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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00037
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v.12, n.2 42p.: ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 1999
Frequency: bimonthly
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 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100143
Volume ID: VID00037
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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Succeeded by: Journal of Caribbean Ornithology

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 39
        Page 40
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
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CONTENTS

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF HURRICANE GEORGES ON THE FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF THE PUERTO RICAN TODY TODUS
M EX ICA N U S. B eatriz H erndndez M achado ..................................... ..... ..... .......... .......................................................................................... 39
EL ZUNZUNCITO, MELLISUGA HELENAE (AVES: TROCHILIDAE), EN LA ALTIPLANICIE DE NIPE, HOLGUIN, CUBA.
Barbara Sanchez, A. H erndndez, Carlos Pena, E. Reyes y Nils Navarro ........................................................................................................................ 42
AN APPARENT OUT-OF-SEASON BREEDING BY A PAIR OF BLACK-NECKED STILTS AND ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF
BIRDS ON LEE STOCKING ISLAND, EXUMAS, THE BAHAMAS. Ernest H. Williams, Jr., and Lucy .. .................................. 43
SECOND REPORT OF THE VEERY CATHARUSFUSCESCENS SALICICOLA (AVES: TURDIDAE) FOR CUBA. OrlandoH. Garrido and
D ay si R o d rig u ez ................................................................................................... ..... .................................................................................................. 4 4
NUEVO REGISTRO DE BOBITO DE COLA DE TIJERA TYRANNUSFORFICATUS EN CUBA. Pedro Blanco Rodriguez, GiraldoA,, .,
G arcia y V icente B provides A lvdrez ..................................................................................................................... ........................................................ 46
CENSO INTERNAL Y ANILLAMIENTO DEL FRAILECILLO SILBADOR CHARADRIUSMELODUS EN CUBA. Pedro Blanco Rodriguez,
F rancois -. .M ichael R obert y E liser Socarrds ..................................................................................................................... .... ....................... 48
A SIGHT RECORD OF RINGED KINGFISHER (MEGACERYLE TORQUATA) FOR GRENADA. P. William Smith and SusanA. Smith ................ 49
THE BREEDING OF WILSON'S (CHARADRIUS WILSONIA) AND COLLARED (CHARADRIUS COLLARIS) PLOVERS IN THE SOUTHERN
LESSER AN TILLES. P. W illiam Sm ith and Susan A Sm ith ................................................................. ........................... ............................... 50
EL PATO CHORIZO DE NORTEAMERICA OXYURA JAMAICENSISRUBIDA (AVES: ANATIDAE) INVERNA EN CUBA.
O rlando H G arrido y A rturo K irkconnell ......................................................................................................................................... ....................... 52
ABSTRACTS FROM THE 1999 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY, SANTO DOMINGO,
R E PU B L IC A D O M IN IC A N A ...................................................... ........................ ........... ......... ........ .................. .. ... ................. ................. 53
CAMPANA DE EDUCATION AMBIENTAL EN LA SUBREGION ENRIQUILLO: PROMOVIENDO LA PROTECTION A TRAVES DEL
ORGULLO/ ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CAMPAIGN IN THE ENRIQUILLO SUBREGION: PROMOTING PROTECTION THROUGH PRIDE.
Y v o n n e A ria s ........................................................................................................... . ................... ....... .............................................................. 5 3
PROGRAM ARAUCARIA -REPUBLICA DOMINICANA, PROYECTO INTEGRAL PARA EL MANTENIMIENTO DE LA
BIOD IVERSIDAD PRO YECTO BAHORU CO Carlos Calo ............................................................................................................................ 53
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPORTATION OF WILD BIRDS TO THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, 1994-1998/ ANALYSIS DE LA IMPORTACION DE
AVES SILVESTRES A LA REPUBLICA DOMINICANA DURANTE EL PERIODO 1994-1998. Ramon Ovidio SanchezPena ........................................ 53
HABITAT USE, MOVEMENTS AND ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF CAPTIVE-REARED HISPANIOLAN PARROTS RELEASED IN
PARQUE NATIONAL DEL ESTE, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/ PATRONS DE ACTIVIDAD, MOVIMIENTO Y USO DE HABITAT DE
COTORRAS DOMINICANAS CRIADAS EN CAUTIVERIO Y LIBERADAS EN EL PARQUE NATIONAL DEL ESTE, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA.
Francisco J. Vilella, Thomas H. White, Jr., Jaime A. Collazo, and Simon Guerrero .................................................... ...................................... 54
EXPERIMENTAL RELEASES OF CAPTIVE-REARED HISPANIOLAN PARROTS (AMAZONA VENTRALIS) IN THE DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC: CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS FOR PUERTO RICAN PARROTS (AMAZONA VITTATA)/ LIBERACIONES
EXPERIMENTALES DE COTORRAS DOMINICANAS CRIADAS EN CAUTIVERIO Y LIBERADAS EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA: IMPLICACIONES
PARA LA CONSERVATION DE LA COTORRA PUERTORRIQUENA. Jaime A. Collazo, Francisco J. Vlella, Thomas H. White, Jr., and
B ritta M u lz nm e k s ................................................................................................................................................ ......... ........................................ 5 4
SURVIVAL OF CAPTIVE-REARED HISPANIOLAN PARROTS RELEASED IN PARQUE NATIONAL DEL ESTE, DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC/ SOBREVIVENCIA DE COTORRAS DOMINICANAS CRIADAS EN CAUTIVERIO Y LIBERADAS EN EL PARQUE NATIONAL DEL ESTE,
REPUBLICA DOMINICANA. Thomas H. White, Jr., Jaime A. Collazo, Francisco J. Vlella, and Simon Guerrero ............................................. 55
BIRDS IN SUN AND SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS IN THE CORDILLERA CENTRAL, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: IMPLICATIONS
FOR CONSERVATION/ AVES DE CAFETALES DE SOL Y SOMBRA EN LA CORDILLERA CENTRAL DE LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA:
IMPLICACIONES PARA SU CONSERVACION. Joseph M. Wunderle and Steven C. Latta ...................................................................................... 56
NEST-SITE AND FORAGING HABITAT OF THE HISPANIOLAN WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL (LOXIA LEUCOPTERA MEGAPLADA)
IN THE SIERRA DE BAHORUCO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/ HABITAT DEL PICO CRUZADO (LOXIA LEUCOPTERA MEGAPLADA)
PARA ANIDAR Y FORRAJEAR EN LA SIERRA DE BAHORUCO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA. Steven C. Latta, Marriah Sondreal,
C hristop her B row n, and D an dlo M e a .................................................................................................................................................................... 56
COASTAL SEA BIRDS OF JARAGUA NATIONAL PARK, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/ AVES COSTERO MARINAS DE LA ZONA DEL PARQUE
NACIONAL JARAGUA, EN EL SUROESTE DE LA REPUBLICA DOMINICANA. Jesus Almonte y Brigido Hierro ..................................................... 57


Continued on back cover


SOCIEDAD CARIBEITA DE ORNITOLOGIA


71


SEL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Summer 1999 Vol. 12, No. 2
(ISSN 1527-7151)


"-~i-~-,a











EL PITIRRE

THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA



Editor: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270 USA Telephone: (318) 274-2499 or 274-
2399; Fax: (318) 274-3870; e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Assistant Editor: Barbara Keesee, Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, PO Box 841, Grambling State
University, Grambling, Louisiana 71245 USA

News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al editor para inclusion en el boletin.



THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anseleme
SECRETARY: Dr. Marcia Mundle
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific
study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and
those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
econservation groups in the Caribbean.

La Sociedad Caribefia de Ornitologia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el
studio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia
caribefia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire orit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o
datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.




MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
All members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year.
Institutional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay
regular dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name
and address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, 13 East Rosemont Ave., Alexandria, Virginia 22301 USA.












SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA



EL PITIRRE
S-a

SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Summer 1999 Vol. 12, No.2



SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF HURRICANE GEORGES ON THE
FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF THE PUERTO RICAN TODY TODUSMEXICANUS

BEATRIZ HERNANDEZ MACHADO
Department oJ I ,./-. ,-- University ofPuerto Rico, PO Box 23360, San Juan,
Puerto Rico 00931-3360; beahdz@hotmail.com


Abstract.- It is not fully understood why insectivore populations are not strongly affected
after a hurricane compared to the dramatic declines of nectarivores and fruit and seed-eaters.
This study documents the short-term effects of Hurricane Georges (which struck Puerto Rico
on 21 September 1998) on the foraging behavior of the Puerto Rican Tody (Todus mexi-
canus), a common insectivore. A reduction in the foraging height of the bird was observed,
with 87% of todies foraging below the mid-level of the canopy. Also, todies foraged in sites
with significantly greater foliage cover than in nearby randomly selected sites. The principal
foraging techniques used by the todies did not change from those previously reported during
non-hurricane years, but the feeding rate did. By foraging in sites with adequate foliage den-
sity, todies were able to use their normal foraging behavior to obtain prey following hurri-
canes.
Resumen.-Ain se desconoce las razones por las cuales las poblaciones de aves insectivoras
no se encuentran gravemente afectadas luego del paso de un huracin, a diferencia de la
dramitica disminuci6n observada en las poblaciones de nectarivoros, frugivoros y granivo-
ros. Este studio document el efecto a corto plazo del Huracin Georges (el cual azot6 la Isla
el 21 de septiembre de 1998) en el comportamiento de forrageo de un insectivoro comun en
Puerto Rico, el San Pedrito (Todus mexicanus). Se observ6 una reducci6n en la altura de for-
rageo del San Pedrito, con un 87% de los individuos forrageando en areas con mayor densi-
dad foliar en comparaci6n con aquellas areas analizadas al azar. Las principles t6cnicas de
forrageo utilizadas por el ave luego del huracin fueron las mismas que las utilizadas en afios
sin huracanes, mientras que el nimero de intentos de forrageo fue mayor. El studio demon-
str6 que el San Pedrito no cambi6 su comportamiento de forrageo. Por lo tanto, el forragear
en areas con una densidad foliar adequada permiti6 al ave continuar con el mismo compor-
tamiento de forrageo para obtener su presa luego del paso del huracin.


SEVERAL STUDIES HAVE REPORTED the adverse not fully understood, however, why insectivores are
effects of hurricanes on birds (reviewed in Wiley and not strongly affected, although the resiliency of in-
Wunderle 1993). One of the best-documented pat- sect populations to disturbance has been mentioned
terns after a hurricane has been the dramatic decline as a possible explanation (Wiley and Wunderle
in populations of nectarivores, frugivores, and 1993). Some evidence suggests diet shifts in insecti-
granivore species, caused by the loss of food sup- vores (Waide 1991), as well as changes in foraging
plies and foraging substrates. In contrast, insecti- behavior following storms (Wunderle 1995); but the
vores are less likely to show population declines. It is evidence is not as strong for insectivores as for









TODY FORAGING BEHAVIOR AFTER A HURRICANE -HERNANDEZ


frugivores (P6rez-Rivera 1991).
This study documents the short-term effects of
Hurricane Georges (which struck the Puerto Rico on
21 September 1998) on the foraging behavior, in-
cluding shifts in foraging sites, of the Puerto Rican
Tody (Todus mexicanus), a common and widespread
endemic bird in Puerto Rico (Raffaele et al. 1998).
The tody is an insectivore, its diet consisting of small
insects which it captures from different substrates. In
the Luquillo Mountains the highest tody densities
occur below 500 m of elevation in the tabonuco for-
est type (Kepler 1977).

STUDY SITE AND METHODS
This study was conducted from 6 November through
2 December 1998, six and a half weeks after Hurri-
cane Georges, along the Big Tree Trail in the Lu-
quillo Experimental Forest. The trail is within the
tabonuco forest type (Dacryodes excelsa), at aproxi-
mately 400 m of elevation, and was one of the most
heavily damaged sites. Despite the extensive forest
canopy loss, trees of more than 20 m in height re-
mained standing.
My sampling technique involved walking along
the trail until a bird was encountered. If the bird was
observed foraging, I recorded information on canopy
height and the bird's foraging height, foraging tech-
niques, and number of seconds between foray at-
tempts in a two-minute sequence. The canopy and
bird's foraging height were visually estimated. For-
aging techniques were classified as leaf-feeding, air-
feeding, or miscellaneous using all the foraging ma-
neuvers made by a bird in a two-minute sequence.
Feeding rate per minute (all feeding attempts made
by the bird in a two-minute sequence) was described
using a portable tape recorder. The information was
later transcribed and an average was calculated for
each sequence. For the microhabitat analysis, I used
the site of the second foraging movement in the two-
minute sequence. A spherical densiometer was used
to determine canopy cover at each of the four cardi-
nal directions at this site. Each foraging site was
compared to a random site at a random distance and
direction obtained from a table of random numbers.
The random distances were less than 50 m from the
foraging site. Distance was measured using a hip
chain. I compared my results with those reported by
Kepler (1977), using a paired t-test and a G-statistic
(Ott 1993). The standard error was used to describe
variation around the mean.


