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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00044
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v.14, n.3, 55p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 2001
Frequency: bimonthly
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Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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Volume ID: VID00044
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text



























CONTENTS

THE STATUS OF THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS, JANUARY-FEBRUARY
2000. R. B. Childress andB. Hughes ..... ............................................................ 107
RESTORATION OF THE GREATER FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUSRUBER) TO ANEGADA, BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS. James Lazell ........... 113
STATUS OF THE CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION PROGRAM. Xiomara Gdlvez, Leandro Torrella, and
M ig u e l M a g ra n e r ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 5
REVIEW ERS FOR V OLUME 14 .................... ..................... ............ .. .............. ............ ........................................... 119
REGISTROS ORNITOLOGICOS EN RESIDUARIOS DE DIETA DE LOS ABORIGENES PRECERAVICOS CUBANOS. Osvaldo Jimenez-Vazquez 120
AMERICAN COOT (FU CA AMERICANA) ON NEVIS. Julian Francis ................. ............... ....................... ........ ........................... 127
CARIBBEAN MARTINS (PROGNE DOMINICENSIS) OVER-WINTER AT A ROOST IN BRIDGETOWN, BARBADOS. Martin D. Frost and
EdwardB. M assiah ............................................ ..................................................... 128
GREEN HERON (BUTORIDES VIRESCENS) PREDATION AT VILLAGE WEAVER (PLOCEUS CUCULLATUS) NESTS. James W. Wiley ............... 130
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS, THIRTEENTH MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY, TOPES DE COL-
LANTES, CUBA, JULY 2001 (CONTINUED FROM LAST ISSUE) ... ......................................................................... 134
ELEMENTS OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF VEGETATION IN THE HABITAT OF BICKNELL'S THRUSH IN CUBA/ ELE-
MENTOS DE LA COMPOSICION Y ESTRUCTURA DE LA VEGETACION DEL HABITAT DEL TORDO DE BICKNELL EN CUBA.
Ramona Ovi. *Llanes, Yves Aubry, Arturo Herndndez, GhislainRompe, andFranois .. ................................. 134
AVIAN COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND SPECIES RICHNESS IN A FRAGMENTED TROPICAL LANDSCAPE/ DINAMICA DE LA COMU-
NIDAD DE AVES Y RIQUEZA DE SPECIES EN UN PAISAJE TROPICAL FRAGMENTADO. Rene Borgella Jr. and Thomas A. Gavin ... 134
STATUS OF THE CERULEAN WARBLER (DENDROICA CERULEA) ON ITS BREEDING GROUNDS/ ESTADO DE DENDROICA CERULEA
EN SU AREA DE REPRODUCCION. Kamal Islam and Cynthia Basile .................................................... ........................................ 135
THE WINTER ECOLOGY OF THE CAPE MAY WARBLER/ LA ECOLOGIA INTERNAL DEDEADROICA TIGRINA. Steven C. Latta .............. 135
STATUS, HABITAT, AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF WOOD WARBLERS (PARULIDAE) IN VARAHICACOS ECOLOGICAL RE-
SERVE, MATANZAS, CUBA/ REPRESENTATIVIDAD, HABITAT Y ABUNDANCIA RELATIVE DE LOS REPRESENTANTES DE LA
FAMILIA PARULIDAE (AVES: PASSERIFORMES) EN LA RESERVE ECOLOGICA VARAHICACOS, MATANZAS, CUBA. Carlos
P erez C abanas and E unique Soto R am irez ................................................................... ................ ................. ........................... 136
BICKNELL'S THRUSH (CATHARUS BICKNELLI): A WINTER RESIDENT IN CUBA/ EL TORDO DE BICKNELL (CATHARUS BICKNELLI):
UN RESIDENTE INVERNAL EN CUBA. Llanes Sosa, Yves Aubry, Ing. Ramona Oviedo Prieto, Frangois
A rturo H erndndez M arrero, and G hrislain R ompre ......................................................................................... ................................ 136
THE EFFECT OF FORESTRY ACTIVITIES ON BIRD COMMUNITIES IN THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE AT PENINSULA DE GUANAHA-
CABIBES, PINAR DEL RiO, CUBA/ EFECTO DE MANEJOS FORESTALES SOBRE LAS COMUNIDADES DE AVES EN LA RESERVE
DE LA BIOSFERA PENINSULA DE GUANAHACABIBES, PINAR DEL Rio, CUBA. Alna perez, Freddy Degado, 6 ; '. Tamarit 137
CURRENT STATUS OF FERNANDINA'S FLICKER (COLAPTES FERNANDINAE, AVES: PICIDAE) IN EASTERN CUBA/ SITUATION AC-
TUAL DE COLAPTES FERANDINAE (AVES: PICIDAE) EN LA REGION ORIENTAL DE CUBA. Luis Omar Melidn Herndndez ............. 137
FORAGING HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LARGE-FOOTED FINCH, PEZOPETES CAPITALIS (AVES: EMBERIZIDAE)/ CARAC-
TERISTICAS DEL HABITAT DE FORRAJEO DEPEZOPETES CAPITALIS (AVES: EMBERIZIDAE). Lainet Garcia and Carohna Bertsch 137
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEST SITES OF THE CUBAN PARAKEET IN THE MONTE CABANIGUAN PROTECTED AREA/ CARACTE-
RISTICAS DE LOS SITIOS DE NIDIFICACION DEL CATEY ARATINGA EUOPS EN EL AREA PROTEGIDA MONTE CABANIGUAN.
Boris Vicente Planell Gonzalez, ManuelAlonso Tabet, and VicenteBerovidesAlvarez ........................................ .................... 138
PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE AVIFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH TWO CACAO AGROECOSYSTEMS IN TABASCO, MEXICO/ NOTAS
PRELIMINARES SOBRE LA AVIFAUNA ASOCIADA A DOS CACAOTALES EN TABASCO, MEXICO. Juana Lourdes Trejo Perez .......... 138
LAND-USE CHARACTERISTICS OF PUERTO RICAN VIREO (VIREO LATIMERI) NESTING HABITAT/ CARACTERISTICAS DEL USO DE
TERRENO EN EL HABITAT DE ANIDAJE DEL BIENTEVEO DE PUERTO RICO (VIREOLATIMERI). Adrianne G. Tossas ...................... 139


Continued on back outside cover


SOCIEDAD CARIBEITA DE ORNITOLOGIA





SEL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Fall 2001 Vol. 14, No. 3
(ISSN 1527-7151)


i










EL PITIRRE

THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


Editor: James W. Wiley, Maryland Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 1120 Trigg Hall, University of
Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, Maryland 21853, USA; Telephone: (410) 651-7654; Fax: (410)
651-7662; e-mail: jwwiley@mail. umes. edu
Associate Editor: Adrianne G. Tossas, Department ofBiology, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR 00931;
e-mail: agtossas@hotmail.com
Associate Editor for French West Indies: Philippe Feldmann, CIRAD-Micap, TA 179/03, F-34398 Montpellier
cedex 5, France; e-mail: philippe.feldmann@cirad.fr
Associate Editor for Spanish-Language Materials: Jos6 Placer, Coereba Society (www.coereba.org); e-mail:
jplacer@coereba. org
News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the Editor or an Associate Editor for inclusion in
the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al Editor o Editor Asociado para inclusion en el
boletin.


THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anselme
SECRETARY: Dr. Anne Haynes Sutton
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific study
and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and those
elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to conser-
vation groups in the Caribbean.
La Sociedad Caribefia de Ornitologia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el studio
cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia caribefia, ser
una fuente de comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o datos a grupos
de conservaci6n en el caribe.


MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS
Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology. All
members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year. Institutional
subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay regular dues may
be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name and address to: Dr.
Rosemarie S. Gnam, PO Box 863208, Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA.








The Society of Caribbean Ornithology thanks Winged Ambassadors and the
Division of International Conservation of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for their support

COEREBA
We thank the Coereba Society (www.coereba.org) for their editorial and translation assistance.




























THE STATUS OF THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK
(DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA)
IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2000



R. B. CHILDRESS AND B. HUGHES
The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust,
Slimbridge, Glos. England GL2 7BT;
_-_ e-mail: brooks.childress@wwt.org.uk



Abstract-A survey of the status of the globally threatened West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arborea) was
conducted on St. Kitts-Nevis (1715 N, 62040 W) during January-February 2000. Historically, these Lesser Antilles
have been considered the southern edge of the species' range, but the only known record of its existence is an undated
museum specimen from St. Kitts (St. Christopher). There are no known records from Nevis and, currently, there is no
suitable habitat. During this survey, the West Indian Whistling-Duck was neither sighted nor heard on either island. A
well-known former hunter on St. Kitts reported having seen the whistling-duck in small numbers on several mangrove-
fringed ponds 15-20 years ago, but they were only occasional visitors, not residents. Today, only one pond provides
suitable habitat and the future prospects are bleak. The government supports development of tourism for both islands,
and reportedly has already approved the best remaining mangrove-fringed pond on St. Kitts as a development site for
two new hotels, with a boardwalk extending across the pond as a nature walk.
Resumen-EL ESTADO DE LA CHIRRIA ANTILLANA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) EN SAN CRISTOBAL-NEVIS, ENERO-
FEBRERO DE 2000. Un levantamiento para determinar el estado de la globalmente amenazada Chiriria Antillana
(Dendrocygna arborea) se realize en San Crist6bal-Nevis durante enero-febrero del 2000. Historicamente, estas Anti-
llas Menores han sido consideradas como los territories mas meridionales de la distribuci6n de la especie, pero el unico
registro de su existencia en el lugar es un esp6cimen de museo proveniente de San Cristobal. No se conocen registros
de Nevis y en la actualidad no existe habitat apropiado. Durante este levantamiento no se avist6 ni escuch6 a la chiriria
en ninguna de las dos islas. Un cazador de renombre en San Cristobal report haber visto la chiriria en numerous peque-
fios en varias lagunas orladas de mangle hace 15-20 afos, pero tan solo eran visitantes ocasionales, no residents. Hoy
en dia, solo una laguna provee habitat adecuado y las perspectives para el future no son prometedoras. El gobiemo apo-
ya el desarrollo del turismo en ambas islas y supuestamente ha aprobado que la mejor laguna orlada por manglares que
queda sea el lugar de dos nuevos hotels, con un paseo tablado cruzando la laguna como sendero natural.
Key words: Caribbean wetlands, Dendrocygna arborea, St. Christopher, St. Kitts-Nevis, West Indian Whistling-Duck


SOCIEDAD CARIBERA DE ORNITOLOGIA



EL PITIRRE

SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Fall 2001 Vol. 14, No. 3









CHILDRESS AND HUGHES WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK SURVEY IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS


INTRODUCTION
THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendro-
cygna arborea; WIWD) is a globally threatened
member of the Dendrocygnini tribe (del Hoyo et al.
1992). This tribe is comprised of eight species within
the Anserinae subfamily, which are intermediate in
morphology between ducks and geese (Bond 1936).
The whistling-duck is confined to the Bahamas and
the Greater and Lesser Antilles (Collar et al. 1994).
Once common, its population has declined substan-
tially throughout its range (Raffaele et al. 1998) and
is now believed to consist of only 15-20,000 indi-
viduals spread out in many small, fragmented groups
(BirdLife International 2000). The species is consid-
ered vulnerable to extinction, the primary threats be-
ing destruction of their wetland habitat for tourism
development and agriculture, under-regulated hunt-
ing, and natural catastrophes such as hurricanes
(BirdLife International 2000), as well as poaching
and predation by introduced mongooses and rats
(Kear and Williams 1978; J. Daltry, pers. comm.).
Although the species is legally protected throughout
most of its range, enforcement of hunting laws is in-
adequate or non-existent and poaching is widespread
(Staus 1998a).
A West Indian Whistling-Duck and Wetlands
Conservation Project has been launched by the
WIWD Working Group of the Society of Caribbean
Ornithology to raise awareness about the plight of
the duck and promote actions that will reverse its
further decline (Sorenson and Carey 1998; Sorenson
and Bradley 1999, 2000). These include (1) the de-
velopment of educational materials (e.g., slide show,
coloring book, puppet show, duck identification
cards for hunters, and wetlands education work-
book), (2) teacher education workshops to demon-
strate the use of these materials and the promotion
and funding of Watchable Wildlife Ponds, and (3)
funding of surveys in several Caribbean countries
(Sorenson and Bradley 1999, 2000). Additional sur-
veys of the status, distribution, and habitat use of the
WIWD in each of the islands it is believed to inhabit
are needed before a comprehensive Caribbean-wide
conservation plan can be formulated (Sorenson and
Carey 1998).
St. Kitts-Nevis (17015'N, 62040'W) and Antigua
and Barbuda (1706'-40'N, 61045'W) have histori-
cally been considered the southern edge of this spe-
cies' range (Collar et al. 1992). However, although it
is a year-round resident on Antigua and Barbuda
(Raffaele et al. 1998), the only record of its existence
on St. Kitts-Nevis is an undated museum specimen
from St. Kitts in the Museum of Comparative Zool-


Fig. 1. The Lesser Antilles, with inset of St.
Kitts-Nevis (Country Environmental Profile
1991).



ogy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (Collar et al.
1992). There have been no recent sightings or data
from either island (L. Sorenson, pers. comm.). The
purpose of this survey was to determine the status of
the species in St. Kitts-Nevis. The survey was con-
ducted in consultation with the WIWD Working
Group of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology
(SCO) and conservation groups on both St. Kitts (St.
Christopher Heritage Society) and Nevis (Nevis His-
torical and Conservation Society).

GENERAL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY
The West Indian Whistling-Duck is the largest and
bulkiest of the whistling-ducks, weighing about 1150
g (Madge and Burn 1988). Males and females are
alike in size and appearance in the field, being rather
dark overall with pale faces and forenecks, and ex-
tensive black and white spotting along the flanks. In
flight, they appear dark above and below, with head
drooped and feet extending beyond the tail; in good
light it may be possible to see the spotted underparts


El Pitirre 14(3)


Page 108









WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK SURVEY IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS


(Raffaele et al. 1998). It is less vocal than other
whistling-ducks, the call being a shrill, but rather
harsh, whistled "visisee." It is normally a resident,
non-migratory species (Madge and Bur 1988), but
also has been known to fly up to 40 km to visit other
islands (Staus 1998b). It is not known to be particu-
larly shy or wary.
The WIWD feeds nocturnally and is crepuscular,
becoming active at dusk when it flies to its feeding
areas from coastal mangroves and marshy areas
where it has spent much of the day hidden, loafing in
small groups on waterside banks or perched amongst
partially-submerged trees and branches (Madge and
Bum 1988). It feeds primarily on grasses, berries,
and fruits, especially the fruits of the Cuban royal
palm (Roystonia regia), as well as cultivated seeds
and grain on agricultural land (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
In previous studies in the Bahamas (Staus 1998a,b),
this species exhibited strong site fidelity, consistently
using the same roosting and feeding sites. The birds
in that study preferred to roost in mangroves and
pond-edge vegetation during the day, and feed on
fresh or brackish ponds and tidal flats during the
night. Non-breeding birds spend little time on the
water and are not known to dive (del Hoyo et al.
1992, Staus 1998a). On the other hand, birds with
broods spend much time swimming while their duck-
lings feed (Staus 1998a). The WIWD breeds during
the rainy season, primarily from June to October, but
the timing varies by location.

STUDY SITES
St. Kitts-Nevis is in the northern part of the Lee-
ward Islands in the Lesser Antilles (Fig. 1). Once
British colonies, the two islands today are the inde-
pendent nation of St. Kitts-Nevis, which remains
part of the British Commonwealth. Separated by a
3.2-km channel, both islands are mountainous with
rainforest-covered volcanic peaks, the highest on St.
Kitts being Mount Liamuiga (1156 m) and on Nevis
being Nevis Peak (985 m). St. Kitts, approximately
30 km long and 9 km wide (176 km2) with a popula-
tion of about 35,000 (21li kin-), is the larger and
more densely populated of the two islands. Almost
all of its arable land, from the lower edge of the cen-
tral rainforest (2511-450 m asl) to the coastal high-
way ringing the island, some 4250 ha (10,500 acres;
24% of the island's land mass), is cultivated with
sugarcane (Mager 1997). Small plots of vegetable
and root crops are scattered between and above the
sugar plantations (Country Environmental Profile:
St. Kitts and Nevis 1991). There are 10 substantial
salt ponds, totaling approximately 200 ha


0 2 4 6 8
Kilometers F'
Main Roads G
H

Fig. 2. Salt ponds (A through J) on St. Kitts, Lesser Antil-
les. See Table 1 for data on ponds.


(Honebrink 1993), spread along its low-lying south-
eastern shore and the Southeast Peninsula (Table 1
and Fig. 2), all of which were once ringed with living
mangroves, and all of which might have provided
suitable habitat for the whistling-duck at some time.
Nevis (93 km2) is not only smaller than St. Kitts,
with fewer people (about 9,000; 97/km2); it is also
steeper without the extensive coastal plains or large-
scale agriculture. Coastal features include long sandy
beaches and a system of small freshwater lagoons
along the western (leeward) side of the island, and
smaller rocky beaches and massive sea-facing cliffs
along the eastern side. The freshwater lagoons are of
two types, depending on their primary sources:
mountain ravine run-off or underwater springs. Some
of these lagoons appear to "flush" themselves into
the sea occasionally, whereas others appear to re-
main in a relatively stagnant condition until the rainy
season arrives (Country Environmental Profile
1991). Several are fringed by mangroves and might
have provided suitable day roosting habitat for the
whistling-duck.

SURVEY METHODS
The objectives of the survey were to determine
whether the WIWD is extant on St. Kitts-Nevis and,
if so, to develop a population estimate and a descrip-
tion of its habitat usage. The survey plan consisted of
three parts, a physical count of any birds present,
interviews with ornithologists and former hunters,
and local library research. The "look-see" counting


El Pitirre 14(3)


ATLANTIC OCEAN






C SOUTHEAST
-! PENINSULA


CARIBBEAN SEA


CHILDRESS AND HUGHES


Page 109









CHILDRESS AND HUGHES WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK SURVEY IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS


Table 1. Salt ponds of St. Kitts (See Fig. 2 for
map locations). Source: Honebrink (1993).


Map
location


Name


Greatheeds Pond
Half Moon Pond
Muddy Pond
Frigate Bay Pond
Friars Bay Pond
Little Salt Pond
Great Salt Pond
Majors Bay Pond
Cockleshell Pond
Mosquito Bay Pond


Approximate
size (ha)

14
11
6
7
4
30
109
9
6
7


method (Bibby et al. 1992) was believed to be the
most appropriate, because the amount of suitable
habitat on St. Kitts and Nevis is limited, the species'
site fidelity has been shown to be strong, and it has
not been known to be particularly shy or wary. The
potential bias of double counting, caused by the
movement of birds from already surveyed areas to
areas that have not yet been surveyed (Bibby et al.
1992), was considered to be less of a problem with
WIWD due to its strong site fidelity and lack of
wariness.
A pilot survey was conducted to determine the ap-
propriateness of the "look-see" counting method in
various locations and at various times of day, follow-
ing consultations with local experts. From 11 to 25
January, each wetland area was visited once initially
during the daytime to assess its potential as a day-
time roosting and loafing area (e.g., isolation from
human activity, presence of healthy mangroves, and
presence of other wildfowl species). Based on the
findings of a similar survey conducted in 1999 in the
Turks and Caicos Islands by the Royal Society for
the Protection of Birds (UK), The Wildfowl and
Wetlands Trust (UK), and the National Trust of the
Turks and Caicos, taped call playback at dusk in
likely habitats appeared to be the method that would
give the best results (Hilton et al. 2000). Therefore,
once the likely habitat areas on both islands were
identified, each was visited again between 27 Janu-
ary and 1 March from dusk into early evening
(18:00-20:00). Taped sets of four repeated calls were
played back at 5-min intervals throughout this period
and the sites were repeatedly scanned with 10x bin-
oculars and a 20-60x telescope.
A cursory survey and interviews of local natural-


ists were also conducted on both islands to determine
the abundance of royal palm and cultivated grain
crops, the favorite foods of the whistling-duck
(Johnsgard 1978).

RESULTS
No West Indian Whistling-Ducks were seen or
heard on either island. Discussions with a prominent
ornithologist (D. Robinson) and naturalist (J. John-
son) on Nevis, as well as research at the library of
the Nevis Historical and Conservation Society failed
to uncover any record or recollection of the whis-
tling-duck on Nevis. The library contained reports of
several avifauna surveys on Nevis dating back to
1982 (Morris and Lemon 1982, Robinson 1988,
Esser 1990), none of which included any records of
Anatidae occurring on the island. The small freshwa-
ter lagoons, all of which were visited, had been vari-
ously incorporated into a golf course, damaged ex-
tensively by a recent hurricane, or heavily littered
with paper and plastic items. The waterbirds found
on these lagoons were almost exclusively herons and
egrets: Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Tricol-
ored Heron (E. tricolor), Snowy Egret (E. thula),
Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Great Blue Heron
(Ardea herodias), Great Egret (A. alba), Yellow-
crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and
Green Heron (Butorides virescens). There was only
one small grove of royal palms on the island and no
grain crops were found.
St. Kitts, with 10 substantial salt ponds at its
southeastern end, initially appeared to have more
potentially suitable habitat for the whistling-duck
(Table 1). All of these ponds, however, are located in
either heavily developed areas or within the zones
designated by the government as the main tourist
development areas on the island. A prominent former
hunter and conservationist remembered seeing the
WIWD occasionally on one or two of these ponds
15-20 years ago, but they were infrequent visitors,
staying only a few days (C. Evelyn, pers. comm.).
He assumed they had flown in from Barbuda or An-
tigua both approximately 100 km from St. Kitts. At
the time of our surveys, these ponds were generally
in poor condition. Perhaps the worst example was
Greatheeds Pond, once a freshwater pond of approxi-
mately 14 ha, surrounded by thick mangrove forest
(Honebrink 1993; C. Evelyn, pers. comm.) and con-
sidered St. Kitts' best example of a mangrove swamp
(Country Environmental Profile 1991). This pond is
now a fraction of its former size, more saline than
the sea (Honebrink 1993), and surrounded by the
parking area of a concrete block factory, a firing
range, and a refuse disposal area. The few mangrove


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CHILDRESS AND HUGHES


trees around its shores were dead (K. Orchard, pers.
comm.) and the only sign of wildlife observed on or
near this pond during our surveys was a Common
Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) that was calling.
Muddy Pond, which has been reshaped and used
for wastewater treatment (Honebrink 1993), is now
shallow ( tic debris, and surrounded by a golf course fairway,
an industrial building and residential units. Its nar-
row (<5 m) mangrove fringe is still alive, but con-
sists of unusually small, thin trees (<5 m in height)
that are totally ineffective in shielding the pond from
surrounding activity. Although this pond is reported
(K. Orchard, in litt.) to regularly hold herons and
Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), no
birds were observed during this survey. Half Moon
Pond, once the site of an aquaculture venture, is also
reported to regularly hold herons and stilts, and hun-
dreds of waders during their fall and spring migra-
tion (K. Orchard, in litt.), but we observed no birds
there during our surveys.
Frigate Bay Pond has been incorporated into a golf
course. At the time of our surveys, this pond was
dry, having been intentionally drained. Normally,
there are a few mangrove trees growing around its
edges and ducks and moorhens are regularly seen
there (K. Orchard, in litt.). Great and Little Salt
Ponds, once the site of salt production, as well as the
other Southeast Peninsula ponds (Majors Bay, Cock-
leshell, and Mosquito Bay) are all open and afford
little cover for waterfowl. The mangrove fringes of
these ponds all appear to be either dead or dying.
The only two waterbirds seen on these ponds were
small waders: Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)
and Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola). The
Southeast Peninsula, which has been designated as
the primary area for tourism development, has re-
cently been opened up with a new highway close to
the ponds and several of its ponds have been consid-
ered for onshore marina development (Honebrink
1993).
Friars Bay Pond is currently the best remaining
example of what the mangrove-fringed ponds of St.
Kitts once must have been like. This small pond is
still fringed on three sides with healthy mangrove
trees and provides cover for waterfowl. During our
surveys, Friars Bay Pond held seven Blue-winged
Teal (Anas discors), one Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle
alcyon), one Common Moorhen, a pair of Black-
necked Stilts, and a pair of American Coots (Fulica
americana). However, this pond is also threatened
with development, because it apparently has been
approved as the site of two new hotels with an ele-


WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK SURVEY IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS

vated boardwalk across the pond and mangroves (K.
Orchard, pers. comm.).
Government-owned sugarcane plantations domi-
nate the agriculture in St. Kitts. There appeared to be
no large fields of grain crops and a naturalist on St.
Kitts who has been leading walking and four-wheel
drive expeditions into the island's forests for 10
years reported that there were very few royal palms
on the island (G. Pereira, pers. comm.).

DISCUSSION
No West Indian Whistling-Ducks were seen or
heard during this survey of wetland habitats on St.
Kitts and Nevis. Although all potential wetland habi-
tats on both islands were visited, the survey was con-
ducted in only one season (mid-winter dry season)
and only in one year. West Indian Whistling-Ducks
are known to be nomadic occasionally (Staus 1998b)
and it is therefore possible that they could occur on
St. Kitts during other times of the year, or when con-
ditions are particularly good (e.g., wet) on St. Kitts-
Nevis or particularly bad (e.g., drought) on nearby
islands. However, interviews with local hunters,
naturalists, and residents, and our observations of the
condition of the wetland habitat suggest that it is
unlikely that the whistling-duck has been a resident
or regular visitor on either island for many years.
Whereas some of the wetlands on St. Kitts might
have once supported small populations or occasional
WIWD visitors, it seems unlikely that the species
could be reintroduced here because of past and con-
tinued wetland degradation. This suggests that St.
Kitts-Nevis should no longer be considered part of
this species' normal range.
Although not home to the West Indian Whistling-
Duck, the salt pond wetland system on St. Kitts,
which is unique in the Lesser Antilles (Country En-
vironmental Profile 1991), attracts large numbers of
waterbirds during the spring and fall migration peri-
ods (K. Orchard, in litt.). With renovation, it could
again become an important habitat for wintering wa-
terbirds such as herons, egrets, and small waders,
and a substantial attraction for tourists. In addition to
their importance for waterbirds, these ponds and
their mangrove swamps also protect the marine habi-
tat around St. Kitts by collecting and filtering rain-
water runoff that otherwise could severely damage
inshore marine ecosystems such as coral reefs and
sea grass meadows (Honebrink 1993).
The legal infrastructure for protecting and renovat-
ing these wetlands seems to be in place, in the form
of the 1987 National Conservation and Environ-
mental Protection Act. This act, combined with the


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CHILDRESS AND HUGHES.- WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK SURVEY IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS


1913 Wild Birds Protection Ordinance Act, the 1973
Pesticides Act, the 1986 Southeast Peninsula Land
Development and Conservation Act, and the 1989
Litter Act, would seem to provide the bases for pro-
tecting these wetlands from further degradation,
cleaning them up, and renovating many of them to
their former condition. What seems to be needed is a
comprehensive conservation action plan for this
valuable national asset.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are most grateful to Kate Orchard of the St.
Christopher Heritage Society, and to David and Joan
Robinson of the Nevis Historical and Conservation
Society for their helpful guidance and assistance in
the planning and execution of this study; also to Dr.
Lisa Sorenson, co-Chair of the WIWD Working
Group of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology for
providing a tape of the whistling-duck's call for
playback, WIWD conservation educational materi-
als, and much helpful advice and support. Geoff Hil-
ton provided helpful comments on an earlier version
of this manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED
BIBBY, C. J., N. D. BURGESS, AND D. A. HILL. 1992.
Bird census techniques. London: Academic Press
Limited.
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. 2000. Threatened birds
of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx
Editions and BirdLife International.
BOND, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Boston:
Houghton-Mifflin.
COLLAR, N. J., L. P. GONZAGA, N. KRABBE, A.
MADRONO-NIETO, L. G. NARANGO, T. A. PARKER
III, AND D. C. WEGE. 1992. Threatened birds of
the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN red data book.
Third edition, part two. Cambridge: International
Council for Bird Preservation.
COLLAR, N. J., M. J. CROSBY, AND A. STATTES-
FIELD. 1994. Birds to Watch 2: the world list of
threatened birds. Cambridge: BirdLife Interna-
tional.
COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE: ST. KITTS AND
NEVIS. 1991. St. Michael, Barbados: The Carib-
bean Conservation Association.
DEL HOYO, J., A. ELLIOTT, AND J. SARGATAL (eds.).
1992. Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. I.
Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
ESSER, C. 1990. Avifauna description for selected
regions on Nevis, West Indies. Vanier College


Press, St. Laurent, Quebec.
HILTON, G. M., T. CLEEVES, T. MURRAY, B.
HUGHES, AND E. G. WILLIAMS 2000. Wetland
birds in Turks and Caicos Islands I: a search for
West Indian Whistling-Ducks Dendrocygna arbo-
rea. Wildfowl 51:117-126.
HONEBRINK, T. 1993. The salt ponds of St. Kitts.
Basseterre, St. Kitts: The St. Christopher Heritage
Society.
JOHNSGARD, P. A. 1978. Ducks, geese, and swans of
the world. Lincoln, Nebraska and London: Univer-
sity of Nebraska Press.
KEAR, J., AND G. WILLIAMS. 1978. Waterfowl at
risk. Wildfowl 29:5-21.
MADGE, S., AND H. BURN. 1988. Wildfowl: an iden-
tification guide to the ducks, geese, and swans of
the world. London: Christopher Helm Limited.
MAGER, A. 1997. Who is protecting our environ-
ment? Heritage 6:1-23.
MORRIS, M., AND R. LEMON. 1982. The effects of
development on the avifauna of St Kitts, W. I. Bi-
ology Department, McGill University, Montreal.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
Univ. Press.
ROBINSON, D. 1988. A survey of the natural re-
sources of Nevis and recommendations for conser-
vation action. Charlestown, Nevis: Nevis Histori-
cal and Conservation Society.
SORENSON, L. G., and P. BRADLEY. 1998. Update on
the West Indian Whistling-Duck (WIWD) and
Wetlands Conservation Project Report from the
WIWD Working Group. El Pitirre 11:126-131.
SORENSON, L. G., and P. BRADLEY. 2000. Update on
the West Indian Whistling-Duck (WIWD) and
Wetlands Conservation Project Report from the
WIWD Working Group. El Pitirre 13:57-63.
SORENSON, L. G., and E. CAREY. 1998. The West
Indian Whistling-duck and wetlands conservation
project Working Group report on a training
workshop held in Nassau, Bahamas, 13-15 No-
vember, 1997. El Pitirre 11:19-22.
STAUS, N. 1998a. Behaviour and natural history of
the West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna
arborea on Long Island, Bahamas. Wildfowl
49:194-206.
STAUS, N. 1998b. Habitat use and home range of
West Indian Whistling-Ducks. J. Wildl. Manage.
62:117-178.


