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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00038
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v. 12, n.3, 41p.: ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 1999
Frequency: bimonthly
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 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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Volume ID: VID00038
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text



























CONTENTS

FIRST RECORD OF GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL IN DOMINICA. Christopher C. Rimmer andPaulR. Wieczoreck ....................................... 82
THE RUFOUS-VENTED CHACHALACA (ORTALISRUFICAUDA) IN THE WEST INDIES. P. William Smith and SusanA. Smith ...................... 83
STATUS ACTUAL DEL CARPINTERO REAL (CAMPEPHILLUSPRINCIPALISBAIRDII) EN CUBA. Carlos M. Pena Rodriguez, Nils Navarro
P ach eco y F erndn dez V eldzquez .................................................................................................................................................................. 85
A REMARKABLE OSPREY FLIGHT AND FIRST RECORD OF SWALLOW-TAILED KITE FOR HISPANIOLA. Dennis G. Crouse, Jr. and
A lla n R K e ith ........................................ ........................................................................... ......... ................. ....................... .............................. 9 1
UNUSUAL NESTING AND OCCURRENCE RECORDS FOR GUAMA, PUERTO RICO. Lucy .. andErnestH. Williams, Jr ......... 92
OBSERVACION DE CARPINTEROS VERDES (XIPHIDIOPICUSPERCUSSUS) DEPREDANDO HUEVOS DE GARZAS (AVES: ARDEIDAE).
D ennis D enis, Leandro Torrella, A ram Jim enez y K aren B eovides ......................................................................... ............................................. 95
NUEVO REPORT DE NIDIFICACION DE GARZA ROJIZA (EGRETTA RUFESCENS) EN CUBA. Dennis Denis, Leandro Torrella, Patricia
R o d rig u ez y A nton o R od rig u ez ........................................................ ... ................ ........................ ... .......... ......... ... ................................ ..... 96
ROADSIDE VULTURE COUNTS IN A CENTRAL PANAMA PROVINCE. Esteban Godinez ............................................................... ................. 98
ORNITOFAUNA DE LA PORCION ESPIRITUANA DEL ECOSISTEMA SABANA-CAMAGUEY, CUBA. Abel HerndndezMunoz,
Jorge E de la Torre R idriguez y F rank M orera H erndndez ........................................................................................................................................ 99
ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA DE LA SIERRA DE NIPE, MAYARI, HOLGUIN, CUBA. Carlos M. Pena Rodriguez, Bdrbara Sdnchez Ora,
Nils Navarro Pacheco, Ernesto Reyes, Arturo Herndndez, Rodolfo Sdnchez y Ramona Oviedo ............................................................................ 100
REGIMEN ALIMENTARIO DEL CERNICALO CUBANO EN UNA LOCALIDAD DE LA REGION CENTRAL DE CUBA.
A b el H ern d n d ez M u n oz ................................................. ............................................ .......................................... ..... ......................................... 10 1
SIGHTINGS OF THE CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE (GRUS CANADENSISNESIOTES) IN PINAR DEL RIO, CUBA. A. Rodriguez Gomez
a n d R A lo n so ..................... ...... ................. ..... ........................................................... ......................................... 1 0 2
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM THE 1999 MEETING OF THE SCO -SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA
(C O N TIN U ED FR O M V O LU M E 12, ISSU E 2) .............................................................. ................................................................................................ 103
ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONVERSION FROM SHADE TO SUN COFFEE/ IMPLICACIONES ECOLOGICAS DEL CAMBIO DEL
CAFE DE SOMBRA AL CAFE DE SOL. Rena R. Borkhataria and Jame A. Collazo .................................................. ....... ....................... 103
STATUS OF EXOTIC FERAL WILDLIFE ESTABLISHED IN PUERTO RICO. STUDY 1: THE BIRDS/ ESTADO DE LA VIDA SILVESTRE
SALVAJE ESTABLECIDA EN PUERTO RICO. ESTUDIO 1: LAS AVES. Maria CamachoRodriguez ........................................ ........................... 103
HABITAT SUITABILITY OF FORESTED AREAS IN NORTH-CENTRAL PUERTO RICO AND THE IMPORTANCE OF SHADE
COFFEE IN THE CONSERVATION OF NATIVE AVIFAUNA/ CONVENIENCIA DEL HABITAT DE LAS AREAS FORESTADAS EN LA
REGION NORTE-CENTRAL DE PUERTO RICO Y LA IMPORTANCIA DEL CAFE DE SOMBRA EN LA CONSERVATION DE LA AVIFAUNA NATIVE.
Leopoldo M iranda, Jaim e A Collazo, and M artha J. G room ............................................................................... ....................... ................ 104
RECRUITMENT AND GROWTH OF PLANTS USED BY BIRDS IN NORTHERN PUERTO RICO FOLLOWING HURRICANE
GEORGES/ RECLUTAMIENTO Y CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTS UTILIZADAS POR AVES EN SECTORS DEL NORTE DE PUERTO RICO
DESPUES DEL PASO DEL HURACAN GEORGES. Jose Sustache, Jaime A. Collazo, and Martha J. Groom ...................................................... 105
REGIONS OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE TO TERRESTRIAL MIGRATORY BIRDS IN CUBA/ REGIONS DE MAYOR IMPORTANCIA PARA
LA AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE MIGRATORIA EN CUBA. Hiram Go : .: i Llanes, Bdrbara Sdnchez, and EneiderPerez ................. 105
A NEW SUBSPECIES OF THE BAHAMA VIREO (VIREO CRASSIROSTRIS) [AVES:VIREONIDAE] FROM CAYO PARDON
GRANDE, SABANA-CAMAGUEY ARCHIPELAGO, CUBA/ NUEVA SUBESPECIE DEL VIREO DE BAHAMAS (VIREO CRASSIROSTRIS)
[AVES: VIREONIDAE] PARA CAYO PAREDON GRANDE, ARCHIPIELAGO DE SABANA-CAMAGUEY, CUBA. Arturo Kirkconnell and
O rla n d o H G a rr d o ........................................................ ......................... ..... .............................................. .................. ...... ..................... 10 5
INTER-ISLAND VARIATION IN SONG OF THE BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO/ VARIACION INTERISLENA EN EL CANTO DEL JULIAN
CHIVI (VIREO A. ALTILOQUUS). Jon C. Barlow, Deron A. Barlow and Ella Barlow ....................................................................................... 106
REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO/ EXITO REPRODUCTIVE DEL BIEN-TE-VEO DE PUERTO RICO.
A d ria n n e G T o ssa s ................................................ ........... ............................................................ .......... .............................. ................... 10 6
PATCHINESS AND BIRD SPECIES DIVERSITY/ FRAGMENTACION Y DIVERSIDAD DE SPECIES DE AVES. MarciaMundle ......................... 107


Continued on back cover


SOCIEDAD CARIBEI TA DE ORNITOLOGIA





SEL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Fall 1999 Vol. 12, No. 3
(ISSN 1527-7151)


i











EL PITIRRE

THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA



Editor: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA. Telephone: (318) 274-2499 or
274-2399; Fax: (318) 274-3870; e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Assistant Editors: Barbara Keesee, Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, PO Box 841, Grambling State
University, Grambling, Louisiana 71245 USA.
Alma N. Ramirez, Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, PO Box 841, Grambling State University,
Grambling, Louisiana 71245 USA.
Spanish Translations: Mark Zola, 18 Rockwell Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 USA; palomab-
lanca@iearthlink. net

News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al editor para inclusion en el boletin.



THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anseleme
SECRETARY: Dr. Marcia Mundle
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific
study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and
those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
econservation groups in the Caribbean.

La Sociedad Caribefia de Ornitologia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el
studio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia
caribefia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o
datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.




MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
All members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year.
Institutional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay
regular dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name
and address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, 13 East Rosemont Ave., Alexandria, Virginia 22301 USA


























FIRST RECORD OF GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL IN DOMINICA

CHRISTOPHER C. RIMMER AND PAUL R. WIECZORECK
Vermont Institute ofNatural Science, 27023 Church Hill Road, Woodstock, VT 05091 USA


ON 9 MARCH 1999, while driving through Mahaut
on the western coast of Dominica, we observed a
large light-colored bird soaring several meters above
the water 75 m from shore. Upon stopping and view-
ing the bird through 10x42 and 8x30 binoculars, we
immediately recognized it as a gull. During the next
20 minutes (08:10-08:30), we were able to observe
the bird from several vantage points, both flying and
perched, at distances of 100-200 m away. Before
consulting our regional field identification guide
(Raffaele et al. 1998), Rimmer recorded detailed
field notes, and we concluded that the bird was a
first-winter Great Black-backed Gull (Larus mari-
nus), a species with which we were both familiar in
North America. Subsequent review of Raffaele et al.
(1998) and other field guides (Grant 1982, Harrison
1985) confirmed our initial identification. This sight-
ing constitutes the first documented record of Great
Black-backed Gull in Dominica.
Several features confirmed the bird's identity as a
first-winter Great Black-backed Gull. Its large size
was striking; we estimated that it was nearly twice as
large as a Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla) perched
less than 2 m away for several minutes. Neither Her-
ring (L. argentatus) nor Lesser Black-backed (L. fus-
cus) gulls would have similarly dwarfed this smaller
gull species or Royal Terns (Sterna maxima) nearby.
The bird had a mottled grayish-brown mantle and
upper wing coverts, with whitish underparts, head,
and rump. The tail showed a distinct but diffuse,
broad blackish or dusky terminal band. The prima-
ries and secondaries appeared dusky with a narrow,
pale fringe and contrasted with the darker underwing


coverts. The whitish head had a slight dusky wash on
the sides of the crown and nape, and there appeared
to be a small dusky spot around and immediately
behind the dark eye. The bill was heavy and entirely
dark, and the legs appeared pale grayish from a dis-
tance. Whereas these plumage and soft part charac-
ters do not rule out Herring or Lesser Black-backed
gulls, we are confident, based on the bird's massive
size and our familiarity with the species in North
America, that it was a Great Black-backed Gull.
Great Black-backed Gulls breed on both coasts of
the North Atlantic Ocean and regularly winter south
to central Florida and northern Africa (Good 1998).
The species is considered rare in winter in Puerto
Rico and a vagrant elsewhere in the West Indies, al-
though its numbers appear to be increasing (Raffaele
et al. 1998). Only two documented records are
known from the eastern Caribbean, on the islands of
St. Barth6lemy and Barbados (Raffaele et al. 1998).
In Dominica, there is at least one previous uncon-
firmed report of a possible Great Black-backed Gull,
but our sighting represents the first verified occur-
rence on the island (P. Evans, pers. Comm.; Evans
and James 1997). With North American breeding
populations of this species increasing and expanding
southward (Good 1998), additional records of Great
Black-backed Gulls seem likely in the Lesser Antil-
les.
We are grateful to the staff of the Dominica For-
estry and Wildlife Division who provided logistic
support and field assistance during our visit to Do-
minica. We also thank Peter Evans for sharing his
intimate knowledge of Dominica's birdlife.


SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA



f, EL PITIRRE

SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


Fall 1999 Vol. 12, No. 3








GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL IN DOMINICA RIMMER AND WIECZORECK


LITERATURE CITED
EVANS, P. G. H., AND A. JAMES. 1997. Dominica
nature island: a guide to birdwatching. Ecosystems
Ltd., Brussels, Belgium. 32 pp.
GOOD, T. P. 1998. Great Black-backed Gull (Larus
marinus). In The birds of North America, No. 330
(A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North
America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.


GRANT, P. J. 1982. Gulls: a guide to identification.
Buteo Books, Vermilion, SD. 280 pp.
HARRISON, P. 1985. Seabirds: an identification guide.
Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 448 pp.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH, AND
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West
Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
511 pp.


THE RUFOUS-VENTED CHACHALACA (ORTALISRUFICAUDA) IN THE WEST INDIES


P. WILLIAM SMITH AND SUSAN A. SMITH
P.O. Box 1992, Ocean Shores, WA 98569, USA


THE RUFOUS-VENTED CHACHALACA (Ortalis rufi-
cauda) is included in the avifauna of the West Indies
(sensu Bond 1936) based upon its presence on Union
Island and Bequia in the St. Vincent Grenadines
(Ober in Lawrence 1878, Ogilvie-Grant 1893). On
23 May 1998, we observed and estimated the num-
ber of calling Rufous-vented Chachalacas on the is-
land of Bequia. We found the species only on the
northern three estates (Spring, Industry, and Park),
where that island's vegetation seemed to be the rich-
est. Vocalizations were primarily before 07:00 and
seemed in every instance to be harmonic duets by
paired individuals. From three primary census points
plus two others, we believe we heard about 30 pairs.
We estimate the population of chachalacas on north-
ern Bequia to be ca. 150 pairs based on ca. 200 ha of
suitable habitat on the northern end of the island,
taken with the approximate distance over which we
believe we could have heard them. Bequia's remain-
ing 1300 ha is largely unsuitable, primarily because
of human development and disturbance, but we were
told by residents that chachalacas occasionally were
encountered elsewhere on the island, so the popula-
tion could be larger.
When observed, all chachalacas were in the can-
opy of leafy deciduous trees (species unknown), usu-
ally over 6 m. They were feeding on newly emerging
shoots. By using tape playback, we coaxed one pair
to perch on exposed bare limbs and one individual to
land on a telephone wire, but concealment was the
most typical behavior, even when calling. We never


saw any chachalaca on the ground, but we were in-
formed that occasionally some would pick up poultry
feed at a remote farmyard on the Park Estate.
On Union Island, which we visited 26 May 1998,
we could not directly confirm the continuing pres-
ence of Rufous-vented Chachalacas, but every per-
son with whom we spoke who lived along the bases
of Mts. Parnassus and Taboi assured us that the spe-
cies (known locally as the "Cocrico") could be found
and was sometimes hunted on the northwestern end
of the island, a largely uninhabited and wild area
similar in size to that still holding the species on Be-
quia. Union Island is far more xeric than Bequia,
however, so the density of chachalacas there might
be different.
Ober (in Lawrence 1878) passed along a contem-
porary anecdote of its presumed, then-recent, intro-
duction to Union, although his account of his trip
(Ober 1880) suggests that he did not encounter it
himself. That seems to be the only basis, other than
supposition (e.g., Bond 1970, 1976), for its West In-
dian status ("introduced") as generally conveyed by
the literature. Its presence on Bequia is poorly docu-
mented; it is attributed there on a list of specimens in
the British Museum (Ogilvie-Grant 1893) where two
were secured in 1890 by D. W. Smith, working for
the Salvin-Godman Collection (R. Prls-Jones, in
litt.). The American Museum of Natural History has
four specimens labeled Bequia, three secured in 1901
by the Selwyn Branch collection, and one secured in


El Pitirre 12(3)


Page 83








RUFOUS-VENTED CHACHALACA SMITH AND SMITH


1924 by Gerald H. Thayer (Alison Andors, in litt.).
We located no specimens from Union.
Few later ornithologists mentioned this species
from those islands and most who did commented on
their failure to locate it. Bond (1970) wrote that he
knew of no recent West Indian records, or none since
early in the twentieth century (Bond 1976). Later,
however, Bond (1982) did pass along a report by
Mrs. Thomas Johnston of the species' continuing
presence on Bequia, so we cannot account for state-
ments to the contrary by the American Ornitholo-
gists' Union (1998) and Raffaele et al. (1998). At
least one birder mentioned seeing it on Union Island
in 1991 (Faanes 1991), but we know of no other pub-
lished accounts of the species' observation or collec-
tion there.
We thank Alison Andors of the American Museum
of Natural History, James Dean of the United States
National Museum of Natural History, Alison Pirie of
the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard
University, Robert Prys-Jones of the British Museum
(Natural History), and J. V. Remsen and S. W. Car-
diff of the Louisiana State University Museum of
Natural Science for information on their collections.
Janet Hinshaw of the Josselyn Van Tyne Memorial
Library of the Wilson Ornithological Society at the
University of Michigan furnished helpful literature.

LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7th ed. American
Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.


BOND, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Academy
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
BOND, J. 1970. Fifteenth supplement to the Check-
list of birds of the West Indies (1956). Academy of
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
BOND, J. 1976. Twentieth supplement to the Check-
list of birds of the West Indies (1956). Academy of
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
BOND, J. 1982. Twenty-fourth supplement to the
Check-list of birds of the West Indies (1956).
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn-
sylvania
FAANES, C. 1991. Union Island, West Indies, August
30-31, 1991. American Birding Association trip
rep. no. N-40.
LAWRENCE, G.N. 1878. Catalog of the birds of Gre-
nada, from a collection made by Mr. Fred. A. Ober
for the Smithsonian Institution, including others
seen by him, but not obtained. Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus. 1:265-278.
OBER, F.A. 1880. Camps in the Caribees. Lee and
Shepherd, Boston, Massachusetts.
OGILVIE-GRANT, W.R. 1893. Catalogue of birds in
the British Museum. Vol. XXII. British Museum
(Natural History), London.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, New Jersey.


El Pitirre 12(3)


Page 84











STATUS ACTUAL DEL CARPINTERO REAL (CAMPEPHILLUS PRINCIPALS BAIRDII) EN CUBA


CARLOS M. PENA RODRIGUEZ1, NILS NAVARRO PACHECO1, AND ALEJANDRO FERNANDEZ VELAZQUEZ2
1Museo de Historia Natural "Carlos de la Torre y Huerta ", Mlaceo 139, Holguin 80100, Cuba; 2Instituto Superior
Pedag6gico "Jose de la Luzy Cabellero, "Holguin, Cuba


EL CARPINTERO REAL, o Pico de Marfil (Ivory-
billed Woodpecker), abarcaba una distribuci6n
geogrifica que comprendia el sur de los Estados Uni-
dos (los estados del golfo, Carolina del Norte y del
Sur, El Valle del Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, re-
giones al sur de Ohio e Illinois), asi como locali-
dades en el norte de M6xico y las Antillas (Cuba). La
especie estaba representada por tres razas: C. p. prin-
cipalis, C. p. imperialism y la tercera que estuvo dis-
tribuida a lo largo de toda la isla de Cuba, en locali-
dades como San Diego de los Bafios, Ensenada de
Cochinos, Bangiiises, Calimete, Hanabana y
Guantdnamo (Gundlach), fue en un principio referida
a la forma norteamericana y posteriormente separada
por Cassin como C. bairdii (Garrido & Garcia,
1975), actualmente es considerada como C. p.
bairdii.
El g6nero Campephillus, esta integrado por un
gran niumero de species en la Am6rica del sur, de
donde probablemente provenian los ancestros de la
forma principals, por su tamafio y envergadura fue
considerado el mayor de las species de Carpinteros
del mundo luego del Carpintero Pulverulento de Asia
(Mulleripicus pulverulentus).
Como sucede con otras species de aves, esta su-
fri6 considerable dafios, como consecuencia de la
reducci6n de sus habitats y poblaciones naturales, a
ritmos tan progresivos que actualmente es poco
probable una recuperaci6n de la especie, siendo con-
siderada extinta por algunos especialistas. Respecto a
su status en Cuba, es important sefialar que ya a fi-
nales del siglo XIX Gundlach la consider rara.
Segfn referencias del propio Gundlach (1876, 1893)
y Barbour (1943) en los primeros afios del siglo XX,
no fue possible encontrarla en el occidente de Cuba,
aunque en la seguda mitad del siglo XIX se conocia
de diversas regions de la isla. En los afios 1970,
Garrido y Montafia (1975) consideraron a esta ave
practicamente extinta y restringida a las regions ori-
entales montafiosas de Cuba.
En publicaci6n mis reciente, Lammertink y
Estrada (1995) infieren su possible extinci6n consid-
erando el resultado de la filtima expedici6n en las
areas donde habia sido reportada con anterioridad.


Berovides (1996) aborda las extinciones de species
cubanas y consider en el anhlisis hist6rico la extin-
ci6n del Carpintero Real, con el mismo criterio con-
sideran su status actual Rafaele et al. (1998).
Entre 1985 y 1993 se efectuaron cerca de 18 ex-
pediciones con el objetivo de localizar individuos del
Carpintero Real. En 1986, Giraldo Alay6n y el
equipo de trabajo confirmaron la presencia de un re-
ducido nicleo poblacional en las Cabezadas del Rio
Yarey. Sin embargo en las filtimas expediciones
(Tabla 1) no fue possible reporar evidencias visuales
del ave, en el area que aparentemente ha constituido
su fultimo refugio.
A principios de 1985 un equipo, encabezado por
el Dr. Lester L. Short y Giraldo Alay6n Garcia, re-
alizaron un reconocimiento al area de Ojito de Agua
(Guantinamo). En el transcurso de este mismo afio
se efectuaron dos expediciones dirigidas por Giraldo
Alay6n donde participaron especialistas de la Em-
presa Nacional de Flora y Fauna y t6cnicos del
Museo de Historia Natural "Carlos de la Torre" de
Holguin. (Tabla 2).
En 1986, G. Alay6n G. dirige otra expedici6n que
comprendi6 desde el 6 hasta el 18 de marzo (Tabla
2), en la cual fue observado un ejemplar hembra en
las Cabezadas del Rio Yarey por Eduardo Solana,
Giraldo Alay6n, Elio Bleth y Aracelio Navarro, el 16
de marzo a las 09:11 hr.
La expedici6n del 3 al 18 de abril de 1986, estuvo
integrada por especialistas y t6nicos de la Empresa
Nacional de Flora y Fauna, el Museo de Historia
Natural de Nueva York, el Laboratorio de Orni-
tologia de la Universidad de Cornell, el Museo de
Historia Natural de Kenya y el Museo de Historia
Natural de Holguin, Cuba. (Tabla 2). El Carpintero
Real fue observada en ocho oportunidades en las re-
giones del Rio Yarey y en la zona conocida como
Campamento de los Rusos, de los resultados de esta
investigaci6n se lleg6 a la conclusion de que al
menos cuatro ejemplares subsisten en el area de estu-
dio.
En 1992, en el period comprendido desde el 22
de febrero hasta el 29 de marzo se monitoriaron


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TABLA 1. Resefia de las evidencias mis importantes a partir de 1948, del Carpintero Real en el macizo montafioso de Sagua Baracoa, Cuba, 1948-1993.