RESULTS
The average height at which Puerto Rican Todies
foraged was 4.5 + 0.82 m ( median 3.0, N = 23). The
average maximum canopy height at foraging sites
was 14.4 + 0.93 m. Some todies were observed for-
aging at great canopy heights in trees moderately
damaged by the hurricane winds, but most were at
31.09 + 0.05% of the tree height. Kepler (1977) re-
ported an average foraging height of 4.7 m (N =
2187) during non-hurricane years. I observed no sig-
nificant difference for the bird's foraging height after
the hurricane, Kepler's value falls between two S.E.
of the mean value I observed. Of 59 foraging maneu-
vers, 86.4% consisted of leaf-feeding, and 8.5% air-
feeding. The remaining 5.1% consisted of miscella-
neous foraging techniques, such as tree trunk snap-
ping. The proportions of foraging techniques used
after the hurricane did not significantly differ (G =
0.02, d.f.=l, P>0.05) from those found by Kepler
(1977) in 698 observations, which included 86.8%
leaf-feeding, 8.0% air-feeding and 5.2% miscellane-
ous. I observed an average post-hurricane feeding
rate of 1.6 + 0.23/min (N = 18), which was signifi-
cantly higher than that reported by Kepler (1.0/min;
N = 670; i. e., Kepler's value falls outside two S.E. of
the mean value I observed). After the hurricane,
todies foraged in sites with significantly greater foli-
age cover (43.4 + 4.4%) than in nearby randomly
selected sites (35.2 + 3.5%; Paired t = 2.47, d.f. = 21,
P = 0.02).

DISCUSSION
Previous studies have reported an increase in net
capture rates of todies shortly after a hurricane
(Waide 1991, Wunderle 1995). This general increase
in capture rate is attributed to a post-hurricane reduc-
tion in foraging height that made birds more suscep-
tible to capture in mist nets. My results showed a
reduction in the foraging height of the Puerto Rican
Tody after Hurricane Georges, with 87% of todies
foraging below the mid-level of the canopy height.
Because todies forage where there are leaves, regard-
less of height above ground, the reduction in its for-
aging height allowed the bird to forage more fre-
quently near the ground where foraging substrate
remained. This flexibility undoubtedly contributes to
post-hurricane survival.
Foraging site shifts also involve limiting activi-
ties to less-damaged areas. For some species this
could involve expanding their home range size to


El Pitirre 12(2)


Page 40











forage over a greater area, as observed in Puerto Ri-
can Parrots (Amazona vittata) after Hurricane Hugo
(1989), whereas for others it could involve more for-
aging within the original home range (Wiley and
Wunderle 1993). The microhabitat analysis demon-
strated that Puerto Rican Todies used the less-
damaged areas as foraging sites after the hurricane.
The average canopy cover at the bird's foraging sites
were significantly higher than in the randomly se-
lected sites. It is likely that todies remained in their
original territory after the hurricane. This could be
because the post-hurricane distribution of insect prey
may be more predictable, or at least less clumped,
than flowers, fruits, and seeds. Despite the low den-
sity of vegetation remaining after the hurricane, the
local movement to less-damaged strata allowed the
todies to find and capture their food without chang-
ing their usual feeding methods.
The principal foraging techniques used by the
todies are leaf-feeding and air-feeding (Kepler
1977), both of which I observed after Hurricane
Georges. Leaf-feeding involves flying up to the leaf
to capture insects from upper or lower surface, usu-
ally in a single movement. In the air-feeding tech-
nique the tody sallies up and out in the air to catch a
flying insect. Kepler (1977) found seasonal differ-
ences in these two principal feeding techniques used
by the todies in the Luquillo rainforest. She observed
that todies air-feed mostly during the spring when
insects density is greatest, whereas they only leaf-
feed during summer and autumn. Despite the in-
crease in flying insects documented after hurricanes
(Wolcott 1932, Torres 1992), the todies were using
the same feeding method as reported by Kepler
(1977) for September: leaf-feeding. Because I did
not obtain any specific dietary information, I do not
know if todies were feeding on the Order Diptera,
including those from the Family Simuliidae (Kepler
1977), which became common after the hurricane
(Silverio Medina, pers. com.; pers. obs.). The abun-
dance of some insects after the hurricane could also
account for the increase in the Puerto Rican Tody's
feeding rate.
This study demonstrated that the Puerto Rican
Tody did not show major changes in its foraging be-
havior after the passage of Hurricane Georges. Thus,
by foraging in sites with adequate foliage cover,
todies may not need to shift foraging behavior to ob-
tain adequate insect prey following hurricanes.


TODY FORAGING BEHAVIOR AFTER A HURRICANE -HERNANDEZ


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I thank Dr. Joseph M. Wunderle, who helped de-
sign this study and gave me valuable advice and sug-
gestions for improving the manuscript. I am also
grateful to Dr. Alberto Sabat and Neftali Rios for
helpful comments on earlier drafts. Equipment for
this study was provided by the International Institute
of Tropical Forestry, USDA, Forest Service.

LITERATURE CITED
KEPLER, A. K. 1977. Comparative study of todies
(Todidae): with emphasis on the Puerto Rican
Tody, Todus mexicanus. Nuttall Ornithol. Club,
No. 16, Massachusetts.
OTT, L. 1993. An introduction to statistical methods
and data analysis. Fourth edition. Duxbury Press,
California.
PEREZ-RIVERA, R. A. 1991. Change in diet and for-
aging behavior of the Antillean Euphonia in
Puerto Rico after Hurricane Hugo. J. Field Orni-
thol. 62: 474-478.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press, New
Jersey.
TORRES, J. A. 1992. Lepidoptera outbreaks in re-
sponse to successional changes after the passage
of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico. J. Trop. Ecol.
8: 285-298.
WAIDE, R. B. 1991. The effects of Hurricane Hugo
on bird populations in the Luquillo Experimental
Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23:475-480.
WILEY, J. W., AND J. M. WUNDERLE, JR. 1993. The
effects of hurricanes on birds, with special refer-
ence to Caribbean islands. Bird Conserv. Internat.
3:319-349.
WOLCOTT, G. N. 1932. The effect of hurricanes of
San Cyprian on insects in Puerto Rico. Insect Pest
Surv. Bull. 12:409-410.
WUNDERLE, J. M., JR. 1995. Responses of bird popu-
lations in a Puerto Rican forest to Hurricane Hugo:
the first 18 months. Condor 97: 879-896.


El Pitirre 12(2)


Page 41










EL ZUNZUNCITO MELLISUGA HELENAE (AVES: TROCHILIDAE)
EN LA ALTIPLANICIE DE NIPE, HOLGUIN, CUBA

BARBARA SANCHEZ', A. HERNANDEZ', CARLOS PENA2, E. REYES3 Y NILS NAVARRO2
1Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemitica, CITMAI4, Carretera de Varona, Km 3.5, Capdevila, Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana,
Cuba; 2Museo de Historia Natural "Carlos de la Torre y Huerta, laceo 129 e/Marti y Luz Caballero, Holguin, C. P.
80100, Cuba; y 3Estaci6n de Investigaciones Integrales de la Montafa, CITM4A, Holguin, Cuba


Abstract.-The world's smallest bird, the Bee Hummingbird (Melisuga helenae), has an irregular
distribution throughout Cuba. On 31 January 1999, we observed an adult male in the Nipe pla-
teau of eastern Cuba. This new sighting in a forestry, mining, and coffee-growing zone under-
scores the importance of habitat knowledge and conservation.


LA FAMILIAR TROCHILIDAE es de distribuci6n ex-
clusiva del Nuevo Mundo, particularmente de la
region tropical. En Cuba, esta representada por tres
species: el Zunzfin (Chlorostilbon ricordii), el
Zunzuncito (Mellisuga helenae) y el Colibri
(Archilochus colubris). Los machos de estas aves se
caracterizan por presentar colors vivos con brillos
metalicos y se diferencian las distintas species por
el color del plumaje fundamentalmente del macho.
El Zunzuncito, 6 Pajaro Mosca (Bee Hummingbird),
es end6mico de Cuba y es considerada el ave mis
pequefia del mundo.
Esta ave posee una distribuci6n por parches a lo
largo de la isla de Cuba y se conoce de Guanaha-
cabibes, Cidnaga de Zapata, Baitiquiri y Cuchillas
del Toa (Garrido y Kirkconnell 1993). Mas reciente-
mente, Raffaele et al. (1998) lo reportan para Ma-
yari, no se especifica en que localidad ha sido obser-
vado, ni existen referencias anteriormente publicadas
al respect.
Por otra parte, en la Altiplanicie de Nipe se han
realizado inventarios de su avifauna (Navarro et al.
1997) y se vienen desarrollando investigaciones so-
bre las comunidades de aves en diferentes forma-
ciones vegetables, utilizando m6todos combinados de
capture con redes omitol6gicas y conteos de parcela
circular, como parte del proyecto "Estudio de las
comunicades de aves residents y migratorias en
diferentes ecosistemas cubanos" (Sanchez et al., en
prensa), desde octubre de 1996 hasta la fecha. A
pesar del monitoreo intensive realizado en varias de
las formaciones vegetables mis representatives del
area, el Zunzuncito no habia sido detectado.
El dia 31 de enero de 1999, mientras realizibamos
conteos de aves en el Alto de Cuchufli, ubicado en
los 200 32' de latitud N y 750 47' de longitud W, fue
observado un Zunzuncito en una rama seca de un
arbol, approximadamente a 4 m de altura. Esta obser-
vaci6n se pudo realizar durante 1 min 30 seg, lo que
permiti6 precisar las caracteristicas del ave, entire


ellas, su pequefio tamafio, su cola corta y el color
rojo en la cabeza y garganta, por lo que el individuo
result ser un macho con plumaje de adulto.
Ademis, en el moment en que el Zunzuncito vol6,
alejindose del area de observaci6n, se pos6 muy
cerca de ese lugar un Zunzfin macho, lo que permiti6
corroborar con mis exactitud la identificaci6n.
La vegetaci6n del Alto del Cuchufli es un bosque
secundario con elements de pluvisilva en franca
recuperaci6n (R. Capote y J. Llamacho, com. pers.),
que pertenece a la elevaci6n denominada actual-
mente como el Cayo de las Mujeres, que present
otras zonas con vegetaci6n de bosque pluvial bas-
tante conservada. La presencia del Zunzuncito en
esta area, siendo un ave de distribuci6n limitada y
por lo general de bajas densidades poblacionales,
evidencia la necesidad de conservaci6n y adecuado
conocimiento de su habitat, teniendo en cuenta el
desarrollo socioecon6mico que tiene lugar en la Alti-
planicie de Nipe en relaci6n con actividades mineras,
forestales, cafetaleras y otras.

LITERATURE CITADA
GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 1993. Check-
list of Cuban birds.
NAVARRO, N., J. LLAMACHO Y C. PENA. 1997. Lis-
tado preliminary de la avifauna de Sierra de Nipe,
Mayari, Holguin, Cuba. Pitirre 10(2):65.
RAFFALE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH, AND
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton,
New Jersey.
SANCHEZ, B., R. OVIEDO, N. NAVARRO, A.
HERNANDEZ, P. BLANCO, C. PENA, E. REYES, R.
SANCHEZ Y A. HERRERA. En prensa. Composi-
ci6n y abundancia de la avifauna de la Meseta de
Nipe, Holguin, Cuba. Resfimenes II Simposio
International de Ecologia Biosfera '98, La Ha-
bana, Cuba.


El Pitirre 12(2)


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AN APPARENT OUT-OF-SEASON BREEDING BY A PAIR OF BLACK-NECKED STILTS AND
ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF BIRDS ON LEE STOCKING ISLAND, EXUMAS, THE BAHAMAS

ERNEST H. WILLIAMS, JR.', AND LUCY BUNKLEY-WILLIAMS2
'Department of Marine Sciences, University ofPuerto Rico, PO Box 908, Lajas, Puerto Rico 00667-0980 USA;
,\ 1 ,, ..i. a ., 1,,1 and 2Caribbean Aquatic Animal Health Project, Department oJ I .. -.. -, University ofPuerto
Rico, PO Box 9012, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico 00861-9012 USA; lucy.biologia @darwin.upr.clu.edu

Abstract.-We report winter breeding in Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), as well as
unusual winter occurrence records of this species, Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Cape May
Warbler (Dendroica tigrina), and 10 other common bird species on Lee Stocking Island, The Baha-
mas.
Restimen.-Nosotros reportamos apareamiento durante el inviemo de la Viuda (Himantopus mexi-
canus); sucesos invemales inusuales reportados para las siguientes species, el Playerito Menudo
(Calidris minutilla), y la Reinita Tigre (Dendroica tigrina); y otros 10 species comunes de aves en
Lee Stocking Island, Las Bahamas.


THE SENIOR AUTHOR visited Lee Stocking Island
and made bird observations from 30 November to 7
December 1993 (Table 1). The number and species
of birds observed were low because of the stormy
weather during this period. Here we present details
of these observations.

Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) -
Raffaele et al. (1998) noted that the Black-necked
Stilt was a common breeding resident from March to
October in the southern and central Bahamas, some-
times became scarce outside of the breeding season,
and was an uncommon to rare breeding resident in
the northern-most Bahamas. Buden (1992) found no
winter records of this species in the Exumas, but ob-
served 11 individuals in Rolletown Pond, Great
Exuma 3 February 1988 (Buden 1993). Dunham and
Burnett (1989) found this bird only in May and June
at Lee Stocking Island, Exumas, Bahamas.
We observed a pair of Black-necked Stilts in mat-
ing displays in a secluded saltwater lagoon on Lee
Stocking Island at least daily from 30 November
through 7 December 1993. These observations ap-
pear to document out-of-season breeding activities
for this species. Buden's (1993) observation is the
only other report of this species in the Exumas in the
winter.
The only other observation we have made of the
Black-Necked Stilt in the West Indies in winter was
a solitary bird on Vieques Island [east of Puerto
Rico], 18 December 1984. This bird had a broken
wing and was apparently unable to fly.
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla) Buden
(1992) and Dunham and Bumett (1989) found the
Least Sandpiper in flocks on Lee Stocking Island in


the spring and fall. Raffaele et al. (1998) reported
this species occurs typically in flocks and is a com-
mon migrant from August to October and April to
May, but an uncommon to rare resident from No-
vember to March through most of the West Indies.
We observed a single individual on 6 December
1993 in Lee Stocking Island.

