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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v.15, n.2, 51p.: ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 2002
Frequency: bimonthly
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Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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    Back Cover
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Full Text








SOCIEDAD CARIBEI TA DE ORNITOLOGIA





SEL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Summer 2002 Vol. 15, No. 2
(ISSN 1527-7151)



CONTENTS

SEABIRD DENSITIES AT SEA IN SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES, WITH COMMENTS ON THEIR HISTORIC AND CURRENT PO-
TEN TIAL B RE EDIN G STATU S. F loyd E H ayes ............................................................. ..................................................................... 49
RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DE LA ENCUESTA SOBRE LA YAGUASA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) EN VARIAS REGIONS DE CUBA.
Lourdes M ugica, D ennis D enis y M martin Acosta ........................................ ....... ......................................... .................. ...... 55
IMPORTANCIA ALIMENTARIA EN LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA TYTO ALBA FURCATA (AVES: STRIGIFORMES) EN LA CIUDAD DE
CAMAGIUEY, CUBA. Rend Winston Vilat6 Viamontes, Dagoberto Mdrquez Barroso y Alexis Dominguez Freyre ............................. 61
NEW PUBLICATION AVAILABLE: AVES COMUNES DE LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA/COMMON BIRDS OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC .... 64
ANTILLEAN PALM SWIFT TACHORNIS PHOENICOBIA NESTING IN SEA CAVES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Guy M. Kirwan,
Robert S. R. Williams, and ( G. Bradshaw ............................................................... ... 65
BULLOCK'S ORIOLE ICTERUSS BULLOCKII) ON GRAND BAHAMA: A SECOND RECORD FOR THE WEST INDIES, WITH NOTES ON
OTHER VAGRANTS FROM WESTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA. Steven G. Mlodinow ........................ ................... 67
ESTABLECIMIENTO DEL DIMORFISMO SEXUAL EN LA COTORRA CUBANA (AM4AZONA LEUCOCEPHALA). Ana Maria Zayas P&rez ........ 71
FIRST COLONIZATION OF THE LESSER ANTILLES BY THE HOUSE SPARROW (PASSER DOMESTICUS). Anthony Levesque and Philippe
C lerg ea u .......................................... ... ..... ......... ... ....... ........................ ..................... ....... . ......... 7 3
FIRST RECORDS OF BOHEMIAN WAXWING (BOMBYCILLA GARRULUS) FOR BERMUDA. Andrew Le F. Dobson and Jennifer Gray ........ 75
SECOND SIGHT RECORD OF INDIGO BUNTING (PASSERINA CYANEA) ON DOMINICA. Kamal Islam ..................................................... 77
ABSTRACTS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES
EVOLUTION DE LA DENSITY DE POPULATION DE L'IGUANE DES PETITES ANTILLES (IGUANA DELICATISSIMA) DANS LA RESERVE
NATURELLE DES ILETS DE LA PETITE TERRE (GUADELOUPE) ENTIRE 1995 ET 2002. 0. Lorvelec, A. Levesque, N. Barrd, P.
Feldmann, G. LeBlond, .-E. Jaffard, M Pascal, & C. Pavis ..................................................................................................... 78
EVOLUTION OF THE POPULATION DENSITY OF THE LESSER ANTILLEAN IGUANA (IGUANA DELICATISSIMA) OF THE LETS DE
LA PETITE TERRE NATURAL RESERVE (GUADELOUPE, FRENCH WEST INDIES): 1995-2002. ................................................. 79
EVOLUCION DE LA DENSIDAD POBLACIONAL DE LA IGUANA DE LAS ANTILLAS MENORES (IGUANA DELICATISSIMA) EN LA
RESERVA NATURAL DE LAS ISLAS DE PETITE TERRE (GUADALUPE) ENTRE 1995 Y 2002 ...................................... ............... 79
CONSEQUENCES DE LA RECENT INVASION DE LA RESERVE NATURELLE DES ILETS DE SAINTE ANNE (MARTINIQUE) PAR LE
RAT NOIR (RATTUSRATTUS) SUR L'AVIFAUNE INSULAIRE. Michel Pascal, Ronald Brithmer, & Olivier Lorvelec ........................ 80
RECENT INVASION OF THE SHIP RAT (RATTUS RATTUS) IN THE SAINTE ANNE ISLETS (MARTINIQUE-FRENCH WEST INDIES)
NATURAL RESERVE: IMPACTS ON THE INDIGENOUS AVIFAUNA ESTABLISHED AFTER AN ERADICATION ATTEMPT ................... 80
CONSECUENCIAS EN LA AVIFAUNA INSULAR DE LA RECIENTE INVASION DE LA RATA NEGRA (RATTUS RATTUS) EN LA RE-
SERVA NATURAL DE LOS CAYOS DE SAINTE ANNE (MARTINICA) ........................................... .... ...................... 81
IMPACT DE LA MANGOUSTE DE JAVA (HERPESTES JAVANICUS) ET DU RAT NOIR (RATTUS RATTUS) SUR LA NIDIFICATION DE LA
TORTUE IMBRIQUEE (ERETMOCHELYS IMBRICATA), LA POPULATION DE RALE GRIS (RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS), ET CELLE DU
CRABE BLANC (CARDISOMA GUANHUMI). ILET FAJOU RESERVE NATURELLE DU GRAND CUL-DE-SAC MARIN PARC NA-
TIONAL DE LA GUADELOUPE -ANTILLES FRANCAISES. Olivier Lorvelec, XavierDeloue, Michel Pascal, & Simone Mege .......... 81
JAVANESE MONGOOSE (HERPESTES JAVANICUS) AND THE SHIP RAT (RATTUS RATTUS) IMPACTS ON THE REPRODUCTION OF
THE HAWKSBILL TURTLE (ERETMOCHELYS ; ;'i CLAPPER RAIL (RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS), AND TERRESTRIAL CRAB,
CARDISOMA GUANHUMI -FAJOU ISLAND, NATURAL RESERVE OF GRAND CUL-DE-SAC MARIN GUADELOUPE NATIONAL
PARK FRENCH W EST INDIES. ................................................................................ 82


Continued on back cover










EL PITIRRE

THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


Editor: James W. Wiley, Maryland Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 1120 Trigg Hall, University
ofMaryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, Maryland 21853, USA; Telephone: (410) 651-7654; Fax:
(410) 651-7662; e-mail: jwwiley@imail.umes.edu
Associate Editor: Adrianne G. Tossas, Department ofBiology, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR
00931; e-mail: agtossas@hotmail.com
Associate Editor for French West Indies: Philippe Feldmann, CIRAD-Micap, TA 179/03, F-34398 Montpellier
cedex 5, France; e-mail: philippe.feldmann@cirad.fr
Associate Editor for Spanish-Language Materials: Jos6 Placer, Coereba Society (www.coereba.org); e-mail:
jplacer@coereba.org
News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the Editor or an Associate Editor for inclusion
in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al Editor o Editor Asociado para inclusion
en el boletin.


THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anselme
SECRETARY: Dr. Anne Haynes Sutton
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific
study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and
those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
conservation groups in the Caribbean.
La Sociedad Caribefia de Ornitologia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el estu-
dio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia caribe-
fia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o datos
a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.


MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS
Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
All members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year. Institu-
tional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay regular
dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name and
address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, PO Box 863208, Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA.








Society of Caribbean Ornithology thanks Winged Ambassadors and the
Division of International Conservation of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for their support.

COEREBA
We thank the Coereba Society (www.coereba.org) for their editorial and translation assistance.






























SEABIRD DENSITIES AT SEA IN SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES, WITH COMMENTS ON
THEIR HISTORIC AND CURRENT POTENTIAL BREEDING STATUS

FLOYD E. HAYES
Department of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago


Abstract.-I censused 332 seabirds of seven species along 54.1 km2 of transects (0.5 km wide) between St. Vin-
cent and Union Island during 23 and 28 December 2001. Boobies, which were most common between St. Vincent
and Bequia, accounted for 75.6% of the seabirds observed. Red-footed Booby (Sula sula) brown-morph adults out-
numbered white-morph adults by a ratio of 7.5:1. Red-footed Booby outnumbered the Brown Booby (S. leucogaster)
by a ratio of 2.5:1. Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnithicen. was widespread but occurred in low densities.
Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) was widespread, accounting for 18.6% of seabirds. Small numbers of Brown Pelican
(Pelecanus occidentalis), Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), and Sandwich Tern (S. sandvicensis) occurred only in the
central Grenadines. The historic and current potential breeding status of each species is discussed.
Resumen.-DENSIDADES DE AVES MARINAS EN EL MAR EN SAN VINCENTE Y LAS GRENADINAS. Se cont6 332 aves
marinas de siete species en 54,1 km2 de transectos (anchura de 0.5 km) entire el San Vincente y la isla de Union
durante 23 y 28 deciembre 2001. Las bobas, que fueron mas communes entire San Vincente y Bequia, constituyeron
75.6% de las aves marinas observadas. Adultos de Boba Patirroja (Sula sula) de fase mar6n fueron mas coming que
adults de fase blanco por una raci6n de 7.5:1. La Boba Patirroja fue mas comun que la Boba Prieta (S. leucogaster)
por una raci6n de 2.5:1. La Tijereta (Fregata imagwitih 'lem fue amplia distribuida pero se existi6 en densidades bajas.
La Gaviota Real (Sterna maxima) fue amplia distribuida, y constituy6 18.6% de las aves marinas. Se encontraron
numerous bajos de Pelican Pardo (Pelecanus occidentalis), Gaviota Cabecinegra (Larus atricilla), y Gaviota Piquia-
guda (S. sandvicensis) solamente en el las Grenadinas centrales. Se resume el estado historic y corriente potential
de nidificar para cada especie.
Key words: breeding, densities, distribution, Grenadines, Saint Vincent, seabirds


ALTHOUGH THE WINDWARD Lesser Antillean is-
lands provide nesting and foraging habitat for a va-
riety of seabird species, little is known about the
breeding populations of seabirds and virtually noth-
ing is known about the offshore distribution and
seasonal variation of seabird populations within the
region (see reviews and references therein by
Halewyn and Norton 1984, Schreiber and Lee
2000a). In St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the only


available historical data on the distribution and
breeding of seabirds are provided by Wells (1902),
Clark (1905), Devas (c. 1943), and Bond (1950).
Unfortunately most of the information is anecdotal
and more than a century old. Apparently no subse-
quent attempts have been made to survey the breed-
ing seabird colonies within the archipelago.
Given the many threats to the dwindling numbers
of seabird colonies within the region (e.g., Halewyn


SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA



EL PITIRRE

y SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


Summer 2002 Vol. 15, No. 2









HAYES SEABIRDS IN ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES

Table 1. Seabird densities (birds/10 km2) along three transects in St. Vincent and the Grenadines.


St. Vincent- Bequia- Canouan-
Bequia Canouan Union


Total Comp.
Total Comp.


Brown Booby
Red-footed Booby
Immature booby sp.
Brown Pelican
Magnificent Frigatebird
Laughing Gull
Royal Tern
Sandwich Tern


18.3 2.7 3.1 10.2
53.0 1.1 25.5
14.0 3.8 15.3 10.7
6.1 1.1
2.3 0.5 1.0 1.5
1.0 0.2
12.9 29.6 11.5
4.1 0.7


and Norton 1984, Lee and Schreiber 2000b), sur-
veys of seabird populations at their breeding colo-
nies--as well as in their breeding and nonbreeding
foraging areas at sea--are urgently needed. In this
paper I provide data on seabird densities at sea in
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines based on observa-
tions from ships during December 2001. I further
summarize historic observations of seabirds within
the archipelago, summarize recent observations of
visiting birders in the region posted at Internet web-
sites (Smith and Smith 1998, Wells and Wells
2000), and discuss the potential breeding status of
each species.

STUDY AREA AND METHODS
A comprehensive review of the marine environ-
ment of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is provided
by Anonymous (1991). The islands are situated
upon a shallow coastal shelf less than 100 m deep,
with a narrow trough >500 m deep separating St.
Vincent from the Grenadines. Some upwelling of
deeper ocean waters, which potentially provides
nutrients for seabirds and their food supply, is
thought to occur along the eastern edge of the insu-
lar shelf.
On 23 December 2001, I twice censused seabirds
from aboard the Admiral I between St. Vincent
(Kingstown) and Bequia (Port Elizabeth) during
09:07-10:00 h and 17:05-17:55 h. On 28 December
2001, I censused seabirds from aboard the Barra-
couda from Union Island (Ashton Harbour) to
Mayreau (Saline Bay) during 07:14-07:31 h, from
Mayreau to Canouan (Charlestown) during 07:40-
08:15 h, from Canouan to Bequia during 08:40-
10:22 h, and from Bequia to St. Vincent during
10:32-11:18 h. The sea was relatively calm during
the censuses, with waves < 2 m high. Visibility was
excellent with partly cloudy skies and no rain.


I searched for seabirds from one side of the ship
(nearly always with the better light) on a deck about
7 m above the sea. I censused seabirds along a
fixed-width transect by counting all birds within
500 m that crossed an imaginary line perpendicular
to the ship. Identification was facilitated with 7x42
binoculars. Seabird numbers were recorded at 5 min
intervals.
I measured transect lengths on 1:50,000 and
1:200,000 scale maps and calculated the area of
each transect and mean ship speed. From north to
south, these transects were: St. Vincent-Bequia,
17.1 km (8.55 km2 surveyed); Bequia-Canouan,
37.3 km (18.65 km2); Canouan-Mayreau, 11.8 km
(5.9 km2); and Mayreau-Union, 7.8 km (3.9 km2).
Ship speeds were 19.9 km/hr for the Admiral I and
22.2 km/hr for the Barracouda.
For the purposes of analyses, I combined data for
the three counts along the St. Vincent-Bequia tran-
sect and combined data for the Canouan-Mayreau-
Union transects. For each seabird species I calcu-
lated density along each of three transects, and com-
pared the abundance of each species (using Mann-
Whitney U tests; Zar 1984) between distances < 2
km (herein termed "inshore") and > 2 km from land
(herein termed "offshore") based on data taken dur-
ing 5 min samples (each roughly 1.5-2 km) Statis-
tical tests were computed with Statistix 3.1 software
(Anonymous 1990), with two-tailed probabilities
and a = 0.05.

RESULTS
I censused 332 seabirds of seven species during
this study (Table 1). The total density of seabirds in
the archipelago was 6.1/km2. The density did not
differ between inshore and offshore waters for any
species (Table 2).
Boobies of two species accounted for 75.6% of


El Pitirre 15(2)


Species


Page 50









HAYES SEABIRDS IN ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES


Table 2. Seabird abundance during 5 min samples (each roughly 1.5-2 km) at distances < 2 km
(n = 24) and > 2 km (n = 33) from land, with results of Mann-Whitney U tests (z values) for dif-
ferences (none significant).


<2 km


>2 km


Species


Brown Booby
Red-footed Booby
Immature booby sp.
Brown Pelican
Magnificent Frigatebird
Laughing Gull
Royal Tern
Sandwich Tern


Mean (SD) range

0.54(1.50)0-7
2.38 (7.62)0-37
1.46 (3.75)0-14
0.25 (1.03)0-5
0.29 (0.00) 0-2
0.04 (0.20)0-1
2.50(6.31)0-24
0.17 (0.82) 0-4


Mean (SD) range


1.18 (3.25)0-
2.46 (6.33)0-
0.70 (2.27) 0-
0.00 (0.00)0-
0.00 (0.00)0o-
0.00 (0.00) -
0.06 (0.24) 0-
0.00 (0.00) -


the seabirds observed (Table 1). The Red-footed
Booby (Sula sula) was the most common seabird
(Table 1), with brown-morph adults outnumbering
white-morph adults by a ratio of 7.5:1. The Red-
footed Booby outnumbered the Brown Booby (S.
leucogaster) by a ratio of 2.5:1 (Table 1). Immature
boobies accounted for 28.3% of all boobies ob-
served; of these, only 18% were observed closely
enough to be identified to species. Booby densities
were highest between St. Vincent and Bequia
(Table 1); in this area a few scattered individuals
flew in a northwestward direction during the morn-
ing, in contrast with many flocks (more than 150
were seen beyond the transect) that flew southeast-
ward in the late afternoon.
The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) was
recorded only in the central Grenadines between
Canouan and Union Island (Table 1). Several dozen
distant pelicans were observed well beyond the tran-
sect at Pelican Cay, to the north of Mayreau. The
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificent) was
widespread, but occurred in low densities (Table 1).
The Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) was wide-
spread, accounting for nearly a fifth of the seabirds
observed (Table 1); its density was nearly signifi-
cantly higher inshore (P = 0.067; Table 2), espe-
cially at Bequia and Union Island, than offshore.
The Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla) and Sandwich
Tern (S. sandvicensis acuflavidus) occurred in very
small numbers only at Union Island (Table 1),
where higher numbers (12 Sandwich Terns and five
Laughing Gulls) were noted the day before on 27
December 2001.

DISCUSSION
Although based on only two days of observation,


this study provides the first estimates of seabird
densities at sea in St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
In recent years several experienced birders have
cruised through the archipelago (Smith and Smith
1998, Wells and Wells 2000). Given the relative
comfort and low cost of public transportation
among the islands, visiting birders and ornitholo-
gists could easily replicate this study to provide fur-
ther data on seasonal and annual variation of seabird
densities within the archipelago and in other island
groups of the region. To aid seabird researchers in
obtaining further information, I have provided his-
torical comments on the potential breeding of sea-
birds within the archipelago in an Appendix.
Given that boobies nest in the Caribbean from
October-May (Schreiber 2000), in the Grenadines
from February-May (Clark 1905; see Appendix),
and in Tobago from June-April (ffrench 1991), the
substantial numbers of boobies observed likely rep-
resent a resident breeding population. The few pre-
viously reported booby colonies from the Grena-
dines (Wells 1902, Clark 1905, Bond 1950; see Ap-
pendix) are currently regarded as extirpated or hav-
ing only a few pairs (Schreiber 2000), but appar-
ently have not been visited by an ornithologist in
several decades. Clark (1905) also reported seeing
large numbers of both species in the channel be-
tween St. Vincent and Bequia.
The persistent northwestward flight of boobies in
the morning and southeastward flight in the evening
suggest that most individuals were foraging in an
unknown area north or west of St. Vincent and nest-
ing or roosting to the south in the Grenadines. I also
observed large flocks of boobies flying southward
along the east coast of St. Vincent during the eve-
ning of 29 December 2001. However, Wells and


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 51









HAYES SEABIRDS IN ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES

Wells (2000) failed to observe large concentrations
to the north of St. Vincent, observing only 20
Brown and 11 Red-footed (eight brown, three
white) Boobies while sailing from the Pitons, St.
Lucia, to Cumberland Bay, St. Vincent, on 4 De-
cember, and eight Brown and ten Red-footed (nine
brown, one white) Boobies when returning along
the same route on 9 December 2000. A century ago,
Clark (1905:231) reported that both Brown and
Red-footed Boobies are often seen along the west
coast of St. Vincent, where some Brown Boobies
spent the night along the cliffs, but "The majority,
however, begin to fly down the coast at about three
in the afternoon, making for Battowia, which island
is the favorite roosting place of all sea birds in this
region."
Elsewhere within the archipelago, Wells and
Wells (2000) observed the following numbers of
boobies: 15 Brown and 36 Red-footed (mostly
brown) Boobies between Cumberland Bay, St. Vin-
cent, and Admiralty Bay, Bequia, on 5 December;
22 Brown and 21 Red-footed (17-18 brown, 3-4
white) Boobies between Bequia and Tobago Cays,
but mostly near Bequia, on 6 December; 11 Brown
and four Red-footed Boobies between Tobago Cays
and Bequia on 7 December; and 84 Brown and 16
Red-footed Boobies between Bequia and Cumber-
land Bay, St. Vincent, on 8 December 2000. Raf-
faele et al. (1998) regarded the Red-footed Booby
as rare in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, but my
observations and those of Wells and Wells (2000)
indicate it is still common.
Although the Brown Pelican was considered to be
common throughout the Grenadines a century ago,
it has not been reported nesting in the archipelago
(Wells 1902, Clark 1905, Collazo et al. 2000; see
Appendix). A number of Brown Pelicans were also
noted in the central Grenadines by Smith and Smith
(1998) on 25 May 1998, and by Wells and Wells
(2000) on 6-7 December 2000. The long-term local
persistence of this species in the central Grenadines
suggests that the several dozen seen at Pelican Cay,
which presumably has a long association with peli-
cans as its name implies, might represent a small
breeding colony from which individuals disperse to
nearby islands. Because Brown Pelicans nest
throughout the year in the West Indies (Collazo et
al. 2000) and from February-April in Trinidad
(ffrench 1991), the birds might have been breeding
during my visit.
The few scattered individuals of Magnificent
Frigatebirds suggest that there are no large colonies
of breeding birds, which if present should have been
nesting in December (ffrench 1991, Lindsey et al.