Evidencia


Fecha


Actividad


Observador(es)


Cayo Chiquito, Sierra de Moa, Holguin

Bandolero, Cayo Chiquito, Cayo Probado, Ojito de Agua
Calentura Arriba, Yagruma y Nuevo Mundo, Oriente
Norte de cupeyal, Moa
Ojito de Agua
Cabezada del Yarey



Cabezada del Yarey

Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey

Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey
Cabezada del Yarey
Cayo probado
Caguarenal


Calentura arriba


3 ejemplares


1956 (4 meses)

1968
13/03/1986
16/03/1986



03/04/1986

06/04/1986
07/04/1986

10/04/1986
12/04/1986
14/04/1986
16/04/1986
16/04/1986
1991
1991
1991
1992
Abril 1993


Abril1993


17 ejemplares (8 parejas, 1 juvenile)

1 ejemplar 9
1 ejemplar, sin sexo determinado
1 ejemplar 6



1 pareja

1 ejemplar, sin sexo determinado
1 pareja

1 ejemplar, sin sexo determinado
1 ejemplar- 9
1 ejemplar, sin sexo determinado
1 ejemplar 6
1 ejemplar 6
1 ejemplar, sin sexo determinado


1 hueco sin edad asignable
2 pinos descortezados
Descortezamiento
Hueco muy antiguo

Descortezamiento asignable
a cambios climaticos


John V. Dennis (EE.UU.)
David Cromptor (EE.UU.)
Esposos Lamb (EE.UU.)

Orlando H. Garrido (Cuba)
Alberto R. Estrada (Cuba)
Giraldo Alay6n (Cuba)
Eduardo Solano
Elio Bleth
Aracelio Navarro
Aracelio Navarro
Alberto Garzon
Jennifer Homer (Keyna)
Aracelio Nevarro
Alberto Garzon
George Reynard (EE.UU.)
Lester Short (EE.UU.)
George Reynard (EE.UU.)
Lester Short (EE.UU.)
Jennifer Homer (Kenya)
John Mcneely (EE.UU.)
Pilar Miranda (Chile)
John Mcneely (EE.UU.)
John Mcneely (EE.UU.)
Martjan L. (Holanda)
Carlos M. Pefia (Cuba)
Carlos M. Pefia (Cuba)
Alberto R. Estrada
Martjan L. (Holanda)
Huub Huneker (Holanda)


Localidad









STATUS DEL CARPINTERO REAL EN CUBA -PENA ETAL.


TABLA 2. Participants en las expediciones en buscando para el Carpentero Real en
Cuba, 1985-1993.


Expedicion
y fecha Participantes


Institucion


EXPEDITION 1: 1985
Giraldo Alayon
Alberto R. Estrada
Alejandro Torres
Eduardo Solana
Carlos M. Pefia
Ochoa
Guillermo Rodriguez
Noelico Pober
EXPEDICION 2: 6-18 de Marzo de 1986
Giraldo Alayon
Alberto R. Estrada
Carlos M. Pefia
Alberto Garzon
Aracelio Navarro
Elio Bleth
Noelio Pober
Roberto Gamboa
EXPEDICION 3: 3-18 de Abril de 1986
Lester Short
Jennifer Homer
George Reynard
Giraldo Alayon
Alberto R. Estrada
Alfonso Silva Lee
Eduardo Solana
Carlos M. Pefia
Alberto Garzon
Aracelio Navarro
Elio Bleth
Noelio Pober
Roberto Gamboa


Empresa Nacional de Flora y Fauna
Empresa Nacional de Flora y Fauna
Museo de Historia Natural de Holquin
Museo de Historia Natural de Holquin
Museo de Historia Natural de Holquin
Guarda Bosque Empresa Forestal Mayari
Delegaci6n del Minag Holquin
Arriero de la Melba, Moa

Empresa Nacional de Flora y Fauna
Empresa Nacional de Flora y Fauna
Museo de Historia Natural de Holquin
Empresa Minera Holquin, Mina Mercedita
Empresa Forestal Integral Guantanamo
Empresa Forestal Integral Guantanamo
Arrero. La Melba, Moa
Chofer, Delegaci6n del Minag Holquin

Museo de Historia Natural, Nueva York, EE.UU.
Museo Nacional de Kenya
Universidad de Cornell, EE.UU.
Empresa Nacional de Flora y Fauna
Empresa Nacional de Flora y Fauna

Museo de Historia Natural de Holquin
Museo de Historia Natural de Holquin
Empresa Minera Holquin, Mina Mercedita
Empresa Forestal Integral Guantanamo
Empresa Forestal Integral Guantanamo
Arrero. La Melba, Moa
Chofer, Delegaci6n del Minag Holquin


EXPEDICION 4: 22 de Febrero hasta 29 de Marzo de 1992
Giraldo Alay6n Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
Alfonso Silva Lee Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
Pilar Miranda Chilena. Realize las conecciones para la expedicion
Fermin Garcia Secretario de la comisi6n Prov. de medio Ambiente
John McNeely Especialista en manejo de species y areas naturales
Noelio Pober Arrero. La Melba, Moa
EXPEDICION 5: 16 de Febrero hasta 30 de Marzo de 1993


Martjan Lammertink
Huub Huneker
Alberto R. Estrada
Carlos M. Pefia
Alexey Vazquez
Jesus Sanchez
Roberto Hemrdez
Wilder Azares
Noelio Pober


Universidad de Amsterdam, Holanda
Fot6grafo especializado, Holanda
Biologo
Museo de Historia Natural de Holquin
Guardabosque
Guardabosque
Guardabosque
Guia. Farallones de Moa
Arriero. La Melba, Moa


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STATUS DEL CARPINTERO REAL EN CUBA -PENA ETAL.


TABLA 3. Factores fundamentals que conducen a las species a la extinci6n.


Intrinsecos o sistematicos

Fragmentaci6n de los habitats
Predacion
Competencia
Parasitismo
Disminuci6n del tamafo efectivo de la poblacion
Muerte de individuos
Aumento del entrecnizamiento consanguineo




varias areas. Los investigators participants (Tabla
2), situaron puntos de observaci6n en las inmedia-
ciones del Rio Piloto, Rio Jaguani, Cafi6n occidental
de un tributario del Rio Piloto, Cabezada del Rio
Calentura, en las cercanias del camino a Farallones
de Moa y en las elevaciones de la Meseta del Toldo.
Los resultados confirmaron pocas posibilidades de
la existencia en esta zona del Carpintero Real.
Del 16 de marzo al 30 de febrero de 1993 se
efectfia otro intent de localizaci6n del Campephilus
principals bairdii. Se exploraron y se sometieron a
studio las areas de: Caguarenal, Cupeyal del Norte,
Cayo Probado, Castro, Yarey Abajo, Calentura Ar-
riba, Las Municiones, Cabezadas del Toa, Vega
Grande, Ojito de Agua, Cayo Cruzata, Yarey Arriba,
Meseta del Toldo, Sierra Maguey, Palenque, Raisi,
Riito y Piloto. El campamento base fue instalado en
Ojito de Agua hasta el dia 21, posteriormente el
equipo de trabajo (Tabla 2), se traslad6 a Yarey
Abajo donde se mantuvo hasta a final de la ex-
pedici6n. El punto de observaci6n situado en Calen-
tura Arriba se mantuvo durante todo el period de
trabajo de campo, ya que se habian detectado al-
gunos descortezamientos en arboles, pero aparente-
mente estos fueron ocasionados por factors climiti-
cos.
No se confirm ninguna evidencia positive en las
areas monitoreadas, lo que corrobora las conclu-
siones de la expedici6n anterior, relacionado con la
baja probabilidad de que actualmente permanezca en
estas areas el pequefio nicleo poblacional que fue
reportado por Alay6n y Short en 1986.
En esta resefia muy sintetizada se expone de
forma general las expediciones mis importantes que
tuvieron como scenario el Macizo Montafioso Sa-
gua Barroca, aun cuando no se analizan los resul-
tados de todas las expediciones (alrededor de 18),
s6lo se valoran aquellas que fueron mis con-
cluyentes, por lo que no aparecen todos los nombres


Extrinscos o aleatorios

Perturbaciones naturales
Enfermedades contagiosas
Incendios
Deslizamiento de tierra
Huracanes, etc.
Raz6n sexual





de los que participaron de diferentes formas en los
trabajos de campo. El autor principal ha participado
en la mayoria de los viajes de investigaci6n y ex-
ploraci6n en busca del Carpintero Real, bajo la di-
recci6n de Giraldo Alay6n.
Teniendo en cuenta los aspects especificos que
se conocen de esta especie y en dependencia de la
informaci6n disponible relacionada con su dis-
tribuci6n, biologia, reports de observaci6n, eviden-
cias y los resultados de las expediciones de la filtima
d6cada se puede proponer el siguiente modelo
espacial general de la extinci6n apoyado en los fac-
tores fundamentals que conducen a las species a la
extici6n segfin Soule y Simberloff (1986), y Clark y
Seebeck (1989), los cuales se sintetizan en dos cate-
gorias (Tabla 3). Analizando el modelo que aparece
en el libro Biodiversidad de Iberoamdrica (Halffter,
1992), se formula uno similar usando la informaci6n
disponible (Fig. 1).
Los siguients pasos correspondent a la Fig. 1
1. El Carpintero Real tenia una distribuci6n Bio-
geogrffica mas amplia ocupando todo el territo-
rio national en el pasado siglo, pero con un habi-
tat muy especifico, por lo que su comportamiento
biol6gico corresponde al de species raras, que
pueden serlo en tres categories: rareza bio-
geogrifica, rareza de hAbitat y rareza de-
mogrifica (Rabinowitz 1986, en Haffter 1992).
El Carpintero Real puede ser considerado en las
dos filtimas categories, en el primero de los casos
por lo anteriormente planteado y en el segundo
por presentar pequefias poblaciones. Los casos
mis critics los constituyen las species que
cumplen las tres categories, aunque no sucede asi
con el Carpintero Real, si puede ser considerado
un caso notable dentro de las rarezas ecol6gicas.
2. En el process de disminuci6n del tamafio efec-
tivo de la poblaci6n, la fragmentaci6n del hAbitat
jugo un papel decisive, vinculado fundamental-


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STATUS DEL CARPINTERO REAL EN CUBA -PENA ETAL.


0









O6


5 9


FIG. 1. Modelo espacial de la extincion del
Campephillus principals bairdii en Cuba.


mente a un procesco antropog6nico: desarrollo de
la industrial azucarera con la consiguiente desfor-
estaci6n de grandes extensions de tierra, provo-
cando la desaparici6n de unidades pequefias de
poblaciones que habitaban el resto del territorio
national.
3. En 1920 la subespecie se hallaba restringida al
Macizo Montafioso Sagua Baracoa. Ya en esta
etapa el Carpintero Real requeria de un manejo
preventive de conservaci6n qu no se puso en
practice.
4. Por la reiteraci6n del factor sistemdtico
(intrinseco) de fragmentaci6n de habitat ya a par-
tir de 1956 la especie se encontraba afin mis con-
finada, cuantificdndose este afio 17 individuos en
4 meses, en las areas estudiadas por los esposos
Lamb, que comprendi6 las siguientes localidades:
Cayo Chiquito, Cayo Probado, Ojito de Agua,


Calentura arriba, Yagruma y Nuevo Mundo.
Segfin Berovides (1996), el Carpintero Real re-
quiere bosques maduros, con grandes arboles
muertos donde anidar y alimentarse, sin embargo
de 6stos s6lo quedan algunos parches en Cuba, en
uno de ellos donde se observaron algunos indi-
viduos en la d6cada del 1980; los resultados de-
muestran que a partir de esta fecha el process de
su extinci6n es irreversible.
5. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados en 1956, el
numero probable, por el tamafio de la especie y
sus requerimientos energ6ticos, no debi6 de ex-
ceder de 30 individuos, y dado que el tamafio
minimo o numero critic poblacional en el caso
de las aves es de 50, para una probabilidad del
95 99% de supervivencia a corto plazo
(Franklin 1986, en Haffter 1992). Una poblaci6n
de 30 ejemplares representaria un 60% de prob-
abilidad de supervivencia para la especie; estas
condiciones sugeririan un manejo en situaci6n
critical, que no fue aplicado. Los problems rela-
tivos al tamafio minimo de la poblaci6n es clasico
en ecologia, para citar ejemplos tomemos en con-
sideraci6n a Clarke (1978) donde refiere a Hut-
chinson (1950) que los cormoranes requieren
como minimo 10,000 individuos que aniden con
una densidad media de 3 nidos nm, tambidn
sefiala que Tympanuchus cupido (Galliformes)
segfin Gross (1928) cuando qued6 reducida a
menos de 50 parejas, su numero sigui6 descendi-
endo hasta su extici6n en 1932.
6. Segfin los reports y studios realizados a partir
de 1986 la especie se encontraba restringida a las
cabezadas del Rio Yarey, donde se estim6 que
posiblemente permanecieran unas cuatro parejas,
y esto representaria un 15% de probabilidad de
supervivencia, que desde el punto de vista gend-
tico seria igual a "cero biol6gico."
Disponiendo de la informaci6n acumulada hasta
el present y la ausencia de reports visuales oficia-
les en la uiltima d6cada, asi como la poca probabili-
dad de que se hayan desplazado a otras localidades,
sabiendo que otras areas exploradas de esta region no
tienen las condiciones favorables para el desarrollo
de sus poblaciones, y que el nivel de heterozigocis de
la especie debi6 disminuir a un nivel critic por efec-
tos de la consanguinidad. Bajo estas circunstancias
debemos reconsiderar el status actual del Carpintero
Real iExtinto o en peligo de extinci6n? Las eviden-
cias refuerzan la idea de considerar como especie
extinta, aiin cuando queden ejemplares de las filtimas
generaciones.
Esto sugiere el studio de otras species


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amenazadas, antes de que disminuya el tamafio efec-
tivo de sus poblaciones y consecuentemente aplicar
un manejo preventive o en situaci6n critical segin el
caso.
LITERATURE CITADA
ALAYON, G. Y A. ESTRADA. 1987. Proyecto de in-
vestigaci6n y conservaci6n del Carpintero Real.
ALAYON, G., A. ESTRADA Y A. TORRES. 1987. Lista
de las Aves observadas en la Reserva de la Bios-
fera "Cuchilla del Toa," Provincias de Holguin y
Guantinamo, Cuba. Garciana No 6, Sectorial de
Cultura, Holguin, Cuba.
BOND, J. 1980. Birds of the West Indies, 4 ed.
Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
BEROVIDES, V. 1985. Ecologia, Ciencia para todos.,
Editorial Cientifico TUcnica, La Habana.
BEROVIDES, V. 1996. La extinci6n es para siempre.
Flora y Fauna 0:30-32.
CLARKE, G.L. 1978. Elementos de Ecologia. Edito-
rial Pueblo y Educaci6n. La Habana, Cuba.
ESTRADA, A., G. ALAYON, A. PEREZ Asso, C. PENA
Y E. SOLANA. 1987. Lista preliminary de los An-
fibios y Reptiles de Moa y Toa, Cuba. Garciana
No 8, M.H.N.H. Sectorial de Cultura, Holguin,
Cuba.


STATUS DEL CARPINTERO REAL EN CUBA -PENA ETAL.


GARCIA, F. 1987. Las aves de Cuba, Subespecies
end6micas. Tomo 2. Editorial Gente Nueva, La
Habana.
HAFFTER, G. 1992. La diversidad Biol6gica de
Iberoamdrica. Editorial Beatriz G6mez Varela
Mexico.
LAMMERTINK, M. Y A. ESTRADA. 1993. Report de
la bfisqueda del Carpintero Real. 6 pp.
LISANKA: FUENTA X. GALVEZ. 1997. Fotorreportaje.
Flora y Fauna, 1:24-25.
MCNEELY, J. 1992. Ivory-billed woodpecker expedi-
tion report. 12 pp.
PENA, C. 1986. Informe de Investigaci6n y locali-
zaci6n del Carpintero Real. 4 pp.
PENA, C. 1993. Informe de Investigaci6n y locali-
zaci6n del Carpintero Real. 5 pp.
SHORT, L. 1986. Informe de investigaci6n preentado
en la XIX Reuni6n Mundial de la C.I.P.A. -
Consejo Internacional para la protecci6n de las
aves. 5 pp.
YABLOKOV, A.V. Y S.A. OSTROUMOV. 1989. Con-
servaci6n de la Naturaleza Viva. Problems y
perspectives. Editorial Cientifico TUcnica,
URRS. pp. 237.


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A REMARKABLE OSPREY FLIGHT AND FIRST RECORD OF
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE FOR HISPANIOLA

DENNIS G. CROUSE, JR.1 AND ALLAN R. KEITH2
'PO Box 15665 FMJl, West Palm Beach, Florida 33416 USA; and
2278 Standish Street, Duxbury, Massachusetts 02332 USA


ON 28 AUGUST 1999, the senior author and two
companions, Isaac Pady and Jocelyn Arecy, visited
an upland point overlooking the northern side of Go-
naives Bay on the western coast of Haiti. The sky
was overcast and the wind was light from the north.
About 08:00, a group of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus)
came into view over the hills to the west from the
direction of Pointe la Pierre. During the next hour,
additional groups and individual birds appeared from
the same direction, leaving the coast just west of the
observers' position and crossing the Bay to the
southeast. In that period, at least 60 Ospreys were
counted, by far the largest single daily count of that
species ever recorded for Hispaniola. Whereas the
Osprey is a routine migrant in Haiti and Dominican
Republic (Raffaele et al. 1998), the prior high count
for a single day in either country is 20 individuals.
In the midst of the Osprey flight, two Swallow-
tailed Kites (Elanoides forficatus) appeared. The
striking black and white plumage pattern and long,
deeply-forked tail were well seen on both kites. This
constitutes the first report of this species for His-
paniola. Whereas this species occurs in migration
fairly regularly in western Cuba (Garrido and Kirk-
connell, in prep.), the kite is known only as a vagrant
in Jamaica (Raffaele et al. 1998:250), the Cayman
Islands (Bradley 1995:229), and the northern Baha-
mas (American Ornithologists' Union 1998:88).
Given this distribution pattern, western Haiti is the
most likely place for it to show up first on His-
paniola.
The weather in the region on 28 August was
dominated by Hurricane Dennis, which was centered
southeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, in the Abaco
Islands, Bahamas. Given Hurricane Dennis's posi-
tion, strong counterclockwise winds would have reg-
istered as north or northwest winds just north of
western Haiti. Consistent with this pattern, winds
registered at Gonaives 25-26 August were from the
southwest. It seems highly likely that winds from


such directions are responsible for the unusual flight
of migrant raptors, pushing them farther east than
their usual migration pattern.
Corroboration of the presence of a specific mi-
grant Osprey in western Haiti on 28 August comes
from another source. The Raptor Center at the Uni-
versity of Minnesota (Inp %% %%\ .raptor.cvm.umn.
edu) has been using satellite telemetry to track the
migration routes of Ospreys, Bald Eagles
(Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and Swainson's Hawks
(Buteo swainsoni). In the present case, a female Os-
prey designated "EV," which was originally banded
24 June 1999 at Shelter Island, New York, was re-
corded on 23 August southwest of Savannah, Geor-
gia; on 25 August over the ocean south of Key West,
Florida; on 28 August over northwestern Haiti; on 30
August south of San Juan, Dominican Republic; and
1 September east of Barranquilla, Colombia. It is
possible that "EV" was among the 60 or so Ospreys
that were observed over Gonaives Bay on 28 August.
Also, the route known to have been followed by
"EV" southward across the Florida peninsula passed
through areas in which Swallow-tailed Kites regu-
larly occur.

LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7th Edition. Ameri-
can Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.
BRADLEY, P. E. 1995. Birds of the Cayman Islands.
Caerulea Press, Italy.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. In prep.
Birds of Cuba. Comell University Press, Ithaca,
N.Y.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton. N. J.


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UNUSUAL NESTING AND OCCURRENCE RECORDS FOR GUAMA, PUERTO RICO, 1975-1999

LUCY BUNKLEY-WILLIAMS' AND ERNEST H. WILLIAMS, JR.2
'Caribbean Aquatic Animal Health Project, Department oJ I .I..- .- University ofPuerto Rico, PO Box 9012, Mayagiiez,
Puerto Rico 00861-9012; lucy.biologia@darwin.upr.clu.edu; and Department of Marine Sciences, University ofPuerto
Rico, PO Box 908, Lajas, Puerto Rico 00667-0980; r .i,,.. ,' . 1,'

Abstract.-We report the first nesting of the Orange-fronted Parakeet (i it,, l canicularis) in west-
ern Puerto Rico. Also, we report the first nesting record of the Nutmeg Mannikin (Lonchura punctu-
lata), first occurrence of the Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata ,o..-i,;i,.... .i, and the Yellow-
shouldered Blackbird (Agelaius xanthomus), and a 25-year bird list for Guami, San German, Puerto
Rico.
Resuimen.-Nosotros reportamos el primer anidaje del Periquito Frentianaranjado (CAi,,t,,i canicu-
laris) en el oeste de Puerto Rico. Tambidn el primer anidaje del Gorri6n Canela (Lonchura punctu-
lata), primer avistamiento de la Tijerilla 6 Rabijunco (Fregata ,,,li;,....i,)i y la Mariquita 6 Capitin
(Agelaius xanthomus), y el registro de aves en Guami, San German, Puerto Rico por un period de 25
anos.