TABLE 1. Birds observed on Lee Stocking Island,
Exumas, The Bahamas, 30 November to 7 Decem-
ber 1993.


Species

Killdeer Charadrius vociferus
Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla
Ruddy Tumstone Arenaria interpres
White-crowned Pigeon Columba leucocephala
Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina
Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor
Bahama Mockingbird Mimus gundlachii
Thick-billed Vireo Vireo crassirostris
Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina
Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum
Bananaquit Coerebaflaveola
Greater Antillean Bullfinch Loxigilla violacea


Status'

C
U
U
C
C
V
F
C
C
U
C
V
C


'C=common, F fairly common, U uncommon to rare, V very
common, in the northern Bahamas, sensa Buden (1992), Dunham
and Burnett (1989), and Raffaele et al. (1998).


Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina) The
general literature suggests that the Cape May War-
bler occurs only less commonly in the Lee Stocking-
Great Exuma region in the winter as compared with
other seasons, but Buden (1993) was only able to


El Pitirre 12(2)


Page 43








BIRD OBSERVATIONS IN THE EXUMAS, BAHAMAS -WILLIAMS AND BUNKLEY-WILLIAMS


substantiate a single winter record of several speci-
mens on Great Exuma 3 February 1988. Our record
on Lee Stocking Island is only the second winter ob-
servation.


We thank Dr. Marjorie Reaka-Kudla, University
of Maryland, and Michael J. Dowgiallo, NOAA
Coastal Ocean Office, for including the senior author
in their research team; the NOAA Office of Under-
sea Research for a grant (# CMRC-93-27) supporting
the travel and research of the senior author; and
Wayne J. Arendt and Anthony White for reviewing
the manuscript.


LITERATURE CITED
BUDEN, D. W. 1992. The birds of the Exumas, Ba-
hama Islands. Wilson Bull. 104:674-698.
BUDEN, D. W. 1993. Additional observations on the
birds of the Exumas, Bahama Islands. Wilson
Bull. 105:514-518.
DUNHAM, J. B. AND K. BURNETT. 1989. The birds of
Lee Stocking Island and Great Exuma: records of
observations recorded from February to April
1989. Unpublished Report.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, New Jersey.


SECOND REPORT OF THE VEERY CA THAR US FUSCESCENS SALICICOLA
(AVES: TURDIDAE) FOR CUBA

ORLANDO H. GARRIDO1 AND DAYS RODRIGUEZ2
a useo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, CIT14A, La Habana, Cuba; and
2Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CIT14A, La Habana, Cuba


THE VEERY (CATHARUS FUSCESCENS) winters
mainly in south-central Brazil, and breeds from east-
ern Canada to northern Georgia in the United States
(American Ornithologists' Union 1998:504). In Cuba
the Veery is considered a rare regular fall resident
(Bond 1950, Garrido and Garcia Montafia 1975).
Eighteen specimens of the nominal race, C. f fusces-
cens, have been collected in Cuba; a minimum of 14
of these were taken from the western part of the is-
land (Table 1). Three of the 18 specimens lack local-
ity data, whereas another was collected in Gibara, in
the Oriente of Cuba.
A specimen of the subspecies C. f salicicola
(Ritdgua\ was collected by Rolando Fleitas at the
Jardin Botinico of La Habana on 22 October 1968.
Measurements of this female are: wing 98.5 mm,
tail 70 mm, culmen 14 mm, and tarsus 32 mm.
In the morning of 19 April 1999, Maria Josefa
Sanchez found a dead Veery at "Finca La Chata,"
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemitica, La Habana. The
specimen was prepared by taxidermist Marco Anto-
nio Olcha and is deposited in the Instituto de


Ecologia y Sistemitica (cat. # CZACC-6-2440). The
individual is similar to the previous-mentioned speci-
men collected by Fleitas in Cuba, and all characteris-
tics of this specimen agree in coloration and meas-
urements with the race salicicola. Measurements are:
wing 99 mm, tail 68 mm, culmen 12.8 mm, and
tarsus 29.3 mm. This specimen is the second record
of C. f salicicola in Cuba.

LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7th ed. Am. Omi-
thol. Union, Washington, D. C.
BOND, J. 1956. Check-list of birds of the West In-
dies. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia.
BOND, J. 1969. Fourteenth supplement to the Check-
list of birds of the West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat.
Sci. Philadelphia.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975.
Cathlogo de las aves de Cuba. Acad. Cienc.
Cuba, La Habana.


El Pitirre 12(2)


Page 44









VEERY CATHARUS FUSCESCENS SALICICOLA IN CUBA -GARRIDO AND RODRIGUEZ


TABLE 1. Specimens of the Veery Catharusfuscescens in Cuban collections. Specimens from western Cuba are in
bold type.


Race Collection'


Catalogue
no.


Catharus fuscescens fuscescens
Bauza 2
Bauza 2
Bauza 2
Poey 11
Poey 11
Poey 11
Poey 11
Poey 11
Gibara 0-3
IES 13
IES 22
IES 14
IES 13
IES 8
IES 7
IES [Gundl.] 2C
MNHN 1C
Suarez


86
:87
:88
05
06
07
08
09
;97
131
08
168
139
25
'99
)65
)19


Locality


Jardin Botanico
Guanabacoa

Jardin Botanico
Jardin Botanico
La Lisa Marianao
La Lisa Marianao
Marianao
Gibara
Bosque de La Habana
Jardin Botanico
Jardin Botanico
Jardin Botanico
Jardin Botanico
Jardin Botanico


11 Caimito


Date


09/13/1963
09/12/1960

05/04/1915
05/03/1952
04/18/1953
04/18/1953
09/29/1953
08/08/1946
10/04/1965
10/01/1971
10/06/1966
10/04/1965
October 1963
09/25/1963


Collector


Garrido
Bauza
-

Moreno
Villalba
Villalba

de la Vara
Garrido
Garrido
Garrido
Fleitas
Garrido
Garrido
Gundlach


09/20/1995 M (Juv) Suarez


Catharus fuscescens salicicola
IES 1948
IES 6-2440


Jardin Botanico
Finca La Chata


1Bauza = J. H. Bauza Collection in Museo Nacional de Historia Natural; IES = Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica; IES [Gundl.] =
Gundlach Historical Collection, Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica; Poey = Museo de Historia Natural "Felipe Poey," Universi-
dad de La Habana; MNHN = Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba; Suarez = Colecci6n Particular de William Suarez,
Museo General de Caimito; and Gibara = Museo de Historia Natural "Joaquin Fernandez de la Vera," Gibara.


El Pitirre 12(2)


10/22/1968
04/19/1999


Fleitas
Sanchez


Page 45











NUEVO REGISTRO DE BOBITO DE COLA DE TIJERA TYRANNUSFORFICATUS EN CUBA

PEDRO BLANCO RODRIGUEZ1, GIRALDO ALAYON GARCIA2 Y VICENTE BEROVIDES ALVAREZ3
1Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemditica, Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Carretera de
Varona Km 3.5, Boyero, C. Habana C.P. 8029, Cuba; 2Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Ministerio de
Ciencia, Tecnologia yMedio Ambiente, Cuba; y 3Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Cuba


Abstract.- On 13 November 1998, in the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, Ricardo Rives captured a
Scissor-Tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannusforficatus) in the Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. Destructive mete-
orological events are affecting migratory routes in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, bringing
more accidental to Cuba and other islands as alternative survival sites. These changes in migratory
patterns need to be documented to ensure effective conservation measures.


EN LOS ULTIMOS ANOS, la publicaci6n de un nota-
ble numero de articulos ornitol6gicos relacionados
con la observaci6n de aves migratorias consideradas
raras o poco comunes en el area de las Antillas, ha
sido un hecho que ha motivado la atenci6n e interns
de muchos especialistas del hemisferio occidental del
planet y en particular de Cuba (Garrido y Garcia
1975; Garrido 1976, 1978, 1988; Morales y Garrido
1988; Blanco 1992; Blanco et al. 1995, 1997; Raf-
faele et al. 1998; Rivas 1998).
Se conoce que la ocurrencia de un gran nimero de
estos registros accidentales con aves antes referidos,
han estado asociados al surgimiento y desarrollo de
events meteorol6gicos adversos de considerable
magnitudes tales como: huracanes, depresiones y
tormentas tropicales, los que han afectado en gran
media la dinimica de desplazamiento y direcci6n
de vuelo habitual de muchas species nearticas du-
rante su paso migratorio a travds del Mar Caribe,
Oc6ano Atlfntico y Golfo de M6xico.
Sin lugar a dudas, existe la probabilidad de que la
continue utilizaci6n de los territories insulares antil-
lanos, por aves migratorias nearticas, como sitios
alternatives de transit para la supervivencia, ante la
manifestaci6n de fen6menos meteorol6gicos adver-
sos en el Caribe, puede original en un future varia-
ciones determinantes en la ruta y distribuci6n inver-
nal de algunas de estas species, originando nuevos
registros de residencia internal temporal o esta-
blecimiento durante todo el invierno de aves consid-
eradas en la actualidad no comunes o accidentales
para el area del Caribe.
Por tales rezones se consider valido e important
cualquier esfuerzo investigative relacionado con la
observaci6n y report de species accidentales en el
Caribe, que permit elevar el nivel de conocimientos
alcanzado hasta la fecha acerca de la migraci6n de
las aves en la region y que contribuyan al correct
desarrollo de planes y estrategias de conservaci6n de


la ornitofauna nedrtica-neotropical proyectada para
afios futures.
En el present trabajo se expone informaci6n
acerca del registro de un individuo de Bobito de Cola
de Tijera (Tyrannus forficatus), colectado por Ri-
cardo Rives el 13 de noviembre de 1998, en la locali-
dad de San Pedro en la region de Argelia, en la Isla
de la Juventud. El ave capturada correspondi6 a un
ejemplar adulto macho con plumaje de cria bien de-
finido y se conoci6 ademis de la permanencia en
este mismo sitio de otro individuo de la misma espe-
cie (probablemente una hembra por las caracteristi-
cas de su plumaje), la que fu6 observada volando con
el individuo capturado.
El Bobito de Cola de Tijera esta considerado en
Cuba como ave de paso accidental (Garrido y Garcia
1975). Se conoce que sus territories de cria se en-
cuentran ubicados en regions del centro y Sur de
Estados Unidos, incluyendo el Norte de Missouri y
Nebraska. Durante el invierno esta especie puede ser
ubicada al Sur de norteamerica incluyendo algunos
cayos del Sur de la Florida y America Central, desde
zonas centrales de M6xico hasta Panama.
Se estima que el arribo y permanencia de esta es-
pecie en territories de la Isla de la Juventud durante
el mes de noviembre del present afio, este relacio-
nado con la prolongada afectaci6n que provoc6 el
huracin Mitch e finales de octubre e inicios de
noviembre de 1998 en territories costeros de Yu-
catan y Honduras lo que provoc6 una desviaci6n del
ave de su ruta migratoria habitual, definida a todo lo
largo de la porci6n Este de Am6rica Central desde
M6xido hasta Panama, tomando un rumbo pr6ximo a
Cuba, tratando de evadir los fuertes vientos de un
huracan bien organizado en intensidad y muy
pr6ximo a las costas de Centroamerica en aquel mo-
mento.
Este registro de Tyrannus forficatus constitute el
tercer report de la especie en Cuba, ya que con ante-


El Pitirre 12(2)


Page 46









NUEVO REGISTRY DE BOBITO DE COLA DE TIJERA TYRANNUS FORFICATUS EN CUBA BLANCO ETAL.


rioridad esta ave habia sido notificada por Garrido y
Garcia (1975), asi como por Alay6n (1985), tambien
durante los meses de noviembre pero de los afios
1952 y 1984 en las provincias de La Habana y Pinar
del Rio, respectivamente.
Tomando en consideraci6n las condiciones meteo-
rol6gicas que originaron este registro, las resefias
historical existentes acerca de otros registros de ob-
servaci6n de la especie en Cuba en afios anteriores y
el period en que se produjo este ultimo (etapa de
migraci6n ot6nal), se consider muy probable du-
rante este afio la residencia temporal en territorio cu-
bano de otros individuos de esta especie, fundamen-
talmente en territories del occidente de pais.

LITERATURE CITADA
ALAYON, G. 1985. Nuevo record de Tyrannusforfi-
catus (Aves: Tyrannidae) para Cuba. Misc. Zool.
Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 27:1.
BLANCO, P. 1992. Primer registro de Phalaropus
tricolor (Aves: Chaaradriiformes) en Cuba. Breves
Comunicaciones de Zoologia. 24 pp.
BLANCO, P., F. MORERA Y M. ECHEVARRIA. 1995.
Nuevo registro de Coco Rojo Eudocimus ruber
(Aves: Treskiornitidae) para Cuba. El Pitirre 8
(1):3-4.
BLANCO, P., M. ACOSTA, L. MUGICA Y D. DENNIS.
1996. Nuevo registro de Avoceta Recurvirostra
americana (Aves: Charadriiformes) en Cuba. El
Pitirre 9(2):3.