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RESTORATION OF THE GREATER FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER) TO ANEGADA,
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

JAMES LAZELL
The Conservation Agency, 6 Swinburne Street, Jamestown, RI 02835, USA


Abstract.-Following a trial establishment of seven Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) on Guana Island,
British Virgin Islands, in 1987, the Bermuda Aquarium, Museum, and Zoo provided 18 flamingos to The
Conservation Agency, funded by the Falconwood Foundation, for reintroduction to Anegada in 1992, where a large
nineteenth century population had been eventually extirpated in the twentieth century. These birds nested successfully
in 1995. The flock has increased to 63 birds, including 11 fledglings, in 2001, and a population seems firmly
established.
Resumen.-RESTAURACION DEL FLAMENCO (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER) EN ANEGADA, ISLAS VIRGENES BRITANICAS.
Despu6s del establecimiento experimental en 1987 de siete flamencos (Phoenicopterus ruber) en la isla de Guana,
Islas Virgenes Britanicas, el Bermuda Aquarium, Museum, and Zoo don6 18 flamencos a The Conservation Agency,
fundada por la Fundaci6n de Falconwood, para una reintroducci6n en 1992 en Anegada, lugar donde hubo una gran
poblaci6n nidificante en el siglo XIX que fue exterminada en el siglo XX. Estas aves se reprodujeron exitosamente en
1995. La bandada ha aumentado a 63 aves en 2001, incluyendo 11 pichones que han alzado vuelo, y la poblaci6n
parece estar firmemente establecida.
Key words: Anegada, British Virgin Islands, conservation, Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber, restoration


SIR ROBERT HERMANN SCHOMBURGK (1804-
1865), a British subject bor at Freiburg, Prussian
Saxony, traveled to America in 1829 and to the is-
land of Anegada in the British Virgin Islands (BVI)
in 1830 (Anonymous 1957). Schomburgk (1832)
chronicled the vast numbers of Greater Flamingos
(Phoenicopterus ruber) on Anegada, but noted they
were even then declining and no longer nesting. By
mid-twentieth century no resident birds remained,
although small groups of flamingos occasionally vis-
ited the island (Mirecki 1977).
Reintroduction of flamingos to the BVI, in com-
bination with the restoration of Anegada rock igua-
nas (Cyclura pinguis) to islands within the lizard's
former range the Greater Puerto Rico Bank was a
plan first conceived and promulgated by me in 1980
when I was employed by what was then the Depart-
ment of Natural Resources and the Environment,
Government of the British Virgin Islands, under the
direction of Robert Creque. My plan was initially
vetted by Creque and proposed to several prominent
leaders on Anegada: if I could find a suitable home
for some Anegada rock iguanas, and capture and
move them, I promised to obtain Greater Flamingos
for re-establishment on Anegada. I did not know
how difficult and expensive this would be, or that it
would take over a decade to accomplish.
Over the next several years I worked with the
owners of Guana Island to establish it as a wildlife
sanctuary; remove or control exotics like sheep, bur-
ros, and cats; restore vegetation; and build a program
of scientific research. During this period the National


Parks Trust (NPT) developed into a major quasi-
governmental entity under the direction of Dr.
Nicholas Clarke. The iguana transfer and flamingo
importation part and parcel of the same restoration
program were constant topics of conversation with
Clarke, Mr. Louis Potter of Town and Country Plan-
ning, BVI Government (who was drawing up the
excellent if still unfulfilled plans for a National
Park on Anegada), and numerous other government
officials. In 1987 we got the first flamingos from the
Bermuda Aquarium, Museum, and Zoo, through the
good offices of then-Director Richard Winchell.
These birds came with the stipulation that they had
to survive on Guana without being poached prior to
placing any on Anegada. I published my plans in a
local newspaper (Lazell 1987).
Guana Island and my organization, The Conser-
vation Agency (TCA), continued to work hand-in-
glove with Mr. Potter, the Deputy Governor Mr.
Elton Georges, National Parks Trust then-Director
Rob Norton, and government officials in general un-
til finally, on 7 March 1992, we were able to bring
18 flamingos from Bermuda to Anegada. There was
a great ceremony on that occasion, involving the
BVI's then-governor Peter Penfold, then-Deputy
Chief Minister Ralph O'Neal, then-Education Minis-
ter Louis Walters, Guana's owners Dr. Henry and
Gloria Jarecki, the prominent citizens of Anegada,
then-Director of NPT Rosmond DeRavariere, TCA's
Vice-President Dr. Numi Goodyear (Mitchell), and
many government officials. The proceedings were
accurately described by Goodyear (1992) for NPT


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LAZELL RESTORATION OF GREATER FLAMINGO TO ANEGADA


and in the local newspapers by Johnson (1992) and
Pickering (1992), the latter explicitly detailing the
long-standing and at last fulfilled flamingos for
iguanas trade I had envisioned and promised years
before. I describe these details and cite the contem-
poraneous media coverage because of the erroneous
assertion that iguanas "were moved without the per-
mission and involvement of the BVI govern-
ment" (Garcia 2001). Left uncorrected, and without
the context of the flamingos-for-iguanas restoration
project, this false statement could have seriously
deleterious ramifications adversely affecting NGO
projects in the BVI and ever farther afield.
Internationally, Barnes (1992) provided a good
account of the initial restoration and Conyers (1996)
and Colli (1996) documented the growth of the
population. Unfortunately, Raffaele et al. (1998)
made no mention of the Anegada (or other BVI)
population. Over the years the original Guana flock
dwindled as older birds died. By 1992, the remaining
four individuals left Guana frequently and visited
other BVI salt ponds. Far from being poached, they
were extremely popular and welcome wherever they
appeared. Conyers (1996) reported that four birds
joined the original 18 on Anegada, making 22 before
successful nesting 1995. These may have been the
four Guana survivors, but Conyers saw no bands on
them and believed all the birds from Bermuda car-
ried bands.
There are still seven non-breeding birds on Guana
Island, all replacements for the original seven of
1987. Attempts led by Dr. Caitlin O'Connell-
Rodwell, of Stanford University, to induce breeding
with artificial stimuli in this flock are scheduled for
2002. The Anegada population has grown regularly.
BVI NPT's Rondel Smith, long an active collabora-
tor with TCA on the flamingo and iguana project,
monitors the Anegada population. Christina Leahy, a
TCA volunteer, and Lianna Jarecki, Stoutt Commu-
nity College, Tortola, checked the Anegada popula-
tion and reported to me on 20 July 2001 that it totals
63 flamingos, including 11 young of the year.
I am indebted to so many people for the success
of this project that I can herein note only a few:
Richard Winchell and James Conyers from Ber-
muda, Governors David Barwick and Peter Penfold,
Deputy Governor Elton Georges, Chief Minister
Ralph O'Neal, Town and Country Planner Louis Pot-


ter, National Parks Trust Chairperson Janice George-
Creque, NPT Directors Nicholas Clarke, Rob Nor-
ton, Rosmond DeRavriere, and Joseph Smith-Abbot
of the BVI, Henry and Gloria Jarecki of Guana Is-
land, Tony Smith, Rondel Smith, Lowell and Sue
Wheatley, Herman Groezinger, and the late Clement
Faulkner of Anegada, and Numi (Goodyear)
Mitchell of The Conservation Agency. I am espe-
cially grateful to National Parks Trust staff who
monitor the flock and have been successfully respon-
sible for resolving human-flamingo conflicts.

LITERATURE CITED
ANONYMOUS. 1957. Schomburgk, Sir Robert
Hermann. Encyclopedia Britannica 20:83.
BARNES, J. A. 1992. Flamingos return to the B.V.I.
Forum News, NGO Forum for the U.K. Depend-
ent Territories 7:2.
COLLI, C. 1996. Return of the flamingos. Welcome,
BVI Tourist Guide 25(2):1-4.
CONYERS, J. 1996. The BVI flamingo restoration
project. Critter Talk, Newsletter of the Bermuda
Zoological Society 19(2):1-2.
GARCIA, M. 2001. Puerto Rico proposal. IUCN
Iguana Specialist Group Newsletter Supplement 4
(1):4.
GOODYEAR, N.C. 1992. Flamingos return to Ane-
gada: status update. National Parks Trust News,
BVI, August 1992:1.
JOHNSON, K. 1992. Anegada birds in the pink. The
BVI Beacon 8(38):1 + 14.
LAZELL, J. 1987. Flamingos, iguanas, and the resto-
ration of rare species. The Island Sun (BVI)
1307:14 + 22.
MIRECKI, D. N. 1977. Report of the Cambridge orni-
thological expedition to the British Virgin Is-
lands. Cambridge, UK: Bluebell.
PICKERING, V. 1992. Flamingos restored to Anegada.
The Island Sun (BVI) 1656:1 + 7.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Islands. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Uni-
versity Press.
SCHOMBURGK, R. H. 1832. Remarks on Anegada.
Journal of the Royal Geological Society 2:152-
170.


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STATUS OF THE CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION PROGRAM


XIOMARA GALVEZ, LEANDRO TORRELLA, AND MIGUEL MAGRANER
Empresa Nacionalpara la Protecci6n de la Flora y la Fauna, La Habana, Cuba



Abstract.-Although it is the largest bird in Cuba and the Caribbean islands, the Cuban Sandhill Crane's (Grus
canadensis nesiotes) ecology and reproductive biology have remained unstudied. Before 1994, when our research
began, only four supposedly isolated populations of cranes were recognized. Our study has had four general objec-
tives: (1) to determine the numbers of individuals in the different populations and examine the degree of protection
for each, (2) to evaluate the negative factors affecting the populations, (3) to develop a massive and systematic pro-
gram of environmental education for the crane and its environment, and (4) to expand the knowledge about the re-
productive ecology, molecular genetics, and habitat management for the species. In 1996, we determined the exis-
tence of 11 crane populations and identified four subpopulations with sufficient habitat to support a large number of
individuals. After six years of surveys and research, we have identified 13 localities in three islands in the Cuban
archipelago with 600 cranes. Many of these estimates are the result of counts made with the participation of the
local residents made during five popular festivals in various localities in Cuba. The majority of cranes is concen-
trated in the Isla de Pinos (Isla de la Juventud). From 1995 to 1999, we found 41 crane nests in that location, and 28
of those, containing a total of 50 eggs, were monitored through hatching. The reproductive period extends from late
February until early June, with March and April being the period of peak activity. The mean clutch size for 25 nests
was 1.77 eggs. From our observations, we determined cranes prefer dry, open habitat. At 17 measured nests, the
outside diameter varied from 40.0 to 94.0 cm, with a mean of 66.9 cm; the nest bowl diameter varied from 40.0 to
80.0 cm, with a mean of 60.2 cm. The distance between nests averaged 2.86 km. We report on the measurements of
11 eggs. The eggs of the Cuban population are smaller and weigh less than those of Florida cranes. Among the
most important actions to be effected are to: (1) determine size of crane populations in areas not yet surveyed, (2)
band and radio-mark several individuals in the Isla de Pinos population, (3) establish management techniques using
fire and change of grasses, and (4) continue the environmental education program throughout Cuba.

Resumen.-ESTADO DEL PROGRAM DE INVESTIGATION Y CONSERVATION DE LA GRULLA CUBANA. Es muy
poco lo que se conoce de la ecologia y reproducci6n de la Grulla Cubana (Grus canadensis nesiotes) a pesar de ser
el ave mas grande del pais y del Caribe insular. Antes de 1994, cuando se inicia este program, solo se conocian
cuatro poblaciones supuestamente aisladas. Los objetivos generals que pretendia cumplir eran: determinar la com-
posici6n numerica de las diferentes poblaciones y su grado de conservaci6n, evaluar los factors negatives, desarro-
llar un program de educaci6n ambiental masivo y sistematico, y ampliar los conocimientos acerca de la ecologia
reproductive, gen6tica molecular y manejo de habitat para esta especie. En 1996 se corrobor6 la existencia de 11
poblaciones y se identificaron cuatro subpoblaciones con habitat lo suficientemente extenso como para albergar un
gran numero de individuos. Luego de seis afios de busqueda e investigaci6n se han identificado 13 localidades en
tres de las islas del archipielago cubano con 600 individuos. Muchos de estos estimados son el resultado de conteos
realizados con la participaci6n de los pobladores locales en festivales populares celebrados en cinco ocasiones y en
varias localidades del pais. En la isla de Pinos (isla de la Juventud) se concentra la mayor poblaci6n de grullas. De
1995 a 1999 se localizaron 41 nidos en esta localidad, y 28 de ellos se monitorearon hasta la eclosi6n, registrandose
un total de 50 huevos. El period reproductive se extiende desde finales de febrero hasta principios de junio, siendo
un period de mayor actividad los meses de marzo y abril. El tamafio promedio de nidada en 25 nidos fue de 1.77
huevos. Segun las observaciones de este trabajo, las grullas prefieren habitats abiertos y secos. En las mediciones
efectuadas a 17 nidos, el diametro mayor vari6 de 40.0 a 94.0 cm., con una media de 66.9 cm., y el diametro menor
de 40.0 a 80.0 cm., promediando 60.2 cm. La distancia entire nidos tuvo una media de 2.86 km. Se midieron 11 hue-
vos, reportandose sus medidas. Se determine que los huevos de la subespecie cubana son de menor talla y peso que
los de la Florida. Como acciones futuras a realizar en el proyecto se destaca: conocer los efectivos poblacionales en
las localidades que faltan, anillar e identificar mediante radios algunos ejemplares de la poblaci6n de la isla de Pi-
nos, establecer t6cnicas de manejo del habitat con uso del fuego y cambio de pastos, y continuar la labor de educa-
ci6n ambiental en todo el pais.

Key words: breeding biology, conservation, Cuba, ecology, environmental education, Grus canadensis nesiotes,
population, Sandhill Crane, status


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GALVEZ ETAL.-CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION


INTRODUCTION
BEFORE HUMAN COLONIZATION, 90% of Cuba was
covered by forest, whereas grasslands did not occupy
extensive areas. Since colonization, harvest of pre-
cious wood has resulted in extensive deforestation.
Subsequently, plantations of crops, such as coffee,
tobacco, and sugarcane, occupied large areas of land.
By the end of the 19th century, original forests cov-
ered only 56% of the island, and by the mid-20th cen-
tury, only 14% remained in a relatively pristine state.
In the 1960s, a policy of systematic reforestation was
established in Cuba. Although forest cover has in-
creased to 22%, a high loss of biodiversity continues.
Historical reports suggest that the Cuban Sandhill
Crane (Grus canadensis nesiotes) depends on natural
grasslands and wetlands for breeding. These habitats
were never abundant in Cuba, but have not escaped
destruction by man. Grasslands and wetlands have
been subject to overexploitation, drainage, and the
effects of deforestation in upland areas, which have
resulted in changes in the seasonal hydrology and
ultimately in loss of crane nesting habitat.
Little is known about Cuban Sandhill Crane ecol-
ogy and reproduction despite the fact that it is the
largest bird in Cuba and the Caribbean islands, and is
considered endangered. Gundlach (1876) reported
Cuban Sandhill Cranes from the Cidnaga de Zapata,
Vifiales, east of Guamutas, and Isla de Pinos (now
Isla de la Juventud). Only four populations, believed
to be distinct, were known from the white sand
grasslands of Pinar del Rio, Isla de Pinos, Cidnaga de
Zapata, and Lesca grasslands (Garrido and Garcia
1975) until Berovides and Gilvez (1995) and Gilvez
and Perera (1995) reported additional crane popula-
tions.
In 1992, Gilvez and collaborators designed a pro-
ject that included research and conservation of crane
populations. It was not until 1994, however, with the
support of the International Crane Foundation, that
this project could be initiated, with the following ob-
jectives:
* Determine the distribution of Cuban Sandhill
Cranes throughout the country.
Determine the size of the distinct populations
and their status.
Evaluate factors that may be negatively affect-
ing the habitats of the populations.
Develop a wide-scale and systematic environ-
mental education program that would immedi-
ately address threats such as hunting and clear-
ing of riparian vegetation.


* Study the reproductive ecology of the crane.
* Conduct molecular genetics studies of the crane.
* Propose habitat management conducive to popu-
lation recovery.
Develop captive breeding techniques for even-
tual reintroduction of captive-produced cranes to
the wild.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Initially, a map of potential crane habitats was de-
veloped. These habitats originally occupied 30% of
the country but in many cases had been reduced or
eliminated by agricultural activity. Also, we solicited
public response to a series of questionnaires we de-
veloped and confirmed presence or absence of cranes
during visits to areas near open natural habitats that
we had identified.
We exhaustively surveyed the 23 localities in his-
torical reports and which were volunteered in re-
sponse to the questionnaires. From these surveys we
confirmed the existence of 11 crane populations in
1996 (Gflvez 1997). After preliminary visits to all
provinces in Cuba, we arrived at several conclusions
that allowed us to improve project design. Among
these conclusions was the fact that cranes that re-
mained in the 11 sites had been there for over 30
years, and habitat at all sites had suffered several al-
terations. Of the 11 verified subpopulations, 7 (64%)
were within protected areas. Local inhabitants were
unaware of the importance of the species and the
remnant habitat patches where cranes were still
found. We determined that development of a census-
ing method that targeted these remaining popula-
tions, spread over a wide area, was needed.
This initial fieldwork also allowed us to identify
general threats to the habitat and thus make a pre-
liminary list of the conservation issues:
* A large percentage of wetlands has been drained
and converted to agriculture, mainly sugar cane.
Other wetlands have been drained for peat ex-
traction and channels and dikes have been built,
altering the hydrology in some coastal grass-
lands.
Fire suppression in some grasslands has encour-
aged conversion to thick brush in areas that pre-
viously were used by cranes.
Destruction of native vegetation and soil erosion
has occurred because of intensive cattle grazing.
Deforestation has occurred around flooded areas
with resulting loss of protection and balance of


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GALVEZ ETAL.--CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION


Table 1. Populations of the Cuban Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis nesiotes) at 13 sites as determined by surveys, 1994-


Locality


Estimated population size


Comments


Pinar del Rio
Matanzas

Isla de Pinos

Sancti Spiritus
Ciego de Avila

Camagiley
Granma


Ci6naga de Zapata
Ci6naga Majadigal


Yaguajay
Moron
Southern section
Northern section
Biramas


Fewer than 50
At least 130
Fewer than 30
115(1995)
170 (1998)
74
107
Fewer than 30
60
Unconfirmed


Composed of 2 groups


Composed of 3 groups


hydrological regimes.
Introduced mammals, such as dogs, cats, feral
pigs, and mongooses, have depredated crane
eggs and chicks.
We discovered poaching, especially in the cen-
tral and western regions of Cuba.
In Pinar del Rio and Isla de Pinos, natural grass-
lands with open pine groves of Pinus tropicalis
have been converted to pine plantations of Pinus
caribea.
During this period, four subpopulations were deter-
mined to have sufficient habitat to sustain a large
number of individuals. Development of a censusing
technique to determine actual size of each population
is needed.
After six years (1994-1999) of research, 13 sites
on three islands of the archipelago (Cuba, Isla de Pi-
nos, and Cayo Romano) have been identified as hav-
ing crane populations. Total crane numbers have
been estimated at 600 individuals (Table 1). Many of
these population estimates result from counts per-
formed with the participation of local people. Involv-
ing the communities around sites where cranes are
found is an important component of the project. This
commitment is a part of the environmental education
program and the popular Support Endangered Birds
festivals that have been celebrated on five occasions
in several localities throughout the country (Gilvez
et al. 1999). An indication of the success of our envi-
ronmental education program is the crane population
increase (from 115 cranes in 1995, to 170 in 1998) in
Isla de Pinos since initiating our conservation efforts
(Table 1).
The research to determine basic biology of the


sandhill crane has been conducted primarily in the
Isla de Pinos, where the largest population is found.
Investigations are based at Los Indios Ecological
Reserve. Population estimates of Cuban Sandhill
Cranes were conducted in this reserve as early as
1989, 1991, and 1992, when an estimated 32 indi-
viduals survived (Berovides and Gflvez 1995). In the
future, results from these efforts will be used as a
tool to recommend management strategies for other
Cuban Sandhill Crane populations.
Isla de Pinos is second in size and importance of
the more than 4000 islands and cays that compose
the Cuban archipelago. The Cidnaga de Lanier di-
vides the island into two areas that have completely
different soil and vegetation types. The southern sec-
tion is characterized by karstic soils covered by
semideciduous forest that is relatively well pre-
served, whereas the northern section is characterized
by a dome-like elevation, with a radial hydrological
net and a series of eroded and denuded plains where
different vegetation types have been established. The
largest extensions of these plains are occupied by
pines and palm savannas, especially in the western
plains. In the grasslands of northern Cidnaga de
Lanier, both the Cuban Sandhill Crane and Cuban
Parrot (Amazona leucocephala) are found, especially
in the Los Indios Ecological Reserve.
From 1995 to 1999, 41 crane nests were found, 28
of which we monitored until hatching and produced
50 eggs. Nests were located primarily by searching
on foot (because of lack of transportation), which
made coverage of the 3500-ha area difficult. The
breeding period is from late February until early
June, with activity peaks in March and April. These
dates coincide with data from Bennett and Bennett


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GALVEZ ETAL.-CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION


(1990) and Dwyer and Tanner (1992) for Grus cana-
densis pratensis in Florida.
Layne (1983) and Bennett and Bennett (1990) re-
ported that rains during the dry season (before nest-
ing season) correlated with breeding success,
whereas rains in the spring lowered breeding success
because of flooding of nests and mortality of chicks
due to pneumonia. In Cuba, a similar situation oc-
curs, except the rains before nesting occur in October
and November and not in December as on the conti-
nent. In nests monitored in 1997 and in 1999, when
precipitation was lower than the historical average,
we found an increase in reproductive success. Un-
doubtedly, favorable climate conditions, coupled
with changes in management policies in the reserve
(cattle were restricted from the area and anti-fire
trenches were dug in 1996), have contributed to
these results.
Average clutch size per nest (N = 25) was 1.77,
similar to 1.72 found by Nesbitt (1988) in the Florida
subspecies. During our study, we observed an in-
crease in pairs with chicks and the number of chicks
per 100 adults, which reached 28.5. Number of nests
lost also decreased during the years of our study, in
1999 reaching 14.7%, which is similar to the 15%
reported for G. c. pratensis by Dwyer (1990) and
Dwyer and Tanner (1992).
Our observations indicate that cranes prefer open
and dry habitats, similar to the observations of
Walkinshaw (1982) and Dwyer (1990). It appears
that the Cuban subspecies of crane prefers to nest on
dry soils. Nests are constructed on quartz-sand soils
and iron-quartz soils, with sparse natural grasses or
pines. Trees and shrubs are also sparse and dis-
persed. Palm and pine shrubs are isolated and the
herbaceous layer is composed of Ciperaceae, Erio-
caulaceae, and Poaceae. Nests are placed in open
areas within the grasslands and are readily visible,
although they are typically near dense vegetation that
functions as a visual barrier to other pairs. These
"screens" were usually 24-60 m from the crane nest.
Most nests were small, some barely visible as the
slope of the terrain increased. Distance between nests
averaged 2.86 km.
The predominant species of herbs are Sorghastrum
sp. and Trachypogon filifolius, which is used in nest
construction. The herbaceous material is sometimes
so sparse that nests are minimal and eggs are laid
directly on the sandy soil. Mean nest depth was 3.4
cm (R = 0.9 to 7.0 cm). Because cranes prefer dry
soils vs. flooded areas for nesting, nest depth in Cuba
was much lower than values reported by Thompson
(1970) for Florida cranes. In 1995, however, we ob-


served a nest that the pair reinforced as the May rains
intensified, eventually reaching a depth of 5-15 cm.
Nests (N = 17) averaged 66.9 cm (R = 40.0-94.0 cm)
in outside diameter, and 60.2 cm (R = 40.0 to 80.0
cm) in inside diameter.
We measured 11 infertile or abandoned eggs,
which averaged 90.72 mm (R = 85.55-97.00) x
56.55 mm (R = 51.31-60.65). Weights averaged
127.2 g (R = 99.8-107.6). Walkinshaw (1982) ob-
tained values for 168 G. c. pratensis eggs, which av-
eraged 93.5 mm (80.9-107.6 mm) x 59.8 mm (53.7-
67.0 mm), and 168.7 g. Although our sample size
was smaller, these values suggest that the eggs of the
Cuban subspecies are smaller in size and mass than
those of Florida birds. We have also observed differ-
ent color patterns in these birds compared with the
mainland birds.
In all observations, pairs with chicks were found
on sandy quartz soils where sparse pines predomi-
nated.
During the initial stages of our investigations, we
have:
* Updated distribution of the Cuban Sandhill
Crane.
Implemented censusing methods that allowed
estimation of the populations in Cuba.
Identified conservation issues and the threats to
the habitat in the four populations that will de-
termine survival of the species.
Implemented massive environmental education
campaigns in the provinces where the four crane
populations are found with the goal of increas-
ing awareness about the species and interest in
saving it.
Increased knowledge of crane biology and their
relationship to the ecosystem, which has allowed
us to identify some management actions such as
controlled burns, which will be initiated shortly.
Initiated collection of tissue samples for genetic
studies that will help to guide management and
conservation.

FUTURE PLANS
Our future plans are to:
Estimate numbers in localities not visited to
date.
Conduct an ecological evaluation of habitat
characteristics for those populations outside
protected areas and propose these areas for in-
clusion in the national system of protected ar-
eas.
Band and place radiotransmitters on some indi-
viduals in Isla de Pinos to study population pa-


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GALVEZ ETAL.-CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION


rameters, movements, habitat selection, and
inter- and intraspecific relationships.
Continue studies on reproductive biology.
Establish management techniques using fire
and planting of grasses to restore and recover
nesting habitat.
Determine carrying capacity for small popula-
tions before instituting management techniques
favoring increase in populations.
Continue the environmental education program
and systematically present it in all areas near
the 13 crane populations identified.
Establish a captive population to increase our
knowledge of reproductive biology and recu-
perate decimated populations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Felicity Arengo of Wildlife Conserva-
tion Society for the first review of the English ver-
sion manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED
BENNETT, A. J., AND L. A. BENNETT. 1990. Produc-
tivity of Florida Sandhill Cranes in the Oke-
fenokee Swamp, Georgia. J. Field Omithol. 61
(2):224-231.
BEROVIDES, V., AND X. GALVEZ. 1995. Situaci6n
poblacional de la Grulla Cubana (Grus canadensis
nesiotes). Rev. Cub. Cienc. Vet. 24(2):3-5.
DWYER, N. 1990. Nesting ecology and nest-site se-
lection of Florida Sandhill Cranes. M.Sc. thesis.


Univ. Florida.
DWYER, N. C., AND G. W. TANNER. 1992. Nesting
success in Florida Sandhill Cranes. Wilson Bull.
104(1):22-31.
GALVEZ, X. 1997. La Grulla en Cuba. Flora y Fauna
1(1):3-9.
GALVEZ, X., V. BEROVIDES, J. W. WILEY, AND J.
RIVERA. 1999. Population size of Cuban Parrots
Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus
canadensis and community involvement in their
conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba.
Bird Conserv. Internat. 9:97-112.
GALVEZ, X., AND A. PERERA. 1995. A crane conser-
vation revival in Cuba. ICF Bugle 21(1):2-3.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND F. GARCIA. 1975. Catalogo de
las aves de Cuba. La Habana: Academia de Cien-
cias de Cuba.
GUNDLACH, J. 1876. Contribuci6n a la ornitologia
cubana. La Habana, Cuba: Imp. LaAntilla.
LAYNE, J. N. 1983. Productivity of Sandhill Cranes
in south central Florida. J. Wildl. Manage. 47
(1):178-185.
NESBITT, S. A. 1988. Nesting, renesting, and ma-
nipulating nesting of Florida Sandhill Cranes. J.
Wildl. Manage. 52(4):758-763.
THOMPSON, R. L. 1970. Florida Sandhill Crane nest-
ing on the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge.
Auk 87:492-502.
WALKINSHAW, L. H. 1982. Nesting of the Florida
Sandhill Crane in central Florida. Pp: 53-62 in
Proc. 1981 Crane Workshop (Lewis, J. C., ed.).
Tavernier, Florida: National Audubon Society.


REVIEWERS FOR VOLUME 14

The Editor sincerely thanks the following persons for their help in refereeing manuscripts for volume 14 of El
Pitirre: Wayne J. Arendt, Felicity Arengo, Marcia Beltrd, Pedro Blanco, Philippe Feldmann, Xiomara Ghlvez,
Floyd Hayes, Osvaldo Jim6nez-Vazquez, James Kushlan, Steven Latta, Shawn O'Brien, Juana Pefia, Jos6
Placer, Alma Ramirez, Barbara Sanchez, Nancy Staus, William Suarez, Adrianne G. Tossas, and Joseph M.
Wunderle, Jr.


El Pitirre 14(3)


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REGISTROS ORNITOLOGICOS EN RESIDUARIOS DE DIETA DE LOS ABORIGENES
PRECERAMICOS CUBANOS

OSVALDO JIMENEZ-VAZQUEZ
aDepartamento de Colecciones, Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, Carretera de Varona, Km 3 Capdevila, Boyeros, AP
8029, CP 10800, La Habana, Cuba; y Grupo Espeleol6gico Pedro A. Borrds, Sociedad Espeleol6gica de Cuba


Resumen.-Se present el registro orito-arqueol6gico obtenido en residuarios de dieta de los preceramicos (= Ca-
simiroide) cubanos. Estos sitios arqueol6gicos presentan una tradici6n mesolitica y se encuentran localizados en las
provincias de Pinar del Rio, La Habana, Ciudad de la Habana y Matanzas. Se identifican por primera vez para con-
textos arqueol6gicos precolombinos doce species de aves, de las cuales una, Nesotrochis picapicensis Fischer y
Stephen, 1971, se extingui6, posiblemente entire los siglos XV111 y X1X. Son analizadas preliminarmente las afecta-
ciones que sufrieron los huesos durante el process de preparaci6n de las aves para su consume. Como materials de
referencia se utilizaron 123 huesos procedentes de ocho sitios arqueol6gicos.
Palabras claves: Cuba, Nesotrochis picapicensis, precerdmicos, registros

Abstract.-ORNITHOLOGICAL RECORDS IN THE KITCHEN MIDDENS OF PRECERAMIC ABORIGINES OF CUBA. Orito-
archaeological records in Cuban preceramic kitchen middens are presented herein. Those archaeological sites are
Mesolithic tradition (= Casimiroid) and are in Pinar del Rio, La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, and Matanzas prov-
inces. Twelve species are identified for the first time in pre-Columbian archaeological strata. Only one, Nesotrochis
picapicensis Fischer y Stephen, 1971, is extinct, perhaps disappearing in the 18th or 19th centuries. The effects of fire
and butchery detected in bones, originated during the birds' cooking process and consumption, are analyzed prelimi-
nary. The reference materials consist of 123 bones collected in eight archaeological sites.
Key words: Cuba, extinct, harvest, kitchen midden, Nesotrochis picapicensis, predation, record


INTRODUCTION
LA ESCASA FRECUENCIA CON QUE SE presentan los
hallazgos de restos 6seos de aves en los yacimientos
de vertebrados, es un fen6meno reconocido intema-
cionalmente (Morales 1993). En el area antillana se
registra el sitio agroalfarero Hemrndez-Col6n, en
Puerto Rico, como el mis important por la abun-
dancia de evidencias de aves consumidas, en total se
colectaron 641 huesos (N.M.I. = 149), correspon-
dientes a 18 species (Maiz 1996). En el archipidlago
cubano el tema de la ornito-arqueologia ha sido abor-
dado insuficientemente, tratindose la identificaci6n
de las aves solo a nivel de clase (Pino 1970, Marti-
nez 1987, Cordoba et al. 1997). La finica ave identi-
ficada con anterioridad a nivel especifico en sitios
precerimicos es Nesotrochis picapicensis (Jim6nez
1997). En el present trabajo damos a conocer los
resultados de nuestros studios en el tema de la orni-
to-arqueologia, haciendo referencia a algunos sitios
precerimicos mesoliticos del centro y occidente de
Cuba. Estos sitios estin ubicados en las provincias
de Matanzas, Ciudad de la Habana, La Habana y Pi-
nar del Rio. Se registran doce species de aves cono-
cidas por primera vez para estos contextos y se anali-
za preliminarmente el procesamiento de las aves para
su consume, tomando como referencia materials
6seos de N. picapicensis (rallidae),especie actual-


mente extinguida, cuyos restos son abundantes en
sitios indocubanos mesoliticos (Jim6nez 1997; en
prensa). Se utiliza asi mismo informaci6n obtenida
mediante comunicaciones personales.


MATERIALS Y METODOS
En el present studio se utilizaron 123 huesos de
aves (Anexo 1) incluidas en la dieta aborigen, proce-
dentes de las siguientes localidades: Cueva de la Ca-
chimba (Sitio de habitaci6n "mesolitico"), El Ingl6s,
municipio Matanzas, provincia de Matanzas; Cueva
del Cobo (Paradero mesolitico), Finca Siete Cuevas,
municipio Bejucal, provincia La Habana; Cueva del
Hueso (Paradero y cementerio mesolitico), alturas de
Managuaco, municipio San Jos6 de las Lajas, provin-
cia La Habana; Cueva del Infierno (Paradero y ce-
menterio mesolitico), Alturas de San Francisco Ja-
vier, Pedro Pi, municipio San Jos6 de las Lajas, pro-
vincia La Habana; Cuevas Blancas (Paradero mesoli-
tico), Aguacate, municipio Quivicin, provincia La
Habana; Solapa de la Antena (Paradero mesolitico),
alturas del Cacahual, municipio Boyeros, provincia
Ciudad de La Habana; Cueva de Jos6 Brea (Paradero
mesolitico), Pan de Azficar, municipio Vifiales, pro-
vincia Pinar del Rio; Cayo Redondo (Sitio mesoliti-
co), ensenada de Juan L6pez, Bahia Guardiana, mu-
nicipio Sandino, provincia Pinar del Rio. El grado de


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JEMENEZ-VAZQUEZ- REGISTROS ORNITOLOGICOS DE SITIOS PRECERAMICOS DE CUBA


cremaci6n de los huesos se determine con el auxilio
de la metodologia termocolorim6trica de Rodriguez
(1987). Para la identificaci6n taxon6mica de las es-
pecies se us6 el material osteol6gico de referencia
depositado en el Departamento de Colecciones del
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemdtica (IES). El material
arqueol6gico estudiado se encuentra depositado en la
colecci6n de Mamiferos y Vertebrados F6siles del
Cuatemario, del Departamento de Colecciones del
IES. Los nuimeros asignados a los huesos en el
Anexo 1 no son definitivos, sino numeraci6n de
campo, debido a que actualmente se realizan reajus-
tes en las colecciones. Las siglas que acompafian a la
numeraci6n de los materials 6seos correspondent a
las Colecciones del Instituto de Zoologia de la Aca-
demia de Ciencias de Cuba (CZACC).