2000). Small numbers of widely scattered frigate-
birds were also reported by Smith and Smith (1998)
and Wells and Wells (2000). There are no recent
data on former breeding colonies in the Grenadines
(Wells 1902, Clark 1905, Lindsey et al. 2000; see
Appendix).
The small numbers of Laughing Gull, Royal
Tern, and Sandwich Tern presumably represent
wintering individuals since these species nest during
spring and summer (Chardine et al. 2000, Norton
2000). All three species have been reported (or at
least implied) breeding in the Grenadines, though
no recent data are available (Wells 1902, Clark
1905, Bond 1950, Chardine et al. 2000, Norton
2000; see Appendix).
There were several species of potentially nesting
seabirds (see Appendix) that I did not observe, but
were recently reported by others. Wells and Wells
(2000) observed one Audubon's Shearwater
(Pi'ttirin. lherminieri) between St. Lucia and St.
Vincent on 4 December, five between Bequia and
Tobago Cays on 6 December, and one between Be-
quia and St. Vincent on 8 December 2000, but
Smith and Smith (1998) did not see any in May
1998. Wells and Wells (2000) observed two Red-
billed Tropicbirds (Phaethon aethereus) between St.
Lucia and St. Vincent on 4 December, an unidenti-
fied tropicbird at Bequia on 7 December, and two
unidentified tropicbirds between St. Vincent and St.
Lucia on 9 December 2000, but Smith and Smith
(1998) also failed to see any in May 1998. Smith
and Smith (1998) noted two Masked Boobies (S.
dactylatra) south of Bequia on 25 May 1998, and
Wells and Wells (2000) observed a "possible" indi-
vidual between St. Lucia and St. Vincent on 4 De-
cember, plus another "possible" individual between
St. Vincent and Bequia on 5 December 2000. Smith
and Smith (1998) reported Roseate Tern (S. dougal-
lii), Bridled Tern (S. anaethetus), Sooty Tern (S.
fuscata), and Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus) to be
common, but mostly between St. Vincent and Be-
quia, and just south of Bequia, on 22 and 25 May
1998; none were seen by Wells and Wells (2000) in
December 2000.
The results of this study, combined with recent
observations of other birders, indicate that substan-
tial numbers of potentially breeding seabirds still
exist in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Surveys of
the isolated islets within the archipelago, especially
those where seabirds previously have been reported
to breed (see Appendix), are urgently needed to as-
sess whether these seabirds actually breed and
whether any steps need to be taken to preserve
them.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was funded by a travel grant from the
University of the West Indies. I appreciated the
companionship and assistance of B. Hayes, M.
Hayes, J. Trott, M. Trott, and V. Ramsingh, and es-
pecially the hospitality of the Trotts, while visiting
St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

LITERATURE CITED
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Statistix manual. Analytical
Software. St. Paul, MN.
ANONYMOUS. 1991. St. Vincent and the Grena-
dines: environmental profile. Caribbean Conser-
vation Association, St. Michael, Barbados.
BOND, J. 1956. Check-list of birds of the West In-
dies. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
CHARDINE, J. W., R. D. MORRIS, J. F. PARNELL,
AND J. PIERCE. 2000. Status and conservation pri-
orities for Laughing Gulls, Gull-billed Terns,
Royal Tems and Bridled Terns in the West In-
dies. Pp. 65-79 in Status and conservation of
West Indian seabirds (Schreiber, E. A., and D. S.
Lee, Eds.) Soc. Carib. Omithol. Spec. Publ. 1.
Ruston, Louisiana.
CLARK, A. H. 1905. Birds of the southern Lesser
Antilles. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 32:203-
312.
COLLAZO, J. A., J. E. SALIVA, AND J. PIERCE. 2000.
Conservation of the Brown Pelican in the West
Indies. Pp. 39-45 in Status and conservation of
West Indian seabirds (Schreiber, E. A., and D. S.
Lee, Eds.) Soc. Carib. Ornithol. Spec. Publ. 1.
Ruston, Louisiana.
DEVAS, R. P. c. 1943. Birds of Grenada, St. Vincent
and the Grenadines (British West Indies). Advo-
cate Co., Ltd., Barbados.
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
& Tobago. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press,
Ithaca, NY.
HALEWYN, R. VAN, AND R. L. NORTON (eds.).
1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in
the Caribbean. Int. Council Bird Preservation
Tech. Publ. 2:169-222.
LINDSEY, K., B. HORWITH, AND E. A. SCHREIBER.
2000. Status of the Magnificent Frigatebird in the
West Indies. Pp. 58-64 in Status and conservation
of West Indian seabirds (Schreiber, E. A., and D.
S. Lee, Eds.) Soc. Carib. Ornithol. Spec. Publ. 1.
Ruston, Louisiana.
NORTON, R. L. 2000. Status and conservation of
Sandwich and Cayenne Terns in the West Indies.
Pp. 80-86 in Status and conservation of West In-
dian seabirds (Schreiber, E. A., and D. S. Lee,
Eds.) Soc. Carib. Ornithol. Spec. Publ. 1. Ruston,


HAYES SEABIRDS IN ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES

Louisiana.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, New Jersey.
SCHREIBER, E. A. 2000. Status of Red-footed,
Brown and Masked Boobies in the West Indies.
Pp. 46-57 in Status and conservation of West In-
dian seabirds (Schreiber, E. A., and D. S. Lee,
Eds.) Soc. Carib. Omithol. Spec. Publ. 1. Ruston,
Louisiana.
SCHREIBER, E. A., AND D. S. LEE (eds.). 2000a.
Status and conservation of West Indian seabirds.
Soc. Carib. Omithol. Spec. Publ. 1. Ruston, Lou-
isiana.
SCHREIBER, E. A., AND D. S. LEE. 2000b. West In-
dian seabirds: a disappearing natural resource. Pp.
1-10 in Status and conservation of West Indian
seabirds (Schreiber, E. A., and D. S. Lee, Eds.)
Soc. Carib. Omithol. Spec. Publ. 1. Ruston, Lou-
isiana.
SMITH, P. W., AND S. A. SMITH. 1998. St. Vincent
& the Grenadines. Unpubl. report (http://
maybank.tripod.com/Caribbean/StVincent-05-98.
htm).
WELLS, A., AND J. WELLS. 2000. Lesser Antilles -
cruise: St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and the Grenadines.
Unpubl. report (http://maybank.tripod.com/
Caribbean/Cruise-12-2000.htm).
WELLS, J. G. 1902. Birds of the island of Carriacou.
Part I. Water birds. Auk 19:237-246.
ZAR, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-
Hall, Inc., Inglewood Cliffs, NJ.

APPENDIX
Historical comments on the potential breeding
status of seabirds in St. Vincent and the Grenadines,
including the Grenadine islands politically belong-
ing to Grenada. Unless breeding is implied, descrip-
tions of eggs, nests, and nest site selection are ex-
cluded.
Audubon's Shearwater.-"...lives in holes and
under rocks on most of our islets...Bonaparte Rocks
are a favourite abode...On Easter Monday, 2nd
April, 1888, I paid a visit to a small islet called La-
baye Rock, about a mile off the Port of Granville...a
young bird was discovered in a hole under a stone...
This caused me to make a thorough research...I
found an adult bird with a young in one hole, and a
full-grown female and one egg in another" (Wells
1902:241). "...breeding, according to Wells, on
most of the small islets about Carriacou, especially
on Bonaparte Rocks" (Clark 1905:229).
Red-billed Tropicbird.-"It frequents Frigate


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HAYES SEABIRDS IN ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES

Island and Rose Rock, from which I have taken its
eggs" (Wells 1902:251). "There is a considerable
colony of them near Old Woman's Point, just west
of Kingstown, and another at Layou [St. Vincent]...
at Bequia they breed in numbers in the inaccessible
cliffs of Bequia Head...great numbers breed on Bat-
towia and Balliceaux, and there are other colonies
on Frigate Island, Rose Rock, Kick-'em-Jenny, and
Les Tantes, between Carriacou and Grenada" (Clark
1905:230). "From this, and the evidence (as well) of
fisherman, is established that the Lea Rocks (one of
them in particular) and Kick-'em-Jenny are homes
and nesting--, as well as resting--places" (Devas c.
1943:61).
Masked Booby.-"Occurs sparingly on Kick-
'em-Jenny, and probably also at Battowia. The eggs
[implying breeding] are uniform dull white" (Clark
1905:231). "Colonies thriving in the Grena-
dines" (Bond 1950:5).
Brown Booby.-"Hundreds of boobies, mainly
of this species, nest at Battowia and Kick-'em-
Jenny, and there is said to be a large colony on Lit-
tle Tobago (off Petite Martinique)...The breeding
season is from February to May" (Clark 1905:231).
Red-footed Booby.-"This bird is not numerous
in Carriacou, though large numbers of them inhabit
Kik-'en-jenny [sic], a rock about ten miles distant...
They lay one egg only [breeding implied]" (Wells
1902:242). "It is said to breed commonly on Bat-
towia...It nests in numbers on Kick-'em-
Jenny" (Clark 1905:231). "Nests...in the Grenadines
(Battowia, Kick-'em-Jenny and, perhaps, Little To-
bago)" (Bond 1950:6).
Brown Pelican.-"I was under the impression
that they nested on some of the outlying rocks, but
have now determined that they resort to the coast of
Florida to breed, during the months of February,
March, and April. In May and June they begin to
return in numbers, and the young of the year are
easily distinguished" (Wells 1902:242). "It occurs
mainly in the winter months, and almost wholly dis-
appears in the spring, but returns in early summer...
does not breed anywhere in these islands, but is
merely an annual visitor, possibly from southern
North America and the Greater Antilles...after care-
ful search and exhaustive enquiry I could find not
the slightest sign of their ever having done
so" (Clark 1905:232).
Magnificent Frigatebird.-"They nest in colo-
nies at Kick-en-jenny [sic]" (Wells 1902:243). "In
the Grenadines they breed in numbers on Battowia,
whence the young are sometimes taken for


food" (Clark 1905:233).
Laughing Gull: "They breed on the islets, Isle-
de-large being a favorite one, in the months of May
and June" (Wells 1902:239). "They nest on the
small islets about Carriacou, and rather generally on
the more isolated keys all through the Grena-
dines" (Clark 1905:256).
Royal Tern.-"They breed on the rocks; but I
have hitherto been unsuccessful in procuring their
eggs" (Wells 1902:239). Clark (1905:257) de-
scribed the eggs but did not specifically mention
breeding.
Sandwich Tern.-"Breeds...among the Grena-
dines (Tobago Cays)" (Bond 1950:55).
Roseate Tern.-"A few years ago these birds
used to frequent Jack-a-dan Island, off the Port of
Hillsborough [Carriacou], in large numbers; they
also used to breed there, but for some reason they
have now deserted it, and seem to have made Frig-
ate Island and Rose Rock their nesting
places" (Wells 1902:239-240). "...breeding, among
other places, at Frigate Island and Rose Rock near
Carriacou. Formerly it bred in numbers at Isle
Jaques Adam near the town of Hillsborough, but for
some reason has of late years deserted this local-
ity" (Clark 1905:257). "...it breeds with us, e.g., on
Green Island" (Devas c. 1950:53).
Bridled Tern.-"Numerous at Isle-de-Large,
Rose Rock and White Island. At the eastern end of
White Island is a conical hill where the Noddy con-
gregates in large numbers. The hill is honey-
combed and is just the place for it to deposit eggs. I
have taken several sets of eggs at Rose Rock and
Isle-de-large in May; the colony at White Island is
inaccessible" (Wells 1902:240). "...nesting abun-
dantly at Lee Rocks, and on Rose Rock. There are
smaller colonies on many of the smaller keys, and a
number breed on White Island, in the midst of a
rookery of several hundred Noddies (Anous
stolidus)" (Clark 1905:258).
Sooty Tern.-"...it breeds in numbers on the is-
lets between this island [Carriacou] and Grenada; a
few may be seen at Bonaparte Rocks and Isle-de-
large" (Wells 1902:240). "...breeding on Isle Ronde,
Kick-'em-Jenny, Lee Rocks, Bonaparte's Rocks,
and Isle de Large, as well as on some of the smaller
islets" (Clark 1905:258).
Brown Noddy.-"...nesting at Isle de Large,
Rose Rock, and White Island near Carriacou, and
on Western Key off Bequia. There are also other
less important breeding areas" (Clark 1905:259).


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RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DE LA ENCUESTA SOBRE LA YAGUASA
(DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) EN VARIAS REGIONS DE CUBA

LOURDES MUGICA1, DENNIS DENIS Y MARTIN ACOSTA
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, La Habana, Cuba; .'"",.. .. ril'.. i l [ ,




Resumen.-Se analizan los resultados de 181 encuestas realizadas en todas las provincias de Cuba durante el aio
1999 en relaci6n con el estado actual, la ecologia y la protecci6n legal de la Yaguasa (Dendrocygna arborea). Los
resultados revelaron una amplia distribuci6n de la especie a lo largo de todo el pais, aunque en general las poblacio-
nes se consideran relativamente pequefias. La mayoria de los encuestados ofrecieron aspects interesantes sobre la
ecologia de la especie en relaci6n con su alimentaci6n, reproducci6n y conduct. Aun cuando existe un amplio cono-
cimiento sobre su veda permanent, los cazadores continuan cazandola, lo que evidencia la necesidad de continuar
trabajando en la implementaci6n de programs de educaci6n ambiental que contribuyan a la conservaci6n de la espe-
cie.
Palabras clave: Cuba, Dendrocygna arborea, encuestas, Yaguasa
Abstract.-PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF OPINION POLLS ON THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK (DENDROCYGNA
ARBOREA) IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF CUBA. We surveyed public knowledge of the status, ecology, and legal protec-
tion of the West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea) in all Cuban provinces during 1999 (181 in total).
The species is widely distributed throughout the country, mainly as small flocks. Interesting aspects of the ecology,
feeding, breeding, and behavior were gathered from the surveys. Even though a widespread knowledge of the spe-
cies and its legal protection exists, the whistling-duck is still considered an important game species. The results re-
vealed the necessity of continuing the environmental Education Program to increase public awareness as a mean to
preserve the species and its environment.
Keywords: Cuba, Dendrocygna arborea, public poll, survey, West Indian Whistling-Duck


INTRODUCTION
LA YAGUASA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) es una
especie end6mica de las Antillas Mayores e incluida
como vulnerable en el libro rojo de las aves amena-
zadas (Birdlife 2000), debido al constant decline
de sus poblaciones (Todd 1996). Su actual grado de
amenaza ha conllevado a que sea objeto de atenci6n
priorizada por la Sociedad Omitol6gica del Caribe,
la cual ha creado un grupo de trabajo (West Indian
Whistling Duck Working Group), que concentra sus
esfuerzos en campafias de Educaci6n Ambiental con
el objetivo de protegerla y educar a la poblaci6n en
la conservaci6n de sus habitats naturales.
En Cuba la Yaguasa fue comun en zonas de cid-
naga, terrenos bajos y pantanos, con una larga tradi-
ci6n como ave cineg6tica entire nuestros cazadores,
de ahi que Gundlach (1876) planteara que la apre-
ciaban porque "su came es excelente y muy buscada
por los cazadores, que suelen matarlas al oscurecer
cuando vienen a los palmares, atraidas tambidn por
el silbido, que el mismo cazador les imita." Aunque
su nfimero se ha reducido considerablemente desde


los tiempos de Gundlach, existe un fuerte arraigo en
cuanto a su explotaci6n en nuestras comunidades
rurales. Por esto, nos propusimos estimar a trav6s de
encuestas, el grado de conocimiento que existe en la
poblaci6n sobre la Yaguasa en relaci6n con su eco-
logia, distribuci6n, estado actual de sus poblaciones
y protecci6n legal.

MATERIALS Y METODOS
Las encuestas se realizaron en el afio 1999 en to-
das las provincias del pais (181 encuestas en total)
que se distribuyeron de la siguiente forma: Pinar del
Rio (21), Habana (11), Ciudad Habana (3), Matan-
zas (3), Cienfuegos (10), Villa Clara (23), Sancti
Spiritus (8), Ciego de Avila (1), Camagiiey (19),
Las Tunas (16), Holguin (11), Granma (7), Santiago
de Cuba (25), y Guanthnamo (23) (ver Anexo). Las
personas encuestadas oscilaron entire 20 y 60 afios e
incluyeron un numero proporcional de campesinos,
obreros, jubilados, administrativos, profesionales y
entrenadores de tiro. En total el 86.3% eran cazado-
res activos.


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MUGICA ETAL. ENCUESTAS SOBRE YAGUASA EN CUBA


recientemente hace un afno


hace dos afios hace 5 afnos


Periodo


I


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180


Evarias (3-10)


Otodos los meses


N de veces


Fig. Numero de encuestados que han observado la Yaguasa (Dendrocygna arborea) (A) en los
ultimos cinco afios y (B) cantidad de veces que la han visto en Cuba en los ultimos cinco afios.


RESULTADOS
La mayoria de los encuestados ha visto la Yagua-
sa recientemente y con cierta frecuencia, incluso
una buena parte la ha visto todos los meses (Fig. 1).
Los resultados evidencian que para una gran part
de los encuestados, las poblaciones de esta ave son
en la actualidad mis frecuentes o igual que antes, lo
cual puede dar la imagen de que la especie no esta
en decline (Fig. 2).
Los bandos al parecer se observan generalmente


mas trecuentes


menos frecuentes


en grupos pequefios, que varian 3 a 10 individuos y
grupos de hasta 100, con escasas observaciones de
bandos muy grandes o de individuos solitarios (Fig.
3).
Estas observaciones deben estar condicionadas
por diversos factors ya que generalmente las Ya-
guasas vuelan en pequefios bandos desde los sitios
donde han pasado el dia hasta las areas de alimenta-
ci6n nocturna, donde en muchas ocasiones forman
concentraciones de mayores dimensions. Ademis a


igual de trec


no recuerdo


Frecuencia


Fig. 2. Numero de encuestados que manifiestan algun tipo de tendencia en las poblaciones cuba-
nas de Yaguasa (Dendrocygna arborea) en los ultimos cinco afios.


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Spocas


=::::7


Page 56










MUGICA ETAL. ENCUESTAS SOBRE YAGUASA EN CUBA


120-

100-

80-
N 60-

40-

20-
0-


Fig. 3. Niumero de encuestados que refieren haber observado a las
Yaguasas (Dendrocygna arborea) en Cuba en diferentes agrupa-
ciones durante los ultimos cinco afios.


finales de afio con frecuencia se congregan en sitios
apartados durante el dia.
Tradicionalmente los cazadores han utilizado las
areas de cruce de la Yaguasa para desarrollar la acti-
vidad cineg6tica, de ahi la alta frecuencia de perso-
nas que han observado pequefios bandos.
Al analizar si la especie era objeto de caza, el
71.4% respondi6 que si la habia cazado, aunque s6-
lo el 34% lo hace frecuentemente. Sin embargo el
nuimero de piezas cazadas es menor de 5 en la ma-
yoria de los casos (70%) y s6lo el 16% plantea
haber cazado alguna vez entire 11 y 20 individuos.
Es de notar que entire los afios 60 y 90 una minoria
incluia a esta especie entire las aves cazadas, sin em-
bargo, el comienzo de la crisis econ6mica que ha
afectado extraordinariamente al pais en la filtima
d6cada, ha conllevado al parecer a un incremento en
su caza para ser utilizada como fuente proteica, a
pesar de que el 77% manifiesta conocer que su caza
esta prohibida por la Ley Nacional de caza.
Este resultado puede estar sesgado tambidn por el
largo period de tiempo transcurrido que no permit
memorizar por igual los periods mis recientes y
los anteriores.

Aspectos ecol6gicos
En relaci6n con el habitat, las arroceras constitu-
yen el lugar donde mis han sido vistas las Yagua-
sas, este resultado se debe al hecho de ser el habitat
con mayor presencia humana, y ademas a que todas
las arroceras se encuentran asociadas con importan-
tes humedales naturales, constituyendo una amplia
fuente de alimentos para esta especie, por otra parte
el bajo porcentaje encontrado en manglares debe
estar influido por la baja asequibilidad de estos
habitats para el hombre (Fig. 4).
Mas del 50% de los encuestados ha visto a las


yaguasas alimentindose y reportan entire los posi-
bles alimentos el arroz, granos silvestres, hierbas,
boniato, yuca, palmiche, tomate, semillas de cor-
tadera, maiz, macio, frijoles y otros, entire ellos el
arroz fue citado como el alimento preferido (Fig.
5).
Los nidos son dificiles de encontrar y mis del
60 % nunca ha visto ninguno, sin embargo se se-
fiala la presencia de nidos en todos los meses del
afio, con un pico en Mayo y Junio (Fig. 6). Este
resultado coincide con los planteados por Gund-
lach (1876) y Todd (1996). Los nidos han sido
observados en diferentes substratos, de ellos la
mayoria se observ6 en el suelo, aunque es notable
la variedad de substratos y habitats que utilizan
para nidificar (Fig. 6).
En general aunque el nimero de encuestados
no es muy elevado, se evidencia que existe un


Ill


I ..


cltivos
8%0


lagoso pflart-
lagunas 12/0o
180/0


Fig. 4. Tipos de habitat donde han sido observadas las
Yaguasas (Dendrocygna arborea) en Cuba durante los
filtimos cinco afios.


El Pitirre 15(2)


en parejas grupos pequenos Grupos grades bandos gigantes
(3-10) (10-100)
Tipo de agrupacion


Sohtanas


presas


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MUGICA ETAL. ENCUESTAS SOBRE YAGUASA EN CUBA


frijoles


invert I .
co. I 1
tomato
4%
palmiche
9%


yuca
6%

bonlato
8%


granos
silvestres
18%


Fig. 5. Tipos de alimentos mas frecuentemente consumi-
dos por la Yaguasa (Dendrocygna arborea) en Cuba, du-
rante los ultimos cinco afios.


conocimiento popular sobre la especie, ya que los
resultados de la encuesta coinciden en general con
lo planteado en la literature cientifica. A partir de
estos resultados se confirm la necesidad de imple-
mentar programs de educaci6n ambiental que con-


duzcan a la toma de conciencia en relaci6n con la
necesidad de preservar a la Yaguasa, pues esti claro
que no hay una clara percepci6n de que las pobla-
ciones de esta ave estin en decline, y ademis no se
cumple cabalmente lo establecido en la actual ley de
caza relacionado con su veda permanent, a pesar
de que esta legislaci6n es bastante conocida.
Finalmente queremos hacer referencia al gran nfi-
mero de localidades a lo largo y ancho del pais don-
de se report la Yaguasa en la actualidad (Anexo).
La especie se encuentra reportada en todas las pro-
vincias de pais a excepci6n de Ciudad de la Habana,
con pequefias poblaciones que hacen un amplio uso
de las zonas costeras naturales y de los numerosos
embalses artificiales que existen actualmente (Fig.
7).

AGRADECIMIENTOS

Agradecemos el apoyo brindado por el Ministerio
de la Agricultura y numerosos colaboradores locales
en la entrega y recogida de las encuestas en sus pro-
vincias. Agradecemos al West Indian Whistling-
Duck Working Group de la Sociedad Omitol6gica
del Caribe y a WildLife Trust por su constant apo-
yo al trabajo en relaci6n con la Yaguasa y los hume-
dales.


