concern the consump-
tion of unusual food sources. In the course of behav-
ioral experiments on Carib Grackles, we provided
bread, rice, dog food pellets, and water daily from 6
March to 9 June 2002 on paved terraces at the Bel-
lairs Research Institute (St. James, Barbados) and on
lawns in the adjacent Folkestone Park. During these
experiments Black-faced Grassquits (Tiaris bicolor),
Bananaquits (Coereba flaveola), and Scaly-naped
Pigeons (Columba squamosa) were observed to con-
sume bread. The details are as follows. A grassquit
was observed eating bread on two occasions in the
same location on 16 March. One Bananaquit was
observed eating bread on eight occasions on three
days from 2 March to 16 March, and two Ba-
nanaquits were observed eating bread together on
three occasions on 15 and 16 March. A single Scaly-


naped Pigeon was observed eating bread twice, on
22 and 23 April. Bread eating by Scaly-naped Pi-
geons was also observed at other locations. Three
Scaly-naped Pigeons ate bread on the ground 10 m
from an open-air canteen adjacent to the Deep Water
Harbor, Bridgetown on 22 May 2002. The pigeons
were with c. 10 Shiny Cowbirds and Carib Grackles.
The Harbor site neighbors the Barbados Mills com-
pound, where a Scaly-naped Pigeon has previously
been observed feeding on maize (Lefebvre et al.
2001).
To our knowledge, bread eating has not been re-
ported previously in these species, and our observa-
tions add three more cases to the large anecdotal lit-
erature on bread as a novel food type in birds
(reviewed in Lefebvre et al. 2001). Grassquits are
diet specialists and feed almost exclusively on the
seeds of herbs and grasses, whereas Bananaquits are
described as mainly nectarivores, but also feed on
fruits, seeds, and sometimes on small insects (Voous
1983, Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Evans 1990, ffrench
1991, Raffaele et al. 1998). In fact, in describing op-
portunistic use of sugar sources in houses and hotels
in Tobago, Gross (1958: p. 277) explicitly states that
"Bananaquits were never tempted by bread crumbs."
To eliminate the possibility that Bananaquits do not
feed on the bread itself, but instead feed on insects
attracted to the bread, we inspected the bread after
one trial to confirm that no insects were present. Fur-
ther, on one occasion a Bananaquit approached to
within 60 cm of an observer, allowing confirmation
that bread, and not insects on the bread, was in-
gested. As far as C. squamosa is concerned, Raffaele
et al. (1998) stated that, aside from its dietary spe-
cialization on arboreal frugivory, this species some-
times feeds opportunistically on the ground, a view
supported by our observations here.
Our final observation of an unusual food source
was in Gray Kingbirds, seen feeding on hard, dry
dog pellets provided for experiments at the Bellairs
Institute. Like kingbirds eating bread (Lefebvre et al.
2001; also observed on several occasions in March
and April 2002), the pellets were taken in flight. At
least one individual beat the pellet one to four times
on a metallic wire just before its consumption. The
beating behavior, an example of 'proto-tool
use' (Lefebvre et al. 2002), was first observed on 30
May 2002, at 15:30 h, and was subsequently seen
several times in May and June 2002. Kingbirds ap-
peared to have difficulties in swallowing the intact
dry pellets, attempting to swallow many times before
succeeding. After beating the pellets, consumption
was more rapid. Raffaele et al. (1998) note that Gray
Kingbirds often batter captured insects before con-


El Pitirre 15(3)


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sumption, and thus it is the food involved, rather
than the behavioral pattern, that should be regarded
as unusual. Kingbirds normally specialize on catch-
ing insects in flight, as well as taking other inverte-
brates, seeds, lizards, berries and, more rarely, small
fish (Lefebvre and Spahn 1987, ffrench 1991, Raf-
faele et al. 1998). They are not reported to eat other
food scraps (Voous 1983, Evans 1990, Raffaele et al.
1998).
In all our cases of unusual food consumption,
the novel food had been provided by humans on a
regular basis. Repeated exposure to novel food
sources may allow sufficient time for usually cau-
tious species to utilize the novel foraging resources.
In addition, birds on many islands, including Barba-
dos, are relatively tame, allowing them to respond
rapidly to new food sources.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank M. Elie, M. Marcoux, and S. Elvin for
additional observations; S. Kurir for help with the
German language literature; M. Frost for field assis-
tance; J. A. Jackson, A. Keith, and two anonymous
referees for comments on a previous draft of this
manuscript; and McGill University and NSERC for
funding.

LITERATURE CITED
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374.
BANKIER, A. M. 1984. House Sparrow collecting
insects from cars. British Birds 77:121.
BHAROS, A. M. K. 1992. Feeding by Common
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mercury vapour lamps. Journal of the Bombay
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BHAROS, A. M. K. 1997. Indian Robin Saxicolafuli-
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BLACKETT, A. 1970. Blue Tits and gulls feeding by
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BRAZIER, D. 1998. Common Starlings and Red-
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READER ETAL. UNUSUAL AVIAN FEEDING BEHAVIORS


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CREUTZ, G. 1981. UngewOhnlicher Nahrungserwerb
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FFRENCH, R. 1986. Birds of Trinidad and Tobago.
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FLUX, J. E. C., AND C. F. THOMPSON. 1986. House
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FLUX, J. E. C., AND C. F. THOMPSON. 1988. Birds
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FREEMAN, H. J. 1981. Alpine Swifts feeding on arti-
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GOETHE, F. 1981. Technophiler Nahrungserwerb
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HOBBS, J. N. 1967. Nocturnal feeding by Welcome
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Red-necked Pigeons in Barbados. Bulletin of the
British Ornithologists' Club 121:247-249.
LEFEBVRE, L., AND D. SPAHN. 1987. Gray Kingbird
predation on small fish (Poecilia spp.) crossing
a sandbar. Wilson Bulletin 99:291-292.
LEFEBVRE, L., P. WHITTLE, E. LASCARIS, AND A.
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RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
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the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Uni-
versity Press.
READER, S. M., AND K. N. LALAND. 2002. Social
intelligence, innovation and enhanced brain size
in primates. Proceedings of the National Acad-
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RICHARDS, W. S. 1962. Feeding behaviour of House
Sparrows. Blue Jay 20:87-88.
RIDGELY, R. S., AND G. TUDOR. 1989. The birds of
South America. Volume 1: The oscine passer-
ines. Austin: University of Texas Press.
RODRIGUEZ, F. 1988. Activite nocturnal du martinet
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(Iles Canaries). Alauda 56:181.
SCHARDIEN, B. J., AND J. A. JACKSON. 1978. Forag-
ing of Boat-tailed Grackle at car radiators. Flor-
ida Field Naturalist 6:20.
SIMMONS, K. E. L. 1984. House Sparrow collecting
insects from cars. British Birds 77:121.
SIMON, D. 1977. Hartlaub's Gulls feeding at night on
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SMITH, G., AND J. A. JACKSON. In press. Gray King-
bird Tyrannus dominicensis. In Birds of North


America.
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The birdlife of Florida. Gainesville, FL: Univer-
sity Press of Florida.
TERPERING, K. K. 1999. Golden-cheeked Warbler
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TRYJANOWSKI, P. AND G. LOREK. 1998. Common
Kestrels and Great Grey Shrike hunting insects
by artificial light. British Birds 91:327.
UNDERHILL, L. G. 1988. Forktailed Drongos Dicru-
rus adsimilis hawking moths at night. Ostrich
59:183.
VoouS, K. H. 1983. Birds of the Netherlands Antil-
les. Utrecht, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
WHITE, B. 1991. Common birds of San Salvador Is-
land, Bahamas. San Salvador, Bahamas: Baha-
mian Field Station, Ltd.
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gust 1977. Nature in Wales 16:143.
WILSON, M. M. 1954. Sparrows as opportunists.
Emu 54:69.


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COMPORTEMENTS ALIMENTAIRES INHABITUELS CHEZ
CINQ ESPECES D'OISEAUX DE LA BARBADE

SIMON M. READER', JULIE MORAND-FERRON2, ISABELLE COTI3, AND LOUIS LEFEBVRE2
aBellairs Institute ofM/cGill University, Barbados, West Indies; 2AMcGill University, Mlontreal,
Canada; 3School ofBiological Sciences, University ofEast Anglia, Norwich, UK

Resumn.-La collect des observations de comportements alimentaires nouveaux ou inhabituels peut con-
stituer une measure op6rationnelle de la flexibility comportementale chez les oiseaux et les primates (Lefebvre et
al. 1997, Reader et Laland 2002). Chez les oiseaux, ces nouveaux comportements sont souvent observes sur des
iles ou dans des habitats urbanis6s. Nous rapportons ici quelques comportements alimentaires inhabituels chez
cinq especes d'oiseaux de la Barbade, une ile tres urbanis6e des Caraibes.


EN MARS 2002, une interaction inhabituelle a &te
observe entire deux quiscales merles (Quiscalus lu-
gubris). Un adulte gard6 en captivity dans une
grande volibre avec cinq autres quiscales a des fins
d'exp6rimentation sur l'apprentissage social a &te
observe en train de passer de la nourriture (pain et riz
cuit) a un juvenile a travers le grillage de la cage.
Des observations similaires ont &te faites les 21 avril
et 29 aofit 2000: des quiscales adults gard6s en cap-
tivit6 dans des cages individuelles passaient de la
nourriture vers l'ext6rieur a des juveniles. I1 n'avait
alors pas &te possible d'identifier l'espece des juv&-
niles hors de tout doute, car les quiscales merles sont
souvent victims des vachers Molothrus bonariensis,
des parasites reproducteurs ayant colonis6 la Barbade
en 1916 (ffrench 1986, Evans 1990, Davies 2000). I1
est probable que les adults 6taient les parents des
juveniles; si c'est le cas, il est impressionnant que les
juveniles aient localism un parent capture et lui aient
qu6mand6 de la nourriture. Dans les trois cas, la cap-
ture a &te faite a au moins 50 m de la volibre, les sites
de capture n'6taient pas visible de la volibre, et les
oiseaux captures ne pouvaient 6tre observes lors de
leur transport vers la volibre. Nous n'avons trouv6
qu'un seul cas similaire dans notre base de donndes
comportant plus de 2200 innovations alimentai-
res (Lefebvre 2000): une pie (Pica pica) captive
nourrissant un consp6cifique libre a l'ext6rieur de sa
cage (Williams 1978). Un autre cas rapporte des pa-
rents h6tes de jeunes vachers les suivant dans une
cage (Terpering 1999).
Les quiscales merles montrent une grande diversi-
t6 dans leur regime alimentaire et leurs techniques de
recherche de nourriture (Raffaele et al. 1998). En
mars 2002, nous avons observe un quiscale en train
de picorer sous les essuie-glace d'une voiture sta-
tionnde a Holetown, St. James, probablement pour se
nourrir d'insectes pris sous les essuie-glace; les in-
sectes font parties du regime normal des quiscales


