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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00040
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v.13, n.2, 33p.: ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 2000
Frequency: bimonthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100143
Volume ID: VID00040
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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Succeeded by: Journal of Caribbean Ornithology

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 64
        Page 64
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text








SOCIEDAD CARIBE1iTA DE ORNITOLOGIA


EL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Summer 2000 Vol. 13, No. 2
(ISSN 1527-7151)




CONTENTS


AVIFAUNA ASOCIADA AL SECTOR COSTERO DE PLAYA CORINTHIA, HOLGUIN, CUBA.
Carlos M. Pefia, Alejandro Ferndndez, Nils Navarro, Ernesto Reyes y Sergio Sigarreta ....................................... 31
N O TICE: ROSEM ARIE GNAM ACCEPTS NEW POSITION. ................................................................................. .............. 34
VARIACIONES EN LA CONDUCT DE FORRAJEO Y EN LA DIETA DE ALGUNAS SPECIES DE
BIJIRITAS (AVES: EMBERIZIDAE) EN LA ALTIPLANICIE PINARES DE MAYARI, HOLGUIN, CUBA.
Bdrbara Sdnchez, N ils N avarro y R. O viedo ......................................................................................................... 35
LAS AVES PRESENTS EN AREAS CON DIFERENTES GRADOS DE PERTURBACION AMBIENTAL EN
MOA, CUBA. Carlos A. Mancina, Barbara Sdnchez, Arturo Hemdndezy Rodolfo Sdnchez .................................. 37
ALIMENTOS Y CONDUCT ALIMENTARIA NO INFORMADAS EN EL MOZAMBIQUE (QUISCALUS
NIGER BRACHIPTERUS) DE PUERTO RICO. RadulA. P&rez-Rivera ............................................... ............... 40
ROSE-RINGED PARAKEET (PSITTACULA KRAMERI) RECORDED IN THE WEST INDIES. Guy M. Kirwan ..... 42
RECENT SIGHT REPORTS OF LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULLS (LARUS FUSCUS) FROM CUBA.
P W illiam Sm ith and S usan A Sm ith ............................................................................. ....................................... 4 3
RED PARROT DISCOVERED IN JAMAICA. BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL ....................................................... ............. 44
SENEGAL PARROT, BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET, OLIVE-THROATED PARAKEET, AND
GREEN-WINGED MACAW: NEW PSITTACINE RECORDS FOR PUERTO RICO. Jose A. Salguero-Faria
and C arina R oig -B achs ............................................................................................................................... . . ............ 4 5
LISTADO DE LA AVIFAUNA ENDEMICA CUBANA EN LA RESERVE NATURAL, MONTE IBERIA.
M iguel Sudrez Nuz i ez ................................................ ... ............ 47
SOU THEA STERN CA RIBBEAN BIRD A LERT .......................................................................................... ............. 48
REGISTRO DE LOCALIDADES PARA LA YAGUAZA ANTILLANA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA)
EN LA REGION CENTRO-ORIENTAL DE CUBA. Carlos M. Pefia, Nils Navarro, Alejandro Ferndndez,
M anuel G onzdlez y O svaldo Lat i ................ ............................ .......................... ............................. ................. 4 9
IMPACT OF AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE IN ORNITHOLOGY ON THE ATTITUDES OF WEST INDIAN
STU D EN TS TO W A RD BIRD S. FloydE. H ayes ............................................................... .................. .............. 52
WORKING GROUP REPORT UPDATE ON THE "WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK (WIWD) AND
WETLANDS CONSERVATION PROJECT" REPORT FROM THE WIWD WORKING GROUP.
Lisa G Sorenson and P atricia B radley ........................ ............................................................... ........ ................ ..... 57
NEW PUBLICA TION S ...................................... .................................. ....... .. ... ........... ................ 64
STATUS AND CONSERVATION OF WEST INDIAN BIRDS, Edited by E. A. Schreiber and D. S. Lee
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY IN THE WEST INDIES, by James W. Wiley
BIRD SONGS IN JAMAICA, by George B. Reynard and Robert L. Sutton
FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF CUBA, by Orlando H. Garrido and Arturo Kirkconnell
SU G G E STION S TO A U TH O R S .............. ................................................................. .......... ................. .... BACK COVER


Yrvuw~ :;











EL PITIRRE

THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


Editor: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA Telephone: (318) 274-2499 or 274-
2399; Fax: (318) 274-3870; e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Assistant Editors: Barbara Keesee and Alma Ramirez, Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, PO Box 841,
Grambling State University, Grambling, Louisiana 71245 USA.
Special thanks to Jos6 Julian Placer and Carlos Wotzkow for providing assistance with Spanish-language
manuscripts.

News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al editor para inclusion en el boletin.



THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anseleme
SECRETARY: Dr. Marcia Mundle
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific
study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and
those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
econservation groups in the Caribbean.

La Sociedad de la Ornitologia Caribefia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el
studio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia
caribefia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o
datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.



MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
All members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year.
Institutional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay
regular dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name
and address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, 1872 Stanhope Street, Ridgewood, New York 11385 USA.












SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA



,EL PITIRRE

SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Summer 2000 Vol. 13, No. 2




AVIFAUNA ASOCIADA AL SECTOR COSTERO DE PLAYA CORINTHIA, HOLGUIN, CUBA


CARLOS M. PErA1, ALEJANDRO FERNANDEZ', NILS NAVARRO2, ERNESTO REYES3 Y SERGIO SIGARRETA1
1Departamento de Recursos Naturales, CITA4, Holguin, Cuba; 21/useo de Historia Natural de Holguin, Cuba;
y 3Investigaciones Integrales de la Montafia, Pinares de Mayari, Holguin, Cuba

Resumen.-Se present un listado de 99 species reportadas para el sector costero de Playa Corinthia en el norte
de la provincia de Holguin, Cuba. De estas species, 40 son residents permanentes, 23 residents permanentes de
ocurrencia bimodal, 26 residents de invierno, 6 residents de verano y 4 transeuntes. Calidris canutus, Calidris
alpina y Sterna nilotica son nuevos registros para la costa norte oriental de Cuba.
Abstract.- AVIFAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH THE COASTAL AREA OF PLAYA CORINTIA, HOLGUIN, CUBA. A list of
99 bird species is presented for the Playa Corinthia area in the northern coast of Holguin province, Cuba. Of these
species, 40 are permanent residents, 23 are residents with bimodal distributions, 26 are winter residents, 6 are sum-
mer residents and 4 are transients. Calidris canutus, Calidris alpina, and Sterna nilotica are new records for the
northeastern coast of Cuba.
Key words: Avian community, Calidris alpina, Calidris canutus, Cuba, endemic, status, Sterna nilotica


EL SECTOR COSTERO de Playa Corinthia se encuen-
tra ubicado al noreste de la provincia de Holguin, en
el oriented de Cuba, limitado por el norte con la linea
de costa, al sur con la carretera de Moa, a unos 4 km
de distancia de la costa, por el este con el rio T6neme
y por el oeste con la entrada de la bahia de Cabonico.
El territorio esta formado por llanuras bajas (0-80 m
de altura) de origen marino, lacuno-palustre, fluvial
y denudativo que yacen sobre rocas sedimentarias
fundamentalmente formadas por calizas y margas
pertenecientes a las formaciones geol6gicas Jaimani-
tas y Jiicaro. Climiticamente la region es seca, con
un regimen de precipitaciones de 1986 mm como
promedio annual y la temperature media oscila entire
los 24.40 C en el mes mis frio y 28.40 C en el mis
cflido.
Desde el punto de vista fitogeogrifico pertenece al
sector Cuba Centro Oriental, subsector Guaimari-
cum, distrito Gibarense. La vegetaci6n esta com-
puesta por las siguientes formaciones: complejo de
vegetaci6n de costa arenosa, manglar, bosque siem-
preverde micr6filo, pequefias manifestaciones de co-


munidades al6fitas, bosque semideciduo, matorral
xeromorfo costero y presencia de agroecosistemas.
El litoral de Playa Corinthia corresponde al subdistri-
to zoogeogrifico Sierra de Nipe-Cristal (Cuba Orien-
tal) segfin la regionalizaci6n de Cruz (1989). Con
excepci6n de dos trabajos sobre nuevos registros
(Pefia et al. 2000) y el present listado, no existen
otras referencias sobre la estructura y composici6n
de las ornitocenosis de esta region zoogeogrifica del
extreme mis oriental de la costa norte de la provin-
cia de Holguin.
Los studios ornitol6gicos en la costa norte de la
provincia de Holguin se han desarrollado fundamen-
talmente en el sector costero asociado al subdistrito
zoogeogrifico Malageta-Banes (Cuba Centro Orien-
tal) segfin la regionalizaci6n de Cruz (1989), con pu-
blicaciones sobre las species observadas en el corre-
dor migratorio de Gibara (Torres y Solana 1994), la
composici6n y abundancia de las aves durante la mi-
graci6n otofial en Gibara (Rodriguez et al. 1994), las
species observadas en el municipio Rafael Freyre
(Torres y Solana 1989), nuevos registros de aves pa-









PENA ETAL. -AVIFAUNA DE PLAYA CORINTHIA, HOLGUIN, CUBA


ra el corredor migratorio del litoral de Gibara (Torres
et al. 1987) y la avifauna de dos ecosistemas costeros
al norte de Holguin (Rodriguez et al. 1991). Resulta
de especial interns la presencia en el territorio de una
cadena de lagunas litorales de gran extension ubica-
das a lo largo de la linea de costa. Algunas de estas
lagunas se encuentran permanentemente inundadas y
otras se inundan estacionalmente, con caracteristicas
ecol6gicas muy favorables para la avifauna asociada
a los humedales.
Se reportaron 99 species de aves de las cuales 40
son residents permanentes, 23 residents permanen-
tes bimodal, 26 residents de invierno, 6 residents
de verano y 4 transefintes (Tabla 1). Del total, 8 es-
pecies son end6micas a Cuba. Calidris canutus, Cali-
dris alpina y Sterna nilotica aparecen como nuevos
registros para la costa norte oriental. Se report la
presencia de Dendrocygna arborea en las lagunas
litorales mis retiradas de la costa, endemismo regio-
nal considerado como vulnerable en las Antillas.
Debido a los planes econ6micos futures para el
desarrollo turistico en este subdistrito zoogeogrifico,
y la poca informaci6n que existe de esta area de estu-
dio, consideramos de gran importancia 6ste y otros
aportes que puedan contribuir al conocimiento y la
conservaci6n de los ecosistemas costeros y la avifau-
na asociada.


LITERATURE CITADA
CRUZ, J. DE LA. 1989. Capitulo de fauna. Pp. X1.I.1.
en Nuevo atlas national de Cuba. (Gladstone, O.
G., Ed.). La Habana, Cuba: Academia de Cien-
cias de Cuba.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975. Ca-
tilogo de las aves de Cuba. La Habana, Cuba:
Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 1993. Chec-
klist of Cuban birds.
PENA, C., A. FERNANDEZ, E. REYES Y N. NAVARRO.
2000. Nuevos registros de Charadriiformes
(Scolopacidae) para la costa norte de Oriente.
Pitirre 13(1):21-22.
RODRIGUEZ, D., B. SANCHEZ, A. TORRES Y A.
RAMS. 1994. Composici6n y abundancia de las
aves durante la migraci6n otofial en Gibara, Hol-
guin, Cuba. Avicennia 1:101-109.
TORRES LEYVA, A. Y A. RAMS BECENA. 1987. Nue-
vos reports de aves para el corredor migratorio
del litoral de Gibara, provincia de Holguin. Gar-
ciana 3:3-4.
TORRES LEYVA, A. Y E. SOLANA OSORIO. 1989. Lis-
ta de las aves observadas en el municipio Rafael
Freyre, provincia Holguin. Garciana 17:2-4.
TORRES, A. 1994. Listado de las aves observadas
dentro del corredor migratorio de Gibara, provin-
cia Holguin, Cuba. Garciana 22:1-4.


Tabla 1. Listado de species asociada al sector costero de Playa Corinthia, Holguin, Cuba.
* = Especie endemica, RV = Residente de verano, RI = Residente de inviemo, RP = Resi-
dente perenne, RPB = Residente perenne bimodal, Tr = Transeunte.


Familia


Especies


Status


Podicipedidae
Pelecanidae
Ardeidae








Threskiomithidae
Phoenicopteridae
Anatidae


Zaramagull6n Grande Podilymbus podiceps
Alcatraz Pelecanus occidentalis
Garcilote Ardea herodias
Garz6n Ardea alba
Garza Real Egretta thula
Garza Azul Egretta caerulea
Garza de Vientre Blanco Egretta tricolor
Garcita Buellera Bubulcus ibis
Aguaitacaiman Butorides striatus
Guanaba de la Florida Nycticorax nycticorax
Guanaba Real Nyctanassa violacea
Sevilla Ajaia ajaja
Flamenco Phoenicopterus ruber
Yaguaza Dendrocygna arborea
Pato de la Florida Anas discors
Pato Cuchareta Anas clypeata
Pato Huyuyo Aix sponsa


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 32










PE A ETAL. -AVIFAUNA DE PLAYA CORINTHIA, HOLGUIN, CUBA


Tabla 1. Listado de species asociada al sector costero de Playa Corinthia, Holguin, Cuba
(continued).


Familia


Cathartidae
Accipitridae



Falconidae


Phasianidae

Rallidae
Aramidae
Charadriidae


Recurvirostridae
Jacanidae
Scolopacidae












Columbidae



Cuculidae



Tytonidae
Strigidae

Caprimulgidae

Apodidae
Trochilidae
Todidae
Alcedinidae
Picidae

Tyrannidae

Hirundinidae
Muscicapidae


Especies


Aura Tifiosa Cathartes aura
Guincho Pandion haliaetus
Gavilancito Accipiter striatus
Gavilan Colilargo Accipiter gundlachi*
Gavilan de Monte Buteojamaicensis
Caraira Caracara plancus
Cemicalo Falco sparverius
Halconcito Falco columbarius
Codomiz Colinus virginianus
Guinea Numida meleagris
Gallareta de Pico Colorado Gallinula chloropus
Guareao Aramus guarauna
Pluvial Pluvialis squatarola
Titere Playero Charadrius wilsonia
Zarapico Sabanero Charadrius vociferus
CachiporraHimantopus mexicanus
Gallito de Rio Jacana spinosa
Zarapico Patiamarillo Grande Tringa melanoleuca
Zarapico Patiamarillo Chico Tringaflavipes
Zarapico Solitario Tringa solitaria
Zarapico Manchado Actitis macularia
Revuelvepiedras Arenaria interpres
Zarapico Raro Calidris canutus
Zarapiquito Calidris minutilla
Zarapico Moteado Calidris melanotos
Zarapico Gris Calidris alpina
Gaviota de Pico Corto Sterna nilotica
Gaviotica Sterna maxima
Gaviota Real Sterna antillarum
Torcaza Cabeciblanca Columba leucocephala
Paloma Aliblanca Zenaida asiatica
Paloma Rabiche Zenaida macroura
Tojosa Columbina passerina
Primavera Saurothera merlini
Arrierito Coccyzus americanus
Arriero Coccyzus minor
Judio Crotophaga ani
Lechuza Tyto alba
Siju Platanero Glaucidium siu*
Carabo Asioflammeus
Querequet6 Chordeiles gundlachii
Guabairo Caprimulgus cubanensis
Vencejito Tachornis phoenicobia
Zunzun Chlorostilbon ricordii
Cartacuba Todus multicolor*
Martin Pescador Ceryle alcyon
Carpintero de Paso Sphyrapicus various
Carpintero Verde Xiphidiopicus percussus*
Bobito Chico Contopus caribaeus
Pitirre Abejero Tyrannus dominicensis
Golondrina Cola de Tijera Hirundo rustica
Rabuita Polioptila caerulea
Zorzal Real Turdus plumbeus


El Pitirre 13(2)


Status


RPB
RPB
RPB
RP
RP
RP
RPB
RI
RP
RP
RPB
RP
RI
RV
RPB
RPB
RP
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
Tr
RI
Tr
Tr/RI
RI
RV
RPB
RP
RP
RPB
RP
RV
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RV
RP
RP
RP
RP
RI
RP
RP
RP
RP
Tr
RI
RP


Page 33










PENIA ETAL. -AVIFAUNA DE PLAYA CORINTHIA, HOLGUIN, CUBA


Tabla 1. Listado de species asociada al sector costero de Playa Corinthia, Holguin, Cuba
(continued).