RESULTADOS Y DISCUSSION
La omitofauna actual del archipidlago cubano esta
representada por unas 364 species entire residents,
migratorias y accidentales (Raffaele et al. 1998). En
yacimientos cavemarios no culturales del Cuatema-
rio de Cuba se conocen unas 60 species de aves
(Arredondo 1984; Olson 1985; Olson y Kurochkin
1987; Jim6nez 1997; Suarez y Arredondo 1997; Sua-
rez 2001a, 2001b; Suarez y Olson 2001). Por otra
parte los cronistas de la conquista dejaron constancia
de la biodiversidad de aves observadas por ellos en
diferentes lugares del archipidlago. Resulta pues con-
tradictorio que en los asentamientos de los hombres
precolombinos cubanos sean poco frecuentes los
hallazgos de restos de estos vertebrados, mis entire
los aborigenes de economic de apropiaci6n, tomando
en cuenta que las aves y sus products han sido re-
cursos localmente importantes para los recolectores-
cazadores (Morales 1993). Consideramos que en este
fen6meno existen tres razones principles: 1) la difi-
cultad que implicaba la caza de las aves con el uso
de t6cnicas poco efectivas; 2) los modos de consume
de las aves, cuyos huesos eran fracturados para obte-
ner la m6dula como fuente important de proteinas; y
3) la fragilidad de los huesos, que incide en que pue-
dan desaparecer en los yacimientos debido a los pro-
cesos diagen6ticos. Estimamos que la conjunci6n de
estos tres factors es la causa determinante de la es-
casez de huesos de aves en los sitios habitados por
los aborigenes cubanos. Los materials estudiados se
han colectado siempre asociados a sitios de habita-
ci6n, en areas de fogones, espacios estos donde
abundan los carbones de madera y las cenizas, asi
como los restos 6seos cremados de roedores, insecti-
voros, reptiles, moluscos y crusticeos, taxones que
comfinmente se encuentran entire los restos de la die-


ta. Seis de los sitios estudiados esthn localizados ac-
tualmente en bosques semideciduos en tierras inte-
riores, uno en bosque semideciduo y matorral xero-
morfo pr6ximo a la costa norte (+2 km) y uno en un
pequefio cayo en medio de manglares, este fultimo al
aire libre y los restantes en espeluncas. Los aborige-
nes que habitaron estos espacios eran representantes
de comunidades primitivas de la fase pescadores-
recolectores enmarcados en la etapa de economic de
apropiaci6n, que practicaban el sistema de asenta-
miento consistent en la reuni6n de la comunidad en
campamentos ubicados en llanura costera durante la
estaci6n seca y dispersi6n de la misma hacia campa-
mentos en la cordillera durante la estaci6n lluviosa
en los que se ponian en practice models subsisten-
ciales acorde con el espectro de recursos naturales
apropiables existentes en cada medio particular y
ciclo estacional (Alonso 1995a). Jim6nez-Vazquez
(1995b) expuso que la omitofauna mas comfinmente
obtenida por los aborigenes mesoliticos en los eco-
sistemas boscosos, debieron ser los columbiformes
tomando en cuenta sus hdbitos gregarios y abundan-
cia en el pasado precolombino. No obstante la prue-
ba arqueol6gica present muestra que el grupo mejor
representado, al menos en los sitios estudiados, es el
de las gallinuelas familiara Rallidae), con las species
N. picapicensis, Porphyrula martinica, Laterallus
jamaicensis y Cyanolimnas cerverai, siguiendole en
importancia los columbiformes, hecho este que coin-
cide con la informaci6n procedente de otros territo-
rios antillanos en los cuales las ralidas y los colimbi-
dos se encuentran entire los recursos omitol6gicos
mas explotados (Wing 2001). Es possible que las r6li-
das fueran menos dificiles de capturar debido a que
su vuelo no es rdpido y su hMbitat se encontraba en
las proximidades de los sitios seleccionados por el
hombre. Particularmente fdciles de obtener debieron
ser Nesotrochis y Cyanolimnas ya que son menos
aptas para el vuelo que las restantes ralidas cubanas,
este fen6meno de aves poco especializadas para el
vuelo es tipico de las islas (Olson 1977). P6rez-Beato
(1942) cita que el padre Las Casas observ6 como los
indios Tainos cazaban las gallinuelas del g6nero Ne-
sotrochis.
"Hay unas aves que vuelan cuasi junto al suelo
que los indios llamaban Bidyas, la media silaba
luenga, y los indios corriendo las alcanzaban y
tambi6n con perros."
Un dato interesante sobre la caza actual de galli-
nuelas nos lo ha trasmitido el omit6logo Dr. Martin
Acosta, professor de la facultad de Biologia, Univer-
sidad de La Habana. En viajes a las arroceras del sur
del Jibaro, provincia de Sancti Spiritus, ha observado
que los habitantes de las comunidades rurales cerca-


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JIMENEZ-VAZQUEZ- REGISTROS ORNITOLOGICOS DE SITIOS PRECERAMICOS DE CUBA


nas cazan grandes cantidades de estas aves acuiticas,
simplemente corri6ndoles detris y golpeandolas con
una madera. Esta misma modalidad de caza de Neso-
trochis parece que fue practicada por antiguos nati-
vos de Virgen Gorda, islas Virgenes, en Puerto Rico
(Olson 1977). De esta misma manera las pudieron
capturar los indocubanos preagroalfareros
Se ha planteado tambidn (Alonso 1995b) que un
consume important de aves recay6 sobre pichones
capturados en los nidos antes de aprender a volar.
Consideramos que esta hip6tesis no es descartable,
pues en los grupos de aves nidicolas los pichones
pocoo antes de comenzar a volar) alcanzan hasta casi
el double del peso corporal de los adults (O'Connor
1977, Gonzalez et al. 1992) resultando una fuente
important de alimento solo durante una etapa de la
6poca de cria. La muestra analizada arroj6 que el
97.5% de las evidencias 6seas correspondent a indivi-
duos adults, solo tres huesos pertenecian a juveni-
les. Esto pudiera deberse a que sus huesos, muy frd-
giles por no estar ain osificados, no se conservaron
hasta hoy en los residuarios, o eran consumidos to-
talmente por el hombre.
El g6nero Porphyrula se ha registrado en yaci-
mientos culturales precolombinos de las islas de St.
Kitts, Antigua, Martinica y Barbados, en las Antillas
Menores (Pregill et al. 1994).y en subproductos de la
dieta de sitios de La Espafiola y Puerto Rico son co-
munes las evidencias de otras species de Nesotro-
chis (Olson 1974). Las aves no eran utilizadas sola-
mente como recursos alimenticios por los grupos
precerimicos de Cuba, tambidn elaboraban colgantes
a partir de sus huesos quizis con una funci6n ritual.
En el sitio arqueol6gico mesolitico Solapa del Silex,
ubicado en las alturas del Cacahual, hacia el centro
de las provincias habaneras, se hallaron dos pendien-
tes facturados en huesos largos de aves mostrando
perforaci6n bic6nica (Cordoba et al. 1997).
En los sitios cubanos de la cultural agroalfarera los
restos de las aves deberian ser mis comunes que en
los asentamientos precerimicos; aunque hasta el mo-
mento no conocemos registros, se poseen informa-
ciones de los cronistas que exponen que los indios
Tainos tenian en cautiverio algunas species. Gonza-
lo Fernfndez de Oviedo (1970) describi6 de Cuba el
mantenimiento como aves dom6sticas de "pequefias
perdices," cuya descripci6n se aproxima a la de las
palomas terrestres de los g6neros Starnoenas o Geo-
trygon, colimbidos actualmente escasos, pero abun-
dantes en el pasado.
"Pero hay en la dicha isla de Cuba una manera
de perdices que son pequefias, y son casi de es-
pecie de t6rtolas en la pluma, pero muy mejores


en el sabor, y t6manse en grandisimo nfimero; y
traidas vivas a casa y bravas, en tres o cuatro
dias andan tan dom6sticas como si en casa na-
cieran, y engordan en much manera; y sin du-
da es un manjar muy delicado en el sabor, y que
yo le tengo por mejor que las perdices de Espa-
fia, por que no son de tan recia digestion."
Posiblemente una pesquisa arqueol6gica mis intense
en la region oriental de Cuba, donde los grupos
agroalfareros eran mis abundantes, arroje evidencias
importantes de este grupo faunistico.

Procesamiento de las Aves para el Consumo
El studio de las tradiciones practicadas por los
aborigenes preceramicos cubanos, en cuanto a la pre-
paraci6n de las aves con el fin de consumirlas, no ha
sido abordado hasta el present. Intentaremos en las
siguientes lines exponer algunas consideraciones
preliminares sobre este aspect. En el anhlisis se ha
utilizado huesos de la especie extinta de ralida N.
picapicensis llamada por nuestros aborigenes agroal-
fareros Biaya o Bambiaya (Jim6nez 1997a). Esta ave
es muy abundante en los sitios arqueol6gicos de Cu-
ba, la Espafiola (Nesotrochis steganinos), Puerto Ri-
co e Islas Virgenes ( .... r .... I/, debooyi), ya que era
de gran talla, cames apreciables y capture facil, debi-
do a su poca capacidad de vuelo. En el material utili-
zado se observaron determinadas regularidades aso-
ciadas comuinmente con las actividades econ6micas
practicadas por nuestros aborigenes como son: A-
los patrons de fractures, que es possible se relacio-
nen con la practice de la obtenci6n de la m6dula, ya
que se observan frecuencias en las areas afectadas;
B- la muestra esta compuesta fundamentalmente por
elements 6seos del esqueleto apendicular en los
cuales se ubican las mayores concentraciones de bio-
masa comestible, la ausencia de los elements 6seos
del esqueleto axial se debe posiblemente a p6rdida
tafon6mica es decir desaparecieron por el efecto de
agents como el calor excesivo producido por las
hogueras, la humedad, la actividad biol6gica, etc.;
C- las huellas de exposici6n al fuego observadas en
determinados huesos producidas por la cremaci6n
postdeposicional. La informaci6n ecol6gica de las
species identificadas permit decir que las press
eran obtenidas en las proximidades de los asenta-
mientos seleccionados, en areas de lagunas y rios
donde habitaban estas aves acuiticas, luego eran
trasladadas al campamento donde se procesaban para
el consume (despiece, cocci6n). Despu6s de consu-
midas las carnes se fracturaban los huesos largos pa-
ra succionar la m6dula, las fractures eran efectuadas
con un artefacto percutor o simplemente presionando


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JIMENEZ-VAZQUEZ- REGISTROS ORNITOLOGICOS DE SITIOS PRECERAMICOS DE CUBA


los huesos con los dientes. Posteriormente se dese-
chaban al fuego los restos, que se cremaban debido a
la practice reiterada en el mismo espacio de activida-
des de cocci6n, ya que es sabido que los huesos de
animals sometidos al calor teniendo tejido muscu-
lar, tendinoso y sangre no se queman, generalmente
adquieren una coloraci6n amarillenta como resultado
de una cocci6n incomplete (Jim6nez, en prensa).
Brothwell (1994) ha planteado, basindose en estu-
dios sobre restos 6seos humans cremados, que
cuando ocurre cremaci6n sobre los huesos, en pre-
sencia de tejidos blandos, estos adquieren una tonali-
dad negrusca acompafiada de brillo; sin embargo
nuestra experiencia arroja que esto se produce cuan-
do la combustion es direct e intense. Las evidencias
de aves soportaron indices de calor de aproximada-
mente 2000C a juzgar por las tonalidades de color
que presentan los huesos, entire carmelita claro y car-
melita oscuro (Rodriguez 1987). Se pudo comprobar,
como plantea Nicholson (1995), que la escala color-
temperatura obtenida para huesos de mamiferos y
peces arroja resultados similares a los obtenidos en el
studio de restos 6seos de aves. Las fractures antr6-
picas apreciadas (Anexo 2) han afectado principal-
mente las regions proximales y distales de los hue-
sos largos (95%) con el fin de eliminar las parties mis
compactas del hueso y consumer la m6dula contenida
en la didfisis. Se aprovecharon huesos como el
hiumero y el tarsometatarso, que contienen una canti-
dad minima de m6dula, lo cual podria estar relacio-
nado con las urgencias alimentarias provocadas por
la escasez de recursos tr6ficos en determinada 6poca
del afio. En los materials estudiados no se observa-
ron cortes producidos por herramientas de silex, los
cuales se localizan frecuentemente en areas anat6mi-
cas especificas como las epifisis distales y proxima-
les (P6rez-Ripoll 1992) y que se produce durante el
process de despiece de las aves. Determinados mate-
riales, en particular la muestra procedente de la Cue-
va del Cobo, en el municipio de Bejucal, provincia
La Habana, permiten apreciar marcas tipicas produ-
cidas por las mordeduras de roedores muridos
(Rattus sp.), estas se caracterizan como surcos para-
lelos de poca profundidad y ancho y frecuentemente
perforan las paredes de los huesos hasta las cavidad
medular. Este process se produjo en 6pocas posterio-
res al enterramiento de los materials, pues como se
sabe estos roedores cavadores de galerias coloniza-
ron el territorio cubano con posterioridad a la llegada
de los hispanos.


AGRADECIMIENTO


A los compafieros Dr. Gabino La Roza Corzo
(Centro de Antropologia), Arq. Jorge Garcel
(Director Museo Hist6rico Municipal de San Jos6 de
las Lajas) y Oscar Sanchez (Secretario Cientifico del
Comit6 Espeleol6gico de la provincia La Habana);
por facilitarme los materials 6seos para su studio.
Al paleont6logo Oscar Arredondo (T) quien me brin-
d6 desinteresadamente sus conocimientos y expe-
riencias. A Roger Arrazcaeta, arque6logo, Director
del Gabinete de Arqueologia de la Oficina del Histo-
riador de la Ciudad de la Habana y al arque6logo
Rolando Crespo compafiero de tantos viajes, arque6-
logo, de la misma instituci6n. Al Dr. William Suarez
(Museo Nacional de Historia Natural) quien me
auxili6 en la identificaci6n taxon6mica de las espe-
cies. A los licenciados Marjorie M. Condis y Elier
Fonseca (Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemitica.) por la
elaboraci6n de las imagenes y las atinadas opinions.


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ALONSO, E. M. 1995b. Fundamentos para la historic
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JIMENEZ-VAZQUEZ- REGISTROS ORNITOLOGICOS DE SITIOS PRECERAMICOS DE CUBA


ANEXO 1. Material 6seo estudiado de sitios arqueol6gicos en las provincias de Pinar del Rio, La Habana, Ciudad de La Haba-
na y Matanzas, Cuba.


Nesotrochis picapicensis (Biaya)
Cuevas Blancas
CZACC 1.1-f6mur der. sin extreme distal, CZACC 1.2-
femur izq. sin extreme distal, CZACC 1.3-diafisis f6mur
izq., CZACC 1.4-extremo distal tibiotarso izq., CZACC
1.5-extremo distal tibiotarso (cremado), CZACC 1.6-
diafisis tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.7-diafisis tibiotarso izq.
(cremada), CZACC 1.8-diafisis tibiotarso der., CZACC
1.9-diafisis tibiotarso der. (cremada), CZACC 1.10-
diafisis tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.11-diafisis tibiotarso
der., CZACC 1.12-humero der. sin epifisis proximal.
Cueva del Cobo
CZACC 1.13-diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC 1.14-diafisis
femur izq., CZACC 1.15-diafisis tibiotarso der., CZACC
1.16-diafisis f6mur der. (cremado), CZACC 1.17- diafisis
tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.18-diafisis tibiotarso izq.,
CZACC 1.19-extremo distal tibiotarso der., CZACC
1.20-extremo distal tibiotarso izq. (cremado), CZACC
1.21-diafisis tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.22-diafisis f6mur
izq., CZACC 1.23-diafisis f6mur izq. (cremado), CZACC
1.24-extremo distal tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.25-extremo
proximal f6mur izq., CZACC 1.26-extremo proximal fe-
mur der., CZACC 1.27-tarsometatarso der. sin epifisis
proximal y tr6cleas rotas, CZACC 1.28-tarsometatarso
izq. sin epifisis proximal y trocleas rotas, CZACC 1.29-
tibiotarso izq. sin epifisis, CZACC 1.30-tibiotarso der. sin
epifisis, CZACC 1.31-extremo distal tibiotarso der.,
CZACC 1.32-diafisis tibiotarso der., CZACC 1.33-
extremo distal tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.34-diafisis f6mur
der., CZACC 1.35-diafisis f6mur der., CZACC 1.36-
diafisis femur der., CZACC 1.37-tarsometatarso izq. sin
extreme proximal ni tr6cleas, CZACC 1.38-extremo dis-
tal tarsometatarso izq.
Solapa de la Antena
CZACC 1.39-Diafisis tibiotarso der. (cremado), CZACC
1.40-extremo distal tibiotarso izq. (cremado), CZACC
1.41-dos falanges (cremadas).
Cueva del Infierno
CZACC 1.42-diafisis f6mur der. (cremada), CZACC
1.43-diafisis f6mur der., CZACC 1.44-extremo distal
tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.45-diafisis f6mur der., CZACC
1.46-extremo distal tarsometatarso izq., CZACC 1.47-
diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC 1.48-diafisis f6mur izq.
(cremado), CZACC 1.49-diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC
1.50-falange, CZACC 1.51-diafisis tibiotarso izq.,
CZACC 1.52-diafisis f6mur der., CZACC 1.53-diafisis
tibiotarso der., CZACC 1.54-extremo distal tibiotarso
izq., CZACC 1.55-diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC 1.56-
extremo distal tibiotarso der., CZACC 1.57-extremo
proximal tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.58-extremo proximal
femur izq. (cremado), CZACC 1.59-diafisis f6mur izq. sin
epifisis juvenile) CZACC 1.60-diafisis f6mur izq.,
CZACC 1.61-diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC 1.62-extremo
distal tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.63-diafisis f6mur izq.
juvenile) CZACC 1.64-tibiotarso izq. sin epifisis proxi-


mal (cremado), CZACC 1.65-tibiotarso izq. sin epifisis
proximal, CZACC 1.66-extremo distal tarsometatarso
izq. juvenile) CZACC 1.67-diafisis tibiotarso der.,
CZACC 1.68-diafisis tibiotarso der., CZACC 1.69-
tibiotarso sin extreme medio proximal, CZACC 1.70-
diafisis f6mur der., CZACC 1.71-diafisis f6mur izq.
(cremado), CZACC 1.72-diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC
1.73-extremo medio proximal humero (cremado),
CZACC 1.74-extremo distal tibiotarso izq., CZACC
1.75-diafisis tarsometatarso (cremado), CZACC 1.76-
extremo distal tibiotarso izq., CZACC 1.77-diafisis fe-
mur izq., CZACC 1.78-diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC
1.79-diafisis f6mur izq., CZACC 1.80-diafisis f6mur
izquierdo, CZACC 1.81-extremo medio distal tarsome-
tatarso der. (cremado), CZACC 1.82-epifisis tibiotarso
izq., CZACC 1.83-diafisis tibiotarso izq. (cremado),
CZACC 1.84-extremo medio proximal tarsometatarso
der.
Cueva de Jose Brea
CZACC 1.85-extremo distal tarsometatarso.
Cueva del Hueso
CZACC 1.86-f6mur sin extreme distal, CZACC 1.87-
diafisis f6mur (cremado), CZACC 1.88-diafisis tibiotar-
so izq., CZACC 1.89-extremo distal tibiotarso der.
(cremado), CZACC 1.90-extremo distal tibiotarso izq.
(cremado), CZACC 1.91-extremo proximal femur,
CZACC 1.92-diafisis f6mur der. (cremado), CZACC
1.93-diafisis f6mur der. (cremado), CZACC 1.94-
diafisis tibiotarso (cremado), CZACC 1.95-extremo
proximal f6mur izq. (cremado), CZACC 1.96-epifisis
distal tarsometatarso der., CZACC 1.97-diafisis tibio-
tarso der., CZACC 1.98-diafisis tibiotarso (cremada),
CZACC 1.99-diafisis tibiotarso (cremada), CZACC
1.100-diafisis tibiotarso (cremada).
Cueva de la Cachimba
CZACC 1.101- diafisis f6mur.
Porphyrula martinica (Gallareta azul)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.102-extremo medio distal f6mur der.
(cremado), CZACC 1.103-f6mur complete, CZACC
1.104-extremo medio distal f6mur der., CZACC 1.105-
extremo medio distal f6mur der. (cremado), CZACC
1.106-extremo medio proximal f6mur izq. (cremado),
CZACC 1.107-extremo medio distal tibiotarso izq.
(cremado).
Laterallusjamaicensis (Gallinuelita prieta)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.108-tarsometatarso der. complete, CZACC
1.109-tarsometatarso izq. sin epifisis proximal.
Strigidae indet. (Buho)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.110-extremo medio distal tibiotarso izq.


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JIMENEZ-VAZQUEZ- REGISTROS ORNITOLOGICOS DE SITIOS PRECERAMICOS DE CUBA


(cremado).
Accipiter sp. (Gavilan)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.111-extremo distal carpometacarpo izq.
(cremado).

Accipitridae indet. (Gavilan)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.112-extremo medio proximal tibiotarso izq.
(cremado).
Tyto alba (Lechuza)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.113-diafisis cubito izq. (cremada).
Aix sponsa (Pato huyuyo)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.114-extremo medio proximal humero der.
(cremado), CZACC 1.115-epifisis proximal humero
der.


Columba inornata (Torcaza boba)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.116-extremo medio distal f6mur izq.
Geotrygon chrysia (Barbiquejo)
Cueva del Infiemo
CZACC 1.117-extremo medio proximal tibiotarso izq.,
CZACC 1.118-extremo medio proximal humero der.,
CZACC 1.119-humero der. complete, CZACC 1.120-
diafisis humero der.
Cyanolimnas cerverai (Gallinuela de Santo Tomas)
Cueva del Infiemo Hueso
CZACC 1.121-diafisis f6mur izq. (cremada).
Corvus nasicus (Cao montero)
Cuevas Blancas
CZACC 1.122-f6mur der. sin epifisis proximal.
Anatidae indeterminado (Pato)
Cayo Redondo
CZACC 1.123-extremo medio distal tibiotarso.


B
D

U


I




E F
d


ANEXO 2: Huesos largos de N. picapicensis mostrando las zonas afectadas por frac-
turas para la obtenci6n de la m6dula. Las zonas afectadas estan sombreadas. A, B-
femur; C, D- tarsometatarso; E, F- tibiotarso; G- humero.


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fA


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AMERICAN COOT (FULICA AMERICANA) ON NEVIS


JULIAN FRANCIS
65 Fleet Street, London EC4Y 1HS, England


Abstract.-American Coot (Fulica americana) was seen on Nevis on 16 April 2001. As far as the author is
aware, this is the first published sighting of American Coot on Nevis.
Resumen.-FOCHA AMERICANA (FULICA AMERICANA) EN NEVIS. Mientras vacacionaba en Nevis en la primavera
de 2001, observe una focha en Nelson Spring (un pequefio lago just detras de la playa Pinneys en el noroeste de la
isla) el 16 de abril. Usando binoculars, la identifiqu6 como una Focha Americana (Fulica americana) gracias a su
coloraci6n general gris negruzco (con la cabeza mas oscura) y la region subcaudal blanca, el pico blanco (sin el
escudete blanco de esta forma excluyendo a la Focha Caribefia F. caribbaea) y el color rojizo en la frente. Hilder
(1989) no registry a la Focha Americana en Nevis. Mi avistamiento, sin embargo, probablemente no result sor-
prendente si se recuerda el rango de distribuci6n de la Focha America segun Raffaele et al. (1998).
Key words: American Coot, distribution, Fulica americana, Lesser Antilles, Nevis


WHILE ON HOLIDAY in Nevis in Spring 2001, I
observed a coot on Nelson Spring (a small lake just
behind Pinneys Beach in the northwest of the island)
on 16 April. Through binoculars, I identified it as an
American Coot (Fulica americana) because of its
gray-black overall coloration (with darker head) and
white undertail-coverts, a white bill (with no white
frontal shield thereby excluding Caribbean Coot F.
caribbaea) and red coloration on the forehead. Hil-
der (1989) did not record American Coot for Nevis.
My sighting, however, is perhaps not surprising
bearing in mind the range given for American Coot
by Raffaele et al. (1998).


LITERATURE CITED
HILDER, H. 1989. The birds of Nevis. Charlestown:
The Nevis Historical and Conservation Society.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. Birds of the West Indies.
London: Helm.


Mimocichla ardestaca (nest and
eggs) [Red-legged Thrush Turdus
plumbeus] -Plate 3 in Cory, C. B.
(1885) The birds of Haiti and San
Domingo.


El Pitirre 14(3)


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CARIBBEAN MARTINS (PROGNE DOMINICENSIS) OVERWINTER AT A ROOST IN
BRIDGETOWN, BARBADOS


MARTIN D. FROST1 AND EDWARD B. MASSIAH2
'Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados; and 2Johnson Road, Fitts Village, St. James, Barbados

Abstract.-Caribbean Martin (Progne dominicensis) is a regular summer breeding resident and passage mi-
grant in both spring and fall on Barbados. Our observations over almost 10 years before the winter of 2000-2001
show that this species becomes uncommon in October, may be rarely seen in November (every other year on
average), and has been recorded three times in December and twice in January. In this note, we report the pres-
ence of a small roost of this species on the island throughout the winter of 2000-2001, which is the first known
occurrence of overwintering on any West Indian island.
Resumen.-LA GOLONDRINA DE IGLESIAS (PROGNE DOMINICENSIS) INVERNANDO EN BRIDGETOWN, BARBA-
DOS. La Golondrina de Iglesias (Progne dominicensis) es un resident nidificante en el verano y un migrador de
paso durante la primavera y el otofio en Barbados. Nuestras observaciones durante casi 10 afos antes del invier-
no de 2000-2001 demuestran que esta especie se toma poco comun en octubre, es vista raramente en noviembre
(cada dos afos en promedio) y ha sido registrada tres veces en diciembre y dos veces en enero. En esta nota, se
relata la presencia de un pequefio grupo de esta especie en la isla durante el inviemo de 2000-2001, la cual es la
primera cita de invemada en cualquiera de las Indias Occidentales.
Key words: Barbados, Caribbean Martin, distribution, Lesser Antilles, Progne dominicensis, record, roost,
winter


CARIBBEAN MARTIN (PROGNE DOMINICENSIS) is a
regular summer breeding resident and passage mi-
grant in both spring and fall on Barbados. Our obser-
vations over almost 10 years before the winter of
2000-2001 show that this species becomes uncom-
mon in October, may be seen rarely in November
(every other year on average) and has been recorded
three times in December and twice in January. In this
note, we report the presence of a small roost of this
species on the island throughout the winter of 2000-
2001, which is the first known occurrence of over-
wintering on any West Indian island.


OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSION
Caribbean Martin breeds in small numbers on Bar-
bados, principally along coastal cliffs in the south-
east and north of the island and in Bridgetown. A
small breeding colony has existed in the latter loca-
tion for many years, at least since the late 1950s
when breeding was first documented (M. B. Hutt,
unpubl.). The presence in Bridgetown of a Caribbean
Martin roost, however, was first detected under the
eaves of a building directly adjacent to the waterfront
on Wharf Road by the authors during the summer
months in the early 1990s. Informal checks of the
roost were made during the summer months and it
was estimated that each year around 200 birds were
present during this period. The roost site was not
monitored during the winter months, when the birds
presumably migrated.


Massiah conducted the first census of the roost in
late summer of 2000 and counted 459 birds, a much
higher number than prior informal estimates. On 5
November 2000, Massiah made a second census and
tallied 156 individuals, an amazing total at a time of
year when expectations would have been to see few,
if any, birds. Subsequent censuses were conducted
on 19 November, 3 and 11 December 2000, and 1
January 2001, when 59, 45, 29, and 22 individuals
were counted, respectively. During January 2001, the
roost was checked two or three times per week and
the estimated number (as opposed to an accurate
count) of Caribbean Martins present ranged between
15 and 20 individuals. During further checks of the
roost on 9 and 25 February and 2 and 26 March
2001, we estimated 30, 30, 40, and 80 individuals
present, respectively. All surveys except one were
conducted well after sunset, when all birds would
have returned to the roost.
The surveys showed conclusively that Caribbean
Martins were present at the roost throughout the
2000-2001 winter period, reaching a minimum of 15
individuals estimated in January. This is the first
known instance of overwintering of this species on
Barbados or any West Indian island and is apparently
the only known location where Caribbean Martin has
wintered. This species' winter range is unknown but
is thought to be in South America (American Orni-
thologists' Union 1998, Murphy and Hayes 2001).
We have no observations of Caribbean Martins dur-


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FROST AND MASSIAH- CARIBBEAN MARTINS OVERWINTERING IN BARBADOS


ing the 2000-2001 winter period away from the
roost, which is not surprising given that the small
numbers involved translates into roughly 0.12 birds
per square mile or alternatively one bird for every 8
square miles. An observation of the roost around
sunset showed that the Caribbean Martins ap-
proached silently from the south or southwest, gener-
ally alone but occasionally in pairs, with the first
birds roosting about 10 min before sunset and the
last birds about 5 min after sunset. A high proportion
(estimated at two-thirds) of the overwintering birds
appeared to be juveniles or females.
In summary, we document the first overwintering
of Caribbean Martins on Barbados and encourage
observers in other south Caribbean islands to check
known roost sites, including other Martin species, for
possible wintering populations.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Floyd Hayes for providing reference
materials and reviewing this note.


LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7"t ed. Washington
DC: American Ornithologists' Union.
MURPHY, W. L., AND F. E. HAYES. 2001. First re-
cord of Caribbean Martin (Progne dominicensis)
for Trinidad, with comments on its supposed mi-
gration to South America. El Pitirre 14(2):62-63.


Hirundo americana, Wils. Golondrina
Bifurcada [Barn Swallow Hirundo
rustic] and Hirundo bicolor, Vieill.
Golondrina Verdosa [Tree Swallow
Tachycineta bicolor] Plate VI in
Lembeye, J. (1850) Aves de la isla de
Cuba.


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GREEN HERON (BUTORIDES VIRESCENS) PREDATION AT VILLAGE WEAVER
(PLOCEUS CUCULLATUS) NESTS


JAMES W. WILEY
Biological Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia 22092, USA; Mailing Address: Maryland Coop-
erative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 1120 Trigg Hall, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, LMD
21853, USA; e-mail: jwwiley@mail.umes.edu


Abstract.-On 3 June 2000, I observed two incidences of a Green Heron (Butorides virescens) depredating nests
and eating nestlings of Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus) at a colony in northeastern Dominican Republic.
Resumen.-MARTINETE (BUTORIDES VIRESCENS) DEPREDACION A NIDOS DE MADAM SAGA (PLOCEUS CUCULLA-
TUs). El 3 de junio de 2000 observe dos ocasiones en las que un Martinete (Butorides virescens) depred6 los nidos
y consumi6 los pichones de Madam Saga (Ploceus cucullatus) en una colonia en el nordeste de la Republica Domi-
nicana.
Key words: Butorides virescens, depredation, Dominican Republic, Green Heron, Ploceus cucullatus, Village
Weaver


WHILE ENGAGED in studies of Shiny Cowbird
(Molothrus bonariensis) interactions with Village
Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) in the Dominican Re-
public, I observed two incidences of depredation by
a Green Heron (Butorides virescens) at weaver nests.
Both incidents occurred on 3 June 2000 at a me-
dium-sized weaver nesting colony containing ap-
proximately 120 active nests in a large ceiba tree
(Ceiba pentandra) in a pasture 17 km east
(N18054.63', W069009.62) of Sabana de la Mar, El
Seibo Province, northeastern Dominican Republic.
Before the first depredation event, the weavers were
showing normal activity, with birds flying in and out
of the nest tree, displaying at nest entrances and on
nearby branches, and entering and leaving nests,
with occasional low-intensity vocalizations. At 09:09
h, an adult Green Heron flew from the woodlot near-
est (150 m northeast) the colony toward the weaver
nest tree, whereupon weaver activity intensified with
progressively louder calling by more individuals, and
increasingly active movements of weavers as the
heron neared the nest tree. Many of the weavers left
the nest tree, flying to distant perches, whereas oth-
ers circled back and landed in the nest tree as the
heron alighted. Those birds that remained or returned
to the ceiba loudly scolded the heron as it perched on
the crown of the nest tree. Some weavers repeatedly
dived at the perched heron.
After about 15 s, the heron made a short flight to a
nearby weaver nest, where it clung to the nest side,
probed the interior with its bill, and also appeared to
be tearing at the nest with its feet. The heron at-
tacked three nests in rapid succession, working on
each nest for no more than 20 s. I did not see the


heron remove any items from the weaver nests. Dur-
ing this activity, the weavers greatly escalating their
defensive actions, with additional birds attacking the
heron and calling more loudly. Many of the weavers
that had initially flown away from the nest tree re-
turned to join in the defense of the nest colony. Al-
though the attacking weavers came close to the
heron, few actually struck the larger bird during their
defense. Despite the weavers' aggressive defenses,
the heron persisted in visiting nests and at a fourth
nest it extracted one weaver chick. The heron flut-
tered to a nearby branch, then slowly moved to the
ceiba crown by walking along branches, carrying the
motionless chick in its bill. The weavers redoubled
their attacks, further intensifying the volume of their
calling with still more birds diving at the heron. Af-
ter reaching the tree crown, where the heron was
more exposed to the weaver attacks, the predator
swallowed the chick whole.
The heron then moved to a nearby weaver nest
within the tree interior, where it again hung by its
feet from one of the globular nests, tugged at the nest
material, and probed the interior with its bill. At the
third nest in this series of attacks, the heron extracted
a weaver chick, then immediately moved to the tree
crown, where it paused for about 25 s before flying
to the woodlot 150 m northeast of the weaver colony
at 09:16 h. Several weavers pursued the heron, which
carried the nestling in its bill, for about 30 m before
turning back to the nest tree. The weavers' excited
behavior subsided to a normal level of activity within
5 min. I saw no further attacks during two hours of
subsequent observations.
Although not among the food items commonly


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WILEY-GREEN HERON PREDATION ON BIRDS


Table 1. Selected examples of the use of birds as prey by various species of herons, egrets, and bitterns (family Ardeidae).


Predator species


Avian prey


Reference


Great White Heron
Ardea herodias occidentahs
Great Blue Heron
Ardea herodias



Gray Heron
Ardea cinerea


Intermediate Heron
Egretta intermedia
Black-headed Heron
Ardea melanocephala
Purple Heron
Ardea purpurea


Little Egret
Egretta garzetta
Squacco Heron
Ardeola ralloides
Cattle Egret
Bubulcus ibis






Striated Heron Butordes
stratus
Black-crowned Night-Heron
Nycticorax nycticorax






Rufous Night-Heron
Nycticorax caledonmcus
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
Nyctanassa violacea
Nankeen Night-Heron
Nycticorax calendomcus
Least Bittern
Ixobrychus exthis
Little Bittern
Ixobrychus minutus
Eurasian Bittern
Botaurus stellarns
Australasian Bittern
Botaurus poiciloptilus


Small birds


Young of rails and other marsh birds
Domestic fowl
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus
Other birds
Young birds
Black Coot Fuhca atra
Ducklings
Several marsh and passerine birds
Birds

Young birds (usually of ground-nesting species)

Eurasian SkylarkAlauda arvensis
Nestling waterbirds (Black Coot,
anatidae, rallidae, charadriidae)
Little Grebe Tachybaptus; .
Small birds

Bird

Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata
Various adult and nestling birds





Nestling Quelea Quelea quelea
Quelea

Young of other colonial-nesting waterbirds, such as
terns, other herons and ibises

Young Franklin's Gulls Larus pipixcan, American
Coots Fuhca amerncana, Yellow-headed Blackbird
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, and Red-winged
Blackbirds Agelatus phoeniceus
Eggs and chicks of other birds

Birds fallen from the nest

Nestlings

Suspected of eating eggs and young of Yellow-
headed Blackbird
Eggs and nestlings of Reed Warblers Acrocephalus
scirpaceus
Birds


Wren (
Small birds


-. i and tit (Panurus sp.)