30-

25

20

15

10

5

0
Enero Febrero M arzo


a -S Ma


Abril M yo Jun.o Julo Ago to Sept-embr
M es


w w


w


Oetubre Nov.embre D i-embre


en huecos de troncos
en raices de mangle 6%
10%


en el suelo
\ 36%


otros
17%
Fig. 6. Meses del afio y substrato en que se han observado nidos de Yaguasa (Dendrocygna arborea) en Cuba, durante los
filtimos cinco afios.


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MUGICA ETAL. ENCUESTAS SOBRE YAGUASA EN CUBA


N
ot


Ism'..


Fig. 7. Ubicaci6n de las localidades (puntos) donde se ha observado la Yaguasa (Dendrocygna arborea) en Cuba en los
ultimos cinco afios, segun las encuestas realizadas.


LITERATURE CITADA


BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. 2000 Treatened birds of
the world. Barcelona: Lynx Editions.
GUNDLACH, J. 1876. Contribuci6n a la ornitologia


cubana. Habana: La Antilla.
TODD, F. S. 1996. Natural history of the waterfowl.
California: Ibis Publ. Co.


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MUGICA ETAL. ENCUESTAS SOBRE YAGUASA EN CUBA


Anexo. Listado de las localidades donde se ha reportado la Yaguasa por provincias en el territorio cubano.


Guantainamo
Baracoa (Mabujabo)
San Ant. del Sur
Caimanera (Cerro Guaya-
bo)
Niceto Perez
(Guantanamo)
Cuaba
El Guiseto
Boca del Toa
Vilorio
Ullao
Paraguay
Matabajo
Cecilia
Argeo Mtnez
Boca del Yumuri
La Yaya
Maquesito

Granma
Rio Cauto (4)
Cayo Grande
Fernando Echenique
Zona Toma del Cauto

Holguin
Cayama
Echenique
Urbano Noris (Holguin)
Camilo Cienfuegos
Granma
Camagfiey
Sierra Maestra
Arrocera Sierra Maestra
(Camagfiey)
El Jibaro (Camagfiey?)
Arrocera Fdo. Echenique
Rio Cauto
Yaguabo
Babiney
San German (Holguin?)
La Camilo
Guantanamo, municipio
Niceto Perez
Presa de Nipe (Holguin)

Cienfuegos
UBF San Marcos
Cartagena
Cumanayagua
Abreus (3)
Aguada
Rodas
Aguada de pasajeros
Palmira
Lajas
La Josefa (2)
Alegria
Sta. Martina
Vial (2)
Lagunilla


San Mateo
Las Martinas
Junco
Refineria
Charcas
Algodonoes
Ciego Montero
Yaguaramas
Camarones
San Marcos

Camagiiey
Arroceras de Santa Cruz
Presas del N de Camagfiey
Florida (5)
Najasa (2)
Costa sur de Florida
Vertientes (5)
Costa sur de la provincia
(4)
Sibanicu
Santa Cruz del Sur
Carlos M. de Cespedes

Villa Clara
Costas del Jibaro (4)
Jagueyar
Aridanes
Mapo (3)
Yabu
La Sierpe (2)
Presa el Colorado
Lagos de Mayajigua
Cruces
Presa Guama
Aguada
Caunao
Florida (Camagiiey)
Sagua (3)
Palmarito
San Juan
La Minerva
Rio Sagua
El Dorado
Loma del Rayo
Sto. Domingo
Quemado de Guines
Calabazar de Sagua
Remedios
Ranchuelo
Placetas
Cifuentes
Vueltas (2)
Sitio Grande
El Pinon
El Rojo
Laguna Mojica
San Ramon
San Luis
Estero Caiman
Playa Carahatas
Santa Maria


Galloso
El Purio
Presa La Esperanza
Baez
Costa Norte
Presa Sagua
Presa Alacranes
Muy abundante desde ci-
fuetes al Rio Sagua la
Chica
La Conchita y press Dos
Hermanas y Braulio areas
muy importantes
Norte de Viana
Detras del CAI Panchito
Gomez Toro

Pinar del Rio
Bahia Honda
San Cristobal
Los Palacios
Costa Sur
Santa Cruz
Rio Blanco (La Palma)
Laguna Vieja
Sierra de Guane
Alonso de Rojas
San Luis
Palisagas
Sandino
Llanadas
Macuriffe (Mantua)
Rio Pan de Azucar
(Desembocadura)
Socarras Baja
La Vigia, Clavellinas
(Mantua)
Trujillo (San Cristobal)
San Ubaldo
Consolacion del Sur

Las Tunas
Jobabo
Presa Las Emilia y el Jabao
Arroceras Sabalo
Costa Tunas
Manati (Presa Ciego Estra-
da)
Presa Gamal (Manati)
Cobarrubias
Presa Machucos
San Miguel
Jesus Menendez
Amancio (Costas)
La Federal
San Nicolas
Presa Mercedes
Camagueycito
Biramas
Leonero
Arrocera Puente Guillen
Arrocera Sabalo Jobabo)


20 de mayo
San Estevas

Ci6go de Avila
Norte Ciego de Avila
Chambas
Sur de Sancti Spiritus
Las Nuevas
Jibaro

Matanzas
Calimete (Arrocera del sur)

La Habana
Pinar del Rio
Sur de S Nicolas de Bane
Costa Sur Habana
Amarillas
Laguna Hitabo

Santiago de Cuba
Presa Protesta de Baragua
Gota Blanca
Granma
Baragua Plan 5
Regina
Melchor
Bayamo
Rio Cauto
Palmarito de Cauto
Babiney (Granma)
Felton (Holguin)
Jucarito
Presa Maroto (San Luis)

Sancti Spiritus
Guayaba
Neiva
Costa Sur
Presa Tuinucu
Sierra de Gabino
A km y medio de Guayo
Guayo
Rio Guayos
CAI Humberto Abat Ale-
man
Presa Zaza
Siguaney
Lebuye
La Sierpe
Taguasco
Jatibonico
Cabaiguan
Las Damas
CPA 13 de Marzo
4 Veredas
La Mocuca
Pta. Diamantes
3 Palmas
Santa Lucia


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IMPORTANCIA ALIMENTARIA EN LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA TYTO ALBA FURCA TA
(AVES: STRIGIFORMES) EN LA CIUDAD DE CAMAGUEY, CUBA
1,2 1
RENE WINSTON VILATO VIAMONTES1,2, DAGOBERTO MARQUEZ BARROSO Y ALEXIS DOMINGUEZ FREYRE3
'Centro de Investigaciones de Medio Ambiente de Camagiiey, Cisneros No. 105 altos, e/Angely Pobre, Camagiiey I, C. P.
70100, Cuba; y 2Direcci6n actual: Itaca Aptdo. 3004, 29080, Mdlaga, Espafa; 3Comiti Espeleol6gico de Camagiiey,
Apartado 5240, Camagiiey II, C. P. 70200, Cuba




Resumen.-Se determine la composici6n alimentaria de la lechuza (Tyto albafurcata) en la ciudad de Camagiey, Cu-
ba, a trav6s del studio de sus egagr6pilas. Se midi6 la longitud, la anchura, la altura, y el peso de cada egagr6pila, y se
document su composici6n alimentaria. Se calcul6 el indice de importancia alimentaria para cada uno de los elements
presents. El peso present el mayor coeficiente de variaci6n y los mamiferos (roedores y murcielagos) presentaron los
mayores indices de importancia alimentaria (2.10). Entre los elements presents en la dieta se destac6 el hallazgo del
murcielago Eumops glaucinus, un nuevo registro para la provincia de Camagiey.
Palabras clave: dreas urbanas, Cuba, Lechuza, nicho tr6fico, Tyto alba
Abstract.-Prey item abundance was determined for the Barn Owl Tyto albafurcata (Aves: Strygiformes) in the city
of Camagiey, Cuba. Measurements were taken of the length, width, height, weight and prey composition of each pellet.
An index of dietary importance was calculated for all prey items present. Weight was found to have the highest variation
coefficient and mammals (rodents and bats) presented the highest indexes of prey item importance (2.10). The bat Eumops
glaucinus was one of the items in the diet, the first time the species is reported from Camagiey province.
Key words: Barn Owl, Cuba, trophic niche, Tyto alba, urban areas


INTRODUCTION
LA LECHUZA (TYTO ALBA) se encuentra en todos
los continents, siendo una de las species mejor
estudiadas en el mundo. Una excepci6n, sin embar-
go, es la region neotropical, donde existen pocos
trabajos publicados (Carvalho et al. 1998).
Garrido y Garcia (1975) nos refieren que Tyto
albafurcata vive y cria en Cuba, isla de la Juventud
y en algunos cayos del sur, siendo comiin en bos-
ques y ciudades. Segfin Buide (1986), generalmente
habitat en los campanarios de las iglesias y en otras
estructuras arquitect6nicas similares, ademis de los
grandes vestibulos cavernarios.
Es important destacar que a las lechuzas son
atribuidos efectos agoreros y mal6ficos que natural-
mente no poseen (Buide 1986). Por esta causa han
sido cazadas indiscriminadamente sin pensar que las
mismas consume gran cantidad de ratones, contri-
buyendo a su control y limitando la transmisi6n de
enfermedades por 6stos.
El studio de los hibitos alimentarios de las es-
pecies de aves contribute a conocer un poco mis de
la ecologia de dichos organismos. El residue ali-


mentario de las lechuzas, conocido como egagr6pi-
la, es de gran valor en studios poblacionales de
pequefios mamiferos como un m6todo indirecto de
obtenci6n de muestras (Machado y Otoch 1998).
Las egagr6pilas son como unas pelotas de tono os-
curo y tamafio variable, compuestas por los restos
indigeribles (ej. pelo, huesos) de las press, que se
forman en el interior del est6mago y son expulsadas
por la boca (Rodriguez, sin afio a).
Hernandez et al. (1992) y Hernmndez, Reyes y
Aquino (1994) realizaron studios de estas egagr6-
pilas en cavidades carsicas de la provincia de Sancti
Spiritus, y Marquez, P6rez y Hemrndez (1995) en
una cavidad carsica de Camagiiey. Todos los estu-
dios hasta la fecha han sido en localidades naturales
y por lo tanto este trabajo constitute una valiosa
fuente de informaci6n, al poder compararse los tra-
bajos realizados en esta especie en diferentes hibi-
tats.
Este trabajo se traz6 como objetivo conocer la di-
eta de la lechuza (Tyto alba) en la ciudad de Cama-
giiey y conocer la importancia alimentaria de cada
uno de los elements.


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VILATO VIAMONTES TTO ALBA COMO BIORREGULADOR EN CUBA


Tabla 1. Mediciones (mm) de egagr6pilas de Tyto alba en la ciudad de Camagiley, Cuba.


Variables


Longitud (mm)
Ancho (mm)
Altura (mm)
Peso (g)


Media

42.92
28.52
21.18
4.55


Desviaci6n tipica

7.71
5.64
3.33
1.95


Error tipico Coeficiente de variaci6n


17.96
19.78
15.72
42.85


MATERIALS Y METODOS
En este trabajo se realize un muestreo a cinco
iglesias de la ciudad de Camagiiey, Cuba, en el pe-
riodo comprendido entire 23 de mayo y 7 de agosto
de 1998.
Para la toma de las muestras se visitaron las igle-
sias y se colectaron todas las egagr6pilas. Estas se
Ilevaron a los laboratories del Centro de Investiga-
ciones del Medio Ambiente de Camagiiey y alli se
les tom6 las medidas con la ayuda de un pie de rey
(e = 1 mm) y el peso con una balanza (e = 0,01 mg).
A las medidas tomadas a las egagr6pilas se les ana-
liz6 la media, la desviaci6n tipica, el error tipico y
el coeficiente de variaci6n.
Luego se desarmaron las egagr6pilas para cono-
cer el contenido de cada una y se guardaron de for-
ma independiente. La identificaci6n de los huesos o
crineos de las ratas y guayabitos se realize por com-
paraci6n con otros restos frescos y, en el caso de los
murcidlagos, se identific6 a trav6s de las claves e
ilustraciones presentadas por Silva (1983). C o n
todos los datos tomados se realize el andlisis del
Indice de Importancia Alimentaria formulado por
Acosta (1982):
I'a = V'ij + N'ij + F'ij
Donde: I'a => Indice de Importancia Alimentaria.
V'ij => Volumen o en este caso peso de
cada element especifico.
N'ij => Niimero de elements presents
en cada egagropila.
F'ij => Frecuencia de aparici6n de los
elements.
En el caso de los pesos, se tomaron las presents
en las diferentes bibliografias (Rodriguez sin afio b,
Silva 1983) y por muestreos propios en el lugar del
trabajo.
El material que sirvi6 de base a este trabajo se
encuentra depositado en las colecciones del Centro
de Investigaciones de Medio Ambiente de Cama-


giiey (CIMAC) del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnolo-
gia y Medio Ambiente de Cuba.


RESULTADOS Y DISCUSSION
En las egagr6pilas muestreadas se encontraron
ocho taxa ubicadas en cinco families, cuatro 6rde-
nes y tres classes.
En el andlisis de las mediciones realizadas
(Tabla 1) se obtuvo que es el peso la variable de
mayor coeficiente de variaci6n y las mediciones de
altura y longitud las de menor coeficiente de varia-
ci6n. Esto debido, supuestamente, a que los huesos
de aves y plumas son mis livianos que los huesos
de los mamiferos.
Al analizar el indice de importancia alimentaria
(Tabla 2) a nivel especifico, se estableci6 que Rattus
sp. (ratas), Mus musculus (guayabita) y Passer do-
mesticus (gorri6n) constituyen los recursos prima-
rios de la lechuza. Para una mejor observaci6n de
los resultados se analizaron los datos a nivel de or-
den, corroborando que los roedores son los elemen-
tos fundamentals y los murcidlagos obtienen su
valor al igualarse a los passeriformes. A nivel de
classes se detect que son los mamiferos los que lle-
van el peso en el subnicho tr6fico de Tyto albafur-
cata y las aves e insects son elements accesorios,
corroborando los resultados obtenidos por Machado
y Otoch (1998), Marquez, P6rez y Hernindez
(1995) y Rodriguez (sin afio a), aunque a diferencia
de 6stos no se observe la presencia de anfibios ni
reptiles.
Un hecho curioso de este trabajo fue que s6lo en
una iglesia hallamos residues de aves (P. domesti-
cus) en las egagr6pilas. Esto se debi6 a que la lechu-
za que utilizaba esta area de caza salia mis tempra-
no a cazar, hecho que pudimos comprobar en etapas
posteriores del studio cuando la vimos volar antes
de que anocheciera.
Schwartz (1955) y Silva (1983) reportan 4 espe-
cies de murcidlagos para la ciudad de Camagiiey,


El Pitirre 15(2)


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VILATO VIAMONTES TYTO ALBA COMO BIORREGULADOR EN CUBA


Tabla 2. Resultados de los elements presents en la
dieta de Tyto alba en la ciudad de Camagiey, Cuba.


Taxa


Insecta
Orthoptera
Tettigonidae
Neoconocephalus sp.
Aves
Passeriformes
Passeridae
Passer domesticus
Mammalia
Chiroptera
Phyllostomatidae
Artibeus jamaicensis parvipes
Molossidae
Tadarida brasiliensis muscula
Eumops glaucinus glaucinus
Molossus molossus tropidorhyncus
Rodentia
Muridae
Rattus sp.
Mus musculus


Valor I'a


0.27
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
2.10
0.52
0.19
0.19
0.33
0.06
0.20
0.07
1.58
1.58
0.79
0.79


corroborindose la presencia de tres de ellos en las
muestras. Se informa Eumops glaucinus como un
nuevo report para la provincia de Camagiiey, ya
que la localidad de Mor6n, donde en el pasado Cer-
ny y Dusbibek (1967) y Silva (1983) habian repor-
tado la especie, no pertenece a la nueva division
politico-administrativa de la provincia.


AGRADECIMIENTOS
A las personas responsables de las iglesias de la
ciudad de Camagiiey por haberos permitido entrar
en las areas que nos interesaban para el muestreo
realizado. A Eneider P6rez y Xochitl Ayon por la
revision del manuscrito y a todas aquellas personas
que nos ayudaron de una forma u otra en la realiza-
ci6n de este trabajo.


LITERATURE CITADA
ACOSTA, M. 1982. Indice para el studio del nicho
tr6fico. Ciencias Biol6gicas 7:125-126.
BUIDE, M. 1986. Diccionario de los nombres vemd-
culos de los vertebrados cubanos. La Habana:
Editorial Academia.


CARVALHO, C. E. A., E. P. M. DE CARVALHO, G. D.
M. DE CARVALHO E C. L. M. FRANCO. 1998. Ob-
servaq6es da dieta alimentar e dados sobre a re-
produgio de Tyto alba (Tytonidae), no municipio
de Sete Lagoas MG. Pp. 292 en Resumos XXII
Congress Brasileiro de Zoologia.
CERNY, V. Y F. DUSBABEK. 1967. The Argasid ticks
(Ixodoidea) of Cuban bats. Folia Parasitologica
14(2):161-170.
GARRIDO, O. Y F. GARCIA. 1975. Cathlogo de las
aves de Cuba. La Habana: Academia de Ciencias
de Cuba.
HERNANDEZ, A., L. ROJAS, O. ALVAREZ, J. M. RA-
MOS Y H. VOLA. 1992. Nicho tr6fico de la lechu-
za (Tyto alba furcata) en localidades carsicas de
la provincia de Sancti Spiritus. Resfimenes del II
Congress Espeleol6gico de America Latina y el
Caribe, La Habana, Cuba.
HERNANDEZ, A., Y. REYES Y A. AQUINO. 1994.
Alimentaci6n de Tyto alba furcata en la porci6n
occidental de la provincia de Sancti Spiritus, Cu-
ba. Trabajo de Diploma, Dpto. de Biologia, Fac.
Ciencias Naturales y Matemiticas, Universidad
de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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VILATO VIAMONTES TYTO ALBA COMO BIORREGULADOR EN CUBA


LERCH, G. 1977. La experimentaci6n en las ciencias
biol6gicas y agricolas. La Habana: Editorial Cien-
cia-Thcnica.
MARQUEZ, D., R. PEREZ Y P. HERNANDEZ. 1995.
Estudio preliminary del nicho tr6fico de Tyto alba
furcata para Sima VI, Sierra de Cubitas, Cama-
giiey. La Habana: Resfimenes Congreso Interna-
cional LV Aniversario de la Sociedad Espeleol6-
gica de Cuba.
MACHADO, D. A. N. Y R. OTOCH. 1998. Anilise
preliminary da composigio alimentar de Suindaras
(Tyto alba) de uma gruta localizada no municipio
de Araripe, Chapada do Araripe, Ceard. Pp. 292-
293 en Resumos XXII Congreso Brasileiro de


Zoologia.
RODRIGUEZ DE LA FUENTE., F. Sin afio a. Cuader-
nos de campo 4. Rapaces nocturas. Espafia: Edi-
torial Marin.
RODRIGUEZ DE LA FUENTE., F. Sin afio b. Cuader-
nos de campo 15. Pajaros urbanos. Espafia: Edito-
rial Marin.
SCHWARTZ. 1955. The status of the species of brasi-
liensis group of the genus Monophyllus. Proc. U.
S. Nat. Mus. 124 (3635):109.
SILVA, G. 1979. Los murcidlagos de Cuba. La
Habana: Editorial Cientifico-Thcnico.