Familia Especies Status


Mimidae Sinsonte Mimus polyglottos RP
Vireonidae Juan Chivi Vireo gundlachii* RP
Bien-te-veo Vireo altiloquus RV
Parulidae Bijirita Chica Parula americana RI
Canario de Manglar Dendroica petechia Tr/RP
Bijirita Atigrada Dendroica tigrina RI
Bijirita Azul de Garganta Negra Dendroica caerulescens RI
Bijirita de Garganta Negra Dendroica virens RI
Mariposa Galana Dendroica discolor RI
Bijirita Comin Dendroica palmarum RI
Bijirita Trepadora Mniotilta varia RI
Candelita Setophaga ruticilla RI
Sefiorita de Monte Seiurus aurocapillus RI
Sefiorita de Rio Seiurus motacilla RI
Sefiorita de Manglar Seiurus noveboracensis RI
Bijirita Gusanera Helmitheros vermivorus RI
Caretica Geothlypis trichas RI
Pechero Teretistrisfornsi* RP
Thraupidae Cabrero Spindalis zena RP
Emberizidae Negrito Melopyrrha nigra RP
Tomeguin de la Tierra Tiaris olivacea RP
Tomeguin del Pinar Tiaris canora* RP
Icteridae Mayito Agelaius humeralis RP
Sabanero Sturnella magna RP
Toti Dives atroviolacea* RP
Chichinguaco Quiscalus niger RP
Solibio Icterus dominicensis RP
Passeridae Gorri6n Passer domesticus RP











NOTICE

ROSEMARIE GNAM ACCEPTS NEW POSITION

Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, Treasurer of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, has accepted the position of Assis-
tant Director of Biodiversity at the American Museum of Natural History (New York). Dr. Gnam expects the
new position will allow her more time to concentrate on Society matters. Her new e-mail address is
rgnam@amnh.org


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 34











VARIACIONES EN LA CONDUCT DE FORRAJEO Y EN LA DIETA DE ALGUNAS SPECIES
DE BIJIRITAS (AVES: EMBERIZIDAE) EN LA ALTIPLANICIE PINARES
DE MAYARI, HOLGUIN, CUBA

BARBARA SANCHEZ1; NILS NAVARRO2 Y R. OVIEDO1
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdctica, CITMA, La Habana, Cuba; y 2Gmpo Proambiente, ENIA-Holguin, Cuba

Resumen.- Se reportan variaciones en la conduct de forrajeo y en la dieta de algunas species de bijiritas mi-
gratorias en la Altiplanicie Pinares de Mayari, provincia de Holguin, Cuba. Durante el period de la migraci6n
primaveral, insectivoros de follaje como Dendroica caerulescens, D. palmarum y Setophaga ruticilla explotaron
el nicho de insectivoro de tronco cuando los insectivoros de tronco no se encontraban en la zona. Durante el pe-
riodo de la migraci6n otofial, D. tigrina, D. caerulescens, D. discolor y S. ruticilla fueron observados alimentan-
dose de frntos.
Abstract.-VARIATION IN FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND DIET IN SOME WARBLERS (AVES: EMBERIZIDAE) IN THE
ALTIPLANICIE PINARES DE MAYARi, HOLGUIN, CUBA. Changes in foraging patterns and diet are reported for vari-
ous migratory warbler species in the Altiplanicie Pinares de Mayari area of Holguin province, Cuba. During
spring migration, foliage insectivores like Dendroica caerulescens, D. palmarum, and Setophaga ruticilla ex-
ploited the trunk insectivore niche when trunk insectivores were not in the area. During fall migration, D. tigrina,
D. caerulescens, D. discolor, and S. ruticilla were observed feeding on fruit.
Key words: Behavior, Cuba, Dendroica caerulescens, Dendroica discolor, Dendroica palmarum, diet, diet
change, ecology, foraging, Setophaga ruticilla, trophic niche, warbler


EL USO DE ALIMENTOS es uno de los components
primaries del nicho y constitute un element vital
para determinar las interrelaciones ecol6gicas entire
las aves migratorias (Rappole et al. 1993). La abun-
dancia de los recursos alimentarios varia en el espa-
cio y en tiempo (Price 1984) y la disponibilidad de
ellos es mis important que su abundancia (Moore
1983, Wiens 1992).
Las species de aves se agrupan en un gremio de-
terminado, atendiendo al tipo de recurso que explo-
tan (Root 1967). El tipo de alimento, el sitio donde
se adquiere y la forma en que 6ste se obtiene son los
tres components basicos del gremio (Wilson 1974).
Comuinmente, las species se ubican en un gremio
teniendo en cuenta el tipo especifico de alimento que
consume aunque se conoce que las aves pueden
presentar variaciones estacionales en su dieta
(Morton 1971).
Han sido various los trabajos donde se ha abordado
la temitica de gremios en Cuba, entire los que se des-
tacan los realizados por Acosta et al. (1984), Cubi-
llas y Berovides (1987) y Acosta y Mugica (1990).
Kirkconnell et al. (1992) abordan, ademis, aspects
de la forma en que las aves obtienen su alimento.
El trabajo de campo se desarroll6 durante los pe-
riodos de residencia internal (enero-febrero de 1997
y 1998), migraci6n otofial (octubre de 1996 y 1997)
y primaveral (del 22 al 28 de abril de 1999), de las
aves migratorias nehrticas en la Altiplanicie Pinares
de Mayari, provincia de Holguin, como parte del
proyecto "Estudio de las comunidades de aves resi-


dentes y migratorias en diferentes ecosistemas cuba-
nos," correspondiente al Programa Nacional de Cam-
bios Globales, del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia
y Medio Ambiente y financiado por Canadian Wild-
life Service (CWS) y World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
Durante el period de migraci6n primaveral se de-
tect6 una disminuci6n de los valores de abundancia
de las poblaciones de migrants de invierno
(Sanchez y Navarro 1999) en la mayoria de los hibi-
tats muestreados (charrascal, bosque siempreverde,
bosque pluvial) en relaci6n con los otros periods,
except para el Pinar Mensura II, ubicado en 203.5X
y 608.8Y. En esta localidad permanecieron efectivos
poblacionales de aves migratorias insectivoras de
follaje, siendo observados algunos individuos ali-
mentindose en troncos de pinos, explotando el nicho
de insectivoras de tronco que ya no se encontraban
en el area.
Entre las species que se observaron con esta va-
riaci6n de su patron de forrajeo se encuentran: la Bi-
jirita Azul de Garganta Negra (Dendroica caerules-
cens), la Bijirita Comin (D. palmarum) y la Candeli-
ta (Setophaga ruticilla).
En el caso de D. caerulescens se corrobora lo
planteado por Kirkconnell et al. (1992), quienes la
ubican como insectivoro de tronco y follaje. Sin em-
bargo, hay que sefialar que esta conduct fue mani-
festada por individuos de esta especie s6lo durante la
migraci6n primaveral y cuando no estaba present
Mniotilta varia, un insectivoro estricto de tronco,
que utiliza ampliamente el pinar durante la residen-


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 35









CONDUCT DE BIJIRITAS EN LA ALTIPLANICIE PINARES DE MAYARi, HOLGUIN, CUBA SANCHEZ ETAL.


cia invemal.
Las observaciones de las otras dos species (D.
palmarum y S. ruticilla), constituyen aportes a los
cambios que pueden sufrir los patrons de forrajeo
de las aves migratorias en Cuba, los cuales pueden
variar teniendo en cuenta la abundancia y disponibi-
lidad de alimentos, asi como las condiciones del mi-
crohibitat o las estaciones, hecho que ha sido sefiala-
do por Alatalo (1982).
Por otra parte, durante el period de migraci6n
otofial, se observaron en el matorral xeromorfo sub-
espinoso (charrascal), ubicado entire 202X-203X y
612Y-613Y, various individuos de species migrato-
rias (D. tigrina, D. caerulescens, D. discolor y S.
ruticilla) alimentandose de frutos de Trema lamarc-
kiana, lo que constitute un aporte al conocimiento
de la alimentaci6n de las aves migratorias para Cuba.
Estas aves estin especializadas morfol6gicamente
para capturar insects. Sin embargo, pueden utilizar
una cantidad important de frutos, fundamentalmente
durante la migraci6n, como ha sido reportado por
Willis (1966), Karr (1976) y Herrera (1978), entire
otros autores, para otras regions.


LITERATURE CITADA
ACOSTA, M. Y MUGICA, L. 1990. Introducci6n al
studio del espacio morfol6gico en trece species
de bijiritas (Aves: Parulidae). Cien. Biol. 23:92-
99.
ACOSTA, M., M. E. IBARRA Y T. PETERSSON. 1984.
Caracterizaci6n y actividades de la ornitocenosis
del Jardin Botinico Nacional. Rev. Jardin Bot.
Nac. 5(2):99-132.
ALATALO, R. V. 1982. Multidimensional foraging
niche organization of foliage-gleaning birds in
northern Finland. Ornis Scandinavica 13:56-71.
CUBILLAS, S. O. Y V. BEROVIDES. 1987. Indices eco-
l6gicos de una comunidad de aves en un area pro-
tegida de Cuba. II. Gremios y diversidad. Cien.
Biol. 17:85-90.
GONZALEZ, H. 1996. Composici6n y abundancia de
aves residents y migratorias en Cuba occidental y
central durante el period migratorio. Tesis docto-
ral, Univ. La Habana, Cuba.
GONZALEZ, H. J., A. LLANES, B. SANCHEZ, D. Ro-
DRIGUEZ, E. PEREZ, P. BLANCO, R. OVIEDO Y A.
PEREZ. 1999. Informe Final Proyecto: Estado de


las comunidades de aves residents y migratorias
en ecosistemas cubanos en relaci6n con el impact
provocado por los cambios globales.
HERRERA, C. 1978. Feeding ecology of the Robin
(Erithacus rubecula) during its wintering in oak
woods of the south of Spain. Dofiana Acta Vert. 4.
KARR, J. R. 1976. Seasonality, resource availability
and community diversity in tropical bird commu-
nities. Amer. Nat. 110:973-994.
KIRCKONNELL, A., O. H. GARRIDO, R. M. POSADA Y
S. O. CUBILLAS. 1992. Los grupos tr6ficos en la
avifauna cubana. Poeyana 415:1-21
MOORE, J. 1983. Response of an avian predator and
its isopod prey to an acanthocephalan parasite.
Ecology 64:1000-1015.
MORTON, E. S. 1971. Food and migration habitat of
the Eastern Kingbird in Panama. Auk 88:925-926.
PRICE, P. W. 1984. Alternative paradigms in com-
munity ecology. Pp: 350-383 en Price, P. W., C.
N. Slobodshikoff y C. W. S. Gaud (eds.), A new
ecology: novel approaches to interactive systems.
New York: John Wiley & Sons.
RAPPOLE, J., E. MORTON, T. LOVEJOY Y J. L. RUos
1993. Aves migratorias nedrticas en los neotr6pi-
cos. Conservation and Research Center, National
Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution.
ROOT, R. B. 1967. The niche exploitation pattern of
the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Ecol. Monogr. 37:317-
350.
SANCHEZ, B., R. OVIEDO, N. NAVARRO, A. HERNAN-
DEZ, C. PENA, E. REYES y R. SANCHEZ. 1998.
Composici6n y abundancia de la avifauna en tres
formaciones vegetables en la Meseta de Nipe, Hol-
guin, Cuba. Resfimenes IV Simposio de Zoologia.
El Pitirre 11(3):107.
SANCHEZ, B. y N. NAVARRO. 1999. Proyecto de es-
tudio de linea base ambiental del yacimiento Pina-
res Oeste para PINARES, S. A., CESIGMA.
WIENS J. A. 1992. The ecology of bird communities.
Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press.
WILSON, M. F. 1974. Avian community organization
and habitat structure. Ecology 55:1017-1029.
WILLIS, E. 0. 1966. Competitive exclusion and birds
at fruiting trees in western Colombia. Auk 83:479-
480.


El Pitirre 13(2)


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LAS AVES PRESENTS EN AREAS CON DIFERENTES GRADOS DE PERTURBACION
AMBIENTAL EN MOA, CUBA


CARLOS A. MANCINA, BARBARA SANCHEZ, ARTURO HERNANDEZ Y RODOLFO SANCHEZ
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemdctica, CITMA, AP 8029, Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
e-mail: ecologia@tunepnet.infcu

Resumen.-Se discute la omitofauna observada en cuatro areas con diferentes grades de perturbaci6n ambien-
tal en Moa, provincia de Holguin, Cuba. Las cuatro areas comprenden: zonas altamente degradadas por la conta-
minaci6n industrial, parches boscosos, zonas reforestadas y zonas montafiosas. Se detectaron 42 species de
aves en total, representando 12 6rdenes y 20 families. La mayor diversidad de aves se registry en la zona mon-
tafiosa (34 species) y la mas baja en la zona industrial altamente degradada (6 speciess. Se pide informaci6n
que facility el analisis de metales pesados encontrados en algunas aves de la zona.
Abstract.-BIRDS PRESENT IN AREAS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF ENVIRONMENTAL DISTURBANCE IN MOA,
CUBA. The observed bird fauna in four areas with varying degrees of environmental disturbance near Moa, Hol-
guin province, Cuba, is discussed. The four localities include highly degraded and contaminated industrial areas,
remnant forest patches, reforested areas, and mountainous zones. Forty-two species were observed representing
12 orders and 20 families. Highest avian diversity was found in the mountainous area (34 species), whereas the
lowest was found in the highly degraded industrial area (6 species). A request is made for information that could
help in the analysis of heavy metals found in some birds in the area.
Key words: Cuba, distribution, diversity, ecology, habitat disturbance, heavy metals, status


LAS AVES SON, DENTRO de los ecosistemas bosco-
sos, un grupo de vital importancia ya que constituyen
la clase de vertebrados cubanos con mayor nuimero
de species. Dada su abundancia, hibitos tr6ficos y
biomasa, constituyen un eslab6n important en el
funcionamiento de estos ecosistemas. Como part
del proyecto "Influencia de la contaminaci6n indus-
trial y de la actividad minera en la biodiversidad y
los patrons de funcionamiento de los ecosistemas de
bosques en Moa," se realizaron tres viajes de investi-
gaci6n (noviembre de 1996 y 1997 yjunio de 1998)
a dicha region situada en los 20037' de latitud N y
75010' de longitud W, al norte de la provincia de
Holguin, en el oriented de Cuba. Se realizaron recorri-
dos en horas de la mafiana y la tarde, anotando las
species de aves presents en cada una de las cuatro
areas seleccionadas con diferentes grades de afecta-
ci6n antr6pica. Las areas se described a continua-
ci6n:
AREA A. Situada a menos de 200 m al oeste de la
Fibrica de Niquel Pedro Sotto Alba. Se en-
cuentra altamente degradada por las emanacio-
nes de gases y polvo industrial. La vegetaci6n
es escasa, apreciandose s6lo algunos elements
herbiceos de Paspalum miligranum y Andro-
gum bicornis y aislados arbustos de Copey
(Clusia cf. callosa) (X 221500 Y 697500).
AREA B. "Vista Alegre," situada aproximadamente
a 2600 m al suroeste del yacimiento Zona A, al
norte de la carretera actual que va a la Planta de
Pulpa. Es una zona de bosque natural remanen-


te, de aproximadamente 10 ha, y se encuentra
rodeada de zonas altamente alteradas. El tipo
de vegetaci6n present es el pinar (Pinus cu-
bensis) y bosque de galeria (X 219200 Y
696400).
AREA C. Se encuentra separada por una carretera
del Area B. Fue utilizada para la extracci6n de
minerales y hace aproximadamente diez afios
se reforest6 con Casuarina equisetifolia y Pi-
nus cubensis por lo que esta en fase de reculti-
vaci6n (X 218750 Y 696250).
AREA D. Region montafiosa perteneciente a la cor-
dillera Sagua-Baracoa en el macizo de Moa. Se
recorri6 la zona comprendida entire los rios Ya-
grumaje y Cayo Guam. Las formaciones vege-
tales presents son: bosque de galeria, pinares y
bosque pluvial submontano, predominando las
areas de pinares. La afectaci6n fundamental
observada en el area es la fragmentaci6n de los
bosques por extracci6n maderera y afectaciones
por ruido product de las maquinarias (X
218400 Y 705100).
Entre las cuatro zonas estudiadas, se detectaron 42
species de aves, incluidas en 12 6rdenes y 20 fami-
lias (Tabla 1). Del total, tres (7.14%) son residents
de verano y ocho (19.05%) son migratorias nehrticas
que permanecen gran parte del afio en el pais, reti-
rindose a criar a Norteamdrica. El resto, 31 (73.8%)
son residents permanentes y de 6stas, 19 (61.3%)
correspondent a formas end6micas de Cuba. Otras
seis species fueron detectadas en zonas urbanas de


El Pitirre 13(2)


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AVES EN AREAS DE PERTURBACION AMBIENTAL EN MOA, CUBA MANCINA ETAL.