Audubon 1835, Hancock and Kushlan 1984

Audubon 1835
Forbush 1925
Olsen and Johnson 1971
Bent 1927
Collinge 1924-1927
del Hoyo et al. 1992:p. 385
Marquiss and Leitch, 1990
summarized in Palmer 1976, vol. 1
del Hoyo et al. 1992: p. 410

Hancock and Kushlan 1984

Owens and Phillips 1956
Amat and Herrera 1977

Belman 1974
Hafner 1977

Hancock and Kushlan 1984

Sprunt in Palmer 1976, vol. 1
McLachlin and Liversidge in Roberts 1957,
Ridley and Percy 1958, Siegfried 1966, Stimson
1966, Boddiford 1965, Dismore in Fogarty and
Hetrick 1973, Powers in Fogarty and Hetrich
1973, Taylor 1979, Hancock and Kushlan 1984
Van Ee 1973
Stocker 1994

Beckett 1964, Kale 1965, Collins 1970, Hunter
and Morris 1976, Andrews 1981, Hancock and
Kushlan 1984
Wolford and Boag 1971




del Hoyo et al. 1992: p. 420

Audubon 1835

Hancock and Kushlan 1984

Roberts 1936, p. 195

Voisin 1991, p. 92

Hancock and Kushlan 1984
Voisin 1991, p. 72
Hancock and Kushlan 1984


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WILEY-GREEN HERON PREDATION ON BIRDS


taken by herons, birds have been reported as occa-
sional prey for several species of herons (Table 1).
Depredation of birds by Green Herons, however, has
not been reported. Howell (1932) and Cottam and
Uhler (1945) examined a collective 255 Green Heron
stomachs containing food, yet found no evidence of
avian prey. del Hoyo et al. (1992) did not list avian
prey among the animals taken by Green Herons. In
the West Indies, Bowdish (1902) and Wetmore
(1916, 1927) examined stomachs, finding no avian
prey. Green Heron food in Puerto Rico consisted pri-
marily of invertebrates (87.9%) and fishes (9.5%),
with occasional lizards (1.2%) and amphibians
(Leptodactylus albilabris; 0.6%) (Wetmore 1916).
Availability of food resources may vary among sea-
sons and years, as a result of climatic or other envi-
ronmental changes. Some herons are known to take
advantage of other, atypical prey when "normal"
food resources become more difficult to locate. Cun-
ningham (1965) reported Cattle Egrets taking birds
when no other prey was available. Wolford and Boag
(1971) reported Black-crowned Night-Herons fed
their young almost exclusively on the eggs and
young of birds, which represented an available and
super-abundant food supply, during part of the
breeding season in an artificial man-made habitat.
Van Ee (1973) observed Cattle Egrets preying on
nesting Queleas (Quelea quelea) in South Africa.
About 1000 Cattle Egrets congregated at the Quelea
colony, which comprised about 6000 nests. The
egrets used their bills and feet to tear open the nests
and expose the young, which were eaten. About 70%
of the Quelea nests were thus depredated. Stocker
(1994) reported a Striated Heron (Butorides striatus)
feeding on a free-flying Quelea. The Striated Heron
has been considered conspecific with B. virescens
(American Ornithologists' Union 1983), which pro-
vides an interesting similarity to my observations of
a Green Heron feeding on birds.
Village Weavers and their nest contents are frequent
prey of avian predators, including Sharp-shinned
Hawk (Accipiter striatus), Ridgway's Hawk (Buteo
ridgwayi), Merlin (Falco columbarius), American
Kestrel (Falco sparverius), Barn Owl (Tyto alba),
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia), and His-
paniolan Lizard-Cuckoo (Saurothera longirostris)
(Wiley 1996, pers. obs.). During inspections of
weaver nesting colonies, I have found several rep-
tiles feeding on weaver eggs and chicks, including
Anolis ricordi (2 eggs in stomach), Epicrates striatus
(1 egg, 3 chicks in one digestive tract, 2 chicks in
second individual), and Uromacer catesbyi (1 chick
in digestive tract). That Green Herons may occasion-
ally depredate weaver nests is no surprise, since eggs


and chicks of that species are concentrated in colo-
nies, easily located, and ineffectively defended
against larger predators. These depredation events
are apparently rare and local in occurrence. In 95
hours of observations at Village Weaver nest colo-
nies during June 2000 and 172 h in June 2001, I ob-
served no other predation attempts by Green Herons.
Similarly, in extensive observations at weaver colo-
nies in other years, I observed no such events.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I thank James Kushlan for his review of the manu-
script and for pointing me to a critical publication.

LITERATURE CITED
AMAT, J. A., AND C. M. HERRERA. 1977. Ali-
mentaci6n de la Garza Imperial en las marismas
del Guadalquivir durante el period de nidifica-
ci6n. Ardeola 24:95-104.
ANDREWS, S. 1981. Black-crowned Night Heron
predation on Black-necked Stilt. Elepaio 41:86.
AUDUBON, J. J. 1835. Ornithological biography. Vol.
3. Edinburgh.
BECKETT, T. A. 1964. Black-crowned Night Heron
feeding behaviour. Chat 28:93-94.
BELMAN, P. J. 1974. Purple Heron chick regurgitat-
ing young Little Crake. Br. Birds 67:439.
BENT, A. C. 1927. Life histories of North American
marsh birds. US Natl. Mus. Bull. 135.
BODDIFORD, G. 1965. Cattle Egrets eating young
Bob-whites. Oriole 30:91.
BOWDISH, B. S. 1902. Birds of Porto Rico. Auk 19
(4):356-366.
COLLINGE, W. E. 1924-1927. Food of some British
wild birds, 2nd ed. York, England.
COLLINS, C. T. 1970. The Black-crowned Night
Heron as a predator of tern chicks. Auk 87:584-
586.
COTTAM, C., AND F. M. UHLER. 1945. Birds in rela-
tion to fishes. US Dept. Agric., Wildl. Res. and
Manage. Leaflet no. GS-83. Washington, DC.
CUNNINGHAM, R. L. 1965. Predation on birds by the
Cattle Egret. Auk 82:502-503.
DEL HOYO, J., A. ELLIOTT, AND J. SARGATAL (Eds.)
1992. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 1.
Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
FORBUSH, E. H. 1925. Birds of Massachusetts and
other New England states. 3 vols. Boston: Massa-
chusetts Dept. Agric.
FOGARTY, M. J., AND W. M. HETRICK. 1973. Sum-


El Pitirre 14(3)


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WILEY-GREEN HERON PREDATION ON BIRDS


mer foods of Cattle Egrets in northcentral Florida.
Auk 90:268-280.
HAFNER, H. 1977. Contribution a l'6tude 6cologique
de quatre especes de herons (Egretta g. garzetta
L., Ardeola r. ralloides Scop., Ardeola i. ibis L.,
Nycticorax n. nycticorax L.) pendant leur nidifica-
tion en Camargue. Unpubl. thesis, Toulouse.
HANCOCK, J., AND J. KUSHLAN. 1984. The herons
handbook. NY: Harper & Row, Publishers.
HOWELL, A. H. 1932. Florida bird life. NY: Coward-
McCann.
HUNTER, R. G., AND R. D. MORRIS. 1976. Nocturnal
predation by Black-crowned Night Heron at a
Common Tern colony. Auk 93:629-633.
KALE, H. W. 1965. Nesting predation by herons in a
Georgia heronry. Oriole 30:69-70.
MARQUISS, M., AND LEITCH, A. F. 1990. The diet of
Grey Herons Ardea cinerea breeding at Loch
Leven, Scotland, and the importance of their pre-
dation on ducklings. Ibis 132(4):535-549.
OLSEN, C. S., AND H. M. JOHNSON. 1971. Great
White Heron captures and eats Black-necked Stilt.
Auk 88:668.
OWENS, D. F., AND G. C. PHILLIPS. 1956. The food
of nestling Purple Herons in Holland. Br. Birds
49:494-499.
PALMER, R. S. (ED.). 1976. Handbook of North
American birds, Vol. 1. Loons through flamingos.
New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
RIDLEY, M. W., AND L. R. PERCY. 1958. The exploi-
tation of sea birds in Seychelles. London: Colonial


Res. Stud., 25.
ROBERTS, A. 1957. The birds of South Africa. Cape
Town: Cape Times Std.
ROBERTS, T. S. 1936. The birds of Minnesota. Vol.
1. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press.
SIEGFRIED, W. R. 1966. On the food of nestling Cat-
tle Egrets. Ostrich 37:219-220.
STIMSON, L. 1966. A remarkable 109 days in the Dry
Tortugas. Fla. Nat. 39:149.
STOCKER, R. 1994. Green-backed Heron preying on
Quelea. Honeyguide 40:247.
TAYLOR, D. W. 1979. Cattle Egret eating Yellow
Wagtail. Br. Birds 72:475.
VAN EE, C. A. 1973. Cattle Egrets prey on breeding
Queleas. Ostrich 44:136.
VOISIN, C. 1991. The herons of Europe. London: T.
& A. D. Poyser.
WETMORE, A 1916. Birds of Porto Rico. US Dep.
Agric. Bull. 326:1-140.
WETMORE, A. 1927. Birds of Porto Rico and the Vir-
gin Islands. NY Acad. Sci. Scientif. Surv. Porto
Rico Virgin Islands. Vol. 9, parts 3 & 4. Pp. 245-
406.
WILEY, J. W. 1996. Breeding-season food habits of
Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) in south-
western Dominican Republic. J. Raptor Res. 32
(3):241-245.
WOLFORD, J. W., AND D. A. BOAG. 1971. Food hab-
its of Black-crowned Night Herons in southern
Alberta. Auk 88:435-437.


/1'


Ardea brunnescens, Gundl. Vulg. Aguaita-Caiman Oscuro [Green Heron
Ardea virescens] -Lam. No. 12 in Lembeye, J. (1850) Aves de la isla de
Cuba.


El Pitirre 14(3)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS


THIRTEENTH MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
TOPES DE COLLANTE, CUBA
JULY 2001
CONTINUED FROM EL PITIRRE 14(2)


PAPERS PRESENTED


ELEMENTS OF THE COMPOSITION AND
STRUCTURE OF VEGETATION IN THE HABITAT
OF BICKNELL'S THRUSH IN CUBA
RAMONA OVIEDO1, ALEJANDRO LLANES1, YVES AUBRY2,
ARTURO HERNANDEZ1, GHISLAIN ROMPE3, AND FRANCOIS
SHAFFER2
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA, Cuba; 2Canadian
Service, Region Quebec, Canada; and 3McGill Univer-
sity, Montreal, Canada
As far as it is documented, Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus
bicknelli) winters in Cuba in a very limited area in the
highest mountains of Sierra Maestra mountain range, with
altitudes ranging from 1600 m.a.s.l. on the southern slope
to 1960 m.a.s.l. on the northern slope, from Paso del
Cadete, Pico Cuba, Paso de las Angustias, Pico Turquino,
to the adjacent areas of the Pico Regino. The type of vege-
tation prevailing in these sites is Cloud Forest, with micro-
localized areas of Subalpine Shrub (mainly in the southern
slope). At Pico Cuba, second-growth forest prevails. The
Cloud Forest extends to larger areas; is very humid, tree
heights range from 8 to 12 m, and tree canopies are mostly
interconnected. Subalpine Shrub occurs in small sites with
southern exposure on steep slopes. It is composed of a
shrub layer ranging from 1.5 to 3 m, with some scattered
emergent small trees up to 6 m. The shrub layer has diver-
sity of species and density of individuals, which, com-
bined with the abundance of the tibisi (Chusquea abiiritib-
lia), which grows with and above the plants, makes this
site almost impenetrable. The objective of this work is to
present and discuss details of the florisitic composition
and vegetation structure of Bicknell's Thrush wintering
habitat in Cuba, in which endemic, rare, and singular plant
species prevail, among which the richness and diversity of
orchids, ferns, and bromeliads is remarkable, as well as
that of other plants groups.
ELEMENTS DE LA COMPOSITION Y ESTRUCTURA DE LA
VEGETACION DEL HABITAT DEL TORDO DE BICKNELL EN CUBA
Hasta donde se conoce, Catharus bicknelli, o Tordo de
Bicknell, invema en Cuba en un area limitada de lo mas
alto de la sierra Maestra. Esta area se localiza desde los
1600 msnm en la vertiente sur hasta 1960 msnm en la ver-
tiente norte, desde el paso del Cadete, pico Cuba, paso de
las Angustias y pico Turquino hasta las proximidades del
pico Regino. En estas localidades la vegetaci6n que preva-
lece es el bosque nublado, con areas microlocalizadas de
matorral subalpino mayormente en las laderas de la ver-
tiente sur; en la meseta del pico Cuba predomina un mato-
rral secundario. El bosque nublado ocupa mayores exten-
siones; es muy humedo y su estrato arb6reo oscila princi-


palmente entire 8-12 m, con las copas unidas en casi la
totalidad del mismo. El matorral subalpino se localiza en
pequefios territories de exposici6n sur con abruptas pen-
dientes. Este esta compuesto por un estrato arbustivo de
1.5-3 m, con algunos arbolitos emergentes dispersos de
hasta 6 m. El estrato arbustivo tiene diversidad de species
y densidad de individuos que, unido a la abundancia de
"tibisi" (Chusquea bicititblial. que crece junto y sobre
6stos, hace de la zona una casi impenetrable. Este trabajo
tiene como objetivo central informar y discutir detalles de
la composici6n floristica y la estnictura de la vegetaci6n
de este particular habitat preferido por el Tordo de Bick-
nell para invernar en Cuba y donde predominant species
endemicas, raras y/o singulares, destacandose la riqueza y
diversidad tanto de orquideas como de helechos y brome-
liaceas, conjuntamente con otros grupos.


AVIAN COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND
SPECIES RICHNESS IN A FRAGMENTED
TROPICAL LANDSCAPE
RENE BORGELLA JR. AND THOMAS A. GAVIN
Department ofNatural Resources, Fernow Hall, Cornell Univer-
sity, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853, USA (rblO @cornell.edu)
As human activities alter habitats worldwide, develop-
ing reliable methods of accurately assessing biodiversity
and other community attributes (e.g., species richness,
extinction and turnover rates) becomes even more impor-
tant. Recent work has shown that probabilistic-based esti-
mation methods can be much more accurate than tradi-
tional methods (e.g., counts, species accumulation curves)
when one is estimating biodiversity, community-level pa-
rameters, and the stability or change of communities. We
present here, among the first studies utilizing these rigor-
ous new estimation methods, our study of the temporal
dynamics of the resident understory avian community in a
fragmented tropical landscape. We use five years of mark-
release-recapture data to estimate community-level pa-
rameters for each of five relatively small (ca. 0.3-20 ha),
isolated forest fragments in southern Costa Rica. We ex-
amine the hypothesis that avian communities at smaller-
sized fragments are less stable and more dynamic, as
measured by these community-level vital rates, than avian
communities at larger fragments. Our data clearly demon-
strates that, over our study period, avian communities in
our smaller forest fragments were more dynamic than in
larger, nearby fragments. Larger forest fragments were
more stable in terms of species richness and species turn-
over rates, had fewer colonizing species, and exhibited
lower rates of change in species richness, than did the


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smaller fragments. One 0.9-ha site that was logged during
this study period exhibited the greatest instability.
DINAMICA DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES Y RIQUEZA DE SPECIES
EN UN PAISAJE TROPICAL FRAGMENTADO
Con las actividades del ser human alterando habitats a
nivel mundial, el desarrollo y uso de metodologia confia-
ble para evaluar con precision la biodiversidad y otros
atributos a nivel de comunidad (e.g., riqueza de species,
tasa de extinci6n y colonizaci6n) se toman aun mas impor-
tantes. Recientemente, se ha demostrado que los metodos
de estimaci6n basados en probabilidades son mas exactos
que los metodos tradicionales (e.g., conteos, curvas de
acumulaci6n de species, etc.) para estimar biodiversidad,
parametros a nivel de comunidad y la estabilidad o cambio
de estas comunidades. Presentamos aqui nuestro studio
de la dinamica temporal de la comunidad de aves resident
en el sotobosque de un paisaje fragmentado-entre los
primeros studios en usar estos rigurosos nuevos metodos
de estimaci6n. Usamos cinco afios de datos de nuestro
studio de marca y recapture para estimar los parametros a
nivel de comunidad en cinco fragments aislados de bos-
que en el sur de Costa Rica que son relativamente peque-
fios (ca. 0.3-20 ha). Nosotros examinamos la hip6tesis que
las comunidades de aves en los fragments pequefios son
menos estables y mas dinamicas que las comunidades de
aves en fragments mayores. Nuestros datos demuestran
claramente que, durante el period del studio, las comu-
nidades de aves en los fragments pequefios fueron mis
dinamicas que las comunidades en los fragments mayo-
res. Los fragments de bosque mas grades fueron mas
estables en lo que concierne la riqueza de species y la
tasa de recambio de species, tenian menos species colo-
nizadoras, y presentaron tasas de cambio en la riqueza de
species menores que los fragments pequefios. Una par-
cela de 0.9 ha que fue talada durante el period de este
studio present la mayor inestabilidad.


STATUS OF THE CERULEAN WARBLER
(DENDROICA CERULEA) ON ITS BREEDING
GROUNDS
KAMAL ISLAM1, AND CYNTHIA BASILE2
1Department of ] Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306-
0440, USA, (kislam@bsuvc.bsu.edu); and 2Department ofBiol-
ogy, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306-0440, USA


Like many forest-nesting Neotropical migrants, the Ce-
rulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is a species of conser-
vation concern because of long-term population declines
on breeding grounds. North American Breeding Bird Sur-
veys suggest that from 1966 to 1987, this species showed
the most precipitous decline of any North American war-
bler, at 3.4% annually. If trends continue over the next 30
years, the population size will be only 8% of the 1966
level. Conservation and management efforts directed to-
ward protecting forested landscapes on the breeding
grounds are paramount. Yet, few quantitative data exist
pertaining to important vegetative parameters for success-
ful breeding in Cerulean Warblers. Sensitivity to fragmen-
tation and other factors associated with fragment size (e.g.,


cowbird parasitism) may place this warbler at a further
disadvantage. Preliminary research conducted in southern
Indiana, United States, located 23 male territories. Vegeta-
tive parameters associated with these territories were
measured and compared with random sites. As expected,
canopy gaps were present in all territories, and perch trees
were among the tallest in each territory. Contrary to cur-
rent literature, however, this species was found almost
exclusively along ridges. Even more surprisingly, territo-
ries were not detected in the old growth sections of the
forests, but rather in earlier successional communities.
Many of the sections containing territorial males have a
history of logging activities.
ESTADO DE DENDROICA CERULEA EN SU AREA DE REPRODUCTION
Al igual que muchas de las aves migratorias neotropica-
les que anidan en bosques, la conservaci6n del parilido
Dendroica cerulea es preocupante debido a la disminucion
a largo plazo de su poblaci6n en la area de reproducci6n.
Los conteos realizados como parte del North American
Breeding Bird Survey indican que de 1966 a 1987 esta
especie mostro la mas precipitada disminuci6n de todos
los parulidos, con una tasa de disminuci6n annual del 3.4%.
Si esta tendencia continue en los pr6ximos 30 afios, la po-
blaci6n al final de este period representard tan solo el 8%
de su nivel en 1966. La conservaci6n y esfuerzos de mane-
jo dirigidos a la protecci6n de los bosques en las areas de
reproducci6n son de suma importancia. Aun asi, existen
muy pocos datos sobre los parametros vegatativos de im-
portancia para la reproducci6n exitosa. La susceptibilidad
a la fragmentaci6n y otros factors relacionados al tamaio
de los fragments (como el parasitismo de los tordos) pue-
den poner a esta ave en desventajas adicionales. Investiga-
ciones preliminares en el sur de Indiana, Estados Unidos,
localizaron 23 territories de machos. Varios parametros
vegetativos asociados a estos territories fueron medidos y
comparados con sitios aleatorios. Como era de esperarse,
habia huecos en el dosel en todos los territories y los arbo-
les de percha eran los mas altos. Sin embargo, al contrario
de la reportado en la literature, esta especie se encontr6
casi exclusivamente a lo largo de las crestas. Mas sorpren-
dente ain, los territories no estan en la parte mas madura
del bosque, sino en comunidades de sucesi6n mas jovenes.
Muchas de las areas con machos territoriales tienen una
historic de explotaci6n maderera.


THE WINTER ECOLOGY OF THE
CAPE MAY WARBLER
STEVEN C. LATTA
Biology Department, University of Missouri -St. Louis, St. Louis,
MO, USA; (scl678@mizzou.edu)
Cape May Warblers (Dendroica tigrina) were studied
over three winters in three habitats along an altitudinal
gradient in the Dominican Republic. Age and sex of indi-
viduals was determined in each habitat, as was site fidel-
ity. Diet varied among habitats: in desert, Cape May War-
blers were primarily insectivores; in dry forest, they for-
aged primarily on homopteran honeydew; in pine forest,
they were principally frugivores. Data support the hy-
pothesis that among habitats sampled, pine is preferred. It


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is likely that resource stability and predictability, particu-
larly fruiting Trema trees, attract dominant Cape May
Warblers to pine forests and keep them as site persistent
individuals in good body condition. In contrast, dry forest
may be suboptimal, unless an individual is able to hold
and defend a tree with honeydew; desert thorn scrub is
seemingly always suboptimal because resources are con-
sistently scarce and conditions become increasingly diffi-
cult during the late-winter dry period. Sex and age class
segregation is likely the result of dominance relationships
rather than differential habitat preferences.
LA ECOLOGIA INTERNAL DE DENDROICA TIGRINA
Se estudi6 la especie Dendroica tigrina durante tres
inviemos en tres habitats de una pendiente altitudinal en la
Republica Dominicana. Determinamos la edad y sexo de
los individuos en cada habitat, ademas de la fidelidad al
territorio internal. La dieta vari6 entire los habitats: en el
desierto, la dieta de D. tigrina es principalmente insectivo-
ra; en el bosque seco, las aves comen una secreci6n azuca-
rada producida por hom6pteros; y en el bosque de pino las
aves principalmente comen frutos. Los datos sugieren que
entire los habitats investigados, D. tigrina prefiere el bos-
que de pino. Probablemente la estabilidad y la predecibili-
dad de recursos, especialmente de la fruta de Trema,
atraen a los individuos dominates de D. tigrina al bosque
de pino donde 6stos permanecen en buenas condiciones
fisicas. Por contrast, el bosque seco puede presentar con-
diciones menos que 6ptimas si un individuo no logra de-
fender un arbol con los hom6pteros que produce la secre-
ci6n azucarada. El matorral espinoso des6rtico siempre
present condiciones menos que 6ptimas porque los recur-
sos consistentemente son escasos y las condiciones em-
peoran conforme avanza el period seco de inviemo. La
segregaci6n por sexo y edad es probablemente un resulta-
do de las relaciones de dominancia mas que de las prefe-
rencias de habitat.


STATUS, HABITAT, AND RELATIVE
ABUNDANCE OF WOOD WARBLERS (PARULIDAE)
IN VARAHICACOS ECOLOGICAL RESERVE,
MATANZAS, CUBA
CARLOS PEREZ CABANAS1 AND ENRIQUE SOTO RAMIREZ2
1Centro de Investigacion y Servicios Ambientales, Autopista y
Calle K, Varadero, Matanzas, Cuba; and 2Departamento de Clen-
cias Biologicas, UniversidadPedagogica de Matanzas, Carretera
a CzdraKm 2 '/, Matanzas, Cuba
The habitats, status, and relative abundance of wood
warblers in Varahicacos Ecological Reserve, Matanzas,
Cuba, were studied during 78 h of observation from April
2000 to February 2001.
REPRESENTATIVIDAD, HABITAT Y ABUNDANCIA RELATIVE DE
LOS REPRESENTANTES DE LA FAMILIAR PARULIDAE
(AVES: PASSERIFORMES) EN LA RESERVE ECOLOGICA
VARAHICACOS, MATANZAS, CUBA
El present trabajo se desarroll6 entire los meses de abril
del 2000 y febrero del 2001 empleandose en el mismo un
total de 78 horas de observaciones de campo. Se recoge en
la labor investigative realizada las condiciones de habitat
concemientes a cada especie asi como el status de perma-


nencia y abundancia relative.


BICKNELL'S THRUSH (CATHARUSBICKNELLI): A
WINTER RESIDENT IN CUBA
ALEJANDRO LLANES SOSA1, YVES AUBRY2, ING. RAMONA
OVIEDO PRIETO1, FRANCOIS SHAFFER2, ARTURO
HERNANDEZ MARRERO1, AND GHRISLAIN ROMPRE3
Institute de Ecologia y Sistematica, La Havana, Cuba; 2Cana-
dian if ,. Service; and 3McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus minimus bicknelli) was
considered a subspecies of the Gray-cheeked Thrush
(Catharus minimus) since its description in 1882. Quellet
(1993) found enough differences for considering it a new
species and proposed the name of Catharus bicknelli. This
was accepted by the American Ornithologists' Union in
1995. The breeding ground of this species is limited to the
spruce forests of eastern North America. Its wintering dis-
tribution area has not been studied extensively and seems
restricted to the mountains on Hispaniola, with 14 other
records on other Caribbean islands, three of which are
from Cuba. Here we present the results of two expeditions
to the Sierra Maestra, Cuba, November-December 1999,
and Sierra Maestra and Alejandro de Humbolt National
Park in the same months in 2000. The main objective was
to search for the wintering areas of the thrush. We found
12 and 19 individuals, respectively, in these areas. The
presence of Bicknell's Thrush for two consecutive years
confirms that the species is using these areas as wintering
grounds. We also present data on the habitat structure used
by Bicknell's Thrush with regard to some conservation
issues. Because of the low number of individuals detected
in the areas, and to the limited distribution of the species,
we suggest the thrush should be considered as vulnerable
in Cuba and considered a common wintering resident on
Pico Turquino and its surroundings.
EL TORDO DE BICKNELL (CATHARUS BICKNELLI): UN RESIDENT
INTERNAL EN CUBA
El Tordo de Bicknell (Catharus minimus bicknelli) fue
considerado una subespecie del Tordo de Mejillas Grises
(Catharus minimus) desde su descripci6n en 1882. Quellet
(1993) encontr6 diferencias suficientes para considerarlo
como una nueva especie y propuso que la misma debia ser
tratada como Catharus bicknelli, otorgandosele esta cate-
goria en 1995 (American Ornithologists' Union 1995).
Los territories de reproducci6n de esta ave se limitan al
bosque de abeto del nordeste de Norteamerica. La distribu-
ci6n de su area de invemada ha sido poco estudiada y basi-
camente se encuentra en las montafias de La Espafiola,
existiendo 14 registros en otras islas del Caribe; tres de
6stos son de Cuba. El present trabajo muestra los resulta-
dos de dos expediciones realizadas a la sierra Maestra, en
noviembre-diciembre de 1999 y a la sierra Maestra y el
Parque Nacional Alejandro de Humbolt en el mismo pe-
riodo de tiempo del 2000, con el objetivo de la busqueda
de las areas de invemada de esta especie, localizandose 12
y 19 individuos respectivamente. La presencia del Tordo
de Bicknell en esta 6poca durante dos afios consecutivos
confirm que esta especie utiliza nuestro territorio en su
residencia invemal. Se dan a conocer datos acerca de la


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estructura del habitat utilizado por esta especie y se hacen
consideraciones acerca de su conservaci6n. Debido al bajo
numero de individuos detectados y al area reducida de su
distribuci6n, se propone que esta especie sea considerada
como vulnerable para nuestro pais y se le consider un
resident internal comun del pico Turquino y sus alrede-
dores.


THE EFFECT OF FORESTRY ACTIVITIES ON BIRD
COMMUNITIES IN THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE AT
PENINSULA DE GUANAHACABIBES, PINAR DEL
RIO, CUBA
ALINA PEREZ, FREDDY DEGADO, AND ALFREDO TAMARIT
Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales (ECOVIDA),
Delegacion Territorial CITMA, Colon #106 e/Maceo y Virtudes,
Pinar del Rio, CP 20100, Cuba
Logging and the cutting of trees with a dbh of less than
5 cm for use as racks in drying tobacco leaves are the main
factors modifying natural areas at Peninsula de Guanaha-
cabibes Biosphere Reserve. Bird and plant relationships of
the dominant semideciduous formation in the reserve were
determined and structural and composition changes of
birds associated with the studies areas described. Circular
plots and mist-nets, along with the study of vegetative
structure in different sites, allowed us to establish a corre-
lation between biotic elements. In addition, comparisons
between eastern and central-western parts of the Guanaha-
cabibes Peninsula were established.
EFECTO DE MANEJOS FORESTALES SOBRE LAS COMUNIDADES DE
AVES EN LA RESERVE DE LA BIOSFERA PENINSULA DE
GUANAHACABIBES, PINAR DEL RIO, CUBA
La extracci6n de madera rolliza y el corte de individuos
de species arb6reas de dap inferior a 5 cm, con la finali-
dad de su uso en el secado del tabaco, han modificado
areas naturales de la peninsula de Guanahacabibes. La
relaci6n omitocenosis-fitocenosis de la formaci6n semide-
cidua dominate en esta reserve de la bi6sfera se manifies-
ta en los resultados y asi se detallan los cambios en la
composici6n y estructura de las comunidades de aves aso-
ciadas a las diferentes areas de studio. Con el empleo de
parcelas circulares y redes omitol6gicas, asi como studios
de la estructura vegetal de los diferentes sitios trabajados,
se logr6 establecer correlaci6n entire los elements bi6ticos
referidos. Ademas se establecen comparaciones entire
oriented y centro-occidente de la peninsula.


CURRENT STATUS OF FERNANDINA'S FLICKER
(COLAPTESFERNANDINAE, AVES: PICIDAE) IN
EASTERN CUBA
LUIs OMAR MELIAN HERNANDEZ
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad (BIOECO), Jose
A. Saco No. 601, Esq. Barnada, Santiago de Cuba, C. P. 90 100,
Cuba. .. .
Populations of Femandina's Flicker (Colaptesfernandi-
nae) are considered reduced and scattered. Although there
are many historic records of this species in the eastern re-
gion, some authors consider this species as restricted to


western Cuba. I used data published from 1975 to 2001, a
review of ornithological collections, interviews with area
residents, and field work to identify new habitats and lo-
calities for this threatened species. A gap analysis sug-
gested that enlarging protected areas would better safe-
guard the species. More studies are required to clarify old
records made by naturalists, such as Charles T. Ramsden,
to confirm the presence of this species in some areas. The
environmental education of local people where this species
lives is of primary concern for the protection of this wood-
pecker.
SITUATION ACTUAL DE COLAPTES FERNANDINAE (AVES: PICIDAE)
EN LA REGION ORIENTAL DE CUBA
Las poblaciones actuales del Carpintero Churroso
(Colaptesfemandinae) en Cuba se consideran muy reduci-
das y de distribuci6n dispersa. A pesar de existir numero-
sos reports hist6ricos de esta especie en el territorio
oriental, algunos autores consideran que su presencia es
solo para la parte occidental del territorio cubano. Desde
1975 hasta la fecha se realizaron numerosas revisiones
bibliogrificas y de colecciones, encuestas a la poblaci6n, e
intensos trabajos de campo que permitieron obtener nue-
vos reports de localidades y de habitats para esta especie
amenazada. Del analisis de la protecci6n de esta especie se
concluye que es necesario ampliar las areas a fin de brin-
dar una mayor protecci6n para esta ave amenazada. Se
plantea la necesidad de studios que aclaren interrogantes
surgidos de los reports de naturalistas como Charles T.
Ramsden, a fin de confirmar o no la presencia de esta es-
pecie en areas done fue registrada. La educaci6n ambien-
tal de las poblaciones locales done existen reports de
esta especie debe jugar un rol fundamental en la protec-
ci6n real de este carpintero.


FORAGING HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
LARGE-FOOTED FINCH, PEZOPETES CAPITALIS
(AVES: EMBERIZIDAE)
LAINET GARCIA1 AND CAROLINA BERTSCH2
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, Cuba;and 2Universidad
Simon Bolivar, Venezuela
Pezopetes capitalis is a species endemic to the Tala-
manca Mountains, which stretch from Costa Rica to the
western part of Panama. It inhabits elevations ranging
from 2150 to 3300 m.a.s.l. This research was conducted in
the Cuerici Biological Reserve, Costa Rica (2600 and
2800 m.a.s.l.), where we characterized P. capitalis forag-
ing habitat, taking into consideration plant coverage, depth
of the leaf-litter layer, and soil hardness. Observations
were made in an oak (Quercus copeyensis, Q. costarricen-
sis) forest and in areas of secondary growth vegetation
surrounding the biological station. The two study areas
used as foraging sites by P. capitalis had dense plant cov-
erage (90% average), which played an important role in
the protection of this species from aerial predators. The
depth of the leaf-litter layer and soil hardness were not the
same in the two habitats, which enables different foraging
forms that at the same time were influenced by the avail-
ability of food resources.