CLUB DE OBSERVADORES DE AVES ANNABELLE
DOD. 1996. Primer report de Phalaropus lobatus
en la Repuiblica Dominicana. El Pitirre 9(3):6-7.
GARRIDO, O. H. 1976. Nuevos records de aves para
Cuba. Misc. Zool., Inst. Zool. Acad. Cienc. Cuba
5:4.
GARRIDO, O. H. 1978. Nuevo record de la Lechuza
Norteamericana Tyto alba pranticola (Bonoparte),
en Cuba. Misc. Zool., Inst. Zool. Acad. Cienc.
Cuba 7:1-4.
GARRIDO, O. H. 1988. Nueva Gaviota (Aves: Lari-
dae) para Cuba. Misc. Zool., Inst. Zool. Acad.
Cienc. Cuba 37:3-4.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975.
Catilogo de las aves de Cuba. La Habana, Acade-
mia de Ciencias de Cuba.
MORALES, J. Y O. H. GARRIDO. 1988. Nuevo ester-
corarino (Aves: Stercorariinae) para Cuba. Misc.
Zool., Inst. Zool. Acad. Cienc. Cuba 39:3-4.
REGALADO, R. P. 1998. Primer hallazgo de Gaviota
Reidora Larus ridibundus en Cuba. Misc. Zool.
Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 39(4):1-2.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press.
Princeton, New Jersey.
RIVAS, F. M. 1998. Resumen de las aves consid-
eradas como raras o accidentales para la Repuiblica
Dominicana. El Pitirre 10(2):58.


El Pitirre 12(2)


Page 47











CENSO INTERNAL Y ANILLAMIENTO DEL FRAILECILLO SILBADOR
CHARADRIUS MELODUSEN CUBA

PEDRO BLANCO RODRIGUEZ1, FRANCOIS SHAFFER2, MICHAEL ROBERT Y ELISER SOCARRAS3
1Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA4, Cuba; 2Servicio de la Fauna de Canada, CWS, Canadd;
y 3Centro de Investigaciones de Ecosistemas Costeros de Cayo Coco, Cuba

Abstract.-A Cuban and Canadian Wildlife Federation census, conducted from 21 January to 14
February 1998, established Cayo Pared6n Grande as one of Cuba's most important wintering
habitats for the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus). This was the first research effort in Cuba and
the Caribbean using color-coded plastic bands to determine the species' migration routes.


EL DESARROLLO DE investigaci6nes ecol6gicas
dirigidas al studio y conservaci6n del Frailecillo
Silbador (Charadrius melodus) y sus habitat de in-
vierno en Cuba, han permitido obtener un notable
volume de informaci6n acerca de la permanencia
internal, abundancia y fenologia migratoria de esta
ave neirtica en territorio cubano durante los filtimos
afios (Kirkconnell et al. 1992; Sanchez et al. 1994;
Goossen et al. 1994; Blanco 1994, 1995, 1997;
Blanco y P6rez 1997; Blanco et al. 1998).
Algunos de estos esfuerzos investigativos antes
citados han sido desarrollados en estrecha colabo-
raci6n con el Servicio Canadiense de la Fauna entire
los que figuran dos censos intemacionales de la espe-
cie durante los inviernos de 1991 y 1996, asi como la
puesta en march de un acuerdo cooperative de in-
vestigaci6n mis reciente, el que persigue entire sus
principles objetivos conocer la ubicaci6n de las ar-
eas de invierno de mayor importancia para el
Frailecillo Silbador en Cuba y definir ademis de qu6
territories de Am6rica del Norte proceden los indi-
viduos que arriban al pais durante el inviemo, con el
empleo de m6todos de capture con redes ornitol6gi-
cas y t6nicas de anillamiento adecuadas.
En el present trabajo se exponen los resultados
obtenidos durante el desarrollo de la primera etapa
del acuerdo investigative de cooperaci6n antes refer-
ido, realizada durante el period de residencia inver-
nal de 1998 en tres territories insulares del noreste de
Cuba: Cayo Coco, Cayo Guillermo y Cayo Pared6n
Grande, en la provincia de Ciego de Avila.
Durante el period de studio (21 de enero-14 de
febrero de 1998) se registraron 58 individuos de la
especie distribuidos de la siguiente forma: Cayo
Pared6n Grande (42), Cayo Coco (10) y Cayo Gui-
llermo (6). El anhlisis de los resultados obtenidos
durante los censos indican que Cayo Pared6n Grande
correspondi6 sitio de mayor abundancia de la especie
en territorio Cubano con 72.4% de individuos obser-
vados con respect al numero total de frailecillos


registrados en las tres areas de studio, lo que cor-
robora los arguments expuestos por Kirkconnell et
al. (1992) y Blanco (en prensa) quienes citan a
Pared6n Grande como una de las areas insulares de
mayor importancia para la especie en el Archipi6lgo
cubano.
En la mayoria de los casos, los individuos registra-
dos durante los censos se encontraron formando ban-
dos cumpuestos por 6-23 individuos, lo que facility
la capture de un mayor nnimero de frailecillos en las
redes ornitol6gicas. En general se anillaron 22 aves,
lo que represent el 37.9% del total de individuos
censados en las areas de studio.
Las localidades dode se efectuaron las captures y
anillamiento de los Frailecillos Silbadores fueron:
Playa Las Coloradas en Cayo Coco (4 individuos),
Playa El Paso en Cayo Guillermo (1 individuo) y
Playa Los Pinos en Cayo Pared6n Grande (17 indi-
viduos). En el anillamiento, ademis de usar anillas
metalicas se utiliz6 el sistema de marcaje con bandas
plasticas de colors, en el caso exclusive de Cuba se
utiliz6 la combinaci6n con los colors rojo y ama-
rillo.
Este trabajo constitute el primer esfuerzo investi-
gativo desarrollado en Cuba y en le area del Caribe
en el que se abordan aspects relacionados con la
migraci6n del Frailecillo Silbador a partir de la
puesta en practice del sistema de anillado con bandas
plasticas de colors.

LITERATURE CITADA
BLANCO, P., J. P. GOOSSEN, H. GONZALEZ Y J. SI-
ROIS. 1994. Occurrences of the Piping Plover Cha-
radrius melodus in Cuba. J. Field Omithol. 64
(4):520-526.
BLANCO, P. 1995. Nuevo registro del Frailecillo Sil-
bador (Aves: Charadriidae) en Cuba. Pitirre 8(3):2.
BLANCO, P. 1997. The 1996 International Piping
Plover Winter Census in Cuba. In 1996 Interna-


El Pitirre 12(2)


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FRAILECILLO SILBADOR CHARADRIUS MELODUS EN CUBA -BLANCO ETAL.


tional Piping Plover Census. J. Plissner and S.M.
Haig, Eds. Geological Survey Biol. Resources Di-
vision Forest and Rangeland Ecosistems. Sciences
Center, Corvallis. Oregon. 120pp
BLANCO, P. En prensa. Resultados del Censo Inter-
nacional del Frailecillo Silbador Charadrius
melodus en Cuba durante 1996. Rev. Oceanides.
BLANCO, P. Y E. PEREZ. 1997. Otros nuevos regis-
tros del Frailecillo Silbador Charadrius melodus
para Cuba. El Pitirre 10(1):12.
BLANCO, P., F. SHAFFER, M. ROBERT Y E. So-
CARRAS. 1998. Adiciones a la fauna de los cayos
Coco, Pared6n Grande y Guillermo. Cuba. Pitirre
11(2):41.


GOOSEN, J. P., P. BLANCO, J. SIROIS Y H. GON-
ZALEZ. 1994. Waterbird and shorebird count in the
province of Matanzas. Cuba. Technical Report Se-
ries CWS 170:1-18.
KIRKCONNELL, A., B. SANCHEZ Y D. RODRIGUEZ.
1992. Notas sobre el Charadrius melodus (Aves:
Charadriidae) en Cayo Pared6n Grande. Archipid-
lago Sabana-Camaguey. El Volante Migratorio
19:29-30.
SANCHEZ, B., D. RODRIGUEZ Y A. KIRKCONNELL.
1994. Avifauna de los cayos Coco y Pared6n
Grande durante la migraci6n otofial de 1990-1991.
Avicennia 1:31-38.


A SIGHT RECORD OF RINGED KINGFISHER (MEGACERYLE TORQUATA) FOR GRENADA


P. WILLIAM SMITH AND SUSAN A. SMITH
PO Box 1992, Ocean Shores, Washington 98569 USA


ON 31 MAY 1998 we observed a female Ringed
Kingfisher (Megaceryle torquata) at Levera Pond,
Levera National Park, Grenada. As we approached a
viewing tower via a recently constructed boardwalk
through the surrounding mangrove forest, a bird
nearly the size of a Green Heron (Butorides vires-
cens) silently flew across our path. When it landed
on a limb in plain sight, we were amazed to see that
it was a large kingfisher. We immediately took field
notes. It was entirely rufous ventrally from its broad
blue breast ring to its vent. The undertail was boldly
barred black and white. Above the broad blue breast
ring, the underparts to the chin were white, the white
forming nearly a full collar behind the neck. The bill
was strikingly large, mostly ivory but darker distally
and along the cutting edge. The upperparts were blue
with a ragged crest, and a prominent white spot was
visible in front of each eye. When perched, the wings
showed no white spotting on their dorsal surface.
In reviewing literature, the absence of wing spots
suggested that it was the nominate subspecies of


Ringed Kingfisher from Trinidad and South Amer-
ica, not M. t. stictipennis from the central Lesser An-
tilles, which shows white wing spots varying in
prominence among individuals (Rildgua 1914).
Bond (1936) wrote that he doubted sight reports of
this species from Grenada, but said that he believed
that if correct they would represent the South Ameri-
can race. The American Ornithologists' Union
(1998) also considered the species' occurrence on
Grenada as "doubtful," perhaps based on Bond's
writings, whereas Raffaele et al. (1998) do not men-
tion it there. We cannot find any formally published
sightings of Ringed Kingfisher from Grenada before
this one; none was mentioned by Ridgway (1914) or
Devas (1970). ffrench (1973) considered it a rare
visitor and occasional nester on Trinidad, mainly
present from March to June. If migratory, as ffrench
(1973) implies, the species is perhaps an occasional
visitor to Grenada, but it also could be overlooked as
a scarce resident breeder at a site such as Levera
Pond, which is difficult to access.


El Pitirre 12(2)


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RINGED KINGFISHER (MEGACERYLE TORQUATA) IN GRENADA -SMITH AND SMITH


LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
List of North American birds. 7th ed. American
Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.
BOND, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Academy
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
DEVAS, R.P. 1970. Birds of Grenada, St. Vincent and
the Grenadines. Carenage Press, St. George's,
Grenada.


FFRENCH, R. 1973. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago. Livingston Publishing Co., Wynne-
wood, Pennsylvania.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, New Jersey.
RIDGWAY, R. 1914. The birds of North and Middle
America. Part 6. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 50.


THE BREEDING OF WILSON'S (CHARADRIUS WILSONIA) AND COLLARED
(CHARADRIUS COLLARIS) PLOVERS IN THE SOUTHERN LESSER ANTILLES

P. WILLIAM SMITH AND SUSAN A. SMITH
PO Box 1992, Ocean Shores, Washington 98569, USA


IN MAY-JUNE 1998, we visited the nations of St.
Vincent and the Grenadines, and Grenada, in the
southern Lesser Antilles. Two main islands, St. Vin-
cent and Grenada, each about 350 sq. km, and about
75 km apart, span several smaller islands, islets, and
rocks, collectively called the Grenadines. These are
mostly incorporated into St. Vincent, but some are
part of Grenada.
On 26 May 1998, we observed pairs of Wilson's
Plovers (Charadrius wilsonia) of the largely South
American race cinnamominus at both Ashton Har-
bour and Belmont Salt Pond, Union Island, the
southernmost major island in the nation of St. Vin-
cent and the Grenadines. The Ashton Harbour pair
engaged in a distraction display suggesting that a
nest or young was nearby, but we did not wish to
pursue them to discover the basis for their behavior.
Later that day we found another pair near Harvey
Vale, on the island of Carriacou, the northernmost
major island in the nation of Grenada, at a salt pond
formed by a former estuary. Those, too, we did not
pursue. On 27 May, at a salt pond on the bay of the
Mt. Harman Estate on Grenada, we found three pairs
of C. w. cinnamominus, also behaving as if they were
nesting. Here we did locate one pair's nest, on a
small mound near the edge of the then-dry pond. The
nest contained three eggs similar in appearance to the
one shown in Harrison (1978), but more greenish in
color and perhaps longer oval in shape. One in the
set measured 35.3 x 25.3 mm.
All of these Wilson's Plovers had striking fea-
tures compared to North American populations, in-


eluding a rather bright rusty cap with a prominent
black fore-bar on some individuals, some rusty tone
to the upper back below the complete white neck
collar, and a rusty tone to some individuals' breast-
bands. The rustiness of these birds initially led us to
wonder whether these were Collared Plovers
(Charadrius collaris), the only member of the genus
widely reported from the southern Lesser Antilles
(Bond 1985). The size, stout bill shape, and complete
white neck collar, on the other hand, suggested C.
wilsonia. Upon our return, we learned of the distinct-
iveness of C. w. cinnamominus (Ridgu\i\ 1919,
where named the "Cinnamomeous Plover"). It is
long-known to breed in the Grenadines and also has
been collected on Grenada (Bond 1936, 1940;
Schwartz and Klinikowski 1963; not mentioned by
Bond 1985). The proven breeding in the Grenadines
(on Mustique) is from specimens and notes from the
collection of G. H. Thayer, now housed at the
American Museum of Natural History (A. Andors, in
litt.), and the collection of S. T. Danforth, now
housed at the United States National Museum (J.
Dean, in litt.). Specimens from Grenada are from the
collection of Albert Schwartz, now housed at the
Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Sci-
ence (V. Remsen and S. Cardiff, in litt.).
Our investigations failed to uncover any verifi-
able basis for attributing the Collared Plover to the
region as anything other than an occasional non-
breeding visitor, as suggested by American Orni-
thologists' Union (1998), contra Bond (1985) and
Raffaele et al. (1998). D. W. Smith secured a Col-