WE ARE NOT AWARE of any published records of
birds from Bario Guama (185.3' N, 670.4' W), San
German, southwestern Puerto Rico. The area does
not support a large or varied bird fauna. It is semi-
arid with only intermittent streams, largely open with
small patches of scrub on low elevation rolling foot-
hills, persistent moderate to high winds, rocky and
poor soils, with moderate to severe human distur-
bance. Here we present our observations made over a
25-year period (1975-1999) (Table 1).
Orange-fronted Parakeet Aratinga canicularis -
Raffaele (1989) classified the Orange-fronted Para-
keet as rare and recently introduced in Puerto Rico.
He noted that small numbers occurred in northeast-
ern Puerto Rico at San Juan and wooded pastures
near Las Croabas in Fajardo, but found no evidence
of nesting, although he believed the bird may possi-
bly have been established. More recently, Raffaele et
al. (1998) revised the date of the introduction of the
parakeet back to probably the 1960s, and described
its status as uncommon, occurring in small numbers,
and restricted to Cabezas de San Juan near Fajardo.
Perez-Rivera (pers. comm.), however, noted that
there have been reports of hundreds of individuals in
Puerto Rico. Christmas Bird Counts at Fajardo show
that the numbers of this species are increasing; two
were noted in 1994, 15 in 1995, and 58 in 1997
(Norton 1998).
We have observed individuals in Guami, Puerto
Rico, which suggests a range expansion to south-
western Puerto Rico, as well as evidence of nesting
there. One immature Orange-fronted Parakeet was
observed in a tree at a distance of 10 m for 30 min-
utes beginning at 09:00, 31 January 1993. One adult
and four immature Orange-fronted Parakeets were


observed feeding on seeds in a queen-of-the-flowers
tree (Lagerstoemia speciosa) for 20 minutes at
09:00, 17 February 1993, and again in the same area
at 14:00 in the afternoon of 20 February 1993. Two
adult Orange-fronted Parakeets were seen at 08:00
on 5 July 1993 in Guama. These observations sug-
gest that this bird has become established and nesting
has occurred somewhere around Guama.
Guami is in the daily flight pattern of the flock of
Canary-winged Parakeets (Brotogeris versicolurus),
which apparently commute between the InterAmeri-
can University Campus in San German and the
mountains to the north. We are familiar with the Ca-
nary-winged Parakeet from its overflights and occa-
sional visits, so we are confident that we are not con-
fusing this bird with the Orange-fronted Parakeet.
Nutmeg Mannikin Lonchura punctulata Raf-
faele (1989) reported the Nutmeg Mannikin from
coastal and lowland habitats throughout Puerto Rico.
He found it nested in summer and fall, and occasion-
ally in spring. We observed a pair of mannikins nest-
ing at a higher elevation in Guami, in the same
queen-of-the-flowers tree where the parakeets would
later feed. The nest was 3 m from the ground on the
outer southwestern edge of the tree. Nest-building
began on 20 June 1992. Subsequently, a storm dis-
lodged the nest, and the adults did not return. A pair
successfully nested in a mango tree (Mangifera in-
dica), 20 m from the queen-of-the-flowers tree men-
tioned above, beginning 7 May 1993. The nest was
on the outer southwestern edge of the tree, 6 m from
the ground and 3 m above an adjacent wooden deck.
These nests in a new habitat suggest the population
is expanding its range. Low numbers of the mannikin
have occasionally been observed in other localities in


El Pitirre 12(3)


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BIRDS OF GUAMA, SOUTHWESTERN PUERTO RICO BUNKLEY-WILLIAMS AND WILLIAMS


TABLE 1. Birds observed in Guami, San German, southwestern Puerto Rico, 1975-1999.


Birds observed


Family Common and scientific names S
Fregatidae
Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magniiti en'
Ardeidae
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
Cathartidae
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura
Accipitridae
Red-tailed Hawk Buteojamaicensis
Falconidae
American Kestrel Falco sparverius
Columbidae
Rock Dove Columba livia
Zenaida Dove Zenaida aurita
Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina
Psittacidae
Orange-fronted Parakeet Aratinga canicularis
Canary-winged Parakeet Brotogeris versicolurus
Cuculidae
Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor
Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani
Caprimulgidae
Antillean Nighthawk Chordeiles gundlachii
Trochilidae
Puerto Rican Emerald Chlorostilbon maugaeus
Antillean Mango Anthracothorax dominicus
Green Mango Anthracothorax viridis
Todidae
Puerto Rican Tody Todus mexicanus


tatus1


Birds observed


Family Common and scientific names


Picidae
R Puerto Rican Woodpecker Melanerpes
portoricensis
C Tyrannidae
Gray Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis
C Puerto Rican Flycatcher Myiarchus antillarum
Hirundinidae
F Bank Swallow Riparia riparia
Cave Swallow Hirundofulva
F Muscicapidae
Red-legged Thrush Turdus plumbeus
O Mimidae
O Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos
F Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margaropsfuscatus
Emberizidae
O Bananaquit Coerebaflaveola
F Striped-headed Tanager Spindalis zena
Puerto Rican Bullfinch Loxigilla portoricensis
O Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivacea
O Black-faced Grassquit Tiaris bicolor
Greater Antillean Grackle Quiscalus niger
O Black-cowled Oriole Icterus dominicensis
Yellow-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius
O xanthomus
O Estrildidae
F Nutmeg Mannikin Lonchurapunctulata


'C common, likely to be seen more than once per day; F fairly common, seen on a regular basis, possibly daily; O=occasional, seen
several times, but not predictably; R rare, seen once.


the interior of Puerto Rico (P6rez Rivera, pers.
comm.). We occasionally saw large flocks of this
bird are on Magueyes Island off La Parguera, in the
late 1970s and early 1980s.
Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens -
We observed an adult Magnificent Frigatebird soar-
ing over Guami, Puerto Rico (12 km from the coast),
on 4 July 1993, for 20 min. beginning at 15:15. Bi-
aggi (1997) noted that frigatebirds are occasionally
reported from the interior of Puerto Rico, possibly
crossing from coast to coast. We have not seen this
bird in Guami, or this far inland, in our 25 years of
residence. Raffaele et al. (1998) suggested that
frigatebirds will penetrate well inland during storms,
but our observation was not during stormy weather.
Yellow-shouldered Blackbird (Agelaius xantho-


mus) In the past, blackbirds occurred, though
rarely, in the interior of Puerto (P6rez-Rivera, pers.
Comm.) More recently, and when our observations
of the blackbird in Guami were made, most of the
few remaining specimens of this increasing endan-
gered endemic are found on the southwestern coast
of Puerto Rico and Mona Island (Raffaele et al.
1998).
Red-legged Thrush Turdus plumbeus The
thrush appears to be very rare in Guami, where the
Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) domi-
nates. At slightly higher elevations nearby, the Red-
legged Thrush appears to replace the Pearly-eyed
Thrasher. We do not know why the Red-legged
Thrush is more successful at higher altitudes. It
could be due to the denser vegetation and more com-


El Pitirre 12(3)


Status'



C

C
0

0
F

R

C
F

C
0
0
F
C
F
F

R

0


Page 93









BIRDS OF GUAMA, SOUTHWESTERN PUERTO RICO BUNKLEY-WILLIAMS AND WILLIAMS


plex habitats there. In lower, more exposed areas, the
aggressive behavior of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher ap-
parently allows it to dominate.

We thank Dr. David L. Ballantine, Department of
Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, and Dr.
Paul J. Bartels, Department of Biological Sciences,
Warren Wilson College, for additional observations
of the Orange-fronted Parakeet; and Rail A. P6rez-
Rivera for additional information and for reviewing
the manuscript.


LITERATURE CITED
BIAGGI, V. 1997. Las aves de Puerto Rico, 4th Ed,
Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San
Juan, Puerto Rico.
NORTON, R. L. 1998. West Indies/Bermuda in. 98th
Christmas Bird Count (G. S. LeBaron, ed.) Ameri-
can Birds, pg. 599.
RAFFAELE, H. A. 1989. A guide to the birds of
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, 2nd ed. Prince-
ton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton,
New Jersey.


OPPORTUNITIES FOR LATIN AMERICAN FIELD ORNITHOLOGISTS
TO ATTEND AN ADVANCED TRAINING PROGRAM IN CANADA

Bird Studies Canada/Long Point Bird Observatory is offering a 1-month course in advanced field tech-
niques pertaining to songbirds (mist-netting, bird banding, ageing and sexing, point counts, migration monitor-
ing, database management etc.). All training will occur at Long Point, located on the north shore of Lake Erie.
This course will be ideal for talented Latin American field biologists/technicians who already have an excellent
background in field ornithology and who are seriously interested in upgrading their skills. This course is not
suitable for beginners. A good working ability in English is essential. Institutions and agencies in Latin Amer-
ica (especially Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean) are encouraged to recommend potential candi-
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For information and applications, contact JUL WOJNOWSKI, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port
Rowan, Ontario, Canada NOE 1MO (E-mail: ; Phone: 519-586-3531; Fax: 519-586-3532);
or visit our web site: .

Applications must be received by 10 April 2000.


El Pitirre 12(3)


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OBSERVACION DE CARPINTEROS VERDES (XIPHIDIOPICUSPERCUSSUS) DEPREDANDO HUEVOS
DE GARZAS (AVES: ARDEIDAE)

DENNIS DENIS1, LEANDRO TORRELLA2, ARIAM JIMENEZ1 Y KAREN BEOVIDES1
aFacultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, Cuba; y 2Empresa Nacionalpara la Conservaci6n de la Flora y la
Fauna, La Habana, Cuba


LAS AVES ACUATICAS COLONIALES son compo-
nentes muy importantes de los ecosistemas de hum-
edales. En ellas la formaci6n de colonies de reproduc-
ci6n es un comportamiento ecol6gico cuya funci6n es
aun muy discutida, aunque se ha reconocido como un
mecanismo antidepredador (Forbes 1989, Frederick y
Collopy 1989). Sin embargo la alta concentraci6n de
press hace que muchas species depredadores, sobre
todo areas, las utilicen intensamente al obtener ali-
mento a bajo costo sin riesgos ya que las garzas en
general carecen de mecanismos conductuales de de-
fensa contra estas. En Cuba los depredadores adreos de
huevos y pichones mis importantes son el Guanaba de
la Florida (Nycticorax nycticorax) y potencialmente la
Lechuza (Tyto alba), Aura Tifiosa (Cathartes aura),
gaviotas y otras rapaces.
Durante investigaciones en una colonia mixta de
garzas en Cayo Norte, Laguna Las Playas, Cidnaga del
Cauto Sur, enjulio de 1999, presenciamos la conduct
de depredaci6n de huevos por parte de Carpinteros
Verdes (Xiphidiopicus percussus). En una primera
oportunidad observamos el merodeo de un individuo
de esta especie entire pequefios arbustos secos de man-
gle prieto que tenian una alta densidad de nidos de
Egretta thula y Bubulcus ibis, y nidos aislados de
Egretta tricolor. Estos arbustos eran demasidado
delgados para suponer que los carpinteros buscasen en
ellos insects xil6fagos de los que se alimentan. Al
acercanos encontramos en various nidos huevos rotos
de una forma particular ya que presentaban pequefias
aberturas circulares por donde brotaba su contenido.
Estos agujeros eran bien diferentes a las grandes aber-
turas romboidales que muestran los huevos depredados
por los Guanabaes. Puestos sobre aviso, en una se-
gunda oportunidad pudimos verificar el hecho de que
estos individuos efectivamente estaban picoteando los


huevos.
La depredaci6n de huevos por los carpinteros no
es un hecho nuevo ya que se sabe de su existencia en
otras species (Husak 1995; J. Jackson, com. pers.),
pero nunca habia sido reportado en la especie cu-
bana. Suponemos que dadas las caracteristicas del
area, grandes extensions de agua salobre y elevadas
temperatures, los pdjaros carpinteros empleen esta
conduct poco usual para ingerir liquidos, ya que sus
press en general poseen un contenido relativamente
bajo de agua libre.

AGRADECIMIENTOS
Agradecemos al Grupo Regional de Trabajo con la
Yaguasa (WIWD-WG) por su apoyo finaciero en
nuestras investigaciones sobre aves acuiticas y hum-
edales en Cuba. Tambidn agradecemos el apoyo reci-
bido por la direcci6n y los trabajadores del Area Pro-
tegida Delta del Cauto para la realizaci6n de nuestras
investigaciones, especialmente a Omar Labrada.

LITERATURE CITADA
FORBES, L. S. 1989. Coloniality in herons: Lack's
predation hypothesis reconsidered. Colonial Wa-
terbird 12:24-29.
FREDERICK, P. C. Y M. W. COLLOPY. 1989. The role
of predation in determining reproductive success
of colonially nesting wading birds in the Florida
Everglades. Condor 91(4):860-867.
HUSAK, M. S. 1995. Evidence of possible egg preda-
tion by Golden-fronted Woodpeckers. Bull.
Texas Ornithol. Soc. 28:55-56.


El Pitirre 12(3)


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NUEVO REPORT DE NIDIFICACION DE GARZA ROJIZA (EGRETTA RUFESCENS) EN CUBA

DENNIS DENIS1, LEANDRO TORRELLA2, PATRICIA RODRIGUEZ1 Y ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ'
lFacultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, Cuba; y 2Empresa Nacionalpara la Conservaci6n de la Flora y Fauna,
La Habana, Cuba


LA GARZA ROJIZA (Egretta rufescens) es una de
las species menos abundantes de la familiar al ser
casi exterminada en Norteam6rica a principios de
siglo por los cazadores de plumas. Aunque se ha re-
cobrado, el total de reproductores a nivel mundial se
estima en no mis de 2000 parejas (Paul 1998). Esta
especie habitat exclusivamente en areas costeras y
manglares y solo se conocen muy pocas colonies de
cria. Su rango de distribuci6n abarca las costas de
America Central y del Caribe, incluyendo la Florida
y el sur de Am6rica del Norte, y la franja norte de
sudamerica. En Cuba ha sido reportada como local-
mente comiin (Raffaele et al. 1998), aunque solo
existen referencias en Las Salinas (Barus 1966) y en
various cayos, como Cayo Coco y Romano (Garrido
1976, Acosta y Berovides 1984, Kirkconnell y
Posada 1988), Cayo Guillermo (Kirkconnell et al.
1993), Cayo Matias (Acosta et al. 1988) y Cayo
Campos (Estrada y Rodriguez 1985), entire otros.
Gundlach (1893) menciona que la especie es rara
en el interior de la isla pero no en los cayos y ciertos
manglares, citando una poblaci6n important del
morfo blanco en una colonia situada en los
manglares de la desembocadura del Rio Cauto. Des-
cribe su nido como "formado por algunas ramitas y
sin materials blandos" y a sus huevos como "lisos,
palido-verdoso-azules" entire 49 x 38 mm y 48 x 36
mm. Barbour (1943) la cita como una especie no
poco comun, y Balat y Gonzalez (1982) mencionan
como finicos datos para Cuba site nidadas presents
en la colecci6n ool6gica del Instituto de Zoologia
colectadas en el mes de diciembre (sin especificar el
afio) pertenecientes a la subespecie E. r. colorata.
Posteriormente, Garrido y Kirkconnell (1990) repor-
tan tambidn la presencia en Cuba de la subespecie E.
r. rufescens.
A trav6s de este trabajo reportamos la nidificaci6n
de tres parejas de E. rufescens en la ci6naga de
Viramas, Area Protegida Delta del Cauto. Durante el
studio de los parimetros reproductivos de varias
species de garzas en una colonia localizada en Cayo
Norte, Laguna las Playas, en la Cidnaga Sur del
Cauto, se detect en el mes de julio de 1999 la
actividad de una pareja en fase blanca de esta especie
alrededor de un nido con dos huevos. Posteriormente
se localizaron otros dos nidos cercanos al primero,
uno con pichones pequefios (de menos de dos


semanas) y otro durante la puesta. Los tres nidos se
encontraban en el borde interior de la colonia mixta
formada por Egretta thula, Bubulcus ibis y Egretta
tricolor. Estaban ubicados en arbustos de mangle
prieto de baja altura entire otros nidos de garzas.
Estos nidos eran de mayor dihmetro que los de sus
cong6neres y tenian un recubrimiento interno de
hojas secas (Tabla 1).
En los tres casos los parentales se mostraron
confiados ante la presencia humana tolerando
acercamientos de hasta 5 m en un area despejada, sin
embargo eran notablemente agresivos con los adults
y pichones de las demis species que se acercaban a
su nido.
Dos de los nidos contenian huevos de mayor
tamafio que los de las otras species menores pero
del mismo color (Tabla 2). Ninguno de los nidos,
que fueron seguidos durante dos emanas, result
exitoso ya que dos de ellos fueron depredados y el
tercero, luego de perder uno de los huevos por causes
desconocidas, explot6 espontineamente por el calor
del sol en un moment en que los parentales estaban
ausentes. El contenido evertido parece indicar que
estaba inf6rtil o que habia muerto el embri6n en fase
muy temprana.
Dos aspects son de resaltar de estas
observaciones, y son en primer lugar, que la 6poca
de cria para esta especie en el Caribe habia sido
ubicado entire diciembre y abril (Raffaele et al.
1998), por lo cual result un nuevo report de fecha
reproductive. Tambidn es curioso sefialar la
nidificaci6n en una localidad tan interior, ya que
aunque las condiciones de la laguna son de elevada



TABLA 1. Caracteristicas de los tres nidos de Egretta
rufescens encontrados en la ci6naga de Viramas,
Area Protegida Delta del Cauto, Cuba, Julio 1999.


Nido Altura Diametro
no. del nido externo


Contenido
2 huevos
2 pichones
2 huevos


El Pitirre 12(3)


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NUEvo REPORT DE NIDIFICACION DE GARZA ROJIZA (EGRETTA RUFESCENS) EN CUBA-DENIS ETAL.


TABLA 2. Caracteristicas de los huevos de Egretta
rufescens en dos nidos en la ci6naga de Viramas,
Area Protegida Delta del Cauto, Cuba, Julio 1999.


Diametro (mm)


Nido Huevo
no. no.
1 1
2
3 1
2
Promedio (N= 4)


Menor
36.5
35.8
36.9
35.1
36.08


Mayor
48.9
46.8
49.5
49.7
48.72


salinidad, Cayo Norte se encuentra a 11 km de la
costa. Este es el primer report de esta especie para
el area de la laguna Las Playas, pero dias despu6s fue
visto un bando de seis ejemplares forrejeando en
Carenas, localidad intermedia entire la laguna y el
mar.

AGRADECIMIENTOS
Queremos agradecer a los compafieros de las areas
protegidas Monte Cabaniguin y Delta del Cauto que
nos apoyaron en el trabajo del campo, y
especialmente Omar Labrada, CUsar, Tico y al viejo
Andrds. Tambidn al Grupo Regional de Trabajo con
la Yaguasa (WIWD-WG) por su apoyo y
financiamiento para los studios de aves acuiticas en
Cuba.

LITERATURE CITADA
ACOSTA, M. Y V. BEROVIDES. 1984. Ornitocenosis
de los cayos Coco y Romano, Archipielago de
Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba. Poeyana 274:1-10.
ACOSTA, M., M. E. IBARRA Y E. FERNANDEZ. 1988.
Aspectos ecologicos de la avifauna de Cayo
Matias (grupo insular de Los Canarreos, Cuba).
Poeyana 360:1-11.


BALAT, F. Y H. J. GONZALEZ ALONSO. 1982.
Concrete data on the breeding of Cuban birds.
Acta Sci. Nat. Acad. Sci. Bohemoslov 16(8):1-46.
BARBOUR, T. 1943. Cuban ornithology. Mem.
Nuttall Ornithol. Club 9:1-143.
BARUS, V. 1966. Nematodos parisitos de aves en
Cuba. Parte I. Poeyana 22:1-38.
ESTRADA, A. Y R. RODRIGUEZ. 1985. Lista de
vertebrados terrestres de Cayo Campos,
Archipidlago de los Canarreos, Cuba. Misc. Zool.
27:2.
GARRIDO, 0. 1976. Aves y reptiles de Cayo Coco.
Misc. Zool. 3:2.
GARRIDO, O. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 1990. La Garza
Norteamericana Egretta rufescens rufescens
(Aves: Ardeidae) en Cuba. El Volante Migratorio
14:20-21.
GUNDLACH, J. C. 1893. Ornitologia cubana o
catflogo descriptive de todas las species de aves
tanto indigenas como de paso annual o accidental
observadas en 53 afios. Imp. La Moderna, La
Habana.
KIRKCONNELL, A. Y R. M. POSADA. 1988. Adiciones
a la avifauna de Cayo Romano, Cuba. Misc. Zool.
37:4.
KIRKCONNELL, A., R. M. POSADA, V. BEROVIDES Y
J. A. MORALES. 1993. Aves de Cayo Guillermo,
Archipidlago Sabana Camagiiey, Cuba. Poeyana
430:1-7.
PAUL, R. T. 1998. World status and distribution of
the Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens). Resumen.
Poster presentado en la reuni6n annual de la
Colonial Waterbirds Society, Lafayette, Louisiana,
1998.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y J.
RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West
Indies. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New
Jersey.


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ROADSIDE VULTURE COUNTS IN A CENTRAL PANAMA PROVINCE, PANAMA


ESTEBAN GODINEZ
Entrega General, Zona 7, Panamd, Republica de Panamd


THE TECHNIQUE OF counting vultures along exten-
sive automobile routes has been little used in Latin
America (Ellis et al. 1983). Ellis et al. (1983) pre-
sented baseline data on the abundance of New World
vultures, using this method in 1978-1979. However,
no vulture survey has been published using roadside
counts in Panama. Here I report on vulture popula-
tions in Panama as determined using roadside sur-
veys.
My main objective in conducting roadside counts
of vultures was to determine the relative abundance
of vulture populations from a specific area of Vera-
guas province, central Panama. I performed 15 road-
side counts for vultures along 14 km of the In-
teramerican Road, between kms 249 and 263 west of
Santiago City, during the early dry season of 1994-
1995 and 1995-1996. Lesser Yellow-headed Vul-
tures (Cathartes burrovianus), Greater Yellow-
headed Vultures (C. melambrotus), and Turkey Vul-
tures (Cathartes aura) have been reported in the
zone (Ridgley and Gwynne 1993). I was not always
able to positively identify observed birds to species,
although Ellis et al. (1983) reported that they were
surprisingly easy to separate in the field, at least in
flight. Low hills, with clearings for agriculture and
cattle, are typical in the region. All surveys were
done in good weather conditions, mostly on clear
days. The wind varied from strong to medium strong.
In conducting the roadside counts, I rode on a bicy-
cle or in a car, counting only those vultures seen
while moving along the route. I stopped only on two
occasions: I examined activity at a dead cow in a
gutter of the road on 15 January 1995, when it was
necessary to conduct a special count because of the
large number of birds. Counts were made during
peak flying activity periods, from 09:02-11:32 and
12:32-16:53 hr. A summary of the counts, chronol-
ogy, and some transect data are presented in Table 1.
King Vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) were not seen
in my surveys, nor were the two species of yellow-
headed vultures. All Cathartes vultures were identi-
fied as Turkey Vultures when they were counted at
low heights (less than 20 m). However, I present
these as Cathartes spp. in my results. Black Vultures
(Coragyps atratus ) were the most common and con-


spicuous vulture species along my study route (2.48
birds/km). I estimated the mean ratio of Coragyps to
Cathartes as 3.90:1 birds.
Wotzkow and Wiley (1988) obtained a numerical
result for Turkey Vultures in Cuba of 3.5 birds/km.
This value is similar to my total vulture counts (3.10
vultures/km), although my study area contained sev-
eral species of vultures. Although the number of
birds of Cathartes spp. was less than the Black Vul-
ture in my study area, I estimated a mean figure of
9.4 birds per kilometer. My Turkey Vulture counts
were substantially higher than those Hubbard (1983)
obtained for that species (3.0 birds/100 km) in New
Mexico
I observed high numbers of vultures feeding at a
carcass by the side of the survey road. About 80
Black Vultures were counted at the carcass, whereas
only one Turkey Vulture was waiting its chance to
feed during the morning of 15 January 1995. When I
returned along the route, the proportion was not
much higher in the afternoon; i.e., 30 Black Vul-
tures: Turkey Vulture.