Moa.
En el area A la diversidad fue pobre, observindose
s6lo seis species de aves las cuales probablemente
utilizan esta zona como via de transito. De igual for-
ma, el area C present una escasa ornitofauna moti-
vado posiblemente por la baja complejidad del hibi-
tat. En esta zona la especie dominant es el Tome-
guin de la Tierra (Tiaris olivacea), que utiliza los
pequefios pinos como sitios de anidamiento. Tam-
bidn en esta area se observ6 el 3 junio de 1998 un
nido de Querequet6 (Chordeiles gundlachii) situado
directamente sobre la corteza de intemperismo y ais-
lado por barrancos y circavas; 6ste contenia un hue-
vo (29.2 x 20.95 mm) con manchas pardo rojizas que
armonizaban con el sustrato.
La zona B represent un remanente de lo que fue
el bosque tipico de esta zona y que actualmente ocu-
pan las areas utilizadas para la extracci6n minera. A
pesar de encontrarse relativamente cerca de la Fibri-
ca de Niquel P. S. Alba y estar rodeada de claros y
trochas ocasionadas por el trinsito continue de equi-
pos pesados, esta zona present una alta diversidad
biol6gica. Se detectaron en total 22 species de aves,
incluyendo la Siguapa (Asio stygius), subespecie en-
d6mica de Cuba considerada muy rara por Garrido y
Garcia (1975). Otra subespecie end6mica present en
esta area es la Cotorra (Amazona leucocephala), anti-
guamente muy abundante en toda la region y actual-
mente restringida a pequefios parches boscosos. Ade-
mis de las aves se observaron varias species de la-
gartos anolinos y numerosas species de invertebra-
dos, destacindose por su abundancia y colorido Pari-
des gundlachianus, mariposa diurna end6mica de
Cuba. Por otra parte, dada su elevada diversidad flo-
ristica pudiera representar un banco gen6tico para el
restablecimiento y mantenimiento, tanto natural co-
mo antr6pico, de zonas aledafias actualmente no uti-
lizadas o desechadas por la mineria, por lo que se
debieran tomar las medidas para la conservaci6n y
protecci6n de esta area.
La mayor riqueza de species se present en la
zona D, lo que esta relacionado con su mayor area,
conservaci6n y diversidad paisajistica. En total se
detectaron 34 species de aves, aunque dada la bre-
vedad de los muestreos el nrimero de species pudie-
ra ser mayor. La especie mis abundante fue el Pe-
chero (Teretistris fornsi), situaci6n que se repite en
otras regions boscosas orientales como La Zoilita


(Garcia et al. 1989) y la Altiplanicie de Nipe. Otras
species destacadas por su abundancia fueron: la Bi-
jirita Azul de Garganta Negra (Dendroica caerules-
cens); la Candelita (Setophaga ruticilla); el Tocororo
(Priotelus temnurus) y el Zorzal Real (Turdus plum-
beus). Segfin N. Navarro (com. pers.) se puede ob-
servar en el area el Zunzuncito (uI. II, ,ii helenae),
aunque no fue detectado durante la realizaci6n de
este trabajo.
Las aves representan un grupo dominant en los
ecosistemas boscosos de Moa. Muchas, a pesar de
ser primariamente insectivoras, consume frutos en
algunas 6pocas del afio. Se conoce que en el Neotr6-
pico una parte de la dieta de las species migratorias
nearticas (ver Blake y Loiselle 1992) esta constituida
por frutos. Estas, unidas a species residents, pue-
den representar importantes agents dispersores de
algunas plants, incluyendo species pioneras, por lo
que movimientos locales entire las areas de alimenta-
ci6n y zonas afectadas pudieran contribuir al resta-
blecimiento natural de la vegetaci6n en areas devas-
tadas por la actividad minera o recultivadas.
Es conocido el efecto de los contaminants, como
por ejemplo los pesticides, sobre las poblaciones de
aves, fundamentalmente acuaticas (ver Vermeer et
al. 1974). Sin embargo, poco se conoce acerca del
impact de la industrial minero-metalirgica sobre las
species que habitan los bosques y el papel de ellas
como bioindicadoras de la contaminaci6n del medio,
por lo que 6sta seria un area apropiada para el desa-
rrollo de este tipo de investigaci6n en un future en
Cuba.


LITERATURE CITADA
BLAKE, J. G. Y B. A. LOISELLE. 1992. Fruit in the
diets of neotropical migrant birds in Costa Rica.
Biotropica 24(a):200-210.
GARCIA, M. E., J. DE LA CRUZ Y A. RAMS. 1989.
Algunos aspects ecol6gicos de la ornitofauna de
"La Zoilita," Sierra del Cristal. Garciana 16:1-2.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975. Ca-
tilogo de las aves de Cuba. Editorial Acad. Cien.
Cuba.
VERMEER, K., R. W. RISEBROUGH, A. L. SPAANS Y
L. M. REYNOLDS. 1974. Pesticide effects on fishes
and birds in rice field of Surinam, South America.
Environ. Pollut. 7:217-236.


NOTA: Los autores de la present comunicaci6n determinaron contenidos de minerales pesados (Fe, Ni, Mn,
Zn y Sr) en plumas y tarsos de algunas species de Passeriformes colectadas en diferentes zonas de Moa.
Agradeceriamos cualquier literature o informaci6n de utilidad para el anflisis de estos resultados.


Page 38


El Pitirre 13 (2)










AVES EN AREAS DE PERTURBACION AMBIENTAL EN MOA, CUBA MANCINA ETAL.


Tabla 1. Relaci6n de aves observadas (+) en cuatro areas de Moa, con diferentes grades de perturbaci6n ambiental. = sub-
especie end6mica, ** = especie end6mica, *** = g6nero end6mico. Estado de permanencia: RP = resident permanent, RV
= resident de verano y RI = resident invemal.

Area


Orden


Familia


Especie


Estado A B C D X1


Ciconiiformes

Pelecaniformes
Falconiformes


Columbiformes





Psittaciformes
Cuculiformes

Strigiformes

Caprimulgiformes
Apodiformes
Trogoniformes
Coraciiformes
Piciformes

Passeriformes


Ardeidae Garza Real Egretta thula
Garcita Bueyera Bubulcus ibis
Anhingidae Marbella Anhinga anhinga
Cathartidae Aura Tifiosa Cathartes aura
Falconidae Cemicalo Falco sparverius*
Accipitridae Gavilan de Monte Buteo jamaicensis
Columbidae Boyero Geotrygon montana
Paloma Aliblanca Zenaida asiatica
Paloma Rabiche Zenaida macroura
Tojosa Columbina passerina
Torcaza Cabeciblanca Columba leucocephala
Psittacidae Cotorra Amazona leucocephala*
Cuculidae Arriero Saurothera merlini*
Judio Crotophaga ani
Strigidae Siguapa Asio stygius*
Siju Platanero Glaucidium siju**
Caprimulgidae Querequet6 Chordeiles gundlachii
Trochilidae Zunzun Chlorostilbon ricordii*
Trogonidae Tocororo Priotelus temnurus**
Todidae Cartacuba Todus multicolor**
Picidae Carpintero Jabado Melanerpes superciliaris*
Carpintero Verde Xiphidiopicus percussus***
Tyrannidae Pitirre Abejero Tyrannus dominicensis
Pitirre Guatibere Tyrannus caudifasciatus*
Bobito Chico Contopus caribaeus*
Bobito Grande Myiarchus sagrae
Vireonidae Bien-te-veo Vireo altiloquus
Juan Chivi Vireo gundlachii**
Corvidae Cao Montero Corvus nasicus
Mimidae Sinsonte Mimus polyglottos
Zorzal Gato Dumetella carolinensis
Turdidae Ruisefior Myadestes elisabeth **
Zorzal Real Turdus plumbeus
Emberizidae Bijirita Azul de Garganta Negra Dendroica
caerulescens
Bijirita Comun Dendroica palmarum
Bijirita de Garganta Amarilla Dendroica
dominica
Bijirita Galana Dendroica discolor
Bijirita Trepadora Mniotilta varia
Candelita Setophaga ruticilla
Sefiorita de Monte Seiurus aurocapillus
Pechero Teretistrisfornsi***
Negrito Melopyrrha nigra*
Tomeguin de la Tierra Tiaris olivacea
Tomeguin del Pinar Tiaris canora**
Cabrero Spindalis zena *
Toti Dives atroviolacea**
Solibio Icterus dominicensis*
Chichinguaco Quiscalus niger*


+ + + +
+ +
+
+
+


+
+
+ +
+ +


+
+ + +

+


+ +
+
+
+


+
+
+ +
+ +

+ +
+ + + +


+
+ + +
+
+ +
+
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+
+ +


X': Especies observadas fuera de las areas inventariadas. Todos los registros correspondieron a la zona urbana de Moa.


El Pitirre 13 (2)


Page 39











ALIMENTOS Y CONDUCT ALIMENTARIA NO INFORMADAS EN EL
MOZAMBIQUE (QUISCAL US NIGER BRA CHAPTER US) DE PUERTO RICO


RAUL A. PEREZ-RIVERA
Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Humacao, Departamento de Biologia, Humacao, PR 00791

Resumen.-Se described la conduct alimentaria y la dieta del Mozambique (Quiscalus niger brachipte-
rus) en Puerto Rico.
Abstract.-NEW OBSERVATIONS OF DIET AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF THE GREATER ANTILLEAN
GRACKLE (QUISCALUS NIGER BRACHIPTERUS) IN PUERTO RIco. Feeding behavior and diet are described for
the Puerto Rico race of the Greater Antillean Grackle. The species' plasticity in diet is thought to be an im-
portant factor in the grackle's use of urban habitats in Puerto Rico.
Key words: diet, ecology, foraging behavior, Greater Antillean Grackle, habitat, hurricane, Puerto Rico,
Quiscalus niger brachipterus


EL MOZAMBIQUE O CHANGE (Quiscalus niger
brachipterus) es una de las species mis ampliamen-
te distribuidas y abundantes de Puerto Rico. Aunque
el ave puede encontrarse en habitats naturales (ej.
manglares) es mis bien tipico de areas abiertas alte-
radas, incluyendo la zona residential. El Mozambi-
que es sumamente comiin en las zonas costaneras y
bajas de Puerto Rico. No obstante, puede observarse
en grandes niumeros inclusive en localidades del cen-
tro de Puerto Rico. Por ejemplo, Rivera Cianchini y
Mojica Sandoz (1981) informan cientos de estas aves
en un dormidero en la plaza de Adjuntas. El ave tam-
bidn parece tener cierta predilecci6n por utilizar co-
mo dormidero sub-estaciones de energia el6ctrica
(Raffaele et al. 1998).
La dieta del Mozambique es sumamente amplia y
variada. Wetmore (1916) examine el contenido esto-
macal de 98 individuos y encontr6 insects, aracni-
dos, moluscos, anfibios, reptiles, frutas y granos.
Danforth (1936) y Biaggi (1974) informan ademis
que el ave ingiere gusanos. En areas urbanas, el Mo-
zambique tambidn depreda huevos de otras aves. He
observado al ave ingerir huevos de Reinita (Coereba
flaveola), Reina Mora (Spindalis portoricensis),
Chamorro Prieto (Tiaris bicolor), Rolita (Columbia
passerina) y hasta species de mayor tamafio como
la T6rtola Aliblanca (Zenaida asiatica) y Palomas
Dom6sticas (Columbia livia). En el caso del Chamo-
rro Prieto y la Reinita, los Mozambiques abren el
nido por la parte superior para comerse su contenido.
Sospecho que hayan ingerido pichones de Reinita
cuyos nidos he encontrado rotos en la parte superior
y en donde han desaparecido pichones sin emplumar.
No obstante, no puedo descartar de esta acci6n al
Zorzal Pardo (Margarops fuscatus) y al Zorzal de
Patas Rojas (Turdus plumbeus) quienes tambidn son


comunes en zonas urbanas y rompen de igual manera
los nidos de las dos aves mencionadas y se comen
los pichones.
Luego del paso del huracin Georges tuve la opor-
tunidad de tomar datos sobre cambios en la dieta de
aves urbanas. En dos ocasiones al menos observe a
individuos de Mozambique ingerir flores de cruz de
Malta (Ixora coccinea). Tambien durante este perio-
do observe a un macho partir un gongoli rojo
(Trigoniulus lombricinus) e ingerir algunos de los
pedazos.
Durante el mes de agosto y principios de septiem-
bre de 1999 observe en dos ocasiones adicionales a
hembras de Mozambique alimentar a sus pichones
con pedazos de flores de cruz de Malta. Tambidn
durante el mismo period observe otras hembras ali-
mentando pichones con comida compactada de pe-
rro. Cuando los granos estin muy duros he observa-
do a estas aves llevar la comida al techo de casas
donde hay agua acumulada y depositar el grano en el
agua par que, aparentemente, 6ste se ablande y pue-
da ser ingerido. He observado el mismo patron de
conduct para poder ingerir pedazos de pan duro.
Otra t6cnica poco usual para conseguir alimento es el
sostenerse a vuelo para capturar artr6podos. En dos
ocasiones en el mes de marzo de 2000 observe a
hembras utilizar esta estrategia para capturar las ara-
fiitas que se encuentran en las esquinas de mi mar-
quesina. No obstante, lo que ha llamado mis mi
atenci6n son las observaciones que hice el 8 de sep-
tiembre de 1999. En esta ocasi6n se pas6 la podadora
sobre el c6sped de mi residencia. Las aspas de la po-
dadora rompieron en pedazos las heces fecales de mi
perro. En las mismas crecen unos gusanos blancos.
Previamente, al igual que en esta ocasi6n, observe a
los Mozambiques ingerir dichos gusanos. No obstan-


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ALIMENTOS Y CONDUCT ALIMENTARIA EN EL MOZAMBIQUE DE PUERTO RICO PEREZ-RIVERA


te, observe ademns a hembras diferentes (en dos oca-
siones) alimentando a pichones con pedacitos de las
heces fecales del perro. La dieta y conduct descrita
es inusual para un ict6rido. No obstante, no es total-
mente sorprendente para el Mozambique. Lack
(1976) ya habia notado en Jamaica que el ave era
sumamente oportunista en su conduct alimentaria y
de forrajeo.
Raffaele et al. (1998) indican que en areas urba-
nas, particularmente en alrededores de restaurants,
el ave ingiere sobras de alimento. En el Hyatt Resort
(Dorado), los Mozambiques se han convertido en un
problema en el area del restaurant, poshndose sobre
plates desatendidos. En dicha localidad he observado
a estas aves ingerir pedazos de huevo revuelto, ja-
m6n, queso, frutas y pan.
La plasticidad en la dieta de estos animals pare-
ce ser uno de los principles factors en el 6xito que
ha tenido el Mozambique en la invasion y conquista
de ambientes urbanos en Puerto Rico.


LITERATURE CITADA
BIAGGI, V. 1974. Las aves de Puerto Rico. 2nda ed.
San Juan, PR: Editorial Universitaria.
DANFORTH, S. T. 1936. Los pijaros de Puerto Rico.
New York: Rand McNally y Co.
LACK, D. 1976. Island biology. Illustrated by the
land birds of Jamaica. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Sci-
entific Publications.
RIVERA CIANCHINI, O., Y L. MOJICA SANDOZ. 1981.
Pajaros notables de Puerto Rico. San Juan, PR:
Editorial Universitaria.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y J.
RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West
Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.
WETMORE, A. 1916. Birds of Porto Rico. US Dept.
Agric. Bull. 326.


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ROSE-RINGED PARAKEET (PSITTACULA KRAMERI) RECORDED IN THE WEST INDIES


GUY M. KIRWAN
74 Waddington Street, Norwich NR2 4JS, UK

Abstract.-Two Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were observed in the grounds of the Hotel
Kohly, Playa, La Habana, Cuba on 2 and 16 April 2000. This is the first record of the parakeet in the West
Indies.
Resumen.-PSITTACULA KRAMERI REGISTRY EN LAS ANTILLAS. El 2 y el 16 de abril del 2000 se observe
una pareja de Periquitos Rosados Psittacula krameri en el Norte de La Habana. Este primer record, sin em-
bargo, no permit determinar si ambas aves escaparon de jaulas en Cuba, o si se trat6 de transeuntes proce-
dentes de la Florida, USA.
Key words: Cuba, Psittacula krameri, record, Rose-ringed Parakeet, status


No WEST INDIAN RECORDS EXIST for the Rose-
ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri (Raffaele et al.
1998), an Old World species occurring naturally in
tropical Africa north of the moist forest zone and
much of southern Asia. The parakeet has been
widely introduced into Europe (Juniper and Parr
1998), and has become established in parts of Florida
(since the 1960s) and Virginia (since 1973), USA
(American Ornithologists' Union 1998). In addition,
since 1996 a population has become established in
the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela (Nebot 1999),
the first report from the Neotropical region.
On 2 and 16 April 2000, I observed a pair of this
distinctive species in the grounds of the Hotel Kohly,
Playa, La Habana, Cuba. They were easily identified
by a combination of their attenuated shape, very long
slender tail with bluer projecting central feathers,
relatively large head, and overall pale grass green
plumage (paler than the Cuba's native psittacids,
,i ,'lr'il euops and Amazona leucocephala), with a
relatively weak red bill, rose-colored narrow collar
(in the male) and red orbital ring. Because of the
relative brevity of both observations, I was unable to
note the small black throat patch or bluish nape of
the male. I am familiar with Psittacula krameri from
observations of introduced and feral populations in
the United Kingdom, Turkey, and Egypt, and native
birds in the Indian subcontinent, as well as with


1i, ~',,' euops and Amazona leucocephala from
many visits to Cuba.
The origin of the pair in La Habana is debatable,
but they were presumably deliberately released in
Cuba, vagrants from Florida, or escapees from
nearby. For now, this matter can only be one for
speculation, and only time will demonstrate whether
the species can be considered part of the West Indian
avifauna.


LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7th ed. Washington
DC: American Ornithologists' Union.
JUNIPER, T., AND M. PARR. 1998. Parrots. A guide
to the parrots of the world. East Sussex: Pica
Press.
NEBOT, J. C. 1999. First report on the Rose-ringed
Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) in Venezuela and
preliminary observations on its behavior. Ornitol.
Neotrop. 10: 115-117.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. New Jersey: Princeton Univ.
Press.


El Pitirre 13(2)


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RECENT SIGHT REPORTS OF LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULLS (LARUSFUSCUS) FROM CUBA


P. WILLIAM SMITH AND SUSAN A. SMITH
PO Box 1992, Ocean Shores, Washington 98569 USA

Abstract.-We report the first observations of the Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) for Cuba.
Both adults and immatures evidently of the race L. f graellsii were seen along the northern coast of
Camagiuey Province during autumn 1998 and 1999. These sightings fit with the increasing appearance of
this species in the southern United States and the eastern West Indies.
Resumen.-AVISTAMIENTOS RECIENTES DE LA GAVIOTA DE ESPALDA NEGRA MENOR (LARUS FUSCUS)
EN CUBA. Se described los primeros avistamientos de Larusfuscus en Cuba. Los avistamientos, en la costa
norte de la provincia de Camagiuey, son de aves adults e inmaduros. Esta especie era de esperarse en Cuba
ya que se habia reportado en territories circundantes.
Key words: Cuba, distribution, Larus fuscus, Lesser Black-backed Gull, record, status


ON 11 NOVEMBER 1999 we observed an adult and
two first-winter Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus
fuscus) at La Boca, a small fishing village in
Camagiiey Province along the northern coast of
Cuba. This village is at Punta de Practicos, on the
eastern side of the passage to Nuevitas between Cayo
Sabinal and the western end of Playa Santa Lucia,
along the Canal Viejo de Bahamas.
We first noticed two brownish immature gulls, lar-
ger than nearby Laughing Gulls (L. atricilla),
perched on the pilings of a former wharf. Then, near
the road, we observed an adult Lesser Black-backed
Gull roosting with several dozen Laughing Gulls. It
was larger than the Laughing Gulls but not dramati-
cally so, and had a dark ashy gray mantle with
blacker wingtips, yellow legs, a white head slightly
streaked on the nape and with a black blotch mainly
behind the eye, yellow irides, and a yellow bill with
a red spot near the gonydeal angle. Suspecting that
the larger immature gulls might also be Lesser
Black-backed, we flushed them and observed that
they had dark outer secondary coverts and a heavily
barred rump and upper tail contrasting with a very
broad and dark subterminal band, all characters of
that species (Grant 1982). The dark gray, not black,
mantle of the adult suggested that it was of the south-
ern race L. f graellsii, as are the vast majority of
North American reports and specimens of this spe-
cies (Post and Lewis 1995).
A search of the literature by Jim Wiley, George
Wallace, and ourselves failed to locate any previ-
ously published reports of Lesser Black-backed
Gulls from Cuba. Arturo Kirkconnell of the Museo
Nacional de Historia Natural in La Havana, however,
advised (in litt.) that Paul Prior, Warden of the Long
Point, Ontario, Canada, Bird Observatory, had sub-
mitted a report of a member of this species appar-


ently molting into third-winter plumage, seen on 14
November 1998 near Playa Santa Lucia. Subsequent
correspondence with Mr. Prior revealed that the
Lesser Black-backed Gulls we saw in 1999 appar-
ently were at or near the same location as the indi-
vidual he saw in 1998, an area he was told was
known locally as "Cocos Beach."
Since first reported at Key West in 1938, Lesser
Black-backed Gulls have become fairly common
visitors to Florida, primarily in winter (Stevenson
and Anderson 1994). At least 19 were at various lo-
cations in the state during the winter of 1998-9 (West
and Anderson 1999). In the northern Bahamas it is
considered an "uncommon annual visitor" by White
(1998). Records of the species have also been ob-
tained throughout the eastern West Indies (Raffaele
et al. 1998), so reports from Cuba are not unex-
pected.
We thank George Wallace and Jim Wiley for their
help searching for previous reports of Lesser Black-
backed Gulls in Cuba, and Arturo Kirkconnell and
Paul Prior for providing information about the 1998
sighting as well as for commenting on earlier drafts
of this note.


LITERATURE CITED
GRANT, P. J. 1982. Gulls a guide to identification.
Calton, UK: T & A D Poyser.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Prince-
ton University Press.
POST, P. W. AND R. H. LEWIS. 1995. Lesser Black-
backed Gull in the Americas. Birding 27:282-
290, 370-381.


El Pitirre 13(2)


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LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULLS (LARUS FUscus) IN CUBA SMITH AND SMITH


STEVENSON, H. M. AND B. H. ANDERSON. 1994. The
birdlife of Florida. Gainesville, Florida: Univer-
sity Press of Florida.
WEST, R. L. AND B. H. ANDERSON. 1999. Florida
region [winter 1998-9 field notes]. N. Am. Birds


53: 160-163.
WHITE, A. W. 1998. A birder's guide to the Bahama
Islands. Colorado Springs, Colorado: American
Birding Association.


PRESS RELEASE FROM BIRDLIFE JAMAICA


RED PARROT DISCOVERED IN JAMAICA


A research team from BirdLife Jamaica, the Uni-
versity of the West Indies and the University of
Glasgow working in the upper Rio Grande Valley of
Portland (Jamaica) has discovered a red Jamaican
Parrot. Jamaica has two endemic parrot species, the
Black-billed and Yellow-billed parrot, both of which
are almost totally green in color.
The report which was recently published in the
2000 Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,
noted that the bird observed was "strikingly red -
similar in intensity to that of the Scarlet Macaw (Ara
macao)" of South America. The individual which
was fortunately photographed, also had distinct
patches of yellow and green in the wings and tail.
Investigations by the research team led to the conclu-
sion that the individual observed was a color morph
(or variant) of the Jamaican Yellow-billed Parrot
(Amazona collaria), which is relatively common in
that area of the island. This was the first color morph
of a Jamaican parrot ever recorded, and in reference
to its combination of colors the photographed indi-
vidual has been nicknamed "the Reggee Parrot."
Local citrus farmers in the Mill Bank area of Port-
land informed the team that they had from time to
time seen red parrots flying around the area but that
they were not common. Despite the fact that Jamai-


can parrots have been studied for the past four years
by the Jamaican Parrot Project, the largest biodiver-
sity project ever funded by the Environmental Foun-
dation of Jamaica, there have never been any other
encounters with parrots of this kind. The Yellow-
billed Parrot population of eastern Jamaica therefore
appears to have a rare color variant of which this has
been the first record by the local and international
scientific community. Further investigations are to
be conducted to determine how pervasive is the color
variation within the yellow-bills of Portland. Both of
Jamaica's endemic parrots are globally threatened
species.

BirdLife Jamaica would be interested hearing from
other territories that have had any similar reports
among Amazona parrots. Our e-mail address is
birdlifej a@yahoo.
com. Mailing address: 2 Starlight Ave, Kingston 6,
Jamaica W.I. Tel & fax (876) 927-8444 (home)
(Catherine Levy, President) or (Leo Douglas, Media
Relations Officer) e-mail: leodouglas@icwjamaica.
com. Mailing address: 11A Lounsbury Avenue,
Kingston 10, Jamaica, W.I. Tel: (876) 924-4203
(home).


For more details, see:
Davis, H., and B. Zonfrillo. 2000. An erythristic Yellow-billed Parrot Amazona collaria. Bulletin of the British
Ornithological Club 120(1). -Ed.


El Pitirre 13(2)


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SENEGAL PARROT, BLUE-CROWNED PARAKEET, OLIVE-THROATED PARAKEET,
AND GREEN-WINGED MACAW: NEW PSITTACINE RECORDS FOR PUERTO RICO


JosE A. SALGUERO-FARIA1 AND CARINA ROIG-BACHS2
1Department oJ I d... --i University ofPuerto Rico, 100 Carr. #908 Humacao, PR 00791;
and 2School ofArchitecture, University ofPuerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR 00931

Abstract.-We report four new psittacine records for Puerto Rico: Senegal Parrot (Poicephalus sene-
galus), Blue-crowned Parakeet (Aratinga acuticaudata), Olive-throated Parakeet (Aratinga nana), and
Green-winged Macaw (Ara chloroptera).
Resumen.-NuEvos RECORDS DE PSITTACINE PARA PUERTO RIco. Nosotros reportamos cuatro nue-
vos records de psittacine para Puerto Rico: Cotorra de Senegal (Poicephalus senegalus), Periquito de
Cabeza Azul (Aratinga acuticaudata), Periquito de Garganta Verde-Olivo (Aratinga nana) y Papagayo
de Alas Verdes (Ara chloroptera).
Key words: Ara chloroptera, Aratinga acuticaudata, Aratinga nana, Blue-crowned Parakeet, exotic,
Green-winged Macaw, introduced, Olive-throated Parakeet, Poicephalus senegalus, Puerto Rico, Sene-
gal Parrot, status


A TOTAL OF 31 SPECIES of Psittaciformes have
been recorded from Puerto Rico (P6rez-Rivera and
V6lez 1980, P6rez-Rivera 1992). Only two of these
species were pre-Columbian, the Puerto Rican Parrot
(Amazona vittata) and an endemic subspecies of the
Hispaniolan Parakeet (Aratinga chloroptera
maugei), of which, only the parrot is still present, but
severely endangered (Fois.Ilu 1977, P6rez-Rivera
and V6lez 1980, Biaggi 1997, Raffaele et al. 1998).
During the last four decades, hundreds of exotic psit-
tacines were imported into Puerto Rico for the pet
trade (P6rez-Rivera and V6lez, 1980; P6rez-Rivera,
1992, Raffaele and Kepler 1992). Many of these pet
parrots escaped and became established around the
island. Here we report four new psittacine records
for Puerto Rico: Senegal Parrot (Poicephalus sene-
galus), Blue-crowned Parakeet ( i ir, ,i acuticau-
data), Olive-throated Parakeet (i. i,,r,, nana), and
Green-winged Macaw (Ara chloroptera).
On 17 September 1992, we observed and photo-
graphed a single adult Senegal Parrot, within the
University of Puerto Rico's Rio Piedras Campus.
The parrot was frequently detected by its distinctive
high-pitched whistling calls. It followed flocks of
Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) and Red-
masked Parakeets (i, ,,,,i il,. .-. 'l ,', and was
regularly seen alone until 10 October 1992. On that
day, three other Senegal Parrots were present. We
believe this group consisted of a pair with their two
fledglings. Two birds were smaller in size, duller in
color, playful, and showed little flight coordination.
All four birds were seen sporadically for about a
month after the initial observation, after which three
disappeared. Until recently (March 2000), only one
individual had been observed around the campus, but


now it appears that a second Senegal parrot is in the
area (J. Fumero, pers. comm.). We are not sure if this
second bird is from the original group seen in 1992.
The Senegal Parrots have been seen eating the fruits
and seeds from casoa de Siam (Cassia siamea Lam.
[Fabaceae]) and the juicy pulp of mango (Mangifera
indica L. [Anacardiaceae]) fruit. The parrots roost
within the Monk Parakeet colony on the highest
branches of mahogany (Swietenia mahogany [L.]
Jacq. and Swietenia macrophylla G. King
[Meliaceae]) trees on the university campus. These
sightings likely represent rare escapees from captiv-
ity. Their native range is central-western Africa
(Foislus, 1977).
We observed three apparently different pairs of
Blue-crowned Parakeets (i,,l ri acuticaudata).
Our first record was on 9 December 1989 in the Cu-
pey area of San Juan, where a pair was seen flying.
The pair was attracted to Salguero-Faria's pet parrots
and seemed rather tame. They were seen for several
days until they were trapped by a neighbor and
traded to a local pet store. A second sighting oc-
curred near Vacia Talega in the Pifiones Forest Re-
serve on 11 November 1993. A pair of parakeets was
perched on top of white mangrove (Laguncularia
racemosa [Combretaceae]), where they remained for
approximately 17 min. Blue-crowned Parakeets were
seen for a third time near Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado
on 20 March 1994. Here, a pair was seen confidently
foraging on the ground on the opposite side of the
road from some local food establishments. As we got
closer, the pair went to a tree and after about 5 min
flew into the nearby forest. Because of the birds' in-
difference towards human presence, we believe these
were also escapees. The Blue-crowned Parakeet is


El Pitirre 13(2)


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NEW PSITTACINE RECORDS FOR PUERTO RTCO SALGUERO-FARiA AND ROIG-BACHS


native to eastern Colombia, northern Venezuela
(including Isla Margarita), south to Paraguay, Uru-
guay, and northern Argentina (Foislull 1977).
The Olive-throated Parakeet is native to Jamaica
and the Caribbean slope of southern Mexico and
Central America (FoisluI 1977, Raffaele et al.
1998), and it was recently reported in the Dominican
Republic (Raffaele et al. 1998). During late morning
on 11 April 1993, a pair of A. nana was observed
near the Natural Sciences building at the Rio Piedras
campus of the University of Puerto Rico. The pair
landed on a casuarina (Casuarina equisetifolia J. R.
& G. Forst. [Casuarinaceae]) tree and perched for a
few minutes while softly chattering. Then they began
to examine an arboreal termite nest for about 10 min,
after which they flew off. In their native range,
Olive-throated Parakeets breed from March to June
(FoislusI 1977, Raffaele et al. 1998). The pair has
not been seen thereafter and may have escaped from
captivity.
Several species of exotic psittacines have been re-
ported from the area of Tintillo, municipality of
Guaynabo, including Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara
ararauna), Umbrella Cockatoos (Cacatua alba), and
Canary-winged Parakeets (Brotogeris vesicolorus)
(P6rez-Rivera and V6lez 1980; P6rez-Rivera et al.
1985; P6rez-Rivera 1992, 1998). On one of our visits
to the area (17 December 1997), we counted 23 ma-
caws, one of which was a Green-winged Macaw
(Ara chloroptera). We believe it was a male because
of its rather massive head and bill. It had not pair-
bonded with any Blue-and-Yellow Macaws and
perched and flew alone at the edge of the flock. As
of December 1999, the Green-winged Macaw was
still alone and accompanying the Blue-and-Yellow
Macaw flock, sometimes wandering as far as Trujillo
Alto, east of Guaynabo. According to some Cupey
residents, earlier unconfirmed sightings were made
of a Green-winged Macaw from 1984 to 1986
(Mario L. Salguero, pers. comm.). Recently, a
Green-winged Macaw was seen flying near Cupey


on several occasions joined by several Blue-and-
Yellow Macaws (Mario L. Salguero, pers. comm.).
M. L. Salguero also saw both macaw species over
Old San Juan. It is likely that all sightings are of the
same individual, since the birds flew toward the Tin-
tillo area just before sundown. These Green-winged
Macaws are likely escaped pets. The native range of
the Green-winged Macaw is from eastern Panama to
northern Argentina, east of the Andes (FoisluI
1977).


LITERATURE CITED
BIAGGI, V. 1997. Las aves de Puerto Rico. 4th ed.
Editorial Universitaria. Universidad de Puerto
Rico, Rio Piedras.
FORSHAW, J. M. 1977. Parrots of the world. Nep-
tune, New Jersey: T.F.H. Publications.
PEREZ-RIVERA, R. A. 1992. Feral exotic Psittacifor-
mes from Puerto Rico. Ornitologia Caribefia 3:
30-34.
PEREZ-RIVERA, R. A. 1998. Cacatua alba Nuevo
informed para Puerto Rico. El Pitirre 11: 37.
PEREZ-RIVERA, R. A., G. COLON, W. Rios, AND W.
DE JESUS. 1985. Aspectos de la ecologia del peri-
quito de ala amarilla (Brotogeris versicolorus) en
Puerto Rico. Science-Ciencia 12:17-23.
PEREZ-RIVERA, R. A., AND M. J. VELEZ. 1980. La
proliferaci6n de Psittaciformes en Puerto Rico y
el problema que ellos representan. In VI Simposio
de Recursos Naturales. Puerto Rico Department
of Natural Resources, Puerto Rico.
RAFFAELE, H. A., AND C. B. KEPLER. 1992. Earliest
records of the recently introduced avifauna of
Puerto Rico. Ornitol. Caribefia 3:20-29.
RAFFAELE, H. A., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press.