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WILSON'S AND COLLARED PLOVERS IN THE SOUTHERN LESSER ANTILLES -SMITH AND SMITH


lared Plover specimen on Grenada in late July, 1891,
now in the British Museum (R. Prys-Jones, in litt.).
Thayer secured three specimens on Mustique in Sep-
tember 1925 (fide A. Andors), and a few other sight-
ings have been published (e.g., M. Hutt in Keith
1997), mostly without details. Most records and re-
ports are from summer and autumn, consistent with
post-breeding dispersal. At least one Collared Plover
was credibly described from St. Martin in spring
1973 (A. Hoogerwerf in Voous 1983), but we could
locate no published or other direct evidence that the
Collared Plover has ever bred in the Lesser Antilles
or elsewhere in the West Indies (sensu Bond 1936).
We thank Allison Andors, Steven Cardiff, James
Dean, Janet Hinshaw, Alison Pirie, Robert Prys-
Jones, and Van Remsen for their help in completing
this research.

LITERATURE CITED
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
List of North American birds. 7th ed. American
Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.
BOND, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Academy
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.


BOND, J. 1940. Check-list of birds of the West In-
dies. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
BOND, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. 5th ed.
Collins, London.
HARRISON, C. 1978. A field guide to the nests, eggs
and nestlings of North American birds. Collins,
London.
KEITH, A. R. 1997. The birds of St. Lucia. British
Ornithologists' Union, Check-list no. 15.
SCHWARTZ, A., AND R. F. KLINIKOWSKI. 1963. Ob-
servations on West Indian birds. Proc. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Phil. 115:53-77.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, New Jersey.
RIDGWAY, R. 1919. The birds of North and Middle
America. Part 8. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. no. 50.
VooUs, K. H. 1983. Birds of the Netherland Antil-
les. 2nd ed. De Walburg Pers, Zutphen, Nether-
lands.


El Pitirre 12(2)


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EL PATO CHORIZO DE NORTEAMERICA OXYURA JAMAICENSIS RUBIDA
(AVES: ANATIDAE) INVERNA EN CUBA

ORLANDO H. GARRIDO Y ARTURO KIRKCONNELL
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, Calle Obispo No. 61,
e/Oficios y Tejadillo, La Habana Viejo 10100, Cuba


EL PATO CHORIZO O PATO ROJO es uno de los seis
anitidos que crian en Cuba. La raza resident, Oxy-
ura jamaicensis jamaicensis cria tambidn en otras
islas de las Antillas (Antillas Mayores y Menores
hasta Granada), y la raza norteamericana, 0. j. ru-
bida, se distribuye por Canada y Estados Unidos.
Esta forma habia sido reportada invemando en las
Bahamas.
Rafael Quifiones colect6 un macho en la localidad
denominada, Presa La Bonera, Municipio Cande-
laria, Pinar del Rio, el 10 de diciembre de 1989. Este
constitute el primer registro de esta subespecie para
Cuba. Al examiner la colecci6n perteneciente a
Gast6n Villalba, de la Universidad de la Habana, se
detectaron otros tres ejemplares machos que son
asignables a esta raza nortefia; 6stos fueron colecta-
dos el 14 de enero de 1934 y el 26 y 25 de febrero de
1944 y 1946 respectivamente. Una de ellas fue cap-


turada en la Laguna de Ariguanabo, San Antonio de
los Bafios, La Habana, y las restantes en El Taje,
Trinidad, provincia de Cienfuegos. Es probable que
entire las hembras supuestamente nativas, existan
tambidn representantes de dicha forma, por el hecho
de tener las mismas dimensions promedio de la
subespecie local (Tabla 1).

TABLA 1. Medidas promedio (en milimetros) de la forma resi-
dente (Oxyura jamacen jamaicensls; N= 22) del Pato
Chorizo y la forma migratoria (0. j. rubilda; N= 4) en Cuba.


Subespecie Sexo Ala

Oxyura jamaicensis jamaicensis
Machos 129.1
Hembras 129.0
Oxyurajamaicensis rubida
Machos 141.5


Cola Culmen Tarso


55.2 40.1 29.0
57.2 40.1 28.2

69.7 40.17 31.7


El Pitirre 12 (2)


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ABSTRACTS FROM THE 1999 MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY,
SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


CAMPANA DE EDUCATION AMBIENTAL EN
LA SUBREGION ENRIQUILLO:
PROMOVIENDO LA PROTECTION A TRAVES
DEL ORGULLO
YVONNE ARIAS
Grupo Jaragua, Inc., El Vergel #33, Ens. El Vergel, Santo
Domingo, Reptblica Dominicana
La Subregi6n Enriquillo, con 6998 km2 (14.4% del
pais), alberga la mayor diversidad de ecosistemas de
la Hispaniola, incluyendo importantes endemismos
locales y areas protegidas. El Grupo Jaragua y
RARE, con la participaci6n de NFWF y diversas or-
ganizaciones nacionales, estan iniciando una cam-
pafia de educaci6n ambiental para la Subregi6n. Su
lema es "Promoviendo la protecci6n a treves del
orgullo" y se ha elegido los barrancolies como espe-
cies estandarte.

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CAMPAIGN IN THE
ENRIQUILLO SUBREGION: PROMOTING PROTECTION
THROUGH PRIDE.-The Enriquillo subregion, with
6998 km2 (14.4% of the country) harbors the greatest
ecosystem diversity of Hispaniola, including impor-
tant local endemisms and several protected areas.
Grupo Jaragua and RARE, with the participation of
NFWF and several national organizations, are start-
ing an environmental education campaign for the
subregion. The campaign's slogan is "Promoting
protection through pride" and the todies have been
selected as the flagship species.
PROGRAM ARAUCARIA REPUBLICAN
DOMINICANA, PROYECTO INTEGRAL PARA
EL MANTENIMIENTO DE LA
BIODIVERSIDAD. PROYECTO BAHORUCO
CARLOS CANO
Director, Agencia Espanola de
Cooperaci6n International (AECI)
Este proyecto tiene como objetivo el desarrollo sos-
tenible de la Subregi6n Enriquillo (Provincia de Ped-
ernales en su primera fase), unido al mantenimiento
y conservaci6n de la biodiversidad a trav6s de la re-
ducci6n de las actividades que incident en su p6rdida.
El Proyecto BAHORUCO plantea tres lines de ac-
ci6n que son: educaci6n, gesti6n de los recursos
hidricos e investigaci6n.
* De un Plan para la gesti6n y manejo de la cuenca
del Rio Pedernales (frontera natural dominico-
habitiana). La linea de educaci6n tiene comom


objetivo especifico fortalecer y mejorar la estruc-
tura educativa formal y no formal a trav6s de la
implementaci6n de un sistema de educaci6n am-
biental en la zona del proyecto. Paralelamente
esta linea contempla, como actividad transversal
a todo el proyecto, el es
tableciemento de un sistema integral de g6nero
que permit a la mujer participar activamente en
todas las fases del mismo. La linea de gesti6n de
los recursos hidricos aborda el problema desde la
perspective de la producci6n y de la potabili-
zaci6n del agua.
La linea de investigaci6n trata de recopilar infor-
maci6n basica sobre los recursos naturales de la
subregi6n a trav6s de la elaboraci6n.

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPORTATION OF WILD
BIRDS TO THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC,
1994-1998
RAMON OVIDIO SANCHEZ PENA
Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura, Departamento de
Vida Silvestre, Urb. Jardines del norte, Km 6' Aut.
Duarte, Santo Domingo, Reptblica Dominicana
Analysis of the data for the introduction of wild birds
to the Dominican Republic reveals the following: A
total of 2017 individuals entered the country, corre-
sponding to 1102 species, of which 62 are included
in the CITES convention. Among these species the
greatest number are: Serimus canarius domesticus,
Nymphicus hollandicus, Platycercus eximius, and
Platycercus elegans. The groups with most represen-
tatives are psittaciformes and passeriforms, for a to-
tal of 10 orders. Of the 2017 birds, 148 were im-
ported for scientific or educational reasons, 254 as
personal pets and the remaining 1615 for sale. This
last figure indicates a boom in the import of the birds
as a commercial enterprise. The birds generally come
from Holland, USA, and Surinam; in this last case,
the birds being exported probably come from natural
habitats. The Dominican Republic depends on the
following SEA Resolutions: No. 119/96, which pro-
hibits the entrance or regulates the number of species
to 117, and No. 38/98 which concerns the mainte-
nance of wild animals being raised in captivity.
ANALYSIS DE LA IMPORTACION DE AVES SILVESTRES
A LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA DURANTE EL PE-
RIODO 1994-1998.-El anflisis de los datos registra-
dos respect a la introducci6n de individuos per-


El Pitirre 12(2)


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


tenecientes a species de aves silvestres a la Rep-
liblica Dominicana permit establecer lo siguiente:
Un total de 2017 individuos entraron al pais, corre-
spondientes a 1102 species, de las cuales 62 se en-
cuentran reguladas por la Convenci6n CITES. Entre
las species con mayor numero de ejemplares impor-
tados figuran: Serinus canarius domesticus, Nym-
phicus hollandicus, Platycercus eximius y Platycer-
cus elegans. Los grupos mayormente representados
fueron psittaciformes y passeriformes, alcanzando un
total de 10 6rdenes. De los 2017 ejemplares, 148
fueron importados para fines cientificos/educativos,
254 en calidad de mascotas u objetos personales,
mientras que 1615 fueron importados para fines
comerciales. Esto ultimo denota el auge de la im-
portaci6n de aves como actividad empresarial. La
procedencia de dichas aves es mayormente de
Holanda, Estados Unidos de Am6rica y Suriname,
siendo este pais exportador de individuos
provenientes de ambientes naturales. En cuanto a
previsiones de la entrada de species dafiinas a la
agropecuaria o species invasoras la Repuiblica
Dominicana cuenta con dos Resoluciones de la Se-
cretaria de Estado de Agricultura: la No. 119/96 con-
cerniente a la prohibici6n de entrada o regulaci6n del
nuimero de individuos de 117 species de aves, y la
No. 38/98 sobre los procedimientos a cumplir para el
mantenimiento y crianza en cautiverio de animals
silvestres.

HABITAT USE, MOVEMENTS AND ACTIVITY
PATTERNS OF CAPTIVE-REARED
HISPANIOLAN PARROTS RELEASED IN
PARQUE NATIONAL DEL ESTE, DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC
FRANCISCO J. VILELLA1, THOMAS H. WHITE, JR.2,
JAIME A. COLLAZO3, AND SIMON GUERRERO4
1USGS-Biological Resources Division, Mississippi Coop-
erative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Mississippi State,
Mississippi 39762 USA; 2Department ofZoology, Box
7617, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North
Carolina 27695 USA; 3USGS-Biological Resources Divi-
sion, North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Re-
search Unit, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 USA; and
VParque Zooldgico Nacional, Arroyo Hondo, Santo Do-
mingo, Repiblica Dominicana
A total of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots
(Amazona ventralis) were released during 1997 and
1998 in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), a reserve of
coastal dry limestone forest in southeastern Domini-
can Republic. Released parrots were radio-marked
and monitored at least 5 times weekly post-release
from canopy-level platforms and ground-level sta-
tions. Transmitters had an expected life of 40 weeks,


yet signals from two individuals from the very first
1997 release were still being picked up 55 weeks
post-release. Approximately 3534 parrot locations
were obtained. These were geo-referenced and over-
laid in a Geographic Information System available
for PNE. Here we discuss movement rates, home
ranges, and habitat use patterns in relation to time
post-release and conditions following Hurricane
Georges (1998).
PATRONS DE ACTIVIDAD, MOVIMIENTO, Y USO DE
HABITAT DE COTORRAS DOMINICANAS CRIADAS EN
CAUTIVERIO Y LIBERADAS EN EL PARQUE NATIONAL
DEL ESTE, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA.-Entre los
afios de 1997 y 1998, liberamos 49 (24 en 1997, 25
en 1998) cotorras dominicanas (Amazona ventralis)
criadas en cautiverio en el Parque Nacional del Este.
Este bosque seco se encuentra en la costa suroeste de
la Repuiblica Dominicana. Liberamos cotorras en
grupos de 4 y 8 individuos luego de pasar 40 dias en
las jaulas de liberaci6n aclimatindose al area. Equi-
pamos cada cotorra con un radiotransmisor, y
rastreamos individuos no menos de 5 veces por se-
mana luego de liberados. El radio utilizado debia
operar por lo menos 40 semanas. Sin embargo, 55
semanas despuds, recibiamos sefiales de dos indi-
viduos liberados en 1997. Durante el studio, obtuvi-
mos aproximadamente 3534 localizaciones. Estas
fueron georeferidas e incluidas en un Sistema de In-
formacion Geogrifico disponible para el Parque Na-
cional del Este. En esta ponencia presentaremos tasas
de movimiento, areas de utilizaci6n primaria ("home
range"), y patrons de uso de habitats en relaci6n al
tiempo p6s-liberaci6n y condiciones luego del paso
del huracin Georges (1998).