LITERATURE CITED
ELLIS, D. H., R. L. GLINSKI, J. G. GOODWING, JR.,
AND W. H. WHALEY. 1983. New World vulture
counts in Mexico, Central America and South
America. Pages 124-133 in Wilbur, S. R., and J.
A. Jackson, eds. Vulture biology and manage-
ment. Univ. California Press, Berkeley.
HUBBARD, J. P. 1983. Roadside raptor counts as an
indicator of the status of the Turkey Vulture in
New Mexico. Pages 375-384 in Wilbur, S. R.,
and J. A. Jackson, eds. Vulture biology and man-
agement. Univ. California Press, Berkeley.
RIDGELY, R. S., AND J. A. GWYNNE, JR. 1993.
Guia de las aves de Panama, incluyendo Costa
Rica, Nicaragua y Honduras. Asociaci6n Na-
cional para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza, AN-
CON, Panama.
WOTZKOW, C., AND J. W. WILEY. 1988. Turkey
Vulture surveys in Cuba. J. Raptor Res. 22(1):3-
7.


El Pitirre 12(3)


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ROADSIDE VULTURE COUNTS IN PANAMA ESTEBAN GODINEZ


TABLE 1. Summary of vulture count
1994-1995 and 1995-1996.

Start


data in the early dry season in Veraguas province, central Panama,


Finish


Number of vultures sighted


Time Point


09:18
09:08
16:05
10:52
09:21
10:21
09:02
15:00
09:40
09:38
09:42
12:32
09:33
13:54
12:47


Time

10:11
09:57
16:53
11:32
10:00
11:07
09:46
15:47
10:26
10:21
10:02
12:43
09:52
14:13
13:06


Standard deviation


Point Coragyps Cathartes Birds/km


ORNITOFAUNA DE LA PORCION ESPIRITAUNA DEL ECOSISTEMA SABANA-CAMAGUEY, CUBA

ABEL HERNANDEZ MUNOZ1, JORGE E. DE LA TORRE RODRIGUEZ2 Y FRANK MORERA HERNANDEZ3
'Museo Provincial Polivalente de Sancti Spiritus, 2Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias del Instituto
Superior Pedag6gico de Sancti Spiritus, 3Area Protegida "Jobo Rosado"


EL ECOSISTEMA SABANA-CAMAGUEY (ESC) es
una region que alcanza un total de 75,000 Km2 ter-
restres y marines, localizados en la porci6n norte y
central de Cuba, abarcando desde la Peninsula de
Hicacos hasta la Bania de Nuevitas y de los cuales
1,446.8 pertenecen a la provincia de Sancti Spiritus.
A partir del gran desarrollo que han alcanzado los
studios onitol6gicos en Cuba, la avifauna de la por-
ci6n espirituana del ESC ha sido relativamente poco
prospectada hasta hoy dia. En el present trabajo se
ofrece informaci6n sobre la composici6n, status y
dstribuci6n de la ornitofauna observada en el territo-
rio del Ecosistema Sabana-Camaguey correspondi-
ente a la provincia, como resultado de la revision
bibliogrffica realizada y el trabajo de campo efec-
tuado durante 9 afios de investigaci6n en dicha


region. En el area de studio se detectaron 163 espe-
cies pertenecientes a 19 6rdenes, 47 families y 107
g6neros. Del total de species 101 crian en Cuba.
Los 6rdenes mejor representados fueron: Passerifor-
mes, Charadrilformes, Anseriformes, Ciconliformes,
Columbiformes y Falconiformes. La mayoria de las
species (49) son residents permanentes comunes,
40 son residents invemales comunes y 25 residents
permanentes bimodales. Se detectaron 19 species
amenazadas de extinci6n (2 de ellas en peligro y 17
vulnerables. La region fisiogrifica mis rica en espe-
cies fue la de humedales costeros y dentro de eila la
formaci6n vegetal de manglar, con 103. La porci6n
espirituana del ESC es de gran importancia para la
conservaci6n de la biodiversidad de aves en el cen-
tronorte de Cuba.


El Pitirre 12(3)


Survey date

12/25/1994
12/31/1994
12/31/1994
01/02/1995
01/08/1995
01/08/1995
01/15/1995
01/15/1995
12/25/1995
01/28/1995
12/31/1995
01/07/1996
01/09/1996
01/20/1996
01/27/1996
Mean


4.50
1.35
1.42
2.07
3.57
0.79
8.21
3.07
1.64
3.43
3.79
4.93
5.14
1.07
1.93
3.10
2.00


34.7
23.4


Page 99












ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA DE LA SIERRA DE NIPE, MAYARI, HOLGUIN, CUBA

CARLOS M. PENA RODRIGUEZ1, BARBARA SANCHEZ ORIA2, NILS NAVARRO PACHECO3, ERNESTO REYES4,
ARTURO HERNANDEZ2, RODOLFO SANCHEZ2 Y RAMONA OVIEDO2
1Grupo de Recursos Naturales, CITAMA. Holguin; 2Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA;, 3Sociedad Espeleol6gica de
Cuba; y 4Investigaciones Integrales de la Montanfa, CITAMA, Holguin


LA SIERRA DE NIPE se ubica en el extreme occi-
dental de las alturas del norte de Cuba Oriental, for-
mando parte del sistema montafioso mis important
para el studio de la biodiversidad en Cuba, el cual
ocupa aproximadamente 600 km2. El area de estu-
dio Altiplanicie Pinares de Mayari y zonas ale-
dafias han estado sometida a una antropizaci6n
progresiva en el tiempo por el desarrollo e intensifi-
caci6n de la mineria, paralelamente a otros cambio
de uso del suelo para la ganaderia, la agriculture, la
actividad forestal y cafetalera, provocando la susti-
tuci6n de la vegetaci6n natural en algunas locali-
dades de la altiplanicie, por lo que aparecen pre-
sentes formaciones vegetables naturales, seminatu-
rales, y artificiales.
El present trabajo constitute un aporte a la
actualizaci6n sistemitica de la informaci6n recopi-
lada y publicada por Navarro et al. (1997). El desar-
rollo de los esfuerzos de conservaci6n e investiga-
ci6n en los filtimos tres afios en la region, han posi-
bilitado colectar y completar una valiosa informaci6n
sobre distribuci6n y abundancia de la omitofauna de
Pinares de Mayari, como resultado de los trabajos in-
vestigativos del grupo de autores en el proyecto,
"Estudio de las comunidades de aves residents y
migratorias en diferentes ecosistemas cubanos,"
correspondiente al Programa Nacional de Cambios
Globales, del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y
Medio Ambiente.
Durante los muestreos, se detectaron site
species de aves consideradas como nuevos registros
para el area de studio. Las formas adicionadas
comprenden a seis species residents invemales y
una transefinte, incrementindose a 32 las migratorias
del area de studio. Ademis, fue detectada
recientemente el Zuzuncito (Mellisuga helenae;
Sanchez et al., en prensa), por lo que la riqueza de
species del area de studio asciende a 105. Entre las
adiciones a la avifauna se encuentran las siguientes
species:
Halc6n de Patos (Falco peregrinus) Es un
resident invemal bastante raro en Cuba, aunque esta
especie habitat fundamentalmente en lagunas,
ci6nagas y zonas costeras, tambidn incursionan en


areas de bosques y montafias e incluso dentro de las
ciudades; el individuo que se report para esta
localidad fue observado en pleno vuelo sobrevolando
un bosque reforestado de Eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp.),
en las alturas de la altiplanicie Pinares de Mayari.
Gavilan Sabanero (Circus cyaneus) Su
distribuci6n abarca: Am6rica del Norte, Europa y
Asia. En sus migraciones llegan hasta el Norte de
Am6rica del Sur y su ocurrencia abarca virtualmente
todas las Antillas, es considerado como un resident
invemal raro para el territorio cubano (Garrido y
Garcia 1975), este gavilan habitat en terrenos
desmontados, sabanas y ci6nagas; el present report
se refiere a un individuo observado en una sabana
antr6pica de la altiplanicie.
Guabario Americano (Caprimulgus
carolinensis) resident invemal raro en Cuba,
frecuenta fundamentalmente zonas de vegetaci6n
costera y bosques semidesiduos, un individuo fue
visto mientras maniobraba capturando insects en
horas del crepuisculo en los alrededores de un
pequefio embalse artificial de agua.
Bijirita de Cabeza Negra (Dendroica striata) La
distribuci6n de esta bijirita comprende el norte y
noreste de Norte America. Esta especie fue
considerada por Garrido y Garcia (1975) como un
raro transeunte otofial, aunque comun en la
migraci6n primaveral, sin embargo actualmente es
considerada por Rodriguez et al. (1994) como un
transefunte comuin durante la migraci6n otofial en
zonas costeras de la region oriental. Un individuo fue
capturado el 18 de octubre de 1997 y anillado
durante los muestreos en el matorral xeromorfo
subespinoso (charrascal).
Bijirita de Garganta Amarilla (Dendroica
dominica) Se observ6 un individuo en el Pinar de
Mensura II; es una especie coming como resident
invemal, siendo mis frecuente en bosque
semideciduos, pinares y areas abiertas.
Bijirita Coronata (Dendroica coronata) Como
resident invemal se distribute desde las Antillas
hasta las Islas Virgenes, para Cuba se consider
como especie rara en las migraciones de inviemo,


El Pitirre 12(3)


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AVIFAUNA DE LA SIERRA DE NIPE, MAYARI, HOLGUIN, CUBA PENA RODRIGUEZETAL.


siendo mis comfinmente observada en
agroecosistemas, ecotonos de bosques y areas
abiertas. Un individuo fue capturado y anillado en la
vegetaci6n de Pinar (Pinus cubensis), el 10 de
febrero de 1998.
Degollado (Pheucticus ludovicianus) Es un raro
transefinte annual que se report con mayor frecuencia
para la region Oriental en el litoral de Gibara, costa
norte de la provincia Holguin. Un individuo fue
observado en el bosque Pluvial del Cayo de las
Mujeres al norte de la altiplanicie.


LITERATURE CITADA


Cathlogo de las aves de Cuba. Acad. Cien. Cuba.
La Habana.
NAVARRO, N; J. LLAMACHO Y C. PErA. 1997.
Listado preliminary de la avifauna de Sierra de
Nipe, Mayari, Holguin, Cuba. Pitirre 10(2):65.
RODRIGUEZ, D., B. SANCHEZ, A. TORRES Y A.
RAMS. 1994. Composici6n y abundancia de las
aves durante la migraci6n otofial en Gibara, Cuba.
Avicennia 1:101-109.
SANCHEZ, B.; A. HERNANDEZ; C. PErA; E. REYES Y
N. NAVARRO. En prensa. El Zunzuncito, Mellisuga
helenae (Aves: Trochilidae), en la Altiplanicie de
Nipe, Holguin, Cuba.


GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975.







REGIMEN ALIMENTARIO DEL CERNICALO CUBANO EN UNA
LOCALIDAD DE LA REGION CENTRAL DE CUBA

ABEL HERNANDEZ MUrOZ
Museo Provincial Polivalente de Sancti Spiritus, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba


ENTRE LAS AVES, las Falconiformes resultan
id6neas para investigar el regimen alimentario, por lo
relativamente facil que result estudiario a partir del
andlisis de sus egagr6pilas. La regurgitaci6n de los
perdigones orales es la finica via de expulsion de
desechos s6lidos de 6stas aves y tiene lugar, general-
mente, durante las primeras horas de la mafiana.
Nuestro objetivo fue indagar sobre la dieta del
Cernicalo cubano (Falco sparverius sparverioides).
Se colectaron un total de 15 egagr6pilas que con-
tenian 21 press el dia 13 de mayo de 1995, por lo
que todes los bolos de regurgitaci6n colectados cor-
respontien al period seco. Las colectas se hicieron
en un nido abandonado donde una pareja crio tres
pichones, en el hueco de un seto vivo que se encuen-
tra en la finca del campesino Adriano Valle, ubicada
en la localidad de Neiva, municipio de Cabaiguin y


provincia de Sancti Spiritus, en la region central de
Cuba. Cada egagr6pila colectada fue media y des-
menuzada individualmente, determinandose el tipo
de alimento ingerido y el tipo de presa. El tamafio
promedio de los ovillos regurgitados fue de 20 mm
de largo y 8 mm de ancho. Los reptiles constituyeron
las press basicas de la rapaz y dentro de ellos los
pertenecientes a la especie Anolis allisoni. El r6gi-
men alimentario del Cemicalo cubano sufre evi-
dentes variaciones estacionales; durante el verano es
esencialmente entom6fago, consumlendo entonces
grandes insects, sobre todo ort6pteros. Con el in-
verno cambia sus hibitos, alimentindose principal-
mente de lagartos y pdjaros, lo cual explica las difer-
encias observadas entire los resultados del present
trabajo y los obtenidos por otros autores para la
misma especie considerando todo el afio.


El Pitirre 12 (3)


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SIGHTINGS OF THE CUBAN SANDHILL CRANE (GRUS CANADENSIS NESIOTES)
IN PINAR DEL RiO, CUBA

A. RODRIGUEZ GOMEZ AND R. ALONSO
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMAI, Carretera de Varona km 3'2,
Capdevilla, Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba


THE SANDHILL CRANE (Grus canadensis nesiotes)
is a clear example of how an increase in sampling
effort can provide more accurate knowledge of a for-
merly underestimated population. Since the begin-
ning of the Crane Conservation Program in Novem-
ber 1994, 11 populations of the Cuban Sandhill
Crane have been recorded in Cuba. The status of this
species in Pinar del Rio province, however, has re-
mained unclear, with only one confirmed report from
the region of Macurije, a small town near Mataham-
bre, 48 km from Vifiales, accounting for the presence
of the largest Cuban bird in this province (Gilvez
1996).
During a field trip to San Diego de los Bafios, Pi-
nar del Rio (Fig. 1), a pair of Sandhill Cranes was
heard calling at dusk on 11 March 1999. The calls
were recorded with a Senheiser microphone and
Sony professional tape recorder. At 07:10 hr on 12
March, we observed a pair of cranes flying from the
area where the birds had been heard the previous
evening. We returned to the site on the morning of
13 March and again a crane was heard, although we
could not see it because of the dense vegetation at
the site. Finally, when we were returning to San
Diego del los Bafios, a crane was heard at about
11:00 hr at the same site.


A special conservation effort for the crane is
needed in this area. That effort should be extended to
include the several endemic and threatened Cuban
birds there. During our stay we heard gun shots in
the area and we encountered two hutia (Capromys
spp.) hunters carrying a shotgun. These incidents
suggest intensive hunting occurs in this zone. Be-
cause of their large size, Sandhill Cranes are often
shot as game and for food in Cuba, and are in need
of further protection measures.
After our observations, a fire burned an area of
several thousand hectares in the Macurijes region in
late April 1999. The cause of the fire and the extent
of the damage caused to the forest and other ecosys-
tems remain unknown, but the crane population there
may have suffered from this catastrophic event. Fur-
ther research is needed to determine the status of the
crane population in Pinar del Rio province.

LITERATURE CITED
GALVEZ AGUILERA, X. 1996. Technical report on the
results of the preservation program of the crane
(Nov. 1994-August 1996) in two islands of the
Cuban archipelago. IUCN (CAMP).


FIG. 1. Location of Cuban Sandhill Crane observations, San Diego de los Bafios, Pinar del
Rio, Cuba, 11-13 March 1999.


El Pitirre 12(3)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM THE 1999 MEETING OF THE SCO SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA
(CONTINUED FROM VOLUME 12, ISSUE 2)


ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF
CONVERSION FROM SHADE TO SUN COFFEE
RENA R. BORKHATARIA AND JAIME A. COLLAZO
'Department ofZoology, North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 USA; and 2U. S.
Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, North
Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit,
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
27695 USA
Traditional shade coffee plantations provide habitat
for many species and may serve as refuges in
disturbed landscapes. Our preliminary findings in
Puerto Rican coffee plantations support recent
findings that biological diversity is greater in shaded
than in sun plantations. To increase short-term yields
or gain access to economic incentives, however,
many farmers are converting to sun coffee. Through
conversion, ecosystem complexity is reduced and
ecological services rendered by inhabitants may be
lost. We are documenting differences in abundance
and diversity of birds, lizards, and arthropods in sun
and shade coffee plantations in Puerto Rico and
studying relationships between taxa using censuses,
visual observations, and exclosure experiments. As
birds have been implicated as possible agents in the
control of insect populations, we are excluding birds
from coffee plants and comparing arthropod
abundance and leaf damage on enclosed plants to
that on controls. We are also using foraging
observations of birds and lizards in sun and shade
coffee to examine their roles in coffee plantations
and the ecological services each might provide.
Preliminary findings, based on two experimental
trials, will be discussed.

IMPLICACIONES ECOLOGICAS DEL CAMBIO DEL CAFE
DE SOMBRA AL CAFE DE SOL.-Los cafetales
tradicionales de caf6 de sombra proven habitat para
varias species y pueden servir como refugio en
situaciones desequilibrados. Nuestros hallazgos
preliminaries en los cafetales de Puerto Rico
sustentan los hallazgos recientes de que la
biodiversidad biol6gica es mayor en las plantaciones
bajo sombra que en las de sol. De todos modos, para
incrementar su rendimiento a corto plazo u obtener
acceso a incentives econ6micos, muchos/as
agriculturos/as estin cambiando a caf6 de sol. A
trav6s de la conversion, la complejidad del
ecosistema se reduce y los servicios ecol6gicos
rendidos por sus habitantes pueden perderse.


Estamos documentando las diferencias en
abundancia y diversidad de aves, lagartos y
artr6podos en las plantaciones de caf6 de sombra en
Puerto Rico, y estudiando las relaciones entire los
taxon utilizando censos, observaciones visuales y
experiments de exclusion. Como se ha incluido a
las aves entire los posibles agents del control de las
poblaciones de insects, excluimos las aves de los
cafetales y comparamos la abundancia de artr6podos
y el dafio a las hojas en las plants rodeadas por esos
controls Tambidn utilizamos observaciones
forrajeras de aves y lagartos en el caf6 de sol y
sombra para examiner su rol en los cafetales y los
servicios ecol6gicos que pueden ofrecer. Los
hallazgos preliminaries, basados en los experimetos
de prueba serin discutidos.


STATUS OF EXOTIC FERAL WILDLIFE
ESTABLISHED IN PUERTO RICO.
STUDY 1: THE BIRDS
MARIA CAMACHO RODRIGUEZ
Department of Natural and Environmental Resources,
Division of Wildlife, P.O. Box 9066600, Puerta de Tierra
Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00906-6600
Exotic birds have proven to be good invaders when
liberated into island ecosystems. Tropical islands
seem to be more vulnerable to invasions, because of
climatic factors, topography, rivers, and vegetation.
Some exotic bird species have been established in
Puerto Rico for hundreds of years, succeeding
without human support and establishing feral
populations. The effects of exotic birds on island
ecology may be diverse, and there is a lack of
information on the survival of these species because
scientists have paid little attention to them. The
Department of Natural and Environmental Resources
of Puerto Rico, aware of the presence of diverse
alien bird families and with a long-standing concern
for controlling the importation of exotic species, has
developed a new study: Status of exotic feral wildlife
established in Puerto Rico. We monitored the coastal
zone and lower mountainous area during 1997-1998
to determine presence, distribution, and habitat use
of exotic species. We found 30 alien bird species
established on the island. We failed to find nine
exotic bird species previously recorded from Puerto
Rico, and determined the establishment of four new
exotic species. Apparently the habitat and food
resources available and the hunting and exportation


El Pitirre 12(3)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM THE 1999 MEETING OF THE SCO -SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


of unwanted species have been effective in
controlling some exotic species.
ESTADO DE LA VIDA SILVESTRE SALVAJE
ESTABLECIDA EN PUERTO RICO. STUDIO 1: LAS
AYES.- Las aves ex6ticas han probado ser buenas
invasoras cuando son liberadas en ecosistemas
islefios. Las islas tropicales parecen ser mas
vulnerable a las invasions, debido a factors
climiticos, topogragia, rios y vegetaci6n. Algunas
species de aves ex6ticas se han establecido en
Puerto Rico durante cientos de afios, siendo exitosas
sin ayuda humana y estableciendo poblaciones
salvajes. El impact de las aves ex6ticas en la
ecologia de la isla puede variar, y hay una falta de
informaci6n de la sobrevivencia de estas species a
causa de que los investigadores han puesto poca
atenci6n a esto. El Departamento de Medio
Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de Puerto Rico,
debido a la presencia de diversas familas de aves
ex6ticas y con una constant preocupaci6n en el
control de la importaci6n de species ex6ticas, ha
desarrollado un nuevo studio: Estado de la Vida
Silvestre Salvaje Establecida en Puerto Rico. Se
monitored la zona costera y el area baja de las
montafias durante 1997-1998 para determinar la
presencia, distribuci6n y uso del habitat de estas
species. Fueron encontradas 30 species de aves
extras establecidas en la isla, fallamos en encontrar
nueve species de aves ex6ticas registradas
previamente en Puerto Rico, y descubrimos el
establecimiento de cuantro nuevas species ex6ticas.
Aparentemente el habitat y los recursos alimentarios
disponibles y/o la caza y exportaci6n de species no
deseadas han probado ser efectivas en controlar
algunas species ex6ticas.