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LISTADO DE LA AVIFAUNA ENDEMICA CUBANA EN LA
RESERVE NATURAL, MONTE IBERIA, CUBA


MIGUEL SUAREZ NUNEZ
Parque Nacional Alejandro de Humboldt, Baracoa, Guantinamo, Cuba

Resumen.-Se relaciona el listado de las aves endemicas que habitan las pluvisilvas de la Reserva Natural
Monte Iberia, en Baracoa, Guantanamo, Cuba. Se destacan las principles categories taxon6micas y la abun-
dancia de cada especie.
Abstract.-LIST OF THE ENDEMIC CUBAN AVIFAUNA OF MONTE IBERIA NATURAL RESERVE, CUBA. A total
of 12 species, representing 8 orders and 11 families, is reported from Monte Iberia Natural Reserve, Baracoa,
Guantanamo, Cuba.
Key words: Abundance, Cuba, endemic, status


INTRODUCTION
LA AVIFAUNA CUBANA ha sido estudiada desde
los siglos pasados por Gundlach, Bond, Barbour,
Garrido, Garcia y otros, teniendo en cuenta de forma
particular nuestras species end6micas cuyo period
de formaci6n data del Holoceno, segfin Vergara
(1988). El conocimiento de las aves end6micas pre-
sentes en esta Reserva Natural, inserta en la Reserva
de la Biosfera "Cuchillas del Toa" y zona nicleo del
Parque Nacional "Alejandro de Humboldt," puede
servir de base a especialistas para el desarrollo de
investigaciones que eleven a la instrumentaci6n de un
Plan de Manejo que contribuya al mantenimiento del
equilibrio de la avifauna present en los ecosistemas
estudiados. El objetivo de este trabajo es contribuir
al conocimiento de la avifauna end6mica de Monte
Iberia.

AREA DE STUDIO Y METODOS
Monte Iberia (740 m.s.n.m.) es un area boscosa,
con montafias formadas por un macisco de rocas ul-
trabisicas, cubierta por una espesa capa de lateritas
donde afloran las serpentinitas, alberga una vegeta-
ci6n y flora sui generis, destacindose la pluvisilva
submontana y el charrascal submontano (Reyes
1998), en sus laderas y mesetas crecen arboles como
Bonnetia cubensis (manglillo), Dipholis jubilla
(jubilla prieta), Calophyllum utile (ocuje colorado),
Tabebuia dubia (roble negro) y otros.
Este trabajo es fruto de site expediciones realiza-
das por el autor desde el afio 1991 hasta el afio 1999.
Sirve de apoyo important el inventario de aves rea-
lizado en 1998 por el especialista de BIOECO Fredy
Rodriguez Santana. Para la designaci6n de las espe-
cies end6micas se sigui6 el criterio de (American
Ornithologists' Union 1998).

RESULTADOS Y DISCUSSION
Los conteos realizados en el period comprendido


entire Julio de 1991 y 1999 permitieron registrar en
Monte Iberia un total de 39 species de aves, de ellas
12 end6micas cubanas correspondiente a 8 6rdenes y
9 families (Tabla 1). Llama la atenci6n que con un
area tan reducida del territorio cubano se haga nota-
ble la presencia de 12 de los 21 taxones end6micos
reconocidos para Cuba. Urge la necesidad de em-
prender studios ecol6gicos que permitan profundi-
zar en las caracteristicas de esta comunidad de aves
cubanas, que se desarrollan en un area no antropiza-
da, considerando uno de los bosques mis virgenes de
Cuba. Lo que sin duda redundard en la conservaci6n
de las riqueza avifaunistica cubana.

AGRADECIMIENTOS
Quiero agradecer a los guardabosques de la Esta-
ci6n Ecol6gica "Bahia de Taco," quienes dieron el
apoyo logistico necesario para la realizaci6n de los
trabajos de campo, facilitando la labor en la confec-
ci6n de este listado.

LITERATURE CITADA
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American Birds. 7th ed. Washington
DC: American Ornithologists' Union.
BOND, J. 1993. A field guide to birds of the West
Indies. Fifth ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Co.
GARRIDO, O. H. y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975. Ca-
tilogo de las aves de Cuba. La Habana: Academia
de Ciencias de Cuba.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y J.
RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West
Indies. New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press.
REYES, O. J. 1998. Clasificaci6n de la vegetaci6n de
la region oriental de Cuba (in6dito). BIOECO.
VERGARA, R. 1998. Relaciones biogeogrfficas de la
avifauna cubana. I. Biogeografia hist6rica. Cien-
cias Biol6gicas 19/20:51-61.


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AVIFAUNA ENDEMICA EN LA RESERVE NATURAL, MONTE IBERIA, CUBA SUAREZ N~UNEZ

Tabla 1. Especies end6micas de aves observadas en Monte Iberia, Baracoa, Cuba, 1991-1999.


Nombre


Orden y
Familia


Cientifico


Espafiol


Ingles


Falconiformes
Accipitridae
Psittaciformes
Psittacidae
Strigiformes
Strigidae

Apodiformes
Trochilidae
Trogoniformes
Trogonidae
Coraciformes
Todidae
Piciformes
Picidae

Passeriformes
Turdidae
Emberizidae


Accipiter gundlachi

Aratinga euops

Otus lawrencii
Glaucidium siju

Melisuga helenae

Priotelus temnurus

Todus multicolor

Xiphidiopicus percussus
Colaptes femandinae

Myadestes elisabeth
Teretistris fornsi
Dives atroviolacea


Gavilan Colilargo

Catey

Siju Catunto
Siju Platanero

Zunzuncito

Tocororo

Cartacuba

Carpintero Verde
Carpintero Churroso

Ruisefior
Pechero
Toti


Gundlach's Hawk

Cuban Parakeet

Cuban Screech-Owl
Cuban Pygmy-Owl

Bee Hummingbird

Cuban Trogon

Cuban Tody

Cuban Green Woodpecker
Femandina's Flicker

Cuban Solitaire
Oriente Warbler
Cuban Blackbird


C = Comun, R = Raro


FROM FLOYD HAYES

SOUTHEASTERN CARIBBEAN BIRD ALERT


The Southeastern Caribbean Bird Alert (SCBA), initiated in March 1998, is a weekly e-mail service whose
goals are to promote birding and ornithology in the southeastern Caribbean (Lesser Antilles, Trinidad and To-
bago) by fostering communication among resident and visiting birders regarding the study of birds in the re-
gion. Sponsored by the Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalists' Club (T&TFNC), the SCBA and further infor-
mation about the T&TFNC are accessible on the Internet at hup %%n \\\ wow.net/ttfnc. The SCBA typically
includes (1) reports of recent bird observations, (2) announcements of upcoming field trips, (3) ornithological
information and (4) information about the Trinidad and Tobago Rare Bird Committee. All past alerts are ar-
chived at the SCBA website. Free e-mail subscriptions are available upon request to Carol Ramjohn at aequid-
ens(@trinidad.net Other regions of the Caribbean are encouraged to establish their own bird alerts.


El Pitirre 13(2)


Abundancia1


Page 48












REGISTRO DE LOCALIDADES PARA LA YAGUAZA ANTILLANA
(DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) EN LA REGION CENTRO-ORIENTAL DE CUBA


CARLOS M. PENA', NILS NAVARRO2, ALEJANDRO FERNANDEZ', MANUEL GONZALEZ3 Y OSVALDO LAFFITA'
1Departamento de Recursos Naturales, CITMA, Holguin; 2Grupo Proambiente ENIA, Holguin, Cuba;
3Federaci6n Cubana de Caza, Holguin, Cuba

Resumen.-Se presentan las localidades y sus caracteristicas generals de habitat para la Yaguaza Antilla-
na (Dendrocygna arborea) en Cuba. Las press, los arrozales y los manglares son los habitats mas frecuenta-
dos, representando el 75% de las 60 localidades reportadas. El numero mas elevado de localidades se haya
en las provincias de relieve llano con abundantes cuerpos de agua interiores y arrozales, como Las Tunas y
Granma, pero especialmente Camagiiey (35% de todas las localidades).
Abstract.- RECORD OF LOCATIONS FOR THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL
CUBA. Locations and their general habitat characteristics are presented for the West Indian Whistling-Duck
(Dendrocygna arborea) in Cuba. Reservoirs, rice fields, and mangroves are the most frequented habitats
(75% of 60 reported localities). The highest number of localities is reported from lowland provinces with
abundant interior waters and rice fields, such as Las Tunas and Granma, but especially Camaguey (35% of
all localities).
Key words: Cuba, Dendrocygna arborea, distribution, habitat, status, West Indian Whistling-Duck


LAS POBLACIONES Y LOCALIDADES de la Yaguaza
Antillana (Dendrocygna arborea), especie exclusive
de las Antillas y que fue considerada en el pasado
como abundante, han disminuido en todo su rango de
distribuci6n, siendo considerada como especie rara
(IUCN Red Data Book), incluida en el ap6ndice II de
la Convenci6n sobre TrAfico Internacional de Espe-
cies Amenazadas de la Flora y la Fauna (CITES) y
registrada como vulnerable en toda el Area.
Debido al carActer montafioso de muchas islas de
la region, la mayoria de las localidades se reportan
para las zonas litorales. En Cuba el relieve se carac-
teriza por poseer un 75% de llanuras, 18% de monta-
flas y un 4% de humedales. Estas condiciones morfo-
16gicas del relieve, asi como la existencia de costas
bajas hacia el sur, facilitan la presencia en el paisaje
de lagunas interiores, humedales y el desarrollo de
embalses artificiales asi como el desarrollo de exten-
sas zonas de manglares y ci6nagas. Estos humedales
ocupan el 26% de las reserves forestales del pais y
son entire los mas extensos de la region del Caribe
antillano, favoreciendo la existencia de Areas poten-
ciales para el desarrollo de poblaciones de la Yagua-
za Antillana en comparaci6n con otras islas del Area
que se caracterizan por un relieve montafioso y, con-
secuentemente, un bajo porcentaje de aguas interio-
res.
La region de studio comprende las provincias
desde Camagiiey hasta GuantAnamo. Las mayores
poblaciones de la especie se encuentran en regions
predominantemente llanas, con habitats acuAticos
(costeros e interiores) como manglares, arroceras,


lagunas, lagunatos, press, canales, zonas pantanosas
y sabanas, entire otros. Las press, arroceras y man-
glares constituyen los habitats mis frecuentados y
comprenden el 75% del total de localidades registra-
das hasta el moment (N = 60). En muchos casos,
varias localidades se reportan para una misma Area
extensa.
En las provincias mis orientales con relieve mon-
tafioso, donde las aguas son drenadas hacia las costas
sin una acumulaci6n significant en tierra fire en la
forma de humedales, las poblaciones de la Yaguaza
son aisladas y numdricamente pequefias. Las provin-
cias con mayores concentraciones, consecuentemen-
te, son aqu6llas de relieve mis llano y con tierras
potencialmente utilizadas en el cultivo del arroz don-
de se han construido numerosos embalses y canales,
como Camagiiey, Las Tunas y Granma.
La provincia de Camagiiey cuenta con el mayor
nfimero de localidades (35%) en toda la region
(Tabla 1). En esta region se concentran las mayores
producciones arroceras y abunda el relieve llano y la
presencia de aguas interiores como embalses y cana-
les.
Para completar la informaci6n se encuestaron a
cazadores y campesinos con el apoyo de la Federa-
ci6n Cubana de Caza, obteni6ndose informaci6n de
60 localidades.
Este trabajo es resultado del plan de studio y con-
servaci6n de las poblaciones de Dendrocygna arbo-
rea auspiciado por el Grupo de Trabajo de la Yagua-
za Antillana (WIWD WG) de la Sociedad Ornitol6-
gica del Caribe.


El Pitirre 13(2)


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LA YAGUAZA ANTILLANA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) EN CENTRO-ORIENTAL, CUBA PETA


LITERATURE CITADA
BOND, J. 1993. Birds of the West Indies. 5thAmeri-
can ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975. Ca-
tilogo de las aves de Cuba. La Habana, Cuba:
Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.
OTTENWALDER, J. A. 1997. Situaci6n actual y con-
servaci6n de la Yaguaza Antillana (Dendrocygna
arborea) en la Repfiblica Dominicana. Pitirre 10


(1):2-10.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y J.
RAFFAELLE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West
Indies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univ.
Press.
VALES, M., A. CLARO, V. BEROVIDES, R. CAPOTE Y
H. GONZALES. 1992. Biodiversidad Cubana
(soporte digital). La Habana, Cuba: Museo Nacio-
nal Historia Natural.


Tabla 1. Registro de localidades de la Yaguaza Antillana ( Dendrocygna arborea) en la region centro-oriental de Cuba.
A = arroceras, P = press, M = manglares, C = canales, L = lagunas, R = rios, Cfi = caiaverales, Ci = ci6nagas, La
lagunatos, Ch = charcas.


Municipio


Vertientes




Florida

Sibanicu



Guaimaro
Najasa
Santa Cruz del Sur
Jimaguayui
Nuevitas


Jobabo


Puerto Padre
Chaparra

Cauto Cristo
Yara


Localidad


Perimetro de la ciudad de Camagiey
Presa Durano
Laguna de Guano
La Lima
Sierra Maestra
El Cenizo
El Congo
La Tomatera
La Costa
La Barbacoa
Presa Cubano-Bulgara
Mexico
Primelle
Cayo Confite
Najasa
Santa Cruz del Sur
Jimaguayui
Presa San Miguel
Nuevitas
Corojal
El Carmen
Santa Lucia
Sabalo
Birama (W)
Dormitorio
Presa de Emilia
Costa
Chaparra
La Herradura
Cauto Cristo
Las Caobas
La Sal
Veguita


El Pitirre 13(2)


Provincia


Camagiiey


Habitat


Las Tunas


La
P, Ch
L
A,P,M
A,P
A,P
A,P
A,P
M
Cfi, R, P
P
P
L
A,P,L, La
P, A, La
P,A
P
P
P
P
P
P
A,P,M
M,A
A
A,M.P
M
M
M,L
R,A,C
A,P
A,P
A,P


Granma


Page 50










LA YAGUAZA ANTILLANA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) EN CENTRO-ORIENTAL, CUBA PETA


Table 1. Registro de localidades de la Yaguaza Antillana en la region centro-oriental de Cuba (continued).


Provincia


Municipio


Rio Cauto





Manzanillo

San German


Holguin


Santiago de Cuba

Guantanamo


Cacocum
Rafael Freyre


Gibara
Mayari

Moa
Mella
Contramaestre
Niceto Perez


Localidad


Rio Cauto
Birama (E)
Cayo Grande
Arrocera Fernando Echenique
Babiney
Puente Guillen
Manzanillo
Cayo Grande
La Camilo
Vio Paso
Sainz
Yaguabo
Veinte Rosas
Granja Camilo Cienfuegos
Limoncito
Pesquero Nuevo
Playa Blanca
Bahia de Vita
Sierra de Cupeicillo
Presa de Nipe
Frank Pais
Moa
Baragua
Laguna Blanca
Niceto Perez
San Antonio del Sur
Paragiiay


El Pitirre 13(2)


Habitat


A, La
Ci
A
A
A
A
M
A, La, Ci
P,A,R
P,A,R
La
A, Cfi
A,R
A
P, A, Cfi
M
M
M
La
P
M,L
M
P
L
P, L, M
M
M


Page 51











SPECIAL REPORT


IMPACT OF AN UNDERGRADUATE COURSE IN ORNITHOLOGY ON THE
ATTITUDES OF WEST INDIAN STUDENTS TOWARD BIRDS


FLOYD E. HAYES
Department ofLife Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; and Department of
Biology, Caribbean Union College, PO Box 175, Port ofSpain, Trinidad and Tobago; e-mail:floyd hayes@hotmail. com


Abstract.-On six occasions from 1994-2000, I taught an undergraduate course in ornithology to 144 students
(mostly West Indian nationals) at Caribbean Union College in Trinidad. During the last two courses I used a ques-
tionnaire to assess the attitudes of 34 students toward birds, both at the beginning and end of the course. Students
were most interested in learning about the ecology and behavior of birds, and least interested in learning about their
origin and evolution. Their interest in watching and learning about birds and their interest in studying birds as a
hobby increased, though not significantly. Few students expressed an interest in studying birds for a career, though
three have studied birds for a master's degree. Academic achievement in the course was significantly correlated with
the overall attitude toward birds at the end of the course.
Resumen.-EL IMPACT DE UN CURSO EN LA ORNITOLOGIA EN LAS ACTITUDES DE ESTUDIANTES CARIBENOS
HACIA LAS AVES. En seis ocasiones desde 1994-2000, he dado cursos de ornitologia a 144 estudiantes (la mayoria
caribefios) en el Caribbean Union College de Trinidad. Durante los ultimos dos cursos yo utilic6 un cuestionario para
determinar el interns de 34 estudiantes hacia las aves, tanto al principio como al final del curso. Los estudiantes estu-
vieron mas interesados en aprender sobre la ecologia y el comportamiento de las aves, y menos interesados en cono-
cer sobre su origen y evoluci6n. Su interns en observer y aprender sobre las aves y su interns en estudiar las aves
como pasatiempo se increments, pero no significativamente. Pocos estudiantes expresaron interns en estudiar aves
como carrera, pero tres ya estudiaban aves para un obtener una maestria. El 6xito acad6mico en el curso estuvo rela-
cionado con el interns general hacia las aves al final del curso.
Key words: attitude, education, .... dil-/.1..- undergraduate course


INTRODUCTION
ALTHOUGH MANY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS in
North America regularly offer an undergraduate
course in ornithology (Burtt and Wilson 1999), to
my knowledge only one educational institution
within the English-speaking Caribbean has offered
such a course (Hayes 1997). On six occasions from
1994-2000, I taught an undergraduate course in orni-
thology for four quarter credits to West Indian stu-
dents studying for a Bachelor of Science degree in
biology (from Andrews University, Michigan) at
Caribbean Union College (CUC) in Maracas Valley,
Trinidad.
To evaluate the impact of my course on the atti-
tudes of students toward birds, I designed a question-
naire which I submitted to students taking my course
during 1998 and 2000 (Appendix 1). In this paper I
evaluate the responses of the students to the ques-
tionnaire and discuss the potential impact of an un-
dergraduate ornithology course in recruiting bird en-
thusiasts and ornithologists within the region.