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CARACTERISTICAS DEL HABITAT DE FORRAJEO DE PEZOPETES
CAPITALIS (AVES: EMBERIZIDAE)
Pezopetes capitalis es un ave end6mica de la cordillera
de Talamanca, la cual se extiende desde Costa Rica hasta
el oeste de Panama. Habita entire los 2150 y 3300 msnm.
El present trabajo se realize en la Reserva Biol6gica de
Cuerici, Costa Rica (2600 y 2800 msnm), done caracteri-
zamos el habitat de forrajeo de P. capitalis en cuanto a
cobertura vegetal, profundidad de la hojarasca y dureza del
sustrato. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en un bos-
que de robles (Quercus copeyensis, Q. costarricensis) y
zonas de vegetaci6n secundaria cercana a la estaci6n. Am-
bos sitios analizados, utilizados porP. capitalis para forra-
jear, presentaron cobertura vegetal densa (promedio de
90%), constituyendo un factor important de protecci6n
ante posibles depredadores aereos. La profundidad de la
capa de hojarasca y la dureza del sustrato fueron diferentes
en los dos tipos de habitats, promoviendo asi diferentes
formas de forrajeo que a su vez estuvieron influenciadas
por la disponibilidad del recurso alimenticio.


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEST SITES OF THE
CUBAN PARAKEET IN THE MONTE CABANIGUAN
PROTECTED AREA
BORIS VICENTE PLANELL GONZALEZI, MANUEL ALONSO
21
TABET2, AND VICENTE BEROVIDES ALVAREZ'
1Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana,
Cuba; y 2Empresa Nacional para la Proteccion de la Flora y la
Fauna, Minagrn, La Habana, Cuba
The macro- and micro-habitats that characterize the
nesting places of birds are essential for their successful
reproduction. Psittacids, especially, have several require-
ments for their nestling places, which are holes in trunks
of trees and palms. Among these psittacids is the Cuban
Parakeet (Aratinga euops), an endemic species. This bird
is relatively abundant in the Monte Cabaniguan protected
area, where it nests in palm (Copernicia sp.) cavities. We
analyzed the characteristics of the macro- and micro-
habitats surrounding such nests, measuring nest and vege-
tation parameters in three types of macrohabitats. Most
nests were observed in the virgin savanna macrohabitat
and some of the vegetation variables affected successful
reproduction.
CARACTERISTICAS DE LOS SITIOS DE NIDIFICACION DEL CATEY
ARATINGA EUOPS EN EL AREA PROTEGIDA MONTE CABANIGUAN
El macro- y micro-habitat que caracteriza los sitios de
nidificaci6n de las aves es esencial para su 6xito reproduc-
tivo. En especial, los psitacidos tienen multiples requeri-
mientos para sus sitios de nidificaci6n, que son los troncos
con cavidades de arboles y palmas. Entre estas species se
encuentra el Catey Aratinga euops, una especie amenaza-
da. Este periquito es relativamente abundante en el area
protegida "Monte Cabaniguan" done nidifica en las cavi-
dades de las palmas del g6nero Copernicia. Este trabajo
analiz6 las caracteristicas del macro- y micro-habitat que
rodean a dichos nidos, midiendo variables de la vegetacion
y del nido en tres tipos de macrohabitats. La mayor canti-
dad de nidos se observe en el macrohabitat de sabana vir-
gen y algunas variables de la vegetaci6n afectaron el exito


reproductive.


PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE AVIFAUNA
ASSOCIATED WITH TWO CACAO AGROECOSYS-
TEMS IN TABASCO, MEXICO
JUANA LOURDES TREJO PEREZ
Academic Division ofBiological Sciences, University of
Juarez, Autonomy of Tabasco, Mexico
Cacao, the main perennial crop of the state of Tabasco,
comprises an agroecosystem where, besides the cacao
trees, with an average height of 4-5 m, a higher canopy of
trees provides necessary shade. Another obvious compo-
nent is the layer of leaf litter on the ground. The avifauna
associated with the cacao agroecosystem occupies a habi-
tat of three well-defined layers, with light conditions at-
tenuated by the highest layer. Here I present information
on the avifauna associated with two cacao agroecosystems
with distinct shade characteristics: "cacaotal" (with shade
provided by introduced species) and "native cacao-
tal" (shade by native forest species). I obtained a list of 55
species (21 families) in the "cacaotal" and 81 species (23
families) in the "native cacaotal" agroecosystem. I also
characterized the avifauna of both types of cacoatal by
vertical distribution, diet, and season. Frugivorous species
(30.9%) were dominant in the cacaotal, whereas in the
native cacaotal insectivorous species (32%) predominated.
In both cases, the majority of birds were distributed in the
layer that served as shade for the cacao and in the intersec-
tion between shade and cacao. Finally, I present other con-
siderations with respect to avifaunal composition in the
cacao agroecosystem.
NOTAS PRELIMINARES SOBRE LA AVIFAUNA ASOCIADA A DOS
CACAOTALES EN TABASCO, MEXICO
El cacao, principal cultivo perenne de Tabasco, es un
agroecosistema en el que ademas de los arboles de cacao
mismo, con una altura promedio de 4 a 5 m, existe un es-
trato mas alto debido a que require de sombra para su
desarrollo. Otro component notorio es el suelo, que esta
cubierto de una capa de hojarasca. La omitofauna asociada
a un cacaotal ocupa un habitat con tres estratos bien defi-
nidos, asi como condiciones de luz atenuadas por el estrato
mas alto. En este trabajo se present informaci6n sobre la
omitofauna asociada a dos cacaotales con caracteristicas
distintas en cuanto a la composici6n de los elements de
sombra: "cacaotal" (sombra de species introducidas) y
"cacaotal-selva traditional" (sombra constituida por espe-
cies de selva). Se obtuvo un listado de 55 species (21
families) en el cacaotal y 81 species (23 families) en el
cacaotal-selva traditional. Se realize una caracterizacion
de la omitofauna de ambos tipos de cacaotal, considerando
distribuci6n vertical, dieta y estacionalidad. Se observe
que en el cacaotal predominan las species de aves frugi-
voras (30.9%), mientras que en el cacaotal-selva son las
insectivoras las predominates (32%). En ambos casos, la
mayoria de las aves se distribuyen en el estrato que sirve
de sombra al cacao y en la intersecci6n sombra-cacao.
Finalmente, se hacen algunas consideraciones respect a la
composicion de la ornitofauna de los cacaotales, asi como
del papel ecol6gico de las aves en 6stos.


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LAND-USE CHARACTERISTICS OF PUERTO RICAN
VIREO (VIREO LATIMERI) NESTING HABITAT
ADRIANNE G. TOSSAS
Department oj University ofPuerto Rico, Rio Piedras,
PR 00931; ,. ...... . ,. r iu,, .... ,i )
Bird populations are affected by the characteristics of
the habitat and the surrounding land-use patterns. The
proximity of nesting territories to croplands, pastures, and
urban or rural areas can decrease reproductive success. I
assessed the characteristics of the landscape surrounding
the breeding grounds of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo
latimeri) in Maricao State Forest, in the southwestern part
of the island. Aerial photographs were classified according
to 10 categories and digitized into a geographical informa-
tion system. The presence of the vireo was determined in
forest remnants surrounding the protected area. The study
area mainly consisted of closed forest (79.7%), agricul-
tural land (6.3%), rural developments (5.1%), and pasture
(3.8%). Smaller amounts of urban development, open
woodlands, landslides, and water bodies were identified.
The largest patches consisted of closed forest, with a mean
size of 772 ha. The vireos were found outside of the pro-
tected area in forest patches ranging from 3.0 to 7.7 ha.
Results show that large amounts of forest are available in
the region providing suitable habitat for the Puerto Rican
Vireo.
CARACTERISTICAS DEL USO DE TERRENO EN EL HABITAT DE
ANIDAJE DEL BIENTEVEO DE PUERTO RICO (VIREO LATIMERI)
Las poblaciones de aves se afectan por las caracteristi-
cas del habitat y los patrons de uso de los terrenos aleda-
ios. La proximidad de los territories de anidaje a cultivos,
pastizales, y areas urbanas o rurales puede disminuir el
6xito reproductive. Evalu6 las caracteristicas del paisaje
rodeando los lugares de anidaje del Bienteveo de Puerto
Rico (Vireo latimeri) en el Bosque Estatal de Maricao, en
la parte suroeste de la isla. Fotos areas fueron clasificadas
de acuerdo a 10 categories y digitalizadas en un sistema de
informaci6n geografica. La presencia del bienteveo fue
determinada en los remanentes de bosque alrededor del
area protegida. El area de studio consisti6 mayormente de
bosque cerrado (79.7%), terrenos agricolas (6.3%), desa-
rrollo rural (5.1%) o pastizales (3.8%). Menores cantida-
des de desarrollo urban, bosque abierto, deslizamientos, y
cuerpos de agua fueron identificadas. Los parches mayores
consistieron de bosque cerrado, con un tamafio promedio
de 772 ha. Los bienteveos fueron encontrados fuera del
area protegida en parches de bosque de 3.0 a 7.7 ha. Los
resultados demostraron que hay grandes cantidades de
bosque disponibles en la region proveyendo habitat ade-
cuado para el Bienteveo de Puerto Rico.


CHANGES IN THE STATUS OF BREEDING BROWN
BOOBIES (SULA LEUCOGASTER) ON CAYMAN
BRAC, CAYMAN ISLANDS, BWI
PATRICIA E. BRADLEY1, MATT SELF, KATHY OWEN, AND
T. J. SEVIK
'PO Box 907GT, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, British West
Indies
The colony of Brown Boobies (Sula leucogaster) on


Cayman Brac has been noted since ornithological records
began. However, the colony has declined from an esti-
mated 170 nests in 1983, to fewer than 50 nests in the
years since 1995. The number of juveniles and immatures
present at the colony has also declined considerably. Re-
cent studies have shown low hatching and fledging suc-
cess. These changes are similar to those experienced at
Brown Booby colonies worldwide. Several factors have
contributed to the declines, particularly increasing feral cat
and rat populations, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)
predation, new roads increasing tourist access to cliff-top
nesting areas, and increases in real estate development
close to nests. Our data have contributed to a management
plan for Cayman Brac that will provide a framework for
reversing the declines.
CAMBIOS EN EL ESTADO DE REPRODUCCION DE SULA
LEUCOGASTER EN CAYMAN BRAC, ISLAS CAIMAN
La colonia de Sula leucogaster en Cayman Brac ha sido
constatada desde el inicio de los apuntes omitol6gicos. Sin
embargo, esta colonia ha disminuido de unos 170 nidos
estimados en 1983, hasta menos de 50 nidos a partir de
1995. El numero de juveniles e immaduros en la colonia
tambi6n ha disminuido considerablemente. Estudios re-
cientes han demostrado que el 6xito de eclosi6n y el por-
centaje de volantones producidos es bajo. Estos cambios
son similares a otros reportados para otras colonies de Sula
leucogaster a nivel mundial. Varios factors han contribui-
do a estas mermas, especialmente el aumento en las pobla-
ciones de gatos asilvestrados y ratas, la depredaci6n de
Halcones Peregrinos (Falco peregrinus), la construccion
de nuevas carreteras que han aumentado el acceso de turis-
tas a las zonas de nidificaci6n al borde de los acantilados,
y el auge en el desarrollo de terrenos cerca de los nidos.
Estos datos han contribuido a un plan de manejo en Cay-
man Brac que proveera la estructura para terminar por
complete con las disminuciones.


A ONE-YEAR SURVEY OF THE SEABIRDS IN
KINGSTON HARBOUR, JAMAICA
LEO DOUGLAS
Department ofLife Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona,
Jamaica ,, ,J, ,r:, ., .t,,;,u,x. *,,
A study conducted to determine the status of seabirds in
Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, the world's seventh largest
natural harbour, was conducted from May 2000 to April
2001. Birds were counted monthly from points around the
harbor. Results confirm the importance of the harbour for
the regionally endangered subspecies of the Brown Pelican
(Pelecanus occidentalis) and for wintering seabirds such
as Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), Royal Tern (Sterna
maxima), and Sandwich Tern (S. sandvicensis). The an-
nual fluctuation in the numbers of these species was docu-
mented. Band recovery information collected from Royal
Terns within the harbor provide insights to demographics
of this species.
CENSO DE UN ANO DE LAS AVES MARINAS DEL PUERTO
DE KINGSTON, JAMAICA
Un studio para determinar el estado de las aves mari-


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nas del puerto de Kingston, Jamaica (el s6ptimo puerto
natural mas grande del mundo) se realize entire mayo de
2000 y abril de 2001. Las aves fueron contadas mensual-
mente desde diferentes puntos alrededor del puerto. Los
resultados confirman la importancia del puerto para el pe-
licano pardo (Pelecanus occidentalis), regionalmente en
peligro de extinci6n, y para aves marinas que invernan en
la zona tales como las gaviotas reidoras (Larus atricilla),
pagazas reales (Sterna maxima) y pagazas puntiamarillas
(S. sandvicensis). La fluctuaci6n annual en los numerous de
estas species fue documentada. La informaci6n suminis-
trada por las anillas de las pagazas reales recuperadas de-
ntro del puerto ofrece un mejor entendimiento de la demo-
grafia de esta especie.


GENETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY IN
BOOBY SPECIES OF THE BRAZILIAN COAST
CRISTINA Y. MIYAKI1'2, MELINA M. BAUMGARTEN1'3, AND
ADRIANA B. KOHLRAUSCH1
1Rua do Mato 277, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Blocn-
clas, Universidad de Sdo Paulo, 05508-900, Brazil; 2
S- r); 3 (mehna@b.usp.br)
Boobies are pantropical seabirds of the family Sulidae.
cient (BSC). The BSC in S. leucogaster for the minisatel-
lite probes 33.6 and 33.15 were respectively: 0.7260.08
and 0.5710.13 for MSI; 0.6880.09 and 0.6080.07 for RR;
and 0.8870.04 and 0.8140.05 for ASPSP. Even though the
GV was low in this species, each population seems to have
its own genetic identity. For S. dactylatra from FNI, the
BSC was 0.3840.09 (probe 33.6) and 0.3090.11 (probe
33.15). For S. sula from FNI the BSC was 0.3430.12 for
probe 33.6 and 0.180.09 for probe 33.15. In general, the
degree of GV found in Boobies was very low compared to
other bird species. Morphological variability was also in-
vestigated in different breeding colonies of S. leucogaster
and S. dactylatra, applying discriminant function analyses
and ANOVA. Results from five morphological measures
show differentiation among the colonies. This result is
expected considering that those colonies are distant from
one another.
VARIABILIDAD GENETIC Y MORFOLOGICA EN LAS SPECIES DE
PIQUEROS (SULIDAE) EN LA COSTA DE BRASIL
Los piqueros son aves marinas de distribuci6n pantropi-
cal pertenecientes a la familiar Sulidae. Cinco colonies de
anidaci6n se visitaron a lo largo de la costa de Brasil: ar-
chipielago de Sio Pedro y Sio Paulo (ASPSP), isla de Fer-
nando de Noronha (FNI), Atol das Rocas (RR), archipiela-
go de Abrolhos (AA) y la isla Moleques do Sul (MSI). La
variabilidad gen6tica (VG) de Sula leucogaster, S. dactyla-
tra y S. sula se estim6 caracterizando el ADN en base al
coeficiente promedio de bandas compartidas (mean band
sharing, o BSC). El BSC en S. leucogaster para las pruebas
de los minisatelites 33.6 y 33.15 fueron respectivamente
0.7260.08 y 0.5710.13 para MSI; 0.6880.09 y 0.6080.07
para RR; y 0.8870.04 y 0.8140.05 para ASPSP. Aun cuan-
do el valor de GV es bajo en esta especie, cada poblacion
aparenta tener su propia identidad gen6tica. Para S. dacty-
latra en la isla de Fernando de Noronha (FNI), el valor de
BSC fue de 0.3840.09 (prueba 33.6) y 0.3090.11 (prueba


33.15). Para S. sula en FNI, el valor de BSC fue de
0.3430.12 para la prueba 33.6 y 0.180.09 para la 33.15. En
general, el valor de VG encontrado en los piqueros fue
muy bajo comparado con otras species de ave. La variabi-
lidad morfol6gica se investig6 en diferentes colonies de
anidaci6n de S. leucogaster y S. dactylatra aplicando el
andlisis de funci6n discriminate y ANOVA. Los resulta-
dos de cinco medidas morfol6gicas demuestran una dife-
renciaci6n entire las colonies. Este es el resultado esperado
considerando que las colonies estan muy separadas.


THE CORRELATION OF PATTERNS OF
GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE
CHARACTERISTICS IN HERONS
DENNIS DENIS, PATRICIA RODRIGUEZ, KAREN BEOVIDES,
ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ, AND ARIAM JIMENEZ
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana,
Cuba
The control of growth in animals is a highly adaptive
phenomenon and has evolved in response to the particular
needs of each species, forming part of their reproductive
strategy. This study shows the patterns of postnatal growth
in four heron species: Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Snowy
Egret (Egretta thula), Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor),
and Green Heron (Butorides virescens). The study was
conducted in rookeries at Cayo Norte, Ci6naga de Bi-
ramas, and the surrounding area. Every two days, meas-
urements were taken of body weight and the lengths of the
bill and tarsus of 769 juveniles 0-14 days old. The data
were processed using Ricklef's method (1967) and growth
curves (Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy) were
found for each parameter. Lines of regression were deter-
mined for age prediction using the morphometric measure-
ments. Length of bill was found to be the best indicator of
age, except in the case of the Tricolored Heron. In all spe-
cies the tarsus length had the best fit in the Logistic equa-
tion and bill length in the Gompertz curve, except for the
Green Heron which followed Von Bertalanffy. The slopes
of the growth curves that fitted best, which are directly
related to the speed of growth, showed that the growth of
the tarsus was fastest in the Green Heron, followed by the
Cattle Egret, whereas both species showed fastest growth
of bill length. The implications and adaptive values of
these growth patterns are discussed.
RELACION ENTIRE LOS PATRONS DE CRECIMIENTO Y LAS
CARACTERISTICAS DE LA REPRODUCCION EN LAS GARZAS
En los animals, el crecimiento y su control son feno-
menos eminentemente adaptativos que han evolucionado
en respuesta a los requerimientos particulares de cada es-
pecie y forman parte de su estrategia reproductive. El pre-
sente trabajo caracteriza los patrons de crecimiento post-
natal en cuatro species de garzas: Garza Ganadera
(Bubulcus ibis), Garza de Rizos (Egretta thula), Garza
Tricolor (Egretta tricolor) y el Aguaitacaiman (Butorides
virescens). Para ello se trabaj6 en la colonia de cayo Nor-
te, ci6naga de Biramas, y sus alrededores, donde se midi6
cada dos dias el peso corporal y la longitud del pico y del
tarso de 769 pichones entire 0-14 dias de edad. Los datos
se procesaron segun el metodo de Ricklefs (1967) y se


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determine a qu6 tipo de curva (logistica, Gompertz o Von
Bertalanffy) se ajustaba mejor el crecimiento de cada es-
tructura. Se determinaron regresiones lineales para la pre-
dicci6n de la edad a partir de las medidas morfometricas.
Excepto para la Garza Tricolor, el mejor predictor de la
edad fue el largo del pico. En todas las species el tarso
tuvo un mejor ajuste a la ecuaci6n logistica, y el pico a la
de Gompertz, except el Aguaitacaiman en el que sigui6
Von Bertalanffy. Las pendientes de las rectas de mejor
ajuste, directamente relacionadas a la velocidad de creci-
miento, mostraron que el crecimiento mas rdpido del tarso
lo tiene el Aguaitacaiman, seguido de la Garza Ganadera,
mientras que ambos son las species de mayor velocidad
de crecimiento del pico. Se discuten las implicaciones y el
valor adaptativo de los patrons encontrados.


BREEDING RECORDS, INCLUDING CLUTCH SIZE
AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS, OF THREE
SPECIES OF CICONIIFORMES IN THE CIENAGA DE
BIRAMAS FROM 1998 TO 2001
DENNIS DENIS, ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ, PATRICIA RODRi-
GUEZ, JOSE L. PONCE AND ARIAM JIMENEZ
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana,
Cuba
The reproductive parameters of waterbird colonies are
important indicators of the state of wetland ecosystems
and particularly some aspects, such as the timing and suc-
cess of clutches, are of special interest for conservation of
the species. In this study, breeding records were kept of
three species of heron: Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis),
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), and Tricolored Heron
(Egretta tricolor) in the rookery at Cayo Norte, Ci6naga
de Biramas, during three consecutive years (1998-2000).
Breeding success was determined using the Mayfield
Method and clutch size was characterized using data from
921 nests. Every year there was around 20-25% probabil-
ity that nesting would be successful at least to 14 days.
The Tricolored Heron showed the greatest breeding suc-
cess each year, with a maximum in 1999 (50.3% probabil-
ity of survival). Significant differences were found be-
tween the largest clutch size in the Snowy Egret (2.31) and
the smallest in the Cattle Egret (2.07). Breeding records
showed differences in nesting parameters among species
and slight variations between years.
CRONOLOGIA, TAMANOS DE PUESTA Y EXITO REPRODUCTIVE DE
TRES SPECIES DE CICONIIFORMES EN LA CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS
ENTRE 1998-2001
Los parametros reproductivos de las aves acuaticas co-
loniales son importantes indicadores de la salud de los
ecosistemas de humedales y algunos aspects, como la
cronologia de la puesta o el 6xito reproductive, son de
particular interns conservacionista. En el present trabajo
se analiza la cronologia de la reproducci6n de tres species
de garzas: Garza Ganadera (Bubulcus ibis), Garza de Ri-
zos (Egretta thula) y Garza Tricolor (Egretta tricolor) en
la colonia de cayo Norte, ci6naga de Biramas, durante tres
afios consecutivos (1998-2000). Ademas, se determine el
6xito reproductive segun Mayfield y los tamafios de pues-
ta, utilizando los datos del monitoreo de 921 nidos. En


todos los afios el 6xito reproductive total se express en una
probabilidad de alrededor del 20-25% de que los nidos
fueran exitosos al menos hasta los 14 dias. La Garza Tri-
color en todos los afios fue la de mayor 6xito reproductive,
con el maximo durante 1999 (50.3% de probabilidad de
supervivencia). El mayor tamafio de puesta en general
correspondi6 a la Garza de Rizos (2.31) y el menor a la
Garza Ganadera (2.07), con diferencias significativas. La
cronologia de la reproducci6n mostr6 diferencias en la
dinamica de nidificaci6n entire las species y ligeras varia-
ciones entire afios.


ECOLOGY OF AQUATIC BIRDS AT THE JATO
INLET, CAYO SABINAL, CUBA
OMILCAR BARRIO VALDES
Estableczmeinto Nuevitas, Empresa Nacionalpara la Proteccion
de la Flora y al Fauna, La Habana, Cuba
The Jato inlet, southwest of Cayo Sabinal, has a great
number of birds and is one of the most important wetlands
of the Cayo. The goal of this study was to generate infor-
mation that allows development of a strategy for conserv-
ing the aquatic birds. The composition and dynamics of
the community, and reproductive biology of colonial birds
were studied beginning in January 2000. Data were ob-
tained by censusing along transects. Forty-eight species
were detected, 20 of which are migratory. The most abun-
dant species were, for residents, Phoenicopterus ruber,
Phalacrocorax auritus, and Pelecanus occidentalis; and,
for migratory species, Rynchops niger, Tringa melano-
leuca, and Calidris minutilla. The main increase in species
richness and density took place during the migratory pe-
riod. The highest species density and richness were ob-
served in January (1165.5 individuals/km2) and in March
(33 species), respectively. Six sea bird colonies were re-
corded. Colonies were regularly monitored and measure-
ments were taken to determine phenology of breeding,
colony size, clutch size, and habitat characteristics. There
are seven colonial seabirds, including P. auritus, Larus
atricilla, Sterna antillarum, and S. nilotica using the area.
The results confirm Jato inlet is an important waterbird
area.
ECOLOGIA DE LAS AVES ACUATICAS DE LA ENSENADA DEL JATO,
CAYO SABINAL
La ensenada del Jato, al suroeste de cayo Sabinal, es
uno de los humedales mas grandes del cayo y en 1l vive un
gran numero de aves acuaticas. Con el objetivo de trazar
una estrategia para la protecci6n y manejo del grupo,
hemos determinado la composici6n y dinamica annual de la
omitocenosis y estudiado el subnicho reproductive de las
aves coloniales desde enero del 2000. Los datos se obtu-
vieron a trav6s de recorridos en el area y de transectos de
bandas de 500 m y longitud variable. La comunidad esta
compuesta por 48 species, de las cuales 20 son migrato-
rias. Dentro de las species mas abundantes se destacan,
para las residents: Phoenicopterus ruber, Phalacrocorax
auritus, Pelecanus occidentalis; y, para las migratorias:
Rynchops niger, Tringa melanoleuca y Calidris minutilla.
Los mayores aumentos en la riqueza de species y densi-
dad tuvieron lugar durante el period migratorio. Los valo-


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res mas altos de densidad y riqueza de species fueron
observados en enero (1165.5 ind/km2) y marzo (33 espe-
cies), respectivamente. Se ubicaron seis colonies reproduc-
tivas dentro de la ensenada. En cada colonia tomamos da-
tos como el mes de actividad, species nidificantes, canti-
dad de nidos, cantidad de huevos por nido y caracteristicas
del habitat. En total encontramos colonies de siete espe-
cies, entire ellas P. auritus, Larus atricilla, Sterna antilla-
rum y S. nilotica. Los resultados confirman la importancia
del area como sitio de refugio, alimentaci6n y reproduc-
ci6n para las aves acuaticas y como punto de atraccion
turistica.


A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE AVIFAUNAS
OF BACUNAYAGUA, CANIMAR, AND PUNTA
HICACOS, COASTAL LOCALITIES OF NORTH-
WESTERN MATANZAS, CUBA
ENRIQUE SOTO RAMIREZ' AND CARLOS PEREZ CABANAS2
1Departamento de Clencias Biologicas, UniversidadPedagogica
de Matanzas, Carretera a Cidra Km 2/2, Matanzas, Cuba; and
Centro de Investigacion y Servicios Ambientales, Autopistay
Calle K, Varadero, Matanzas, Cuba
This work was conducted over a period of four years
and included 1664 h of field observations. In this report, a
list of species at each locality is given, including endemic
genera, species, and subspecies. Further, we evaluate our
results using the ecological similitude index of Sorensen
(1948). We also present an evaluation of habitats and tro-
phic levels for species observed.
STUDIO COMPARATIVE DE LA AVIFAUNA DE BACUNAYAGUA,
CANIMAR Y PUNTA DE HICACOS, LOCALIDADES COSTERAS DEL
NOROCCIDENTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE MATANZAS, CUBA
El present trabajo se desarroll6 durante un period de
tiempo de cuatro afios en el cual se emple6 un total de
1664 h de observaciones en condiciones de campo. Se
recogen en el informed investigative los listados de las es-
pecies de cada una de las localidades estudiadas, sefialan-
dose los taxones end6micos en los niveles generico, espe-
cifico y subespecifico y los resultados comparativos obte-
nidos en cuanto a la aplicaci6n del indice ecol6gico de
similitud de Sorensen (1948). Se present ademas una va-
loraci6n de los habitats donde se han reportado las diferen-
tes species y los gremios alimentarios de las mismas en
las localidades de studio.


ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, AND NESTING
AREAS OF SOME SEABIRDS OF WESTERN CUBA
JULIO ANTONIO RAMOS REYES1, ROLANDO QUINTERO
CANO', AND VICENTE BEROVIDES ALVAREZ2
1Empresa Nacional para la Proteccion de la Flora y la Fauna, La
Habana, Cuba; and 2Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La
Habana, La Habana, Cuba
In the Caribbean Region, 21 species of birds are consid-
ered threatened. We found five of these species in the
southern coast of Pinar del Rio Province and the protected
area of Cayos de San Felipe: Brown Pelican (Pelecanus
occidentalis), Least Tern (Sterna antillarum), Royal Tern
(Sterna maxima), Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), and
Magnificent Fregatebird (Fregata imagnitheni. The ob-


jective of this report was to determine, during the first six
months of the year 2000, the status of these species, in-
cluding their abundance, distribution, and nesting areas.
The Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)
was also included in our evaluation because it is locally
threatened as a result of fishermen capturing nestlings.
Only the Least Tern and the cormorant use the subject area
for nesting; the remaining species use the area only for
feeding and resting. Fifty kilometers of the coast was sur-
veyed and the species were counted at eight points where
they congregate often. The number of birds observed fluc-
tuated from 20 (Brown Pelicans) to more than 100 indi-
viduals (Royal and Least terns).
ABUNDANCIA, DISTRIBUTION Y AREAS DE NIDIFICACION DE AL-
GUNAS SPECIES DE AVES MARINAS EN EL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA
Para la region del Caribe se citan 21 species de aves
amenazadas. Cinco de 6stas se registraron para la costa sur
de Pinar del Rio y el Refugio de Fauna Cayos de San Feli-
pe. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar, durante el
primer semestre del afio 2000, el status de estas species
en cuanto a su abundancia, distribuci6n y areas de nidifi-
caci6n en la zona. Las cinco species de aves marinas
amenazadas en el area de studio son el Pelicano Pardo
(Pelecanus occidentalis), la Gaviotica (Sterna antillarum),
la Gaviota Real (Sterna maxima), el Galleguito (Larus
atricilla), y el Rabihorcado (Fregata imagitfich '1, todas
ellas sin informaci6n actualizada de su status en Cuba.
Tambi6n incluimos a la Coria de Mar (Phalacrocorax
auritus), amenazada aqui por la capture de sus pichones.
S61o se detectaron areas de nidificaci6n para la Gaviotica
y la Corma; el resto de las species s61o tienen areas de
alimentaci6n y dormitorio. Se evaluaron 50 km de costa
donde se detectaron estas aves y se contaron donde son
frecuentes. Esto dio un minimo de 20 individuos
(Pelicanos) hasta mas de 100 (Gaviota Real y Galleguito).


OVERLAP OF BREEDING AND MOLTING IN
KILLDEER AND THE POTENTIAL FOR YEAR-
ROUND BREEDING IN THE WEST INDIES
BETTE J. S. JACKSON AND JEROME A. JACKSON
Whitaker Center, College ofArts and Sciences, Florida C
Coast University, 10201 FGCUBlvd. South, Ft. Myers, FL
33965, USA . ..
The Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) is found as a breed-
ing bird through most of North America and the Carib-
bean. Northern populations are migratory and, because of
the constraints of climate and migration, their breeding
season is limited to about April through July. Most studies
of this species have been in breeding areas of these migra-
tory birds. We studied a resident breeding population in
the southeastern United States and found a much longer
nesting season (March into November) and behavioral
adaptations associated with high ambient temperatures.
Conventional ornithological wisdom has suggested that
the high-energy demands of breeding and molting would
preclude their overlap and in northern populations this
seems to be true. In Killdeer we studied, however, there
was extensive overlap of breeding and molting. This may
be possible because of the favorable climate and absence


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS-13TH MEETING OF SCO-JULY 2001


of the energetic demands of migration. Most observations
of nesting in Killdeer in the West Indies have been anec-
dotal, but nest records suggest a similar lengthy nesting
season. Such a long nesting season, in concert with habitat
changes in the West Indies, seems to favor the growth of
Killdeer populations in the West Indies.
SUPERPOSICION DE LA NIDIFICACION Y LA MUDA EN EL PLAYER
SABANERO Y EL POTENTIAL PARA LA NIDIFICACION DURANTE
TODO EL ANO EN LAS ANTILLAS
El Playero Sabanero (Charadrius vociferus) se report
como especie nidificante en gran parte de America del
Norte y el Caribe. Las poblaciones septentrionales son
migratorias y debido a las demands del clima y la migra-
ci6n, la 6poca reproductive se limita mayormente a los
meses de abril a julio. La mayoria de los studios sobre
esta especie han sido en las areas de reproducci6n de estas
aves migratorias. Estudiamos la poblaci6n reproductora
resident en el sureste de los Estados Unidos y encontra-
mos una epoca reproductive much mas prolongada
(marzo a noviembre) y adaptaciones de conduct asocia-
das a las altas temperatures ambientales. El sentido comun
omitol6gico sugiere que los grandes requerimientos de
energia para la reproducci6n y la muda impedirian que
estas actividades se superpongan, y en poblaciones norte-
fias 6sto parece ser cierto. En los players estudiados, sin
embargo, encontramos que la nidificaci6n y la muda se
traslapan extensamente. Esto podria ser possible gracias al
clima favorable y la ausencia de las demands energ6ticas
de la migraci6n. La mayoria de las observaciones sobre los
players anidando en las Antillas han sido anecd6ticas
pero los registros de nidificaci6n sugieren una 6poca de
reproducci6n prolongada. Esta 6poca de nidificaci6n pro-
longada, junto a los cambios de habitat en las Antillas,
aparentemente favorecen el crecimiento de las poblaciones
del Playero Sabanero en las Antillas.