HABITAT SUITABILITY OF FORESTED AREAS
IN NORTH-CENTRAL PUERTO RICO AND THE
IMPORTANCE OF SHADE COFFEE IN THE
CONSERVATION OF NATIVE AVIFAUNA
LEOPOLDO MIRANDA', JAIME A. COLLAZO2, AND
MARTHA J. GROOM3
1Department ofZoology, North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 USA; 2Biological
Resources Division, North Carolina Fish and Wildlife
Research Unit, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,
North Carolina 27695; 3University of Washington, Bothell,
Washington 98021 USA
Historically, Puerto Rico's landscape has undergone
widespread deforestation. By 1930, only 6-15% of
the island was forested, and about 90% of the forest
was shade coffee plantations. It is believed that
shade coffee provided and can still provide benefits
that would otherwise be obtained from secondary


forests. Determination of the suitability and
importance of these human-modified habitats for
wildlife is a critical component of future
conservation efforts. Our research addresses these
needs by focusing on selected demographic
parameters and use of habitat by members of the
resident avian community in shaded coffee
plantations, and secondary forests in volcanic and
karstic formations in north-central Puerto Rico. We
selected 9 study areas (i. e., 3 coffee plantations, 3
karst-secondary forests, and 3 volcanic-secondary
forests). Since April 1996, monthly censuses have
been conducted, and over 500 nests of 20 species
have been monitored. Habitat features associated
with successful reproduction, and species-habitat
relationships were identified by sampling vegetation
following standardized protocols. The findings of
this project will provide the basis for long-term
conservation strategies of resident bird communities.
Information will also help frame sustainable
management practices (e. g., agroecosystems) to
integrate the public and private sectors to
conservation efforts in Puerto Rico.
CONVENIENCIA DEL HABITAT DE LAS AREAS
FORESTADAS EN LA REGION NORTE-CENTRAL DE
PUERTO RICO Y LA IMPORTANCIA DEL CAFE DE
SOMBRA EN LA CONSERVATION DE LA AVIFAUNA
NATIVA.-Historicamente, el panorama de Puerto
Rico ha sufrido una extensa deforestaci6n. Para el
1930, solo del 6-15% de la isla estaba forestada, y
cerca del 90% de ella eran plantaciones de caf6 de
sombra. Se cree que el caf6 de sombra ha provisto y
continue proveyendo beneficios que serian de otra
forma obtenidos de los bosques secundarios. La
determinaci6n de la conveniencia y la importancia de
estos habitats modificados por los humans para la
vida silvestre es un component critic para los
esfuerzos de conservaci6n. Nuestro proyecto de
investigaci6n enfatiza estas necesidades centrandose
en paramentros demogrificos elegidos y el uso de
habitat por miembros de las comunidades de aves
residents en plantaciones de caf6 de sombra, y
bosques secundarios en formaciones volcanicas y
karsiticas en la region norcentral de Puerto Rico.
Elegimos 9 areas de studio (3 plantaciones de cafe,
3 bosques secundarios sobre karst, y 3 bosques
secundarios volcinicos). Desde abril del 1996, se
condujeron censos mensuales, y mis de 500 nidos de
20 species fueron monitoreados. Las caracteristicas
de los habitats asociados con una reproducci6n
exitosa, y la relaci6n especie-habitat fue identificada
por el muestreo de vegetaci6n siguiendo protocolos
estandarizados. Los resultados de este proyecto
proveerin las bases para una estrategia de


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM THE 1999 MEETING OF THE SCO -SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


conservaci6n a largo plazo de las comunidades de
aves residents. La informaci6n tambidn ayudard a
enmarcar las practices de manejo sustentable (ej.,
agroecosistemas) para integrala a los sectors
pfiblicos y privados a los esfuerzos de conservaci6n
en Puerto Rico.

RECRUITMENT AND GROWTH OF PLANTS
USED BY BIRDS IN NORTHERN PUERTO RICO
FOLLOWING HURRICANE GEORGES
JosE SUSTACHE1, JAIME A. COLLAZO2,
AND MARTHA J. GROOM3
1Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales, San
Juan, PR 00906 USA; 2Biological Resources Division
(USGS), North Carolina Fish and Wildlife Research Unit,
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
27695 USA; and 3University of Washington, Bothell,
Washington 98021 USA
This work was designed to evaluate whether areas
which have been modified in the past (e. g., pasture,
coffee plantations) still retain a bank of seeds
important in the diet of resident birds. To make this
evaluation, the density of a selection of plants, rate
of recruitment, and growth were measured in study
plots in both areas affected and those not affected by
Hurrican Georges. Preliminary results suggest that
the forest understory contains most of the species of
interest. However, management practices or a dense
canopy determine whether the plants reach a good
size or survive. Areas affected by Georges offer a
good opportunity for various species of plants to
germinate now that there is a greater amount of light
penetration. We discuss the implications of
management and how this may benefit the resident
birds.
RECLUTAMIENTO Y CRECIMIENTO DE PLANTS
UTILIZADAS POR AVES EN SECTORS DEL NORTE DE
PUERTO RICO DESPUES DEL PASO DEL HURACAN
GEORGES.-El trabajo esti dirigido a evaluar si areas
que han sido modificadas en el pasado (e. g.,
pastizales, plantaciones de caf6) todavia retienen el
bancoo" de semillas de plants importantes en la
dietas de aves residents. Para hacer esta evaluaci6n,
la densidad de un seleccionado de plants y sus tasas
de reclutamiento y crecimiento se estin
cuantificando en parcelas de studio en areas
afectadas por el huracin Georges asi como en areas
sin afectar. Resultados preliminares sugieren que el
sotobosque contiene la mayoria de las species de
interns. Sin embargo, practices de manejo (ej.,
silvicultura) o dosel tupido impide que estas plants
alcancen un mayor tamafio y sobrevivan. Areas
afectadas por el huracin Georges ofrecen una gran
oportunidad para que varias species de plants


representadas en el banco de semillas germine ya que
la penetraci6n de luz a muchas areas de los bosques
es mayor. Las implicaciones de manejo de este
trabajo para el beneficio de las aves residents de
Puerto Rico se discutirin.


REGIONS OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE TO
TERRESTRIAL MIGRATORY BIRDS IN CUBA
HIRAM GONZALEZ, ALEJANDRO LLANES,
BARBARA SANCHEZ, AND ENEIDER PEREZ
Institute de Ecologia y Sistematica, Carretera de
Varona, Km 3 '2, A. P. 8029, C. P. 10800
Boyeros, C. Habana, Cuba
Observations, counts, and mist netting were used to
determine the composition and abundance of
migratory land birds in different localities of the
regions of Guanahacabibes, Sierra de los Organos,
Peninsula de Hicacos, Cidnaga de Zapata, Cayo
Santa Maria, Gibara, Sierra de Nipe, and the Park
Alexander Humboldt. A comparative analysis was
made to determine the importance of these regions
for migratory birds.
REGIONS DE MAYOR IMPORTANCIA PARA LA
AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE MIGRATORIA EN CUBA.-Se
muestrearon las regions de Guanahacabibes, Sierra
de los Organos, Peninsula de Hicacos, Cidnaga de
Zapata, Cayo Santa Maria, Gibara, Sierra de Nipe, y
el Parque Alejandro de Humbolt. Mediante
observaciones, conteos y captures con redes
omitol6gicas se determine la composici6n y
abundancia de las comunidades de aves terrestres
migratorias en diferentes localidades de dichas
regions. Se hace un anflisis comparative de las
regions para determinar la importancia de las
mismas para la avifauna terrestre migratoria.

A NEW SUBSPECIES OF THE BAHAMA VIREO
(VIREO CRASSIROSTRIS) [AVES:VIREONIDAE]
FROM CAYO PAREDON GRANDE, SABANA-
CAMAGUEY ARCHIPELAGO, CUBA
ARTURO KIRKCONNELL AND ORLANDO H. GARRIDO
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Obispo # 61, Plaza
de Armas, Habana Vieja, Cuba
A new subspecies of Vireo crassirostris is described
from Cayo Pared6n Grande, Archipelago de Sabana-
Camagiiey, Cuba. A detailed comparison is made of
all known populations, including those from
different Bahamian islands assigned to Vireo
crassirostris crassirostris. A table with conventional
morphological data is given for all these populations.
The Cuban form is considered as relict.
NUEVA SUBESPECIE DEL VIREO DE BAHAMAS (VIREO


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CRASSIROSTRIS) [AVES: VIREONIDAE] PARA CAYO
PAREDON GRANDE, ARCHIPIELAGO DE SABANA-
CAMAGIEY, CUBA.-Se describe una nueva
subespecie de Vireo crassirostris para Cayo Pared6n
Grande, Archipidlago de Sabana-Camagiiey, Cuba.
Se realize una detallada comparacion con todos los
taxones descritos, asi como con los procedentes de
diferentes islas de las Bahamas asignados a Vireo
crassirostris crassirostris. Se ofrece una tabla con
los datos morfologicos convencionales de todas las
poblaciones. Se consider a la forma Cubana como
relicta.

INTER-ISLAND VARIATION IN SONG OF THE
BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO
JON C. BARLOW, DERON A. BARLOW
AND ELLA BARLOW
CBCB-O ,1 i-. ...,-, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada
The nominate race of the Black-whiskered Vireo
[BWV](Vireo a. altiloquus) occurs mainly on
Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. There are both
differences in phenotype and song among these
island birds, as well as in migratory habits. Songs of
Jamaican birds, a population which is purportedly
totally migratory, are somewhat more complex than
those of the other two populations. Although, the
Puerto Rican and Hispaniolan populations have
somewhat simpler songs (lower syllable diversity)
the effects of isolation from each other in the
breeding season and philopatry overall ensure that
there is a slight difference in song between them. On
Hispaniola some black-whiskereds are present in
winter as is occasionally the case in Puerto Rico. The
origin of these wintering birds is uncertain and the
nature of their song is unknown. Comparisons with
other populations of BWV show the greatest song
differences to lie between sedentary populations in
the Lesser Antilles (V. a. barbadensis.) and those of
the Colombian islands (San Andr6s, Providencia; V.
a. canescens, V. a. grandior, respectively) of the
southwestern Caribbean.
VARIACION INTERISLENA EN EL CANTO DEL JULIAN
CHIVI (VIREO A. ALTILOQUUS).-La raza nombrada
Julian Chiv (Vireo a. altiloquus) se encuentra
mayormente en Jamaica, la Hispafiola y Puerto Rico.
Hay sendas diferencias en el fenotipo y el canto entire
las aves de estas islas. Los cantos de las aves de
Jamaica, una poblaci6n que es de alguna forma
totalmente migratoria, son algo mis complejas que
las de las otras dos poblaciones. Ademis, las dos
filtimas, (Puertorriquefia e Hispaniola) tienen de
alguna forma cantos mis simples (mhs baja
diversidad silabica) los efectos del aislamiento de


cada uno en la estaci6n de reproducci6n y filopatria
sobre todo asegura que hay una leve diferencia en el
canto de ellas. En la Hispaniola hay algunos Vireo
altiloquus presents en el invierno, como es
ocasionalmente en Puerto Rico. El origen de estas
aves invemales es incierto y la naturaleza de sus
cantos es desconocida. Las comparaciones con otras
poblaciones de Vireo altiloquus muestran las mis
grandes diferencias en los cantos.

REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF THE
PUERTO RICAN VIREO
ADRIANNE G. TOSSAS
Department oJ I '..-I.--. University ofPuerto Rico, Rio
Piedras, Puerto Rico
Since the 1970s, the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo
latimeri; PRVI), endemic to Puerto Rico, has sharply
decreased in population size in the southwestern part
of its distribution. I assessed the reproductive success
of the species in Maricao Forest during the breeding
season of 1998 to determine if this decline is
widespread among all populations. The probability
of survival from incubation to the fledging of young
was 50%. The main cause of nest failure was
attributed to depredation of eggs or nest-lings. None
of the nests was parasitized by the Shiny Cowbird
(Molothrus bonariensis). This finding contrasts with
results in Guinica Forest, where the combined
effects of high levels of parasitism and depredation
have decreased the growth rate of the PRVI
population. The present study suggests the
possibility of a metapopulation structure for the
PRVI in southwestern Puerto Rico based on
differential reproductive success. Thus, whereas
Maricao may be a source, other local populations of
the PRVI, like Guinica, may be acting as sinks.
EXITO REPRODUCTIVE DEL BIEN-TE-VEO DE PUERTO
Rico.-El Bien-te-veo de Puerto Rico (Vireo
latimeri), una especie end6mica de Puerto Rico, ha
disminuido dramiticamente en el tamafio de su
poblaci6n desde los 1970s. Evalu6 el 6xito
reproductive de la especie en el bosque de Maricao
durante el period reproductive de 1998 para
determinar si esta merma se repetia en todas las
poblaciones. La probabilidad de supervivencia desde
la incubaci6n hasta que los pichones abandonaron el
nido fue de 50%. La principal raz6n del fracaso de
los nidos fue la depredaci6n de huevos o pichones.
Ninguno de los nidos fue parasitado por el Tordo
(Molothrus bonariensis). Este hecho contrast con
los resultados encontrados en Guinica, donde los
efectos combinados de altos niveles de parasitismo y
depredaci6n han causado una disminuci6n en la tasa
de crecimiento de la poblaci6n. El studio actual


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sugiere la posibilidad de una estructura meta-
poblacional para el Bien-te-veo en el suroeste de
Puerto Rico basado en las diferencias del 6xito
reproductive. Por lo tanto, mientras Maricao podria
ser una fuente, otras poblaciones locales del Bien-te-
veo, como Guinica, podrian estar actuando como
sumi-deros.

PATCHINESS AND BIRD SPECIES DIVERSITY
MARCIA MUNDLE
Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust,
95 Dumbarton Avenue, Kingston 10, Jamaica
The Blue and John Crow Mountain National Park
has a mosaic landscape as a result of both natural and
anthropogenic influences. Habitat fragmentation has
been cited as one of the major causes for the loss of
biodiversity. The effect of habitat fragmentation on
bird species diversity was investigated in six habitat
types within this mosaic landscape of the Park. A
total of 240 point counts were conducted in six
habitat types over three sampling periods. Habitat
types include Caribbean pine plantations, coffee,
ruinate lands, modified forests, and secondary and
primary forests. Vegetation analysis was conducted
at approximately 50% of the point count sites. The
mosaic pattern of the landscape influences the
diversity of bird species groups disproportionately.
Species diversity of neotropical migrants is basically
unchanged across the different habitat types, whereas
the diversity of resident species decreased in forest
habitat types. Species diversity of endemic birds
decreased as forest conversion increased.
FRAGMENTACION Y DIVERSIDAD DE SPECIES DE
AVES.-El Parque Nacional John Crow Mountains
posee un mosaico de paisajes como resultado de
influencias naturales y antropog6nicas. La
fragmentaci6n del habitat ha sido citada como una de
las mayores causes de la p6rdida de biodiversidad. El
efecto de la fragmentaci6n del habitat en la
diversidad de species de aves fue investigada en
seis tipos de habitat dentro de este mosaico de
paisajes del Parque. Un total de 240 conteos de
puntos fueron conducidos en seis tipos de habitats
divididos en 3 periods de muestreo. Los tipos de
habitat incluyen platanciones de pino caribefio, cafe,
terrenos perturbados, bosques modificados, y
bosques secundarios y primaries. El andlisis de la
vegetaci6n fue conducido en aproximadamente 50%
de los lugares del conteo de puntos. El patron del
mosaico del paisaje influye en la diversidad de los
grupos de species de aves de forma
desproporcionada. La diversidad de los grupos de
species de las aves migratorias neotropicales es
basicamente stable a trav6s de los di-ferentes tipos


de habitats, mientras que la diversidad de species
residents disminuy6 en los tipos de habitats
boscosos. La diversidad de species de las aves
end6micas disminuy6 en la media en que aument6
el cambio de bosque.

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE
REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF THREE
SPECIES OF HERONS (AVES: ARDEIDAE) IN
THE VIRAMAS SWAMP, CUBA
DENNIS DENIS AVILA, PATRICIA RODRIGUEZ,
ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ, LEANDRO TORRELLA Y
RIGEL FERNANDEZ
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 e J e I, Vedado, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
The reproductive parameters of water birds are
fundamental areas of investigation to determine the
health of wetlands and the effects of human impact.
The nests of three species of wading birds (Black-
crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nyticorax,
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor, Green Heron
Butorides virescens) were monitored in the
Ecological Reserve Delta and Cauto in Cuba. We
measured the height, diameter, substrate, and
contents of 84 nests. A relation between size of
adults and size of egg exists. The speed of nestling
growth was inversely related to body size.
RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES SOBRE LOS
PARAMETROS REPRODUCTIVOS DE TRES SPECIES
DE GARZAS (AVES: ARDEIDAE) EN LA CIENAGA DE
VIRAMAS, CUBA.-Los parimetros reproductivos de
las aves acuiticas son lines fundamentals de
investigaci6n dentro de este grupo por su valor como
indicadores de la salud de los humedales y del
impact human. Se trabaj6 en el seguimiento de los
nidos de tres species de ard6idos: Guanaba de la
Florida (Nycticorax nycticorax), Garza de Vientre
Blanco (Egretta tricolor) y Aguaitacaimin
(Butorides virescens) en la Reserva Ecol6gica Delta
del Cauto, Cuba. Se tomaron la altura, diametro,
substrato y contenido de 84 nidos de estas species.
Se midi6 el diametro menor y mayor y se calcul6 el
volume de los huevos. A los pichones se les midi6
el largo del pico, tarso y peso para caracterizar su
crecimiento. La estructura y localizaci6n de los sitios
de nidificaci6n fue distinta en las cinco species,
pero el tamafio de la nidada fue de alrededor de tres
unidades en todas. Existi6 una relaci6n inversa entire
el tamafio de los adults y el tamafio relative de los
huevos. La velocidad de crecimiento estuvo
inversamente relacionada con el tamafio corporal de
las species, asi como el tamafio relative de los
huevos y de los pichones al eclosionar. Existi6 una
relaci6n inversa entire el tamafio de los adults y la


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velocidad de crecimiento corporal relative.

DIET AND FRUIT PREFERENCE OF AVIAN
FRUGIVORES IN FORESTED HABITATS OF
NORTH-CENTRAL PUERTO RICO:
IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT
TOMAS A. CARLO1, JAIME A. COLLAZO2,
AND MARTHA J. GROOM3
1Department ofZoology, North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695; 2Biological Resources
Division (USGS), North Carolina Cooperative Fish and
Wildlife Research Unit, North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 USA; and 3University of
Washington, Bothell, Washington 98021 USA
Diets and food plant preference of the Puerto Rican
Tanager (Nesospingus speculiferus), Puerto Rican
Stripe-headed Tanager (Spindalis portoricensis),
Puerto Rican Bullfinch (Loxigilla portoricensis), and
Antillean Euphonia (Euphonia music) were
ascertained in three major habitat types of north-
central Puerto Rico. Random, independent
observations of foraging birds were collected for 13
months. Fruit abundance was estimated monthly
from tagged trees. The number of food items used by
these species ranged from 15 (Euphonia) to 35
(Stripe-headed Tanager). Preferred plant species by
focal birds were Clusia rosea, Cecropia
schreberiana, Guarea guidonea, and Ficus spp.
Multinomial tests were used to determine food
preferences across habitats. Non-Metric
Multidimensional Scaling ordination revealed that
those plants used in highest proportion by focal birds
were associated with either karst or montane forests.
We found that focal birds preferred to forage in
secondary forests more often than in shade coffee
except for the Stripe-headed Tanager in one coffee
plantation, where an opposite pattern was found. We
attribute this finding to density of fruiting trees and
abundance of fruits. We discuss the habitat
management implications of these foraging patterns.
DIETA Y PREFERENCIA DE FRUTAS DE LA AVIFAUNA
FRUGIVORA EN HABITAT BOSCOSO DE LA REGION
NORTE-CENTRAL DE PUERTO RICO: IMPLICACIONES
PARA SU MANEJO.-La dieta y preferencia de plants
comestibles de la Nesospingus speculiferus,
Spindalis portoricensis, Loxigilla portoricensis, y la
Euphonia music fue reconocido en tres grandes
tipos de habitat de la region norte-central de Puerto
Rico. Fueron colectadas al azar observa-ciones
independientes de aves forrageando, durante 13
meses. La abundancia de frutos fue estimada
mensualmente desde arboles marcados. En nnimero
de elements alimentarios usados por estas species
estuvo en el rango de 15 para Euphonia a 35 para


Spindalis. Las species de plants preferidas por las
aves enfocadas fueron: Clusia rosea, Cecropia
schreberiana, Guarea guidonea, y Ficus spp. Fueron
usados examenes mulitnominales, para determinar la
preferencia de cornida a trav6s de los habitats. La
Escala No M6trica Multidimensional revel6 que esas
plants utilizadas en la mis alta proporci6n por las
aves focales fueron asociadas con karst o con
bosques montafiosos. Encontramos que las aves
focales preferian forrajear en bosques secundarios
mis a menudo que en caf6 de sombra, except para
el Spindalis portoricensis en una plantaci6n de cafe,
en donde se encontr6 un patron opuesto. Atribuimos
este hallazgo a la densidad de arboles frutales y la
abundancia de fruatales y a la abundancia de frutas.
Discutimos las implicaciones del manejo de habitat
de estos patrons de forrageo.