NEW PUBLICATION AVAILABLE


Sociedad Omitol6gica
de la Hispaniola



The Ornithological Society of Hispaniola has just published "AVES COMUNES DE LA REPUBLICA DOMINI-
CANA/COMMON BIRDS OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC." It includes photographs of 60 common birds with a
brief text in Spanish and English. The author is Dr. Steven Latta and the chief photographer is Eladio Feman-
dez. The book may be purchased for US$10.00 plus $2.00 postage from Dr. Latta at:
Point Reyes Bird Observatory
4990 Shoreline Highway
Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA
e-mail: slata@prbo.org


El Pitirre 15(2)


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ANTILLEAN PALM SWIFT TACHORNISPHOENICOBIA NESTING IN SEA CAVES
IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

GUY M. KIRWAN1, ROBERT S. R. WILLIAMS2, AND CHRIS G. BRADSHAW3
174 Waddington Street, Norwich, Norfolk NR2 4JS, UK; 2Casilla 17-21-40, Quito, Ecuador; and 36 Collet Walk, Park-
wood, Gillingham, Kent ME8 9QL, UK

Abstract.-We report the first instance of Antillean Palm Swift (Tachomis phoenicobia) breeding in a sea
cave, based on observations in the Dominican Republic in April 1996. Breeding data for this species and its con-
generics are comparatively sparse but, with the exception of the location, our data appear to conform to previ-
ously published observations of T. phoenicobia. The only report of this species from Puerto Rico concerned a
single individual observed in somewhat similar circumstances to the small breeding colony detailed here, raising
the interesting possibility that T. phoenicobia may breed or have bred on the latter island.
Key words: Antillean Palm S- 6ra Dominican Republic, ,,, ,i-., Tachornis phoenicobia
Resumen.-Se report la primera instancia de Vencejillo Antillano (Tachomis phoenicobia) nidificando en
una cueva marina, con base en observaciones de la Republica Dominicana en abril de 1996. Los datos de nidifi-
caci6n de esta especie y sus cong6neres son comparativamente escasos pero, con la excepci6n de la localidad,
nuestros datos parecen concordar con observaciones previamente publicadas de T. phoenicobia. El unico registry
de esta especie en Puerto Rico concierne un individuo solitario observado en circunstancias algo similares a la
pequefia colonia de nidificaci6n detallada aqui, planteando la interesante posibilidad que T. phoenicobia pueda
nidificar o haber nidificado en esta isla.
Palabras clave: nidificaci6n, Reptblica Dominicana, Tachomis phoenicobia, Vencejillo Antillano


THE AVAILABLE LITERATURE suggests that the
genus Tachornis is wholly reliant on palms for nest-
ing (Chantler 1999, Chantler & Driessens 2000).
Data for the range-restricted Pygmy Swift
(Tachornis furcata) are very few, though Collins et
al. (in press) report that it is closely tied to Mauritia
(and possibly Copernicia) palms in the Maracaibo
Basin, while those for Antillean Palm Swift (T.
phoenicobia) suggest it is wholly reliant on Roysto-
nea (Chantler and Driessens 2000) and, at least in
Cuba, Washingtonia (Garrido and Kirkconnell
2000), although Raffaele et al. (1998) mention the
species nesting in 'thatched roofs of tobacco sheds',
and Fork-tailed Palm Swift (T. squamata) is very
closely tied to Mauritia and Bactris palms (Chantler
and Driessens 2000).
On the morning of 21 April 1996, RSRW drew
CGB and GMK's attention to a number of Antillean
Palm Swifts repeatedly entering a rather open and
small sea cave at Cabo Rojo, just southeast of Ped-
ernales, in the extreme southwest Dominican Re-
public. The cave was approximately 10 m in diame-
ter and its roof was about 3 m above ground. We
eventually counted c.10 pairs of swifts nesting in
this cave, along with several pairs of Caribbean
Martin (Progne dominicensis) and Cave Swallow
(Hirundo fulva). In most respects the nests accorded
with the literature (Chantler and Driessens 2000),
being a globular construction of soft materials with
a shallow interior cup, and situated within small


crevices in the rock. In many respects the nests were
similar in their position and aspect to those de-
scribed and illustrated for T. squamata by Sick
(1993), with the crucial exception, of course, that
they were attached to a rock surface rather than a
palm frond. Judging by calls emanating from within
at least some of the nests, young were present, but
we were unable to ascertain their approximate age
due to the difficulties of accessing the site. As men-
tioned above, published data concerning the spe-
cies' breeding biology are strikingly few, but clutch
size is apparently 2-5 eggs, which are laid in
March-July (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000, Raf-
faele et al. 1998). Low elevations within the ex-
treme southwest of the Dominican Republic are
generally rather arid and palm trees notably few,
with comparatively few Antillean Palm Swift, per-
haps necessitating the use of such apparently un-
usual habitats for nesting.
Interestingly, Kepler (1971) in describing the first
observation of Antillean Palm Swift in Puerto Rico,
at Cabo Rojo, in the extreme southwest of the coun-
try, mentions that Caribbean Martins and Cave
Swallows also accompanied this individual. We are
unaware of whether subsequent observers have vis-
ited Cabo Rojo, and the nature of the habitat at the
site, but speculate that, in light of the above, it may
be worth observers re-visiting this part of Puerto
Rico to discover whether the species nests in similar
habitat there to the observations described above.


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KIRWAN TAL. ANTILLEAN PALM SWIFT NESTING IN DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Charles Collins for his comments on
the manuscript and for generously sharing informa-
tion in press. Juan Mazar Barnett kindly prepared
the Spanish summary.

LITERATURE CITED
CHANTLER, P. 1999. Apodidae (swifts). In Hand-
book of the birds of the world, Vol. 5 (J. del
Hoyo, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal, eds.). Lynx Edi-
cions, Barcelona.
CHANTLER, P., AND G. DRIESSENS. 2000. Swifts: A
guide to the swifts and treeswifts of the world. 2nd
edition. Pica Press, Robertsbridge.
COLLINS, C. T., T. P. RYAN, AND R. KELSEY. 2002.


A review of the distribution and status of Pygmy
Palm-Swift Micropanyptila furcata in Venezuela.
Bird. Conserv. Intern. 12:189-196.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000.
Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Cornell Univ.
Press, Ithaca, New York.
KEPLER, C. B. 1971. First Puerto Rican record of
the Antillean Palm Swift. Wilson Bull. 83: 309-
310.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton,
New Jersey.
SICK, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history.
Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.


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BULLOCK'S ORIOLE (ICTERUSBULLOCKII) ON GRAND BAHAMA: A SECOND RECORD FOR
THE WEST INDIES, WITH NOTES ON OTHER VAGRANTS FROM WESTERN AND CENTRAL
NORTH AMERICA

STEVEN G. MLODINOW
4819 Gardner Avenue, Everett, Washington, USA

Abstract.- A trip to the Bahamas during late January and early February 2001 yielded six species that are typi-
cally associated with central or western North America, the rarest of which was Bullock's Oriole (Icterus bul-
lockii). A review of North American Birds and Christmas Bird Count data reveal that five of those species were
present in above average numbers in Florida that same winter.
Key words: Bahama Islands, Bullock's Oriole, Christmas Bird Count, Clay-colored Sparrow, Grand Bahama
Island, Icterus bullockii, Nashville Warbler, North Andros Island, Orange-crowned Warbler, Spizella pallida, Tyr-
annus verticalis, Vermivora celata, Vermivora ruficapilla, Western Kingbird, Wilson 's Warbler
Resumen.-EL BOLSERO DE BULLOCK ICTERUSS BULLOCKII) EN GRAND BAHAMA: SEGUNDO REGISTRY PARA
LAS INDIAS OCCIDENTALES. Un viaje a las Bahamas a finales de enero y principios de febrero de 2001 produjo seis
species que tipicamente son asociadas con el centro u oeste de America del Norte, de las cuales la mas rara fue el
Bolsero de Bullock (Icterus bullockii). Una revision de datos en North American Birds y Christmas Bird Count
revela que cinco de esas species estuvieron presents en numerous por encima de lo comun en la Florida ese mis-
mo inviemo.
Palabras clave: Bolsero de Bullock, Christmas Bird Count, Gorri6n Pdlido, Icterus bullockii, isla Grand Baha-
ma, isla North Andros, islas Bahamas, Reinita Corona Naranja, Reinita de Nashville, Reinita de Wilson, Spizella
pallida, Tirano Occidental, Tyrannus verticalis, Vermivora celata, Vermivora ruficapilla


FROM 20 JANUARY to 3 February 2001, I ex-
plored the avifauna of North Andros and Grand Ba-
hama Islands. I was rewarded by encounters with a
number of unusual species, including several that
are normally associated with central or western
North America: Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verti-
calls), Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora
celata), Nashville Warbler (Vermivora ii,. ,-11,, 1
Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla), Clay-colored
Sparrow (Spizella pallida), and Bullock's Oriole
(Icterus bullockii). The Bullock's Oriole was briefly
videotaped and represented a first record for the Ba-
hamas and second record for the West Indies. Be-
low, I provide salient points regarding the oriole's
identification and discuss each species' status-and-
distribution in the Bahamas and nearby Florida.
Several of the aforementioned species occurred in
above average numbers in Florida during the winter
of 2000-2001. Information on recent annual occur-
rence of these species was gleaned from North
American Birds/Field Notes and from Christmas
Bird Count (CBC) data. In the Bahamas, only the
New Providence Island CBC was run annually.
During 1996-1997 and 1997-1998, there were also
two CBCs for Andros Island and the Grand Bahama
Island CBC had its inaugural run during 2000-
2001.


BULLOCK'S ORIOLE ON GRAND BAHAMA ISLAND
On the afternoon of 2 February 2001, I was fortu-
nate enough to encounter a Bullock's Oriole at
Grand Bahama Island's "West End." The bird ap-
proached as I was "pishing" at a large flock of pas-
serines that included Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo soli-
tarius), Wilson's Warbler, and Summer Tanager
(i .,I. rubra) among more common species. I
heard the oriole chattering before I was able to see
it, and when visual contact was first made, I was
surprised to see a bird that looked quite like a Bul-
lock's Oriole. The bird was approximately 10-15 m
away in good light. It eventually approached some-
what closer but was directly above me at that time. I
was able to obtain brief and mediocre videotape
that, nonetheless, helped corroborate the identifica-
tion.
My initial suspicions were based on two obvious
marks: a strong eyeline/supercilium and dull under-
parts. The eyeline was dark gray and extended
through the eye, being broadest and darkest just be-
fore and after the eye itself. The supercilium was
yellowish and quite distinct. The face was yellow as
was the throat and chest, with the intensity of the
face coloration being about equal to that of the
throat and chest. The belly and undertail coverts
were a dull whitish/grayish without any yellow or
orange. One other useful mark was observed the


El Pitirre 15(2)


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MLODINOW BULLOCK'S ORIOLE IN GRAND BAHAMA

median coverts possessed a wingbar with a dis-
tinctly serrated upper edge. Relating to separation
from Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula), the face
pattern, and colorless crissum are diagnostic for
Bullock's Oriole (A. Jaramillo, pers. comm.), and
the median wing-covert pattern is suggestive but not
absolutely diagnostic (Lee 1998, Jaramillo 2001).
Unfortunately, this bird's upperparts were not seen.

BULLOCK'S ORIOLE IN NORTH AMERICA
The Bullock's Oriole breeds across much of west-
ern North America, from southern British Columbia
and Saskatchewan south to Baja California, Du-
rango, and Coahuila. This species winters mostly
from northern Mexico south to Guatemala
(American Ornithologists' Union 1998), but small
numbers are regular east to Louisiana. The precise
status-and-distribution of Bullock's Orioles in east-
ern North America is poorly known, partly due to
identification issues and partly due to its former
conspecific status with Baltimore Oriole. The single
prior West Indies record of Bullock's Oriole comes
from Vieques, Puerto Rico, on 22 December 1993
(Jaramillo and Burke 1999).
In Florida, the Bullock's Oriole was first reported
in 1950 and was later considered widespread, mak-
ing up "a considerable portion of the wintering
population [of Northern Orioles] in northwestern
Florida" (Sprunt 1954, Robertson and Woolfenden
1992). Stevenson and Anderson (1994) listed six
specimens and three identifiable photos from Flor-
ida, spanning 1 October to 4 February. Sight records
extended from 31 August to 19 April (Stevenson
and Anderson 1994). During 2000, however, the
Florida Ornithological Society Records Committee
(FOSRC) decided not to include Bullock's Oriole
on the state list after finding that two of the afore-
mentioned specimens were misidentified Baltimore
Orioles, though their criteria for making these re-
identifications were not published (Bowman 2000).
The FOSRC later reviewed the remainder of the
specimen and photographic record, finding that at
least two specimens and two photographs were cor-
rectly identified and subsequently added Bullock's
Oriole onto the state list (R. Bowman, pers. comm.).
Additionally, since then, three more Bullock's Ori-
oles were reported during the 2000-2001 winter,
two of which were photographed (Anderson 2001,
Cooley 2001).
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melancepha-
lus) and Black-throated Gray Warbler (Dendroica
nigrescens) have a similar or more restricted breed-


ing ranges when compared with that of Bullock's
Oriole, and both of these species are regular va-
grants to Florida. Thus, annual occurrence of Bul-
lock's Oriole in Florida would not be surprising, but
such is uncertain at this time. Georgia, just to the
north, has only four accepted records (G. Beaton,
pers. comm.). For a summary of this species' occur-
rence elsewhere in eastern North America, see
Jaramillo and Burke (1999).
During the winter of 2000-2001, five Bullock's
Orioles were reported east of that species' usual
range (Anderson 2001, Cooley 2001, Dalzell 2001,
Hunt 2001). Only seven total were reported for the
preceding four winters combined (West 1997, Hunt
1999, Burgiel et al. 2000, Dalzell 2000, Hunt 2000).


OTHER VAGRANTS FROM WESTERN AND CENTRAL
NORTH AMERICA
Western Kingbird.-On 23 January 2001, I lo-
cated a Western Kingbird at the San Andros Air-
port, North Andros Island. This species is rare-but-
regular in the Bahamas, though it occurs primarily
during October and November (Brudenell-Bruce
1975, Raffaele et al. 1998), and none had been re-
ported during the previous four winters, including
CBCs. However, during the 2000-2001 winter, five
were found on the New Providence CBC. Also dur-
ing that winter, Western Kingbirds were considered
"plentiful" in peninsular Florida, where this species
is locally fairly common (Robertson and Woolf-
enden 1992, Anderson 2001).
Orange-crowned Warbler.-I found single Or-
ange-crowned Warblers at two locations on Grand
Bahama Island: Queen's Cove on 25 January and
West End on 2 February. Another was found on the
New Providence CBC on 17 December 2000
(American Birds 55:614). Orange-crowned War-
blers are rare, but not annual, winter visitors to the
Bahamas (Brudenell-Bruce 1975, Raffaele et al.
1998). Only two Orange-crowneds had been re-
ported from the Bahamas during the preceding four
winters, with none on CBCs (Norton 1997, Norton
1999). This species is an uncommon to fairly com-
mon winter resident in Florida (Stevenson and
Anderson 1994). I selected five southeastern Florida
CBCs from the National Audubon Society CBC
Database (http://birdsource.corell.edu/cbc/): Dade
County, Fort Lauderdale, Key Largo-Plantation
Key, Royal Palm-Homestead, and West Palm
Beach. The total number of Orange-crowneds tal-
lied on these counts, by year, is as follows: 2000-
2001 (22); 1999-2000 (15); 1998-1999 (4); 1997-


El Pitirre 15(2)


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1998 (7); 1996-1997 (14).
Nashville Warbler.-I encountered two Nash-
ville Warblers at Taino Beach, Grand Bahama Is-
land, from 28-31 January. Another had been found
on the Grand Bahama Island CBC on 15 December
2000 (American Birds 55:613). Nashville Warblers
are a rare-but-annual winter visitor to the Bahamas
(Brudenell-Bruce 1975, Raffaele et al. 1998). Only
two Nashville Warblers had been reported from the
Bahamas during the preceding four winters, with
none on CBCs (Norton 1997, Norton 1999). This
species is considered very rare and irregular during
winter in Florida (Robertson and Woolfenden
1992). Six Nashville Warblers were seen in penin-
sular Florida during the 2000-2001 winter
(Anderson 2001), compared to eight total during the
previous four winters (West 1998, West and Ander-
son 1999, Anderson and West 2000).
Wilson's Warbler.-I found five Wilson's War-
bler during my visit. Single birds were at Small
Hope Bay, North Andros Island, 25 January;
Queens Cove, 26 January; and Taino Beach, 31
January. Two more birds were at West End, 2-3
February. During the 2000-2001 winter, at least two
others were found on Grand Bahama Island, and
four were at New Providence (Norton and White
2001; American Birds 55:613-614). None had been
seen during the previous four winter's CBCs. Wil-
son's Warblers are considered casual during winter
and very rare during migration on the Bahamas
(Brudenell-Bruce 1975, Raffaele et al. 1998). In-
deed, none were reported from these islands during
the four preceding winters. In Florida, Wilson's
Warblers are considered casual during winter
(Stevenson and Anderson 1994), yet an astounding
61 were found in peninsular Florida during the win-
ter of 2000-2001 (Anderson 2001). Contrast this
with 16 during the winter of 1999-2000 (Anderson
and West 2000), three during the winter of 1998-
1999 (West and Anderson 1999), and none during
the winter of 1997-1998 (West 1998).
Clay-colored Sparrow.-On 24 January, I found
a Clay-colored Sparrow near Owen's Town, North
Andros Island. This species is a rare-but-regular
winter visitor to the Bahamas (Brudenell-Bruce
1975, Raffaele et al. 1998), but only three were re-
ported from the Bahamas during the preceding four
winters, one of which was found on a CBC (Norton
1997; American Birds 52:567). None were found in
the Bahamas during the 2000-2001 CBC season. In
Florida, this species is rare to uncommon. At least


MLODINOW BULLOCK'S ORIOLE IN GRAND BAHAMA

14 were reported in peninsular Florida during the
2000-2001 winter (Anderson 2001), and a similar
number was found during the 1999-2000 winter
(Anderson and West 2000), but 48 were located
during the 1998-1999 winter (West and Anderson
1999).
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
During February 2001, a Bullock's Oriole was
found at West End, Grand Bahama Island, repre-
senting a first record for the Bahamas. Perhaps
equally interesting was the presence of five other
species typically associated with central and west-
ern North America. Four of these are generally con-
sidered less-than-annual on the Bahamas during
winter (Western Kingbird, Orange-crowned War-
bler, Nashville Warbler, and Wilson's Warbler). All
four were present in above average numbers in Flor-
ida, and all four were found for the first time in at
least five years on Bahamian CBCs. The remaining
species, Clay-colored Sparrow, appeared to be pre-
sent in typical numbers that winter in Florida and
was missed on the two Bahamian CBCs. An in-
crease in vagrants can occur due to many factors
including increased breeding success (Veit 2000)
and anomalous weather (Patten and Marantz 1996,
Mlodinow et al. 1999). Given the diversity of habi-
tats used for breeding by these species, a simultane-
ous increase in breeding success seems unlikely.
Rather, a change in weather conditions during the
migratory period may be somewhat more plausible,
though a careful examination of the entire fall's
wind patterns would be necessary to assess this pos-
sibility.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many thanks are due to Alvaro Jaramillo for both
reviewing this manuscript and for providing infor-
mation on oriole identification, and much gratitude
is due to Tony White for lending his expertise on
the Bahamas. Thanks are also owed to Bruce
Anderson, Giff Beaton, Reed Bowman, Hal Opper-
man, and P. W. Smith for stimulating discussions
and important information.


LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds, 7th ed. American
Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
ANDERSON, B. H. 2001. Regional Reports: Florida.
North American Birds 55:163-167.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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MLODINOW BULLOCK'S ORIOLE IN GRAND BAHAMA

ANDERSON, B. H. AND R. L. WEST. 2000. Regional
Reports: Florida. North American Birds 54:170-
173.
BOWMAN, R. Thirteenth report of the Florida Orni-
thological Society Records Committee. Florida
Field Naturalist 28:138-160.
BRUDENELL-BRUCE, P. G. C. 1975. The birds of
New Providence and the Bahama Islands. Wil-
liam Collins Sons and Co., London.
BURGIEL, J. C., R. O. PAXTON, AND D. A. CUTLER.
2000. Regional Reports: Hudson-Delaware. North
American Birds 54:158-162.
COOLEY, C. D. 2001. Regional Reports: Central
Southern. North American Birds 55:179-183.
DALZELL, B. 2000. Regional Reports: Atlantic
Provinces. North American Birds 54:150-152.
DALZELL, B. 2001. Regional Reports: Atlantic
Provinces. North American Birds 55:141-142.
HUNT, P. 1999. Regional Reports: New England.
North American Birds 53:143-147.
HUNT, P. 2000. Regional Reports: New England.
North American Birds 54:154-158.
HUNT, P. 2001. Regional Reports: New England.
North American Birds 55:146-150.
JARAMILLO, A. 2001. Wing covert pattern as an aid
to identifying female and immature Bullock's and
Baltimore Orioles another look. Birding 33:61-
64.
JARAMILLO, A., AND P. BURKE. 1999. New World
blackbirds. Princeton University Press, Princeton,
New Jersey.
LEE, C.-T., AND A. BIRCH. 1998. Field identifica-
tion of female and immature Bullock's and Balti-


more Orioles. Birding 30:282-295.
MLODINOW, S. G., S. FELDSTEIN, AND B. TWEIT.
1999. The Bristle-thighed Curlew landfall of
1998: Climatic factors and notes on identification.
Western Birds 30:133-155.
NORTON, R. L. 1997. Regional Reports: West In-
dies. Field Notes 51:809-810.
NORTON, R. L. 1999. Regional Reports: West In-
dies. North American Birds 53:214-215.
NORTON, R. L., AND A. WHITE. 2001. Regional Re-
ports: West Indies. North American Birds
55:236-238.
PATTEN, M. A., AND C. A. MARANTZ. 1996. Impli-
cations of vagrant southeastern vireos and war-
blers in California. Auk 113:911-923.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, New Jersey.
ROBERTSON, W. B., JR., AND G. E. WOOLFENDEN.
1992. Florida bird species. Florida Ornithological
Society, Gainesville, Florida.
STEVENSON, H. M., AND B. H. ANDERSON. 1994.
The birdlife of Florida. University Press of Flor-
ida, Gainesville, Florida.
SPRUNT, A., JR. 1954. Florida bird life. Coward-
McCann Inc., New York.
WEST, R. L. 1997. Regional Reports: Florida. Field
Notes 51:742-744.
WEST, R. L. 1998. Regional Reports: Florida. Field
Notes 52:188-191.
WEST, R. L., AND B. H. ANDERSON. 1999. Regional
Reports: Florida. North American Birds 53:160-
163.
VEIT, R. R. 2000. Vagrants as the expanding fringe
of a growing population. Auk 117:242-246.


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ESTABLECIMIENTO DEL DIMORFISMO SEXUAL EN LA
COTORRA CUBANA (AMAZONA LEUCOCEPHALA)


ANA MARIA ZAYAS PEREZ
Indio No. 16, entire Rayo y Monte, Apto 106, Centro Habana, Cuba

Resumen.-Durante 11 aios (1990-2001) seis individuos de la cotorra cubana (Amazona leucocephala) fueron
observados en cautiverio con el fin de establecer el dimorfismo sexual de la especie. Se utilize la observaci6n direct
por aproximadamente 180 minutes al dia en periods de 20 min consecutivos cada hora. Luego se pas6 a la observa-
ci6n de poblaciones en estado silvestre en distintos lugares de Cuba, como la isla de la Juventud, la provincia de Ca-
magiiey, las montafias del Escambray y la ci6naga de Zapata, donde fueron observados 20 nidos. Finalmente, se
comprob6 el resultado del studio mediante la laparoendoscopia y empleando la t6cnica de PCR. El dimorfismo
sexual en Amazona leucocephala es evidence. Los m6todos usados no han sido usados en otras species de Amazo-
na.
Palabras clave: Amazona leucocephala, Cotorra cubana, dimorfismo sexual
Abstract.-Observations of sexual dimorphism of six captive Cuban Parrots (Amazona leucocephala) were made
over 11 years (1990-2001). Direct observations of plumage coloration were made for about 180 min per day in bouts
of 20 consecutive minutes each hour. Observations of wild populations were made in the Isla de la Juventud,
Camagiiey province, Escambray mountains, and Ci6naga de Zapata, where 20 nests were observed. Finally, the re-
sults of the work was tested using laparoendoscopy and the technique of PCR. The sexual dimorphism of the parrot
is described. The methods used have not been studied in other species of Amazona.
Key words: Amazona leucocephala, Cuban Parrot, sexual dimorphism


INTRODUCCION
UNA DE LAS ESPECIES mas depredadas en la natu-
raleza en Cuba, Bahamas e islas Caiman es la coto-
rra Amazona leucocephala debido a la vistosidad de
su plumaje y la facilidad de aprender a repetir el
sonido human. Estas caracteristicas, y su ficil
adaptaci6n a las condiciones de cautiverio en un
espacio reducido, las han convertido en uno de los
objetivos principles de personas que no toman en
consideraci6n el dafio que hacen a la especie y las
capturan en los periods iniciales de su vida para
comercializarlas por precious muy altos. Esta activi-
dad continia a pesar de las leyes que mantienen la
veda permanent.
La dificultad en determinar el sexo de Amazona
leucocephala (Fig. 1) ha sido uno de los grandes
obsticulos para lograr su cria en cautiverio. Este
conocimiento contribuiria a la procreaci6n y, por
consiguiente, aliviaria la presi6n sobre las poblacio-
nes silvestres de la especie. En el present trabajo se
pretend demostrar la posibilidad de determinar el
dimorfismo sexual de las cotorras mediante la ob-
servaci6n direct de la coloraci6n de su plumaje.