EXPERIMENTAL RELEASES OF CAPTIVE-
REARED HISPANIOLAN PARROTS (AMAZONA
VENTRALIS) IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:
CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS FOR
PUERTO RICAN PARROTS (AMAZONA
VITTA TA)
JAIME A. COLLAZO', FRANCISCO J. VILELLA2,
THOMAS H. WHITE, JR.3, AND BRITTA MUIZNIEKS4
1 U. S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division,
North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research
Unit, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North
Carolina 27695 USA; 2U. S. Geological Survey, Biological
Resources Division, Mississippi Cooperative Fish and
Wildlife Research Unit, Mississippi State University, Mis-
sissippi State, Mississippi 39762 USA; 3Department ofZo-
ology, Box 7617, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,
North Carolina 27695 USA; and 4U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Rio Grande Field Office, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico
00745 USA.


El Pitirre 12(2)


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


Captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots were success-
fully released in Parque Nacional del Este, Domini-
can Republic. This effort represents the basis to de-
velop a release strategy for Puerto Rican Parrots
(PRPs). Our work demonstrated that captive-reared
parrots could be translocated and successfully re-
leased in a dry limestone forest, similar to where a
second wild population of PRPs will be established
in Puerto Rico. First-year survival rates were esti-
mated at 35% (1997). Releasing eight PRPs annually
could translate into 34% more parrots in the wild in 5
yrs, on average, than would be attained in the ab-
sence of the release program. We assumed that 1st
year survival for released PRPs was 35%; subse-
quent age-specific rates were similar to those re-
ported for wild PRPs. We also assessed the impact of
hurricanes on parrot demography and release strat-
egy, and the sensitivity of PRP demography to vari-
ability in fecundity and age-specific survival rates.
Fecundity rates, particularly between hurricanes
Hugo and Georges, exhibited considerable variation.
We also re-analyzed PRP fledgling data using the
Mayfield method. Reported estimates were calcu-
lated using enumeration techniques. Mayfield esti-
mates ranged between 33 and 54%, lower than the
reported 67%. The implications of these assessments
in terms of future PRP research directions, popula-
tion viability, which considers a second wild popula-
tion, will be discussed.

LIBERACIONES EXPERIMENTALES DE COTORRAS
DOMINICANAS CRIADAS EN CAUTIVERIO Y LIB-
ERADAS EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINIUCANA: IMPLICA-
CIONES PARA LA CONSERVATION DE LA COTORRA
PUERTORRIQUENA.-Cotorras dominicanas criadas
en cautiverio fueron liberadas con 6xito en el Parque
Nacional del Este, Repfiblica Dominicana. Este es-
fuerzo represent las bases para el desarrollo de una
estrategia para liberaciones sistemiticas de cotorra
puertorriquefia (PRPs, por sus siglas en Ingl6s).
Nuestro trabajo ha demostrado que es possible trans-
portar cotorras cautivas a un area de bosque calizo
seco y liberarlas exitosamente. Este tipo de habitat es
muy similar a los contemplados para establecer una
segunda poblaci6n silvestre de PRPS. Estimamos la
tasa de sobrevivencia annual para PRPS durante el
primer afio en 35%. Las subsiguientes tasas de sobre-
vivencia por edad para prps son similares a las ya
reportadas. El liberar ocho PRPS por afio se traduce
en 34% cotorras mis en el estado silvestre que lo que
se obtendria de no haber liberaciones. Ademis,
evaluamos el impact de huracanes en la demografia
de cotorras y en las estrategias de liberaci6n, asi
como la sensibilidad de la demografia de PRPs a


variaciones en fecundidad y sobrevivencia por edad.
Las tasas de fecundidad entire los huracanes Hugo y
Georges varian considerablemente. Hemos tambidn
reanalizado la informaci6n sobre volantones de PRPs
usando el m6todo de Mayfield. Toda la informaci6n
previamente reportada ha utilizado simple enu-
meraci6n. Los estimados Mayfield oscilaron entire
33% a 54%, muy por debajo del reportado 67%. Dis-
cutiremos las implicaciones que estas evaluaciones
arrojan sobre el future de investigaci6n en PRPs, el
establecimiento de futuras poblaciones silvestres, y
su viabilidad.


SURVIVAL OF CAPTIVE-REARED
HISPANIOLAN PARROTS RELEASED IN
PARQUE NATIONAL DEL ESTE, DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC
THOMAS H. WHITE, JR.', JAIME A. COLLAZO2,
FRANCISCO J. VILELLA3, AND SIMON GUERRERO4
1Department ofZoology, Box 7617, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 USA; 2U. S.
Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, North
Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit,
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina
27695 USA; 3U. S. Geological Survey, Biological Re-
sources Division, Mississippi Cooperative Fish and Wild-
life Research Unit, Mississippi State University, Missis-
sippi State, Mississippi 39762 USA.; and 4Parque Zo-
ol6gico Nacional, Arroyo Hondo, Santo Domingo,
Reptblica Dominicana
During 1997 and 1998, we released 49 (24 in 1997,
25 in 1998) captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots
(Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este, an
area of coastal dry limestone forest in extreme south-
eastern Dominican Republic. Parrots were released
in groups of 4 or 8 following a minimum of 40 days
of on-site acclimation in release cages. All parrots
were equipped with radiotransmitters and monitored
at least 5 times weekly post-release. Survival of 1997
releases was 35% after 1 year, with 3 of 4 release
groups losing at least 1 parrot within 4 days post-
release. Four releases also were conducted from
June-September, 1998, with no mortalities until arri-
val of Hurricane Georges on 22 September 1998. Of
25 parrots released in 1998, survival was 48% at 146
days post-hurricane. Estimated first year survival for
1998 releases was 18%, given observed survival tra-
jectory following the hurricane. The study demon-
strates that, barring natural catastrophes, captive-
reared parrots can be successfully introduced, or re-
introduced, if properly conditioned and acclimated to
the release environment. We believe pre-release
physical conditioning coupled with abundant natural
food availability to be key factors influencing post-


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


release survival.
SOBREVIVENCIA DE COTORRAS DOMINICANAS
CRIADAS EN CAUTIVERIO Y LIBERADAS EN EL PAR-
QUE NATIONAL DEL ESTE, REPUBLICAN DOMINI-
CANA.-Entre los afios de 1997 y 1998, liberamos 49
(24 en 1997, 25 en 1998) cotorras dominicanas
(Amazona ventralis) criadas en cautiverio en el Par-
que Nacional del Este. Este bosque seco se encuentra
en la costa suroeste de la Repfiblica Dominicana.
Liberamos cotorras en grupos de 4 y 8 individuos
luego de pasar 40 dias en las jaulas de liberaci6n
aclimatindose al area. Cada cotorra se equip6 con un
radiotransmisor, y eran rastreadas no menos de 5 ve-
ces por semana a partir de ser liberadas. La sobre-
vivencia de individuous liberados en 1997 fue de
35% al cabo de un afio. Tres de los 4 grupos liber-
ados perdieron por lo menos un individuo a los 4
dias. De junio a septiembre de 1998 llevamos a cabo
4 liberaciones, sin haber registrado una sola mortali-
dad hasta la llegada del huracin Georges el 22 de
septiembre. De 25 cotorras liberadas durante el 1998,
el 48% habian sobrevivido 146 dias luego del paso
del hurachn. La sobrevivencia annual para las libera-
ciones de 1998 fue de 18%, dadas las trayectorias
observadas luego del huracin. Este trabajo ha
demostrado que, en ausencia de desastres naturales,
es possible introducir cotorras criadas en cautiverio
siempre que sean adecuadamente condicionadas al
ambiente donde serdn liberadas. Creemos que el
acondicionamiento pre-liberaci6n y la abundancia de
alimento en el estado silvestre forman los elements
clave que influyen en la sobreviviencia p6s-
liberaci6n.

BIRDS IN SUN AND SHADE COFFEE
PLANTATIONS IN THE CORDILLERA
CENTRAL, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:
IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION
JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE AND STEVEN C. LATTA
International Institute of Tropical Forestry, PO Box 490,
Palmer, Puerto Rico 00721
We used point counts and mist nets to evaluate the
potential conservation value of shade coffee com-
pared with sun coffee in an agricultural region of the
Cordillera Central. Avian species richness was simi-
lar in sun and shade coffee plantations. Shade planta-
tions had more nectarivores (due to flowering of the
Inga vera canopy), a sex ratio biased towards males
in two species of Nearctic migrants, and a high pro-
portion of forest species. In contrast, sun coffee had
more seedeaters, a sex ratio biased towards females
in two Nearctic migrant species, and species charac-
teristic of brushland ("matorral"). Shade coffee con-
tributes to biodiversity in agricultural regions by pro-


viding habitat for some forest species in contrast to
sun coffee which may provide habitat for some ma-
torral species.
AVES DE CAFETALES DE SOL Y SOMBRA EN LA COR-
DILLERA CENTRAL DE LA REPtBLICA DOMINICANA:
IMPLICACIONES PARA SU CONSERVACION.-Para
evaluar el valor que tiene para la conservaci6n del
caf6 de sombra en comparaci6n con el caf6 de sol se
utilizaron conteos en punto y redes ornitol6gicas
para censar aves en cafetales en una region agricola
de la Cordillera Central. La riqueza de species fue
casi igual en el caf6 de sombra que en el sol. El caf6
de sombra posee mis nectivoros (debido al flore-
cimiento del dosel de Inga vera), un raz6n de sexo
inclinado hacia los machos en dos species de aves
migratorias nearcticas, y un mayor nfmero de espe-
cies combines en bosques latifolios. Por el contrario,
el caf6 de sol posee mis aves que comen semillas,
una razon de sexo inclinado hacia las hembras en las
mismas species de aves migratorias, y species tipi-
cas de un ambiente de matorral. El caf6 de sombra
contribute a la biodiversidad en las regions agrico-
las al proveer habitat para las species de bosques
latifolios en contrast con el caf6 de sol, que puede
proveer habitat para algunas species de matorral.

NEST-SITE AND FORAGING HABITAT OF THE
HISPANIOLAN WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL
(LOXIA LEUCOPTERA MEGAPLADA) IN THE SIERRA
DE BAHORUCO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
STEVEN C. LATTA, MARRIAH SONDREAL, CHRISTO-
PHER BROWN, AND DANILO MEJIA
110 Tucker Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia,
Missouri, USA
The Hispaniolan White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leu-
coptera megaplada), an island endemic subspecies
with a population estimated at more than 800 indi-
viduals, has been recently nominated as a full spe-
cies. Little is known about habitat use by this spe-
cies, in part because of its low population size and
wandering tendencies. Before this study only one
nest had been described for the species. In 1998 we
intensively studied foraging habitat and nesting loca-
tions in the Sierra de Bahoruco. We located 17 nests
of this species and collected several hundred forag-
ing observations. Through the comparison of com-
prehensive vegetation surveys around focal feeding
and nesting trees, and randomly placed circles across
the Sierra de Bahoruco, we characterize foraging and
nesting habitat at three scales: the individual tree, the
patch, and the landscape. Our results will be dis-
cussed in terms of habitat requirements for this ex-
ceedingly rare species.


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


HABITAT DEL PICO CRUZADO (LOXIA LEUCOPTERA
MEGAPLADA) PARA ANIDAR Y FORRAJEAR EN LA SI-
ERRA DE BAHORUCO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA.-El
Pico Cruzado, una sub-especie endemica de
Espafiola, con una poblacion que esta aproximado a
no mas que 800 individuos, ha sido designado una
especie complete. Sabemos muy poco del uso del
habitat por esta especie, debiendo en parte a los po-
cos individuos que hay, y a la tendencia a vagar. An-
tes que esta investigaci6n, un solo nido del Pico Cru-
zado ha sido describido. En 1998 estudiamos inten-
sivamente el habitat de forragear y de anidar en la
Sierra de Bahoruco. Encontramos 17 nidos de esta
especie y hicimos cientos de observaciones de forra-
geo. Usando comparaciones de circulos de vege-
tacion, describimos el habitat para forragear y ani-
darse en tres escalas: el arbol, la parcela, y el paisaje.
Vamos a hablar de nuestros resultados en terminos
de los requisitos de habitat para esta especie muy
rara.


COASTAL SEA BIRDS OF JARAGUA
NATIONAL PARK, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
JESUS ALMONTE Y BRIGIDO HIERRO
Grupo Jaragua, Inc., El Vergel # 33, El Vergel, Santo Do-
mingo Reptblica
We studied the populations of sea birds found along
the coast of the Jaragua National Park from 1993 to
1998. The Park covers an area of 905 km2, including
the islands of Beata and Alto Velo and a system of
coastal lagoons. The 169 species of birds reported
represented 57% (169/296) of the total reported for
the country. Of the 84 species considered to be sea
birds 60% (50 of 84) are residents and 40% (34) are
migratory. Compared with earlier studies eight new
species were recorded. The presence of 18 breeding
colonies indicates the importance of this park for
conservation.