(Evans 1990). Cette observation peut 6tre ajout6e a
sept autres cas de notre base de donndes mentionnant
des oiseaux cherchant des insects sur des v6hicules
automobiles; les especes impliqudes incluent un
congenbre de Q. lugubris, Q. major (Schardien et
Jackson 1978); des moineaux (Passer domesticus)
dans plusieurs parties de l'Europe (Creutz 1981,
Goethe 1981, Bankier 1984, Simmons 1984), en
Amdrique du Nord (Richards 1962), en Australie
(Wilson 1954) et en Nouvelle-Zl6ande (Flux et
Thompson 1986); ainsi que des perdrix rouges
(Alectoris rufa, Brazier 1998) et des verdiers d'Eu-
rope (Carduelis chloris, Flux et Thompson 1988).
Le tyran gris (Tyrannus dominicensis) est le sujet
de notre troisieme observation de comportement ali-
mentaire inhabituel. Les tyrans sont habituellement
des chasseurs diurnes, mais Raffaele et al. (1998)
note que certain tyrans utilisent les lampadaires des
routes pour se nourrir des insects qui y sont attires.
L'alimentation nocturne a 6t6 rapport6e aux Baha-
mas, a Cuba, et a la Guadeloupe pour le tyran gris
(Brudenell-Bruce 1975; White 1991; Smith et Jack-
son, sous presse, et au Nebraska et au Texas pour
les tyrans de l'ouest (Tyrannus verticalis) (Stevenson
et Anderson 1994). Nous ajoutons ici deux nouvelles
observations concernant l'alimentation nocturne chez
le tyran gris a la Barbade. La premiere observation a
&td faite a une plage de Fitt's Village sur la c6te
ouest de la Barbade, le 6 avril 2000 entire 21:00 et
22:30 h. Un tyran s'est aliment6 pres du lampadaire
d'un restaurant, se perchant a rdp6tition dans les ar-
bres avoisinants avant de longer devant le lampa-
daire. La second observation a &te faite le 3 octobre
2000, a Mullins Terrace, St. Peter, situde approxima-
tivement 7 km au nord du site de la premiere obser-
vation. A 21:35 h, un tyran est pass deux fois de-
vant un lampadaire de route en un vol de chasse typi-
que avant de retourner se percher sur les fils 6lectri-
ques. Plusieurs especes utilisent la lumibre artifi-


Page 121


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READER ETAL.-COMPORTEMENTS ALIMENTAIRES INHABITUELS


cielle pour se nourrir des insects nocturnes qui y
sont attires. Parmi elles on retrouve des godlands
(Larus haurtlaubi, Simon 1977), des corvid6s
(Dicrurus adsimilis, Underhill 1988), des engoule-
vents (Caprimulgus asiaticus, Bharos 1992), des fau-
cons (Falco tinnunculus, Tryjanowski et Lorek
1998), des rolliers (Coracias benghalensis, Bharos
1992), des martinets (Tachybarptis melba, Freeman
1981; Apus unicolor, Rodriguez 1988), des hirondel-
les (Delichon urbica, Hirundo rustica, Bulgarini et
Visentin 1997; H. neoxena, Hobbs 1967), ainsi que
des passereaux (Saxicoloidesfulicata, Bharos 1997;
Parus caeruleus, Blackett 1970; Setophaga ruticilla,
Bakken et Bakken 1977).
La quatribme s6rie d'observations concern la
consommation de nouvelles resources alimentaires.
Dans le cadre d'exp6riences comportementales sur le
quiscale merle, nous avons dispose du pain, du riz,
des boulettes de moulde pour chien et de l'eau sur
des terrasses de l'institut de recherche Bellairs (St.
James, Barbade) et sur les pelouses du parc adjacent
a Bellairs, le Parc Folkstone, du 6 mars au 9 juin
2002. Au course de ces experiences, des sporophiles
cici (Tiaris bicolor), des sucriers a venture jaune
(Coerebaflaveola) et des pigeons ramiers (Columba
squamosa) ont &te observes en train de consommer
du pain. Voici les details: un sporophile cici a &te
observe en train de manger du pain a deux occasions
au meme endroit le 16 mars. Un sucrier a &te vu
mangeant du pain a huit reprises en trois jours entire
le 2 et le 16 mars, et deux sucriers mangeant du pain
ensemble ont &te vus trois fois les 15 et 16 mars. Un
ramier a &te observe mangeant du pain a deux occa-
sions, le 22 et 23 avril. La consommation de pain par
les ramiers a &te observe aussi a d'autres endroits.
Le 22 mai 2002, un group de trois ramiers a &te ob-
serv6 en train de manger du pain sur le sol a 10 m
d'une cantine en plein air adjacent au port en eau
profonde de Bridgetown. Les ramiers 6taient avec
environ 10 vachers luisants et quiscales merles. Le
port est voisin du site de la compagnie Barbados
Mills oil un ramier avait d6ji t6 observe en train de
se nourrir de mais (Lefebvre et al. 2001).
A notre connaissance, la consommation de pain
n'avait pas &te rapport6e chez ces especes, et nos ob-
servations ajoutent trois cas suppl6mentaires a la
vaste litt6rature sur le pain comme aliment nouveau
chez les oiseaux (rd6frences dans Lefebvre et al.
2001). Les sporophiles cici ont une diete sp6cialis6e,
se nourrissant presque exclusivement de graines de
gramindes et d'herbes, alors que les sucriers sont
principalement nectarivores, mais se nourrissent aus-
si de fruits, de graines, et parfois de petits insects


(Voous 1983, Ridgely et Tudor 1989, Evans 1990,
ffrench 1991, Raffaele et al. 1998). En fait, lorsqu'il
d6crit l'utilisation opportuniste des sources de sucre
dans les maisons et hotels a Tobago, Gross (1958: p.
277) affirme de facon explicit que < les sucriers
n'6taient jamais tents par le pain >. Pour l6iminer la
possibility que les sucriers se nourrissaient d'insectes
attires par le pain plut6t que du pain lui-meme, nous
avons inspect le pain aprbs une observation pour
confirmer qu'il n'y avait pas d'insecte present. De
plus, un sucrier s'est approch6 a moins de 60 cm des
observateurs, nous permettant de confirmer que c'6-
tait bien le pain qui 6tait ing6rd et non des insects.
Quant a C. squamosa, Raffaele et al. (1998) affirme
que, malgr6 sa sp6cialisation alimentaire de frugi-
vore arboricole, cette espece se nourrit parfois au sol
de facon opportuniste, ce qui est appuyd par nos ob-
servations.
La dernibre observation de consommation d'une
resource alimentaire inhabituelle concern les ty-
rans gris se nourrissant de boulettes seches de mou-
16e pour chien utilis6es dans le cadre d'exp6riences
de terrain a l'institut Bellairs. Comme lorsqu'ils
consomment du pain (Lefebvre et al. 2001; aussi ob-
serv6e plusieurs reprises en mars et avril 2002), les
tyrans prenaient la moulde au vol. Au moins un indi-
vidu a &t6 observe en train de frapper la moulde de
une a quatre fois sur un cAble m6tallique avant de la
consommer. Le comportement de battage, un exem-
ple d'utilisation de "proto-outil" (Lefebvre et al.
2002), a &te observe pour la premiere fois le 30 mai
2002 a 15:30 h, puis a plusieurs reprises en mai et
juin 2002. Les tyrans semblaient avoir de la diffi-
cult6 a avaler les boulettes entibres, y parvenant sou-
vent seulement apres plusieurs tentatives. Aprbs le
battage, la consommation 6tait plus rapide. Raffaele
et al. (1998) note que les tyrans frappent souvent les
insects captures avant de les consommer, et done
c'est la nourriture impliqude plut6t que le comporte-
ment lui-meme qui doit 6tre note comme 6tant inha-
bituelle. Les tyrans sont normalement des sp6cialis-
tes de la capture d'insectes en vol, mais ils prennent
aussi d'autres invert6br6s, des graines, des 16zards,
des babies, et plus rarement, des petits poissons
(Lefebvre et Spahn 1987, ffrench 1991, Raffaele et
al. 1998). La consommation de rebuts alimentaires
autres que le pain n'avait pas &te rapport6e pour les
tyrans (Voous 1983, Evans 1990, Raffaele et al.
1998).
Dans tous ces cas de comportements alimentaires
inhabituels, la nouvelle nourriture a &te rendue dispo-
nible par des humans sur une base r6gulibre. L'ex-
position r6p6t6e a de nouvelles resources alimentai-


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READER ETAL.-COMPORTEMENTS ALIMENTAIRES INHABITUELS


res peut laisser suffisamment de temps aux especes
normalement prudentes d'utiliser la nouvelle res-
source. De plus, sur beaucoup d'iles incluant la Bar-
bade, les oiseaux sont relativement peu craintifs, ce
qui leur permet de s'ajuster rapidement aux nouvel-
les resources alimentaires disponibles.


REMERCIEMENTS
Nous remercions M. Elie, M. Marcoux et S. Elvin
pour des observations additionnelles; S. Kurir pour
son aide avec la litt6rature allemande; M. Frost pour
l'aide sur le terrain, J.A. Jackson, A. Keith et deux
6valuateurs anonymes pour leurs commentaires sur
une version pr6c6dente de ce manuscrit; ainsi que
l'universit6 McGill et le CRSNG pour le finance-
ment.


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El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 123












ABUNDANCE AND TIME OF DAY VARIATION IN RAPTOR
POPULATIONS IN MARACAS VALLEY, TRINIDAD

BRETT D. HAYES1 AND FLOYD E. HAYES2
1Maracas SDA Primary School, Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago; and
2Department ofLife Sciences, University dii West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago


Abstract.-We studied raptor populations in Maracas Valley, Trinidad, by conducting 20 5-min counts for
each hour of daylight (21.7 total h). Of eight species observed, Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) was by far the
most common, followed by Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura), which accounted for 96.2% and 3.2%, respec-
tively, of all raptors censused. Four species of family Accipitridae and two species of family Falconidae repre-
sented only 0.45% and 0.15%, respectively, of all raptors. The proximity of our study site to the Beetham
Dump, where large numbers of Black Vultures forage, likely explains the dominance of this species. Time of
day variation in vulture abundance likely reflects movements between foraging areas and roosts.
Key words: abundance, Accipitridae, Cathartidae, Falconidae, populations, raptors, time of day variation,
Trinidad
Resumen.-ABUNDANCIA Y VARIACION CON HORA DEL DiA EN POBLACIONES DE RAPACES EN LA VALLE
DE MARACAS, TRNIDAD. Estudiamos las poblaciones de rapaces en la Valle de Maracas, Trinidad, a trav6s de
veinte conteos de 5 min para cada hora del dia (21.7 h total). De las ocho species observadas, el Zapilote
(Coragyps atratus) fue la mas comun, seguida por el Aura Tifiosa (Cathartes aura), cuales constituyeron 96.2%
y 3.2%, respectivamente, de todas las rapaces contados. Cuatro species de la familiar Accipitridae y dos espe-
cies de la familiar Falconidae representaron solamente 0.45% y 0.15%, respectivamente, de todas las rapaces. La
proximidad de nuestro sitio de studio al Basurero Beetham, done cantidades altas del Zopilote buscan de co-
mer, probablemente explica la dominancia de esta especie. La variaci6n con la hora del dia en la abundancia de
Zopilotes probablemente refleja movimientos entire lugares de comer y dormilones.
Palabras clave: abundancia, Accipitridae, Cathartidae, Falconidae, poblaciones, rapaces, variaci6n con
hora del dia, Trinidad


ALTHOUGH TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO is inhabited
by 35 species of raptors, of which 22 are known to
breed (ffrench 1991; 1996a,b), little is known about
their population ecology within the country. Previ-
ously published studies compared the abundance of
raptors in Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) and
native broad-leaved forest in the Northern Range of
Trinidad (Hayes and Samad 1998), and in the Bocas
Islands off northwestern Trinidad (Hayes and
Samad 2002). However, these studies focused on
the entire avifauna and the methods used were less
than ideal for counting raptors (e.g., excluding birds
flying above the forest canopy). Given the alarming
rate of habitat destruction within the country, fur-
ther data on raptor abundance is needed to monitor
the responses of raptor populations to changing
environmental conditions. In this paper we provide
data on the time of day variation in raptor abun-
dance in Maracas Valley, Trinidad.