METHODS
Curriculum.-Although the curriculum of my
course was briefly described earlier (Hayes 1997),


the lecture topics and laboratory assignments of my
most recent course are presented in Table 1. During
the last two courses (1998 and 2000) the students
participated in a greater variety of lab exercises than
in previous years (Hayes 1997). In addition to a lab
exercise devoted to capturing, processing and color


Table 1. Outline of lecture topics (some require two or
more lecture periods; two midterm exams are also given)
and laboratory exercises of my most recent courses (1998,
2000) in ornithology at Caribbean Union College.

LECTURE TOPICS: Introduction; Field methods: observing
birds; Field methods: trapping and banding; Field meth-
ods: survey techniques; Origin and evolution of birds;
Phylogeny; Classification: non-passerines; Classification:
passerines; Feathers; Flight; Physiology and the environ-
ment; Feeding adaptations; Demography; Biogeography;
Nervous system and visual communication; Vocaliza-
tions; Seasonal efforts, migration and navigation; Repro-
duction; Nests and incubation
LABORATORY EXERCISES: Field identification (campus);
Mist-netting, morphometrics and banding; Mockingbird
ecology and behavior (5 weeks; 1998 only); Independent
research project (5 weeks; 2000 only); Field trip (all day);
Analysis of results and writing of research report


El Pitirre 13(2)


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banding birds, students spent just one lab rather than
two identifying birds on the campus, did not conduct
a population survey using point counts, and instead
spent 2-3 lab exercises studying the biology of birds
on the campus at their own convenience. In 1998,
students were given structured projects for studying
a color-banded population of the Tropical Mocking-
bird (Mimus gilvus) on the campus; in 2000, students
selected their own research projects on other species
while working alone or in groups of up to three. For
the all-day field trip, we explored coastal sites where
we saw a greater diversity of birds than we did dur-
ing previous trips to the Asa Wright Nature Centre.
Student backgrounds.-The questionnaire (see
Appendix 1) inquired whether each student: (1) was
from a country in "the West Indies" or "outside the
West Indies"; (2) was interested in pursuing a career
in "medical sciences," "environmental sciences" or
"primary or secondary school teaching"; and (3) had
previously "participated in an ornithological research
project" with me, either in Trinidad or Tobago.
Attitudes toward birds.-The questionnaire in-
quired whether each student was "most interested in
learning about the": (1) "origin and evolution of
birds"; (2) "anatomy and physiology of birds"; (3)
"identification and classification of birds"; and (4)
"ecology and behavior of birds." The questionnaire
asked each student to rate the following statements
on a scale of 1 (no) to 5 (yes): (1) "I like birds"; (2)
"I enjoy watching and learning about birds"; (3) "I
am interested in preserving the habitat of birds"; (4)
"I am interested in studying birds as a hobby"; and
(5) "I am interested in studying birds for a career."
Overall attitudes for each student were computed by
summing all five scores.
To assess changes in attitudes resulting from the
course, the questionnaire was filled out by each stu-
dent at the beginning of the course and a second
time, without access to their previous responses, af-
ter the final exam was taken at the end of the course.
At the end of the course in 2000, students were fur-
ther asked whether they preferred "conducting an
independent research project" or "conducting a struc-
tured, supervised research project"; overall attitude
at the end of the course was compared between the
two groups. To test whether academic achievement
in the course was correlated with overall attitude to-
ward birds, I compared the final percentage upon
which grades were based for each student with over-
all attitude at the end of the course.
Statistical analysis.-Mann-Whitney U tests (z
statistic; Zar 1984) were used to evaluate whether
there were any significant differences in the re-


IMPACT OF AN ORNITHOLOGY COURSE FLOYD E. HAYES

sponses of students before and after the course and to
compare the overall attitudes of students preferring
to conduct an independent or structured research pro-
ject. A Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs sta-
tistic; Zar 1984) was computed to assess the relation-
ship between academic achievement and overall atti-
tude. The data were analyzed using Statistix 3.1 soft-
ware (Anonymous 1990).

RESULTS
Student backgrounds.-From 1994-2000, 144 stu-
dents took my course; all but one passed, though four
with a "D" grade. Of 37 students enrolled in the
course during 1998 and 2000, all of whom passed,
34 (91.9%) satisfactorily filled out both question-
naires. Of these, 30 (88.2%) were nationals from
West Indian countries (three were from North Amer-
ica and one from Africa). Roughly two-thirds of the
students (64.7%) expressed an interest in pursuing a
career in the medical sciences; the remaining stu-
dents expressed an interest in pursuing a career in the
environmental sciences (20.6%), teaching primary or
secondary school (5.9%), either medical or environ-
mental sciences (2.9%), either environmental sci-
ences or teaching primary or secondary school
(2.9%), or none of the above (2.9%). Roughly a third
of the students (32.4%) had previously assisted me
with ornithological research (usually for credit in
another course) in Trinidad or Tobago; the remaining
students had no previous experience in ornithological
research.
Attitudes toward birds.-Students were most inter-
ested in learning about the ecology and behavior of
birds, followed by the identification and classifica-
tion of birds (Table 2). The anatomy and physiology
of birds was less appealing and students were least
interested in learning about the origin and evolution
of birds (Table 2). Because several students listed
more than one subject that they were "most inter-
ested in learning about," especially before the course


Table 2. Frequency of responses by West Indian under-
graduate students (N = 34) to the statement "I am most
interested in learning about...." Note that several students
listed more than one subject, especially before the course.


Subjects Before After

"Origin and evolution of birds" 2 2
"Anatomy and physiology of birds" 10 3
"Identification and classification of birds" 12 9
"Ecology and behavior of birds" 21 22


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IMPACT OF AN ORNITHOLOGY COURSE FLOYD E. HAYES


Table 3. Responses of West Indian undergraduate students (N = 34) on a scale of 1 (no) to 5 (yes) to state-
ments before and after taking a course in ornithology.


Statement


"I like birds""
before
after
"I enjoy watching and learning about birds"b
before
after
"I am interested in preserving the habitat of birds"c
before
after
"I am interested in studying birds as a hobby"d
before
after
"I am interested in studying birds as a career"'
before
after
Overall attitude (sum of scores)f
before
after


z = 0.07, P 0.94
bz = 1.80, P 0.07
z =0.49, P 0.62


Mean


4.24
4.21

3.79
4.21

4.32
4.29

2.91
3.35

1.79
2.03

17.06
17.97


SD Range


2-5
2-5

1-5
1-5

1-5
2-5

1-5
1-5

1-5
1-4

6-24
7-24


dz= 1.31,P 0.19
ez= 1.12, P= 0.26
S= 0.97, P 0.33


than afterward, I did not subject the data to statistical
analysis. However, students appeared to have lost
interest in the anatomy and physiology of birds
(Table 2).
Students consistently responded that they liked
birds and were strongly interested in preserving the
habitat of birds; there were no significant changes in
attitude either before or after the course (Table 3).
By the end of the course, students enjoyed watching
and learning about birds nearly significantly more
than they did at the beginning of the course (Table
3). Students expressed a fair interest in studying
birds as a hobby, which improved by the end of the
course, though not quite significantly (Table 3).
Relatively few students were interesting in studying
birds as a career, though there was a slight but non-
significant increase of interest by the end of the
course (Table 3). Overall attitudes improved slightly
but not significantly by the end of the course (Table
3).
Students completing the course in 2000 were
equally divided over whether they preferred to con-
duct an independent research project (50%, n = 16)
or a structured, supervised research project. Overall
attitudes did not differ significantly between the two


groups (z = 1.16, P = 0.25). Academic achievement
in the course was significantly correlated with the
overall attitude toward birds (r, = 0.40, P = 0.02).


DIscusSIoN
Burtt and Wilson (1999) analyzed the course con-
tent of undergraduate ornithology courses in North
America and listed the most successful and least suc-
cessful parts of courses based on comments provided
by instructors. However, no direct feedback was pro-
vided by students in their study (though this should
be incorporated by future studies). West Indian stu-
dents were clearly more interested in learning about
the ecological and behavioral adaptations of birds
than their anatomy and physiology; this was consis-
tent with the responses of North American instruc-
tors to the most successful and least successful parts
of their course (Burtt and Wilson 1999). Burtt and
Wilson (1999) also listed systematics among the
least successful parts of ornithology courses. Al-
though West Indian students expressed a relatively
strong interest in "identification and classification of
birds," based on my subjective observations they
were far more interested in identification than classi-
fication. Student feedback should be important in


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 54











designing the content of an ornithology course,
which could represent a tradeoff between what stu-
dents find most interesting after completing the
course and what the instructor feels is necessary to
understand the subject.
In 1998, a multinational group of participants at a
Society of Caribbean Ornithology workshop con-
cluded that "environmental education and public out-
reach" should be the society's first avian conserva-
tion priority (Walker 1998). Furthermore, Walker
(1998:77) stated that "The region is in need of more
ornithologists and therefore courses in ornithology,
conservation biology, and ecology should be consid-
ered in the curricula of West Indian universities."
Courses in conservation biology and ecology have
indeed been incorporated into the curricula of the
University of the West Indies (UWI) campuses, but
regrettably a course in ornithology has not (and is
unlikely to be introduced any time soon). This study
demonstrates that West Indian students generally
have a strong appreciation of birds and a desire to
preserve bird habitats, and that their interests in
watching, studying and learning about birds can po-
tentially be increased through an undergraduate
course in ornithology.
Can an undergraduate course in ornithology recruit
more bird enthusiasts and ornithologists within the
region? Several of my students developed a serious
interest in birds, though their interests were piqued in
part by lab exercises in other courses, on-campus
research projects, field trips and research expeditions
to other parts of Trinidad and Tobago during their
undergraduate tenure at CUC. A few students devel-
oped into fairly serious birders who have subse-
quently submitted reports of birds from St. Croix,
Trinidad and Tobago to the weekly Southeastern
Caribbean Bird Alert (Trinidad and Tobago Field
Naturalists' Club 2000). Of 107 students who com-
pleted my course in ornithology from 1994-1997, at
least three (2.8%) have studied birds for a master's
degree in American universities. Comparative data
from beyond the region are lacking. That these stu-
dents chose to continue their studies outside the re-
gion suggests that West Indian universities need to
become more competitive in attracting graduate stu-
dents. It remains uncertain whether these students
will ultimately return to the region.
That few West Indian students expressed a strong
interest in studying birds for a career likely reflects
the perceived lack of employment opportunities
within the region. However, bird enthusiasts and or-


IMPACT OF AN ORNITHOLOGY COURSE FLOYD E. HAYES

nithologists should benefit from increased opportuni-
ties for employment resulting from regional in-
creases in ecotourism, the expansion of tertiary edu-
cation (both new and established institutions), and
the proliferation of environmental legislation requir-
ing environmental impact assessments of develop-
ment projects.
The major goals of an ornithology course should
simply be to engender an appreciation of birds and to
nurture an awareness of environmental issues.
Clearly the more students receiving advanced train-
ing in ornithology the more allies we will have
among the next generation of leaders in future politi-
cal battles over environmental issues that ultimately
will decide the fate of West Indian birds.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study could not have been achieved without
the cooperation of students who participated in this
study and the administrators of Caribbean Union
College who allowed me to teach a course in orni-
thology. Binoculars and a field guide were gener-
ously donated by North American birders via B. Pe-
tersen of the Manomet Observatory for Conservation
Sciences Birders' Exchange. N. Nathai-Gyan of the
Forestry Division provided permits for capturing and
banding birds. R. Lee-Quay provided affordable
transportation during field trips. I thank E. H. Burtt,
Jr., for reviewing the manuscript.


LITERATURE CITED
ANONYMOUS. 1990. Statistix manual. Analytical
Software, St. Paul, Minnesota. 280 pp.
BURTT, E. H., JR., AND W. H. WILSON, JR. 1999. A
survey of undergraduate ornithology courses in
North America. Wilson Bull. 111:287-293.
HAYES, F. E. 1997. Ornithological education and
research at Caribbean Union College, Trinidad.
Pitirre 10:17-18.
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO FIELD NATURALISTS'
CLUB. 2000. Southeastern Caribbean Bird Alert.
http://www.wow.net/ttfnc/rarebird.html
WALKER, M. 1998. Avian conservation priorities for
the Caribbean region and priorities for the Society
of Caribbean Ornithology. Pitirre 11:76-79.
ZAR, J. H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. 2nd ed.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc..


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IMPACT OF AN ORNITHOLOGY COURSE FLOYD E. HAYES


APPENDIX 1. Questionnaire used for my ornithology course, modified slightly by excluding a list of environmental courses
taken at Caribbean Union College (not analyzed in this paper).

The following questionnaire is designed to evaluate the impact of a tertiary level ornithology class on student attitudes
toward the environment in general and birds in particular. The questionnaire will be given at the beginning and at the end
of the course. The results of the questionnaire will be anonymous and will NOT influence your final grade. However, to
compare scores before and after the class, you must provide your student number.

A. My student identification number is:

B. I am from a country in:
1. the West Indies
2. outside of the West Indies

C. I have participated in an ornithological research project under the supervision of a professor for the following amount
of time:
1. never
2. 0-1 weeks
3. 1-2 weeks
4. more than 2 weeks

D. I am interested in pursuing a career in:
1. medical sciences
2. environmental sciences
3. primary or secondary school teaching

E. I am most interested in learning about the:
1. origin and evolution of birds
2. anatomy and physiology of birds
3. identification and classification of birds
4. ecology and behavior of birds

On a scale of 1-5, please circle the appropriate number for the statements below:
NO--------------------- ---------------YES
F. I like birds. 1 2 3 4 5
G. I enjoy watching and leading about birds. 1 2 3 4 5
H. I am interested in preserving the habitats of birds. 1 2 3 4 5
I. I am interested in studying birds as a hobby. 1 2 3 4 5
J. I am interested in studying birds for a career. 1 2 3 4 5


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WORKING GROUP REPORT


UPDATE ON THE "WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK (WIWD) AND WETLANDS CONSERVATION
PROJECT" REPORT FROM THE WIWD WORKING GROUP

LISA G. SORENSON1 AND PATRICIA BRADLEY2
'Dept. oJ I .-I/..- 5 Cummington St., Boston University, Boston, A4 USA 02215; e-mail: isoren@bio.bu.edu
i U. Box 907 GT, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, BWI, e-mail: pebrad@candw.ky


THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING
GROUP (WIWD-WG) held its fourth meeting on 6
August 1999 at the Society of Caribbean Ornithol-
ogy's annual meeting in Santo Domingo, Dominican
Republic. For the past 4 years, the group has been
working to reverse the decline of the endangered
whistling-duck, a Caribbean endemic, and to make it
a "flagship" for wetlands conservation in the region.
As part of our region-wide Public Education and
Awareness Program we have developed and distrib-
uted several educational tools on the duck and the
importance of wetlands in general. We also conduct
workshops for natural resource agencies and school-
teachers on the use of our materials and are now in
the final stages of preparing a wetlands education
workbook for schoolchildren of all ages. The WG
also provides training to regional biologists in water-
fowl population survey and monitoring techniques
and has awarded funds to individuals in several is-
lands for surveys of WIWD populations and identifi-
cation of important wetland habitats for protection.
A second grant proposal submitted to the US Fish
and Wildlife Service Western Hemisphere Program
for continued support of the WIWD and Wetlands
Conservation Project was awarded funding in the
spring of 1999. These new funds have enabled us to
continue making progress on our project objectives.
We also gratefully acknowledge support we have
received from Ducks Unlimited Canada, Conserva-
tion International Bahamas, and the American Bird
Conservancy. Finally, we thank the Royal Society
for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) for providing
travel funds for all the UK Overseas Territories dele-
gates (Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands, Cayman Islands, and Montserrat) to
attend the SCO meeting, as well as contributing to
the WIWD and Wetlands Education Workshop.
Co-chairs Lisa Sorenson and Patricia Bradley gave
updates at the Santo Domingo meeting on new mate-
rials that have been developed for the Public Educa-
tion and Awareness Program, and WIWD-WG Is-


land Representatives reported on progress in public
education and monitoring of WIWDs in their coun-
tries. As evidenced from the Island Representative
reports, several islands are doing a phenomenal job
with our education program. Here, we provide a
summary of the Working Group's activities and ac-
complishments in 1999 and our plans and objectives
for 2000.