AVES COSTERO MARINAS DE LA ZONA DEL PARQUE
NATIONAL JARAGUA, EN EL SUROESTE DE LA REP-
UBLICA DOMINICANA.-Entre 1993 y 1998 se
estudiaron las poblaciones de aves costero marinas
del Parque Nacional Jaragua. Este parque cuenta con
una superficie costera y marina de 905 km2 (90,500
ha), incluyendo las islas Beata y Alto Velo, y un sis-
tema de lagunas costeras ubicado en el suroeste. Para
el Parque Nacional Jaragua se han reportado 169 es-
pecies de aves lo cual represent el 57% (169 de
296) del total reportado para la Repuiblica Domini-
cana. En el present trabajo se reportan 84 species
considerada como aves marino-costero 50% (84 de
169), de la cuales el 60% (50 de 84) son residents y


el 40% (34 de 84) son migratorias. Se compare el
listado con otros trabajos realizados en afios anteri-
ores por otros investigadores, incrementindose el
listado con 8 nuevos reports para la zona, se pre-
senta la ubicaci6n de 18 colonies reproductivas que
funcionan para 18 species, se comenta sobre la im-
portancia de este lugar para la conservaci6n de las
aves marino-costeras.


PRELIMINARY TAXONOMY OF THE CHAT-
TANAGER (CALYPTOPHIL US FR UGIVOR US) IN
THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
NEDRA KLEIN
Division ofScience, Truman State University, Kirksville,
Missouri 63501 USA
In the Dominican Republic, the Chat-Tanager
(Calyptophilusfrugivorus) occurs as disjunct popula-
tions in mostly high elevation wet forests. I have
made a preliminary analysis of morphological, vocal,
and genetic differentiation between Calyptophilus
from the Sierra de Baoruco and from the Sierra de
Neiba. Sample sizes are small, but suggestive. Anna-
belle Dod remarked on several morphological differ-
ences, which I have also observed (e.g., individuals
from the Sierra de Baoruco are nearly twice the body
size of individuals from the Sierra de Neiba). Al-
though I have only analyzed one individual from
each population, genetic differences between these
individuals are very large. Sequence divergence of
the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene is 8.3%.
This degree of difference is commonly observed
among different species and genera of warblers and
tanagers. A corresponding analysis done on two indi-
viduals of the Ground Warbler (Microligea palustris)
revealed a genetic difference of only 0.5%. Although
many more individuals will need to be examined be-
fore a definitive recommendation could be made,
these preliminary results suggest that the Calyptophi-
lus in the Sierra de Baoruco should eventually be
considered a separate species from that in the Sierra
de Neiba.
TAXONOMIA PRELIMINARY DEL CALYTOPHYLOS
FRUGIVORUS EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA.-En
la Republica Dominicana, el Calytophylusfrugivorus
tiene poblaciones disjuntas, mayormente en los
bosques hfimedos montanos. He hecho un andlisis
preliminary de la diferenciaci6n morfol6gica, vocal y
gen6tica entire el Calytophylus de la Sierra de
Baoruco y el de la Sierra de Neiba. El tamafio de las
muestras es muy pequefio, pero sugestivo. Annabelle
Dod enfatiz6 en diversas diferencias morfol6gicas,
las cuales tambidn he observado, (ej., el tamafio de
cuerpo de los individuos de la Sierra de Baoruco es


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


casi el double del de los de la Sierra de Neiba). A
pesar de que solo he analizado un individuo de cada
poblaci6n, las diferencias gen6ticas entire ambos son
grandes. La divergencia en la secuencia mitocondrial
ADN del citocroma del gen b es de 8.3%. Este grado
de diferencia es comunmente observado entire difer-
entes species y g6neros de warblers y tanagers. Un
andlisis correspondiente hecho en dos individuos de
la Microligea palustris revel6 una diferencia gend-
tica de solo un 0.5%. aunque se necesite examiner a
muchos individuos mis antes de que pueda hacerse
una recomendaci6n difinitiva, estos resultados pre-
liminaries sugieren que eventualmente se consider
la Calytophylus de la Sierra de Baoruco como una
especie separada de la que se encuentra en la Sierra
de Neiba.

PROJECTS OF THE NATIONAL ZOO ABOUT
THE ENDEMIC BIRDS OF HISPANIOLA
SIMON GUERRERO
Parque Zool6gico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Republica
Dominicana
I describe the positive effects of the experimental
project of investigation and conservation of the His-
paniolan parrot (Amazona ventralis). The project is
an international conservation effort involving the
Zoodom, US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Uni-
versity of North Carolina. The main object of the
project was to obtain data about the release of parrots
raised in captivity, which could be used in a program
of re-introduction of the Puerto Rican Parrot
(Amazona vittata), the most endangered of the Ama-
zona parrots. Preliminary data produced valuable
information about the distribution, survival, and re-
productive behavior of the parrot. Also, several Do-
minicans were trained in the techniques of nest
monitoring, telemetry, and management of wild and
captive populations. In addition, ZOODOM has en-
tered an agreement with the Society for the Conser-
vation and Research of Owls (SCRO) of Canada for
a project for the conservation of native owls. The
project will begin with construction of an aviary for
10 pairs of the Ashy-faced Owl Tyto glaucops. The
project will be extended to include members of the
Strigidae family, and eventually to study of wild
populations and re-introduction of birds raised in
captivity.
PROYECTOS DEL PARQUE ZOOLOGICO NATIONAL
(ZOODOM) SOBRE AVES ENDEMICAS DE LA HIS-
PANIOLA.-Se described los efectos positives sobre
la investigaci6n y conservaci6n de la Cotorra de la
Hispaniola (Amazona ventralis), de un proyecto ex-
perimental de liberaci6n de individuos de esta espe-
cie nacidos en cautiverio, implementado en el Parque


Nacional del Este. Este proyecto constituy6 un es-
fuerzo international por la conservaci6n de species
amenazadas en el Caribe, en el que participaron el
Servicio de Pesca y Vida Silvestre de los Estados
Unidos (USFWS), el Parque Zool6gico Nacional
(ZOODOM) y la Universidad de Carolina del Norte,
con el apoyo de la Direcci6n Nacional de Parques y
el Departamento de Vida Silvestre de la Republica
Dominicana. Aunque el objetivo central del proyecto
era obtener datos sobre liberaci6n de cotorras naci-
das en cautiverio, los cuales serian utilizados en los
programs de reintroducci6n de la Cotorra Puertorri-
quefia (Amazona vittata), la mis amenazada de las
cotorras del g6nero Amazona. Los resultados pre-
liminares arrojan informaciones valiosas sobre dis-
tribuci6n, supervivencia y conductas reproductivas
de Amazona ventralis. Este proyecto hizo possible,
ademis, el entrenamiento de personal dominicano en
t6cnicas de telemetria, manejo de poblaciones
silvestres y cautivas y monitoreo de nidos. Tambidn
se resefia la fase preliminary de un proyecto de con-
servaci6n de lechuzas nativas de la Hispaniola, una
lechuza end6mica de la Hispaniola, el cual es con-
secuencia de un convenio de cooperaci6n firmado
entire el Parque Zool6gico Nacional (ZOODOM) y la
Society for the Conservation and Research of Owls
(SCRO) de Canada. En esta primera fase se con-
struird, en terrenos del ZOODOM, un aviario de cria
para diez parejas de Tyto glaucops, una lechuza
end6mica de nuestrpa isla, con fondos aportados por
donantes de SCRO. El royecto tambidn include a
miembros de la familiar Strigidae nativas de la isla,
tales como Asio flammeus, Asio stygius y Athene cu-
nicularia. En otras fases del proyecto se contempla
el monitoreo de poblaciones silvestres y la posibili-
dad de reintroducci6n en el ambiente natural de indi-
viduos criados en cautiverio.

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF
THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WEST INDIAN
WHISTLING DUCK IN CUBA
LOURDES MUGICA, MARTIN ACOSTA, AND
DENNIS DENIS
Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle
25 e Je I, Vedado, Ciudad Habana, Cuba
The West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna ar-
borea) is a regional endemic considered to be threat-
ened. Traditionally, it has been illegally hunted for
food as well as sport. To obtain information based on
local beliefs and practices, 300 questionnaires were
distributed throughout Cuba to hunters and people
living in or near wetland habitats. Of the 150 ques-
tionnaires returned from 13 provinces, 85% came
from hunters, both active and retired and, of these,


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


52% were between 30 and 60 yrs. old. A map of dis-
tribution and population based on these responses
was prepared.
RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DE LA ENCUESTA SO-
BRE DISTRIBUTION DE LA YAGUAZA (DENDROCYGNA
ARBOREA) EN CUBA.-La Yaguaza (Dendrocygna
arborea) es un ave localmente en peligro y sin em-
bargo tradicionalmente ha sido objeto de caza illegal
de subsistencia y en menor grado deportiva. Por esta
raz6n, aun cuando no se han desarrollado investiga-
ciones especializadas en esta especie, existe todo un
gran volume de informaci6n en forma de sabiduria
popular que de ser recogida y analizada objeti-
vamente puede ser important para brindar datos de
base para futuras investigaciones. Con este objetivo
se distribuyeron 300 encuestas a lo largo de todo el
pais para recopilar los conocimientos de los ca-
zadores o personas relacionadas con actividades
cineg6ticas o de manejo de areas. Fueron recobradas
150 encuestras en 13 provincias. La mayor parte de
los encuestados eran cazadores activos o retirados
(85%), obreros o profesionales (52 %) entire 30 y 60
afios. Se brindan los resultados generals a spregun-
tas relacionadas con los hibitos de las species, luga-
res donde habitan y tamafio relative de las pobla-
ciones y se confecciona un mapa de distribuci6n con
los reports orales.

DEVELOPING A WETLAND MANAGEMENT
COMPLEX FOR THE HUMACAO WILDLIFE
REFUGE, PUERTO RICO
FRANCISCO J. VILELLA
U. S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division,
Mississippi Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit,
Mail Stop 9691, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA
The total area of wetlands in Puerto Rico is esti-
mated at 5779 ha. This represents about 50% of the
original extent of wetland habitat in the region. Wet-
land environments have been lost to draining, dredg-
ing, siltation, eutrophication, dumping of hazardous
substances, and deforestation of forested wetlands.
The Humacao Wildlife Refuge, in eastern Puerto
Rico, includes estuarine lagoons, herbaceous and
forested wetlands, coastal forest, and beach scrub.
We quantitatively assessed habitats by measuring
vegetation, censussed vertebrate communities, and
water chemistry in herbaceous marsh, Pterocarpus
and mangrove wetlands, coastal forest, beach scrub,
and six open-water lagoons. We initiated several pro-
jects for breeding and wintering waterfowl. The first
project involves developing impoundments in 43 ha
previously under sugarcane cultivation and grazing.
Information on response of neotropical wetland habi-
tats and animal communities to mechanical manipu-


lations and water level management is largely un-
known. We present an approach to examine re-
sponses of aquatic invertebrate, plant, and avian
communities to experimental manipulations of
moist-soil habitats.
DESARROLLO DE HUMEDALES MANEJABLES EN EL
REFUGIO DE VIDA SILVESTRE DE HUMACAO,
PUERTO RICo.-El area total de humedales en Puerto
Rico es de 5779 ha. Esto represent una p6rdida del
50% del area original de estos ecosistemas costeros.
Estos han sido eliminados y/o degradados debido al
drenaje, dragado, sedimentaci6n, eutroficaci6n, con-
taminaci6n por desperdicios t6xicos, y la defore-
staci6n de pantanos. El refugio de vida silvestre de
Humacao consiste de lagunas estuarinas, humedales
herbiceos y arborizados, matorral y bosque costero.
Evaluamos cuantitativamente los habitats y comuni-
dades de vertebrados, e iniciamos una series de traba-
jos para conservaci6n y manejo de aves acuaticas. El
primer proyecto consiste en transformar 43 hectareas
de antiguos cafiaverales y pastizales, en humedales
herbiceos. Las respuestas de los humedales neotropi-
cales a la manipulaci6n del suelo, vegetaci6n, y nive-
les de agua son practicamente desconocidas. Presen-
tamos un disefio experimental para examiner estas
respuestas y las de comunidades de aves acuiticas
que utilizen el area.

SOME ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF
PUERTO RICAN WOODPECKERS
(MELANERPES PORTORICENSIS)
BRITTA MUIZNIEKS' AND JAIME A. COLLAZO2
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rio Grande Field Office,
Rio Grande, Puerto Rico 00745 USA; and 2Biological Re-
sources Division (USGS), North Carolina Fish and Wild-
life Research Unit, North Carolina State University, Ra-
leigh, North Carolina 27695 USA
The Puerto Rican Woodpecker (il,. /,.,. ',. por-
toricensis) is a common endemic species for which
basic life history and ecological data are lacking. We
studied the species in shade coffee plantations and
secondary forests growing on volcanic formations in
north-central Puerto Rico. Numbers were signifi-
cantly higher in shade coffee than in secondary for-
ests (P < 0.05). Among the factors influencing their
distribution appears to be diversity of foraging sub-
strates and higher density of nesting substrates in
shade coffee plantations. Nest success was much
higher in 1999 (77%) than in 1998 (9%). As part of
the foraging studies, 23 (1998) and 9 (1999) adults
were captured and color-banded. Upon inspection of
these birds we found that 11/23 had evidence of
Philornis ectoparasitism whereas none of the birds
captured in 1999 showed evidence of ectoparasitism.