MORPHOLOGY, FOOD HABITS, AND
REPRODUCTION OF THE GREEN HERON
(BUTORIDES VIRESCENS) IN CUBA
DENNIS DENIS AVILA, LOURDES MUGICA VADEZ,
AND MARTIN ACOSTA CRUZ
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 e/J e I, Vedado, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
The Green Heron is a solitary nester and few data are
available on its reproductive cycle and feeding
habits. The diet of 35 individuals was determined
through observations in rice fields and analysis of
stomach contents. Reproduction was studied during
July 1998. Sexual dimorphism was noted only in the
size of the beak, which is larger in males. Stomach
contents had 36% of the body weight of prey. The
most numerous were aquatic coleoptera, followed by
fish, which constituted the greater biomass (61%).
The average weight of the prey was 0.18 g with a
mean length of 21.97 mm. Prey size distribution was
10-20 mm. The nests were 1-2 m above the water in
black mangrove forests. Nests averaged 26.1 cm in
diameter and the average number of eggs per nest
was 2.2. Eggs averaged 38.11 x 28.2 mm. The size
of recently hatched chicks was 8% of the adult
weight.
MORFOMETRIA, ALIMENTACION Y REPRODUCCION
DEL AGUAITACAIMAN (BUTORIDES VIRESCENS) EN
CUBA.-El Aguaitacaimin es considerado un
nidificante solitario y las caracteristicas de su
reproducci6n y alimentaci6n son poco conocidas. El
present trabajo caracteriza su dieta y morfometria
en dos arroceras cubanas, y el sitio de cria y los
principles parimetros reproductivos en un humedal
natural. Fueron colectados 35 ejemplares que se
midieron y se analiz6 su contenido estomacal. La
reproducci6n se estudi6 durante el mes de julio de


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1998. Solo se detect dimorfismo sexual en la
longitud del pico, mayor en machos. Los est6magos
contenian el 36% del peso corporal en press. Las
mis numerosas fueron cole6pteros acuiticos
seguidos por los peces, quienes aportaron la mayor
biomasa (61%). El peso promedio de press fue de
0.18 g y la longitud total de 21.97 mm. Sus
distribuciones de tallas evidencian una selecci6n de
press entire 10 y 20 mm. Los nidos estaban a 1-2 m
de altura sobre el agua, en mangle prieto. El
dihmetro promedio del nido fue de 26.1 cm, el
tamafio de puesta fue de 2.2 huevos/nido, y las
medidas de los huevos fueron de 38.11 x 28.02 mm.
El peso de los pichones reci6n nacidos fue el 8% del
peso adulto.

UPDATE ON THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-
DUCK AND WETLANDS CONSERVATION
PROJECT
LISA G. SORENSON AND PATRICIA BRADLEY
Department oJ I I ..,-, 5 Cummington St., Boston
University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 USA; and, PO
Box 907 GT, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, BWI
To reverse the decline of the endangered West Indian
Whistling-Duck (WIWD), a Caribbean endemic, and
slow wetland loss throughout the region, the WIWD
Working Group continues its "WIWD and Wetlands
Conservation Project." This region-wide public
education and awareness program provides
educational tools and teaches methodologies to local
natural resource personnel and schoolteachers for the
promotion of the WIWD and the importance of
wetlands to the local people and economy.
Educational tools we have developed (both English
and Spanish versions) include a "WIWD and
Wetlands Conservation" slide show for the general
public, hunters, and secondary-age schoolchildren;
"Wetlands are Wild" puppet show; and "WIWD
Coloring Book" for primary-age schoolchildren.
Ducks Unlimited Canada has assisted us with the
recent publication of a "Ducks of the West Indies"
identification card for hunters, and we are in the final
stages of preparation of "Wondrous West Indian
Wetlands," a wetlands education workbook for
schoolchildren. We are holding our second WIWD
and Wetlands Education Training Workshop at the
1999 Society of Caribbean Ornithology meeting and
work on our Watchable Wildlife Pond Project in the
Cayman Islands is progressing. Receipt of two new
grants will enable us to publish our wetlands
workbook, sponsor additional training workshops,
and support the monitoring of WIWD populations.


PUESTA AL DIA DEL PROYECTO DE CONSERVATION
DE LA YAGUAZA Y LOS HUMEDALES.-Para revertir
la declinaci6n de la Yaguaza, ya en peligro, una
especie caribefia end6mica, y la lenta p6rdida de los
humedales a trav6s de toda la region, el grupo de
trabajo de la Yaguaza continue su "Proyecto de
Conservaci6n de la Yaguaza y los Humedales." Su
program regional de educaci6n public y
publicidad, provee herramientas educacionales y
ensefia metodologias a personal local de recursos
naturales y profesores, para la promoci6n de la
Yaguaza y la importancia de los humedales para las
personas y la economic local. Las herramientas
educacionales que se han desarrollado (en ingl6s y en
espafiol) incluyen un juego de diapositivas sobre la
"Conservaci6n de La Yaguaza y los humedales" para
el puiblico en general, cazadores y chicos de escuela
secundaria. Ducks Unlimited Canada ha cooperado
con la reciente publicaci6n de "Patos de las Indias
Occidentales" tarjeta de identificaci6n para
cazadores, y se esta en la preparaci6n final de
"Asombrosos Humedales del Caribe," un libro de
trabajo educational para escolares. Actualmente
mantenemos nuestro Segundo Taller de
Entrenamiento y Educaci6n sobre la Yaguaza y los
Humedales en la reunion de 1999 de la Sociedad
Caribefia de Ornitologia, y trabajamos en el
"proyecto de charcos por observaci6n de aves" en las
Islas Caymin. Hemos recibido dos donaciones de
fondos, los cuales nos permitrin publicar nuestro
libro de trabajo sobre los humedales, asi como
patrocinar talleres de entrenamiento adicionales y
monitorear las poblaciones de Yaguaza.

ACHIEVING AVIAN CONSERVATION
THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
SUZANNE DAVIS
BirdLife Jamaica, Department of Life Sciences, University
of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica
This presentation will outline the contribution and
challenges of environmental education to avian
conservation in Jamaica. Particular reference will be
made to BirdLife Jamaica's education and
community outreach programme and activities.
MEJORANDO LA CONSERVATION DE LAS AVES A
TRAVES DE LA EDUCATION AMBIENTAL.-Esta
presentaci6n delineard las contribuciones y los retos
de la educaci6n ambiental para la conservaci6n de
las aves en Jamaica. Se hard referencia particular a la
educaci6n de BirdLife Jamaica y los programs y
acitividades realizados por la comunidad.


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LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE ZAPATA SWAMP
LORAIZA BACALLAO MESA1, ORESTES MARTINEZ
GARCIA1 Y ALEJANDRO LLANES SOSA2
1Estacidn Ecol6gica Cidnaga de Zapata, Carretera a
Playa Larga km 26, Cidnaga de Zapata, Matanzas, Cuba;
y 21nstituto de Ecologia y Sistemdttica. Carretera Barona,
km 3'2 Boyeros, Ciudad Habana. Cuba
The list of the birds of the Zapata Swamp in Cuba is
based on observations made during bird-watching
trips, the experience of the local guides, and
scientific observations, including the work of
Orlando Garrido and Arturo Kirkconnell. Of Cuba's
26 endemic birds, 21 are found in the Zapata area, as
are 13 of the 19 endangered species. New additions
to the list are the Cuban Gnatcatcher (Polioptila
lembeyi) and the Northern Potoo (Nyctibius
jamaicensis).
LISTA DE LAS AVES DE LA CIENAGA DE ZAPATA.-
Se present la lista de las aves de la Cidnaga de
Zapata para lo cual se consultaron various informes de
viajes turisticos de observaci6n de aves de Cuba
(birding tour trip reports) y los trabajos cientificos
que hasta el moment se han publicado sobre las
aves de Zapata, lugar de Cuba donde alcanza su
esplendor este grupo zool6gico, debido al mosaico
ecol6gico que en esta area se present. Se tuvo en
cuenta ademis la experiencia practice de los autores
y el asesoramiento t6cnico de importantes
personalidades de la ornitologia cubana: Arturo
Kirkconnell y Orlando Garrido. En la Cidnaga de
Zapata hay un total de 21 de las 26 aves end6micas
de Cuba y 13 de las 19 species amenazadas. Se
adicionan a la lista dos nuevos records visuales
(Martinez, in6dito), de ellos un end6mico de Cuba:
Polioptila lembeyei (Sinsontillo), y el otro no
reportado hasta el moment para el territorio Cubano
Nyctibiusjamaicensis (Northern Potoo).


THE FALL AND RISE OF AN ADAPTATION
AGAINST BROOD PARASITISM-EGG
REJECTION BEHAVIOR IN VILLAGE
WEAVERS IN HISPANIOLA
A. CRUZ', M. ROBERT2, G. SORCI2, AND J.W.
WILEY3
1Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology,
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0334;
2Laboratoire d'Ecologie, Universitid Pierre etMarie
Curie, F-5252 Paris Cedex 05 France; 3Grambling
Cooperative Wildlife Project, PO Box 841, Grambling
State University, Grambling, LA 71245
In Africa, the high level of foreign egg-rejection
behavior in the Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus)
is thought to have evolved as a response to


parasitism by the Didric Cuckoo (C / ......... ,
caprius). The Village Weaver was introduced into
Hispaniola from Africa as early as the 18th century,
where before the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird
(Molothrus bonariensis) in the early 1980's, there
were no brood parasites. Now Hispaniolan
populations of the Village Weaver are parasitized by
the Shiny Cowbird, which lays eggs dissimilar to
those of the weaver. Furthermore, in an experimental
parasitism study in 1982, we found that Hispaniolan
Village Weavers accepted both artificial cowbird
eggs and dissimilar Village Weaver eggs. The
Village Weaver may have decreased the egg-
rejection behavior in the absence of the selective
pressure of brood parasitism and the potential cost
associated with the maintenance of rejection
behavior. These circumstances provided a "natural
experiment." Had egg rejection behavior increased in
the population in the presence of the selective
pressure of brood parasitism by the Shiny Cowbird?
Given that Shiny Cowbirds substantially reduce the
reproductive success of weavers, we expected that
egg rejection would increase in Village Weaver
populations on Hispaniola. In 1998, 16 years later,
we found a high rejection rate of cowbird model
eggs (89.3%), moderate levels of rejection of non-
mimetic weaver eggs (67.5%), and rather low levels
of rejection of mimetic weaver model eggs (25%).
Rejection rate of artificial cowbird eggs has therefore
increased from 13.8% to 89% in 16 years. The
observed changes of rejection rate are compatible
with a genetic micro-evolutionary shift in response
to cowbird parasitism.

AVES QUE HABITAN EN LA LAGUNA
"BACONAO" DE SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA
NIDIA GARCIA SARMIENTE
Universidad Pedag6gica de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
La Laguna "Baconao" esta situada al este de la
Ciudad de Bantiago de Cuba. Eja esta area se han
realizado diversos studios relacionados com su
biodiversidad, en especial los referentes a las aves.
En el present trabaja, se detallan resultados
relacionados com las observaciones. Se reportan un
total de 70 species incluidas en 14 ordenes. Se
destacan las end6micas asi como las residents y
migratorias.


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POSTER PAPERS

BIRD USE OF HONEYDEW IN DOMINICAN
DRY FOREST
STEVEN C. LATTA, HEATHER A. GAMPER; AND
JAMES TIETZ
110 Tucker Hall, University of Missouri,
Columbia, Missouri USA
A new species of honeydew-producing scale insect
of the family Margarodidae was found associated
with the tree Bursera simaruba in dry forests at
elevations of 100-400 m on the southern side of the
Sierra de Bahoruco, Pedemales Province, Dominican
Republic. At two study sites at 300 m and 375 m
elevation, 91% of Bursera trees supported locally
dense populations of Margarodidae. Fifteen species
of birds were observed foraging on the honeydew,
but most observations were of the winter resident
Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina) and
Black-throated Blue Warbler (D. caerulescens), and
the permanent resident Bananaquit (Coereba
flaveola) and Black-crowned Palm-Tanager
(Phaenicophilus palmarum). The Cape May Warbler
actively defended the honeydew resource, but
frequency of use of honeydew was influenced by
scale insect density and the close presence of
flowering agave. Data suggest that honeydew may be
a critical portion of the diet of this species, especially
during the late-winter dry season. Insects (wasps,
bees, and ants) were also observed feeding on
honeydew, but rates of consumption did not
approach that of the avian species.
EL USO POR AVES DE LA SECRECION AZUCARADA
DE LOS INSECTS EN EL BOSQUE SECO
DOMINICANO.-Encontramos una especie nueva de
la escama o cochinilla (Homoptera: Margarodidae)
en el almicigo, Bursera simaruba, en bosque seco en
elevaciones de 100-400 m en el lado sur de la Sierra
de Bahoruco, Repuiblica Dominicana. En dos sitios
de 300 y 375 m en elevacion, encontramos
poblaciones localmente denso de Margarodidae en
91% de los almacigos. Encontramos 15 species de
aves forrageando en la secreci6n azucarada, pero la
mayoria de las observaciones eran de los residents
del invierno, Dendroica ;,,i ,1o y D. caerulescens, y
los residents permanentes Coereba flaveola y
Phaenicophilus palmarum. La D. tigrina defendio
energeticamente el recurso, pero la frecuencia del
uso de la secreci6n azucarada estaba efectado por la
cantidad de las escamas y la presencia de la agave en
flor. Los datos indican que la secreci6n azucarada es
important en en la alimentaci6n de esta especie,
especialmente durante la 6poca seca. Se encontraba
tambidn los insects (avispas, abejas y hormigas)


alimentandose en la secreci6n azucarada, pero el
indice de consumici6n era much menos que la de
las aves.

WINTER SITE PERSISTENCE OF PRAIRIE
WARBLERS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:
EFFECTS OF SEASONALITY AND
HETEROGENEITY OF HABITAT
STEVEN C. LATTA
110 Tucker Hall, University of Missouri,
Columbia, Missouri USA
Wintering Prairie Warblers (Dendroica discolor)
were studied along an altitudinal gradient in pine
forest, desert thorn scrub, and desert wash habitats of
the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, from
October to April 1996-1999. Males predominate
early in the season in all habitats, but sex ratios are
roughly equal through the drier months of late-
winter. ASY birds predominate throughout all
habitats and time periods. Site persistence is
generally high, but variable between habitats and
time periods, and is significantly lower in the drier
months in thorn scrub than it is in the desert wash or
pine forest. Non-territorial wanderers are far more
common in desert habitats than in pine forest, and
females predominate among these wanderers.
Annual return rates vary annually, but are higher in
desert thorn scrub than in pine forest, and higher for
males than for females. On average birds lose weight
in both habitats and this may be attributable to dry
season declines in insect abundance. These data
emphasize the potential importance of dry season
events and habitat heterogeneity on the winter
ecology of migratory birds.
PERSISTENCIA AL SITIO INTERNAL POR DENDROICA
DISCOLOR EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA: LOS
EFECTOS DE TIEMPO VARIABLE Y HETEROGENEIDAD
DEL HABITAT-Yo estudid la Dendroica discolor en
el invierno en un pendiente altitudinal en bosque de
pino, bosque espinoso y arroyos del desierto, en la
Sierra de Bahoruco, Repuiblica Dominicana, desde
octubre a abril 1996-1999. Los machos predominant
en todos los habitats en noviembre, pero en los
meses mis seco (enero-marzo) la proporci6n de los
machos y las hembras es mis o menos igual. Hay
mis adults (AHY) que juveniles (HY/SY) en todos
los habitats y todos los meses. La persistencia del
sitio es generalmente alta, pero inconstante entire los
habitat y meses del invierno, y es significativamente
mlis bajo en el bosque espinoso que en los arroyos o
el bosque de pino durante los meses mis seco.
Individuos sin territories, principalmente hembras,
son much mis comfin en el desierto y los arroyos
que en el bosque de pino. El retorno del afio varia


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entire afios, pero son mis alto en el bosque espinoso
que el bosque de pino, y mis alto para machos que
hembras. Como media, las aves pierden peso en
todos los habitats, y es possible que esta es un
resultado de la disminuci6n en la abundancia de
insects. Los resultados sugieren que la temporada
seca del invierno y la heterogeneidad del habitat son
important en la ecologia invemal de esta ave
migratoria.

ARE THE GRAY-HEADED QUAIL-DOVES
(GEOTRYGON CANICEPS) FROM CUBA AND
HISPANIOLA (AVES: COLUMBIDAE)
MONOTYPIC SPECIES?
ORLANDO GARRIDO
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Obispo 61, Plaza las
Annas, La Habana, Cuba
The Gray-headed Quail-Dove (Geotrygon caniceps),
locally known as Camao and Azulona in Cuba, and
Azulona, Perdia, or Perdiz Coquito Blanco in the
Dominican Republic, is represented by the
subspecies Geotrygon caniceps caniceps in Cuba,
and G. c. leucometopius in Hispaniola (Bond 1956).
Both taxa were originally described as species
(Gundlach 1852, Chapman 1917), although
subsequent authors considered these forms
conspecific (A. O. U. 1998). A morphological
comparison of 70 specimens (35 from Cuba, 26 from
Hispaniola) revealed more than subspecific
differences among populations within Cuba and the
Dominican Republic. Conventional measurements
proved that Cuban specimens display a longer tail
than specimens from the Dominican Republic (mean
85.4 mm versus 82.7 mm). There is also a difference
in the distance between the notch of first primaries
and tip of the feathers (larger in Cuban birds: mean
58.5 mm versus 53.7 mm). This character was
mentioned in the original description but dismissed
by subsequent authors. Different coloration is also
evident: leucometopius has a white and more
restricted front head patch; rest of head, pileum, nape
and upper neck, darker; primaries darker, contrasting
more with the chestnut-colored area of the feathers.
Vocalizations also differ, especially on lower calls
(Reynard 1981, Reynard and Garrido 1988; Hardy et
al. 1989). Habitats of leucometopius are mostly
montane (Chapman 1917; Wetmore and Swales
1931; Bond 1936, 1956; Stockton de Dod 1978,
1981; Raffaele et al. 1998). Although "sister
species," Cuban and Hispaniolan populations
probably have been isolated long enough to
differentiate at the species level, as has been
demonstrated in recent studies of other groups of


species of various Caribbean Islands. Therefore these
two taxa should be recognized as distinct species,
Geotrygon caniceps Gundlach, endemic to Cuba, and
G. leucometopius Chapman, endemic to Hispaniola
(obviously present in the mountains of Haiti before
deforestation).
LES LA AZULONA (GEOTRYGON CANICEPS) DE CUBA
Y LA ESPANOLA (AVES: COLUMBIDAE) UNA ESPECIE
MONOTIPICA?-El Camao o Azulona, como se le
conoce en Cuba, o Azulona, Perdia o Perdiz Coquito
en la Repfiblica Dominicana, en ingl6s Gray-headed
Quail-Dove, esta representado por dos subespecies,
Geotrygon caniceps caniceps en Cuba y G. c. leu-
cometopius en La Espafiola. Ambos taxones fueron
originalmente descritos a nivel especificos (Gund-
lach 1852, Chapman 1917). Posteriores autores
consideraron ambas formas coespecificas, (A. O. U.
1998). La comparaci6n morfol6gica de 70 ejem-
plares (35 de Cuba, 26 de Santo Domingo) no revel6
diferencias subespecificas tanto en las poblaciones
cubanas como dominicanas. Las medidas con-
vencionales tomadas mostraron que los ejemplares
cubanos presentan la cola mis larga (media 85.4 mm
contra 82.7 mm). La distancia entire la muesca de las
primeras primaries y la punta de las mismas es
mayor en los ejemplares cubanos (media 58.5 mm
contra 53.7 mm). Este caricter, mencionado en la
descripci6n original, no ha sido tenido en cuenta por
autores subsiguientes. Ademis existen diferencias en
la coloraci6n: leucometopius present el parche
blanco de la frente mis blanco y restringido; el resto
de la cabeza, corona y parte superior del cuello, mis
oscuro; las primaries tambidn mis oscuras,
contrastando mis con el color castafio de las plumas.
Hay diferencias en las vocalizaciones, especialmente
en las secuencias bajas (Reynard 1981, Reynard y
Garrido 1988, Hardy et al. 1989). En La Espafiola las
aves habitan primordialmente areas montafiosas
(Chapman 1917; Wetmore y Swales 1931; Bond
1936, 1956; Stockton de Dod 1978, 1981; Raffaele et
al. 1998). Aunque aparentemente speciess
hermanas" el aislamiento entire ellas ha de ser
suficiente para que se hayan diferenciado a nivel
especifico. Esta diferenciaci6n ha sido demostrada
en recientes studios sobre otros grupos de species
de islas caribefias. Se recomienda que estos dos
taxones sean reconocidos como species diferentes,
Geotrygon caniceps Gundlach, end6mico de la Isla
de Cuba, y G. leucometopius Chapman, end6mico
de La Espafiola (obviamente present en las
montafias haitianas antes de comenzar las
deforestaciones).


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USE OF THE JACKKNIFE METHOD TO
DETERMINE OPTIMAL SAMPLE SIZE TO
DESCRIBE THE DIET OF BIRDS
DENNIS DENIS AVILAS
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 e/J e Vedado, CiudadHabana, Cuba
The study of diet is one of the main aspects basic to
understanding the ecology of animals. However,
investigators prefer not to sacrifice birds or disturb
nestlings too much. The Jackknife statistical method
can be used to determine the diet of birds based on
fewer examples without losing exactitude.
APLICACION DEL METODO JACKKNIFE A UN
DESCRIPTOR DE LA DIETA EN AVES PARA
DETERMINAR TAMANO DE MUESTRA OPTIMO.-El
studio de la dieta es uno de los aspects principles
de la autoecologia de las species pero esta
subestimado en las aves por el rechazo al sacrificio
de animals silvestres. El m6todo menos sesgado de
obtenci6n de muestras alimentarias es la recolecci6n
de regfirgitos de crias pero este inclina los resultados
hacia temporadas reproductivas por lo que m6todos
mis agresivos como colectas, sacrificios, em6ticos o
succionadores son inevitable. La necesidad de
recurrir a metodologias de anilisis de los datos lo
mis potentes possible se deriva entonces del interns
de sacrificar la menor cantidad de ejemplares sin
perder la exactitud de los resultados. Este trabajo
introduce la aplicaci6n del Jackknife a un descriptor
de la dieta en aves (Indice de Importancia
Alimentaria) que puede detector utilizaci6n
diferencial de los recursos tr6ficos. Para estimar su
variabilidad y realizar inferencias estadisticas se
aplica el algoritmo Jackknife que permit una
disminuci6n del tamafio muestral necesario para
obtener resultados de validez significativa. Luego
acumulando secuencialmente muestras se determine
que trabajar 20 ejemplares es suficiente para detector
utilizaci6n diferencial de recursos, aun cuando la
variabilidad en los mismos sea maxima.

IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL
PLAN FOR THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-
DUCK IN CUBAN SCHOOLS
LOURDES MUGICA, ORLANDO TORRES,
DENNIS DENIS, AND MARTIN ACOSTA
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 e Je I, Vedado, Ciudad Habana, Cuba
An environmental education plan for the West Indian
Whistling-Duck (WIWD), a species which is well
known but vulnerable, includes the protection of
wetlands and the community of associated
waterbirds. This is a priority of the WIWD Working


Group of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
Money was raised for the purchase of equipment,
and preparation of slides and educational materials
for use in the islands of the Caribbean, where it is
still possible to protect the species. In Cuba, the
Felipe Poey Museum developed a plan, which
depends on the participation of students in the
Department of Biology. Students have taken the
program to eight schools in three neighborhoods of
La Habana, using a cycle of six meetings to present
the material.
IMPLEMENTATION DEL TRABAJO DE EDUCATION
AMBIENTAL SOBRE LA YAGUAZA EN ESCUELAS
CUBANAS.-Los trabajos de Educaci6n Ambiental
en relaci6n con la Yaguaza Dendrocygna arborea,
especie reconocida como vulnerable, la protecci6n
de los humedales y la comunidad de aves acuiticas
asociada tiene una alta prioridad para el Grupo de
Trabajo de la Yaguaza de la Sociedad de Omitologia
del Caribe. Por esta raz6n se han destinado fondos a
la compra de equipos, preparaci6n de diapositivas y
de materials de divulgaci6n para ser usados en las
islas del Caribe que aun conservan la especie. En
Cuba se organize un plan a trav6s del Museo Felipe
Poey siguiendo el modelo PPP (Planeamiento/
Proceso/Producto) que cont6 con la participaci6n de
estudiantes de la carrera de Biologia, quienes a su
vez llevaron a cabo el program en ocho escuelas de
tres municipios de la capital, este incluy6 evaluaci6n
inicial y final como indicadores de 6xito. Asi como
un ciclo de seis encuentros que incluy6 explicaci6n
de las diapositivas y juegos didicticos. En el trabajo
se discute la efectividad del program y se analizan
sus aciertos y problems.

FIRST SPECIMEN RECORD OF A CHIMNEY
SWIFT (CHAETURA PELAGICA)
(AVES: APODIDAE) FOR CUBA
ALEJANDRO LLANES SOSA AND
ENEIDER E. PEREZ MENA
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemdctica, Carretera de Varona
Km 3 1/2, A.P. 8029, C.P. 10800, Boyeros, Ciudad
Habana, Cuba
In Cuba, the Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) has
been reported only from sightings of two flocks
along the coast of Havana: 13 October 1964 and 29
September 1998 (0. Garrido, pers. comm.), but the
species has never been corroborated with a collected
specimen. Early in the morning of 22 October 1998,
flocks of thousands of passerines arrived at the
Roncali lighthouse at Cabo de San Antonio on the
peninsula of Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Rio. At the
base of the lighthouse, we captured two individuals,
exhausted from the flight across the Gulf of Mexico.


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They were sacrificed and became specimens #2433
and #2434 in the collection of birds in the Institute of
Ecology and Systematics, constituting the first
record of this species of Cuba.
PRIMER RECORD DE COLECTA DEL VENCEJO DE
CHIMENEA (CHAETURA PELAGICA) (AVES:
APODIDAE) PARA CUBA.-Para Cuba hasta el
present el Vencejo de Chimenea (Chaetura
pelagica) solo habia sido reportada visualmente por
la presencia de dos bandos en el litoral Habanero:
uno el 13 de octubre de 1964 y el otro el 29 de
septiembre de 1998 (Orlando Garrido, com. pers.),
pero no habia sido corroborado con la colecta de
ningun ejemplar. En la madrugada del 22 de octubre
con la llegada de miles de individuos del orden
Passeriformes, al faro de Roncali en el Cabo de San
Antonio, Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del
Rio, capturamos dos individuos descansando en la
base del faro, presumiblemente agotados por el vuelo
de migraci6n a traves del Golfo de M6xico. Los
mismos se sacrificaron y se depositaron en la
colecci6n de aves del Instituto de Ecologia y
Sistemitica, con los numerous 2433 y 2434, y
constituyen el primer record de capture de esta
especie para Cuba.

DISTRIBUTION, HABITAT USE, AND
CONSERVATION STATUS OF BICKNELL'S
THRUSH IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
CHRISTOPHER C. RIMMER', KENT P. MCFARLAND',
AND JAMES E. GOETZ2
'Vermont Institute ofNatural Science, Woodstock,
Vermont USA, and 2College ofEnvironmental Science &
Forestry, SUNY, Syracuse, NY, USA
The conservation status of Bicknell's Thrush
(Catharus bicknelli) has been clouded by uncertainty
about the species' wintering distribution and
ecology. We conducted distributional surveys in the
Dominican Republic during the winters of 1994-
1995 through 1997-1998 and compared current to
historic patterns. We visited 13 of 20 known historic
(pre-1991) sites and found thrushes at eight of these.
Several historic sites were either unrecognizable or
had been severely degraded by human use. Overall,
we surveyed 64 sites and confirmed Bicknell's
Thrush presence at 43. Occupied habitats included
wet and mesic broadleaf forests (73%), mixed pine-
broadleaf forests (19%), and pure pine forests (8%).
Birds were found at all elevations from sea level to
2100 m, but the majority (65%) of occupied sites
were in primary montane forests >1000 m in
elevation. Nearly one half of all occupied sites were
unprotected or poorly protected and considered to be
at moderate to high risk of loss. Whereas the status


of Bicknell's Thrush in other areas of the Caribbean
Basin requires clarification, it appears that the
Dominican Republic supports most of the species'
worldwide wintering population. The conservation
implications of our findings will be discussed.
DISTRIBUTION, USO DEL HABITAT Y STATUS DE
CONSERVATION DEL ZORZAL DE BICKNELL EN LA
REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA.-El status de
conservaci6n del Zorzal de Bicknell (Catharus
bicknelli) ha estado empafio por la inseguridad sobre
su distribuci6n durante el inviemo y su ecologia.
Conducimos encuestas distribucionales en la
Repuiblica Dominicana durante los inviernos de
1994-1995 hasta 1997-1998 y comparamos los
patrons hist6ricos con los actuales. Visitamos 13 de
20 lugares conocidos hist6ricamente (anteriores al
1991) y hallamos zorzales en 8 de estos. Numerosos
lugare hist6ricos fueron irreconocibles 6
severamente degradados por la acci6n humana.
Sobretodo, hicimos studios en 64 lugares y
confirmamos la presencia del Zorzal de Bicknell en
43. Los habitats ocupados incluyeron bosques
humedos y medios de latifoliado (73%), mezclados
de pinos y latifoliado (19%) y pinares puros (8%).
Las aves se encontraron en todas las elevaciones
desde el nivel del mar a 2100 m, pero la mayoria
(65%) ocup6 lugares primariamente en bosques
montanos > 1000 m de elevaci6n. Cerca de la mitad
todos los lugares estaban desportegidos 6
pobremente protegidos y se consideran ser de alto 6
moderado riesgo de p6rdida. Mientras el status del
Zorza de Bicknell en otras areas de la cuenca del
Caribe require su clarificaci6n, parece ser que la
Repuiblica Dominicana sostiene la mayoria de la
poblaci6n de las species invemadoras a nivel
mundial. Las implicaciones de su conservaci6n y
nuestros hallazgos serin discutidos.

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF HURRICANE
GEORGES ON THE FORAGING
BEHAVIOR OF THE PUERTO RICAN TODY
(TOD US MXICANUS)
BEATRIZ HERNANDEZ
Department oJ I -1...-, University ofPuerto Pico, PO Box
23360, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3360
It is not fully understood why insectivore
populations are not as strongly affected after a
hurricane compared to the dramatic declines of
nectarivores and fruit/seedeaters. This study
documents the short-term effects of Hurricane
Georges (which struck the Puerto Rico in mid-
September 1998) on the foraging behavior, including
shifts in foraging sites, of the Puerto Rican Tody


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(Todus mexicanus), a common endemic insectivore.
A reduction in the foraging height of the bird was
observed, with 87% of todies foraging below the
mid-level of the canopy height. Also, todies foraged
in sites with significantly greater foliage cover than
in nearby randomly selected sites. The principal
foraging techniques used by todies did not change
from those previously reported during non-hurricane
years (Kepler 1977), but the feeding rate was
different. My study showed that todies did not
change foraging behavior. Thus, by foraging in sites
with adequate foliage cover, todies may not need to
shift foraging behavior to obtain prey after
hurricanes.
Los EFECTOS EN EL CORTO PLAZO DEL HURACAN
GEORGES SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE
FORRAJEO DEL SAN PEDRITO (TODUS MEXICANUS).-
Aun no se entiende por complete porque las
poblaciones de aves insectivores no se ven afectadas
fuertemente despu6s del paso de un huracin,
comparadas a la declinaci6n dristica mostrada por
las que se alimentan del nectar, las semillas o frutas.
Este studio document los efectos en el corto plazo
del huracin Georges (el cuals golpe6 Puerto Rico a
mediados de Septiembre de 1998) en el
comportamiento de forrajeo, incluyendo cambios en
los lugares de forrajeo, del San Pedrito (Todus
mexicanus), una especie insectivora comiin en Puerto
Rico. La reducci6n en la altura de forrajeo del ave
fue observada, con 87% de los Todus forrajeando
bajo el nivel medio de la altura del dosel. Tambidn,
los Todus forrajearon en lugares con un
significativamente mayor follaje de forrajeo cubierto
casi al azar en sitios seleccionados. Las principles
t6cnicas de forrajeo utilizadas por los Todus no
cambiaron de aquellas mostradas por los Todus
anteriormente reportados en los afios en que no hubo
huracin (Kepler 1977), pero hizo la tasa de
alimentaci6n. El studio mostr6 que Todus no
cambiaron su comportamiento de forrajeo. Por lo
tanto, por forrajear en lugares con adecuada
cobertura de follaje, los Todus pueden no necesitar
cambiar su conduct de forrajeo para obtener press
despu6s del huracn.

OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
STERNUM AND PELVIS OF SIX CUBAN
CICONIIFORM SPECIES
NATACHA ORTIZ AND DENNIS DENIS AVILA
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 e/Je I, Vedado, CiudadHabana, Cuba
The study of bones has been little used in the field of
ecology, although some work has been done in the


identification of fossils. As part of a new line of
investigation, our work is a preliminary osteo-metric
description of the sternum and pelvic girdle in six
species of Cuban ciconiiforms. This description
forms the basis for dichotomous keys for
identification.
CARACTERISTICAS OSTEOLOGICAS DEL ESTERNON Y
LA PELVIS EN SEIS SPECIES DE CICONIIFORMES
CUBANOS.-Los studios de la osteologia de las aves
han estado generalmente subestimados en el campo
de la ecologia, s6lo unos pocos trabajos se han
realizado encaminados a la identificaci6n de material
paleontol6gico o a los studios de relaciones
filogen6ticas. Sin embargo la aplicaci6n de estos a la
indentificaci6n o explicaci6n de conductas u otros
parimetros ecol6gicos como la alimentaci6n o la
utilizaci6n del habitat ha sido poco trabajada. Como
parte de los primeros pasos en una nueva linea de
investigaci6n osteo-ecol6gica que comienza a
desarrollarse en nuestro pais, el present trabajo
expone la descripci6n osteom6trica preliminary del
estern6n y la cintura p6lvica en seis species de
ciconiiformes cubanos sobre la base de la cual se
confeccionaron claves dicot6micas para su
identificaci6n, lo que constitute el primer paso para
el desarrollo de las nuevas lines investigativas.

ESTIMATES OF SIZE AND BIOMASS OF PREY
IN THE DIET OF CUBAN AQUATIC BIRDS
DENNIS DENIS, LOURDES MUGICA, MARTIN
ACOSTA, ARIAM JIMENEZ AND
LEANDRO TORRELLA
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 eJ e I, Vedado, CiudadHabana, Cuba
In the study of the diet of birds, direct analysis has
been little represented. However, to facilitate further
studies of the energy derived from food, it is
necessary to determine the biomass, which in many
cases can only be derived from the digestive process.
In this study allometric equations are used to predict
height and weight of water birds prey's in the rice
fields of Jibaro, Cuba.
ESTIMAS DE TAMANO Y BIOMASA DE LAS PRESS
QUE COMPONEN LA DIETA DE AVES ACUATICAS
CUBANAS.-En el studio de la dieta de las aves el
anhlisis director ha estado relativamente poco
representado, a causa de esto se han utilizado
tradicionalmente anhlisis cualitativos 6 cuantitativos
a nivel de macrogrupos taxon6micos. Sin embargo,
para facilitar studios mis profundos del aporte
energ6tico de las press en la dieta es necesario
determinar su biomasa partiendo en muchos casos de
solo restos del process digestive (regfirgitos, heces


El Pitirre 12(3)


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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FROM THE 1999 MEETING OF THE SCO -SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


fecales, egagr6pilas o contenidos estomacales) por lo
que se hacen necesarios m6todos predictivos que
permitan estimar estos parimetros. En el present
trabajo se brindan las ecuaciones alom6tricas para
los grupos mis representados en la dieta de las aves
acuiticas cubanas que explotan los campos arroceros
del Sur del Jibaro, Sancti-Spiritus, Cuba. Estas
ecuaciones permiten predecir las tallas o pesos en
grupos taxon6micos generals a partir de fragments
o estructuras corporales. Tambidn se ofrecen como
m6todos alternatives factors de correcci6n para
transformar el peso hfimedo en peso seco, mas
utilizado clasicamente en trabajos de energ6tica.

TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF THE AVIAN
COMMUNITY ASSOCIATED WITH RICE
PLANTATIONS SOUTH OF JIBARO, CUBA
LOURDES MUGICA, MARTIN ACOSTA,
AND DENNIS DENIS
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 e J e I, Vedado, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
This is a study of the community of birds associated
with the rice fields south of Jibaro, Sancti Spiritus,
Cuba and its seasonal variations. In nine months we
observed 70 species (43% migratory), including
members of all orders associated with natural aquatic
habits. The richness of species remained high from
April to November (40-26 species), whereas the


density of biomass was higher from October to
December. The groups best represented were waders,
and ducks, both dabbling and diving. Seasonal
variations in the richness of species, density, and
biomass of each guild were studied, as was how the
cycle of rice cultivation influenced the ecological
parameters.
DINAMICA TEMPORAL DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES
ASOCIADA A LA ARROCERA SUR DEL JIBARO,
CUBA.-Se estudia la comunidad de aves asociada a
la arrocera Sur del Jibaro, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba, y
sus variaciones temporales. En los nueve meses
muestreados se detectaron 70 species (43%
migratorias) de aves asociadas directamente al
cultivo. Se encontraron representados todos los
ordenes de aves tipicos de ambientes acuiticos
evidenciando su papel como sustituto de los
humedales naturales. La riqueza de species se
mantuvo elevada entire abril y noviembre entiree 40 y
26 species) mientras que la densidad y biomasa fue
muy superior entire octubre y diciembre que en el
resto del afio. Los cinco gremios mejor representados
en densidad annual fueron patos, sondeadores
someros, zancudas y sondeadores profundos. Se
estudian las variaciones temporales en riqueza de
species, densidad y biomasa de cada gremio y se
discute c6mo el ciclo de cultivo influye sobre los
mencionados parimetros ecol6gicos.


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ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS


CAYMAN ISLANDS

PATRICIA E. BRADLEY
CAYMAN ISLANDS REPRESENTATIVE
PO Box 907, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, BWI


BIODIVERSITY GRANT
The WWF-UK transferred a biodiversity grant,
part of the spin-off from UK government from the
Rio Conference, to the Cayman Islands National
Trust (CINT) in 1998. Fred Burton, the Scientific
Programmes Manager, with the help of volunteers,
has spent 12 months mapping the primary vegetation
of the three Cayman islands, using the latest GPS
equipment, a major and arduous task. Fred is now
ready to analyze the data. Several major conservation
applications will follow; i.e., production of accurate
vegetation maps, a basis to plan conservation man-
agement for the most sensitive habitats, and avian
monitoring (and later the production of a breeding
bird atlas). The results do not come a moment too
soon, because pressure on the environment has in-
creased alarmingly in the last two years, especially
on Grand Cayman, where almost all the freshwater
wetlands in the western half of the island have now
been filled. Land costs have continued to escalate on
the three islands, making large land purchase by the
Trust (despite very successful fund raisers) virtually
impossible. All conservation efforts for birds (and
plants) are now focused on negotiating an environ-
mental policy with the Cayman Islands Government,
which will put environmentally protected areas into
the Development Plan, and get major areas desig-
nated, as recommended by the Trust.

CAYMAN ISLANDS BIRD CLUB
It has not been a good year for the Bird Club, with
more birders leaving the island and low attendance at
meetings. The first nest of the Least Bittern
(Ixobrychus exilis) was found by a tourist and photo-
graphed by Patricia Bradley (previously only juve-
niles had been seen) and records of the rare Black
Swift (Cypseloides niger) were confirmed. Both re-
cords will appear in the British Ornithologists' Un-
ion Check-list for the Cayman Islands, now entering
the last editorial stages, and due for publication in
2000. The Check-list includes 224 bird species con-
firmed for the three Cayman islands.


NATURE TOURISM PROJECT
A self-guided nature tourism project is due to open
in December 1999 on Cayman Brac, with Patricia
Bradley as consultant (and sign-maker, rock-mover,
and web page author). Forty interpretive signs have
been ordered and work is now taking place on four
superb porcelain enamel panels, two of which will
illustrate the life histories of the Cayman Brac Parrot
(Amazona leucocephala hesterna) and the Brown
Booby (Sula leucogaster). Part of the project calls
for wetland habitat restoration, but this awaits the
purchase of land for an alternate site for the public
dump. Great cooperation has been give by the Cay-
man Brac branch of the National Trust, which has
had another successful year under Wallis Platts'
chairmanship and membership, and activities are
continuing to grow. Wallis's efforts have resulted in
a Brac family offering to donate the islands' only
heronry to the Trust, hopefully by year end.

LAND PURCHASES
Another 17 acres of primary woodland have been
purchased by the National Trust, making the Mastic
Reserve up to 339 acres, the only area of protected
woodland in Grand Cayman. The Trust also pur-
chased 300 acres of mangrove in the Central Man-
grove Wetland, with money raised by our master
fund-raiser, Janet Walker. No progress has yet been
made on protection of the Central Mangrove Wet-
land and its creation as a second Ramsar site, prom-
ised by the Government in 1995. We are still hope-
ful. This important wetland is the largest inland
swamp in the West Indies, and is vital, in the true
sense of the word, for the existence of Grand Cay-
man's birds, coral reefs, fishing industry, and under-
ground freshwater lenses.

WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK WORKING GROUP
The West Indian Whistling-Duck Working Group
(WIWDWG; Cayman Islands) is cooperating with
the Grand Cayman Rotary Club to create a
"watchable pond" at Willie Ebanks West Indian


El Pitirre 12(3)


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Whistling-Duck feeding station at Hutland. Plans
have now been passed and work is due to start in Au-
gust to create a viewing area and upgrade the fresh-
water pond with labour and materials provided by
Rotary, and an interpretive sign ($1000) donated by
the WIWDWG.
The WIWDWG has funded Martin Keeley, who
lives in Cayman Brac, to be the major author of the
WIWDWG wetland activity book, to be published in
English and Spanish. Minor authors are Lynn Gape,
Lisa Sorenson, Patricia Bradley, Lundi Spence, and
Kate Wallace. The book is intended to get more wet-
land education into school curricula in islands within
the range of the West Indian Whistling-Duck, which
is our flagship species. Martin received travel fund-
ing to give slide and puppet shows on Grand Cay-
man and Cayman Brac in our continuing effort to
educate children and adults on the importance of the
West Indies' only endemic duck. He ran Friends of
Boundary Bay environmental education programme,
which reached 25,000 schoolchildren in British Co-
lumbia, and is now incorporated into the curriculum.

ADDITIONAL FUNDING
Patricia Bradley raised funds from RSPB, the larg-
est UK conservation organization, and E. J. Wil-
liams, of the Georgia Department of Natural Re-
sources, raised funds for a National Trust breeding
survey on the Cayman Brac Parrot. From 4-13 June
1999, Jim Wiley led a team (Fred Burton, Patricia
Bradley, E. J. Williams, and Noel Holcombe, with
Trevor Baxter and Teri and and Terry from the Bird
Club for two days) in searches for parrot nests in


ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS CAYMAN ISLANDS


woodland on karstic limestone (and avoiding the
concealed caves). Only six nests were located (four
in the Parrot Reserve), but many other non-breeding
pairs held territories. We all agreed this project
needed several years study to isolate the factors that
drive this small amazon population (estimated at 400
individuals). Clearing of bluff woodland, with more
areas planned for development, will fragment the
already small breeding habitat of the parrot. There-
fore, before further areas can be identified for protec-
tion, finding what (apart from dead cedar trees) con-
trols their choice of nests is a priority. Nest recon-
struction will also be considered.

BAT CONSERVATION
Bat conservation received a boost when Lois Blu-
menthal got bat biologist Annie Louise Band for a
month on the islands. Band netted and researched all
night and held public awareness meetings, talked to
everyone to dispel local fears about bats, and ex-
plored caves and attics all day. She made a big im-
pact and hopes to return for a year to continue work.

BREEDING SEABIRDS
Patricia Bradley contributed a Cayman Islands
summary of breeding seabirds to the Seabird Work-
ing Group which, with reports from all of the West
Indies, was intended for publication in BirdLife In-
ternational as a monograph on West Indian seabirds.
Unfortunately, it seems to have hit various snags; e.
g., the reports would make the manuscript too large
to be published with the species accounts and authors
failed to submit reports for many of the islands.