STUDY AREA AND METHODS
We studied raptor populations from our home in
La Baja Road, at an elevation of about 70 m on the
western slope of the lower Maracas Valley, St.


Joseph, and southern slopes of the Northern Range
of Trinidad, at 10040' N, 61025' W. La Baja Road
bisects a residential area that is surrounded by a
mosaic of anthropogenic savannas (mostly to the
west), a narrow riparian forest corridor to the east,
seasonal forest (mostly to the east), and a Caribbean
pine plantation along the ridge to the east.
Raptors were censused intermittently from a
stationary point during 5 min periods between 06:00
and 18:40 h from 10 March to 19 April 2001 and
from 28 March to 5 April 2002. All raptors visible
within an unlimited radius were counted; no attempt
was made to avoid recounting the same individuals
in successive counts. Identification was facilitated
with the use of 8x32 binoculars and a 25x telescope,
and by consulting Meyer de Schauensee and Phelps
(1978) and National Geographic Society (1999). To
avoid observer bias, all counts were conducted by
B. D. Hayes. The taxonomy follows the American
Ornithologists' Union (1998).
The data were compiled and descriptive statistics
were computed with Statistix 3.1 software
(Anonymous 1990). Because the data represented
time series and did not meet the assumptions of in-


El Pitirre 15(3)


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Table 1. Mean number of raptors seen per 5-min period during different hours of the day (n = 20 for each hour) at Maracas Valley, Trinidad.



Hour of day


Species

Black Vulture
Turkey Vulture
Gray Hawk
Common Black-Hawk
Short-tailed Hawk
Zone-tailed Hawk
Yellow-headed Caracara
Merlin


06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00


13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00


100.4
4.4
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1


Bt W< 0 B -
5 0 0
SCD
0
0 a C





CD
vlli
ao a "^ ^
0c -r

s -" z
0




ni a gr

-e-



5 l cD o-
t o C
Ci C+


CD

CDb
Sa. cr

CD
0 Cf





a' F^
d
Qcy









-CD


-oC
CD











CD C
i -t CT
c <

1- B

- .


J- 0'J
=

0/ oOg

0'S


0

a



^i







Ho


0


0


r
0,
3en








0 ^-
o 5








- 0

=t.n






0t
1'^
R o


0 W



CD
w & ^ E^







k) o-
CRD
S~~B r ^c
e g=
-&1-20
^1^

0 c--i%

e &f
5 en 0 n


0 0 0. g
0 &*00
00 CD
o a
"^ s? Q'S


OCCD > $1Ds







en e3 0 l
1/ t. &' ^^ 2
CD







IW.
CD 0
^^T or --

ao 3 S g o g-
l|.i8|o
CDga?7


CDR
cDc
a


b.8
2, C


eC

B<


oC
C'


Cl
cs

CD
CD


0
en




01
0a









HAYES AND HAYES-RAPTOR POPULATIONS IN MARACAS VALLEY, TRINIDAD


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank R. Thorstrom for reviewing the manu-
script, P. Charles and A. Kratter for their compan-
ionship, and M. Hayes for her patience during this
study.


LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7th ed. Washington,
DC: American Omithlogists' Union.
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Statistix manual. St. Paul, MN:
Analytical Software.
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago. 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univer-
sity Press.
FFRENCH, R. 1996a. Checklist of the birds of Trini-
dad. Arima, Trinidad: Asa Wright Nature Centre.
FFRENCH, R. 1996b. Checklist of the birds of To-


bago. Arima, Trinidad: Asa Wright Nature Cen-
tre.
HAYES, F. E., AND I. SAMAD. 1998. Diversity,
abundance and seasonality of birds in a Caribbean
pine plantation and native broad-leaved forest at
Trinidad, West Indies. Bird Conserv. Int. 8:67-
87.
HAYES, F. E., AND I. SAMAD. 2002. Avifauna of the
'dragon's teeth': the Bocas Islands, northern Gulf
of Paria, between Venezuela and Trinidad. Dept.
Life Sci., Univ. West Indies, St. Augustine, Occ.
Pap. 11:62-85.
MEYER DE SCHAUENSEE, R., AND W. H. PHELPS.
1978. A guide to the birds of Venezuela. Prince-
ton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 1999. Field
guide to the birds of North America. 3rd ed.
Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.


WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON WORKING GROUP


The Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds is sponsoring the formation of an interna-
tional working group to share information and develop strategies for research, management, and conservation
of the White-crowned Pigeon (Columba leucocephala) throughout its range. The group will hold its first meet-
ing in conjunction with the 2003 meeting of the Society in Tobago 21-26 July. If you are interested in partici-
pating in the meeting, or if you simply wish to be kept informed of the group's progress, please contact:
Brandon Hay (Caribbean co-chair) brandonhay@cwjamaica.com
or
Ken Meyer (U.S. co-chair) meyer @arcinst.org


El Pitirre 15(3)


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HIGHEST SINGLE-DAY COUNT OF MIGRATING OSPREYS (PANDION HALIAETUS)
FOR CUBA AND THE INSULAR CARIBBEAN

FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA', MARK MARTELL2, AND KEITH L. BILDSTEIN3
1Eastern Center ofEcosystems and Biodiversity (BIOECO), Museo de Historia Natural Tomds
Romay, CP 90 100, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba;f,. ,1. .. b. .. 1 ,,f 2The Raptor Center at the
University of Minnesota, 1920 Fitch Avenue, St. Paul, AMN 55108, USA; and 3Hawk Mountain
Sanctuary, 1700 Hawk Mountain Road, Kempton, PA 19529, USA


Abstract.-We report a count of 279 Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in 3:05 h of observation on 30 August 2001
from an observation point at La Gran Piedra, Sierra Maestra, in southeastern Cuba. This constitutes the highest count
for the species reported for Cuba and the entire insular Caribbean. These data confirm the importance of Cuba for
migration of the Osprey in its passage through the Caribbean.
Key words: Cuba, migration, Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Resumen.-EL MAYOR CONTEO EN UN DIA DE AGUILAS PESCADORAS (Pandion haliaetus) MIGRATORIAS PARA
CUBA Y EL CARIBE INSULAR. Se report el conteo de 279 Aguilas Pescadoras (Pandion haliaetus) en 3:05 h de
observaci6n el 30 de agosto de 2001 en el punto de observaci6n de La Gran Piedra, Sierra Maestra, en el sudeste de
Cuba. Este constitute el conteo mas grande de la especie reportado hasta el moment para Cuba y todo el Caribe
insular. Estos datos confirman la importancia de Cuba para la migraci6n del Aguila Pescadora en su viaje a traves
del Caribe.
Palabras clave: Aguila Pescadora, Cuba, migracidn, Pandion haliaetus


OSPREYS (PANDION HALIAETUS) are complete,
long-distance migrants throughout their cosmopoli-
tan range (Kerlinger 1989). They have been re-
ported as common winter residents and transients in
Cuba (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000). Data based
on counts (Hoffman and Darrow 1992), band recov-
eries (Henny and Van Velzen 1972, Poole and
Agler 1987) and satellite telemetry (Martell et al.
2001, Rodriguez et al. 2001) suggest that the major
part of the population of this species from the east-
ern seaboard of the United States passes through
Cuba during autumn migration. Although great
numbers of Ospreys can be seen principally in Cuba
and Hispaniola during autumn migration, few
counts have been done (Crouse and Keith 1999,
Rodriguez et al. 2001). Here, we report the highest
daily count for Osprey in the insular Caribbean.
This effort was part of the first autumn raptor mi-
gration count made in La Gran Piedra, southeastern
Cuba.

METHODS
Observations were made from the summit of La
Gran Piedra (1234 m) in the eastern Sierra Maestra
mountain range, which runs parallel to the southern
coast of eastern Cuba. On 30 August 2001, three
persons made observations with 10x binoculars. A
cumulative effort of 3:05 h was made from 10:55 h


until 14:00 h when the count was stopped because
of rain. Weather conditions were recorded using the
standardized daily report suggested by the Hawk
Migration Association of North America. Wind
speed and temperature were measured with a Kes-
trel 2000 weather station. A mechanical counter
was used to tally hourly counts.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
We observed 279 Ospreys in flight, with numbers
peaking from 11:00 to 12:00 h (n = 171) (Table 1).
The counts carried out at La Gran Piedra during
the fall of 2001 (Rodriguez Santana, unpublished
data) and satellite telemetry data (Martell et al.
2001) confirm early suggestions regarding Cuba as
an important stopover site for migrating Ospreys
(Henny and Van Velzen 1972, Poole and Agler
1987, Hoffman and Darrow 1992, Rodriguez et al.
2001). The Sierra Maestra mountain range, which is
267 km long and up to 35 km wide, appears to be an
important pathway for migrating Ospreys once they
reach eastern Cuba by providing a "highway" of
mountainside updrafts and thermals which the birds
exploit while traveling east through the region. Sev-
eral previous reports exist for Ospreys migrating
along the Sierra Maestra range (Rodriguez et al.
2001).


El Pitirre 15(3)


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RODRIGUEZ ETAL.-HIGHEST OSPREY COUNT


Table 1. Weather variables and Osprey totals per hour at La Gran Piedra study
site.

Hour

Variable' 10:00-11:00 11:00-12:00 12:00-13:00 13:00-14:00


WSPD (km/h)
WFM
TEMP (C)
CLCV (%)
VISB
FDIR
HTFL
OBVS
DURA
Osprey


3.8
E-NE
26.4
70
VC
E
M-H
3
60
24


1WSPD = wind speed; WFM = wind from; TEMP = temperature; CLCV =
cloud cover; VISB = visibility: VH (very hazy), H (hazy), C (clear), VC (very
clear); FDIR = flight direction; HTFL = height of flight overhead: L (Low), M
(medium), H (high); OBVS = number of observers; DURA = duration of ob-
servations (min); Osprey = number of birds observed.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
First-year counts were funded by the Wildlife
Conservation Society of New York (WCS), the
Eastern Center of Ecosystems and Biodiversity of
Santiago de Cuba, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary Asso-
ciation in Pennsylvania, and the Raptor Center at
the University of Minnesota. Rodriguez Santana
expresses his thankfulness to the WCS, especially to
Felicity Arengo, who kindly brought the equipment
and funds.

LITERATURE CITED
CROUSE, D. G., JR., AND A. R. KEITH. 1999. A re-
markable Osprey flight and first record of Swal-
low-tailed Kite for Hispaniola. Pitirre 12:91.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000.
Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY:
Comstock Publishing Associates. Cornell Univer-
sity Press.
HENNY, C. J., AND W. T. VAN VELZEN. 1972. Mi-
gration patterns and wintering localities of Ameri-


can Ospreys. J. Wildl. Manage. 36:1133-1141.
HOFFMAN, W., AND H. DARROW. 1992. Migration
of diurnal raptor from the Florida Keys into the
West Indies. Hawk Migration Assoc. N. Amer.
Migration Stud., Oct.:7-14.
KERLINGER, P. 1989. Flight strategies of migrating
hawks. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
MARTELL, M. S., C. J. HENNY, P. E. NYE, AND M.
J. SOLENSKY. 2001. Fall migration routes, timing,
and wintering sites of North American Ospreys as
determined by satellite telemetry. Condor
103:715-724.
POOLE, A. F., AND B. AGLER. 1987. Recoveries of
Ospreys banded in United States, 1914-84. J.
Wildl. Manage. 51:148-155.
RODRIGUEZ, F., M. MARTELL, P. NYE, AND K. L.
BILDSTEIN. 2001. Osprey migration through
Cuba. Pp 107-117 in Hawkwatching in the
Americas (K. L. Bildstein and D. Klem, Jr., Eds.).
North Wales, PA: Hawk Migration Assoc. North
America.