PUBLIC EDUCATION AND AWARENESS PROGRAM
"Ducks of the West Indies" Hunter Identification
Card.-Using illustrations from A guide to the birds
of the West Indies (Raffaele et al. 1998, Princeton
Univ. Press), graphic artists at Ducks Unlimited's
Oak Hammock Marsh assisted us in the design of
this beautiful and durable plastic identification card
for hunters and birders. The front side of the card
shows 12 resident and migratory species on the water
or in a standing posture; the back side shows them in
flight. Sticky colored dots can be added to the card to
indicate protected and threatened species on each
island. Two thousand cards were published in Au-
gust 1999 and an initial supply was provided to
WIWD Working Group Island Representatives who
are responsible for distributing them in their coun-
tries. The cards will be used in hunter education pro-
grams and distributed to hunting clubs and sporting
good stores. Our hope is that use of the identification
card by hunters will reduce accidental shooting of
the WIWD and other protected duck species.
WIWD Conservation Button.-Both English and
Spanish versions (1000 each) of a WIWD conserva-
tion button were produced in August 1999. Depicted
on the button is an elegant WIWD with the following
caption overlaid in yellow print: "Keep the Whistlers
whistling!" (English version) and "Yo (heart symbol)
Yaguaza!" (Spanish version). These buttons are be-
ing distributed as part of our Public Education and
Awareness Program and are especially popular with
schoolchildren.


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WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP REPORT SORENSON AND BRADLEY


Wondrous Wetlands of the WestIndies.-A second
draft of our wetlands education resource book for
teachers and educators has been completed by Mar-
tin Keeley in the Cayman Islands and the workbook
has undergone initial editing and review by a profes-
sional editor. A team of WG members and teachers
is now conducting a thorough review of the work-
book's contents and making final revisions. When
completed, the workbook will be sent to the Royal
Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) in the UK
for assistance with design, layout, and final editing.
USFWS Partners-in-Flight Program will fund the
translation into Spanish and contribute towards pub-
lication costs of the Spanish version of the work-
book.
The goals of the workbook are to teach schoolchil-
dren of all ages about Caribbean wetland ecology
and the many values and functions of local wetlands,
and to instill in them a strong wetland conservation
ethic. The workbook emphasizes learning about Car-
ibbean wetlands both in the classroom and in the
field and is divided into six chapters with the follow-
ing titles: (1) Wet and Muddy: What and Where are
the Wetlands?, (2) Wild and Wet: What Lives in
Wetlands?, (3) Wetlands, not Wastelands: Why are
Wetlands Important?, (4) Going, Going, Gone: What
is Happening to Wetlands?, (5) Save the Wetlands-
Save the World: What You Can Do, (6) Seeing for
Yourself: How to Organize a Wetland Field Trip.
Each chapter contains background information and
many classroom activities designed to reinforce
learning of the concepts presented in the chapter.
Other materials available.-Other educational
tools we have available include a slide show for the
general public, hunters, and secondary-age students;
a puppet show ("Wetlands are Wild") and WIWD
coloring book for primary-age students; and color
posters promoting the conservation of the WIWD
(for more information on these materials see El
Pitirre 11[1]:19-22 and El Pitirre 11[3]:126-131).
We conduct workshops for natural resource agencies
and schoolteachers on the use of our materials.
Please contact Lisa Sorenson or Patricia Bradley for
information on holding a workshop in your country
or to receive copies of our materials.
WIWD and Wetlands Education Workshop.-The
WIWD Working Group sponsored a WIWD and
Wetlands Education Workshop at ZooDom, Parque
Zoologico Nacional in Santo Domingo on 29 July
1999. The Workshop was attended by 45 people, in-
cluding local educators and representatives from sev-
eral islands. The workshop was successful in raising
local awareness about the WIWD and the importance


of wetlands conservation. Kate Wallace arranged for
the writing and performance (at the Workshop) by
professional puppeteers of an artistic and dramatic
"Dominican" version of our "Wetlands are Wild"
Puppet Show. Martin Keeley led the participants in
several hands-on demonstrations and activities (from
our workbook), all designed to teach students about
some aspect of wetlands. All attendees participated
with great enthusiasm and interest. One highlight
occurred towards the end of the day when the group
split up and had the opportunity to show off their
talents and creativity both in art and music. Within
about 45 minutes time, a beautiful wetland mural
was created and several songs about the WIWD and
wetlands conservation were composed and per-
formed. We include the lyrics to one of the songs
here; they are not copyrighted so feel free to use
them in your own education programs!

WETLAND RAP SONG
("spoken" with a strong rap beat)
Composed by Ijahnya Christian, Suzanne Davies,
Ethlyn Gibbs-Williams, Jim Stevenson, and Lisa
Sorenson

Verse 1: They call me a swamp
'Cause I'm wet and I'm damp
But I'm food, clothes and shelter
And I make life better
For without me and my mangrove tree
I really don't know where this island would be
Chorus: Iprotect the land
And Iprotect the sea
I'm a wetland
I'm a wetland
Verse 2: Black, white, buttonwood,
Walking roots red
Don' build that hotel or we'll all be dead
I'm a very special tree 'cause I grow in the sea
The West Indian Whistling-Duck depends on
me (chorus)
Verse 3: He's the home of the birds
Let me tell you
Ifyou don't know their names
Then here are afew
Scar-let I-bis, Flamingo too
Frigate "Mlan-o'-War:
(I'm not talking' 'bout the zoo)
There's the Pelican
And the Whistling-Duck
And the Tropic Bird
You can see them all with luck! (chorus)
Verse 4: Wetlands are good
We're the home of the duck
We protect you from storms when you run out
of luck


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WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP REPORT SORENSON AND BRADLEY


Groupers, crabs, snail, mosquitoes, and the
heron,
Ifyou take away our homes, your lives will be
barren (chorus)
Verse 5: The osprey eat the fish
The fish eat the crab
The crab eat the snail
And the snail eat the mud
It's afood chain
It's afood chain (chorus)

WIWD AND WETLANDS EDUCATION
ISLAND REPORTS
Bahamas.-Thanks to the hard work of Lynn
Gape, Monique Clark, and other staff of the Baha-
mas National Trust (BNT), over 5000 schoolchildren
and residents throughout the Bahamas (New Provi-
dence, Grand Bahama, Inagua, Eleuthera and Abaco)
have seen our WIWD slide show and Wetlands are
Wild Puppet Show in presentations at schools, public
meetings, and teacher workshops. The WIWD Pro-
ject has also been well-publicized in local newspa-
pers, with articles featuring student essays about wet-
lands, written after they had seen the puppet show or
slide show. Lynn and her staff have also been re-
sponsible for putting together and shipping the pup-
pet show kits. To date, 25 kits have been distributed
to 11 countries. The BNT staff and several local
schoolteachers have worked closely with us on the
writing of the wetlands workbook and kindly hosted
a workshop for the principal authors in April 1999 at
the Trust headquarters in Nassau.
Cayman Islands.-Wetlands educator, Martin
Keeley, has been coordinating the Public Education
and Awareness Program in the Cayman Islands with
great energy and success. He has traveled to all three
islands to give presentations on WIWD and wetlands
conservation to schools, youth groups, church
groups, and service organizations. He has also held
teacher workshops on the use of our materials. Virtu-
ally all citizens on Cayman Brac have been exposed
to the WIWD and wetland programs and Martin has
received approval from the Ministry of Education
Science Coordinator to integrate our WIWD and
wetlands education material into the school curricu-
lum. Together with Martin, the youth of the Cayman
Islands Junior National Trust built a WIWD puppet
theater and have given several performances of the
puppet show. Other activities included an article on
the WIWD project in the popular press and a TV
show featuring a restored wetland on a local farm,
home to several hundred WIWDs and our first
Watchable Wildlife Pond.
The Watchable Wildlife Pond at Malportas Pond


has been completed; contractors donated the building
materials and a viewing area was constructed and
landscaped by Rotary International, which also pro-
vided labor. The West Pond is frequently viewed by
tourists, local people, and school and tour groups. An
interpretive sign will also be added. Up to 600 ducks
are often present along with up to 400 Blue-winged
Teal and 15 species of waterbirds (ducks, rails, her-
ons and waders).
Patricia Bradley presented a poster about our
WIWD and Wetlands Conservation Project at the
2000 American Ornithologists' Union meeting in
Nova Scotia. She reports that it generated a lot of
interest and positive feedback. She also gave a pres-
entation on our project at the UK Overseas Territory
meeting in Gibralter (funded by RSPB).
Turks and Caicos Islands.-Ethlyn Gibbs-
Williams of the National Trust for Turks and Caicos
Islands has initiated an excellent education program
in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). She reported
that WIWD materials had been incorporated into a
nation-wide environmental education and awareness
campaign called "Our land, our sea, our people."
Ethlyn distributed 75 WIWD posters to businesses,
schools, and public places on the main island. She
made WIWD slide presentations to four schools and
one community group including 392 adults and chil-
dren. Ethlyn noted that the campaign has undoubt-
edly made an impact on the population. The Trust
has received numerous requests from businesses,
offices, individuals, and schools for more WIWD
posters and coloring books. Headteachers and staff
have requested school visits featuring the WIWD
slide show and other TCI birds. A press release, is-
sued to request information on WIWD sightings,
generated many responses. Finally, the Education
Department has incorporated questions about the
WIWD in the General Paper Country 1999 Primary
Schools Grade 6 Achievement Test. The Trust is
gearing up for more public awareness activities in
cooperation with the Coastal Resources Management
Project National Parks Office and is planning to hire
additional staff to assist with the campaign.
Cuba.-A network of collaborators and institu-
tions in six provinces has been doing an amazing job
of implementing our education program (see Mugica
et al. 1999, "Implementation of an environmental
plan for the WIWD in Cuban schools," El Pitirre 12
[3]:113). Participating institutions include the Museo
de Historia Natural "Felipe Poey", Universidad de
La Habana (Leader), Zoologico de La Habana, Fac-
ultad de Biologia (Universidad de La Habana),
Museo Nacional de Historia de Ciencia de Cuba (La


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WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP REPORT SORENSON AND BRADLEY


Habana), Institute of Tropical Geography (La Ha-
bana), Empresa Nacional para la Conservaci6n de la
Fauna y la Flora (Granma and Villia Clara), Museo
de Historia Natural "Carlos de la Torre" (Holguin),
Pedagogical Institute "Carlos de la Torre (Santiago
de Cuba), and CITMA (Cidnaga de Zapata, Matan-
zas). Lourdes Mugica reported that the program
started with two training workshops on the use of the
materials, one at the Havana Zoo with biologists (24
persons) from the Protected Areas all over the coun-
try and educators (3) from the Zoologico de La Ha-
bana; and the other at the Universidad de La Habana
for professionals and undergraduate students work-
ing on the campaign in La Habana. Once trained,
these collaborators gave talks and slide shows to Cu-
ban schoolchildren, the general public, educators,
museums, zoos, hunting groups, and natural resource
personnel throughout the country. In total, the pack-
age has been used with 159 audiences and 4485 peo-
ple. A highlight of the program was the dedication of
the month of March at the Zoo to the WIWD and
aquatic birds. Activities included slide shows; talks;
and contests of painting, poetry, songs, ceramics, and
stories related to the WIWD; and culminated with a
one-day festival with many different activities for the
children and an exhibition of the best works. Lourdes
found that environmental awareness was indeed
raised through the program; statistical analysis of a
questionnaire given to the students both before and
after the presentation showed that children knew
substantially more about the WIWD and importance
of wetlands following their exposure to the materials.
Nidia Garcia Sarmiento of the Pedagogical Uni-
versity led the program in Santiago de Cuba prov-
ince. The University worked in 65 primary and sec-
ondary schools in two municipalities. The program
started with a course on environmental education
given to 25 and 28 educators in each municipality.
These educators then organized the activities in their
local schools. Activities included: slide shows, work-
shops (3) on the biodiversity and environmental
problems of each locality and the relations between
the community and school, a festival for the protec-
tion of the WIWD in each school, and a final festival
at the municipality with the best results on display
from each school. About 2000 children were in-
volved in the program and the results were presented
at an international symposium (Pedagogia '99). The
slide show was also presented to several community
groups and conferences.
Orestes Martinez is working in the Cidnaga de Za-
pata area (Matanzas) which is surrounded by 12
communities. Formerly, no environmental education
programs existed in this area. Orestes presented the


slide show to each community and found that it was
very well received. The International Crane Founda-
tion funds an annual crane festival in the area and
has produced a publication. He would like to plan a
similar festival for WIWDs.
Jamaica.-Suzanne Davis reported that although
she and Leo Douglas (educators with Birdlife Ja-
maica) had been studying abroad during much of the
past year, they did manage to promote WIWD and
wetlands conservation through several activities.
These included publication of an article on the
WIWD in collaboration with the Natural History So-
ciety of Jamaica in a children's newspaper, Chil-
dren's' Own, a presentation to 33 people at a sum-
mer youth camp, and presentation of five posters to
the Natural History Society of Jamaica. Slide pack-
ages were given to the Jamaica Conservation and
Development Trust and St. Thomas Environmental
Protection Agency. Ann Sutton has been a major
contributor to our wetlands workbook project; her
writing skills and creativity have been a tremendous
asset as we complete this project.
Dominican Republic.-Because of the demands of
planning for the SCO conference and WIWD and
Wetlands Workshop at the Zoo, Kate Wallace was
not able carry out many WIWD education activities.
She did arrange for the development of the
"Dominican" puppet show that was performed at the
Workshop; the text is available in Spanish. She also
reports that Domingo Siri found a pond that could be
developed as a Watchable Wildlife Pond in Santo
Domingo.

SURVEY AND MONITORING OF WIWDs
ISLAND REPORTS
Jamaica.-Ann Sutton has continued her research
into the distribution and status of WIWDs in the
Black River Morass, the most important and most
accessible habitats for WIWDs in Jamaica. She has
completed a final report of her findings for the
WIWD-WG. She estimates a population of around
100 individuals in the Upper Morass and 15-20 indi-
viduals in the Lower Morass. The habitat data sug-
gest that ducks occur where there is a combination of
open water, trees, and herbaceous marsh (preferably
including reed beds). Threats to the Black River
habitat include conversion of wetlands for agricul-
ture, pest control operations at fish farms, and devel-
opment of housing and resorts in the Parottee area.
Another potential threat is the opening of a hunting
season for migratory ducks, for which Jamaican
hunters continue to lobby. Working with the Game
Bird Research Committee, Ann (together with Dr.