MATERIALS Y METODOS
La investigaci6n se efectu6 durante 11 afios con-
secutivos. El m6todo empleado fue la observaci6n
direct de la coloraci6n del plumaje durante 20 min
diaries cada hora desde las 07:00 hasta las 18:00 h,
para un total de 180 min al dia. Se hicieron 4015
observaciones en total. La jaula empleada en esta
investigaci6n media 80.5 cm de alto por 70 cm de
ancho.
En 2000, los seis individuos fueron sexados me-
diante laparoendoscopia en la clinic ornitol6gica
por los doctors en medicine veterinaria Carlos Soto
Pifieiro y Eliecer Cruz L6pez, en presencia de la
doctor en medicine Ana del C. Argiielles Zayas y
los bi6logos Hiram Gonzalez Alonso y Gema Diaz
Marifio. En 2001 fueron sexados 21 individuos me-
diante la t6cnica de la reacci6n en cadena de la poli-
merasa (PCR), empleando los cebadores especificos
para la determinaci6n del sexo en la Divisi6n de
Biotecnologia del Centro de Producci6n de Anima-
les de Laboratorio (CENPALAB) por los doctors
en medicine veterinaria Calixto Garcia Rodriguez e
Itamy Garcia Villar.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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-DIMTORFISMO SEXUAL EN LA COTORRA CUBANA


Fig. 1. Ana Maria Zayas Perez with captive Cuban Parrots.


RESULTADOS
En 1990 recibi seis pichones de Amazona leuco-
cephala tomados directamente de la naturaleza en la
provincia de Holguin. Tenian solamente algunas
plumas en la cabeza y alas y se procedi6 inmediata-
mente a su alimentaci6n para lograr su superviven-
cia.
Al cabo de dos afios (1992) se not6 que habia dos
individuos con la region de la garganta y el pecho
de un rojo oscuro y cuatro con la misma zona del
cuerpo de un color rojo mis claro. Pensando que se
trataba de un problema alimenticio, se les suminis-
tr6 un complejo vitaminico. Como consecuencia, en
ambos casos el rojo se volvi6 mis intense, pero
manteniendo la diferencia. La disimilitud se pudo
deber al sexo de unas y otras y el pr6ximo paso fue
definir cuales eran machos y cuales hembras.
Despu6s de estudiar los tonos de coloraci6n, se
pas6 a la observaci6n en la naturaleza en las provin-
cias de Camagiiey, Holguin, Villa Clara e Isla de la
Juventud con el fin de conocer c6mo correspondian
los tonos con el sexo en individuos de la especie en
la vida silvestre. Asi se pudo determinar que los
huevos eran puestos e incubados por los individuos
de color rojo claro en la garganta y el pecho.
A los tres afios de vida (1993) los tonos de los
machos se tomaron mis intensos y los de las hem-
bras adquirieron un matiz mis mate, lo cual podria
estar influido por el advance de la madurez sexual, la
calidad de la alimentaci6n, o ambos.
En 1994 las seis cotorras aparecieron un dia divi-
didas en parejas. Dos de las parejas estaban forma-
das por un individuo con la region garganta-pecho
de color rojo intense y otro de color rojo mis claro.
La otra pareja estaba formada por los otros dos indi-


viduos con el pecho y la garganta de color rojo cla-
ro. Esta pareja result estar formada por hembras.
Se estableci6 una pareja en la parte superior de la
jaula, otra en la zona central y la tercera en la parte
inferior. Sin embargo, no mantenian la misma posi-
ci6n, sino que se intercambiaban el lugar. Lo que no
variaba eran los individuos que formaban cada pare-
ja.
En 2000, los seis individuos fueron sexados me-
diante laparoendescopia. En 52 casos se llev6 a ca-
bo el mismo procedimiento de determinar el sexo de
forma fenotipica inicialmente y luego se efectuaba
la prueba. Las mismas se le realizaron a 17 indivi-
duos del Zool6gico Nacional, nueve nacidos en cau-
tiverio (en mi casa), cuatro de Sabanazo-
Buenaventura (provincia de Holguin), site de Pinar
del Rio, cinco de amistades y 10 de Camagiiey. En
todos los casos, el sexo determinado fenotipicamen-
te coincidi6 con el determinado por la via laparoen-
dosc6pica.
En 2001 fueron sexados 21 individuos mediante
la t6cnica de PCR. Los resultados fueron coinciden-
tes en su totalidad entire la evaluaci6n fenotipica y la
genotipica.


CONCLUSIONS
En todo el tiempo de observaci6n, con la compro-
baci6n en areas silvestres y la verificaci6n laparoen-
dosc6pica y la de PCR, se pudo concluir que el di-
morfismo sexual de Amazona leucocephala existe y
esta determinado por la coloraci6n de la region gar-
ganta-pecho de la especie. A los machos correspon-
de un color rojo intense y a las hembras un rojo mis
claro.


El Pitirre 15(2)


ZAYAS PEREZ


Page 72












FIRST COLONIZATION OF THE LESSER ANTILLES
BY THE HOUSE SPARROW (PASSER DOMESTICUS)


ANTHONY LEVESQUE' AND PHILIPPE CLERGEAU2
1AMZZONA Pointe des Chdteaux, 97118 Saint Frangois, Guadeloupe, France; 2INRA SCRIBE
Faune Sauvage et Biologie de la Conservation, Avenue du General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes cedex,
France

Abstract.-We observed the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) in late 1999 at Cul-de-Sac, Saint Martin, and at
Grande Terre, Guadeloupe, the first records for the French West Indies. We have confirmed the colonization of this
species on the two islands during February-March 2002.
Key words: French West Indies, Guadeloupe, House Sparrow, Passer domesticus
Resumen.-PRIMERA COLONIZACION DEL GORRION DOMESTIC (PASSER DOMESTICUS) EN LAS ANTILLAS MENO-
RES. Observamos el Gorri6n Dom6stico (Passer domesticus) a finales de 1999 en Cul-de-Sac, San Martin, y en
Grande Terre, Guadalupe, los primeros registros para las Antillas Francesas. Durante febrero-marzo de 2002 confir-
mamos la colonizaci6n de esta especie en las dos islas.
Palabras clave: Antillas Francesas, Gorri6n Domestico, Guadalupe, Passer domesticus


THE HOUSE SPARROW Passer domesticus is a
Palearctic passerine which was first introduced into
the USA in 1850. It rapidly invaded a large part of
North America including southern Canada and most
of Mexico (Sibley 2000). It is also now present in
South America from western Colombia to Chile and
from eastern Brazil to Paraguay and Argentina
(American Ornithologists' Union 1998). Recently it
has also been expanding its range rapidly in Central
America (Fleischer 1982).
In the West Indies, the House Sparrow first ap-
peared in Cuba in 1865 and next in Jamaica in 1903
and on Grand Bahama and New Providence Islands
in the Bahamas shortly thereafter. More recently it
appeared for the first time on Hispaniola (1976),
Puerto Rico (1978) and on St. Thomas in the Virgin
Islands in the early 1950's (Raffaele et al. 1998; see
also the bibliographical summary in Wiley 2000). In
the Lesser Antilles, the House Sparrow was seen
several times: one observation on Barbuda in 1989
(John Mussington, pers. comm.), another on Barba-
dos in 1997 (Martin Frost, pers. comm.), one seen at
St. Lucia in 1999 (Allan Keith, pers. comm.) and
one on Saba in 2001 (Martha Walsh-Mc Gehee,
pers. comm.).
In 1999, travels through the French West Indies
by several ornithologists permitted observations and
censuses of many bird species, during which the
House Sparrow was detected on two islands. It was


first observed at Cul-de-Sac in northeastern Saint
Martin by Gilles Leblond (pers. comm.), who found
one male in May, and then by Anthony Levesque
(1999), who located a family of four birds in Sep-
tember 1999. Second, it was observed twice in east-
ern Guadeloupe: one female at Pointe des Chateaux
in September 1999 and about 10 individuals at
Campeche in the Anse-Bertrand region in August
2000 (Levesque 2001). These observations of a spe-
cies new to the French Antilles immediately inter-
ested several ornithologists and also the Direction of
French Environment, who wanted to know the ex-
tent of colonization of this alien bird in Guadeloupe.
Thus, in 2001, we confirmed the reproduction of
the House Sparrow on Saint Martin and Guade-
loupe, and in February-March 2002, we conducted
a study to census colonies of the sparrows and to
estimate the total population on each island.
We divided each island into squares, 5 km on
each side: 55 squares for Guadeloupe and 6 squares
for Saint Martin, including the Dutch part. In each
square, we selected three points of favorable habitat
(e. g., village, town suburb, chicken farm) and at
each point we performed 10-minute point counts for
House Sparrows. In nine squares in northern Guade-
loupe we increased the number of observation
points to one point per kilometer. A total of 249
point counts were made. When we found sparrows
in a square, we looked for the species in neighbor-


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LEVESQUE AND CLERGEAU FIRST COLONIZATION OF LESSER ANTILLES BY HOUSE SPARROW


ing villages within the square, searching for birds
and nests for at least four hours. In April, we also
used daily newspapers to send a message to the en-
tire human population of Guadeloupe, asking for
locations of the sparrows.
In Guadeloupe, we found the House Sparrow only
in one square in the Anse-Bertrand region. More
complete research in the square revealed only one
colony in Campnche village. There we found 14
nests and estimated the total population from 40 to
60 individuals. Response to our newspaper notice
helped us find another colony of about 30 birds at
Sainte Anne.
In Saint Martin, we found the House Sparrow in
three squares, all in the French part of the island: at
Cul-de-Sac, Grand-Case, and Marigot. At Grand-
Case and Marigot, we did not find any nests, but we
estimate the population at about 10 individuals in
each village. In Cul-de-Sac, we discovered a large
colony of about 50 nests with numerous young be-
ing fed. We estimated this population to be from
200 to 250 individuals. One response from our
newspaper notice also revealed some House Spar-
rows on the Dutch side at Mullet Bay.
As of today, we do not believe breeding popula-
tions of House Sparrows are present on other is-
lands of the Lesser Antilles. Recent contacts with
other ornithologists from the Lesser Antilles cor-
roborate this belief.
The source of the birds that have colonized Saint
Martin and Guadeloupe is unknown but we suppose
they arrived as stowaways on large cruise ships or
traveled in cereal ships. In the case of Saint Martin,
we also suggest that the birds may have arrived
from neighboring islands on strong winds.
It is clear that the House Sparrow is now well es-
tablished in Saint Martin with several colonies and
numerous individuals. In Guadeloupe, this species
seems to be just at the start of its colonization and


the population is still small. These two islands
where breeding of the House Sparrow is confirmed
are likely to become sources for the spread to other
nearby islands of the Caribbean archipelago. Our
observations show that this alien bird will probably
continue to colonize the West Indies, island by is-
land.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was supported by a grant of "Direction
R6gionale de l'Environnement de Guadeloupe." We
thank Marie-Eve Jaffard for this field assistance,
and Allan Keith and Olivier Lorvelec for their com-
ments on the manuscript.



LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
List of North American Birds. 7th edition. Ameri-
can Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.
FLEISCHER, R.C. 1982. Clutch size in Costa Rican
House Sparrows. J. Field Orithol. 53:3.
LEVESQUE, A. 1999. Oiseaux : observations remar-
quables en 1999. Le Toto bois n6, p.6.
LEVESQUE, A. 2001. Kronik Ornitho. Le Toto-Bois
n9, p.4.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRINO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. C. Helm Ed., A & C Black, Lon-
don.
SIBLEY, D. A. 2000. The Sibley guide to birds. Al-
fred A. Knopf, NY.
WILEY, J. W. 2000. A bibliography of ornithology
in the West Indies. Proceedings of the Western
Foundation of vertebrate Zoology 7. Los Angeles,
California.


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FIRST RECORDS OF BOHEMIAN WAXWING (BOMBYCILLA GARRULUS) FOR BERMUDA

ANDREW LE F. DOBSON1 AND JENNIFER GRAY2
'Bermuda Audubon Society, P.O. Box HM 1328, Hamilton HM FX, Bermuda; and 2Bermuda Aquarium, Museum and Zoo,
Flatts, Bermuda.

Abstract.-We report the first records of Bohemian Waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus) for Bermuda. Three adults
were seen on 29 December 2001 in a house garden on Dock Hill, Devonshire. By the 31 December 2001, the flock
size had increased to five birds (photographed). The birds were last seen on 6 January 2002. There was a report of
them being heard calling on 7 January 2002. All observations were in Devonshire in the private garden or nearby
Railway Trail.
Key words: Accipiter gentilis, Bermuda, Bohemian 'V,. ., Bombycilla cedrorum, Bombycilla garrulus, Cedar
'Ti ,,i I. .i- ill., leucoptera, Northern Goshawk, White-winged Crossbill
Resumen.-PRIMEROS REGISTROS DEL AMPELIS BOHEMIO (BOMBYCILLA GARRULUS) EN BERMUDA. Reportamos
los primeros registros del Ampelis Bohemio (Bombycilla garrulous) en Bermuda. Tres adults fueron vistos el 29
de diciembre de 2001 en un jardin residential en Dock Hill, Devonshire. Para el 31 de diciembre la bandada habia
aumentado a cinco individuos (fotografiados). La ultima observaci6n de las aves fue el 6 de enero de 2002. Hubo
un report de estas aves vocalizando el 7 de enero de 2002. Todas las observaciones fueron en Devonshire, en el
jardin privado o en el cercano sendero Railway.
Palabras clave: Accipiter gentilis, Ampelis Americano, Ampelis Bohemio, Bermuda, Bombycilla cedrorum,
Bombycilla garrulus, Loxigilla leucoptera


THE BOHEMIAN WAXWING (Bombycilla garru-
lus) is widely distributed in the Northern Hemi-
sphere in North America and northern Eurasia. In
North America it breed in Alaska and western
Canada. In the winter it can stray east as far as
New England and the east coast states of New
Jersey to Delaware. There are sight records as far
south as Virginia and southern Texas (American
Ornithologists' Union 1998). Their roaming life-
style has earned them their "Bohemian" name
(Kaufman 1996).
At 11:30 h on 29 December 2001, Michelle and
Rebecca Conklin spotted three lovely little birds
just above their heads as they played on their new
Christmas trampoline at their home in Dock Hill,
Devonshire. The birds were "fluffed up" like little
butterballs on the branches of the trimmed Casua-
rinas (Casuarina equisetifolia) on the north side
of the property. They pointed them out to their
mother, J. Gray, who phoned Dobson that eve-
ning discussing what they might be "perhaps
Bohemian Waxwings". The following morning,
the three birds, now sleek and more active, spent
much of the time high in the branches of a bare
Pride of India (Melia azedarach), taking swift
trips down to the birdbath below to drink. Their
soft trills or "bleating" calls could be heard clear
across the property as they chatted from their high
sunny perch. Dobson arrived to see the birds and
confirmed them to be Bohemian Waxwings, the
first ever to have been recorded in Bermuda.
They were also seen feeding on the berries of As-


paragus Fern (Asparagus densiflorus). Other keen
birders were called but the birds had already flown
off before anyone else arrived. On the morning of
31 December there were only ever two birds pre-
sent, but they were enjoyed by a number of visitors.
In the late afternoon Gray was surprised to find five
Bohemian Waxwings in the Pride of India tree.
Amazingly, Dobson and his family had found the
same five waxwings feeding on berries of Mexican
Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) about a mile away
on the Railway Trail and watched them fly back
towards Dock Hill. The birds were last seen on 6
January and heard calling on 7 January.

DESCRIPTION
A larger, plump body and gray belly immediately
distinguished it from smaller Cedar Waxwing
(Bombycilla cedrorum). A short, thick bill. Black
face-mask and throat with some white bordering.
Crest resting on rear of gray-brown head. White and
yellow markings on wing feathers. The red append-
ages on the tips of the secondaries on all five birds
would suggest they were all adult birds. Short gray
tail with brown undertail coverts. Prominent yellow
tips to square end of tail. Direct flight. Two other
species of bird were perched in the trees with the
waxwings. The waxwings were similar in size to
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) but smaller
than Great Kiskadee (i ,'a,,,i sulphuratus). The
birds frequently called, giving a lower pitched ism'
compared with B. cedorum.


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DOBSON AND GRAY FIRST RECORDS OF BOHEMIAN WAXWTNG FOR BERMUTDA


DISCUSSION
The similar Cedar Waxwing is a regular migrant
and winter visitor to Bermuda (Dobson 2002) and a
rare non-breeding winter resident in the West Indies
(Raffaele et al. 1998). Bohemian Waxwings are
readily distinguished from B. cedorum. by their gray
underparts (not yellowish), rufous undertail and yel-
low tips on outer web of primaries. The red append-
ages on the tips of the secondaries on all five birds
would suggest them all to be adult birds. This spe-
cies was not unexpected in Bermuda bearing in
mind the irruptive nature of its migration in some
years. Other rarely recorded species during the win-
ter of 2001-2002 included a Northern Goshawk
(Accipiter gentilis) and two White-winged Cross-
bills (Loxia leucoptera).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are due to the Gray family for welcoming


many people to their garden. Others who shared
their observations with us include E. Amos, W.
Frith, B. Lorhan, J. Madeiros, L. Madieros, S. Rod-
well, P. Soares, D. Wallace and P. Watson.


LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7t ed. American
Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.
DOBSON, A. 2002. A Birdwatching Guide to Ber-
muda. Arlequin Press, Chelmsford, England.
KAUFMAN, K. 1996. Lives of North American
Birds. Houghton Mifflin, New York.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton,
New Jersey.


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SECOND SIGHT RECORD OF INDIGO BUNTING PASSERINAA CYANEA) ON DOMINICA

KAMAL ISLAM
Department oJ I '. 1. Ball State University, Mluncie, Indiana, 47306-0440, USA

Abstract.-One male Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) was observed on Dominica on 13 March 2002. This
sighting constitutes a second record for Dominica.
Key words: Dominica, Indigo FrTi .... ., rAntilles, Passerina cyanea, status
Resumen.-SEGUNDO REGISTRO VISUAL DEL COLORIN AZUL PASSERINAA CYANEA) EN DOMINICA. Un Colorin
Azul (Passerina cyanea) macho fue observado el 13 de marzo de 2002 en Dominica. Este avistamiento es el segun-
do registro para Dominica.
Palabras clave: Antillas Menores, Colorin Azul, Dominica, estado, Passerina cyanea


ON 13 MARCH 2002, I observed one male Indigo
Bunting (Passerina cyanea) feeding with a flock of
Black-faced Grassquits (Tiaris bicolor) on the
mowed grounds of Fort Shipley at Cabrits National
Park, Dominica, Lesser Antilles. This individual
was primarily in Basic Plumage but undergoing
Prealternate Molt. Amount of blue in plumage was
variable but most prominent on head, back, and
breast. Abdomen and undertail coverts were white
with some blue feathers. Wings primarily brown
with some blue on wing coverts; one wing had a
distinct row of black dots on uppermost wing cov-
erts. Bill appeared pale yellow with angulated com-
misure distinct. Irides were dark and legs appeared
gray. This individual hoped on ground rather than
walked and it was observed for at least 20 minutes.
Unfortunately, no photographs were obtained.
According to Bond (1971) and Raffaele et al.
(1998), Indigo Bunting is not listed as a vagrant on
Dominica. The closest islands where this species


has been recorded in the Lesser Antilles include
Saba and Anguilla (Raffaele et al. 1998). Evans and
James (1997) however, mentioned one sighting of
Indigo Bunting for Dominica recorded in March
1992. To my knowledge, this sighting constitutes a
second record for the island of Dominica, Lesser
Antilles.


LITERATURE CITED
BOND, J. 1971. Birds of the West Indies. 2nd ed. St.
James Place, London: Collins
EVANS, P. G. H., AND A. JAMES. 1997. A guide to
bird watching. 1st ed. Published by Peter G. H.
Evans and Sara Heimlich-Brown.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
Univ. Press.