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FIRST RECORDS OF WILSON'S PHALAROPE (PHALAROPUS TRICOLOR) FOR TRINIDAD

FLOYD E. HAYES1, GEOFFREY GOMES2 AND MARTYN KENEFICK3
'Department ofLife Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago;
2Apartment 8, Lady Chancellor Apartments, Lady Chancellor Hill, Port ofSpain, Trinidad and
Tobago; and 336 Newalloville Avenue, San Juan, Trinidad and Tobago


Abstract.-We report the first records of Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), a rare Nearctic migrant in
the Caribbean, for Trinidad. One individual was observed in the rice fields of Caroni, Trinidad, from 28 August to
12 September 1998. Two individuals were observed and one photographed in the rice fields of Caroni, Trinidad,
on 1 October 2000.
Key words: distribution, migration, Phalaropus tricolor, Scolopacidae, Trinidad, Wilson's Phalarope
Resumen.-PRIMEROS REGISTROS DEL FALAROPO DE WILSON (PHALAROPUS TRICOLOR) PARA TRINIDAD. Se
relatan los primeros registros del Falaropo de Wilson (Phalaropus tricolor), un migrant neartico raro en el
Caribe, para Trinidad. Observamos un individuo en los arrozales de Caroni, Trinidad, del 28 de agosto al 12 de
septiembre de 1998. Observamos dos individuos y fotografiamos a uno en los arrozales de Caroni, Trinidad, el
primero de octubre de 2000.
Palabras clave: distribuci6n, Falaropo de Wilson, migraci6n, Phalaropus tricolor, Scolopacidae, Trinidad


WILSON'S PHALAROPE (Phalaropus tricolor)
breeds in North America and winters primarily in
South America, with most of the population migrat-
ing through Central America (Hayman et al. 1986,
Colwell and Jehl 1994). A few individuals migrate
across the Caribbean, where the species occurs as a
rare migrant on many islands, especially during au-
tumn (Colwell and Jehl 1994, Raffaele et al. 1998).
Here we report the first two records for Trinidad.

OBSERVATIONS
At 09:30 h on 28 August 1998, Gomes and Hayes
found a basic-plumaged bird actively feeding with a
small flock of other shorebird species in a shallow
flooded rice field at Caroni, Trinidad. The bird was
studied carefully through a 25x telescope until
09:55 h and seen again from 10:37 to 10:38 h. In his
field notes, Hayes described it as having a "long,
thin black bill; yellow legs, white underparts; light
gray crown, hindneck, back and scapulars, darker
gray flight feathers; whitish forehead and super-
ciliary; dark gray postocular streak, continuing as a
light-gray streak down the sides of the neck; ...tail
white when flying." The bird foraged by "leaning
forward with outstretched neck ducked repeatedly
underwater, with bill sweeping sideways fairly rap-
idly, just below the surface...; legs rapidly propel-
ling it forward in shallow water." On 31 August and
1 September 1998 it was relocated by G. White,
who described "brown flight feathers contrasting
with the smooth gray back." Subsequent efforts to
relocate it were unsuccessful until 12 September


1998, when it was observed for the last time from
17:05 to 17:10 hby Hayes.
At about 12:00 h on 1 October 2000, Kenefick
found two birds actively swimming and feeding in a
flooded rice field with tall, dense vegetation at
Caroni, Trinidad. The birds were carefully studied
through a 32x telescope until 14:00 h. In his field
notes, Kenefick described the birds as having
"entire underparts clean white on one bird; the other
had a faint trace of peachy/buff just above the
'water line'; needle thin wholly black bill; forehead
and face white; crown, nape, mantle and wing cov-
erts the softest pearl grey; beady black eye; grey
line from nape extends across the ear coverts to
reach the eye [forming] an impression of a white
supercilium...; lores white; flight feathers dark grey/
black in folded wing; when stretching, underwing
coverts white and under flight feathers pale grey."
The birds swam constantly and frequently picked
insects out of the air, from the grass stems, or from
the surface of the water. At 13:05 h, Hayes arrived
and eventually obtained several photographs of one
bird (Fig. 1). When one bird was flushed, Hayes
noted its white tail.

DISCUSSION
These birds were distinguished from the Red
Phalarope (P. fulicaria) by the relatively long, thin,
needle-like bill and paler, less contrasting head
markings (Hayman et al. 1986). They were distin-
guished from the Red-necked Phalarope (P. lobatus)
by the paler, less contrasting head markings and


El Pitirre 15(3)


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HAYES ETAL.-WILSON'S PHALAROPE (PHALAROPUS TRICOLOR) IN TRINIDAD


Fig. 1. Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor) at
Caroni, Trinidad, 1 October 2000. Note the relatively
long, thin bill, pale head markings, and plain gray
upperparts which distinguish this species from other
phalaropes. Photo by Floyd Hayes.


plain gray back lacking dark streaking (Ibid.).
Because the brown feathers of juvenile Wilson's
Phalaropes are quickly replaced by adult-type feath-
ers as early as August (Ibid.), we cannot be certain
of the age of these birds. However, the presence of
"brown flight feathers" described by G. White on
the bird observed in 1998 and the "faint trace of
peachy/buff' described by Kenefick on the flanks of
at least one bird in 2000 suggests that these indi-
viduals may have been immatures.
Although a previous sight record of Wilson's
Phalarope exists from Buccoo, Tobago, on 28 Sep-
tember 1990 (Murphy et al. 1991), our observations
provide the first records for Trinidad. Both observa-
tions have been accepted by the Trinidad and To-
bago Rare Bird Committee. Since mid-1998, we
have routinely scrutinized flocks of shorebirds in
the Caroni rice fields, usually a few days each week,
during peak shorebird migration (May, July-
October). Given the lack of further records of this
species, we suspect it to be a very rare autumn mi-
grant that does not occur annually in Trinidad.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
G. White kindly provided details on his observa-
tions. We appreciated the companionship of those


who shared our observations, including B. Hayes (1
October 2000), I. Samad (28 August 1998), D.-A.
Wilson, and G. Wilson (12 September 1998).


LITERATURE CITED
COLWELL, M. A., AND J. R. JEHL, JR. 1994. Wil-
son's Phalarope, Steganopus tricolor. Birds N.
Amer. 83:1-20.
HAYMAN, P., J. MERCHANT, AND T. PRATER. 1986.
Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders
of the world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Com-
pany.
MURPHY, W. L., T. YIP HOI, AND A. JAMES. 1991.
First record of Wilson's Phalarope, Phalaropus
tricolor, for Tobago. Living World, J. Trin. Tob.
Field Nat. Club 1991-1992:44-45.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.


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NOTAS SOBRE LA CONDUCT REPRODUCTIVE DE
LA FERMINA, FERMINIA CERVERAI (PASSERIFORMES: TROGLODYTIDAE)

ALEJANDRO LLANES SOSA Y CARLOS A. MANCINA
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemcitica, CITM4A, Carretera de Varona km 3.5 Boyeros, Ciudad
de La Habana, C.P. 10800 A.P. 8029; e-mail: zoologia.ies@ama. cu


Abstract.-NOTES ON THE BREEDING BEHAVIOR OF THE ZAPATA WREN (FERMINIA CERVERAI)
(PASSERIFORMES: TROGLODYTIDAE). A nest of Ferminia cerverai containing two chicks near the fledgling
stage in the Zapata Swamp is described. The nest was placed near the ground over the base of a clump of
Cladiumjamaicensis, but was not in a flooded area. The chicks and the parental behavior while the nest was
being photographed are described. The Zapata Wren remains one of Cuba's most endangered birds.
Key words: breeding behavior, Cuba, Ferminia cervera, nest, Zapata Wren
Resumen.-Notas sobre la conduct reproductive de la Ferminia (Ferminia cerverai) (Passeriformes: Trog-
lodytidae). Se describe un nido de Ferminia cerverai con dos pichones cerca de la etapa de levantar vuelo en
la Ci6naga de Zapata. El nido estaba puesto cerca del suelo sobre la base de un matojo de Cladiumjamaicen-
sis, pero no estaba en un area inundada. Se described los pichones y la conduct parental mientras el nido era
fotografiado. La Ferminia sigue siendo una las aves de Cuba en mayor peligro.
Palabras clave: conduct reproductive, Cuba, Ferminia, Ferminia cervera, nido


DESDE SU DESCRIPCION en la segunda d6cada del
siglo pasado, la Fermina (Ferminia cerverai), conti-
nua siendo una de las aves cubanas menos conoci-
das. Una distribuci6n limitada a various parches ce-
nagosos de la peninsula de Zapata y sus hibitos
cripticos han motivado el escaso conocimiento que
se tiene sobre la historic natural de esta ave. Hasta
la fecha el mayor aporte a la biologia de esta espe-
cie fue realizado por Martinez y Martinez (1991),
quienes describieron por primera vez un nido y rea-
lizaron observaciones ecol6gicas.
Con el objetivo de realizar fotografias de la Fer-
mina, visitamos una localidad conocida por Peralta
(22 34' N y 8119' 0) en la ci6naga Occidental de
Zapata, el 2 de mayo de 2002. Mediante la utiliza-
ci6n de grabaciones, logramos localizar un indivi-
duo. Observamos que repetidamente cargaba larvas
hacia un punto dentro de la vegetaci6n y se escucha-
ron various reclamos agudos, los que nos hizo sospe-
char la presencia de un nido. Luego de una exhaus-
tiva biIsqueda y con la ayuda (indispensable) del
reclamo de los pichones al acercarse los padres, y al
sentir nuestra presencia cerca de ellos, logramos
detectar el nido.
La forma del nido era globular, con una apertura
lateral de 42 mm, similar a lo encontrado por Marti-
nez y Martinez (1991), y una orientaci6n sur-
suroeste. La altura del nido fue de 200 mm, con un
dihmetro externo de 140 mm, una profundidad de


54 mm y situado a una altura sobre el suelo de 330
mm, sobre la base de un grupo de hierba cortadera
(Cladium jamaicensis). Estaba fabricado a partir de
cortadera y en la parte interior, donde reposaban los
pichones, estaba tapizado con finos fragments de
fibra vegetal y plumas. Su posici6n, forma y colora-
ci6n lo hacian practicamente indetectable, ya que
tenia la misma coloraci6n parda que presentan la
base de los grupos de cortadera en esta 6poca del
afno.
El nido se encontr6 aproximadamente a 10 m del
borde y al final del camino de 3 km de longitud que
atraviesa una zona de bosque y vegetaci6n de ci6na-
ga desde la Autopista Nacional hasta el canal de
Peralta. En el moment de nuestra visit, el sitio
donde se encontraba el nido y el suelo en un area de
20 nm2alrededor del mismo, aunque no fire, no se
encontraba anegado.
Se encontraron en el interior del nido dos picho-
nes volantones de Fermina, reclamando comida,
mostrando la cavidad bucal de color amarillo. Dado
que podiamos correr el riesgo que abandonaran el
nido por su estado avanzado de desarrollo, s6lo se
manipularon escasos segundos para tomarles unas
fotos. Mientras nos encontribamos con los pichones
en la mano, ambos padres se mantuvieron a menos
de 1 m de nosotros en el suelo o a muy baja altura
entire la cortadera, emitiendo un sonido estridente.
La fecha en que fue encontrada esta nidada de


El Pitirre 15(3)


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LLANES SOSA ETAL.-CONDUCTA REPRODUCTIVE DE FERMINIA CER VERAI


Fermina coincide con los meses de 6poca reproduc-
tiva sefialada con anterioridad para esta especie.
Raffaele et al. (1998) ubican su period reproducti-
vo desde enero hasta mayo, mientras que Garrido y
Kirkconnell (2000) lo sitfian entire marzo y mayo.
Teniendo en cuenta los periods lluviosos atipi-
cos en la 6poca seca que se vienen produciendo a
consecuencia de los cambios climiticos, que elevan
el nivel del agua en la ci6naga, se pudiera provocar
una alta mortalidad de pichones. Lo anterior, unido
a la depredaci6n, fuegos y distribuci6n limitada,
hacen de la Fermina una de nuestras species mis
amenazadas.