OBSERVATIONS ON THE NESTING BIOLOGY AND
DISTRIBUTION OF THE GRENADA HOOK-BILLED
KITE
RUSSELL THORSTROM1, EDWARD MASSIAH2, AND CHRISTI
HALL3
1The Peregrine Fund, 566 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID
83705 USA (rthorstrom@peregrinefund.org); 2Nelson Apart-
ments, Johnson Road, Fitts Village St. James, Barbados, West
Indies; and 335914Marvin St., Boise, ID 83709 USA
We searched for Grenada Hook-billed Kites
(Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus) from 22 to 28 February
and 2 to 10 August 2000. In February, we spent 63.5 h
and, in August, 50 h, covered 750 km by car, and observed
from selected sites throughout the island. We had 19 sight-
ings of kites, which represented an estimate of 15 indi-
viduals in February and 15 individuals in August, includ-
ing four active pairs. Two nesting pairs were located in the
southern part of the island and two pairs exhibiting nesting
behavior were observed in the south-central part of the
island. We estimate the island-wide kite population to be
at least 40 birds. Nests were in trees, 15 and 17 m above
ground in a 67.5-cm diameter-at-breast-height (dbh) Ceiba
pentandra and a 59.9-cm dbh Erythrina micropteryx, re-


spectively. Nest No. 1 contained a nestling approximately
2-3 weeks of age and at Nest No. 2 the pair was incubat-
ing. We recorded 156 Grenada Hook-billed Kite prey
items, predominantly at nest No. 1; 133 were identified to
species level. Snails comprised all of the identified prey.
Three species of snails were identified as Drymaeus
dominicus 55% (N = 76), Orthalicus undatus 34.6%
(46), and Pleurodonte perplexa 9.8% (13). During nest
observations, the male delivered 46.8% (73) and the fe-
male 53.2% (83) of the snails.
OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA BIOLOGIA DE NIDIFICACION Y LA
DISTRIBUTION DE CHONDROHIERAX UNCINATUS MIRUS EN
GRANADA
Buscamos el tax6n Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus del
22 al 28 de febrero y del 2 al 10 de agosto del 2000. En
febrero pasamos 63.5 h en el campo y en agosto 50 h, cu-
briendo 750 km en carro y haciendo observaciones en si-
tios que seleccionamos por toda la isla. Tuvimos 19 avista-
mientos, representando un estimado de 15 individuos en
febrero y 15 individuos en agosto, incluyendo cuatro pare-
jas activas. Se localizaron dos parejas anidando en la parte
sur de la isla y en la parte sur-central dos parejas exhibien-
do comportamiento de nidificaci6n fueron observadas.
Estimamos que la poblaci6n en la isla entera es de por lo
menos 40 aves. Los nidos estaban colocados a 15 m del
suelo en una Ceiba pentandra de 67.5 cm de diametro al
pecho (dbh) y a 17 m del suelo en un arbol de Erythrina
microteryx de 59.9 cm dbh. El primer nido tenia un pich6n
de aproximadamente 2-3 semanas y en el segundo nido la
pareja estaba incubando. Registramos 156 press de Chon-
drohierax uncinatus mirus, principalmente en el primer
nido; 133 fueron identificadas a nivel de especie. Todas
las press identificadas fueron caracoles. Las species in-
cluyeron Drymaeus dominicus (55%; N = 76), Orthalicus
undatus (34.6%; N = 46) y Pleurodonte perplexa (9.8%; N
= 13). Durante las observaciones de los nidos, el macho
entreg6 el 46.8% (73) de los caracoles y la hembra el
53.2% (83).


STATUS AND BIOLOGY OF THE CUBAN BLACK-
HAWK, BUTEOGALLUS ANTHRACINUS
GUNDLACHII
JAMES W. WILEY' AND ORLANDO H. GARRIDO2
S i Cooperative Fish and Ii .. Research Unit, Univer-
sity of ] rn Shore, 1120 Trigg Hall, Princess Anne,
MD 21853, USA .. .. . : and 231706 Calle 60,
entire 17y 19, Playa, La Habana, Cuba
The New World genus Buteogallus includes five spe-
cies, mostly restricted to tropical areas. The Common
Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) ranges from south-
western United States, south to extreme northern South
America, Trinidad, and some of the West Indies. One of
the West Indian populations, B. a. cancrivorous, is re-
stricted to St. Vincent and other Lesser Antilles, whereas
the only other West Indian population, B. a. gundlachii,
occurs in the Cuban Archipelago. We have re-evaluated
the taxonomic status of gundlachii, based on examination
of more specimens, nests, eggs, and behavioral data than
were considered by previous workers. Buteogallus a.
gundlachii is markedly smaller than, and differs from B. a.


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anthracinus in plumage coloration and pattern, and egg
coloration. The species of Buteogallus are partial to wet-
lands, swampy woods, and seacoasts. The Cuban popula-
tion prefers lowland coastal areas, but B. a. cancrivora
mainly keeps to the high wooded valleys of St. Vincent.
The genus Buteogallus feeds mainly on invertebrates and
lower vertebrates. At Isla de Pinos (Isla de la Juventud) we
observed gundlachii feeding on crabs (3 spp.; 71.4%),
centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and
a bird (3.6%). The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a
series of three notes, whereas that of mainland Buteogallus
anthracinus consists of 8-14 notes. We consider Buteogal-
lus anthracinus (with geographical races B. a. cancrivo-
rous and B. a. anthracinus), B. urubittinga, B. aequino-
tialis, and B. gundlachii as separate species. Thus, Buteo
gundlachii Cabanis, 1854, the Cuban Black-Hawk, is en-
demic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the
Cuban Archipelago.
ESTADO Y BIOLOGIA DEL GAVILAN BATISTA, BUTEOGALLUS
ANTHRACINUS GUNDLACHII
El g6nero Buteogallus del Nuevo Mundo incluye cinco
species, en su mayoria restringidas a areas tropicales. El
Gavilan Batista (Buteogallus anthracinus) habitat del su-
roeste de Estados Unidos, por el sur hasta el extreme norte
de America del Sur, Trinidad y algunas islas del Caribe.
Una de las poblaciones del Caribe, B. a. cancrivorous, esta
restringida a San Vicente y otras Antillas Menores y la
otra poblaci6n del Caribe, B. A. gundlachii, esta restringi-
da al archipielago cubano. Hemos hecho una reevaluaci6n
del status taxon6mico de gundlachii despu6s de examiner
mas especimenes, nidos, huevos y datos de conduct que
otros autores en el pasado. Buteogallus a. gundlachii es
notablemente menor y difiere de B. a. anthracinus en el
patron y color del plumaje y la coloraci6n de los huevos.
Las species de Buteogallus son parciales a los humedales,
los bosques pantanosos y las costas marinas. La poblaci6n
cubana prefiere las tierras bajas en las areas costeras pero
B. a. cancrivora mayormente habitat los valles boscosos de
altura en San Vicente. El g6nero Buteogallus se alimenta
principalmente de invertebrados, anfibios y reptiles. En la
isla de Pinos nosotros observamos a gundlachii comiendo
cangrejos (3 especes; 71.4%), ciempi6s(7.1%), lagartijas
(10%), mamiferos (7.1%), y un pajaro (3.6%). El llamado
comun (de alarma) de gundlachii es una series de tres no-
tas, mientras que el de la raza continental de Buteogallus
anthracinus consiste de 8-14 notas. Nosotros considera-
mos Buteogallus anthracinus (con razas geograficas B. a.
cancrivorous y B. a. anthracinus), B. urubittinga, B. ae-
quinotialis, y B. gundlanchii como species distintas. Bu-
teo gundlachii Cabanis, 1854, el Gavilan Batista, se con-
vierte en una especie endemica de Cuba, la isla de Pinos, y
muchos de los cayos del archipielago cubano.

THE STATUS, DISTRIBUTION, AND
CONSERVATION OF TERNS ON ARUBA AND
BONAIRE
ADRIAN J. DEL NEVO
Apphed Ecological Solutions Inc., 3092 Copa de Oro Drive,
Rossmoor, California 90720, USA


Aruba includes one of the most diverse and highly
populated sites for nesting terns in the world. Over 10,000
pairs of terns representing 10 species, and including (at
least) four species of regional or international importance,
nest on small groups of islets near human activity. The
tern populations exhibit relatively high levels of breeding
success, juvenile recruitment, and population growth. The
nesting islets include a large colony of Cayenne Tern
(Sterna sandvicensis eurygnatha), which may represent
over 60% of the world population for this species. Preda-
tion and disturbance by Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla)
continue to pose a serious threat to nesting terns, particu-
larly Cayenne Terns. A collaborative conservation man-
agement program between the Government of Aruba and
local industry has dramatically contributed to the reduction
of population threats to all tern species.
EL ESTADO, DISTRIBUTION Y CONSERVATION DE LOS
CHARRANES EN ARUBA Y BONAIRE
Aruba contiene uno de los sitios mas diversos y mejor
poblados para el anidaje de charranes en el mundo. Mas de
10,000 parejas de charranes de diez species, incluyendo
por lo menos cuatro species de importancia regional o
international, anidan en un pequefio grupo de islotes muy
cercano a areas de gran actividad humana. Las poblaciones
de charranes exhiben un exito reproductive relativamente
alto, asi como un alto indice de reclutamiento de juveniles
con un consecuente crecimiento poblacional. Los islotes
contienen una colonial muy grande de Gaviotas de Cayena
(Sterna sandvicencis .., ,.l...i la cual posiblemente
represent el 60% de la poblaci6n mundial de esta especie.
La depredaci6n y perturbaci6n por parte de la Gaviota
Gallega (Larus atricilla) continue siendo una amenaza
para los charranes durante la nidificaci6n, pero particular-
mente para la Gaviota de Cayena. Un program cooperati-
vo de conservacion y manejo, auspiciado por el gobiemo
de Aruba y el sector industrial local, ha contribuido dra-
maticamente a reducir las amenazas que afrontan todas
estas species de charranes.


COORDINATING MIGRATORY SHOREBIRD SUR-
VEY EFFORTS THROUGHOUT EASTERN NORTH
AMERICA AND SOUTH AMERICA
WILLIAM C. HUNTER1, JAIME A. COLLAZO2, CHERI
GRATTO-TREVOR3, ERIC HANSEN4, BRIAN HARRINGTON5,
ROBERT NOFFSINGER6, and ADRIANNE G. TOSSAS7
1USFish and 1i Service, 1875 Century Boulevard, Suite
240, Atlanta, GA, 30345, USA (chuck hunter@fws.gov); 2North
Carolina Cooperative Research Unit (BRD USGS), North Caro-
lina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; Canadian Wild-
life Service, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Road, Saska-
toon, SK S7N 0X4, Canada; 45 square des Kikiwis 97310
KOUROU, Guyane Frangaise; Manomet Center for Conserva-
tion Sciences, PO Box 1770, Manomet, MA 02345, USA; 6USFish
and I .. Service, PO Box 2440, Manteo, NC 27954-2440,
USA; University ofPuerto Rico, Department oj . PO Box
23360, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3360
Many species of Western Hemispheric shorebirds are
documented to be in decline. Some of these species travel
nearly the entire distance of the Western Hemisphere,
spanning from the Canadian and Alaskan Arctic to the


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS-13TH MEETING OF SCO-JULY 2001


southern tip of South America. About 25 shorebird species
occur regularly in the Caribbean as either passage mi-
grants or winter residents, but little is known about habitat
quality or whether shorebirds are reasonably well pro-
tected from threats found at presently known sites. There-
fore, coordinating survey efforts throughout the hemi-
sphere is desirable to achieve several conservation objec-
tives: (1) to identify important stopover or wintering sites
where large numbers of shorebirds are concentrated, (2) to
identify distribution and timing of migration for individual
species, and (3) to determine what habitat characteristics
make stop-over and wintering sites important for each
shorebird species and for all shorebirds combined. Data
generated to address these objectives are important for
developing and implementing protective measures for the
most important sites, providing management recommenda-
tions at all sites, and to ensure the best coordination possi-
ble is in effect for all conservation efforts among all coop-
erators. Three general types of surveys are recommended
to achieve conservation objectives: (1) aerial surveys, (2)
ground surveys, and (3) demographic studies to measure
habitat quality and how that influences turn-over rates at
migratory stop-over sites and at wintering sites survival
rates. Recommended standards will be discussed for each
of these three survey types. We will provide a summary of
ongoing international efforts involving Canada, United
States, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and French
Guiana, as well as other Caribbean cooperators, especially
with regards to implementing the International Shorebird
Survey developed by Manomet Center for Conservation
Sciences. Finally, we will suggest developing a shorebird
website for cooperators to enter and use standardized sur-
vey data on an international scale (in addition to sending
these data to Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences).
COORDINANDO LOS ESFUERZOS DE INVENTARIOS DE PLAYERS
MIGRATORIOS A TRAVES DEL ESTE DE NORTEAMERICA Y
SURAMERICA
Se ha documentado que muchas species de players
del hemisferio occidental estan disminuyendo. Algunas de
estas species viajan casi la distancia complete del hemis-
ferio occidental desde Canada y el artico en Alaska hasta
el extreme de Suramerica en Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.
Alrededor de 25 species de players se encuentran regu-
larmente en el Caribe como migratorios en transit o resi-
dentes invemantes, pero muy poco se conoce sobre la cali-
dad del habitat o si los players estan protegidos razona-
blemente de las amenazas en esos lugares. Por lo tanto, es
deseable coordinar los inventarios a trav6s del hemisferio
para lograr various objetivos de conservaci6n: (1) identifi-
car lugares importantes de transit o de invemaci6n donde
se concentran grandes cantidades de players, (2) identifi-
car la distribuci6n y el tiempo de migraci6n para cada es-
pecie, y (3) determinar cuales caracteristicas del habitat
hacen que las areas de paso y de estadia internal sean im-
portantes para cada especie y todas las species juntas. Los
datos generados para lograr estos objetivos son importan-
tes para desarrollar e implementar medidas de proteccion
para los lugares mas importantes, proveer recomendacio-
nes de manejo para todos los lugares, y asegurar que se
ponga en efecto la mejor coordinacion possible entire todos


los colaboradores. Tres tipos generals de inventarios se
recomiendan para lograr los objetivos de conservaci6n: (1)
inventarios a6reos, (2) inventarios terrestres, y (3) studios
demograficos para medir la calidad del habitat y c6mo la
calidad influencia las tasas de reemplazo en los lugares de
transito y las tasas de supervivencia en los lugares de in-
vemaci6n. Los estandares recomendados se discutiran para
cada tipo de inventario. Proveeremos un resume de los
esfuerzos intemacionales que llevan a cabo Canada, Esta-
dos Unidos, Republica Dominicana, Puerto Rico, Guyana
Francesa, y otros colaboradores caribefios, especialmente
sobre la implementaci6n del Inventario Intemacional de
Players, desarrollado por el Centro Manomet de Ciencias
de Conservaci6n. Finalmente, sugeriremos desarrollar una
pagina electronic para que los colaboradores entren y
usen los datos intemacionales estandarizados (ademas de
enviarlos a Manomet).


REPRESENTATIVENESS, ABUNDANCE STATUS,
AND GREGARIOUSNESS OF SPECIES OF THE FAM-
ILY CHARADRIIDAE IN MANGON LAGOON AND
LAS CALAVERAS BEACH, VARAHICACOS ECO-
LOGICAL RESERVE, MATANZAS, CUBA
CARLOS PEREZ CABANAS1 and ENRIQUE SOTO RAMIREZ2
Centro de Investigaczon y Servicios Amblentales, Autopistay
Calle K, Varadero, Matanzas, Cuba; and 2Departamento de Czen-
clas Biologicas, Unmversidad Pedagogica de Matanzas, Carretera
a Cidra Km 2'/2, Matanzas, Cuba
We counted plovers along linear transects during 72 h
of fieldwork from April 2000 to February 2001 at Laguna
de Mang6n and Playa Las Calaveras in Varahicacos Eco-
logical Reserve (2311 N and 8108 W). We recorded the
number of plovers present each month, finding the highest
numbers during January (N = 132) and February (N =
160). Numbers decreased in June and August because four
of the species reported are nearctics breeders. Greatest
numbers were noted between 07:30 and 11:00 h. The be-
havior of five plover species observed in the area was also
studied. The gregariousness, flushing distance, height at
which the birds flew, displacement behavior, and main
feeding zones were noted.
REPRESENTATIVIDAD, STATUS DE ABUNDANCIA Y GREGARISMO
DE LAS SPECIES DE LA FAMILIAR CHARADRIIDAE (AVES: CHARA-
DRIIFORMES), EN LA LAGUNA DE MANGON Y PLAYA LAS CALA-
VERAS, LOCALIDADES DE LA RESERVE ECOLOGICA VARAHICA-
COS, MATANZAS, CUBA
El present trabajo se desarroll6 en la laguna de Man-
g6n y la playa Las Calaveras, localidades de la Reserva
Ecol6gica Varahicacos (latitud 2311 N y longitud
81008'W). Se aplic6 el m6todo de conteos en transectos
lineales que duraron desde abril del 2000 hasta febrero del
2001, empleandose un total de 72 h de observaciones de
campo. Se registry en el informed la abundancia relative
para estas species usando el indice de diversidad (H') de
Shannon-Weaver (1949). Tambi6n se determine el total de
individuos contados para cada especie (N) mensualmente,
obteniendose los valores mas altos durante los meses de
enero y febrero, con N = 132 y N= 160 individuos, respec-
tivamente. Estas cifras disminuyeron durante los meses de
verano (junio-agosto), debido a que cuatro de las species


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reportadas pertenecientes a esta familiar son nearticas. Se
determine ademas las horas de mayor frecuencia de obser-
vaci6n para estas aves, correspondiendo al horario com-
prendido entire las 07:30 h y las 11:00 h. Se estudi6 el
comportamiento y la conduct de las cinco species repor-
tadas para esta familiar en la localidad, haciendo 6nfasis en
aspects concernientes al gregarismo, distancias de huidas,
alturas de vuelo, principles zonas de alimentaci6n y las
species con mayores desplazamientos.


PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF STUDIES OF THE
BIRD COMMUNITY OF THE COASTAL ZONE OF
GUANAHACABIBES
ORLANDO TORRES FUNDORA AND VICENTE BEROVIDES
ALVAREZ
Facultad De Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana,
Cuba
In many places in the world, coastal zones are being
threatened by habitat degradation caused by urban devel-
opment, which is preceded by road construction. This is
the case of the coastal zone of southern Guanahacabibes,
in the western-most region of Cuba, traversed by a 74-km
road (from Maria La Gorda to El Cabo), which runs
through three types of vegetation formations with a rich
avifauna. The objective of this study was to evaluate the
bird communities along this road, considering abundance,
diversity, and species interchange. Among the main fac-
tors considered were the time of the day, vegetation type,
and season of the year. Road surveys for the counts were
conducted from motorized vehicles at an average speed of
20 km/h, between 07:30 and 12:00 h, recording the num-
bers of individuals detected for each species. Here, we
show preliminary data for the dry season. Thirty-two bird
species were recorded, with Turdus plumbeus being the
dominant species. Ecological indexes were more or less
stable throughout the transect, but a high species inter-
change was observed between plant formations, and even
within them, based on time of the day and degree of hu-
man impact.
STUDIO DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES DE LA ZONA COSTERA DE
GUANAHACABIBES: RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES
En muchos lugares del mundo, las zonas costeras estan
amenazadas por la degradaci6n de sus habitats, provocada
por la urbanizaci6n, cuyo preludio es la construcci6n de
carreteras. En este ultimo caso se encuentra la zona costera
del sur de Guanahacabibes, situada en la region mas occi-
dental de Cuba, atravezada por una carretera de 74 km (de
Maria La Gorda hasta El Cabo) que intercepta tres tipos de
formaciones vegetables con una rica avifauna. El objetivo
del present studio fue evaluar la comunidad de aves a lo
largo de la mencionada carretera, considerando su abun-
dancia, diversidad y recambio de species. Como factors
principles se tuvieron en cuenta el horario, el tipo de for-
maci6n vegetal y la estaci6n del afio. Los recorridos por la
carretera para los conteos se realizaron en vehiculo auto-
motor con una velocidad aproximada de 20 km/h, entire las
07:30 y las 12:00 h, registrandose la cantidad de indivi-
duos detectados por especie. En este trabajo ofrecemos los
datos preliminares de la estaci6n seca. Fueron registradas


32 species de aves, con Turdus plumbeus como especie
predominate. Los indices ecol6gicos se mantienen mas o
menos estables a lo largo de todo el transecto, pero se ob-
serva un alto recambio de species entire las formaciones
vegetables y, dentro de 6stas, por horario y grado de antro-
pizacion.


CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE
GREATER FLAMINGO IN VENEZUELA
FRANK ESPINOZA. MARN
Direccion General de Fauna, Apdo. 184, Maracay, Venezuela
(profauna@marnr.gov. ve; ferlogan@cantv.net)
The Direcci6n General de Fauna (formerly Profauna), in
conjunction with the Consejeria de Medio Ambiente de la
Junta de Andalucia of Spain, initiated a conservation and
management project for Greater Flamingos
(Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) along the Venezuelan coast.
The objectives were to (1) assess population size, fluctua-
tion, and distribution; (2) carry out habitat characterization
at feeding and nesting sites; and (3) train Profauna and
NGO personnel in flamingo census and management tech-
niques. From September 1995 to September 1998, 37 stan-
dardized, simultaneous monthly censuses (including three
air censuses) of flamingos were conducted at 17 locations
from the Venezuelan Guajira (Catanejas Marsh) to Chaco-
pata Lagoon (state of Sucre) and several offshore Carib-
bean islands. Maximum numbers of flamingos were ob-
served in May 1996 (34,170), June 1997 (34,500), and
January 1998 (37,132). Most flamingos were observed on
the western coast (78.35%). The proportion of juveniles
was 2.85% (1995-1996), 3.83% (1997), and 0.7% (1988).
Overall, 40% of flamingos tallied used three coastal wild-
life refuges year-round as their main habitat. When
flooded, 76.5% of the flamingoes concentrated at Catane-
jas Marsh (Zulia state). The flamingo breeding colony at
Los Olivitos Wildlife Refuge was monitored in 1999 and
2000. We banded chicks in 1999 (53 banded) and 2000
(137), using white, engraved PVC bands and aluminum
rings. Venezuelan flamingo populations have increased
two-fold in numbers compared with censuses in the 1970s
and 1980s.
CONSERVATION Y MANEJO DEL FLAMENCO DEL SUR DEL CARIBE
EN VENEZUELA
La Direcci6n General de Fauna (antes Profauna), con el
apoyo tecnico y financiero de la Consejeria de Medio Am-
biente de la Junta de Andalucia, Espafia, desarrolla el pro-
yecto Conservaci6n y Manejo de Flamencos
(Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) en las costas e islas del Cari-
be venezolano. Los objetivos comprenden la evaluaci6n de
la poblaci6n de flamencos y otras aves acuaticas, caracteri-
zaci6n de habitat de alimentaci6n y reproducci6n, y forma-
ci6n de t6cnicos de Profauna y ONGs en censos y manejo
de flamencos. Se realizaron 37 censos mensuales simulta-
neos (1995-1998) y tres a6reos en 17 localidades, desde El
Gran Eneal (Guajira venezolana) hasta laguna de Chaco-
pata (Estado Sucre). Los meses con mayor numero de fla-
mencos fueron mayo de 1996 (34,170 individuos), junio
de 1997 (34,500) y enero de 1998 (37,132). La mayor pro-
porci6n de flamencos (78.35%) se concentr6 en la costa


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occidental. Tres refugios de fauna acogen el 40% de la
poblaci6n. En periods de inundaci6n, la ci6naga de Las
Catanejas (area no protegida) llega a albergar hasta el
76.5% de los flamencos. Se clasificaron como flamencos
juveniles el 2.85% (1995-1996), 3.83% (1997) y 0.7%
(1998) de los totales estimados. Se observe la colonia de
nidificaci6n (1999-2000) en el Refugio de Fauna Los Oli-
vitos (Zulia). Se anillaron (PVC y metal) 53 pollos de fla-
menco en 1999 y 137 en el 2000. La poblaci6n de flamen-
cos en Venezuela se duplic6 respect a la observada en el
siglo pasado.


CAPTIVE BREEDING OF THE ASHY-FACED OWL
(TYTO GLAUCOPS) (TYTONIDAE)
SIMON GUERRERO1 AND MARIELIS SANCHEZ2
1UniversidadAutonoma de Santo Domingo y Parque Zoologico
National, Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana
(dulus@tncom.net); and 2Parque Zoologico Nacional, Santo
Domingo, Repuibhca Dominicana
We describe the first captive breeding in the New World
of the Ashy-faced Owl (Tyto glaucops), the only endemic
owl species in Hispaniola. We present data on feeding,
reproductive behavior, incubation, and morphological de-
velopment of five chicks from March to April 2001. We
also discuss educational aspects and local financing
sources for the species' conservation program in the Do-
minican Republic, as well as the technical and economic
support of international organizations.
REPRODUCTION EN CAUTIVERIO DE LA LECHUZA CARA CENIZA
(TYTO GLAUCOPS) (TYTONIDAE)
Se describe la primera reproducci6n en cautiverio en el
continent americano de Tyto glaucops, la unica especie
de lechuza endemica a La Espafiola. Se presentan datos
sobre alimentaci6n, conductas reproductivas, incubaci6n y
desarrollo morfol6gico de cinco polluelos nacidos entire
marzo y abril del 2001. Se resefian tambi6n los aspects
educativos y las fuentes locales de financiamiento del Pro-
yecto de Conservaci6n de las lechuzas de la Republica
Dominicana, asi como el apoyo t6cnico y econ6mico de
organizaciones internacionales a dicho proyecto.


FORAGING STRATEGY OF HELIANGELUS SPENCEI
(TROCHILIDAE) ON TWO ERICACEAS IN A
VENEZUELAN ANDES CLOUD FOREST
LuIs J. CORNEJO1, CARLOS RENGIFO1, AND PASCUAL
SORIANO2
1Estacion Ormtologica "LaMucuy, Parque Nacional Sierra
Nevada, Apartado Postal 229, Merida 5101, Venezuela

I,. Facultad de Clencias, Universidad
de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela ..
We studied the relationship between the foraging pat-
tern of the endemic Merida Hummingbird (Heliangelus
spencei), and the concentration and volume of nectar pro-
duced by flowers of two species in the genus Cavendishia
(Ericaceae). Heliangelus spencei concentrates its foraging
activity during the early and final hours of daylight (06:00
and 18:00 h), when the flowers of Cavendishia bracteata
and C. pubescens produce the highest nectar volume. The


number of visits by H. spencei to C. bracteata and C. pu-
bescens flowers is not correlated with the nectar concen-
tration (r = -0.7 and r = -1.0, respectively). Heliangelus
spencei establishes and protects foraging territories of both
plant species and is the main pollinator for C. bracteata.
Handling time was measured for H. spencei on flowers of
C. bracteata directly in the field; to record the extraction
events we used a video camera. Afterwards, the material
was edited into VHS format for analysis. Our results show
a significant positive correlation with the nectar volumes
recorded during the day (r = 0.8). In natural conditions, the
nectar concentration does not have any positive effect on
the handling time (r = -0.6).
ESTRATEGIA DE FORRAJEO DEHELIANGELUS SPENCEI
(TROCHILIDAE) SOBRE DOS ERICACEAS EN UNA SELVA NUBLADA
DE LOS ANDES VENEZOLANOS
Estudiamos la relaci6n entire el patron de forrajeo del
colibri endemico de Merida Heliangelus spencei y la con-
centraci6n y volume del nectar producido por flores de
dos species del g6nero Cavendishia (Ericaceae). Encon-
tramos que H. spencei concentra su actividad de busqueda
del alimento en las primeras y ultimas horas del dia (06:00
y 18:00), cuando las flores de Cavendishia bracteata y C.
pubescens produce mayor volume de nectar. La concen-
traci6n de nectar no es un factor condicionante del numero
de visits efectuadas por H. spencei a flores de C. bractea-
ta y C. pubescens (r = -0.7 y r = -1.0, respectivamente).
Heliangelus spencei establece y defiende territories de
forrajeo en ambas species y es el principal polinizador de
C. bracteata. Medimos el tiempo de manipulaci6n de H.
spencei sobre flores de C. bracteata directamente en el
campo. Para registrar los events de extracci6n utilizamos
una camera de video; posteriormente el material se edit6
en format VHS para su analisis. Los valores obtenidos
muestran una significativa correlaci6n positive con los
volumenes de nectar registrados durante el dia (r = 0.8).
En condiciones naturales, la concentraci6n de nectar no
tiene efecto positive alguno sobre el tiempo de manipula-
ci6n (r = -0.6).



POSTERS PRESENTED

AREAS OF REGIONAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE PI-
PING PLOVER (CHARADRIUS MELODUS) IN CUBA
PEDRO BLANCO
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemdtica. Carretera de Varona km 3'2,
Capdevila, Boyeros, A. P. 8029 CP10800, Ciudad de La Habana,
Cuba (ecologia@unepnet.infcu; ecologia@cniai.nf cu)
The major results of an investigation of the important
wintering areas in coastal Cuba for the Piping Plover
(Charadrius melodus), a nearctic migratory species in dan-
ger of extinction, are presented. To date, three important
wintering areas have been identified in Cuba: cayos Coco,
Pared6n Grande, and Guillermo. Fifty-eight individuals
have been recorded, including 22 with colored bands. This
work includes an evaluation of coastal wetlands suitable
for the species and determining origin sites of individuals
using banding data from North American birds. The infor-


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS-13TH MEETING OF SCO-JULY 2001


mation presented here is the result of an intense program
of ornithological research conducted during the period
1991-2001 by Cuban specialists from the Institute of Ecol-
ogy and Systematics of the Cuban Ministry of Science,
Technology, and the Environment in collaboration with the
World Wide Fund for Nature and the Canadian Wildlife
Federation.
AREAS DE IMPORTANCIA REGIONAL PARA EL FRAILECILLO SILBA-
DOR (CHARADRIUS MELODUS) EN CUBA
Se exponen los principles resultados acerca de las areas
costeras de importancia regional en Cuba para la supervi-
vencia invemal de la especie neartica migratoria declarada
en la actualidad en peligro de extinci6n, conocida por el
nombre de Frailecillo Silbador (Charadrius melodus). Has-
ta el moment se han ubicado tres regions de importancia
para la supervivencia internal de la especie en Cuba: cayos
Coco, Pared6n Grande y Guillermo. Se registraron 58 indi-
viduos de la especie y se anillaron con anillas de colors
22 individuos. Este trabajo incluye la evaluaci6n de hume-
dales costeros aptos para la especie y determinaci6n de qu6
sitios de America del Norte proceden los individuos que
arriban a la isla a trav6s de t6cnicas de anillamiento. La
informaci6n que se ofrece se logr6 a partir de un intense
program de investigaciones omitol6gicas realizado por
especialistas cubanos del Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemati-
ca perteneciente al CITMA, en colaboraci6n con el Fondo
para la Protecci6n de la Naturaleza y el Servicio Canadien-
se de la Fauna, durante el period 1991-2001.


THE CURRENT STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF
THE CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE (GRUS
CANADENSIS NESIOTES)
XIOMARA GALVEZ, JOSE RIVERA, ODDEY MARTINEZ,
FRANCISCO MOREIRA, AND PAVEL MARTINEZ
Empresa Nacional para la Proteccidn dela Flora y al Fauna,
Cuba
The first records of Cuban Sandhill Crane distribution
were reported by Poey (1851-1855) and Gundlach (1875,
1876), who included Ci6naga de Zapata, Vifiales, eastern
Guamutas, and the Isle of Pines (Isla de la Juventud) as
confirmed localities. Garrido and Garcia (1975) reported
four isolated populations, including one in Camagiey, with
about 30 individuals each. By 1997, Galvez had increased
the number of populations to 11. In the present study, we
identified all potential habitats where the species could
potentially survive on a 1:250,000-scale map. Surveys
were conducted over the entire country and we visited
those areas where the birds were reported to confirm the
presence of cranes. The resulting 13 confirmed crane
populations have an estimated total of 600 individuals. We
determined that four populations are critical for the sur-
vival of the Cuban Sandhill Crane: Cienaga de Zapata,
northern Ciego de Avila, Sancti Spiritus, and Isla de la
Juventud. The Isla de la Juventud population is the healthi-
est, numbering 170 birds. The main problems affecting the
cranes in these areas are reported, as well as the number of
individuals counted.
ESTADO ACTUAL Y DISTRIBUTION DE LA GRULLA CUBANA (GRUS
CANADENSIS NESIOTES)


Los primeros registros de la distribuci6n de la Grulla
Cubana pertenecen a Poey (1851-1855) y Gundlach (1875,
1876). Ellos reportaron ci6naga de Zapata, Vifiales, Este de
Guamutas y la isla de Pinos (isla de la Juventud) como
localidades confirmadas. Garrido y Garcia (1975) conside-
ran cuatro poblaciones aisladas de unos 30 individuos cada
una, incluyendo Camagiiey, cifra que aumenta a 11 segun
Galvez (1997). Todos los habitats potenciales donde la
especie podia vivir fueron localizados en un mapa 1:250
000. Se estableci6 en todo el pais un sistema de encuestas
y las areas identificadas se visitaron para verificar la pre-
sencia de las grullas. De las 13 poblaciones confirmadas se
estim6 en 600 la cantidad de individuos, y se determine
que son cuatro las poblaciones que decide la superviven-
cia de la Grulla Cubana: ci6naga de Zapata, norte de Ciego
de Avila, Sancti Spiritus e isla de la Juventud. Para estas
poblaciones en particular, se reportan los principles pro-
blemas que afectan a las grullas y la cantidad de individuos
contados, siendo la mas saludable la de la Isla de la Juven-
tud, con 170 aves.


PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE
WILD BIRD TRADE IN TWO CUBAN LOCALITIES
XOCHITL AYON GCEMES1, ENEIDER E. PEREZ MENA2,
VICENTE BEROVIDES3, AND OMILCAR BARRIO VALDES4
1Centro de Inspeccin y Control Amblental (CICA), Calle 20, esq.
18", Miramar, Playa, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba
xochltl@ama.cu); 2Instituto de Ecologia
y Sistemdtica, Carretera de Varona Km 3 '/, Capdevila, Boyeros,
A.P. 8029 C.P. 10800, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba; 3Facultad de
Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, La Habana, Cuba; and 4Es-
tableclmiento Nuevitas, Empresa Nacional para la Proteccidn
dela Flora y al Fauna, La Habana, Cuba
Humans have the capacity to domesticate a great array
of wildlife and benefit from it, by which process some
needs are met, including spiritual ones. Birds occupy a
special place as pets or companion animals and, in Cuba,
birds have been kept in captivity since the 19th century
(Gundlach 1896). By interviewing bird trappers from La
Habana and Nuevitas, we learned that the favorite species
to be maintained in captivity, and the most frequently cap-
tured birds, are Yellow-faced Grassquit (Tiaris olivacea),
Cuban Grassquit (Tiaris canora), Cuban Bullfinch
(Melopyrrha nigra), and Indigo Bunting (Passerina
cyanea). We also learned about favored hunting areas, cap-
ture methods, and objectives in capturing birds, as well as
the preferred ages of captured birds. We also carried out a
social and cultural analysis of the bird trappers and an esti-
mation of prices obtained. The best prices were for the
Cuban Bullfinch.
RESULTADO PRELIMINARY DEL COMERCIO DE AVES SILVESTRES EN
DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUBA
El hombre ha tenido la capacidad de domesticar y usar
en su beneficio gran parte de la fauna silvestre, con lo cual
satisface sus necesidades incluyendo las espirituales. Den-
tro de 6stos, las aves ocupan un lugar preferencial, usando-
se como mascotas o animals de compafia. En Cuba, man-
tener aves en cautiverio es una tradici6n que data desde el
siglo XIX (Gundlach 1896). Al encuestar a pajareros de
Ciudad de La Habana y Nuevitas, se detect cuales eran


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las species preferidas para mantener en cautiverio; de
ellas el Tomeguin de la Tierra (Tiaris olivacea), el Tome-
guin del Pinar (Tiaris canora), el Negrito (Melopyrrha
nigra) y el Azulejo (Passerina cyanea) fueron las mas cap-
turadas. Ademas se pudo conocer las areas de caza preferi-
das por los pajareros, los m6todos de capture mas utiliza-
dos, los objetivos de la capture, asi como la etapa de vida
que prefieren para hacer la extracci6n. Tambi6n se realize
un analisis sociocultural de los pajareros y un estimado de
los precious por individuos, resultando el Negrito
(Melopyrrha nigra) la especie mejor cotizada.


A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF HISPANIOLA
STEVEN C. LATTA1, HERBERT RAFFAELE2, ALLAN KEITH3,
JAMES WILEY4, CHRIS RIMMER5, ELADIO FERNANDEZ6,
AND KENT McFARLAND5
1Blology Department, University of Mssouri St. Louis, MO, USA
(scl678@mizzou.edu); 20ffice ofInternational Conservation, US
Fish and I '. Service, Washington, DC, USA; 3Chilmark, MA,
US4USC-. .... University oj ..rn
Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA; 5Vermont Institute of
Natural Science, Woodstock, VT; 6Sociedad Ornitolgica Annabelle
Dod, Santo Domingo, DR
We are currently writing a new field guide to the birds
of Hispaniola. This is the first guide in more than 20 years
to cover the birds of this biologically rich island. Our ap-
proach to production of this field guide takes advantage of
the recently published guide to the birds of the West Indies
(Raffaele et al.), the soon to be published annotated check-
list of the birds of Hispaniola (Keith et al.), and new data
on the biology and ecology of Hispaniolan species, to cre-
ate a comprehensive guide to the more than 300 species of
birds found on the island. Color plates from Raffaele et
al.'s Guide will be used, and new plates of all endemic
species will be painted by the Canadian artist Barry Mac-
Kay.
GUIA DE CAMPO DE LAS AVES DE LA ESPANOLA
Estamos escribiendo una nueva guia de campo de las
aves de La Espafiola. Esta es la primera guia en mas de
veinte afos y es la unica que cubre todas las aves de esta
isla, rica en su biologia. Nuestra guia de campo se benefi-
cia de la guia recientemente publicada de las aves de las
Antillas de Raffaele et al., la lista comentada de las aves de
La Espafiola por Keith et al. que sera publicada en breve, y
datos nuevos de la biologia y ecologia de las species de la
isla, para crear una guia comprensiva de la mas de 300
species de aves que se encuentra en La Espafiola. Vamos
a usar en esta guia los dibujos de la guia de Raffaele de las
aves antillanas y otros dibujos nuevos de las aves endemi-
cas por el artist canadiense Barry MacKay.


FISHING EFFICIENCY OF THE OSPREY (PANDION
HALIAETUS) AT THE TRES PALMAS DAM, CABAI-
GUAN, SANCTI SPIRITS, CUBA
ABEL HERNANDEZ MuNOZ
Departamento de Investigaciones, Direccion Provincial de Cultu-
ra, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba
This survey of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) predatory


activity was carried out at the Tres Palmas Reservoir in
1996. Fishing efficiency was higher on overcast and windy
days. However, the capture success rate is high, more than
90%. Apart from fish, Osprey occasionally feed on other
small vertebrates.
EFICIENCIA PESQUERA DEL GUINCHO (PANDIONHALIAETUS) EN EL
EMBALSE DE TRES PALMAS, CABAIGUAN, SANCTI SPIRITS
Se presentan los resultados del seguimiento realizado en
el embalse Tres Palmas, durante 15 oportunidades en el
afio 1996, sobre la actividad predatoria del Guincho
(Pandion haliaetus). Se pudo comprobar que 6sta se ve
favorecida por las buenas condiciones meteorol6gicas.
Ademas, el 6xito de capture fue alto, alcanzando mas de
90%. Sus press habituales son los peces, aunque se ali-
menta esporadicamente de pequefios vertebrados.


FOOD HABITS OF THE BARN OWL IN CENTRAL
CUBA
ABEL HERNANDEZ MuNOZ
Departamento de Investigaciones, Direccion Provincial de Cultu-
ra, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba
The diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto albafurcata Temminck,
1887) in various localities of central Cuba was determi-
nated from the analysis of 3440 prey remains recovered
from 1087 pellets from 1990 to 1998. Small mammals
were the main prey, accounting for 90% of all remains.
Food habits varied among the 20 geographical areas exam-
ined. Rodents were the primary prey in all localities and
seasons (1995-1996) in Conchita Cave, Sierra de la
Esperanza. Other, less commonly found prey included
frogs, bats, and insects.
HABITS ALIMENTARIOS DE LA LECHUZA COMTIN EN
LOCALIDADES DEL CENTRO DE CUBA
La dieta de la Lechuza Comun (Tyto albafurcata Tem-
minck, 1887) en localidades del centro de Cuba fue deter-
minada mediante el analisis de 3440 restos de press con-
tenidos en 1087 egagr6pilas desde 1990 a 1998. Los pe-
quefios mamiferos fueron los que mas contribuyeron, con
un 90% del total de restos. Los roedores fueron la presa
primaria en todas las localidades y estaciones del afio
(1995-1996) en cueva Conchita, sierra de la Esperanza.
Otras press que tuvieron una menor incidencia fueron
ranas, murcielagos e insects. Los habitos alimentarios
varian entire las 20 areas geograficas muestreadas.


ANALYSIS OF THE FALL MIGRATION AT THE
RONCALI LIGHTHOUSE, GUANAHACABIBES
PENINSULA, CUBA
ENEIDER E. PEREZ1, ALEJANDRO LLANES', HIRAM GONZA-
LEZ', AND XOCHITL AYON2
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, Carretera de Varona Km 3'2,
Capdevila, Boyeros, A.P. 8029 C.P. 10800, Cludad de La Haba-


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS-13TH MEETING OF SCO-JULY 2001


na, Cuba (ecologia@unepnet.infcu;ecologza@cniai.infcu); and
2Centro de Inspeccln y Control Amblental (CICA), Calle 20, esq.
18A, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba
: xochltl@ama.cu)
Our study was conducted during the second half of Oc-
tober in 1998, 1999, and 2000 around the Roncali light-
house in the Guanahacabibes peninsula. This area appears
to be within the Mississippi Flyway and, therefore, a great
diversity of migratory species, some of them rare in Cuba,
is reported from the locale. We captured birds using mist
nets (from 6 to 9 nets), and determined capture rate for the
species. We found higher capture rates for Dendroica pal-
marum, Vermivora peregrina, and Passerina cyanea. We
also analyzed variation in capture rates among years. We
propose changing the status of Chondestes grammacus,
Passerculus sandwichensis, and Spizella pallida, and com-
ment on the presence and abundance of the five species of
sparrows reported for Cuba.
ANALYSIS DE LA MIGRACION OTONAL EN EL FARO RONCALI,
PENINSULA DE GUANAHACABIBES, CUBA
El present trabajo se realize durante la segunda quince-
na del mes de octubre de los afios 1998, 1999 y 2000 en
areas aledafias al faro Roncali en la peninsula de Guanaha-
cabibes. Esta zona parece estar enclavada en la ruta migra-
toria del Mississipi, lo cual hace que gran cantidad de es-
pecies migratorias, algunas muy raras para Cuba, lo utili-
cen como lugar de paso. Mediante la capture con redes
omitol6gicas (de 6-9 redes), se pudo determinar la tasa de
capture para las distintas species, siendo Dendroica pal-
marum, Vermivora peregrina y Passerina cyanea las que
presentaron mayores valores; se analiza tambi6n las varia-
ciones de las captures en los diferentes afios. Se propone el
cambio de status para Chondestes grammacus, Passerculus
sandwichensis y Spizella pallida, ademas de algunas consi-
deraciones sobre la presencia y abundancia de las cinco
species de gorriones reportados para Cuba.


BREEDING HABITAT SELECTION OF CUBAN
BULLFINCH (MELOPYRRHA NIGRA) IN SERAFINA,
SIERRA DEL ROSARIO: PRELIMINARY STUDY
ENEIDER E. PEREZ1, ALEJANDRO LLANES1, AND XOCHITL
AYON2
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, Carretera de Varona Km 3'2,
Capdevila, Boyeros, A. P. 8029 C. P. 10800, Ciudad de La Haba-
na, Cuba (ecologia@unepnet.infcu; ecologia@cnmai.infecu);and
2Centro de Inspeccion y Control Ambiental (CICA), Calle 20, esq.
18A, Miramar, Playa, Cludad de la Habana, Cuba
: xochitl@ama.cu)
Little is known about the reproductive ecology of Cuban
bird populations because most efforts have been oriented
toward community studies. We studied one population of
the Cuban Bullfinch (Melopyrrha nigra) in La Serafina,
Sierra del Rosario. Five nests of the species were located,
and around them we measured vegetation parameters
within a circular plot of 0.04 ha. Vegetation parameters
included: mean vegetation height (m), tree canopy cover
(%), ground cover (%), and vertical density (%). We also
looked at values for these variables in control plots so that
we might better understand selection of breeding habitat.
All the nests were built using a fern of the genus Lygodium


as a base. The ferns were growing in plants of the genera
Piper, Bursera, Jambosa, and Trayga.
SELECTION DE HABITAT EN LA EPOCA REPRODUCTIVE DEL
NEGRITO (MELOPYRRHA NIGRA) EN LA SERAFINA, SIERRA DEL
ROSARIO: STUDIO PRELIMINARY
Poco se conoce sobre la ecologia reproductive de las
poblaciones de aves cubanas pues los esfuerzos han sido
enfocados al studio de las comunidades. En nuestro traba-
jo se analiz6 una poblaci6n de Negritos (Melopyrrha ni-
gra) en La Serafma, sierra del Rosario. Se localizaron cin-
co nidos de la especie y alrededor de los mismos se esta-
blecieron parcelas circulares de 0.04 ha, en las cuales se
midieron diferentes parametros de la vegetaci6n: altura
promedio (m), cobertura del dosel (%), cobertura del suelo
(%), y cobertura vertical (%), entire otros. Paralelamente se
analizaron estas mismas variables en parcelas controls
para determinar posibles factors en la selecci6n del habi-
tat de cria. Todos los nidos encontrados fueron construidos
usando como sustrato un helecho del g6nero Lygodium,
mientras que el desarrollo del helecho fue en plants del
genero Piper, Bursera, Jambosa y Traiga.


AN ORNITHOLOGICAL CENSUS OF THE JOBO RO-
SADO MANAGED RESOURCES AREA, SANCTI
SPIRITS, CUBA
BLAS PERES SILVA1, ABEL HERNANDEZ MuNOZ2, AND
FRANK MORERA3
1Agencia GEOCUBA Sancti Spirtus, Cuba; Sectorial Provincial
de Cultura. Sancti Spirtus, Cuba; and 3Area de Recursos Maneja-
dos "Jobo Rosado, Sancti Spiritus
In January 2000 we studied the avifauna of the Jobo
Rosado Managed Resources Area, Sancti Spiritus (central
Cuba), in the following vegetative habitats: forest above
bare soil, gallery forest, semideciduos forest, evergreen
forest, secondary forest and secondary thicket. In each
habitat we walked transects and censused birds per hour.
These data allowed us to develop a list of species with
their distribution and importance. We calculated the simi-
larity among communities, species richness (S), relative
abundance (H'), diversity, and equitivity (J') in the study
habitats. The richness varied from 15 to 27 species, with
the highest value in the semideciduos forest (27 species).
The observed diversity was from 2.07 to 2.69, with the
highest value in the forest above bare soil; the equitivity
showed a similar pattern. The highest value obtained for
relative abundance was in the secondary forest.
ORNITOCENOSIS DEL AREA DE RECURSOS MANEJADOS JOBO
ROSADO, SANCTI SPIRITUS, CUBA
En enero del 2000 se realize un studio geografico inte-
gral en el Area de Recursos Manejados Jobo Rosado, ubi-
cado en el municipio de Yaguajay, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.
Como parte de 6ste, se realize un studio de su omitofauna
por formaciones vegetables: bosque sobre suelo esquel6tico,
bosque de galeria, bosque semideciduo tipico, bosque
siempreverde, bosque secundario y matorral secundario.
Se realizaron various transectos en cada formaci6n vegetal y
se anotaron, por el m6todo de conteo director, el numero de
individuos por species observados durante una hora en
dichos ecosistemas. Con los datos obtenidos se confeccio-


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n6 una lista que incluye la distribuci6n de las species y su
importancia. Se calcul6 la similitud entire las comunidades
(Sorensen 1948), riqueza (S), abundancia relative (H'),
diversidad (Shannon Wiener, 1949) y equitatividad (J')
segun Pielou, 1966. La riqueza oscil6 entire 15-27 espe-
cies, con el valor mas alto en el bosque semideciduo tipico
(27 speciess. La diversidad se comport6 entire 2.07 y 2.69,
con el resultado mas alto en el bosque sobre suelo esquele-
tico; la equitatividad se comport6 de forma similar. El ma-
yor valor de abundancia relative se obtuvo en el bosque
secundario.


SOME ASPECTS OF CAPTIVE BREEDING OF THE
CUBAN BULLFINCH MELOPYRRHA NIGRA
FRANCISCO TEJEDA INFANTE1 AND ENEIDER PEREZ MENA2
1Calle 2d # 77 e/ y 9" San Matias, San Miguel del Padron,
Cludad de la Habana, Cuba; 2Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica,
Carretera de Varona km 3'2, Capdevila, Boyeros, A. P. 8029 C.
P. 10800, Cludad de La Habana, Cuba (ecologia@unepnet. infcu;
ecologia@cniai.infcu)
The study of the reproduction of wild bird species in
captivity can help reveal elements of behavior. These stud-
ies become more important if the species has been little
studied in the wild. The most thorough ecological studies
on the Cuban Bulfinch (Melopyrrha nigra) were done by
Gundlach (1893). We present some results of our study of
the breeding of the Cuban Bulfinch in captivity starting in
1999. Pairs began forming by 20 February, as long as
males had completed their molt. Measurements are given
on enclosure size and observations are made on courtship,
copulation, and nest building. Incubation lasted 13 days
after the first egg was laid and chicks fledged after 13-15
days. We obtained 18 chicks from 18 eggs. Comments are
also made on feeding.
ALGUNOS ASPECTS DE LA REPRODUCCION EN CAUTIVERIO DE
MELOPYRRHA NIGRA
El studio de la reproducci6n de species de aves silves-
tres en cautiverio puede servir para revelar aspects con-
ductuales, los cuales cobran mas importancia si la especie
ha sido poco estudiada en estado silvestre. En el Negrito
(Melopyrrha nigra), los trabajos mas completes de auto-
ecologia los realize Gundlach (1893). En el present traba-
jo se exponen algunos resultados de la reproducci6n de M.
nigra en cautiverio desde 1999. Las parejas se comienzan
a former a partir del 20 de febrero, siempre y cuando los
machos hayan completado su muda. Se ofrecen las medi-
das del lugar donde se reprodujeron las parejas, observa-
ciones sobre su cortejo, copula y realizaci6n del nido. El
tiempo de incubaci6n es de 13 dias a partir de la puesta del
primer huevo y la salida del nido de los pichones oscila
entire 13 y 15 dias. Durante este tiempo se han obtenido 18
pichones de 18 huevos. Tambi6n se comentan aspects de
su alimentaci6n.


DISTRIBUTION OF CUBAN NESTING BIRDS USING
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)
BARBARA SANCHEZ', ARTURO HERNANDEZ1, PEDRO
BLANCO1, FRANCISCO CEJAS', PEDRO DEL POZO2, ADELA


HERRERA3, LAZARO RODRIGUEZ3, AND WILLIAM LAMELA4
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA, Cuba
(ecologia@unepnet.infcu; ecologia@cniai.infcu); 2Empresapara
la Proteccion de la Flora y la Fauna, Clenfuegos, Cuba; 3Instituto
de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA, Cuba (ecologia@unepnet. inf
cu; ecologia@cniai.infcu); and 4Empresapara la Proteccion de
la Flora y la Fauna, Clenfuegos
We created a database using the FOXPLUS system with
information from three main sources: publications on the
distribution of birds in Cuba, material in zoological collec-
tions, and field data from authors and collaborators. All the
information was geographically located on a 1:100,000-
scale map of Cuba subdivided into 118 grids. The database
has 11,500 records for 143 species and 537 localities. We
used a Geographic Information System to generate maps
depicting species richness, endemism per grid, and the
distribution of some of species. Using information recently
acquired, we present a pilot study in the area of Cienfue-
gos, where we include migratory species.
DISTRIBUCION DE LAS AVES NIDIHCANTES CUBANAS
UTILIZANDO UN SISTEMA DE INFORMATION
GEOGRAHCA (SIG)
Se confeccion6 una base de datos en el sistema FOX-
PLUS con la informaci6n proveniente de tres fuentes: pu-
blicaciones de distribuci6n de aves en Cuba, material de
colecciones zool6gicas y datos de campo de los autores y
colaboradores. Dicha informaci6n fue georreferenciada
teniendo en cuenta la division del mapa de Cuba en 118
cuadriculas sobre la base del mapa de 1:100,000. La base
de datos cuenta con 11,500 registros correspondientes a
143 species y 537 localidades. Se utiliz6 un Sistema de
Informaci6n Geografica para representar en forma de ma-
pas los resultados de riqueza de species y de endemismos
por cuadricula y la distribuci6n de algunas species como
muestra. Se abre una ventana de studio en la provincia de
Cienfuegos con informaci6n obtenida recientemente donde
se incluyen ademas las aves migratorias.


AVIAN CONSUMERS OF MICONIA MERIDENSIS
(MELASTOMATACEAE) FRUITS IN A
VENEZUELAN ANDES CLOUD FOREST
C. RENGIFO AND C. VAUGHAN
Estacion Ornitolgica "La Mucuy, Parque Nacional Sierra Ne-
vada, Apartado Postal 229, Merida 5101, Venezuela
S. .... lamucuy@cantv.net)
We list the avian consumers ofMiconia meridensis, the
most important member of the Melastomatacea in the
cloud forests of Merida State, Venezuela, due to its abun-
dance and high fruit productivity. Because of the wide dis-
persion of Miconia meridensis, a characteristic of most
Melastomataceas, we were expecting a great diversity in
the list of birds feeding on it. For assessing the real con-
sumption of seeds, we calculated indexes of specific (ICe)
and germinal (ICg) consumption, based on the time of visit
and the number of seeds eaten per time unit, standardizing
them with respect to the effort made. We found 16 species
of birds in four families associated with this plant. The
potential seed dispersers exhibited two processing tech-
niques for the fruits: (1) swallow, used by those birds that
grabbed the fruit without letting the seeds fall under the


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parent tree, and (2) "knead," used by those birds that
would chew the fruit before swallowing it, and drop some
seeds under the parent tree. Because of the high number of
seeds removed by the dispersal birds, these species have a
greater impact on the community than seed predators. Tan-
gara nigroviridis (Emberizidae) is the most important po-
tential seed dispersal agent for AM. meridensis. Other im-
portant seed dispersal birds are Tangara vassorii, T. cyan-
optera, Turdus serranus (Turdidae), and Vireo gilvus
(Vireonidae). We found Carduelis xanthogastra
(Fringillidae) and Carduelis psaltria were major seed
predators. The effects of birds on germination of the seeds
and establishment of plants should be studied to evaluate
completely the role of birds as dispersal agents for A. me-
ridensis.
AVES CONSUMIDORAS DE FRUTOS DE MICO7A vifERIDENSIS
(MELASTOMATACEAE) EN UNA SELVA NUBLADA DE LOS ANDES
VENEZOLANOS
En el present studio listamos las aves consumidoras
de frutos de Miconia meridensis, que es la melastomatacea
mas important de las selvas nubladas del Estado Merida,
Venezuela, por su abundancia y alta producci6n de frutos.
Debido a que AM. meridensis exhibe un syndrome de disper-
si6n generalista, caracteristico de la mayoria de las melas-
tomataceas, esperamos encontrar una gran diversidad en la
lista de aves consumidoras. Para estimar el consume real
de semilla empleamos el calculo de indices de consume
especifico (ICe) y gremial (ICg), basados en los tiempos
de visit y el numero de semillas consumidas por unidad
de tiempo, estandarizandolos con el esfuerzo realizado.
Encontramos 16 species de aves de cuatro families aso-
ciadas a esta plant. Los potenciales dispersores exhibieron
dos t6cnicas en el manejo de los frutos: (1) engullido, em-
pleada por aquellos que tragan los frutos, sin dejar caer
semillas debajo de la plant parental, y (2) amasado, utili-
zada por las que amasan los frutos antes de tragarlos, de-
jando caer semillas debajo de la plant parental. Los dis-
persores ejercen un mayor impact que la comunidad de
depredadores, al remover un mayor numero de semillas.
Tangara nigroviridis (Emberizidae) es el dispersor poten-
cial mas important para AM. meridensis. Son tambi6n part
important de la comunidad de dispersores Tangara vasso-
rii, Tangara cyanoptera, Turdus serranus (Turdidae) y
Vireo gilvus (Vireonidae). Como principles depredadores
se cuentan a Carduelis xanthogastra (Fringillidae) y Car-
duelis psaltria. Deben estudiarse aspects como el efecto
de las aves sobre la germinaci6n, sombra de semillas y el
establecimiento de plantulas, para evaluar de manera mas
integral el papel de las aves como agents dispersores de
AM. meridensis.


PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF GRUS CANADENSIS
NESIOTES REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY IN
ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD
LEANDRO TORRELLA, XIOMARA GALVEZ, JOSE RIVERA,
AND FIDEL QUIALA
Empresa Nacional para la Proteccion dela Flora y al Fauna, La
Habana, Cuba


Studies of the reproductive ecology of the Cuban San-
dhill Crane began with with the work of Walkinshaw
(1945) and Galvez et al. (1995). From 1995 to 1999 we
studied the reproductive ecology of these cranes in Los
Indios Ecological Reserve. Nest searches were carried out
either on foot or by tractor. The reproductive period ex-
tends mainly from March to April at Los Indios (1995-
1999). We obtained data on 28 nests, the first such data for
Cuba. Every nest was located with a GPS unit, tagged, and
monitored from a nearby blind. Blinds were accessed only
before sunrise and after dusk. Since 1997 the numbers of
monitored nests, eggs per nest, and eggs hatched have in-
creased. Hatching success per egg and chicks per nest in-
creased from 0.45 (1997) to 0.85 (1999) and 0.83 to 1.50,
respectively, reaching an overall reproductive success of
87.5%. Favorable rainfall before and after nesting and re-
duced human disturbance contributed to these successes.
STUDIO PRELIMINARY SOBRE LA ECOLOGIA REPRODUCTIVE DE
GRUS CANADENSIS NESIOTES EN LA ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD
Los studios de la ecologia reproductive de la Grulla
Cubana estan precedidos por los datos publicados por Wal-
kinshaw (1945) y Galvez et al. (1995). Entre 1995-1999
comenz6 en la Reserva Ecol6gica Los Indios el studio de
la ecologia reproductive de G. c. nesiotes obteni6ndose
datos preliminares de la especie por primera vez en Cuba.
La busqueda de los nidos se realize lo mismo a pie que en
tractor. Cada nido se localiz6 con GPS, identificandose
con una etiqueta, y se monitored desde un escondite cerca-
no. La entrada y salida de los escondites se realize antes
del amanecer y al oscurecer. A partir de 1997 el numero de
nidos monitoreados aument6 al igual que la cantidad de
huevos eclosionados y huevos por nido. Los pichones por
huevo aumentaron de 0.45 en 1997 a 0.85 en 1999, al igual
que la cantidad de pichones por nido (0.83-1.50), alcan-
zando un 87.5% de 6xito reproductive. El period repro-
ductivo para esta localidad desde 1995 hasta 1999 se ex-
tendi6 de marzo a abril, fundamentalmente. Se discute si el
comportamiento favorable de las lluvias antes y despu6s de
la reproducci6n contribuy6 con estos resultados, coinci-
diendo con un menor disturbio human en toda el area.


SIZE AND FEEDING HABITS OF THE CATTLE
EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) IN SOME REGIONS OF
CUBA
ORLANDO TORRES FUNDORA, MARTIN ACOSTA CRUZ,
LOURDES MUGICA VALDES, AND DENNIS DENIS AVILA
Animal and Human Biology Department, Faculty oj .. Um-
versidad de La Habana, Cuba
Bubulcus ibis is one of the most abundant and most
widespread bird species in Cuba. It is associated with
farmlands and cattle ranches during the day. This gives
special importance to the study of this bird's biology,
given its close relation with our agricultural development.
We present the results of our studies, conducted from 1983
to 1996, on body size and tropic subniche occupied by the
egret in Cuba. Significant sexual differences were found in
bill length, width, and height, as well as dietary preference


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for Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, and Araneida. Bubulcus ibis
shows a great breadth in its trophic subniche and consider-
able difference in food resources between the sexes.
MORFOMETRIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA GARZA GANADERA
(BUBULCUS IBIS) EN ALGUNAS REGIONS DE CUBA
Bubulcus ibis es una de las species de aves mas abun-
dantes y mejor distribuidas en Cuba. Esta vinculada a cam-
pos de cultivo y de pastoreo de ganado durante el dia, por
lo que el studio de su biologia tiene una importancia par-
ticular por su asociaci6n estrecha con nuestro desarrolllo
agricola. En el present trabajo exponemos algunos de los
resultados de nuestras investigaciones sobre la morfome-
tria y el subnicho tr6fico de la especie en Cuba, realizadas
entire 1983 y 1996. Se encontraron diferencias significati-
vas en largo, ancho y alto del pico entire sexos y preferen-
cia en la dieta por Lepidoptera, Orthoptera y Araneida. B.
ibis present una gran amplitud del subnicho tr6fico y alta
superposici6n de los sexos en cuanto a recursos alimenta-
rios.


FEEDING OF HERONS AND EGRETS IN NATURAL
AND MODIFIED HABITATS IN CUBA
ARIAM JIMENEZ, LOURDES MUGICA, MARTIN ACOSTA,
AND DENNIS DENIS
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Cuba
Herons and egrets are one of the most conspicuous
groups of waterbirds in the wetlands and ricefields of
Cuba. In this study the diets of seven species of herons
from the Sur del Jibaro ricefields and the ci6naga de Bi-
ramas wetlands were analyzed. The stomach contents and
regurgitated pellets were analyzed to determine which prey
constituted the main diet of the species studied during the
breeding and the non-reproductive seasons. In general it
was observed that there was a tendency to use different
resources in the two seasons. This may be because of dif-
ferent levels of availability of prey in the habitat or be-
cause of variation in the nutritional needs of the predators.
The Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor) showed little
variation in the main prey caught, whereas other species
such as the Snowy Egret (E. thula) and the Black-crowned
Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) showed wide varia-
tion in prey preference. The Snowy Egret showed large
differences in the frequency of catches between the two
stages, whereas the Great Egret (Ardea alba) and the Tri-
colored Egret did not show any significant differences in
the use of prey. Most groups of prey found in the juveniles
in Ci6naga de Biramas were also present in the sample of
adults from the ricefields. The main differences found
were in the level of use of the main types of prey.
ALIMENTACION DE LAS ZANCUDAS EN HABITATS ANTROPICOS Y
NATURALES DE CUBA
Dentro de las aves acuaticas las zancudas constituyen
uno de los gremios mas conspicuous en humedales y arroce-
ras en Cuba. En el present studio se analiza la dieta de 7
species de garzas en la arrocera Sur del Jibaro y el hume-
dal de ci6naga de Biramas. Mediante el analisis de conteni-
dos estomacales y regurgitos se determinaron las principa-
les press que constituyen la dieta de las species estudia-
das en el period reproductive y no reproductive. En gene-


ral se observa una tendencia a utilizar diferentes recursos
en las dos etapas, lo que se puede deber a los diferentes
niveles de asequibilidad en el medio o las variaciones en
las necesidades nutricionales del depredador. De esta for-
ma existen species como la Garza Vientre Blanco
(Egretta tricolor) que presentan poca variaci6n en cuanto a
los recursos alimenticios principles, mientras que otras,
como la Garza de Rizos (E. thula) y el Guanaba de la Flo-
rida (Nycticorax i, i .-,.. ,1 pueden mostrar una amplia
plasticidad en cuanto a presa preferida. La Garza de Rizos
present las mayores diferencias en su frecuencia de utili-
zaci6n entire periods, mientras que el Garz6n (Ardea alba)
y la Garza de Vientre Blanco no mostraron diferencias
significativas en la utilizaci6n de ningun tipo de presa. La
mayoria de los grupos de press encontrados en los picho-
nes en la ci6naga de Biramas estuvieron presents en la
muestra de los adults procedentes de la arrocera. Las dife-
rencias encontradas fueron fundamentalmente en el nivel
de utilizaci6n de las principles press.


THE ROLE OF WADING BIRDS ON ENERGY FLOW
IN THE SUR DEL JIBARO RICE FIELDS
LOURDES MUGICA, MARTIN ACOSTA AND DENNIS DENIS
Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Cuidad
Habana, Cuba
We studied daily food consumption and energy flow in
nine species of wading birds that reside in the rice fields of
Sur del Jibaro, Cuba, during the breeding and non-
breeding seasons, throughout the different phases of rice
cultivation. The species studied were Ardea herodias, A.
alba, Ixobrichus exilis, Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis,
Egretta thula, E. caerulea, E. tricolor, and Nycticorax
nycticorax. We examined the role of 25 different food
items used by the wading bird guild in rice fields through-
out the year. For each bird species and their breeding and
non-breeding status, we determined the Field Metabolic
Rate (FMR), daily consumption of food items, daily con-
sumption per habitat type and period of cultivation cycle,
and energy flow. During the non-breeding season, the
highest values of consumption per ha where muddy and
mature rice field habitats, where 2.5 and 2 tons/ha/day of
food items were consumed, respectively. During the breed-
ing season, flooded and muddy habitats provided the high-
est volume of food items, where 3.3 and 7.8 tons/ha/day of
food items were consumed, respectively. Coleoptera were
the most-consumed insects, at a rate of 1 kg/ha/day during
the birds' breeding season. Crustacea were the overall
most important prey type on a per-unit-area basis through-
out the rice fields; they were consumed at the rate of 2.4
kg/ha/day. Among vertebrates, fish, frogs, and mice were
the most important food items. The total amount of energy
mobilized by wading birds during the breeding season was
greater than during the non-breeding season.
PAPEL DE LAS ZANCUDAS EN EL FLUJO DE ENERGIA EN LA
ARROCERA SUR DEL JIBARO
Se estudia el consume diario de alimentos y el flujo de
energia en nueve species del gremio zancudas que habitan
la arrocera Sur del Jibaro en la etapa reproductive y no
reproductive en las diferentes etapas del ciclo de cultivo.


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Las species incluidas fueron, Ardea herodias, A. alba,
Ixobrychus exilis, Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis,
Egretta thula, E. caerulea, E. tricolor y Nycticorax nycti-
corax. Se tuvieron en cuenta los 25 recursos diferentes que
extrae el gremio de la arrocera durante el afio y se determi-
naron para cada especie y etapa la tasa metabolica de cam-
po (FMR), consume diario de alimentos, consume diario
por tipo de campo (a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo) y flujo
de energia a trav6s del gremio. Los mayores valores de
consume diario de alimentos por hectarea se observaron en
la etapa no reproductive en los campos fangueados y de
arroz maduro (2.5 y 2 ton/ha/dia respectivamente), mien-
tras que en la etapa reproductive los campos anegados y
fangueados aportaron los mayores volumenes de alimento,
con un consume total de 3.3 y 7.8 ton/ha/dia, respectiva-
mente. Los cole6pteros resultaron los recursos mas consu-
midos dentro de los insects, llegando a alcanzar el valor
de 1 kg/ha/dia en la etapa reproductive. Los crustaceos
fueron las press mas consumidas (2.4 kg/ha/dia), constitu-
yendo la presa mas extraida por unidad de area en toda la
arrocera. Dentro de los vertebrados los mayores valores
fueron para peces, ranas y ratones. La cantidad de energia
que moviliza el gremio fue superior en la etapa reproducti-
va que en la no reproductive.