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES


EVOLUTION DE LA DENSITY DE POPULATION DE L'IGUANE DES PETITES ANTILLES (IGUANA
DELICATISSIA4) DANS LA RESERVE NATURELLE DES ILETS DE LA PETITE TERRE
(GUADELOUPE) ENTIRE 1995 ET 2002

O. LORVELEC', A. LEVESQUE1'2, N. BARRE1, P. FELDMANN1, G. LEBLOND', M.-E. JAFFARD1, M. PASCAL3 &
C. PAVIS1
1AEVA (Association pour l'Etude et la protection des Vertkbres et vngitaux des petites Antilles), c/ C. Pavis, Hauteurs
Lizarde, F 97170 Petit-Bourg, e-mail: .-',. I,.. Ql, ,l 1 11 1.,i 20NF (Office National des Forkts), Jardin
Botanique, F 97 100 Basse-Terre; 3INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), Equipe Faune Sauvage et
Biologie de la Conservation, Station SCRIBE, Campus de Beaulieu, F 35 042 Rennes cedex

Mots-Clks: Antilles frangaises, biologie de la conservation, densitM, Guadeloupe, Iguana delicatissima, insularit,
milieu tropical, Petite Terre, reserve naturelle
Key words: biological conservation, density, French West Indies, Guadeloupe, insularity, Iguana delicatissima,
Petite Terre, protected area, tropical dry ecosystem
Palabras clave: Antillas Francesas, drea protegida, conservaci6n biol6gica, densidad, ecosistema tropical drido,
Guadalupe, Iguana delicatissima, insularidad, Petite Terre


Les Iles de la Petite Terre (Commune de la D6si-
rade, Guadeloupe), situ6es entire la Pointe des Cha-
teaux de la Grande Terre et File de la D6sirade, com-
prennent deux iles, Terre de Bas (117,1 ha) et Terre de
Haut (31,5 ha). Propri6te du Conservatoire de l'Espace
Littoral et des Rivages Lacustres, elles b6neficient du
statut de Reserve Naturelle terrestre et marine depuis
1998 en raison, entire autres, de leur r6le de site de
ponte pour deux especes de tortues marines, de la pre-
sence d'une riche avifaune migratrice, de la nidifica-
tion d'especes d'oiseaux ailleurs rares et chassis et de
la presence d'especes endemiques, localis6es ou en
voie de disparition a la Guadeloupe : quatre reptiles,
un crabe terrestre et un arbre, le Gaiac (Guaiacum offi-
cinale).
Ces iles constituent surtout un 6cosysteme original
don't la biomasse de vert6bres est dominee par l'Iguane
des Petites Antilles (Iguana delicatissima), un reptile
vegetarien de grande taille, end6mique du nord des
Petites Antilles ou il ne vit plus que dans certaines iles,
souvent en tres petites populations. L'espece est actuel-
lement Vulnerable (statut UICN) dans l'ensemble de
son aire de r6partition du fait de la destruction de son
habitat, la predation par des especes allochtones, la
competition avec les herbivores domestiques, la
chasse, les persecutions humaines et le risque de com-
petition ou d'hybridation avec l'Iguane commun
(Iguana iguana). Afin de complete les informations
scientifiques disponibles et de fonder rationnellement


un plan de gestion, le gestionnaire de la reserve a
confi6 a l'association naturaliste AEVA le d6veloppe-
ment d'6tudes destinies a appr6cier l'effectif de cette
population et ses fluctuations inter annuelles.
Une methode de d6nombrement sur transect, mode-
lisant la d6tectabilite des individus en function de la
distance, a 6te adaptee a l'espece et aux conditions
locales. Reproduite annuellement entire 1995 et 2002, a
l'exception de l'annee 1997, elle a permis d'6tablir la
correlation entire d'importants d6clins de la population
et deux 6evnements climatiques majeurs, le passage de
deux ouragans en 1995 et une p6riode prolongee de
secheresse en 2001. L'effectif de cette population, en
dehors des p6riodes cons6cutives a ces 6evnements, est
estim6 a environs 10 000 individus adults. Cette esti-
mation lui confere le statut d'une des trois plus impor-
tantes populations mondiales de l'espece avec celles
des iles de la Dominique et de la D6sirade.
L'effectif de cette population et sa r6partition en
deux sous-ensembles (Terre de Bas et Terre de Haut),
la situation geographique et le statut de protection du
site ainsi que l'absence locale actuelle des menaces
pr6citees, conferent a la Reserve Naturelle des Ilets de
la Petite Terre un r6le de premier plan dans le domaine
de la conservation et de l'6tude de la biologie et de
1'6cologie d'Iguana delicatissima. La discussion porte
6galement sur diverse hypotheses relatives a l'origine
de la population actuelle et sur la nature de facteurs
locaux susceptibles d'en limiter la p6rennite.


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES


EVOLUTION OF THE POPULATION DENSITY OF THE LESSER ANTILLEAN IGUANA (IGUANA DELICATISSIMA) OF THE
ILETS DE LA PETITE TERRE NATURAL RESERVE (GUADELOUPE, FRENCH WEST INDIES): 1995-2002


The ecosystem of the Iles de la Petite Terre, two off-
shore islands of Guadeloupe (French West Indies) of less
than 150 ha size together, is original because a large vege-
tarian reptile, the Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delica-
tissima), dominates it. At least two marine turtles nest on
the beaches. Four endemic, low area or endangered rep-
tiles are living on the islands. Some uncommon breeding
birds for Guadeloupe and many Neotropical migratory
landbirds, seabirds, and shorebirds have been recorded,
too. An uncommon tree (Guaiacum ottic innal i and an
uncommon terrestrial crab are present.
A survey of the Lesser Antillean iguana population was
conducted by the AEVA natural society. The main goals
of this study were to gather data on the inter-annual evo-
lution of the population density and to identify eventual
threats, necessary for the authority in charge of the man-
agement of this protected area (Natural Reserve).
A line transect census technique, taking into account
the perpendicular distances from the transect to the ani-


mals, was carried out each year from 1995 to 2002
(except 1997). The correlation between the two large de-
clines of the population and the hurricanes (1995) and a
long drought (2001) were established.
The Lesser Antillean iguana population of the Iles de la
Petite Terre is one of three largest in the world with an
estimated size of 10,000 animals outside the low popula-
tion periods. These protected islands are quite important
sites for the species (Vulnerable, IUCN Threatened Status
Category), which is threatened elsewhere in its whole
Caribbean area by the destruction of its habitats, carnivore
depredation, competition with domestic animals, hunting,
and human persecutions. Locally, the risks of competition
and/or hybridization with the common iguana (Iguana
iguana) are not likely to occur because of the absence of
this species in the Iles de la Petite Terre. The absence of
these threats, the size of the population, and its location
on two islands should help studies improving knowledge
on the biology and the ecology of the species.


EVOLUCION DE LA DENSIDAD POBLACIONAL DE LA IGUANA DE LAS ANTILLAS MENORES (IGUANA DELICATISSMIA)
EN LA RESERVE NATURAL DE LAS ISLAS DE PETITE TERRE (GUADALUPE) ENTIRE 1995 Y 2002


Las islas de Petite Terre ("commune" de D6sirade,
Guadalupe), situadas entire Pointe des Chateaux en Gran-
de Terre y la isla La D6sirade, estan compuestas por dos
islas, Terre de Bas (117,1 ha) y Terre de Haut (31,5 ha).
Propiedad de Conservatoire de l'Espace Littoral e des
Rivages Lacustres, gozan desde 1998 de status como re-
servas naturales terrestres/marinas por, entire otros moti-
vos, ser lugar de puesta de dos species de tortugas mari-
nas, la presencia de una rica avifauna migratoria, la nidifi-
caci6n de species de aves raras y de caza, y la presencia
de species endemicas, de ocurrencia limitada o en vias
de desaparecer en Guadalupe: cuatro reptiles, un cangrejo
terrestre y un arbol, el GaIac (Guaiacum ottic inul' i.
Las islas forman todo un ecosistema singular donde la
biomasa de vertebrados esta dominada por la Iguana de
las Antillas Menores (Iguana delicatissima), un reptil
vegetarian de gran talla, endemico de las Antillas Meno-
res septentrionales, que s61o habitat algunas islas, a menu-
do en poblaciones muy pequefias. La especie actualmente
es considerada como vulnerable por la UICN debido a la
destrucci6n de su habitat, la depredaci6n por species
introducidas, la competencia con herbivoros domesticos,
la caza, la persecuci6n humana y el riesgo de competencia
y la hibridizaci6n con la Iguana Comun (Iguana iguana).
Con el fin de afiadir a la informaci6n cientifica disponible
y de establecer un plan de gesti6n racional, la administra-
ci6n de la reserve encarg6 a la asociaci6n ambiental AE-


VA el desarrollo de studios destinados a establecer el
tamafio de esta poblaci6n y sus fluctuaciones de afo a
ano.
Un metodo de censar con transectas, modelando la de-
tectabilidad de individuos en funci6n de la distancia, fue
adaptado a la especie y las condiciones locales. Efectuado
todos los afios entire 1995 y 2002, a excepci6n de 1997,
permiti6 establecer la correlaci6n entire importantes decli-
ves de la poblaci6n y dos events climaticos significantes,
el paso de dos huracanes en 1995 y un period prolonga-
do de sequia en 2001. El tamafo de esta poblaci6n, fuera
de los periods despu6s de estos events, fue estimado en
alrededor de 10 000 individuos adults. Este estimado le
confiere un status como una de las tres mas importantes
poblaciones a nivel mundial para la especie, junto con las
poblaciones de las islas de Dominica y La D6sirade.
El tamafio de esta poblaci6n y su distribuci6n en dos
subpoblaciones (Terre de Bas y Terre de Haut), la situa-
cion geografica, el status de protecci6n del lugar y la ac-
tual ausencia de las amenazas mencionadas, confieren a la
Reserva Natural de las Islas de Petite Terre un rol de im-
portancia en el ambito de la conservacion y el studio de
la biologia y la ecologia de Iguana delicatissima. Se dis-
cuten tambi6n varias hip6tesis relatives al origen de la
poblaci6n actual y la naturaleza de los factors locales
que puedan limitar la continuidad de la poblaci6n.


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES


CONSEQUENCES DE LA RECENT INVASION DE LA RESERVE NATURELLE DES ILETS DE SAINTE
ANNE (MARTINIQUE) PAR LE RAT NOIR (RATTUSRATTUS) SUR L'AVIFAUNE INSULAIRE

MICHEL PASCAL', RONALD BRITHMER2 & OLIVIER LORVELEC'
'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique -Station SCRIBE Campus de Beaulieu F. 35 042 Rennes Cedex; e-mail:
S'. 1...1, 1,,., ,1 .,., nI., Fr lorvelec@beaulieu.rennes.inra.fr; 2Parc Naturel Rgional de laMartinique -BP 437
Domaine de TivoliF. 97 200 Fort-de-France; e-mail: r ,l, ,l.. n. ,, ,.... i-r


Les Ilets de Sainte Anne b6enficient depuis 1995 du
statut de Reserve Naturelle en raison de l'important
r8le qu'ils assument a l'6chelle des petites Antilles vis-
a-vis de la nidification d'oiseaux marines. Suite a leur
invasion r6cente par le Rat noir, une tentative d'6radi-
cation du Rongeur fondue sur l'usage successif du pie-
geage et de la lutte chimique a 6te entreprise en no-
vembre 1999. Des 1997, le succes de reproduction du
Puffin d'Audubon (u'iulinui Iherminierii), du Noddi
brun (Anous stolidus), de la Sterne bridge (Sterna
anaethetus) et du Phaeton a bec rouge (Phaethon ae-
thereus) a 6te evalu6 sur le seul Ilet Hardy. Les contr8-
les de l'op6ration d'6radication conduits en janvier
2001 et 2002 ont permis de conclure a la seule 6radica-
tion de la population de rongeurs de l'Ilet Perc6, celle
de l'Ilet Hardy ayant 6te r6duite a 3 et 28 % de son
effectif initial en 2001 et 2002 respectivement. Cette
reduction d'effectif a gene6r un accroissement du suc-


ces reproducteur du Puffin d'Audubon et du Noddi
brun de 0 et 5 % en 1999, a 61-90 et 63-85 % en 2000
et 2001. L'indice d'abondance du Crabe Zombi
(Gecarcinus ruricola) s'est accru de 0,85 a 1,36 captu-
res pour 100 nuits-pieges entire 1999 et 2002. Une se-
conde tentative d'6radication a 6te mise en place en
janvier 2002. C'est a une veille syst6matique des gar-
des et scientifiques travaillant sur la Reserve Naturelle
que l'on doit le diagnostic pr6coce de son envahisse-
ment par Rat noir et la prise de decision rapide de son
eradication selon une strategic permettant d'en evaluer
a posteriori l'efficacit6 et l'int6rdt au plan de la Biolo-
gie de la Conservation. Atteindre ce dernier objectif
necessite de disposer d'inventaires systematiques de-
taill6s, quantifies ou semi-quantifies, activity qui de-
vrait s'inscrire dans la mission d'Observatoire du Vi-
vant, conferee par le Ministbre de l'Environnement
aux spaces proteges.


RECENT INVASION OF THE SHIP RAT (RATTUS RATTUS) IN THE SAINTE ANNE ISLETS
(MARTINIQUE-FRENCH WEST INDIES) NATURAL RESERVE: IMPACTS ON THE INDIGENOUS AVIFAUNA
ESTABLISHED AFTER AN ERADICATION ATTEMPT


Since 1995, the Sainte Anne Islets has been under
the protected status of Natural Reserve they are major
nesting site of two marine bird species, both at the
scale of the Lesser Antilles and three more at the scale
of Martinique. The ship rat (Rattus rattus) invaded
these islands perhaps as recently as 1996 or 1997. In
November of 1999, an attempt to eradicate this alien
species by the successive use of trapping and poison-
ing was planned by the Martinique Regional Park,
which has the charge of management of the Reserve.
To evaluate the impact of the management of ship rat
populations, data on reproductive success of P'ultinl
Iherminierii, Anous stolidus, Sterna anaethetus, and
Phaethon aethereus were collected from 1997 to 2001
on the Hardy Islet of the Reserve only. Monitoring of
the eradication operation was conducted in January of
2001 and 2002, revealing eradication of only the islet
Perc6 rat population. In 2001 and 2002, the Hardy rat
population sizes were 3% and 28% of the initial sizes,


respectively. The decline of the Hardy rat population
coincided with an increase of the reproductive success
of P. Iherminierii and A. stolidus from 0 and 5% in
1999, before the eradication attempt, to 61-90% and
63-85% in 2000 and 2001, respectively, after the
eradication attempt. from 1999 to 2002 the number of
terrestrial crabs (Gecarcinus ruricola) increased from
0.85 to 1.36 for 100 trap-nights. A second eradication
campaign took place in January of 2002. The results of
that eradication will be available in January 2003.
The recent diagnosis of the ship rat invasion and the
quick decision to attempt its eradication were the re-
sult of a systematic survey of these islands by scien-
tists and wildlife rangers. Up to date quantified inven-
tories of fauna and flora have to be done before eradi-
cation with the plan to assess impact. The acquisition
of such inventories is clearly one of the main missions
devoted to the protected areas by the French Ministry
of Environment.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES


CONSECUENCIAS EN LA AVIFAUNA INSULAR DE LA RECIENTE INVASION DE LA RATA NEGRA (RATTUS RATTUS)
EN LA RESERVE NATURAL DE LOS CAYOS DE SAINTE ANNE (MARTINICA)


Desde 1995 los cayos de Sainte Anne gozan de protec-
ci6n como reserve natural debido al important rol que
tienen en las Antillas Menores como lugar de nidificacion
de las aves marinas. Despu6s de la invasion reciente de la
rata negra, un esfuerzo de erradicaci6n del roedor basada
en el uso sucesivo de trampas y agents quimicos fue em-
prendido en noviembre de 1999. A partir de 1997 el 6xito
reproductive fue evaludado para la Pardela de Audubon
(Puttinuu Iherminierii), la Cervera Parda (Anous stolidus),
el Charran Embridado (Sterna anaethetus) y el Rabijunco
Piquirrojo (Phaeton aethereus) en el cayo Hardy. El mo-
nitoreo de la operaci6n de erradicaci6n efectuada en enero
de 2001 y 2002 revela que la poblaci6n de roedores en el
cayo Perc6 fue totalmente erradicada, la poblaci6n del
cayo Hardy se redujo al 3% de su tamafio inicial en 2001


y al 28% en 2002. Esta reducci6n en la poblaci6n de roe-
dores gener6 un incremento en el 6xito reproductive de la
Pardela de Audubon y la Cervera Parda, pasando del 0 al
5% en 1999, al 61-90% en 2000 y el 63-85% en 2001. El
indice de abundancia del cangrejo Gecarcinus ruricola
aument6 de 0,85 a 1,36 captures por 100 noches-trampa
entire 1999 y 2002. Un segundo intent de erradicaci6n se
efectu6 en enero de 2002. La vigilancia sistematica de los
guardias y cientificos trabajando en la reserve natural re-
sult6 en un diagn6stico rapido de la invasion de la Rata
Negra y la decision sin demora de erradicarla. Inventarios
numericos de la flora y la fauna tienen que ser efectuados
antes de la erradicaci6n para poder evaluar su impact. La
recopilaci6n de estos inventarios es uno de las principles
objetivos del Ministerio del Ambiente francs.


IMPACT DE LA MANGOUSTE DE JAVA (HERPESTESJAVANICUS) ET DU RAT NOIR (RATTUSRATTUS)
SUR LA NIDIFICATION DE LA TORTUE IMBRIQUEE (ERETMOCHELYSIMBRICATA), LA POPULATION
DE RALE GRIS (RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS), ET CELLE DU CRABE BLANC (CARDISOMA GUANHUAI).
ILET FAJOU RESERVE NATURELLE DU GRAND CUL-DE-SAC MARIN PARC NATIONAL DE LA
GUADELOUPE -ANTILLES FRANCAISES

OLIVIER LORVELEC', XAVIER DELOUE2, MICHEL PASCAL', & SIMONE MEGE2
'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Station SCRIBE Campus de Beaulieu F. 35 042 Rennes Cedex; e-mail:
I ,. ,I,7/ ,.,, [ I 11,1 111., r i 7 .. ,7 l,,i, 11 .....r... ', ... fr; 2Parc National de la Guadeloupe R serve Naturelle
du Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin 43 Rue Jean Jaurss F. 97122 Baie-Mahault; e-mail: p. '. I/ ... I .'...".. I1 ,/P


L'6radication simultan6e de la Mangouste de Java,
du Rat noir et de la Souris domestique par l'utilisation
successive du pi6geage et de la lutte chimique a ete
tent6e en mars 2001 sur l'Flet Fajou (104 ha de man-
grove, 11 ha de fort s6che). Un contr6le realis6 en
decembre 2001 a d6montr6 l'6chec de l'6radication du
Rat noir. Une second operation d'6radication
conduite en mars 2002 a permis de tester diverse hy-
potheses expliquant cet 6chec et de pallier certaines
imperfections techniques. Son resultat sera 6tabli a la
fin de l'annre 2002. Elle a permis de conclure au suc-
ces, des mars 2001, de l'6radication de la Mangouste
de Java par le seul pi6geage et, peut-dtre, a celui de la
Souris domestique par Faction cumul6e du pi6geage et
de la lutte chimique. L'analyse de la r6partition spa-


tiale des captures des especes cibles a permis de de-
montrer qu'elles fr6quentent pref6rentiellement la par-
tie s6che de File. L'elimination de la Mangouste et la
forte reduction de l'effectif du Rat noir ont genre la
total cessation des destruction de nids de la Tortue
imbriqu6e et une apparent colonisation de la parties
seche de File par le Rale gris cantonn6 auparavant a la
seule mangrove. L'indice d'abondance du Rale gris et
du Crabe blanc a fortement augmented l'issue de cette
operation. La mobilisation sur le long terme d'un per-
sonnel qualifi6 et de moyens techniques important,
caract6ristique d'une pareilles operations de recherche
et gestion, a ete obtenue ici grace au statut d'aire pro-
tegee don't b6enficie l'Ilet Fajou.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES


THE JAVANESE MONGOOSE (HERPESTESJAVANICUS) AND THE SHIP RAT (RATTUS RATTUS) IMPACTS ON THE
REPRODUCTION OF THE HAWKSBILL TURTLE (ERETMOCHELYS IMBRICATA), THE CLAPPER RAIL (RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS),
AND THE TERRESTRIAL CRAB, CARDISOMA GUANHUMI. FAJOU ISLAND, NATURAL RESERVE OF GRAND CUL-DE-SAC
MARTIN GUADTELOUPE NATIONAL. PARK FRENCH WEST INDICES


During March 2001, an attempt was made to eradicate,
by simultaneously trapping and using chemical baits, the
Javanese mongoose, the ship rat and the house mouse
from Fajou Islet (104 ha of mangrove on peat, 11 ha of
dry vegetation on sandy soil) Natural Reserve managed
by the Guadeloupe National Park (French West Indies).
The control operation took place in December 2001 and
January 2002, and demonstrated a check of the ship rat
eradication. A second eradication operation was under-
taken in March 2002, to test hypotheses related to this
check and to determine technical factors. Its result will be
available in March 2003. Moreover, it allowed a proof of
the success of the Javanese mongoose eradication by trap-
ping alone and, perhaps, the success of the house mouse
eradication by trapping and poisoning.
The spatial distribution of trapped individuals of the
target species statistically showed that they were concen-


treated in the dry part of the island.
The mongoose eradication and the decline of the ship
rat population reduced hawksbill turtle nest destruction
and the colonization of the dry part of the island by the
clapper rail, which had been located strictly in the man-
grove in the past. The abundance indexes of the clapper
rail and the terrestrial crab, Cardisoma guanhumi, in-
creased dramatically. The relationships between those
increases and the drop of the alien mammal populations
have to be rigorously established by the collecting of fu-
ture data. Such operations combining research and man-
agement have to be planned for a long time to be founded
on the availability of good logistical, technical and human
qualified supports. All these conditions were gathered
here because of the protected area status of the Fajou Is-
let.