LITERATURE CITADA
GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONELL. 2000. Field
guide to the Birds of Cuba. Ithaca, New York:
Cornell University. Press.
MARTINEZ, O. G., Y A. MARTINEZ. 1991. Primer
registro de nidificaci6n y observaciones ecoetol6-
gicas de Ferminia cerverai (Aves: Troglotydae).
Revista Biologia 5(23):91-95.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH, Y
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. New Jersey: Princenton Univ. Press.


El Pitirre 15(3)


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PRIMER REPORT DE DENDROICA PINUS (AVES: PARULIDAE) PARA ORIENTED, CUBA


CARLOS PENA', DAYS RODRIGUEZ3, ALEJANDRO FERNANDEZ' Y DAVID LAMBERT'
'Centro de Investigaciones, Servicios Ambientales y Tecnol6gicos(CISAT), Holguin, Cuba;
2carlos@cisat.holguin.inf cu; 3Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica(IES), La Habana, Cuba


Resumen.-Un individuo de Bijirita de Pinos (Dendroica pinus) fue observado el 7 de abril de 2001 en las ele-
vaciones del sur del municipio de Holguin, Cuba. Este constitute el primer report de la especie para la region
oriental de Cuba.
Palabras claves: Bijirita de Pinos, Cuba, Dendroica pinus, distribucidn
Abstract.-FIRST REPORT OF DENDROICA PINUS IN EASTERN CUBA. A Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus) was
observed in the southern hills of Holguin municipality, Cuba. The observation constitutes the first record of the
species in eastern Cuba.
Key words: Pine Warbler, Cuba, Dendroica pinus, distribution


LA DISTRIBUCION de la Bijirita de Pinos
(Dendroica pinus) comprende el noroeste de las las
Bahamas (Grand Bahamas, Abaco, Andros y New
Providence) y La Espafiola, encontrindose tambidn
al este de Norteam6rica, donde se encuentra su area
de cria. La especie es un resident permanent en
las Bahamas y La Espafiola y es considerada como
transeiinte en Cuba, con cinco registros en La Haba-
na y la peninsula de Zapata: 22 de octubre de 1964,
8 de noviembre de 1965, marzo de 1987, 17 de ene-
ro de 1988 y 11 de febrero de 1998, en todas las
ocasiones en arboles de casuarina (Casuarina equi-
setifolia) (Garrido y Kirkconnell 2000). En Haiti
constitute una especie amenazada debido a la des-
trucci6n de su habitat (Raffaele et al. 1998).
Durante la migraci6n primaveral, que ocurre entire
la segunda quincena de marzo hasta finales de abril,
se realizaron muestreos en las alturas del sur del
municipio de Holguin. El area de studio compren-
di6 tres elevaciones continues a 231, 220 y 249 m s.
n.m. El sitio de muestreo esta ubicado en El Yayal,
limitando al sur con las llanuras de la cuenca del
Cauto, al norte con la ciudad de Holguin, al oeste
con las alturas de Ochile y al este con el valle de
Mayabe. En la cima de las elevaciones predomina
un bosque semideciduo alto compuesto fundamen-
talmente por species deciduas y presentando dos
estratos arb6reos, uno de 15 m y otro de 20 m aun-


que aparecen algunos emergentes de hasta 25 m de
altura; el estrato arbustivo varia entire 3 y 5 m.
Un individuo de Dendroica pinus fue observado
el 7 de abril de 2001 a las 08:25 h en la parcela 17
ubicada en la cima de la segunda elevaci6n (220 m
s.n.m.). El ave se encontraba altemando dentro del
follaje de arbustos dispersos de yaya (Oxandra lan-
ceolata) a solamente 5 m de distancia de los obser-
vadores y a una altura aproximada de 2 m. Este
constitute el primer report de esta especie para la
region oriental de Cuba.

LITERATURE CITADA
GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA. 1975. Cathlogo de las
aves de Cuba. La Habana: Ed. Academia de Cien-
cias de Cuba.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 1993. Check-
list of Cuban birds, Special Publicaci6n Sociedad
Caribefia de Omitologia. Annual Meeting, Playa
Giron, Cuba.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, New York:
Cornell University Press.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press.


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NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES ACUATICAS PARA EL HUMEDAL COSTERO
DE LA LAGUNA EL MANGON, PENINSULA DE HICACOS, MATANZAS, CUBA

CARLOS MANUEL PEREZ CABANAS1 Y PEDRO BLANCO RODRIGUEZ2
1Empresa Nacionalpara la Protecci6n de la Flora y la Fauna, Nuevitas, Camagiiey; y 2Instituto de Ecologia y
Sistemdtica, CITMA, Carretera de Varona km 3.5, Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, CP 10800, AP 8029

Resumen.-Se present informaci6n sobre 12 nuevas species de aves acuaticas reportadas durante el period
de 2000 al 2002 en el humedal costero de la laguna El Mang6n, localizada en la Reserva Ecol6gica Varahicacos,
provincia de Matanzas, Cuba. Entre los reports de mayor importancia se encuentran las species Charadrius
alexandrinus, Calidris canutus, Calidris himantopus, Numenius phaeopus y Recurvirostra americana.
Palabras clave: aves acuaticas, Cuba, laguna El Mang6n, nuevos registros, peninsula de Hicacos
Abstract.-NEW RECORDS OF WATERBIRDS FOR THE COASTAL WETLANDS OF LAGUNA MANGON, HICACOS
PENINSULA, MATANZAS, CUBA. Information is presented for 12 new aquatic bird records at El Mang6n Lagoon,
Varahicacos Ecological Reserve, Matanzas province, Cuba, during the years 2000-2002. Among the most impor-
tant records were the species Charadrius alexandrinus, Calidris canutus, Calidris himantopus, Numenius phaeo-
pus, and Recurvirostra americana.
Key words: aquatic birds, Cuba, El Mang6n Lagoon, Hicacos Peninsula, new records


INTRODUCTION
LA PENINSULA DE HICACOS constitute una region
de gran importancia para el studio de las aves
acuiticas migratorias y residents en Cuba. En los
filtimos afios, la realizaci6n de numerosas investiga-
ciones ornitol6gicas en esta localidad ha permitido
obtener un notable volume de informaci6n acerca
de la distribuci6n, composici6n y estructura de la
comunidad de aves acuiticas present en dicho si-
tio, destacindose los trabajos desarrollados por
Blanco et al. (1993), Blanco (1994) y Goossen et al.
(1994). Sin embargo, se consider vflido y de inte-
r6s cualquier esfuerzo investigative adicional que
contribuya al enriquecimiento de la informaci6n
obtenida hasta la fecha y que facility la proyecci6n
de estrategias de conservaci6n futuras de este signi-
ficativo humedal costero cubano.
En el present trabajo se expone informaci6n so-
bre la obtenci6n de 12 nuevos registros de aves
acuiticas observadas en la laguna El Mang6n (23
11'N y 8108' O) en la peninsula de Hicacos, duran-
te los afios 2000 y 2002.
Phoenicopterus ruber.-Durante el period com-
prendido entire los meses de octubre de 2000 y mar-
zo de 2001 se registraron tres individuos de esta es-
pecie.
Egretta rufescens.-En el mes de junio de 2001
se observaron dos individuos en el sector norte de la
laguna.
Haematopus palliatus.-El 23 de octubre de
2001, en la orilla de la playa Las Calaveras, conti-


nua a la laguna El Mang6n, se registry el arribo de
dos individuos de esta especie.
Recurvirostra americana.-En el area de estu-
dio, la presencia de esta especie fue registrada du-
rante noviembre de 2000 y octubre de 2001. En ca-
da oportunidad se observe un individuo adulto en
plumaje de inviemo.
Charadrius alexandrinus.-Dos individuos de
esta especie fueron registrados en el area exclusiva-
mente durante los dias comprendidos entire el 3 y el
25 de marzo de 2001.
Numenius phaeopus.-En el mes de octubre de
los afios 2000 y 2001 se observaron en el area uno y
cuatro individuos, respectivamente.
Tringa solitaria.-En la laguna El Mang6n se
observaron 20 individuos durante la migraci6n pri-
maveral del afio 2001, los que permanecieron en el
area durante el period desde el 20 de marzo hasta
el 7 de abril del mismo afio.
Calidris himantopus.-Durante el period de
studio, se obtuvieron dos registros, correspondien-
do al 17 de febrero de 2001 y el 25 de enero de
2002. En ambas ocasiones se reportan bandos com-
puestos por 75 y 40 individuos, respectivamente.
Calidris alpina.-S61o se obtuvo un report de
observaci6n de esta especie ocurrido durante la mi-
graci6n primaveral del afio 2001 (el 5 de abril).
Calidris canutus.-Aunque es considerada un
raro resident invemal para las Antillas, y en parti-
cular para el territorio cubano (Raffaele et al. 1998,


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PEREZ ETAL.-NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES ACUATICAS PARA EL MANGON, CUBA


Garrido y Kirkconnell 2000), esta especie ha sido
registrada en el area de studio formando bandos
integrados por 4-52 individuos durante los meses de
diciembre de los afios 2000 y 2001 y febrero y mar-
zo de 2002.
Larus delawarensis.-Durante los meses de octu-
bre y febrero de los afios 2000 y 2002, respectiva-
mente, se registry en cada ocasi6n la presencia de
un individuo sobrevolando la zona de la playa Las
Calaveras, continue a la laguna de El Mang6n.
Sterna antillarum.-Aunque esta especie no ha
sido reportada nidificando en la peninsula de Hica-
cos, cada afio se observa residiendo en el area de
studio, fundamentalmente desde marzo hasta sep-
tiembre, formando en ocasiones bandos compuestos
por entire 15 y 81 individuos.


LITERATURE CITADA
BLANCO, P., J. P. GOOSSEN, H. GONZALEZ ALONSO
Y J. SIROIS. 1993. Occurrences of the Piping
Plover in Cuba. J. Field Omithol. 64:520-526.
BLANCO, P. 1994. Las Salinas de Hicacos, un
humedal de importancia para las aves acuiticas
en el Caribe. II Simposio Internacional Humeda-
les 1994. Cidnaga de Zapata. PNUMA, 211-212.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y KIRKCONNELL, A. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, New York:
Cornell Univ. Press.
GOOSSEN, P. J., BLANCO, P., SIROIS, J., AND GON-
ZALEZ, H. 1994. Waterbirds and shorebirds
counts in the province of Matanzas, Cuba. Tech-
nical Reports Series No 170. Canadian Wildlife
Service. Canada.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. Birds of the West Indies.
London: Helm.