PROPOSED DISPERSAL ROUTES OF THE GENUS
AMAZONA THROUGH THE WEST INDIES
PATRICIA WAINRIGHT1, ROSEMARIE GNAM2, KENNETH M.
HALANYCH3, RACHEL BURKE1, JAMES WILEY4, XIOMARA
GALVEZ AGUILERA5, JESSICA R. EBERHARD6, GEORGE
AMATO7, AND J. FREDERICK GRASSLE'
1Rutgers University Institute ofMarine and Coastal Sciences, 71
'lii,n Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA, pwainrg@imcs.
rutgers.edu; 2Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American
Museum ofNatural History, Central Park West at 79th Street,
New York, NY 10024, USA, rgnam@amnh.org; Depart-
ment, MS 33, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods
Hole, MA 02543, USA, khalanych@whoi.edu; I Coope-
rative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, University of
tern Shore, 1120 Trigg Hall, Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA,
S- Empressa Nacional Para Protecion de
lafauna, Habana, Cuba; 6Library ofNatural Sounds,
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road,
Ithaca, NY 14850, USA, jre24@cornell.edu; 7Wildlife Conserva-
tion Society, 2300 Southern Blvd., Bronx, New York 10460, USA,
gamato@wcs.org; and I8nstitute ofMarine and Coastal Sciences,
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA, gras-
sle@zmcs.rutgers.edu
The biogeographic relationships of the nine extant spe-
cies of Amazona in the West Indies were examined. Nu-
cleotide sequence data from the cytochrome b gene were
compared among species from the West Indies and, South
and Central America. Differences among species were
used to evaluate Amazona relatedness and to reconstruct an
evolutionary history. From this evolutionary history the
dispersal routes were traced to their present distribution in
the West Indies. The results support the hypothesis that
there was more than one invasion by ancestral Amazona
into the West Indies, leading to distinct genetic differences
between the Greater and Lesser Antillean species. We also
reconstructed the evolutionary history of four of the five


subspecies of Amazona leucocephala, which are found in
the Greater Antilles. This portion of the study was under-
taken to investigate the biogeographic fragmentation of
this species among Cuba, Cayman Islands, and Bahamas.
The data suggest that the populations found in the Baha-
mas were the first to be genetically isolated, followed by
those on the Cayman Islands. Populations on Cuba were
later geographically isolated from each other.
PROPUESTA DE RUTAS DE DISPERSION DEL GENERO AMAZONA EN
EL CARIBE
Las relaciones biogeograficas entire las nueve species
existentes de Amazona en las islas del Caribe fueron exa-
minadas. La informaci6n sobre la secuencia del nucleotide
del gen del citocromo b fue comparada entire las species
del Caribe, America Central y America del Sur. Las dife-
rencias entire species fue usada para evaluar el parentesco
de Amazona y reconstruir una historic evolutiva. Partiendo
de esta historic evolutiva las rutas de dispersion fueron
trazadas hasta la distribuci6n actual en el Caribe. Los re-
sultados apoyan la hip6tesis de que hubo mas de una inva-
si6n antigua de Amazona en las Antillas, resultando en
claras diferencias gen6ticas entire las species de las Anti-
llas Mayores y Menores. Tambi6n reconstruimos la histo-
ria evolutiva de 4 de las 5 subespecies de Amazona leuco-
cephala en las Antillas Mayores. Esta parte del studio se
llev6 a cabo para investigar la fragmentaci6n biogeografica
entire Cuba, las islas Caiman y las Bahamas. Los datos su-
gieren que las poblaciones encontradas en las Bahamas
fueron las primeras en aislarse gen6ticamente, seguidas por
las de las islas Caiman. Las poblaciones en Cuba luego se
aislaron geograficamente unas de las otras.


MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BIRD
COMMUNITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE RICE
AGROECOSYSTEM
ANGELY DE LA C. LOPEZ AND MARTIN ACOSTA
Faculty oj . University ofHavana, La Habana, Cuba
The rice agroecosystem constitutes a natural laboratory
where man, with his extensive activity, produces special
ecological conditions. These different ecological condi-
tions may be useful for many species of birds, in corre-
spondence with their physical possibilities. We report on
the important role of the variations on the structural segre-
gation of niche in syntopic species. In general, we noted
that many species showed morphological differences be-
tween sexes and this fact could be related to the position in
the trophic structure of the members of the community.
Within guilds this tendency existed among species; this
process could determine the use of different segments of
the resource and reduce possible competition. Morphologi-
cal variability was higher in microhabitats where prey di-
versity was high.
ESTRUCTURA MORFOLOGICA DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES
ASOCIADA AL AGROECOSISTEMA ARROCERO
El agroecosistema arrocero constitute una especie de
laboratorio natural donde el hombre con su amplia inter-
vencion produce condiciones ecol6gicas especiales que
son tiles para muchas species de aves, en corresponden-
cia con sus posibilidades fisicas. En este trabajo se de-


El Pitirre 14(3)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS-13TH MEETING OF SCO-JULY 2001


muestra c6mo las variaciones morfol6gicas juegan un pa-
pel important en la segregaci6n structural del nicho para
las species sint6picas. En general puede apreciarse que
numerosas species presentan diferencias morfol6gicas
entire los sexos que pudieran estar relacionadas con la posi-
ci6n que ocupan en la estructura trofica de la comunidad.
Dentro de los gremios se observa tambi6n esta misma ten-
dencia entire las species, lo que pudiera condicionar el uso
de diferentes segments de los recursos y reducir las inter-
acciones. Pudo comprobarse que la variabilidad morfol6gi-
ca de las aves es mayor en los microhabitats donde la di-
versidad de press disponibles es alta.


Dr. Martin Acosta, recipient of the Society of
Caribbean Ornithology's Distinguished
Member Award for 2001, Topes de Collan-
tes, Cuba.


El Pitirre 14(3)


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NEW PUBLICATIONS


BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE
LESSER ANTILLES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO
THE TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT
(1900 2000)

GEORG WALDMANN AND MICHAEL STEVENS
Acta Biologica Benrodis Supplement 8
2001
209 pp.
ISBN 3-927889-90-3
Available from:
Verlag Natur und Wissenschaft
c/o: Mr. Harro Hieronimus
Postfach 170209
D-42624 Solingen, Germany
Telephone: + 49 212 819878; Telefax: + 49 212 816216
E-mail: info@verlagnw.de
Price: ca. US$14.00, including package and shipping (air mail is not included).
Credit Cards: Visa, Master Card, Diners Club, American Express





Now AVAILABLE


ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY OF THE LESSER ANTILLEAN
ISLAND OF MONTSERRAT (BRITISH WEST INDIES): AN
ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF TERRESTRIAL AND
FRESHWATER ANIMALS

MICHAEL STEVENS AND GEORG WALDMANN
Archiv Zoologischer Publikationen 6
2001
149 pp.
ISBN 3-931251-82-9
Available from:
Martina Galunder-Verlag
c/o Mr. Rainer Galunder
Alte Ziegelei 22
D-51588 Nuembrecht, Germany
Telephone: +49 2293 909873; Telefax: +49 2293 909874
E-mail: rgalunder@Martina-Galunder-Verlag.de
Price: ca. US$32.00, including package and shipping (air mail is not included).
Credit Cards: Visa, Master Card, Diners Club, American Express


El Pitirre 14(3)


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NEW PUBLICATIONS ON WEST INDIAN BIRDS


The birds of

THE CAYMAN ISLANDS


An annotated Checklist


Patricia E. Bradley


2000
BOU Checklist Series: 19
British Ornithologists' Union
The Natural History Museum, Tring, Herts HP23 6AP, UK
ISBN 0907446 23 X
253 pages (Hardback)
32 pages of colour photographs
35

This monograph is an analysis of the breeding and migrant avifauna of the three Cayman Islands since the first orni-
thologists visited in 1886. It describes status, distribution, and habitats of all 222 species, and breeding data for 49 spe-
ces. It aims to place the Cayman Islands' avifauna in its historic and modern biogeographical context in the western
Caribbean and to contribute to the database on Neotropical migrants, presently 79% of the Islands' avifauna.


Distributed for the BOU by
NHBS Mailorder Bookstore Ltd
2-3 Wills Road
Devon TQ9 5XN, United Kingdom
Tel.: 803-865-913
Fax: 803-865-280
e-mail: nhbs@nhbs.co.uk
Web: www.nbs.com


El Pitirre 14(3)


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NEW PUBLICATIONS


LAS AVES LIMICOLAS
(CHARADRIIFORMES) NIDIFICANTES
i DE CUBA: SU DISTRIBUTION Y
REPRODUCTION



by

... S A.ueAm PEDRO BLANCO RODRIGUEZ,
... ; SALVADOR JOSE PERIS ALVAREZ Y


2001
62 pp.

Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad
ISBN: 84-600-9651-3


A few copies are available from:
Jim Wiley
Maryland Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
1120 Trigg Hall
University of Maryland Eastern Shore
Princess Anne, MD 21853, USA
E-mail: jwwiley@mail.umes.edu





THE BIRDS
OF THE
TURKS & CAICOS ISLANDS


by
RICHARD W GROUND


2001
92 pp.
ISBN 976-95079-0-3
Published by the Turks & Caicos National Trust
PO Box 540
Providenciales
Turks & Caicos Islands
Telephone: (649) 941-5710
Fax: (649) 941-4258
E-mail: tc.nattrust@tciway.tc


El Pitirre 14(3)


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GALLERY OF PARTICIPANTS AT JULY 2001 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY, TOPES DE
COLLANTES, CUBA


Barbara Sanchez
Institute de Ecologia y
Sistemitica


Lourdes Mugica (L) &
Dennis Denis
Universldad de La Habana


Orlando Torres
Universidad de La
Habana


l t Rafaela A lera Roman
Lourdes Mugica (L) & Martin Acosta Cruz Rafaela Aguilera Romin
Universdad de La Habana Instituto de Ecologia y
Sistematica


LOCAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS


Rosemare Gnam, Eric Carey, Herbert Raffaele, & Maurice Anselme
(left to right)


Lisa Sorenson (Co-Chair, West Indian Whistling
Duck Working Group) & Eric Carey (President,
SCO)


Herbert Kattaele
US Fish & Wildlife Service


Joseph Wunderle (US Department of
Agriculture-Forest Service) & Luis
Omar Mehan Hernandez (BIOECO,
Santiago de Cuba)


Herlitz Davis
University of the
West Indies


El Pitirre 14(3)


Patricia Bradley
Co-Chair, West Indian Whistling
Duck Working Group

Page 159










GALLERY OF PARTICIPANTS AT JULY 2001 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY,
TOPES DE COLLANTES, CUBA


Alejandro Llanes Sosa
Institute de Ecologia y Sistematica


Anne Haynes-Sutton
Secretary, Society of Caribbean Ornithology


Jose Col6n (L; Puerto Rico) and Eneider Perez (Instituto de
Ecologia y Sistematica) discuss recording bird vocalizations


Leo Douglas
BirdLife Jamaica


Orlando Garrido
Recipient of SCO Honorary
Award in 1993


Suzanne Davis
Jamaica


Tony White
Author ofA birder's pide to the Bahama Islands


El Pitirre 14(3)


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CARIBBEAN BIRD FESTIVAL INCLUDING THE FIRST CARIBBEAN ENDEMIC BIRD DAY


ADRIANNE G. TOSSAS
Alturas de Aayagiez, Yunque E-43, Aayagiez, Puerto Rico 00680
agtossas@hotmail. cor



The Society of Caribbean Ornithology (SCO) aims to raise the profile of the region's unique bird life through
a series of events and activities open to Caribbean inhabitants of all ages and backgrounds. The SCO Endemic
Bird Day will be one major event that, in combination with Earth Day (in April) and International Migratory
Bird Day (in May), will form a month of activities under the banner of the Caribbean Bird Festival. This Festi-
val will be promoted with the theme "Caribbean Bird Life, A Proud Legacy."
Activities can be as diverse as the local committee in each country wishes. Some suggestions are nature and
bird walks, talks, photographic or artistic (e.g., handicrafts, drawings, paintings) exhibitions, preparing and pre-
senting endemic bird brochures, books or videos, coloring books for children, CD ROMs, T-shirts, and posters.
The activities will be celebrated for a month, starting with Earth Day on 22 April 22 until 22 May 2002, or as a
single day within this period, depending on the plans of each local committee. However, having a whole month
available will allow organizers to reach a larger number of people by arranging different activities, having exhi-
bitions for an extended time, or moving exhibitions to different parts of their countries.
Some countries have coordinators already: Dominican Republic (Kate Wallace, wallacekate@hotmail.com),
Bahamas (Carolyn Wardle, c\jidllc abitlinic bsi Bermuda (Andrew Dobson, adobsont@warwickacad.bm),
Jamaica (Herlitz Davis, janibird iyahoo coin) and Puerto Rico (Adrianne Tossas, agtossas@hotmail.com).
They will be in charge of creating local committees to help organize activities. Leo Douglas
(leodouglas@cwjamaica.com), Herlitz Davis, and Adrianne Tossas will be the Caribbean coordinators. Please
contact any of the coordinators if you are interested in participating. We still need volunteers to plan activities
for the rest of the Caribbean countries.


FESTIVAL DE LAS AVES DEL CARIBE INCLUYENDO EL PRIMER DIA DE LAS AVES ENDEMICAS
CARIBENAS

La Sociedad Caribefia de Ornitologia (SCO) intent mejorar el conocimiento de la avifauna finica de
esta region a trav6s de una series de events y actividades para los habitantes del Caribe de todas las edades y
trasfondos. El Dia de las Aves End6micas serh un event que en combinaci6n al Dia del Planeta Tierra (en
abril) y el Dia Internacional de las Aves Migratorias (en mayo) formard parte de un mes de actividades bajo el
estandarte del Festival de las Aves Caribefias. Este festival serh promocionado con el tema "Las Aves del Cari-
be, un legado de orgullo."
Las actividades pueden ser tan diversas como lo deseen los comit6s locales. Algunas sugerencias son camina-
tas para observer las aves y la naturaleza, charlas, exhibiciones fotogrificas o artisticas (e. g., artesanias, dibu-
jos, pinturas), la preparaci6n y presentaci6n de folletos, libros o videos, libros de colorear para nifios, CD
ROMs, camisetas y afiches. Las actividades se celebrarin por un mes comenzando el 22 de abril con el Dia del
Planeta Tierra hasta el 22 de mayo de 2002, o como un solo dia dentro de este period, dependiendo de los pla-
nes de cada comit6 local. Sin embargo, tener un mes complete disponible permitird llegar a una mayor cantidad
de personas al poder organizer diferentes actividades, extender el tiempo de las exhibiciones, o mover las ex-
hibiciones a diferentes parties de sus paises.
Algunos paises tienen ya sus coordinadores: Repfiblica Dominicana (Kate Wallace, wallacekate@hotmail.
com), Bahamas (Carolyn Wardle, cwjidlllc ulbilinct bs,' Bermuda (Andrew Dobson, adobson@warwickacad.
bm), Jamaica (Herlitz Davis, jainbird ahoo coin) y Puerto Rico (Adrianne Tossas, agtossas@hotmail.com).
Ellos estarin a cargo de crear los comit6s locales para ayudar a organizer las actividades. Leo Douglas
(leodouglas @cwjamaica.com), Herlitz Davis y Adrianne Tossas serin los coordinadores para el Caribe. Con-
tacte a cualquiera de los coordinadores si le interest participar. Todavia necesitamos voluntarios para planificar
las actividades en el resto de los paises caribefios.


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FESTIVAL DES OISEAUX DES ANTILLES:
PREMIERE JOURNEE DES OISEAUX ENDEMIQUES DE LA CARAIBE

La Socidte Caraibe d'Ornithologie (SCO) s'est fix6e pour objectif de dresser le profile de l'avifaune unique de
la region par une succession de manifestations et d'activit6s destined aux habitants des antilles de tous ages et
origins. La Journe des Oiseaux End6miques de la Caraibe sera une manifestation majeure qui, en relation
avec le Jour de la Terre (en avril) et la Journe Internationale des Oiseaux Migrateurs (en Mai) sera les points
forts d'un mois d'actions sous la banibre du Festival des Oiseaux des Antilles. Le theme du festival sera
"L 'avifaune des Antilles, un superbe heritage."
Les actions seront aussi diverse que souhait6 par le comit6 local d'organisation. Parmi les actions sugg6rdes,
on peut lister des promenades de d6couvertes des oiseaux et de la nature, des expositions photographiques ou
artistiques (par example artisanat local, dessins, peintures), la preparation et la presentation de brochures, livres
ou videos sur les oiseaux, des CD-Rom, T-shirts ou posters. Les manifestations se d6rouleront durant un mois,
d6butant le Jour de la Terre, le 22 avril jusqu'au 22 mai 2002, ou bien un seul jour pendant cette p6riode, selon
le programme de chaque comit6 local. Cependant, la dur6e d'un mois devrait permettre de toucher un maxi-
mum de personnel, en organisant diffirents types d'activitds, de dur6e variable ou en d6placant les expositions
A diffirentes localisations de la region.
Certains pays ou certaines iles ont d6ji des coordinateurs : R6publique Dominicaine (Kate Wallace, wallace-
kate@hotmail.com), Bahamas (Carolyn Wardle, c\jildkl lxi b lnic bsb Bermude (Andrew Dobson, adob-
son@twarwickacad.bm), Jamaica (Herlitz Davis, jambird@yahoo.com) and puerto Rico (Adrianne Tossas, ag-
tossas@hotmail.com). Ils seront charges de la creation de comit6s locals d'organisation afin d'aider A la mise
en place des manifestations. Leo Douglas (leodouglas(@cwjamaica.com) Herlitz Davis and Adrianne Tossas
seront les coordinateurs pour la Caraibe. Merci de contacter l'un d'entre eux si vous 6tes int6ress6s par partici-
per. Nous avons encore besoin de volontaires pour le reste des pays et iles de la Caraibe.


El Pitirre 14(3)


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CONTENTS: CONTINUED FROM OUTSIDE COVER


ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS (CONTINUED)

CAPTIVE BREEDING OF THE ASHY-FACED OWL (TYTO GLAUCOPS) (TYTONIDAE)/ REPRODUCCION EN CAUTIVERIO DE LA LECHU-
ZA CARA CENIZA (TYTO GLAUCOPS) (TYTONIDAE). Simon Guerrero andMarelis Sanchez .......................................................... 147
FORAGING STRATEGY OF HELIANGELUS SPENCEI (TROCHILIDAE) ON TWO ERICACEAS IN A VENEZUELAN ANDES CLOUD FOR-
EST/ ESTRATEGIA DE FORRAJEO DE HELIANGELUS SPENCEI (TROCHILIDAE) SOBRE DOS ERICACEAS EN UNA SELVA NUBLADA
DE LOS ANDES VENEZOLANOS. Lus J. Cornejo, Carlos Rengifo, andPascual Soriano .................................................................. 147
AREAS OF REGIONAL IMPORTANCE FOR THE PIPING PLOVER (CHARADRIUS MELODUS) IN CUBA/AREAS DE IMPORTANCIA REGIO-
NAL PARA EL FRAILECILLO SILBADOR (CHARADRIUS MELODUS) EN CUBA. Pedro Blanco .................................. ............................ 147
THE CURRENT STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE (GRUS CANADENSIS NESIOTES) ESTADO ACTUAL Y
DISTRIBUTION DE LA GRULLA CUBANA (GRUS CANADENSIS NESIOTES). Xiomara Gdlvez, Jose Rivera, Oddey Martinez, Fran-
cisco M oreira, and P dvel M artinez ................................................................................... .............................................................. 148
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE WILD BIRD TRADE IN TWO CUBAN LOCALITIES/ RESULTADO PRELIMINARY DEL
COMERCIO DE AVES SILVESTRES EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUBA. Xochitl Ayon Gilemes, Eneider E. Perez Mena, Vicente
B provides, and O m ilcar B arrio V aldes ............................................................ .............................................................................. 148
A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF HISPANIOLA/ GUiA DE CAMPO DE LAS AVES DE LA ESPANOLA. Steven C. Latta, Herbert
F . i .. James Wiley, ChrisRimmer, EladioFernandez, andKentMcFarland ............................. ........................ 149
FISHING EFFICIENCY OF THE OSPREY (PANDION HALIAETUS) AT THE TRES PALMAS DAM, CABAIGUAN, SANCTI SPIRITS,
CUBA/ EFICIENCIA PESQUERA DEL GUINCHO (PANDIONHALIAETUS) EN EL EMBALSE DE TRES PALMAS, CABAIGUAN, SANCTI
SPIR ITU S. A bel H ern dndez M u oz ............................................................................................ ........................................................ 149
FOOD HABITS OF THE BARN OWL IN CENTRAL CUBA/ HABITOS ALIMENTARIOS DE LA LECHUZA COMING EN LOCALIDADES
DEL C EN TRO D E C UBA A belH erndndezM u oz ............................................................................................................................... 149
ANALYSIS OF THE FALL MIGRATION AT THE RONCALi LIGHTHOUSE, GUANAHACABIBES PENINSULA, CUBA/ ANALYSIS DE LA
MIGRACION OTOrAL EN EL FARO RONCALI, PENINSULA DE GUANAHACABIBES, CUBA. Eneider E. Pere: ; Llanes,
H iram G onz lez, an d X chitlA y n ................................................................................................................................................... 150
BREEDING HABITAT SELECTION OF CUBAN BULLFINCH (MELOPYRRHA NIGRA) IN SERAFINA, SIERRA DEL ROSARIO: PRELIMI-
NARY STUDY/ SELECTION DE HABITAT EN LA EPOCA REPRODUCTIVE DEL NEGRITO (MELOPYRRHA NIGRA) EN LA SERAFINA,
SIERRA DEL ROSARIO: ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR. EneiderE. Pere: i Llanes, and Xchitl Ayon ..................................... 150
AN ORNITHOLOGICAL CENSUS OF THE JOBO ROSADO MANAGED RESOURCES AREA, SANCTI SPIRITS, CUBA/ ORNITOCENOSIS
DEL AREA DE RECURSOS MANEJADOS JOBO ROSADO, SANCTI SPiRITUS, CUBA. Blas Peres Silva, Abel Herndndez Muroz,
and F rank M o rera ................................................................... ...................... ........... ...... .......................... ...... ................ . . ..... 150
SOME ASPECTS OF CAPTIVE BREEDING OF THE CUBAN BULLFINCH MELOPYRRHA NIGRA/ ALGUNOS ASPECTS DE LA REPRO-
DUCCION EN CAUTIVERIO DEMELOPYRRHA NIGPRA. Francisco Tejeda Infante andEneider Prez Mena ........................................ 151
DISTRIBUTION OF CUBAN NESTING BIRDS USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)/ DISTRIBUTION DE LAS AVES
NIDIFICANTES CUBANAS UTILIZANDO UN SISTEMA DE INFORMATION GEOGRAFCA (SIG). Bdrbara Sanchez, Arturo
Herndndez, Pedro Blanco, Francisco Cejas, Pedro del Pozo, Adela Herrera, Ldzaro Rodriguez, and William Lamela ............... 151
AVIAN CONSUMERS OF MICONIA MERIDENSIS (MELASTOMATACEAE) FRUITS IN A VENEZUELAN ANDES CLOUD FOREST/ AVES
CONSUMIDORAS DE FRUTOS DE MICONIA MERIDENSIS (MELASTOMATACEAE) EN UNA SELVA NUBLADA DE LOS ANDES VE-
N EZOLAN O S. C R engifo and C Vaughan ......................................................................................................................................... 151
PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF GRUS CANADENSIS NESIOTES REPRODUCTIVE ECOLOGY IN ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD/ STUDIO PRELIMI-
NAR SOBRE LA ECOLOGIA REPRODUCTIVE DE GRUS CANADENSIS NESIOTES EN LA ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD. Leandro Torrella,
X iom ara G dlvez, Jose R ivera, and F idel Q u ala ................................................................................................. ........................... 152
SIZE AND FEEDING HABITS OF THE CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS) IN SOME REGIONS OF CUBA/ MORFOMETtRA Y ALIMENTA-
CION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUS IBIS) EN ALGUNAS REGIONS DE CUBA. Orlando Torres Fundora, Martin
A costa Cruz, Lourdes M ugica Vald s, and D ennis D enis A vila ......................... ............................................................................... 152
FEEDING OF HERONS AND EGRETS IN NATURAL AND MODIFIED HABITATS IN CUBA/ ALIMENTACION DE LAS ZANCUDAS EN
HABITATS ANTROPICOS Y NATURALES DE CUBA. Ariam Jimenez, Lourdes Mugica, Martin Acosta, andDennis Denis ............... 153
THE ROLE OF WADING BIRDS ON ENERGY FLOW IN THE SUR DEL JIBARO RICE FIELDS/ PAPEL DE LAS ZANCUDAS EN EL FLUJO
DE ENERGIA EN LA ARROCERA SUR DEL JIBARO. Lourdes Mugica, Martin Acosta and Dennis Denis .......................................... 153
PROPOSED DISPERSAL ROUTES OF THE GENUS AMAZONA THROUGH THE WEST INDIES/ PROPUESTA DE RUTAS DE DISPERSION
DEL GENERO AMAZONA EN EL CARIBE. Patricia Wainright, Rosemare Gnam, Kenneth M. Halanych, Rachel Burke, James
Wiley, Xiomara Gdlvez Aguilera, Jessica R. Eberhard, George Amato, andJ. Frederick Grassle ................................................. 154
MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BIRD COMMUNITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE RICE AGROECOSYSTEM/ ESTRUCTURA MOR-
FOLOGICA DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES ASOCIADA AL AGROECOSISTEMA ARROCERO. Angely de la C. Lopez and Martin
A c o sta .................................................................... .................................................... ....................... ............................. ............... 1 5 4
N EW PU BLICA TION S ON W EST IN D IAN B IRD S ........................................................................................................................................... 156
GALLERY OF PARTICIPANTS AT JULY 2001 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY, TOPES DE COLLANTES, CUBA .. 159
CARIBBEAN BIRD FESTIVAL INCLUDING THE FIRST CARIBBEAN ENDEMIC BIRD DAY/ FESTIVAL DE LAS AVES DEL CARIBE IN-
CLUYENDO EL PRIMER DIA DE LAS AVES ENDEMICAS CARIBENAS/ FESTIVAL DES OISEAUX DES ANTILLES: PREMIERE JOURNEY
DES OISEAUX ENDEMIQUES DE LA CARAIBE ............................................................ 161














SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


EL PITIRRE

:P SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


Fall 2001 Vol. 14, No. 3



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS AND POSTERS (CONTINUED)
CHANGES IN THE STATUS OF BREEDING BROWN BOOBIES (SULA LEUCOGASTER) ON CAYMAN BRAC, CAYMAN ISLANDS, BWI/
CAMBIOS EN EL ESTADO DE REPRODUCCION DE SULA LEUCOGASTER EN CAYMAN BRAC, ISLAS CAIMAN. Patricia E. Brad-
ley, Matt Self Kathy Owen, and T. J. Sevik .......... ....................................................... 139
A ONE-YEAR SURVEY OF THE SEABIRDS IN KINGSTON HARBOUR, JAMAICA/ CENSO DE UN ANO DE LAS AVES MARINAS DEL
PUERTO DE K IN G STON JAM AICA L eo D ouglas .............................................................................................. ............................. 139
GENETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY IN BOOBY SPECIES OF THE BRAZILIAN COAST/ VARIABILIDAD GENETIC Y
MORFOLOGICA EN LAS SPECIES DE PIQUEROS (SULIDAE) EN LA COSTA DE BRASIL. Cristina Y. Miyaki, Mehna M.
B aum garden, and A driana B K ohlrausch ............................................................................................................................................ 140
THE CORRELATION OF PATTERNS OF GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS IN HERONS/ RELACION ENTIRE LOS PA-
TRONES DE CRECIMIENTO Y LAS CARACTERISTICAS DE LA REPRODUCCION EN LAS GARZAS. Dennis Denis, Patricia Rodri-
guez, Karen Beovides, Antonio Rodriguez, andAram Jimenez ................................................................... .................. ................... 140
BREEDING RECORDS, INCLUDING CLUTCH SIZE AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS, OF THREE SPECIES OF CICONIIFORMES IN THE
CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS FROM 1998 TO 2001/ CRONOLOGIA, TAMANOS DE PUESTA Y EXITO REPRODUCTIVE DE TRES ESPE-
CIES DE CICONIIFORMES EN LA CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS ENTIRE 1998-2001. Dennis Denis, Antonio Rodriguez, Patricia Ro-
driguez, Jose L. Ponce, andAram Jimnez ............ ......................................................... 141
ECOLOGY OF AQUATIC BIRDS AT THE JATO INLET, CAYO SABINAL, CUBA/ ECOLOGIA DE LAS AVES ACUATICAS DE LA ENSE-
NADA DEL JATO, CAYO SABINAL. O m ilcar B arrio Vald s ......................... ........... ..... ................................ ................................. 141
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE AVIFAUNAS OF BACUNAYAGUA, CANIMAR, AND PUNTA HICACOS, COASTAL LOCALITIES OF
NORTHWESTERN MATANZAS, CUBA/ STUDIO COMPARATIVE DE LA AVIFAUNA DE BACUNAYAGUA, CANIMAR Y PUNTA DE
HICACOS, LOCALIDADES COSTERAS DEL NOROCCIDENTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE MATANZAS, CUBA. Enrique Soto Ramirez
a nd C arlos P rez C a ban a s ............................................................. ..................................................................................................... 142
ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, AND NESTING AREAS OF SOME SEABIRDS OF WESTERN CUBA/ ABUNDANCIA, DISTRIBUTION Y
AREAS DE NIDIFICACION DE ALGUNAS SPECIES DE AVES MARINAS EN EL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA. Juho Antonio Ramos
Reyes, Rolando Quintero Cano, and Vicente Berovides Alvarez ...................................................................................................... 142
OVERLAP OF BREEDING AND MOLTING IN KILLDEER AND THE POTENTIAL FOR YEAR-ROUND BREEDING IN THE WEST INDIES/
SUPERPOSICION DE LA NIDIFICACION Y LA MUDA EN EL PLAYER SABANERO Y EL POTENTIAL PARA LA NIDIFICACION DU-
RANTE TODO EL ANO EN LAS ANTILLAS. BetteJ. S. Jackson and Jerome A. Jackson ..................................................................... 142
OBSERVATIONS ON THE NESTING BIOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE GRENADA HOOK-BILLED KITE/ OBSERVACIONES SOBRE
LA BIOLOGIA DE NIDIFICACION Y LA DISTRIBUTION DE CHONDROHIERAX UNCINATUS MIRUS EN GRANADA. Russell Thor-
strom E dw ardM assiah, and C hristi H all .......................................................................................................................................... 143
STATUS AND BIOLOGY OF THE CUBAN BLACK-HAWK, BUTEOGALLUS ANTHRACINUS GUNDLACHII ESTADO Y BIOLOGIA DEL GA-
VILAN BATISTA, BUEOGALLUS ANTHRACINUS GUNDLACHII. James W. Wiley and Orlando H. Garrido ......................................... 143
THE STATUS, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSERVATION OF TERNS ON ARUBA AND BONAIRE/ EL ESTADO, DISTRIBUTION Y CONSER-
VACION DE LOS CHARRANES EN ARUBA Y BONAIRE. Adrian J. del Nevo ........................................ ................ ......................... 144
COORDINATING MIGRATORY SHOREBIRD SURVEY EFFORTS THROUGHOUT EASTERN NORTH AMERICA AND SOUTH AMERICA/
COORDINANDO LOS ESFUERZOS DE INVENTARIOS DE PLAYERS MIGRATORIOS A TRAVES DEL ESTE DE NORTEAMERICA Y
SURAMERICA. William C. Hunter, Jaime A. Collazo, Cheri Gratto-Trevor, Eric Hansen, Brian Harrington, Robert
. and A drianne G Tossas ................................................ 144 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 44
REPRESENTATIVENESS, ABUNDANCE STATUS, AND GREGARIOUSNESS OF SPECIES OF THE FAMILY CHARADRIIDAE IN MANGON
LAGOON AND LA CALAVERAS BEACH, VARAHICACOS ECOLOGICAL RESERVE, MATANZAS, CUBA/ REPRESENTATIVIDAD,
STATUS DE ABUNDANCIA Y GREGARISMO DE LAS SPECIES DE LA FAMILIAR CHARADRIIDAE (AVES: CHARADRIIFORMES), EN
LA LAGUNA DE MANGON Y PLAYA LAS CALAVERAS, LOCALIDADES DE LA RESERVE ECOLOGICA VARAHICACOS, MATAN-
ZAS, CUBA. Carlos Perez Cabanas and Enrque Soto Ram irez ................................................ .................. .................................. 145
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF STUDIES OF THE BIRD COMMUNITY OF THE COASTAL ZONE OF GUAHANACABIBES/ STUDIO DE LA
COMUNIDAD DE AVES DE LA ZONA COSTERA DE GUAHANACABIBES: RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES. Orlando Torres Fun-
dora and V icente B provides A lvarez .................................................................................................................................................... 146
CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE GREATER FLAMINGO IN VENEZUELA/ CONSERVACION Y MANEJO DEL FLAMENCO
DEL SUR DEL CARIBE EN VENEZUELA. Frank Espinoza M arn ....... ................................................................................................... 146


Continued on inside back cover




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