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WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP REPORT SORENSON AND BRADLEY


Peter Vogel) has attempted to ensure that the deci-
sion about whether to hunt was made based on the
best possible information and she advocated more
research on status of the resource and habitat use be-
fore a decision was made. Not all actual or potential
WIWD habitats have been zoned and the extent to
which existing no-hunting areas cover WIWD habi-
tats in the Black River is not known. Ann states that
shooting in any part of the Black River area would
likely be detrimental to WIWDs.
Ann has also focused on mapping and zoning of
habitat in the Upper Morass, using aerial photo-
graphs obtained from the Natural Resources Conser-
vation Authority (NRCA). These have been incorpo-
rated into a Draft Management Plan for the Black
River Managed Resource Protected Area, St. Eliza-
beth, Jamaica, a report prepared by A. Massa and A.
Haynes-Sutton (1999) for the NRCA. Included in
this plan were: a species action sheet for WIWDs,
recommendations for management and rehabilitation
of key habitats, including swamp forests, freshwater
wetlands and mangroves, recommendations for
monitoring and research, and management recom-
mendations for specific areas of importance for
WIWDs. The recent nomination and acceptance of
Black River Lower Morass as a Ramsar site
(effective 7 February 1998) highlights the need for
active conservation of the threatened and endangered
waterfowl of the area.
Turks and Caicos Islands.-Ethlyn Gibbs-
Williams (TCI National Trust) and Geoff Hilton
(RSPB) reported on a major survey of WIWDs
funded by RSPB and the Wildfowl and Wetlands
Trust as part of their support of the TCI National
Trust and WIWD-WG. A three-man team (including
Geoff) from the UK conducted the survey over a 6
week period (23 February 5 April 1999) with the
objective of determining whether WIWDs are resi-
dent there. Literature research had revealed only one
published breeding record for the WIWD in the TCI.
The 1992 Red Data Book-Threatened Birds of the
Americas lists five other records of flocks of WIWD
on the TCI. Later records of sightings include Mid-
dle Caicos Bird List compiled 2-8 December 1997
by Marsha Walsh-McGehee (Island Conservation
Effort) and UK Overseas Territories Conservation
Forum scientists, 27 and 30 October 1998 (several
broods sighted by P. Bradley).
A secondary objective was to assess survey meth-
ods. The team used a variety of methods, including
casual visits, interviews with local residents, play-
back, watching flight patterns, aerial surveys, tran-
sects through potential roosting sites, and standing


on potential flight lines at dusk. A press release to
the media gave information about the threatened
duck and appealed for support and cooperation from
the public. Flyers and remaining posters of the
WIWD were placed in public places.
The team visited coastal wetlands and inland
ponds and lakes on Providenciales, Middle, North,
and West Caicos. A systematic and repeatable survey
method was adopted. Each survey site was visited
once to determine where access was best for three
people to oversee as much of the site as possible.
The site was then visited for at least two hours either
at dawn or dusk. A tape recording of WIWD calls
was played to encourage any ducks present to re-
spond. At all sites a detailed count was made of wet-
land birds seen and any other birds of conservation
interest. Transects through potential roosting sites
were also attempted but this was slow because of the
dense scrub and mangrove vegetation and it was im-
possible to cover enough ground with this method. In
the absence of suggestions about possible flight lines
at dusk, it was difficult to determine where to stand
to observe ducks. Because of an unusually intense
drought during the survey period (rains are usually
February-April), many of the ponds were dry. Other
ponds and lagoons fed by underground spring were
inaccessible because local guides were unable to re-
call accurate directions.
Over 43 sites were visited. In addition, a two-hour
aerial survey by light aircraft of Middle and East
Caicos to ascertain whether ducks could be identified
from air was undertaken before ground visits. The
aerial survey showed an abundance of apparently
suitable habitat, but no birds were seen. Geoff noted
that aerial surveys to find and count WIWDs were
useful only if they were conducted in daylight and
the birds were on open water (not a likely situation
because WIWDs are nocturnal and typically roost in
dense vegetation during daylight hours). A limited
amount of time was spent in boats surveying man-
grove swamps on North and Middle Caicos. Only
one site, Jacksonville Pond on East Caicos, revealed
any WIWDs. Four individuals were counted on two
lagoons. Observations were made at dawn and dusk,
and the team found that the birds did respond to the
taped WIWD calls.
The team concluded that more WIWDs may use
TCI's wetlands, but had perhaps moved elsewhere
because of the drought. They recommended the sur-
veys be repeated when conditions were more favor-
able. L. Sorenson commented that White-cheeked
Pintails move around depending on wetland condi-
tions and can be difficult to see during periods of


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WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP REPORT

drought. When the rains come, a sudden increase in
the production of aquatic invertebrates occurs and
the birds take advantage of this to breed. WIWDs
might behave in a similar way.
A subsequent observation well after the survey
confirmed the importance of good wetland condi-
tions to WIWD breeding and habitat use. Ethlyn re-
ported that on 22 July 1999 (following heavy rains),
a local volunteer observed and took video footage of
a group of two adults and 12-14 duckling WIWDs on
Village pond on Middle Caicos.
A wide variety of other wetland birds was re-
corded during the surveys, including 11 species of
heron, 7 duck species, 4 rail species, 23 shorebird
species, Sandhill Crane, Greater Flamingo, Belted
Kingfisher, Brown Pelican, White-cheeked Pintail,
Blue-winged Teal, Pied-billed and Least Grebes,
American Coot, Double-crested Cormorant,
Neotropic Cormorant, Mangrove Cuckoo, and Piping
Plovers.
Following the survey, a workshop was held to pre-
sent findings and establish groundwork for future
surveys and monitoring of wetland birds. Workshop
participants included personnel from the government
Department of Environment and Coastal Resources,
National Trust staff and volunteers, and interested
residents. Activities included two field courses dem-
onstrating field techniques at wetlands on Providen-
ciales.
Cuba.-Cuban biologists have put together a team
of five individuals to collaborate on field work of
WIWDs and they are making excellent progress in
getting estimates of population size, distribution,
habitat characteristics, feeding, and local movements
(see Mugica et al. 1999, "Preliminary results of a
survey of the distribution of the WIWD in Cuba," El
Pitirre 12[2]:58-59; Pefia et al. 2000, ""Registro de
localidades para la Yaguaza Antillana [Dendrocygna
arborea] en la region centro-oriental de Cuba," El
Pitirre 13[2]:49-51).
Lourdes and colleagues have been working in a 30
km2 wetland in Viramas Swamp. The area is remote
and accessible only by boat. They have no engine, so
surveys are slow and incomplete. An aerial survey is
essential to identify the best prospective habitats.
Flocks of up to 40 birds were seen. Only one aban-
doned nest was found.
Northwest: Carlos Pefia has made two visits to a
major swamp, where he estimated more than 5000
WIWDs may exist.
Carlos Pefia and colleagues have carried out sur-
veys in the Cayo Confiti area in Camagiiey and


SORENSON AND BRADLEY


found about 5000 individuals in the study area,
which included three dams. The Rola Dam was 95%
covered with floating and emergent vegetation of 21
species, dominated by bulrush (Typha dominigensis).
He found WIWDs at 60 localities, 27% of which
were in rice plantations and 20% in mangroves.
These localities corresponded with the historic distri-
bution of the species. Only one nest was found. The
main cause of mortality is hunting.
Pefia concluded that the species is not rare in
Cuba, but locally common in appropriate habitat.
The relative abundance of WIWDs in Cuba com-
pared to other islands is probably the result of more
abundant habitat, as Cuba is 75% flat, with many
large wetlands. The population in Cuba appears to
have greatly increased. These results suggest the
need to revise the status of the species, at least in
Cuba.
Bahamas.-Montserrat Carbonell (Ducks Unlim-
ited, Inc.) organized a monitoring workshop at the
BNT headquarters in April 2000 for ornithologists
and natural resource personnel from the Bahamas,
Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Dominican Re-
public. The objectives of the workshop were to help
the Bahamas develop a survey program for migra-
tory ducks and to discuss methodologies and the pos-
sibility of working together on surveys at the re-
gional level. A similar workshop is planned for the
Dominican Republic in October 2000.
Cayman Islands.-Patricia Bradley reported that
there had been no surveys over the last 12 months.
Breeding habitats have not been reduced. A Ramsar
site has been declared on Little Cayman Island.
WIWDs are breeding on Cayman Brac. The total
population of the three islands is estimated at from
800 to 1200 individuals and it appears to be stable.
Dominican Republic.-Kate Wallace informed the
meeting that after Hurricane George and with many
downed trees, the stream in the Botanical Garden in
Santo Domingo contained many more pools, result-
ing in excellent habitat that attracted WIWDs.
Broods of about 10 new ducklings were found in
every month from January to July. The juveniles
seem to stay in the area (especially in the grassy ar-
eas and wetlands) for at least two months before dis-
persing. WIWDs were sighted in the Cabo Rojo wet-
land in July and September 1998.
i, 11, ., and Barbuda.-Kevel Lindsay explained
that a proposed survey, an addition to an on-going
wetlands survey and monitoring project by the Envi-
ronmental Awareness Group (EAG), was funded by
United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Bar-
bados. It included a two-week survey of the two is-


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 62









WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP REPORT SORENSON AND BRADLEY


lands. Ann Sutton is presently (August 2000) in Bar-
buda conducting this survey in cooperation with
EAG in Antigua. As far as Kevel knew, no loss of
habitat has occurred, but the repercussions of the
now cancelled Asian Development Project were still
being felt. The expatriate owners of an island (on
which 80 resident WIWDs roosted, and were being
fed) were ousted. The ducks had scattered and some
were still seen on other islands in small groups. They
probably breed on offshore islands. Several nests
were seen in June 1999, following unseasonable
rains. The population in Antigua is probably about
500. Since the 1970s, intermittent reports have been
made of large flocks in Barbuda, but the present
status is unknown, hence the proposed survey.
Puerto Rico.-Francisco Vilella reports that there
is no formal monitoring of WIWD in Puerto Rico.
The Department of Natural and Environmental Re-
sources (DNER), however, conducts waterfowl sur-
veys of the main island and its satellites (Vieques
and Culebra), a Federal Aid funded project headed
by David Ramos of DNER. The survey is aimed at
wintering duck populations, but David's crew counts
all ducks seen.
Francisco Vilella's project (funded by DNER) to
rehabilitate Humacao has great potential, because
this is possibly the most important area for WIWDs
in Puerto Rico (population estimate of 100). Fran-
cisco has two graduate students working in restora-
tion aspects and survival and habitat use of White-
cheeked Pintail and WIWD. The students are captur-
ing and radio-marking hens and broods of both spe-
cies.
British Virgin Islands.-Nancy Woodfield (BVI
National Parks Trust) said that no WIWDs have been
recorded on BVI, but suitable habitat occurs on Ane-
gada. She expressed an interest in doing surveys. A.
Sutton promised to send a tape and some forms.


Anguilla.-Ijahnya Christian (Anguilla National
Trust) reported that Dave Prichard did not record any
WIWDs in his 1990 survey. Anguilla has no wet-
lands or salt ponds.
'. I, .'.-The main population of WIWDs ap-
pears to be in Cuba, where the population may be
more than 10,000 birds. Elsewhere populations are
small and fragmented. An urgent need exists for wet-
land protection throughout the region.


DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE
Our primary objective in the coming months is to
complete and publish our wetlands education work-
book, Wondrous Wetlands of the West Indies. The
WG is also planning to publish a Fauna and Flora of
the Wetlands field guide through a USFWS small
field guide project. The guide will serve as a refer-
ence for the workbook but will also stand alone.
Once published, we will distribute these books to our
target islands and hold Teacher Training Workshops
in each island to demonstrate use of the workbook
and our other materials. Our long-range goal is to see
that a Wetlands Education Unit (comprised of the
materials we have developed) becomes a permanent
part of every school's science curriculum in each of
our target islands. Island Representatives of the
WIWD-WG will work with Education Department
personnel in their countries to reach this goal.
Our second objective for 2000 is to continue as-
sisting local biologists with surveys and monitoring
of WIWD populations and in the establishment of a
long-term monitoring program in two countries.
Knowledge of WIWD population levels and habitat
use are crucial in making management plans, setting
priorities for habitat conservation, and ensuring that
areas providing the WIWD with quality habitat year-
round are protected.


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 63









NEW PUBLICATIONS Now AVAILABLE


STATUS AND CONSERVATION
OF WEST INDIAN SEABIRDS

EDITED BY E. A. SCHREIBER AND DAVID S. LEE

Society of Caribbean O, ,i i.l ,1. .'- Special Publication No. 1
2000
v + 225 pp. 25 maps, 30 tables, figs. 21.5 x 28 cm. Contains 20 papers and a bibliography.
Paper: ISBN 0-9677824-0-6

Copies may be ordered from:
Jim Wiley
2201 Ashland St.
Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA
Telephone: 318-274-2399
Facsimile: 318-274-3870
e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Within USA US$12.00; includes shipping
Elsewhere US$17.00; includes shipping






A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY

.,.., .. -, IN THE


WEST INDIES


by James W. Wiley

Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Volume 7 2000

817 pp.
11,648 bibliographic entries, each annotated
3 indices taxonomicc, geographical, and subject)
6 appendices. Paper.

Available from:
Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology
439 Calle San Pablo
Camarillo, California 93012 USA

Price: US$42.50; includes shipping


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 64










Now AVAILABLE:


A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY
IN THE

WEST INDIES


by James W. Wiley

Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology
Volume 7 2000

817 pp.
11,648 bibliographic entries, each annotated
3 indices taxonomicc, geographical, and subject)
6 appendices

Available from:
Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology
439 Calle San Pablo
Camarillo, California 93012 USA

Price: US $42.50, includes shipping


El Pitirre 13(2)


Page 64









NEW PUBLICATIONS NOW AVAILABLE


BIRD SONGS IN JAMAICA
by
GEORGE B. REYNARD AND ROBERT L. SUTTON

Library of Natural Sound, Comell Laboratory of Ornithology
Comell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-1999
2000

This sound guide identifies 119 species found in Jamaica, including such characteristic species as Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo,
Jamaican Euphonia, Jamaican Oriole, Jamaican Owl, Ring-tailed Pigeon, Crested Quail-Dove, and White-eyed Thrush. It is
designed as an audio companion to Jamaican field guides such as A Field Guide to the Birds of the West Indies, by Herbert
Raffaele et al., or Birds ofJamaica, A Photographic Field Guide, by Audrey Downer and Robert L. Sutton, photographs by
Yves-Jacques Rey-Millet. The guide includes recordings of all resident land birds, including more than two dozen endemic
species, many never before available. Also, many water birds and calls of 17 migrants, mostly warblers, are presented. This
is a must-have guide for birders traveling to Jamaica. Two CD's or cassettes.

Prices:
2 CDs -US$18.95 + US$1.87 postage and handling
2 Cassettes US$18.95 + US$2.09 postage and handling
Available from:
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c/o Duncraft Service Center
102 Fisherville Road
Concord, NH 03303-3086 USA
Order by telephone (in USA): toll free 877-274-3716; Fax: 603-226-3735; E-mail: info-cornell-lab@duncraft.
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FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF CUBA
by
ORLANDO H. GARRIDO AND ARTURO KIRKCONNELL
Foreword by Lester L. Short
Illustrated by Roman F. Compafiy

Comell University Press
2000

This field reference contains 51 color plates and 662 images that illustrate male, female, and juvenile plumages (in some
cases for the first time) of Cuban birds. Many migratory species are depicted in both winter and breeding colors, providing
a glimpse of many common North American birds as they appear when away from northern surroundings. In the compre-
hensive Field Guide to the Birds of Cuba Orlando H. Garrido and Arturo Kirkconnell share their vast wealth of knowledge
about birds and habitats that are too little known.
Field Guide to the Birds of Cuba contains:
Species accounts including habitat descriptions, similar species, range, status, nesting and feeding habits, and vo-
calizations.
Checklists of endemic species and subspecies.
Background on the geography, climate, geology, paleontology, and natural history of Cuba.
144 maps that show regional boundaries and vegetative habitats as well as the local distribution of each species.

253 pp., with appendices, glossary, bibliography, and index. Available in hard-bound (ISBN: 0-8014-3718-0; $59.95) and
paperback (ISBN: 0-8014-8631-9; $29.95) from:
Comell University Press
Sage House
512 East State Street












SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


EL PITIRRE

:P SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
S, Summer 2000 Vol. 13, No. 2





SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS

SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE,
THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
See El Pitirre 13(1) for more detailed instructions

Form of submission
Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts as a MS Word file attachment to an e-mail message sent to the editor
[wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu]. A hard-copy back-up also should be mailed to the editor. As an alternative format, au-
thors may submit the manuscript on a 3.5" floppy disk, in PC or Macintosh environment, preferably using WordPer-
fect or MS Word software. Authors should also submit a hard copy with the computer disk. Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201
Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.

Language
Contributions can be in English, Spanish, or French. Translation of the entire text in an alternate language is encour-
aged. At a minimum, an abstract should be provided in at least one other language.

Format of submitted materials
The manuscript should conform to usage in recent issues of El Pitirre.
Double space all written materials, including tables and figure legends.

For %c iieritic papers and notes:
Number pages through the Literature Cited.
Do not hyphenate words at the ends of typewritten lines.
Type tables separate from the text.
Type figure legends consecutively on separate pages.
Title page (numbered) should contain full title, and authors' names and addresses at the time of the research.
The present address, if different, should be indicated as a footnote. The title page also includes running heads
(less than 36 characters), and the name and contact information for the author who can be most easily contacted.
An Abstract (less than 5% of paper length) should precede each longer article. It should summarize important
premises, summarize findings, and give conclusions.
Text Citations should include the author and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith et al. 1992).
Multiple citations should be arranged chronologically.
Acknowledgments precede the Literature Cited.
Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU's Check-list of North
American Birds, 7t ed. (1998) and its supplements.
Measurements should be in metric units.
Use continental dating (e.g., 14 October 1992) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 08:00 and 21:35).
Tables and figures should not duplicate material in the text or in each other. Each table requires a short heading, in-
cluding descriptive information that would answer the reader's questions of what, where, and when.
Literature Cited: Follow the most recent issue of the bulletin for style.




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