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INTERESTING RECORDS OF SHOREBIRDS ON SAINT LUCIA


JOHN PILGRIM
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International,
1919 MStreet NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036, USA; e-mail:
j.pilgrim@conservation.org

Abstract.-Records are presented from September 2001 of some shorebirds rarely encountered on Saint Lucia.
These represent the second record the first for over 30 years of Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficol-
lis) and the ninth of Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus) from the island.
Key Words: Buff-breasted Sandpiper, Calidris himantopus, distribution, Saint Lucia, Stilt Sandpiper, Tryngites
subruficollis
Resumen.-INTERESANTES REGISTROS DE PLAYERS EN SANTA LUCIA. Se presentan registros de septiembre
de 2001 de algunos players raramente encontrados en Santa Lucia. Estos representan el Segundo registro el
primero en treinta afios del Playero Canela (Tryngites 'ubruik rtllic i y el noveno del Playero Patilargo (Calidris
himantopus) en la isla.
Palabras clave: Calidris himantopus, distribuci6n, Playero Canela, Playero Patilargo, Tryngites subruficollis,
Santa Lucia


AT THE END OF A VISIT to Saint Lucia, I stumbled
across a small area of pools in a partly flooded field
near Hewonarra Airport. The field was approxi-
mately two miles west of the airport, easily view-
able from the road and the top of the dyke. I have
not seen any mention of this area before, yet the
pools appeared semi-permanent probably because
of leakage from a neighboring dyke and were cer-
tainly productive for shorebirds, presumably be-
cause of minimal availability of other suitable habi-
tat on the island. On the only day I was able to visit
the pools, 22 September 2001, the nine species of
shorebird present included approximately 15 Semi-
palmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), four Pecto-
ral Sandpipers (Calidris melanotos), three Buff-
breasted Sandpipers (Tryngites subruficollis), three
Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus),
and a single Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus).
All species were observed in the pools, except the


Buff-breasted Sandpipers, which were in the wet
field.
The Buff-breasted Sandpiper record comprises
the second of the species from the island. The only
previous record was of one at an undocumented lo-
cation in October 1970 (Keith 1997). Stilt Sandpi-
per has only been recorded eight times previously
on the island (Keith 1997). The paucity of records
of these shorebirds, among others, is in part surely a
reflection of observer effort on the island, and future
visitors can continue to helpfully contribute to our
understanding of migration patterns in the Carib-
bean.
LITERATURE CITED
KEITH, A. R. 1997. The birds of St Lucia, West In-
dies. BOU Check-list No. 15. London: British
Ornithologists' Union.


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NEWS FROM THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK
AND WETLANDS CONSERVATION PROJECT

LISA G. SORENSON AND PATRICIA E. BRADLEY
West Indian Whistling-Duck Working Group Co-chairs,
Dept. oJ I ,.. I.,-, 5 Cummington St., Boston University, Boston, MA 02215



TEACHER TRAINING WORKSHOPS ON THE USE OF WONDROUS WEST INDIAN WETLANDS: TEACHERS' RESOURCE
BOOK.-The West Indian Whistling-Duck Working Group (WIWD-WG) has been busy encouraging and pro-
moting the use of its newly published book Wondrous West Indian
Wetlands: Teacher's Resource Book. Published in July 2001, this
276-page workbook was written by the WIWD-WG for teachers
and educators in the West Indies. The workbook provides resources
for conducting a complete wetlands education unit in the classroom,
including background information on ecological concepts and natu-
ral history, field techniques, and detailed instructions for student
activities and projects. The diversity of wetland types found in the
West Indies is surveyed, along with their inhabitants, their ecology,
and the many ecosystem functions they perform. Classroom and
field activities emphasize factors contributing to the loss of regional
wetlands and the consequences of these losses for biodiversity, eco-
systems and, ultimately, for people. The workbook considers con-
servation issues specifically pertinent to wetlands in the Caribbean,
and provides ideas for student action projects in local communities.
Global warming, invasive alien species, other causes of species en-
dangerment, as well as local conservation success stories, and the
importance of international treaties and conventions (e.g., Ramsar
Convention) to the region are also discussed. The comprehensive
and detailed nature of the information also makes the book a valu-
able resource for decision-makers in government and for members
of the public participating in grassroots conservation efforts. The
main messages in this book are that there are almost always alternatives to wetland destruction, degradation or
unsustainable use, and that protecting the environment safeguards human health and makes economic sense.
Talented wetlands educator, Michele Kading (Head Interpreter) and her staff at Oak Hammock Marsh Inter-
pretive Centre have helped the WIWD-WG develop the curriculum for a two-day teachers' workshop focusing
specifically on the use of Wondrous West Indian Wetlands. The workshop agenda for Day 1 includes a presenta-
tion on wetland teaching/interpretation techniques, an overview of the workbook's contents, activities and dem-
onstrations for the whole group, and an opportunity for teachers (working in small groups; all instructions and
materials supplied) to demonstrate to the larger group a sample activity of their choice from the book. All of Day
2 is spent at a local wetland. Participants have the opportunity to try out all of the field activities that are in the
workbook (e.g., line and quadrat plant transects, keeping field records, wetland monitoring, sound maps, wetland
words and poetry, wetland assessment) as well as learn to identify the four species of mangroves and other wet-
land plants and animals. Learning to use binoculars and identifying birds from their field marks is also empha-
sized.
Michele Kading and Lisa Sorenson (Project Coordinator) recently led workshops on the use of the new work-
book in Trinidad and Tobago (May 22-28, 2002), Antigua and Barbuda (November 6-8, 2002) and New Provi-
dence, Bahamas (January 21-24, 2003; teachers from seven different Family Islands also attended, thanks to a
generous private donation which covered their travel expenses). The response to the workshops has been over-
whelmingly positive. Some sample comments from the evaluations:
I learned many things that I did not know before and the workshop, being so interactive, was very exciting.


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WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP NEWS


Bahamian school teachers try out the quadrat plant sampling technique during the
wetlands field trip portion of the Wetlands Education Workshops at the Bahamas
National Trust (21-24 January 2003).


This introduction to wetlands was informative and served as an eye-opener to what is just "outside" my
door. Thanks.
Being able to see [on the fieldtrip] what was discussed in the workshop has made me aware of the impor-
tance of wetlands.
The activities were very interesting and helped tremendously to highlight essential concepts. Activities
would be very suitable for class sessions, especially pour-a-pond.
I really learned many things from this workshop. I have a gained a new appreciation for a treasure
[wetlands] that I never really gave much thought to. Thank you!
We thank the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental/Education Division in Tobago, the
Pointe-a-Pierre Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust in Trinidad, the Environmental Awareness Group in Antigua/
Barbuda, and the Bahamas National Trust in Nassau for sponsoring the workshops and organizing local
teacher and natural resource personnel participation. We also thank the Adventure Learning Centre in New
Providence for providing their excellent facilities for the wetlands field trips. Beatriz Hernandez Machado
(from Puerto Rico) and Florence Sergile (from Haiti) attended the recent Bahamas workshops for training as
workshop facilitators in their home countries we thank them for their time and help with the project. We are
very grateful to Michele Kading for continuing to share with us her talents and gifts as a wetlands educator.
We also thank the staff and volunteers at Oak Hammock Marsh for their many hours of work putting together
"workshop kits"-a rolling suitcase containing all the supplies needed to deliver a wetlands workshop. Work-
shop kits will be supplied to all the large Caribbean countries so that local NGO personnel and teachers can
use them. Workshop kits are now in the Bahamas and Puerto Rico and follow-up workshops delivered by the
BNT staff are already scheduled for February 2003. Plans are underway for a series of workshops in Jamaica
this spring (organized and sponsored locally by Birdlife Jamaica, Ridge to Reef Watershed Project, Negril En-
vironment Protection Trust, Montego Bay Marine Park, Portland Environmental Protection Association,
CCAM, and others). Workshops will also be held in the coming months in the Cayman Islands, Puerto Rico,
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, Turks and Caicos Islands, US and British Virgin Islands, and St. Vincent
and the Grenadines. Please contact Lisa Sorenson (Isolicin bu cdnti if you are interested in holding a workshop
in your country.
UPDATE ON SPANISH VERSION OF WONDROUS WEST INDIAN WETLANDS: TEACHERS' RESOURCE BOOK.-The
Spanish translation of the workbook was completed by Maria Font (University of Puerto Rico Seagrant Pro-


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WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP NEWS


gram) and the translation was proofread by Beatriz Hemandez, Lourdes Mugica, and Denis Dennis Avila. We
thank them for their hard work and long hours with this endeavor. The final changes and corrections are being
completed by Maria Font and the book will be sent to RSPB for publication by the end of February 2003. We
expect the Spanish version of the book to be published in time for the SCSCB meeting in Tobago (July 2003).
We are looking forward to workshops introducing the workbook's use in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Domini-
can Republic.


FUNDRAISING.-The WIWD Working Group submitted grant proposals to four agencies to fund West Indian
Whistling-Duck and Wetlands Conservation Project activities over the next one to two years. We were pleased
and grateful to learn that we were awarded funding from the US Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Inter-
national Conservation), American Bird Conservancy, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act, and
Wetlands International's "Partners for Wise Use of Wetlands 2002-2003 Programme" (funded by the Nether-
lands Ministry of Foreign Affairs Directorate-General for International Cooperation). The funds will go to-
wards wetland education workshops in eight countries, workshop kits, publication of the Spanish version of
the workbook, development of the project website (www.whistlingduck.org), translation of the workbook and
educational materials into French, development of Watchable Wildlife Ponds in four countries, writing of a
WIWD survey manual, and the wetland flora and fauna field guide.

WATCHABLE WILDLIFE PONDS.-The project encourages and supports the development of wetlands equipped
with interpretive signs and viewing areas where local people, school groups, and tourists can easily observe
whistling-ducks and other wildlife. Often it is only through providing such opportunities to experience nature
firsthand that individuals can gain appreciation of and respect for the wetland environment. We will begin de-
velopment of Wilson and Harrold Ponds in New Providence, Bahamas-a newly designated National Park-
as a Watchable Wildlife Pond. This will involve installing a viewing platform, boardwalk and interpretive
signage of the most common birds seen in the area. We will also work on developing Watchable Wildlife
Ponds in Antigua (Jolly Ponds), the DR (Laguna Oviedo), and Jamaica (Negril Royal Palm Reserve).


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BOOK REVIEW


AVES COMUNES DE LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA
(COMMON BIRDS OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC).-
Steven C. Latta. 2002. Published by Editora Cor-
ripio, Santo Domingo, R.D. 60 pp., introduction,
index.

An awareness of the nature is the first step to-
wards learning about nature, which may in turn,
lead to its appreciation. This appreciation of nature,
is fundamental to its conservation. Well-illustrated
and appropriately written books are key elements in
developing a region's or territory's conservation
ethic. The need for a conservation ethic supported
by the public is especially important on the island of
Hispaniola, home to 27 endemic bird species, some
of which are threatened by human-mediated extinc-
tion. Within the Dominican Republic the original
field guide by Annabelle Stockton de Dod (1981
Guia de Campo para las Aves de la Republica
Dominicana) and her more comprehensive book
(1987 Aves de la Republica Dominicana) provided
the country with its only texts in Spanish devoted
exclusively to the country's birdlife. Unfortunately,
both are out of print, and illustrations were limited
to ink line drawings, although the later text did have
color plates of many, but not all of the country's
species. Thus the new guide to common birds by
Steve Latta fills a void in the country's bird litera-
ture, by providing the general public with the first
photographic guide to some of the common birds in


the Dominican Republic.
Latta's guide provides a color photo and brief
summary of 60 of the most common bird species of
the Dominican Republic or those well known from
the country's folklore. Suggestions for inclusion of
species were provided by both the local ornithologi-
cal society and avian conservation group and thus
are representative of those species that local authori-
ties believe should be familiar to Dominicans and
visitors. The book's photos, provided by four differ-
ent Dominican photographers, are of sufficient qual-
ity to enable field identification of all included spe-
cies. Along with each photo is the common name in
Spanish and English, its scientific name, length, and
status (i.e., resident, endemic, migrant, introduced,
threatened). A brief text in Spanish and English pro-
vides a description of the species, some general
natural history notes, and in the case of threatened
species, the reasons) for its threatened status.
The overall high quality of Latta's book and es-
pecially its attractive photos should make the book
popular with Dominicans and tourists alike. This
work represents a valuable contribution towards
developing the public's appreciation of Dominican
birds. Hopefully, it can receive wide circulation
within the Dominican Republic, and it should be
required reading by all school children in the coun-
try.-JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE, JR., International In-
stitute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service,
P. O. Box 490, Palmer, Puerto Rico 00721.