IMPACT DE LA MANGOSTA DE JAVA (HERPESTES JAVANICUS) Y LA RATA NEGRA (RATTUS RATTUS) EN LA
NIDIHCACION DE LA TORTUGA CAREY (ERETMOCHELYS IMBRICATA), LA POBLACION DEL RASCON DE MANGLE
(RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS) Y EL CANGREJO BLANCO (CARDISOMA GUNHUMI). CAYO FAJOU, RESERVE NATURAL
DE GRAND CUL-DE-SAC MARIN PARQUE NATIONAL DE GUADALUPE ANTILLAS FRANCESAS


La erradicaci6n simultanea de la Mangosta de Java, la
Rata Negra y el Raton Domestico con el uso sucesivo de
trampas y quimicos fue intentada en marzo de 2001 en el
cayo Fajou (104 ha de manglar, 11 ha de bosque seco).
Un monitoreo realizado en diciembre de 2001 demostr6 el
fracaso del intent de erradicar la rata negra. Un segundo
intent de erradicaci6n efectuado en marzo de 2002 per-
miti6 probar diversas hip6tesis para explicar el fracaso y
paliar ciertas imperfecciones t6cnicas. Los resultados es-
taran disponibles a finales de 2002. Se pudo confirmar el
6xito, desde marzo 2001, de la erradicaci6n de la Mangos-
ta de Java por la simple capture y, quizas, del Raton Do-
mestico por los impacts acumulativos de la capture en
trampas y el uso de agents quimicos. El andlisis de distri-


buci6n espacial de las captures de las species deseadas
permit demostrar que ellas frecuentaban la parte seca del
cayo preferiblemente. La eliminaci6n de la mangosta y la
fuerte reducci6n en los efectivos de la Rata Negra acab6
totalmente con la destrucci6n de los nidos de la Tortuga
Carey y aparentemente permiti6 una colonizaci6n de la
parte seca del cayo por el Rasc6n de Mangle, antes res-
tringido al manglar. Los indices de abundancia del Ras-
c6n de Mangle y del Cangrejo Blanco aumentaron consi-
derablemente al final de este operative. El uso a largo
plazo de personal capacitado y tecnicas apropiadas, carac-
teristicas de otras operaciones de investigaci6n y manejo,
se obtienen aqui gracias al status del cayo Fajou como
area protegida.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES


STRUCTURES SPECIFIQUES DES PEUPLEMENTS DE RONGEURS D'AGROECOSYSTEMES ET D'ECO-
SYSTEMES < DE LA GUADELOUPE ET DE LA MARTINIQUE (ANTILLES FRANCAISES)

MICHEL PASCAL', OLIVIER LORVELEC', GAETAN BOREL2 & ARMAND ROSINE3
'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Station SCRIBE Campus de Beaulieu F. 35 042 Rennes Cedex; e-mail:
I '.J.Il.. i i. i, ; ii ,,".. r, lorvelec@beaulieu.rennes.inra.fr; 22 rue F. Eboud 97 110 Pointe-a-Pitre; e-mail: gae-
ran borel d/iu aniadioo fr; 3Fddration Departementale de Groupements de Defense centre les Ennemis des Cultures de la
Martinique Pointe des Sables 97 202 Fort-de-France; e-mail:Jf 1, h," .. n n 1.... ir


Le peuplement de Rongeurs de la Martinique et de
la Guadeloupe est constitute de 3 especes allochtones,
Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus & Mus musculus. Un ef-
fort d'6chantillonnage standardis6 de 26 740 nuit-
pi6ges a permis de mettre en evidence une grande he-
terog6enite de la distribution de ces especes au sein
d'un ensemble de 4 agro-6cosystemes (canne, banane,
manioc & pasteques) et de 3 6cosystemes <>
fortt tropical humide & ilots a vegetation x6rophile).
Une analyse conduite a une 6chelle spatiale plus fine,
depuis les milieux encaissant les parcelles cultiv6es
jusque dans celles-ci, aboutit a la mdme conclusion.
Les souris domestiques constituent la majority des
captures realis6es sur l'ensemble des agro-
6cosystemes studies (56% pour l'ensemble et 84%
pour les agro-6cosystemes canniers). L'espece est for-
tement represented au sein des parcelles cultiv6es et
faiblement dans les milieux encaissants. Le Rat noir


est fortement represented dans les "savanes" et forma-
tions d'6pineux d'une part, et la fort tropical humide,
d'autre part, milieux constituent l'environnement im-
mediat des champs de canne et des bananeraies respec-
tivement. Le Surmulot, moins abondant que les espb-
ces prec6dentes, est cependant bien repr6sent6 dans les
agro-6cosystemes consacres aux cultures vivrieres et
se concentre dans 1'ecotone que constitute la marge des
parcelles cultiv6es. Ces resultats induisent une re-
flexion sur l'optimisation des strategies de lutte anti-
rongeurs en vigueur et des strategies d'6chantillonnage
destinies a evaluer des risques 6pid6miologiques ou
environnementaux en rapport avec la presence de ces
rongeurs. Ils sont discutes en relation avec la mise en
evidence r6cente du portage renal de Leptospira inter-
rogans par 57% des souris d'un 6chantillon collected en
Guadeloupe.


RODENT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN "NATURAL" AND AGRICULTURAL
ECOSYSTEMS IN GUADELOUPE AND MARTINIQUE (FRENCH WEST INDIES)


The rodent community of Martinique and Guade-
loupe includes three alien species: ship rat (Rattus rat-
tus), Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus), and house
mouse (Mus musculus). A 26,740-trap-nights effort
conducted under standardized sampling methods
showed a strong heterogeneity of the species' fre-
quency distribution among three "natural" ecosystems
(tropical rainforest and islets covered totally or par-
tially by a dry vegetation) and four agricultural ones
(sugarcane, banana, manioc, watermelon).
A second step of the analysis, conducted at the
smallest space scale, from the surrounded ecosystems
of the cultivated areas to the inside of these, gave the
same result. The house mouse constituted the majority
of the captures in the agricultural ecosystems (56% for
the total and 84% for sugarcane specifically). This
species is well represented inside the cultivated area


and poorly outside. The ship rat is well represented in
the "savannah" and "bush" and tropical rain forest,
surrounding the sugarcane and banana fields, respec-
tively. The Norwegian rat, statistically less numerous
than the mouse, was well represented in the cultivated
areas devoted to watermelon and the manioc, and con-
centrated in the field margins. The build-up and the
optimization of the strategy in controlling the alien
rodents in tropical islands were discussed in relation
with these results. These results allowed a description
on how to optimize sampling strategies to evaluate the
epidemiological and environmental risks related to
these alien rodents. The results were discussed in rela-
tion to recent findings showing that 57% of a Guade-
loupe Island house mouse sample hosted Leptospira
interrogans in its kidneys.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM FRENCH WEST INDIES


ESTRUCTURA DE LA COMUNIDAD DE ROEDORES EN LOS AGROECOSISTEMAS Y LOS ECOSISTEMAS "NATURALES" DE GUADA-
LUPE Y MARTINICA (ANTILLAS FRANCESAS)


La comunidad de roedores en Martinica y Guadalupe
esta compuesta por tres species no nativas, Rattus rattus,
R. norvegicus y Mus musculus. Un muestreo estandariza-
do de 26 740 noches-trampa pone en evidencia una gran
heterogeneidad en la distribuci6n de estas species en
cuatro agroecosistemas (cafiaveral, bananal, plantaciones
de yuca y cultivos de sandia) y tres ecosistemas
"naturales" (bosque tropical humedo, cayos y vegetacion
xer6fila). Un andlisis a escala espacial muy fina, desde la
periferia de las parcelas hasta el interior de las mismas,
llega a la misma conclusion. Los ratones domesticos
constituyen la mayoria de las captures realizadas en los
agroecosistemas estudiados (56% de las captures en todos
los grupos y el 84% de las captures en los cafiaverales).
La especie esta muy bien representada en las parcelas de
cultivo pero pobremente fuera de ellas. La Rata Negra


esta muy bien representada en las "sabanas" y formacio-
nes espinosas pr6ximas a los cafiaverales y el bosque tro-
pical humedo pr6ximo a las plantaciones de banano. La
Rata Gris, menos abundante que las species anteriores,
esta bien representada en los agroecosistemas compuestos
por la yuca y la sandia y se concentra en los ecotonos de
las margenes de las parcelas cultivadas. Estos resultados
nos llevan a una discusi6n sobre c6mo optimizar la estra-
tegia vigente para controlar los roedores y las estrategias
de monitoreo destinadas a evaluar los riesgos epidemiolo-
gicos o ambientales relacionados a la presencia de los
roedores. Los resultados se discuten en relaci6n al recien-
te hallazgo que el 75% de los ratones en un muestreo re-
colectado en Guadalupe presentaban Leptospira interro-
gans en los rifiones.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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THE PASSING OF ROBERT SUTTON


REQUIEM FOR A BIRD LOVER

PETER ESPEUT
From The Daily Gleaner
Wednesday, 31 July 2002


MURDER IS SO COMMON and so frequent in Ja-
maica that, for many of us, it fails to shock or ap-
pall.
The stabbing to death last week of internation-
ally famous Jamaican environmentalist Robert
Sutton of Marshall's Pen, Manchester, was mur-
der most foul, and the abduction and stabbing of
his wife, Dr. Ann Haynes Sutton, ostensibly for
ransom, is further indication of the depths to
which we have sunk as a people. But those tragic
events passed without being much noticed, itself
quite tragic.
Robert Sutton was more Jamaican than most of
us, being able to trace more than one of his ances-
tors back to the English invaders in 1655. Indeed,
he is a direct descendant of Richard James, the
first baby born in Jamaica under English rule. But
that does not mean much to some people, for
Robert Sutton was a white Jamaican, born into an
old Jamaican family.
Robert was born in Mandeville, and went to
DeCarteret College. His father was a cattle farmer
and he learnt the family business at an early age.
After managing cattle properties in St. Elizabeth
and Westmoreland, he took over his father's farm
in Manchester in 1979, and he remained a cattle
farmer until his murder last week. He was a re-
spected cattle breeder; one of the bullkins bred on
his property, Marshall's Pen, was purchased and
raised by a local farmer and later won the prize at
a recent Denbigh Show.
But Robert's local and international fame and
his enduring contribution to Jamaica is in connec-
tion with his passion for and expertise in Jamai-
can birds, specially recording bird songs. You
might have seen his recent book published jointly
with his cousin, Audrey Downer, by Cambridge
University Press: Birds of Jamaica: a Photo-
graphic Field Guide; or you might have seen his
recent set of tapes/CDs of Jamaican bird calls
published in 2000 jointly with G. Reynard by
Cornell University Press: Bird Songs in Jamaica.
He was just beginning to set down for the rest of
us the wealth of knowledge he had gained over
his lifetime and was planning a new book and a


new series of sound recordings. He shared his
knowledge freely, and encouraged and trained many
local people. He was always willing to volunteer to
take groups from the Natural History Society of Ja-
maica and the Gosse Bird Club (now BirdLife Ja-
maica) into the field, and had infinite patience when
trying to introduce people to birdwatching. His un-
timely death is a great loss to the environmental
community, and to the environment itself.
His expertise in Jamaican birds was called upon
in many ways. He was the natural person for visit-
ing film crews to turn to as a consultant on Jamai-
can bird life: he was a consultant to the BBC Natu-
ral History Film Unit when it filmed David Atten-
borough's Life of Birds in 1997 Spirits of the Jaguar
in 1995 on location in Jamaica. Similarly, visiting
scientists usually contacted him for advice about
how to implement their bird studies, taking advan-
tage of his comprehensive knowledge of Jamaican
birds and their habitats. He carried out assessments
of environmental impact all across Jamaica for al-
most thirty years. To name a few, he assessed the
JAVAMEX Project for CIDA (1977), the Royal
Palm Reserve Project for the Petroleum Corporation
of Jamaica (1987), and the hazards posed by birds
to aircraft at the Sangster International Airport for
the Airports Authority of Jamaica (1992).
Most Jamaicans know that many North American
birds migrate to Jamaica to spend the winter
months.
These birds spend about eight months of the year
in Jamaica, so they are really Jamaican birds which
migrate north for the summer months when the in-
sects on which they feed are abundant]. But where
do our birds reside during the four months they live
up north? Robert Sutton dedicated a good part of his
life trying to find out.
He qualified himself as a bird-bander through the
US Fish and Wildlife Service, and over the last 30
years he has placed uniquely numbered metal bands
on the feet of thousands of migrant birds. Birders in
the US who observe the bands communicate with
the US Fish and Wildlife Service, which means that
we in Jamaica can know which parts of the USA we
are organically linked with through our birds.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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ESPEUT REQUIEM FOR A BIRD LOVER


By banding Jamaican resident birds, he has stud-
ied the survival, ages and the plumages of these
creatures throughout their life cycle, and their lon-
gevity, which has advanced the science of Jamaican
bird ecology and identification. His serious and sci-
entific approach to data collection was reflected in
his long-term commitment to the Meteorological
Service. He maintained the weather station at Mar-
shall's Pen and received several awards for his ser-
vice, most recently as Champion Observer for Man-
chester in 2001. In his own quiet (and unsung) way,
this Jamaican man has made a serious and lasting
contribution to our understanding of Jamaica's natu-
ral history.
A TOUGH OUTDOOR MAN
Robert Sutton was a pioneer in Jamaican Nature
Tourism. He took great pleasure in taking groups of
local and foreign people into the bush to see birds
and was one of the first Jamaicans to work with
bird-watching tours for overseas birders tourists,
and has arrangements with US and UK tour compa-
nies including Victor Emmanuel and Omitholi-
days which has brought thousands of tourists to
Jamaica. He took tour groups all over Jamaica -
from Barbecue Bottom in the Cockpit Country to
the John Crow Mountains in St. Thomas exposing
them to the beauty of God's creation in Jamaica. He
was a tough outdoor man, fit of mind and body. He


was murdered stabbed in the heart as he fought
with the intruders to protect his wife.
He was not a narrow environmentalist. He sup-
ported the local community around Marshall's Pen.
His family donated land for the Mike Town Com-
munity Centre and the Mike Town Missionary
Church, and he regularly attended local Community
Council meetings and was quite vocal on local and
national issues. He was the sponsor of the Mike
Town Basic School. He was a past president of the
Manchester Horticultural Society, and treasurer of
the Jamaica Junior Naturalists, an environmental
education NGO for the youth of Manchester.
In my own work, Robert Sutton (and his wife) did
extensive research for us on the resident, migrant
and transient birds of the Portland Bight Protected
Area. Of course, he could identify the species of
birds just by hearing them chirp. And he banded
hundreds of our birds. He was a world-class expert
in his field; a big Jamaican! He will be sorely
missed.
Rest in Peace, Gallant Robert!



Peter Espeut is a sociologist and is executive direc-
tor of an environment and development NGO.


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 86












ROBERT SUTTON MEMORIAL FUND


Dear Colleagues,

Robert Sutton internationally-known Jamaican Ornithologist and author of Birds of Jamaica, husband of
Ann Sutton (Ornithologist & Secretary of SCSCB) passed away, tragically, on July 22nd, 2002. Robert was
stabbed during a robbery of the Sutton's home Marshall's Pen. Ann was treated at the hospital and released.
We are thankful that she is alive and hope she will have the strength to carry on after this devastating loss.
Robert touched many lives and had a profound and positive influence on Jamaica's birds and environment.
In addition to co-authoring Birds of Jamaica: a Photographic Field Guide (Cambridge University Press),
Robert also published in 2000 a set of tapes/CDs of Jamaican bird vocalizations (with G. Reynard by Cornell
University Press: Bird Songs in Jamaica). His expertise in Jamaican birds, especially their songs, was called
upon by many, including visiting film crews, NGOs, and scientists, as well as local residents and environ-
mental groups. He and Ann were pioneers in promoting Jamaican Nature Tourism. Robert took great pleasure
in taking local and visiting birders into the bush to see birds. Not only did Robert provide expertise to over-
seas birdwatching tours, but he and Ann extended warm hospitality and friendship to all who enjoyed seeing
birds in Jamaica. His legacy will live on in the many individuals that he taught and inspired.
This senseless tragedy is beyond comprehension. Our hearts go out to Ann and Robert's family for their
loss. The bird conservation communities in Jamaica, the Caribbean, and throughout the world also mourn the
loss of a dedicated environmentalist who worked tirelessly, along with his wife, to study and conserve Ja-
maica's birds. Many of you have asked how you can help. The SCSCB is pleased to announce that, with the
kind assistance of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, a Memorial Fund has been established to honor
Robert's memory. The funds will go towards supporting an aspect of Jamaican bird conservation especially
important to Robert (to be announced).
If you would like to contribute to the fund, please send a check, made out to National Fish and Wildlife
Foundation, to the following address:
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
1120 Connecticut Ave NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC, 20036
Telephone: 202-857-0166, fax: 202-857-0162
NOTE: It is VERY IMPORTANT that you write "Robert Sutton Memorial Fund" directly on the check. This
will ensure that all contributions are documented and accredited to this fund, and that NFWF mails you a
thank you letter that includes the tax deductible donation credit.
As soon as a decision is made as to how the fund will be used, we will notify you.
Thank you in advance for your support.


Yours sincerely,

Lisa Sorenson & Patricia Bradley, Co-chairs, WIWD Working Group of the SCSCB
Eric Carey, President, and other Executive Officers for the Society for the Conservation and Study of Carib-
bean Birds


El Pitirre 15(2)


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RR Birders' Exchange

Conserving birds by getting tools to people who need them
Birder Exchang Birder's Exchange is a program of the American Birding Association



Dear Colleague,

The American Birding Association collects new and used bird-related equipment and books for use by bird
conservation, research, and education groups in Latin America and the Caribbean. You may already be famil-
iar with our program, called Birders' Exchange. The Program has two primary goals: 1) to provide material
assistance to those working for birds and their habitats, and 2) to increase the flow of information about bird
conservation and bird education efforts between organizations throughout the Americas.
This is why our slogan is: "Sharing tools, saving birds."
We distribute these tools free of charge. We do this because we know that we share a common hemispheric
birdlife and a common responsibility.
Birders' Exchange would be delighted to send equipment to more projects in Latin America and the Carib-
bean. You may be aware of important projects in need of the kind of equipment that we can provide. Please
consider bringing Birder's Exchange to the attention of your colleagues in the field.
As a result of donations from individuals and organizations in North America, the following materials are
currently available:
binoculars (used, but in good condition)
spotting scopes and tripods
field guides and ornithological reference books
backpacks
Requests for other equipment, such as laptop computers, cameras, and slide projectors, can sometimes be
filled.
An application is attached.
Please visit the following site for more information:

Sincerely,
Betty Petersen
Birders' Exchange Program Director
Paul J. Baicich
Director, ABA Department of Conservation and Public Policy


El Pitirre 15(2)


Birders' Exchange American Birding Association
720 West Monument Street, PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934, USA
Phone: 719-578-9703; Fax: 719-578-1480; e-mail: edcon@aba.org
www.americanbirding.org


Page 88









BIRDERS' EXCHANGE


BIRDERS' EXCHANGE

APPLICATION


Organization Name:
ProjectNames:
ContactPerson:
Address:
City:
State:
ZipCode:


_Country


Telephone: Fax:
Email:
Website:


1. Provide a briefhistory of your organization or project. When and why was it formed? How many paid and/
or volunteer employees are on your staff?


2. Describe your organization's current activities, in terms ofresearch, education, or conservation. How does
your organization work to preserve birds and/or their habitats? Why it is importantto bird conservation?


El Pitirre 15(2)


Birders' Exchange American Birding Association
720 West Monument Street, PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934
PhI 719-578-9703 Fax: 719-578-1480 Email edcon@aba.org *
www. americanbir ding. org


Page 89










BIRDERS' EXCHANGE


3. How many species ofbirds does your research involve, or, how many students does your education pro-
gram impact?






4. What are the specific needs ofyour organization or projectinterms ofresearch equipment, field guides,
reference books, or journals? Explain specifically whythe materials are needed, how they will be used, and
how many people will be using them. Ifmore than one item is requested, rank the items in terms ofimpor-
tance to your proj ect.











5. IMPORTANT: We rely on volunteer couriers to carry equipment from the Unites States to programs in
LatinAmerica and the Carribean. Do youknow ofaperson who may be traveling to your area who can
carry a Birders' Exchange donation to you? Please send us their name and contact information.











6. Organizations thatreceive equipmentthrough BIRDERS' EXCHANGE are required to provide a
follow-up report on their activities 6 months after receiving the materials. This report should detail how the
equipment has been used, whether it performed satisfactorily, and how many people used it.

7. Photographs depicting your organization's activities or staff, or printed materials describing your
organization's work, will greatly help ABAto publicize the work of your organization and to solicit future
donations from North American bird watchers. Ifyou are able to provide us with these materials, please
include them with your proposal. We cannot guarantee the return ofphotographs.


Birders' Exchange American Birding Association
720 West Monument Street, PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934
PhI 719-578-9703 Fax: 719-578-1480 Email: edcon@aba.org
www. americanbir ding.org


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 90













Birders' Exchange

Conserving birds by getting tools to people who need them
Birders'Exchange Birder's Exchange is a program of the American Birding Association



Estimado colega,

La "American Birding Association" recolecta libros y equipo relacionados al studio de las aves para ser usa-
dos por grupos dedicados a la conservaci6n e investigaci6n de aves, y a la educaci6n en este campo en Latino
America y el Caribe. Quizis usted ya est6 familiarizado con nuestro program, llamado "Birders' Exchange,"
el cual tiene dos objectives primordiales: 1) proveer materials a aqudllos que trabajan por las aves y su habitat,
y 2) aumentar el flujo de informaci6n acerca de iniciativas para la conservaci6n de aves y educaci6n al respect
en las Americas.
Por esta raz6n, nuestro lema es: "Compartiendo herramientas, salvando aves."
Nosotros distribuimos esas herramientas sin costo alguno para el usuario. Hacemos esto porque sabemos que
compartimos la fauna de aves en el hemisferio, asi como una responsabilidad coming.
Nos encantaria proporcionar equipo para mis proyectos en Latino America y el Caribe, como parte del pro-
grama "Birders' Exchange." Si usted esta al tanto de proyectos importantes que requieran equipo que nosotros
podamos proporcionar, por favor consider darle la informaci6n acerca de Birders' Exchange a sus colegas en-
vueltos en esos proyectos.
Debido a donaciones por parte de individuos y organizaciones en Norte America, el siguiente equipo esta ac-
tualmente disponible:
binoculars (usados, pero en buenas condiciones)
miras telesc6picas y tripodes
guias de campo y libros de referencia en ornitologia
mochilas
En algunos casos nosotros tambidn podemos proveer otros equipos, como computadoras portitiles, camaras y
projectores de diapositivas.
Adjuntas van planillas de aplicaci6n en Ingl6s y en Espafiol.
Por favor visit la siguiente pigina web para mas informaci6n:
Par su informaci6n, la director del program, Betty Petersen, estard en la Tercera Conferencia Norte Ame-
ricana de Ornitologia (Third North American Ornithological Conference) en New Orleans, del 24 al 28 de sep-
tiembre del 2002. (Betty estard en la conferencia desde 25 hasta 27 de septiembre.) Si usted o algin colega van
a asistir a esa conferencia, le podriamos entregar el equipo alli (a usted, o a algin amigo que se lo pueda llevar).
Si no, encontraremos alguna otra forma de entregarle el equipo.