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ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS


BAHAMA ISLANDS

CAROLYN WARDLE
Bahamas Representative
cwardle(abatelnet.bs


PARTNERS-IN-FLIGHT
Ongoing partnership with North Carolina through
Dr. David Lee has encouraged several projects:
1. In the Exumas, banding and color marking of
tropicbirds and shearwaters has been undertaken
by Dave Lee and others. The Outer Continental
Shelf and Gulf Stream are being monitored for
sightings of marked or other banded birds.
Further monitoring of nesting areas will reveal
how often individual adults return to feed
chicks. Researchers will track chick weight gain
and loss, and mark some nest sites to see if the
same parents use the same holes each year. A
graduate student, Will Mackin, is presently
working in the field on Audubon's Shearwater
breeding biology.
2. A 75-slide program, with script on the ecology
of the pine woodlands of the Bahamas, has been
produced through a grant from the U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, with the assistance of
Kathy Oliver, Eric Carey, and Bruce Hallett.
This presentation will be mass-produced and
available by October 1999.
3. Further research is in progress in Grand
Bahama, with the cooperation of the staff of the
Rand Nature Centre, on t he stratification of
birds in winter pine communities, and another
on the use of agave by wintering birds in Grand
Bahama.
4. In conjunction with The Nature Conservancy
and the Partners-in-Flight program, there is now
heightened awareness of the importance of The
Bahama Islands as the wintering grounds of the
endangered Kirtland's Warbler. Two years ago,
several Bahamians visited Michigan during the
warbler's breeding season to see, first-hand, the
local efforts for recovery of this bird. Now focus
is increasing on the survival of the warbler
through the winter, and Eric Carey has been
invited to serve as a member of the Kirtland's
Warbler Recovery Team. During last winter, the
Ornithology Group on New Providence
concentrated on monitoring possible Kirtland's


Warbler habitat, but only accomplished one
positive sighting there. The preferred winter
habitat of the warbler is still vague.
5. Eric Carey and Dave Lee are working on a Cat
Island natural history booklet as a basic, but
scientifically accurate, publication for use in
schools and by the general public. If this project
is successful, the plan is to extend the effort to
other islands.
6. The Bahamas government is being pressured to
deal with increased levels of interest in hunting.
Through the partnership, Eric Carey will be
visiting North Carolina to look at some of the
hunting preserves and clubs in operation and
will contact personnel in t he state game
commission and biologists for future exchanges
of information.

OTHER ACTIVITIES
1. Through Mrs. Lynn Gape, the Bahamas
continues to play a very active role in the West
Indian Whistling-Duck project. In May 1999, a
Workbook Task Force, consisting of Dr. Lisa
Sorenson, Mrs. Patricia Bradley, Mr. Martin
Keeley, Mrs. Kate Wallace, Miss Monique
Clarke, Mrs. Karen St. Cyr, and Mrs. Lynn
Gape, met at The Bahamas National Trust. The
purpose of this weekend workshop was to
coordinate and draft the regional workbook.
2. Major development on Paradise Island by Sun
International is of concern. Despite the
developers consulting with The Bahamas
National Trust, there is fear for the future of
several important species through habitat loss,
particularly the White-cheeked Pintail. Dr. Lisa
Sorenson is making a presentation to Sun
International, emphasizing the importance of the
ponds on Paradise Island for the survival of this
duck.
3. The Bahamas National Trust Gamebird
Committee continues to monitor, census, and
band White-crowned Pigeons. An important
breeding island, Big Green Cay, was recently


El Pitirre 12(3)


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sold, but through the efforts of the Wildlife and
Gamebird committees, Government is acquiring
this important cay for future protection.
4. The local Ornithology Group on New
Providence continues to conduct monthly field
trips and monitor the various ecosystems still
present on the island. Major construction and
land sale in the last few years has seen an
enormous increase in land clearance on this
island, which supports at least half the native
human population of the entire Bahama Islands
and a large percentage of the tourists.
Development on some of the other islands in the
chain is also on the increase.
5. Paradise Island is now under severe strain from
development, which includes:
a. a new 23-story hotel
b. total clearance of native vegetation on a
large part of the island


ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS- THE BAHAMAS

c. plans for expansion and redesign of the golf
course, and an extensive gated community
to be built in the vicinity of the golf course.
The airport will be closed and the land
incorporated in this project.
6. The Bahamas National Trust is about to present
to Government a proposal for the protection of
the Wilson/Harold ponds area on New
Providence. This was the subject of a resolution
by the Society of Caribbean Ornithology at the
1997 annual meeting in Aruba.
7. There is little reported local activity from many
of the other islands of The Bahamas, other than
Grand Bahama through the staff of the Rand
Nature Centre. Many ornithologists and birders
visit The Bahamas privately, some passing their
check-lists to The Bahamas National Trust.
Tony White continues to monitor and record
unusual sightings.


ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORT

DOMINICA CONSERVATION REPORT
FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE DIVISION, DOMINICA

STEPHEN DURAND
ISLAND REPRESENTATIVES. LUCIA
Forestry Division, Ministry ofAgriculture, Roseau, Dominica


PARROT RESEARCH AND MONITORING
In 1999, the monitoring of nesting activities of
Dominica's two parrot species wascontinued by the
Division's research staff along with Dr. Paul Reillo
from Rare Species Conservatory Foundation
(RSCF). The research staff was successful in discov-
ering one active Sisserou Parrot (Amazona imperi-
alis) and two new active Red-necked Parrot
(Amazona arausiaca) nests within the Syndicate For-
est Reserve. Coincidentally, the field staff witnessed
courtship and copulation activities at each nest site at
the time of discovery. This was a particularly impor-
tant achievement in the case of the Sisserou, because
these activities have never been observed before in
the wild. Unfortunately, fledging activities were not
observed at any of the nest sites.


During the nesting period several nest searches
(mainly for Sisserou nests) were conducted in the
rainforest within the northern foothills of Morne
Diablotin. Other field work was restricted to video
recording of one Red-necked Parrot nest (with use of
a time-lapse video recorder), intra-video recordings
of active and non-active redneck nests, and monitor-
ing feeding habits of both species, mainly with the
Syndicate and Carholm Reserve Forest.
The RSCF has continued to support the study of
these species by donating research equipment
(including a camcorder, incubator, brooder, and
climbing ropes). RSCF along with Dr. Reillo are fe-
verishly working to raise the necessary funds re-
quired to purchase 1,300 acres of privately owned
lands within the Syndicate Forest Reserve. These


El Pitirre 12(3)


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ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS DOMINICA


lands are expected to be included as part of the
More Diablotin National Park.

BIRD NEST MONITORING
Bird nest monitoring was conducted by Benito
Espinal and Bertrand Jno Baptiste, who expect to
publish their data later this year. This research activ-
ity has resulted in an exciting discovery for Domin-
ica; i.e., it has been confirmed that the Bare-eyed
Thrush (Turdus nidigenis) is a resident breeder in an
area known as Pentiwax. This study also confirmed
that both the Bare-eyed Thrush and the Red-legged
Thrush (Turdus plumbeus) are using soil in the con-
struction of their nest. Several other bird nests were
observed (including Barn Owl Tyto alba, House


Wren Troglodytes aedon, Broad Wing Hawk Buteo
platypterus, and Bananaquit Coerebaflaveola).


OTHER ACTITIES
Overseas visit November 1998, Trinidad -
FAO Workshop on Management of wild bird
population in the West Indies.
Training for Tour Guides in Fauna and Flora of
Dominica.
Participation in International Migratory Bird
Day and World Birdwatch Day.
Search for Bare-eyed Thrush in several habitats
around the island.


ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORT

ST. LUCIA

DONALD ANTHONY
ISLAND REPRESENATIVE-ST. LUCIA
Forestry Department, Ministry ofAgriculture, Castries, St. Lucia


This report is a summary of the main activities
within the Wildlife Section of the Forestry Depart-
ment in St. Lucia from August 1998 to July 1999.


PARROT PROJECT
Before the parrot breeding season, all known and
climable St. Lucia Parrot nests trees in the Quilese
and Edmund area were inspected. Most of the nests
inspected were dry and ready for the nesting season.
A few had to be drained of water and in some nests
inspection doors had to be replaced. In March alone,
over 25 climbs were made to inspect parrot nests and
to verify activity. Wild honey bees occupied some
parrot nest sites or cavities near nesting sites, making
occupation by parrots and inspection by humans im-
possible. Nest monitoring continued this year and we
found that nest success was particularly poor, with
seven active nests failing.
Parrots are increasing their range into new areas
like Forestiere and La Sociere in northern St. Lucia,
we we interpret as a sign of population growth. Nest
searches in the Forestiere area were fruitless, but it is
possible that parrots will be nesting there soon.


Three tree top observation platforms were replaced in
Quilesse. They had been in place since September
1994, but succumbed to the elements in the forest ca-
nopy.
For the first time ever the fully decomposed re-
mains of an adult parrot were found in the wild. Only
the bones and feathers were found at Parrot Hill in
Quilesse, and apparently the bird died from natural
causes.

ST. LUCIA WHIPTAIL TRANSLOCATION PROJECT
Monitoring of the translocated population of the St.
Lucia whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus vanzoi) from
Maria Island Major to Praslin Island is continuing.
From the original seven pairs translocated to Praslin
Island in 1995, today there are over two hundred whip-
tails on the island. Trapping of rats that apparently
swim across to Praslin Island is ongoing. In the dry
season the whiptails can be easy prey for American
Kestrels (Falco sparverius), as most trees shed their
leaves and the forest on Praslin Island becomes quite
dry. Presently, the Whiptail population on Praslin Is-
land is healthy and there have been no signs of rats for
some time.


El Pitirre 12(3)


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ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS-ST. LUCIA


TRAINING ACTIVITY
A training programme was conducted for forest
officers to identify migratory and local bird species.
Two training sites were used, Boriel's pond in the
south and WASA water treatment ponds in the north.
A rotational programme was in place for the officers
to visit the sites on a weekly basis from January to
April.

MIGRANT SPECIES SURVEY
From January to April three wetland areas were
visited; i.e., WASA Sewage treatment ponds at Bella
Rosa in Gros-Islet in the north, Boreil's pond in the
south, and Bois D'orange swamp, also in the north of
St. Lucia. The survey was carried out either early
morning from 07:00-09:00 hr or 15:00-17:00 hr. Sur-
veys were conducted twice a week and times were
alternated for each site.
A total of 10 species were recorded, including:
Green Heron
Solitary Sandpiper*
Common Moorhen
Lesser Yellowlegs*


Little Blue Heron
Snowy Egret*
Great Blue Heron
Tri-colored Heron
Belted Kingfisher*
Little Egret*
= migrant
The most common among the migrants were the Les-
ser Yellowlegs and Great Blue Heron

OTHER ACTIVITIES
* Many local and visiting groups were taken on edu-
cational tours to nature reserves and wildlife sanc-
tuaries around St. Lucia.
* Six agoutis were born in the Mini Zoo this year.
* Responded to requests to remove several wild bee
swarms from homes near the Castries.
* Assisted Dr. Ethan J. Temeless from Amherst Co-
llege, USA, in research on hummingbirds and flo-
wers in St. Luci,a entitled "evolution of bill and
flower curvature: a test of hypothesis."


NEW PUBLICATION
Now AVAILABLE

THE GUADELOUPE WOODPECKER
AND OTHER ISLANDS MELANERPES

BY PASCAL VILLARD



The first monograph of a Neotropical woodpecker. 160 x 240 mm, 136
pages, many color photographs. 220 FF, including shipping.

To order:
SEOF
Bibliotheque
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
55 rue Buffon
F-75005 Paris
France
Fax: 01-40.79.30.63
E-mail: seof@mnhn.fr


El Pitirre 12(3)


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SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS


SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE,
THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


Form of submission
Hard Copy
One copy on 8.5" x 11" paper.
Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.
Faxes
Discouraged.
If this is your best option, please ensure that the type used is larger than 12 point.
Fax number: 318-274-3870.
Electronic mail
Encouraged
Preferred as a MS Word file attachment.
A hard-copy back-up should be mailed to the editor.
E-mail address of editor: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Floppy disk
Preferred
Submit in PC or Macintosh environment, preferably using WordPerfect or MS Word software. A 3.5" disk
is preferred. Submit a hard copy with the computer disk.
Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.

All Regional Reports, reports on workshops, resolutions, and other Society matters must be submitted
through electronic mail (with hard-copy back-up sent through the regular mail) or as a file on a floppy
disk with hard-copy.

Language
Contributions can be in English, Spanish, or French. Translation of the entire text in an alternate language
is encouraged. At a minimum, the abstract of longer manuscripts should be provided in at least one of the
other two languages.

Format of submitted materials
All submitted materials must be typed, and hard copies must be clearly legible.
The manuscript should conform to usage in recent issues of El Pitirre.
Double space all written materials, including tables and figure legends.
For scientific papers and notes:
Number pages through the Literature Cited.
Do not hyphenate words at the ends of typewritten lines.
Type tables separate from the text.
Type figure legends consecutively on separate pages.
Title page (numbered) should contain full title, and authors' names and addresses at the time of the
research. The present address, if different, should be indicated as a footnote. The title page also in-
cludes running heads (less than 36 characters), and the name and contact information for the author
who can be most easily contacted.
An Abstract (less than 5% of paper length) should precede each longer article. It should summarize
important premises, summarize findings, and give conclusions.
Text Citations should include the author and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith
et al. 1992). Multiple citations should be arranged chronologically.
Acknowledgments precede the Literature Cited.
Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU's Check-list of
North American Birds, 7th ed. (1998) and its supplements.
Measurements should be in metric units.


El Pitirre 12(3)


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CONTENTS (Continued from back cover)


ESTIMATES OF SIZE AND BIOMASS OF PREY IN THE DIET OF CUBAN AQUATIC BIRDS/ ESTIMAS DE TAMANO Y
BIOMASA DE LAS PRESS QUE COMPONEN LA DIETA DE AVES ACUATICAS CUBANAS. Dennis Dents, Lourdes Mugica,
M martin A costa, A nram Jim enez and Leandro Torrella .............................................................................................................. 115
TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF THE AVIAN COMMUNITY ASSOCIATED WITH RICE PLANTATIONS SOUTH OF JIBARO,
CUBA DINAMICA TEMPORAL DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES ASOCIADA A LA ARROCERA SUR DEL JIBARO, CUBA.
Lourdes M ugica, M martin Acosta, and Dennis Dens ................................................................. ........................... 116
ISLA N D R EPR E SEN TA TIV E R E PO R TS ............................................................................................................................................................ 117
CAYMAN ISLANDS. Patricia E. 5 u ...i .............................................................. .......................... 117
BAHAMA ISLANDS. Carolyn Wardle .......................................................................... 119
DOMINICA CONSERVATION REPORT. Stephen D urand ....................... ............................................................... ....... .................... ... 120
S T L U C IA D o n ald A n th ony .................................................................................................................................................................. 12 1
SU G GE STION S TO A U TH OR S .......... ....................... .................................. ................................................................... ................. 123







SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS (CONTINUED)


Use continental dating (e.g., 14 October 1992) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 08:00 and 21:35).
Tables and figures should not duplicate material in the text or in each other. Each table requires a short
heading, including descriptive information that would answer the reader's questions of what, where, and
when.
Literature Cited: Follow the most recent issue of the bulletin for style. In general, format will follow the
following style:
Journal citation
Include full journal name, volume, and inclusive page numbers; e.g.,
Levy, C. 1997. Nesting of Euneornis campestris, the Orangequit. Pitirre 10(1):30-31.
Book or report
Include publisher and place of publication; e.g.,
Hochbaum, H. A. 1959. The Canvasback on a prairie marsh, 2nd ed. Stackpole Books, Harris-
burg, Pennsylvania.
Chapter in book
Include editors) name(s), inclusive pages of chapter, book or report title, publisher, and place of
publication; e.g.,
Oring, L. W., and R. D. Sayler. 1992. The mating system of waterfowl. Pages 190-213 in Ecol-
ogy and management of breeding waterfowl (B. D. J. Batt, Ed.). Univ. Minnesota Press, Min-
neapolis.


El Pitirre 12(3)














SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


E EL PITIRRE

:P SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY



Fall 1999 Vol. 12, No. 3




CONTENTS (Continued from front cover)


PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF THREE SPECIES OF HERONS
(AVES: ARDEIDAE) IN THE VIRAMAS SWAMP, CUBA/ RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES SOBRE LOS PARAMETROS
REPRODUCTIVOS DE TRES SPECIES DE GARZAS (AVES: ARDEIDAE) EN LA CIENAGA DE VIRAMAS, CUBA.
Dennis Dens Avila, Patricia Rodriguez, Antonio Rodriguez, Leandro Torrella, Rigel Fernandez ................................................ 107
DIET AND FRUIT PREFERENCE OF AVIAN FRUGIVORES IN FORESTED HABITATS OF NORTH-CENTRAL PUERTO
RICO: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT/ DIETA Y PREFERENCIA DE FRUTAS DE LA AVIFAUNA FRUGIVORA EN
HABITAT BOSCOSO DE LA REGION NORTE-CENTRAL DE PUERTO RICO: IMPLICACIONES PARA SU MANEJO.
Tom as A C arlo, Jaim eA Collazo, andMaartha J. G room ............................................................... ......................................... 108
MORPHOLOGY, FOOD HABITS, AND REPRODUCTION OF THE GREEN HERON (BUTORIDES VIRESCENS) IN CUBA/ MOR-
FOMETRIA, ALIMENTACION Y REPRODUCCION DEL AGUAITACAIMAN (BUTORIDES VIRESCENS) EN CUBA. Dennis Denis Avila,
Lourdes M ugica Vadez, and M martin A costa Cruz .................................................................................... ................ ................ 108
UPDATE ON THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK AND WETLANDS CONSERVATION PROJECT/ PUESTA AL DIA
DEL PROYECTO DE CONSERVATION DE LA YAGUAZA Y LOS HUMEDALES. Lisa G. Sorenson andPatricia Bradley ................... 109
ACHIEVING AVIAN CONSERVATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION/ MEJORANDO LA CONSERVATION DE
LAS AVES A TRAVES DE LA EDUCACION AMBIENTAL. Suzanne Davis ....................................... ............. ........................ 109
LIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE ZAPATA SWAMP/ LISTA DE LAS AVES DE LA CIENAGA DE ZAPATA. Lorazza Bacallao Mesa,
Orestes M artinez Garcia y Llanes Sosa ................................................................. ..................................... 110
THE FALL AND RISE OF AN ADAPTATION AGAINST BROOD PARASITISM-EGG REJECTION BEHAVIOR IN
VILLAGE WEAVERS IN HISPANIOLA. A. Cruz, M. Robert, G. Sorci, andJ. W. Wiley ........................................................ 110
AVES QUE HABITAN EN LA LAGUNA "BACONAO" DE SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA. Nidia Garcia Sarmiente ............ 110
BIRD USE OF HONEYDEW IN DOMINICAN DRY FOREST/ EL USO POR AVES DE LA SECRECION AZUCARADA DE LOS
INSECTOS EN EL BOSQUE SECO DOMINICANO. Steven C. Latta, HeatherA. Gamper; and James Tietz ...................................... 111
WINTER SITE PERSISTENCE OF PRAIRIE WARBLERS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: EFFECTS OF SEASONALITY
AND HETEROGENEITY OF HABITAT/ PERSISTENCIA AL SITIO INTERNAL POR DENDROICA DISCOLOR EN LA REPUBLICAN
DOMINICANA: LOS EFECTOS DE TIEMPO VARIABLE Y HETEROGENEIDAD DEL HABITAT. Steven C. Latta .................................. 111
ARE THE GRAY-HEADED QUAIL-DOVES (GEOTRYGON CANICEPS) FROM CUBA AND HISPANIOLA (AVES:
COLUMBIDAE) MONOTYPIC SPECIES?/ iES LA AZULONA (GEOTRYGON CANICEPS) DE CUBA Y LA ESPANOLA
(AVES: COLUMBIDAE) UNA ESPECIE MONOTIPICA? Orlando Garrido .............................................................. ...................... 112
USE OF THE JACKKNIFE METHOD TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL SAMPLE SIZE TO DESCRIBE THE DIET OF BIRDS/
APLICACION DEL METODO JACKKNIFE A UN DESCRIPTOR DE LA DIETA EN AVES PARA DETERMINAR TAMANO DE MUESTRA
O P TIM O D ennis D en is A vila s ............................................................................ .... .................................................................... 1 13
IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN FOR THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK IN CUBAN
SCHOOLS/ IMPLEMENTATION DEL TRABAJO DE EDUCATION AMBIENTAL SOBRE LA YAGUAZA EN ESCUELAS CUBANAS.
Lourdes M ugica, Orlando Torres, D ennis D enis, andM artin Acosta ......................................................................................... 113
FIRST SPECIMEN RECORD OF A CHIMNEY SWIFT (CHAETURA PELAGICA) (AVES: APODIDAE) FOR CUBA/ PRIMER
RECORD DE COLECTA DEL VENCEJO DE CHIMENEA (CHAETURA PELAGICA) (AVES: APODIDAE) PARA CUBA.
S. Llanes Sosa andE neiderE P erez M ena ............................................... ...................................................................... 113
DISTRIBUTION, HABITAT USE, AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF BICKNELL'S THRUSH IN THE DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC/ DISTRIBUTION, USO DEL HABITAT Y STATUS DE CONSERVATION DEL ZORZAL DE BICKNELL EN LA REPUBLICAN
DOMINICANA. Christopher C. Rimmer, KentP. McFarland, and JamesE. Goet ............................................. ...................... 114
SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF HURRICANE GEORGES ON THE FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF THE PUERTO RICAN TODY
(TODUSMEXICANUS) LOS EFECTOS EN EL CORTO PLAZO DEL HURACAN GEORGES SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE
FORRAJEO DEL SAN PEDRITO (TODUS MEXICANUS). Beatriz Hernandez ...................................................... ............................. 114
OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STERNUM AND PELVIS OF SIX CUBAN CICONIIFORM SPECIES/
CARACTERISTICAS OSTEOLOGICAS DEL ESTERNON Y LA PELVIS EN SEIS SPECIES DE CICONIIFORMES CUBANOS.
Natacha Ortiz and Dennis Denis Avila ............................... ............................... .. ........... 115


Continued on inside cover




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