ANNOUNCEMENT

COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL SOCIETY GRADUATE STUDENT MEMBERSHIP AWARDS

STUDENTS FREE MEMBERSHIP!!


The Cooper Ornithological Society is always in-
terested in getting more graduate students involved
and provides free student memberships each year.
These student awards cover costs of membership for
2 years (beginning in 2004) and carry full member-
ship benefits, providing an important launch into
ornithological careers at an early stage. To apply,
simply send a CV of the student and a cover letter


from the major professor that describes why the stu-
dent deserves the award. Deadline for receipt of ap-
plications is 1 April 2003. Send application materi-
als by e-mail or post to: BETTE A. LOISELLE, De-
partment of Biology, University of Missouri-St.
Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO
63121-4499 USA. E-mail: edu> loiselle(,umsl.edu


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Fig. 1. Some of 63 participants of a morning birdwatch in Anguilla. Fig. 2. First Caribbean Endemic Bird
Festival's logo on T-shirt.


FIRST CARIBBEAN ENDEMIC BIRD FESTIVAL

ADRIANNE G. TOSSAS
Co-coordinator, Caribbean Endemic Bird Festival
Alt de Mayagiiez, 713 Yunque, Mayagiiez PR 00682
agtossas@hotmail.corn


The Society for the Conservation and Study of
Caribbean Birds held its first Caribbean Endemic
Bird Festival from 22 April to 22 May 2002 in
seven countries. The purpose of this activity was to
increase awareness on our unique avifauna. Over
1000 persons, many of them children, participated
in 32 activities (see summary in Table 1). These
included field trips (Fig. 1), slide shows, photo-
graphic exhibitions, talks, a book presentation, and
magazine and newspaper articles. Also, a T-shirt
was prepared by the coordinating committee in


Guadeloupe (Fig. 2). A web page will be created to
post details of the first festival and announce the
2003 event.
Thanks to all coordinators for their effort and en-
thusiasm, and to Eric Carey, David Wege, and Jim
Stevenson for ideas and support. Thanks also to
Joni Ellis, from the southeastern group of Partners
in Flight, who kindly made arrangements for the
donation and distribution of International Migratory
Bird Day posters.


Table 1. Summary of first Caribbean Endemic Bird Festival including number of events and participants per island or
country. Regional coordinators were Adrianne Tossas, Leo Douglas, and Herlitz Davis.


No. of


Host organization


Activities Participants


Anguilla
Bahamas
Bermuda
Dominican Republic
Guadeloupe
Puerto Rico


Saint Lucia


Anguilla National Trust
Bahamas National Trust
Bermuda Audubon Society
Hispaniola Ornithological Society
AEVA
Puerto Rican Ornithological Society


Forestry Department


4 >80 Karim Hodge & Jim Stevenson
1 70 Carolyn Wardle
6 200 Andrew Dobson
1 Kate Wallace
2 123 Anthony Levesque
14 600 Rafael Rodriguez, Jose Salguero, Ser-
gio Colon, Jose G. Rodriguez, Raul
Perez, and Hilda Morales
4 102 Donald Anthony


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Country


Coordinator


Page 141









ANNOUNCEMENTS


BIRD REPORTS FROM THE CARIBBEAN WANTED


NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS is a quarterly publication
of the American Birding Association that includes
seasonal reports of birds in the West Indies. These
reports are summaries of interesting bird sightings
received from resident and visiting birders in the
region. They include such items as breeding suc-
cess, new records, and out of season records. Re-
cently most of the material has come from Bermuda
and the Bahamas, and these two countries have re-
ceived a disproportionate amount of space. Reports
from other islands often come from visiting birders
who are more concerned with the "lifers" they saw
than bird population trends on the island. The com-
pilers of the West Indies Regional Reports urge


resident and visiting birders and ornithologists to
submit timely reports on the birdlife of their coun-
try. This is a quick way to get your observations "on
the record" and available to ornithologists through-
out the Americas. All observers are listed by name.
Send your report by e-mail to one of the compilers
listed below. Thanks.

Robert Norton
coin uiisi .1 1ol coin
Andrew Dobson
adobson@awarwickacad.bm
Tony White
spindalis @aol.com


NEW FACT SHEET ON RADIOTELEMETRY AVAILABLE FROM ORNITHOLOGICAL COUNCIL


The Ornithological Council has just published a
fact sheet on the use of radio telemetry in ornithol-
ogy. It can be found at http://www.nmnh.si.edu/
BIRDNET/Radio tracking.html. Copies can also be
requested by sending me an e-mail (do not forget to
include your regular postal address if you want a
hard copy). Anyone who radio tracks, or plans to
radio track birds should read this fact sheet. An
seemingly simple question from an ornithologist
about frequency assignment and coordination led us
to realize that this was anything but simple. Ulti-
mately, we hired an expert in FCC radio frequency
assignments to write this fact sheet.
What we learned is that there is no current FCC
frequency assignments for wildlife telemetry (for
non-governmental users) that is both suitable and
legal for avian radio tracking. The fact sheet ex-


plains why this is the case, suggests alternatives,
and details what the Ornithological Council is doing
to correct the situation.
This fact sheet was made possible by virtue of the
generous support provided to the Ornithological
Council by its 10 member societies and many indi-
vidual ornithologists, who contributed to the OC
when renewing their memberships via the OSNA
dues notice. Thanks to all of you for supporting our
work!
Ellen Paul
Executive Director
The Ornithological Council
Mailto:epaul@concentric.net
Ornithological Council Website: IlUp \\i \\.nmnh.
si.edu/BIRDNET


El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 142









NEW BOOK


STUDIES IN

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ORNITHOLOGY

HONOURING RICHARD FFRENCH

Edited by
FLOYD E. HAYES AND STANLEY A. TEMPLE

Department ofLife Sciences,
University of the West Indies,
St. A ii, i',, 'ii .
OCCASIONAL PAPER #11

2002
209 pp.
ISBN 976-620-167-6



STUDIES IN
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ORNITHOLOGY
HONOURING RICHARD FFRENCH


FAid byFPcy'dKE.hayaicIqyak Tan*


For information on contents, abstracts (English and Spanish), and purchasing, see:
http://www.geocities.com/floyd hayes/occasionalpaper contents


El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 143








NEW BOOK


JUST PUBLISHED




JOHANN CHRISTOPH

GUNDLACH (1810-1896)



UN NATURALISTA EN CUBA/NATURFORSCHER AUF KUBA



EDITED BY WILFRIED DATHE AND ROSA MARIA GONZALEZ LOPEZ


2002
ISBN 3-925347-65-8

245 pp.
Text in Spanish and German
Illustrated with 67 colored figures
Basilisken-Presse
Marburg an der Lahn
23.00 in Europe and 28 outside Europe
Includes postage and money transfer costs


Orders may be placed with Wilfried Dathe at his
homepage (www.wdathe.com or www.wdathe.de),
by fax (++49 345 684 6110), or mail (Dr. Wilfried
Dathe, Hegelstrasse 73, 06114 Halle/Saale,
Germany


El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 144










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Bird Songs in the Dominican Republi -I


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Sound recording by
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El Pitirre 15(3)


Cantos de Awes
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Bd Song In the Dominican Republic


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El Pitirre 15(3)


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MADE POSSIBLE WITH FUNDING FROM THE W AITON JONES FOUNDATION


SONGS OF THE ANTBIRDS
Thamnopbilidae, Formicariidae. and Conopophagidae

Antbirds make up one of the largest, most diverse groups of birds
in the New World. More than 270 species have radiated to occupy
virtually every wooded habitat of the vast and biogeographically
complex Neotropical region between northern Mexico and north-
central Argentina. Their whistles, croaks, chatters, cans, hoots, rasps,
and rattles can create a staggering chorus, ringing through the forest
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This three-CD set presents the songs of nearly all currently rec-
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El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 147










ANNOUNCEMENT


VIIth NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS !
VIIth CONGRESS CHILENO DE ORNITOLOGIA



LLAMADO PARA LA PRESENTATION DE TRABAJOS Y ANUNCIO GENERAL


La Sociedad de Omitologia Neotropical (SON) y la Union de Omit6logos de Chile (UNORCH) se complacen en anun-
ciar la realizaci6n conjunta del VII Congreso Neotropical de Omitologia y el VII Congreso Chileno de Omitologia (NOC).
Ambos congress se realizaran en Puerto Varas, Region de Los Lagos, Chile, entire el 5 y el 11 de octubre de 2003.
Los detalles relatives a los costs de inscripci6n, traslado e informaci6n sobre hotels estaran disponibles en el sitio web
del congress y seran enviados por correo a los miembros de la SON y UNORCH a comienzos de marzo. La direcci6n del
sitio web del congress es liip i !! ...' !iil !/. Lamentamos los inconvenientes que la demora en la publicaci6n de esta
informaci6n pueden haberle ocasionado.


LLAMADO PARA LA PRESENTATION DE TRABAJOS
El Comite Cientifico del Congreso invita a investigadores y estudiantes trabajando en Omitologia Neotropical a enviar
propuestas (Ingl6s o Castellano) para simposia, talleres, mesas redondas, comunicaciones libres y panels.
Plazos. La fecha limited para el envio de trabajos es el 30 DE JUNIO DE 2003. Se utilizara un sistema de aceptacion
continue. El Comit6 Cientifico notificara a los interesados de la aceptaci6n o rechazo de sus trabajos brevemente despues
de la recepci6n de los resumenes o propuestas. Este sistema permitira a los participants comenzar la busqueda de finan-
ciamiento para su asistencia lo antes possible. Si todos los espacios de tiempo para las presentaciones orales resultaran ocu-
pados, las propuestas tardias deberan ser presentadas como panels. Para asegurarse la posibilidad de hacer una pre-
sentaci6n oral, por favor envie su resume lo antes possible.


Como Enviar una Propuesta o un Resumen: dirijase al sitio web del CON. En la secci6n "Programa Cientifico" selec-
cione el tipo de propuesta o resume que desea enviar y siga las instrucciones. Todas las propuestas y resumenes deben ser
enviados a trav6s del sitio web. Si tiene alguna dificultad con lo anterior puede contactar a Cristina Miyaki
o Jaime Jimenez .


COMUNICACIONES LIBRES Y PANELS
Trabajos originales pueden ser presentados como contribuciones orales o como panels. Ambos tipos de contribuciones
se agruparan en sesiones tematicas. Para las comunicaciones orales se asignaran 15 min para la presentaci6n y 5 para
preguntas. Envie un abstract de 300 palabras incluyendo titulo, nombre del(los) autor(es), afiliaci6n(es)/direcci6n(es) y un
e-mail para contact.


SEvPOSIA
Los simposia deben abordar t6picos nuevos o sintesis significativas de campos de investigaci6n omitol6gica en el
Neotr6pico. Los simposia tendran un organizador y un co-organizador y seran estructurados en bloques de 2 horas. Cada
simposium contara con una introducci6n de 10 min, cinco presentaciones de 20 min, y una secci6n de cierre y conclu-
siones de 10 min. Cada participate tendra 15 min para presentar y 5 min para preguntas. Los organizadores deben enviar
una sinopsis de una pagina (Ingl6s o Castellano) incluyendo el objetivo, una lista tentaiva de participants, titulos de sus
contribuciones, direcciones y una nota especificando si estas personas ya han aceptado participar. Las presentaciones de
los simposia que sean correctamente revisados, corregidos y enviados a tiempo, seran publicados en las actas del Con-
greso.