Sinceramente,
Betty Petersen
Director del Programa Birders' Exchange
Paul J. Baicich
Director del Departamento de Conservaci6n y Politicas Publicas

Birders' Exchange American Birding Association
720 West Monument Street, PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934, USA
Phone: 719-578-9703; Fax: 719-578-1480; e-mail: edcon@aba.org


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 91









BIRDERS' EXCHANGE


BIRDERS' EXCHANGE

PROPUESTA


Nombre de la Organizaci6n:
Nombre del Proyecto:
Persona a contactar:
Direcci6n a la cual se debe enviar la correspondencia:


Telkfono: Fax:
Email:
Website:


1) Unabreve descripci6n de su organizaci6n o proyecto. Cuando y como fue formado? Est compuesto de
personal voluntario o profesionales pagados?


2) Describalas mAs recientes actividades entrminos de investigaci6n, educaci6n, y conservaci6n. C6mo
trabaja su organizaci6nparapreservar las aves y sus habitas? Por que su proyecto es important parala
conservaci6n de aves?


El Pitirre 15(2)


Birders' Exchange American Birding Association
720 West Monument Street, PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934
Ph: 719-578-9703 Fax: 719-578-1480 Email: edcon@aba.org *
www.americanbirding.org


Page 92










BIRDERS' EXCHANGE


3) Cuantas species de aves cubre suproyecto? 0, cuintos estudiantes envuelve suprogramaeducativo?






4) Cuales son las necesidades especificas de su organizaci6n o proyecto en trminos de equipo para
investigaci6n, guias de campo, libros de referencias, o revistas de omitologia? Explique especificamente
por qud estos materials son necesitados y el uso queles sera dado y cuintagente hara uso de ellos. Si
usted estipidiendo m is de un tipo de material, precise sus necesidades en tdrminos de mayor importancia.









5) IMPORTANTE: Nosotros contamos convoluntarios parallevar equipo delos Estados Unidos alos
programs en LatinoamBrica y el Caribe. Usted conoce a alguien que vaya a viaj ar a su region, que pueda
llevarle el equipo donado por Birder's Exchange? Por favor mindenos el teldfono de esapersona, y
cualquier otrainformaci6n de c6mo contactarla.











6) Las organizaciones querequieran equipo atravds del BIRDERS' EXCHANGE, estan obligados abrindar
uninforme de actividades despuds de 6meses dehaberrecibido el material. El report debe detallarla
manera como el equipo ha sido usado, si funciona satisfactoriamente y cuantagente lo us6.

7) Fotografias, diapositivas, etc., describiendo las actividades de su organizaciny material que ayude al
program Birders' Exchange dar a conocer sutrabajo y solicitar asi futuras donaciones a observadores de
aves de los Estados Unidos. Si usted puede proveemos este material, por favor incliyalo en su propuesta.
No podemos garantizar elretorno delas fotografias.

Las propuestas o requerimientos deben ser enviados a:


Birders' Exchange American Birding Association
720 West Monument Street, PO Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934
Ph: 719-578-9703 Fax: 719-578-1480 Email: edcon@aba.org
www.americanbirding.org


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 93










AVAILABLE OCTOBER 2002


THE FIRST CD VERSION


Cantos de Aves en la Reptiblica Domni
Bird Songs in the Dominican Republic bi#


100 species
con sus nonmres en
Inglis y espaAol
100 species
SNames in english
and spanish
Sound recording by
GeorgeB. Reynard


PIoducd and pubhhed


bytho Laboatoiy o
Orniholog Carnel
Univaret, Ithaca N.Y.
Cooperating nutution,
Muso Nadonal do Hidoda
Natural, Santo Domingo
Dominican rRpublk


Copyright 2002


For further information, contact Dr. Fernando Luna Calderon, Director,
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santo Domingo:
museohistnat(dcodetel. net. do


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temno dd canto de Ias ave per S no
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)i ? MUSEO NATIONAL DE
HISTORIC NATURAL


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 94










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El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 95










CORNELL LABORATORY OF ORNITHOLOGY


1-MACAULAY LIBRARY OF NATURAL SOUNDS
MADE POSSIBLE WITH FUNDING flOM THE W. ALTON JONES FOUNDATION


SONGS OF THE ANTBIRDS
Thamnophilidae, Formicariidae, and Conopophagidae

Anrbirds make up one of the largest, most diverse groups of birds
in the New World. More than 270 species have radiated to occupy
virtually every wooded habitat of the vast and biogeographically
complex Neotropical region between northern Mexico and north-
central Argentina. Their whistles, croaks, chatters, caws, hoots, rasps,
and rattles can create a staggering chorus, ringing through the forest
from the leaf litter to the crowns of the canopy. This amazing vocal
diversity, combined with the birds' secretive nature means that rec-
ognizing each species by its voice is a must.
This three-CD set presents the songs of nearly all currently rec-
ognized antbird species. Most feature three or four songs from a
single individual, but some species for which significant geographic
variation in vocalizations has been established are represented by two
or more examples from different parts of the range. This audio guide
is an essential tool for Neotropical researchers and recreational
birders alike.

MACAULAY LIBRARY OF NATURAL SOUNDS
CORNNU LABORATORY OF ORNITIOI(OGY
159 Sapsucker Woods Road. Ithaca. NY 14850 Tel. (607) 254-2404
E-mail: Web site:


SONGS OF THE ANTBIRDS


Antbirds are one of the largest, most diverse
groups of birds in the New World. They are
also among the most secretive in nature. The
Cornell Lab of Ornithology's Macaulay Library
of Natural Sounds (MLNS) has responded by
releasing an audio guide to help recreational
birders and researchers alike tap into the mys-
teries of antbirds' wide-ranging vocal acrobat-
ics.
Antbirds are found in the vast, complex
Neotropical region between northern Mexico
and north-central Argentina. Their habitats
range from the steaming rainforests of western
Amazonia to Andean cloud forests to the arid
woodlands of the Paraguayan/Argentine chaco.
In some locales, up to 50 species of antbirds
may be present, and some sites host poorly
known and very shy antpittas whose voices
have become known to humans only in the past
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caws, hoots, rasps, and rattles ring from the leaf
litter of the forest floor to the dense green can-
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Accompanying the CD is a 56-page
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each song in behavioral context.
For researchers or recreational bird-
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The CD may be purchased at:
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Wild Birds Unlimited at Sapsucker
Woods Tel.: (877) 266-4928
Bird Songs International
Tel.: +31 595 528679

Retail price is US$39.95 for the
three-CD set.


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 96









MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT


VIITH NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS


Dates.-The VIIth Neotropical Ornithological Con-
gress will take place from Sunday, 5 October
through Saturday 11 October 2003. Working days
will be Monday 6, Tuesday 7, Wednesday 8, Friday
10, and Saturday 11 October 2003. Thursday 9 Oc-
tober 2003 will be a congress free day. After the last
working session on Saturday 11 October, the con-
gress will end with a banquet, followed by tradi-
tional Chilean music and dance.
Venue.-Congress Center, in Puerto Varas, Xth Re-
gion, Chile (about 10 km N of Puerto Montt, an
easy to reach and well-known travel destination in
Chile. The Congress Center, with its meeting rooms
and related facilities, perched on a hill overlooking
Puerto Varas, is only an 800-m walk from down-
town where participants will lodge and dine in their
selection of hotels, hostels, and eating facilities.
Host City.-Puerto Varas is a small, friendly, and
picturesque city of about 35,000 people in Chile's
beautiful Lake District. The spectacular Volcanoes
Osorno (2652 m) and Calbuco (2015 m) can be seen
across the Lake from the city and the Congress Cen-
ter. Puerto Varas has a wide range of accommoda-
tions, from modest hospedajes to luxurious 5-star
hotels; it has seven banks (obtaining money from
your home bank is very easy through conveniently
located ATM's). Most residents speak only Spanish,
or Spanish and German, although they know a few
English words and attempts to communicate by
non-Spanish speakers will result in a meaningful
exchange. Puerto Varas has several outstanding res-
taurants (including sea food, several more ethnic
kinds of food, and, of course, Chilean fare). In spite
of its small size, Puerto Varas is quite a cosmopoli-
tan town, with a well-marked European influence.
There are shops, boutiques, and other stores, includ-
ing sporting goods stores. Congress participants will
be able to choose from a variety of lodging alterna-
tives ranging from luxury five-star establishments to
ultra-economical hostels. Because our meeting will
be during the "off' season for tourists, participants
will be able to enjoy the town's tourist-wise facili-
ties and amenities (e.g., the several cybercafes,
competitive money exchange businesses, and the
many local tour offerings) without paying typical
tourist prices.
Puerto Varas is only 18 km from Puerto Montt's
El Tepual Airport, a modern facility with several
daily flights to and from Santiago, Chile's capital,


only about 1 h and a half away. Several car rental
companies operate offices at the airport. Puerto
Montt, the nearest large city, with about 150,000
people, is only 10 km away by a new divided high-
way. Public bus service between Puerto Montt and
Puerto Varas is frequent, convenient, and cheap. The
administrative seat of Chile's Xth Region, Puerto
Montt has excellent hospital facilities, many shops,
banks, and restaurants. Its waterfront faces the beau-
tiful Seno de Reloncavi, the northernmost point of
the famous Chilean channels, with a grand backdrop
of snow capped Andean peaks. Puerto Montt's har-
bor, Angelmo, is the place to visit for local and su-
perbly fresh seafood, and shops that sell a great as-
sortment of locally knit woolens and leather objects.
Early October is spring in the Lakes District of Chile,
and plants blossom everywhere in the mild weather.
Much of the lushness of southern Chile is due to its
rainfall, and so you might expect occasional showers.
A raincoat and jacket are recommended. For those
interested in becoming acquainted with the area's
geography, people, and natural history, we will pro-
vide a list of books, maps, and other publications,
and relevant web sites on our Congress Meeting web
page (under construction). A thorough and reputable
tour book (in Spanish) for Chile that we recommend
is TurisTel 2001 (or 2002) Chile, ISBN [for the 2001
edition] 956-7264-70-8, published and distributed by
Turismo y Comunicaciones, S.A., Ave. Santa Maria
0120, Providencia, Santiago, Chile; e-mail:
info @turistel.cl.
Congress Languages.-English and Spanish will be
the working languages of the congress. Translators
will be provided for most, if not all sessions.
Organization.-The VIIth Neotropical Ornithological
Congress of the Neotropical Ornithological Society
will be held in conjunction with the VIIth Congreso
Chileno de Ornitologia of the Uni6n de Omit6logos
de Chile (UNORCH).
Neotropical Congress Officers
President: Francois Vuilleumier, vuill@amnh.org
Secretary general: Luis Espinosa G.,
legpvar@entelchile.net & lci.'p\. a Ihioin.il corn
Congress Organizer for North America: M. Vickie
McDonald, vickiem @mail.uca.edu & ewa-
woman@yahoo.com
Co-chairs of the Scientific Program Committee:
Jaime Jim6nez, jjimenez@ulagos.cl
Cristina Y. Miyaki, cymiyaki@usp.br


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 97









MEETING ANNOUNCEMENT (CONTINUED)


Proceedings Committtee:
Editor: Raymond McNeil, Raymond.
McNeil @umontreal.ca
Assistant to the Editor: Ivan Lazo,
bubo@entelchile.net
Scientific Program.-The scientific program will
include plenary lectures, concurrent symposia ses-
sions, oral papers, poster sessions, and round-table
discussions. In addition, special evening sessions
with talks and films are planned. Details about the
Scientific Program will be announced in future is-
sues of Ornitologia Neotropical, in the NOS web-
page (http://www/.neotropicalorithology.org), and
in the VIIth Neogropical Ornithological Congress
webpage (the webpage address will appear in the
next issue of Ornitologia Neotropical.
Proceedings.-The proceedings of the VII Neotropi-
cal Ornithological Congress will be published after
the congress as a special issue or supplement of Or-
nitologia Neotropical. This publication will be peer-
reviewed and edited (see Proceedings Committee,
above) and will include the full texts of the plenary
lectures and of the symposia papers.
Ornithological Tours.-Tours of ornithological in-
terest will be offered during the congress free day,
Thursday 9 October 2003, in the environs of Puerto
Varas (native forest, lake, estuarine, wetland, and
seashore habitats). Highlights might include Po-
diceps major, Spheniscus magellanicus, Theristicus
caudatus, Merganetta armata, Rallus sanuinolentus,
Limosa haemastica, Sterna trudeaui, Columba
araucana, E,i, .... -,,tril,, ir ,ni,, 1 Colaptes
pitius, Cinclodes patagonicus, Sylviorthorhynchus
desmursii, Aphrastura spinicauda (the emblematic
species on the cover of Ornitologia Neotropical),
Scelorchilus rubecula, Phytotoma rara, and Phry-
gilus patagonicus. A variety of Pre- and Post-
congress Tours, each 3-5 days in duration, will be
offered to allow congress participants to enjoy a
wide array of habitats and birds in Chile, that 4000


km (2500 mile)-long country. These excursions will
range from the Atacama desert and high Andes in the
far north (hoping to see species such as Tinamotis
pentlandii, Phoenicoparrus andinus and Phoenico-
parrusjamesi, (C l.. ''-iho melanoptera, Vultur gry-
phus, Fulica cornuta, Attagis gayi, Geositta punen-
sis, Muscisaxicola albifrons, Conirostrum tama-
rugense, and Phrygilus atriceps), to the Patagonian
steppe and '.. di. ,i,,i forests of the archipelagic
zone of the far south (with such birds as Pterocnemia
pennata, Diomedea melanophris, Fulmarus glacia-
loides, Pelecanoides magellani, C /i/. ,.j'-.',, hybrida,
Tachyeres patachonicus, Pluvianellus socialis, Geo-
sitta Antarctica, and Sicalis lebruni), including the
central area with its Mediterranean-type climate
(with the possibility of sighting Phegornis mitchellii,
Chilia melanura, Pteroptochos megapodius, Scelor-
chilus albicollis, Tachuris rubrigastra, Mimus
thenca, and Phrygilus gayi). Details about these ex-
cursions will be published at a later date.
Official Host.-The host organization in Chile is the
Uni6n de Ornit6logios de Chile (UNORCH), the na-
tional ornithological society of Chile. Founded in
1987, it was incorporated as a non-profit organiza-
tion under Chilean law in 1989. UNORCH promotes
the development of ornithological research in Chile,
supports the conservation and protection of birds and
their habitats, and diffuses ornithological knowledge
and education throughout Chile. UNORCH publishes
a journal, Boletin Chileno de Ornitologia, which in-
cludes the results of scientific research on Chilean
birds, and a newsletter, Boletin Informativo, which
includes ornithological news and information about
events and publications on the birds of Chile and
other parts of South America. Street address is: UN-
ORCH, Avenida Providencia 1108, Local 32, Provi-
dencia, Santiago, Chile; mailing address: UNORCH,
Casilla 13.183, Santiago-21, Chile; e-mail: un-
orch(ientelchile.net.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER

MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE, THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF
CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

FORM OF SUBMISSION
Hard Copy
One copy on 8.5" x 11" paper.
Mail to Jim Wiley, Maryland Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, 1120 Trigg Hall, University of
Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA.
Faxes
Discouraged.
If this is your best option, please ensure that the type used is larger than 12 point.
Fax number: 410-651-7662.
Electronic mail
Encouraged
Preferred as a MS Word file attachment.
E-mail address of editor: jwwiley@mail.umes.edu
Floppy disk
Preferred
Submit in PC or Macintosh environment, preferably using WordPerfect or MS Word software. A 3.5"
disk is preferred. Submit a hard copy with the computer disk.
Mail to Jim Wiley, Maryland Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, 1120 Trigg Hall, University of
Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA.

Also, manuscripts may be submitted, as above, to Associate Editors:
Associate Editor: Adrianne G. Tossas, Department ofBiology, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras,
PR 00931; e-mail: agtossas@hotmail.com
Associate Editor for French West Indies: Philippe Feldmann, CIRAD-Micap, TA 179/03, F-34398
Montpellier cedex 5, France; e-mail: philippe.feldmann@cirad.fr

LANGUAGE
Contributions can be in English, Spanish, or French. Translation of the entire text in an alternate language
is encouraged. At a minimum, the abstract of longer manuscripts should be provided in at least one of the
other two languages.

FORMAT OF SUBMITTED MATERIALS
All submitted materials must be typed, and hard copies must be clearly legible.
The manuscript should conform to usage in recent issues of El Pitirre.
Double spaced all written materials, including tables and figure legends.
Number pages through the Literature Cited.
Do not hyphenate words at the ends of typewritten lines.
Type tables separate from the text.
Type figure legends consecutively on a separate page.
Title page (numbered) should contain full title, and authors' names and addresses at the time of the
research. The present address, if different, should be indicated as a footnote. The title page also in-
cludes running heads (less than 36 characters), and the name and contact information for the author who
can be most easily contacted.
An Abstract (less than 5% of paper length) should precede each longer article. It should summarize
important premises, summarize findings, and give conclusions.


El Pitirre 15(2)


Page 99









SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS


* Key Words include an alphabetically arranged list of up to 10 pertinent key words that address the
material included in the text.
* Text Citations should include the author and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith et
al. 1992). Multiple citations should be arranged chronologically.
* Acknowledgments precede the Literature Cited.
* Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU's Check-list of
North American birds (1983) and its supplements.
* Measurements should be in metric units.
* Use continental dating (e.g., 14 October 1992) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 08:00 and 21:35 h).
* Tables and figures should not duplicate material in the text or in each other. Each table requires a short
heading, including descriptive information that would answer the reader's questions of what, where,
and when.
* Literature Cited: Follow the most recent issue of the bulletin for style. In general, format will follow
the following style:
Journal citation
Include full journal name, volume, and inclusive page numbers; e.g.,
Levy, C. 1997. Nesting of Euneornis campestris, the Orangequit. Pitirre 10(1):30-31.
Book or report
Include publisher and place of publication; e.g.,
Hochbaum, H. A. 1959. The Canvasback on a prairie marsh, 2nd ed. Stackpole Books, Harris-
burg, Pennsylvania.)
Chapter in book
Include editors) name(s), inclusive pages of chapter, book or report title, publisher, and place of
publication; e.g.,
Oring, L. W., and R. D. Sayler. 1992. The mating system of waterfowl. Pages 190-213 in Ecol-
ogy and management of breeding waterfowl (B. D. J. Batt, Ed.). Univ. Minnesota Press,
Minneapolis.


El Pitirre 15(2)


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SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


SEL PITIRRE

:P SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
Summer 2002 Vol. 15, No. 2




CONTENTS (CONTINUED FROM FRONT COVER)


IMPACT DE LA MANGOSTA DE JAVA (HERPESTES JAVANICUS) Y LA RATA NEGRA (RATTUS RATTUS) EN LA NIDIFI-
CACION DE LA TORTUGA CAREY (ERETMOCHELYS ; ;' LA POBLACION DEL RASCON DE MANGLE
(RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS) Y EL CANGREJO BLANCO (CARDISOMA GUNHUMI) CAYO FAJOU, RESERVE NATURAL
DE GRAND CUL-DE-SAC MARIN PARQUE NATIONAL DE GUADALUPE ANTILLAS FRANCESAS. ......................... 82
STRUCTURES SPECIFIQUES DES PEUPLEMENTS DE RONGEURS D'AGROECOSYSTEMES ET D'ECOSYSTEMES
< Lorvelec, G a otan B orel & A rm and R osine .................................................................................................................. 83
RODENT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN "NATURAL" AND AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS IN GUADELOUPE AND MAR-
TINIQUE (FRENCH W EST INDIES). ............................. ........ .......... ................. .... ... ............. ........................... 83
ESTRUCTURA DE LA COMUNIDAD DE ROEDORES EN LOS AGROECOSISTEMAS Y LOS ECOSISTEMAS "NATURALES"
DE GUADALUPE Y M ARTINICA (ANTILLAS FRANCESAS). ................................................................... .............. 84
R EQUIEM FOR A BIRD LOVER P eter E sp eut ................................................................................... ................................ 85
R OBER T SU TTON M E M O RIA L F U N D ....................................................................................................................................... 87
B IR D E R S E X C H A N G E ..............................................................................................................................
ADVERTISEMENTS
FIRST CD VERSION: CANTOS DE AVES EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA/BIRD SONGS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC .... 94
RITE IN THE R AIN PRODUCTS .............. .......... .................... ............................................................... .............. .... 95
SONGS OF THE ANTBIRDS FROM CORNELL LABORATORY OF ORNITHOLOGY ............................................ .............. 96
ANOUNCEMENT VIITH NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS ........................................ ..................... 97
SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE, THE BULLETIN OF THE SO-
CIETY OF C ARIBBEAN O RNITH O LO G Y ..................................................................................... ..................................... 99
2003 MEETING OUTSIDE BACK COVER


2003 MEETING

This is to advise that the SCSCB 2003 meeting will be held in the wonderful island of Tobago in the
Twin island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

The meeting dates are July 21 26 2003. Please stay in touch and watch the website for future an-
nouncements and additional information. We are currently in discussions with the local committee from
Tobago and will have additional information shortly.

Plan to be there!

Eric Carey
President




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