PROPUESTAS PARA TALLERES Y MESA REDONDAS
Se recibiran propuestas para talleres y mesas redondas de una hora de duraci6n. Los talleres deben concentrarse en la
discusi6n de nuevos concepts o m6todos. Las mesas redondas deberian tratar temas nuevos o controversiales. Los organi-
zadores deben enviar una sinOpsis de una pagina, incluyendo titulo, nombre e informaci6n de contact del(los) organi-
zador(es), objetivo, estructura y numero estimado de participants.


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ANNOUNCEMENT VIITH CONGRESS


AYUDAS DE VIAJE PARA ESTUDIANTES
Visite el sitio web del congress para detalles sobre ayudas de viaje para estudiantes. La informaci6n debera estar dispon-
ible a comienzos de marzo. No existira ningun otro tipo de ayuda econ6mica por parte de la SON o UNORCH para la asis-
tencia al congress.


HAGASE MIEMBRO DE LA SOCIEDAD DE ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL
Cualquier persona interesada en la Omitologia puede ser un miembro de la Sociedad de Omitologia Neotropical previo
pago de una cuota social. Todos los miembros reciben la revista ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL. El costo de la mem-
brecia por un afio calendario es: Estudiante (se require verificaci6n del estado) US $15; Latinoamericanos: US $25; indi-
viduos de otras nacionalidades: US$35; bibliotecas: US $60. ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL del afio en curso es en-
viada por correo de tercera clase. Si se require el envio por correo a6reo deben agregarse US $20 al costo de la suscripcion.
Todos los pagos deben hacerse al tesorero en d6lares estadounidenses, ya sea por tarjeta de cr6dito (Visa o Master Card),
cheque u orden intemacional de traspaso de fondos.
Un formulario de postulaci6n para membrecia esta disponible en el sitio de la SON en: hliip
neotropicalomithology.org/
Los formularios deben ser enviados a:
J. Michael Meyers
Treasurer, The Neotropical Ornithological Society
USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Warnell School of Forest Resources
The University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia 30602-2152 USA






CALL FOR PAPERS AND GENERAL ANNOUNCEMENT

The Neotropical Ornithological Society, NOS, and the Chilean Ornithologists' Union, UNORCH (the local host), are
pleased to announce their joint VII Neotropical Ornithological Congress and the VII Chilean Ornithological Congress
(NOC). The two Congresses will be held in Puerto Varas, Xth region, Chile, from October 05 to October 11,2003.
All details about registration fees, travel, and hotel information will be posted on the Congress website and mailed to
NOS and UNORCH members in early March. The website address is hlilp i -..L' !L. ii /. We apologize for any in-
convenience that may have been caused by the delay in making this information available.


CALL FOR PAPERS
The Scientific Program Committee (SPC) invites ornithologists and students working on Neotropical ornithology to
submit proposals (in English or Spanish) for Symposia, Workshops, Round-tables, Papers, and Posters.
Deadlines: the deadline for submissions is 30 June 2003. A rolling acceptance system is in use. The scientific commit-
tee will notify submitters of acceptance or rejection shortly after receipt of each abstract or proposal. This system will al-
low submitters to begin seeking funding immediately. Submitters are encouraged to submit proposals as early as possible.
If all time slots for oral presentations are filled, late submissions may have to be presented as posters. To be sure of getting
a time slot for an oral presentation, be sure to submit as early as possible.


How to Submit a Proposal or an Abstract: Go to the NOC website. In the section on Scientific Program, click on the
type of proposal or abstract you wish to submit and follow the instructions. Proposals and abstracts must be submitted
through the website. If you have difficulty submitting your proposal or abstract through the website, contact Cristina Mi-
yaki at cymiyaki@usp.br or Jaime Jiminez at jjimenez@ulagos.cl.


CONTRIBUTED PAPERS AND POSTERS
Original findings may be presented as an Oral Contribution or as a Poster. Oral Contributions and Posters will be
grouped in sessions according to the subject. Orals will be allowed 15 min for the presentation and 5 min for questions.
Provide an abstract of 300 words including title, authors) name(s), affiliation(s)/address(es), and e-mail for contact.


El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 149










ANNOUNCEMENT VIITH CONGRESS


SYMPOSIA
Symposia should address new topics or significant syntheses of major avian research fields conducted in the neotropics.
Symposia will be chaired by one convener and one co-convener and will be organized in 2 h blocks. Each symposium will
consist of a 10 min introduction, five presentations of 20 min each, and a 10 min closing conclusion section. Each speaker
will have 15 min for presenting and 5 min for questions. A total of 20 symposia will be considered. Organizers should send
a one-page synopsis (English or Spanish) with details on goal and purpose, a tentative list of speakers, titles of their contri-
butions, their addresses, and a note whether they have agreed to participate. Symposia papers, if properly reviewed, cor-
rected and delivered on due time, will be published in the Proceedings.


WORKSHOPS AND ROUND-TABLE PROPOSALS
Proposals for one-hour workshops and round-tables are also invited. Workshops should concentrate on discussions of
new concepts or methods. Round-tables should cover new or controversial issues. Organizers should provide a one-page
synopsis that includes a title, name and contact information of organizerss, goal or purpose, structure, and expected num-
ber of participants.


STUDENT TRAVEL AWARDS
Check the website for details about student travel awards. Information should be posted in early March. No other funds
will be made available by the NOS or UNORCH for travel or other conference-related expenses.


BECOME A MEMBER OF THE NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Any person interested in ornithology may become a member of the Neotropical Ornithological Society upon payment of
dues. Members of all classes receive ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL. Membership dues per calendar year are: Students
(with verification of student's status only): US $15.00; Subscriber from Latin American countries: US $25.00; Subscribers
from all other countries: US $35.00; Libraries US $60.00. ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL of the current year sent by
third class mail. If airmail delivery is required, please add US $20.00 to the subscription above. All payments must be to
the treasurer in US currency, either by credit card (Visa or Master Card), or by check or international money order drawn
on a US bank.
A printable membership application form can be found on the NOS website at: hlip ii., '..ii..pi ..l..nii..l..y.org/

Membership applications should be addressed to:
J. Michael Meyers
Treasurer, The Neotropical Ornithological Society
USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Wamell School of Forest Resources
The University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia 30602-2152 USA


El Pitirre 15(3)


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A GALLERY OF IMAGES OF SOCIETY ACTIVITIES AT THE NORTHAMERICAN
ORNITHOLOGICAL CONFERENCE, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, SEPTEMBER 2002


Cable car in downtown New Orleans


Orlando Garrido, Herlitz Davis, Victor Joseph, and Joe
Wunderle awaiting cable car transportation to hotel


Preparations for arrival of hurricane in hotel


Birdwatching in front of the InterContinental Hotel


Ann Haynes Sutton, Tony White, Jim Kushlan (back to
camera), and Eric Carey


El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 151








NAOC GALLERY


Ik


Rosemarie Gnam and Bethany Woodworth


President Eric Carey


Orlando Garrido and Paul Hamel, the proud owner of
Nil Navarro's hummingbird painting


Jim Kushland presiding at Waterbirds Workshop






Lisa Sorenson, Lynn Gape,
and Tony White at
Waterbirds Workshop


El Pitirre 15(3)


Page 152












SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDAR DE A ES DEL CARIBE
SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS

2003 MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT




The Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds and the Tobago Local Organizing Com-
mittee take pleasure in inviting you to the 14th meeting of the Society which will be held in the beautiful island
of Tobago, in the "deep south" of the Caribbean.

The meeting will take place at the Tobago Hilton Hotel from 21 to 26 July 2003. The Hilton is just min-
utes away from some of the best birding in the Caribbean, and is on one the best beaches in the entire Carib-
bean.

The meeting will host its usual assortment of scientific sessions, but there are also several interesting
workshops planned. These include the following:

1. Media Workshop: to involve media representatives, as well as persons who want to learn how to
effectively use the media for public education and support.

2. Avitourism as a Business: We have secured the services of one of the world's leading ecotourism
experts. The workshop will focus on teaching participants both from Tobago and throughout the Car-
ibbean how to develop avitourism products and how to make it a successful business. The main ob-
jective of this workshop is to increase the awareness among participants of not only the biological but
also the economic importance of birds. It is hoped that the increased value that such awareness places
on birds will lead to their long-term conservation.

3. Invasive species in the Caribbean: Invasive species are recognized worldwide as important in the
declines of native species. The Caribbean continues to face mounting invasive species problems that
threaten many species of birds. Through presentations by experts and by the discussion and planning
that follows, development of a regional approach to invasive species issues will be undertaken.

4. Conflicts between Birds and Agriculture what happens when species that are the focus of conser-
vation initiatives themselves begin to emerge as problems and pests? What are the solutions for these
difficult scenarios? We hope to bring focused attention to this problem, and will begin developing a
strategy for a regional approach to solutions. We have identified experts who have scored wonderful
successes against difficult invasive species problems. They will share their experiences, and help
guide us toward adapting methodologies for Caribbean invasive species problems.


Birding Trips:

Several pre- and post-conference birding trips are being developed. These will include fantastic birding
opportunities on Tobago, as well as great trips to the sister isle, Trinidad. The Asa Wright Nature Centre in
Trinidad is acknowledged as one of the greatest birding experiences in the Caribbean this phenomenal bird-
ing opportunity will also be offered through special arrangements to our participants.

Soon there will be a call for papers and an invitation to register. We are currently negotiating the most
favorable rates possible, and working in conjunction with the local committee to provide with you with a com-
prehensive information package to help finalize your plans to attend.





























CONTENTS (CONTINUED FROM FRONT COVER)


NEW BOOKS:
STUDIES IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO ORNITHOLOGY HONORING RICHARD FFRENCH. Edited by Floyd E. Hayes
and Stanley A Temple .................................... .. .. ........ ........... 143
JOHANN CHRISTOPH GUNDLACH (1810-1896). UN NATURALISTA EN CUBA/NATURFORSCHER AUF KUBA. Edited
by ilf i D athe and R osa M aria G onz lez L p ez ...................................................................................................... 144
ADVERTISEMENTS
CANTOS DE AVES DE LA REPUBLICA DOMINICANA CD ............. ................................................................................145
R IT E IN T H E R A IN ................... ................................................................................ ........................................................... 14 6
SO N G S O F TH E A N TB IRD S ......... ........................................................... .......................................................... .......... ... 14 7
ANNOUNCEMENT
VIITH NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS/ VIITH CONGRESS CHILENO DE ORNITOLOGIA ................................ 148
A GALLERY OF IMAGES OF SOCIETY ACTIVITIES AT THE NORTH AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGICAL CONFERENCE, NEW
O RLEANS, LOUISIANA, SEPTEM BER 2002 ..................... .................................................... ........................................... 151
ANNOUNCEMENT FOR THE MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY ............................... Inside Back Cover


Illustrations in this issue are from Orbigny, A. D. d'. 1839. Mamiferos y aves [de
la Isla de Cuba]. Volume 3 In Historia fisica, political y natural de la Isla de
Cuba. 1839-1861 (Sagra, Ram6n de la. Ed.). Paris: Arthus Bertrand.


SOCIEDAD CARIBErA DE ORNITOLOGIA


- EL PITIRRE

SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
^ Summer 2002 Vol. 15, No. 2




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