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


We discuss foraging substrate preferences and com-
pare male and female foraging patterns. The conser-
vation implications of this work, including possible
insights for evaluating candidates sites for the Puerto
Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) will be discussed.
ALGUNOS ASPECTS DE LA ECOLOGIA DEL CARPIN-
TERO PUERTORRIQUErO (MELANERPES PORTORICEN-
sis).-El carpintero puertorriquefio es una especie
comfin end6mica, para la cual faltan datos sobre su
ecologia e historic de vida basica. Estudiaremos las
species en los cafetales de sombra y en bosques
secundarios que crecen en las formaciones volcini-
cas de la parte norcentral de Puerto Rico. La cantidad
observada fue significativamente mayor en los cafe-
tales de sombra que en los bosques secundarios
(P<0.05). Entre los factors que influyen en su dis-
tribuci6n se encuentran la diversidad de substratos
forrajeros y mayor densidad de substratos de anida-
miento en los cafetales de sombra. El 6xito de los
anidamientos fue mayor en 1999 (77%) que en el
1998 (9%), como parte de los studios del forraje; 23
(1998) y 9 (1999) adults fueron capturados y anil-
lados. De la inspecci6n de estas aves, encontramos
que 11 de 23 tenian evidencia de ectoparisitismo del
Philornis, mientras que ninguna de las aves cap-
turadas en 1999 most evidencias de ectoparasiti-
smo. Discultimos las preferencias de los sustratos
forrajeros y comparamos los patrons forrajeros de
las hembras y los machos. Discultiremos las implica-
ciones de la conservaci6n en este trabajo, incluyendo
la posibillidad de evaluar lugares apropiados para la
cotorra puertorriquefio (Amazona vittata).

DEVELOPMENT OF A BIRD CONSERVATION
PLAN FOR THE COMMONWEALTH OF
PUERTO RICO AND U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
FERNANDO NUNEZ-GARCIA AND WILLIAM C.
HUNTER
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1875 Century Boulevard,
Atlanta, Georgia 30345 USA
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands harbor 284 bird
species, of which 14 (including one genus) are en-
demic. Historical, particularly deforestation, and pre-
sent land use practices have resulted in the creation
of anthropogenic habitats with bird conservation val-
ues ranging from completely hostile (e.g., some ur-
ban areas) to mostly beneficial (e.g., shade coffee
and mixed forest plantations). In addition, habitat
conversion has facilitated the establishment of exotic
species thus promoting deleterious biological inter-
actions, such as nest parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds
(Molothrus bonariensis), and increasing the potential
for competition, diseases, and predation. Habitat loss
has resulted in several recent extinctions and extirpa-


tions of resident birds. Another 16 species are con-
sidered vulnerable or endangered in the region and,
in addition, 33 species are in need of some level of
conservation attention. Resident and migratory birds
in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were assigned
priority rankings based on the Partners in Flight pri-
oritization process. In most cases, endangered resi-
dent species served as "umbrellas" to design conser-
vation strategies and establish population objectives
for other co-occurring resident and migratory priority
bird species. Habitat requirements and biological
information available were used to identify bird
population and habitat objectives. In this plan we
identified conservation opportunities and manage-
ment strategies as follows: (1) private lands pro-
grams; (2) strategic land acquisition; (3) partnerships
to integrate bird conservation with other natural re-
source conservation programs, such as water and soil
conservation; (4) management oriented research; (5)
monitoring programs to determine population trends
and study effects of habitat management actions; and
(6) culturally compatible outreach programs linking
bird habitat, human-related ecosystem services, and
quality of life.
DESARROLLO DE UN PLAN DE CONSERVATION DE
AVES PARA PUERTO RICO Y LAS ISLAS VIRGENES DE
LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS.-En Puerto Rico y las Islas
Virgenes de los Estados Unidos existen 284 species
de aves de las cuales 14 (incluyendo un g6nero) son
end6micas. Historicamente, las practices de uso de
terrenos, particularmente la deforestaci6n, han resul-
tado en la creaci6n de habitats antropog6nicos que
varian desde completamente hostiles para la vida
silvestre hasta mayormente beneficiosos (ej. caf6
cultivado a la sombra, plantaciones de species mix-
tas). Tambien, las modificaciones de los hibitas han
ayudado a que se establescan poblaciones de espe-
cies ex6ticas aumentando asi el potential de interac-
ciones biol6gicas negatives tales como el parasitismo
por los tordos lustrosos, la competencia por recursos,
enfermedades, y depredaci6n. Esta perdida de habitat
caus6 que varias poblaciones y species de aves se
extinguieran. Actualmente en la region, 16 species
de aves se estan consideradas como amenazadas o en
peligro de extinci6n y por lo menos 33 necesitan al-
gin grado de atenci6n para su conservaci6n.
Nosotros asignamos ranges de prioridad a las espe-
cies de aves residents y migratorias en Puerto Rico
y la Islas Virgenes utilizando el sistema para estable-
cer prioridades de Aves de Las Amdricas "Partners
in Flight". En la mayoria de los casos, las aves en
peligro de extinci6n sirvieron de speciess
sombrilla" para disefiar estrategias de conservaci6n y
establecer los objetivos poblacionales para las espe-
cies prioritarias, tanto las residents como las migra-


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


torias, con las cuales comparten sus habitats. La in-
formaci6n disponible sobre los requerimientos de
habitat y la biologia de las species se combine para
identificar los objetivos de conservaci6n las pobla-
ciones y los habitats. En este document, las opor-
tunidades de conservaci6n y manejo fueron cata-
logadas como sigue: (1) programs para terrenos
privados; (2) adquisici6n de terrenos, (3) formaci6n
de asociaciones para para integrar la conservaci6n de
aves en otros programs de conservaci6n tales como
la conservaci6n de agua y suelos, (4) investigaciones
orientadas hacia el manejo, (5) programs de moni-
toreo para determinar patrons poblacionales y
estudiar los effects de las actividades de manejo y,
(5) programs de relaciones publicas compatibles
con las cultures para establescer claramente la
relaci6n que existe entire los habitats de las aves, los
servicios ecol6gicos a los series humans, y la cali-
dad de vida.

DISTRIBUTION OF CYANLIMNAS CERVERAI,
TORREORNIS INEXPECTA TA, AND FERMINIA
CERVERAI IN DIVERSE ECOSYSTEMS OF THE
ZAPATA SWAMP, MATANZAS, CUBA
EDUARDO ABREU
Especialista en Areas Protegidas, Estacion Ecologica
Cienaga de Zapata, Grupo de Cartografia Digital y Syste-
mas de Informacion Geografico, Ministerio de Ciencia,
Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Citma, Matanzas, Cuba
The distribution of endemic species of the Zapata
Swamp was analyzed. In each of the 19 localities in
6 ecosystems, one can see at least one of the three
species.
DISTRIBUTION DE CYANLIMNAS CERVERAI, TORREOR-
NIS INEXPECTATA Y FERMINIA CERVERAI EN DIVERSOS
ECOSISTEMAS DE LA CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, MATAN-
ZAS, CUBA.-Fue analizada la distribuci6n de los
endemicos de Zapata. Dicho studio amplio a 19 las
localidades donde se puede observer al menos una de
los tres endemicos. Estas localidades fueron dis-
tribuidas en seis ecosistemas para lo que se tuvieron
en cuenta la similitud y la diversidad ornitologica
entire ellos a traves de indices ecologicos.

MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE
DOUBLE-STRIPE THICK-KNEE (BURHINUS
BISTRIATUS DOMINICENSIS) (BURHINIDAE) IN
CAPTIVITY
SIMON GUERRERO AND MARIELIS SANCHEZ
Parque Zool6gico Nacional (ZOODOM), Santo Domingo,
Reptblica Dominicana
The Double-Striped Thick-Knee (Burhinus bistriatus
dominicensis) is an endemic subspecies and belongs


to a family with members distributed from England
to South Africa and Australasia; of the two subspe-
cies in the western hemisphere, one is found from
Mexico to Peru and Brazil and the other is in His-
paniola. In the Dominican Republic it is increasingly
rare, principally due to loss of its habitat, which is
dry savannah, and also due to illegal capture of its
chicks. Our description of morphologic development
from birth to the juvenile stage, includes data on
weight, growth, appearance of feathers, disappear-
ance of the egg tooth, and change of color of the eyes
and feet. Instinctive behavior was noted. We present
information on habitats where the bird can still be
found in small flocks.
DESARROLLO MORFOLOGICO Y CONDUCTAS REPRO-
DUCTIVAS DEL BUCARO (BURHINUS BISTRIATUS
DOMINICENSIS) (BURHINIDAE) EN CAUTIVERIO.-El
Bucaro es una subespecie end6mica de la Hispaniola
y pertenece a una familiar con various representantes
ampliamente distribuidos desde Inglaterra a
Sudgfrica y Australasia, y dos subespecies en el con-
tinente americano, una de ellas desde M6xico hasta
Peri y Brazil y la otra (B. b. dominicensis) en la His-
paniola. Es dificil explicar por qu6 no se encuentra
en ninguna otra isla del archipidlago antillano. En la
Repfiblica Dominicana es un ave cada vez mis rara,
debido principalmente a la destrucci6n o degradaci6n
de su habitat, sabanas semidridas y potreros y a la
capture illegal de los polluelos. Se describe el process
de desarrollo morfol6gico de polluelos incubados
artificialmente y criados a mano, desde el nacimiento
hasta la fase juvenile. Se presentan datos sobre peso,
crecimiento, aparici6n de las plumas primaries y cau-
dales, desaparici6n del diente embrionario y cambios
en la coloraci6n del iris y las patas. Tambidn se de-
scriben conductas instintivas de las que se observan
en los adults. Finalmente, se ofrecen datos sobre los
habitats en los que todavia se observan pequefias
bandadas de esta especie.

A SEARCH FOR WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-
DUCKS IN THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS
GEOFF HILTON', ETHLYN GIBBS-WILLIAMS2, TONY
MURRAY1 AND TIM CLEEVES1
1Royal Society for the Protection ofBirds, The Lodge,
Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, UK, tel: +44 (0)1767
680551;fax +44 (0)1767 68321; e-mail: geoff.
hilton@&RSPB.org.uk; and2 National Trust for the Turks &
Caicos Islands, c/o Department ofEnvironmental &
Coastal Resources, Providenciales, Turks & Caicos Is-
lands
The globally threatened West Indian Whistling-Duck
(Dendrocygna arborea) has been recorded on Turks
and Caicos, and there are anecdotal breeding records


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


from the islands. No detailed survey work, however,
has been conducted on the species in the territory,
and its status and distribution is unknown. This is
despite the large area of undisturbed wetland habitat,
which could potentially hold an important popula-
tion. Here we report on an initial survey of whistling-
ducks and wetland habitats in the territory, con-
ducted in February and March 1999. Habitat descrip-
tions and wetland bird counts were conducted at a
large proportion of the wetland sites. Data were ob-
tained on the distribution and abundance of over 50
wetland bird species. Several methods for censusing
whistling-ducks were evaluated, including aerial sur-
vey. Whistling-ducks were found at just two sites,
both shallow lagoons on East Caicos, with only 1-4
birds at each. The reason for the apparent scarcity of
the birds is unclear, but may be related to the drought
conditions prevailing on the islands at the time,
which resulted in many wetlands being partially dry.
LA BUSQUEDA DE LA YAGUAZA EN LAS ISLAS TUR-
CAS Y CAICOS.-La globalmente amenazada
Yaguaza ha sido observada en las Islas Turcas y Cai-
cos, y existen reports anecd6ticos de su reproduc-
ci6n en las isles. De cualquier modo, no se ha efec-
tuado un studio detallado de las species en el terri-
torio, y su status y distribuci6n son desconocidos.
Esto, a pesar de las extensas areas de humedal no
perturbadas, las cuales podriam contener imporantes
poblaciones. Aqui reportamos un inventario inicial
de Yaguazas y humedales en el territorio, hecho en
febrero y marzo del 1999. La descripci6n de los
habitats y los conteos de las aves en los humedales se
hicieron en una gran proporci6n de los habitats. Se
obtuvieron datos sobre la distribuci6n y abundancia
de mis de 50 species de los humedales; se evalua6
una series de m6todos par censar Yaguazas, in-
cluyendo censos adreo. S61o se hallaron Yaguazas en
dos sitios, ambos lagunas superficiales en East Cai-
cos, con solo 1-4 aves en cada una. No qued6 clara
la causa de la aparente escacez de la aves, pero
puede relacionarse con las condiciones de siquia
prevalecientes en las isles en ese moment, lo cual
origin la sequia parcial de various humedales.

A HOT-LINE FOR REPORTING MAJOR BIRD
DIE-OFFS
HERBERT RAFFAELE
Office ofInternational Conservation, 4401 N. Fairfax Dr.,
Arlington, Virginia 22203 USA
Several dramatic bird die-offs of major import have
occurred in recent years. Examples include Swain-
son's Hawks (Buteo swainsonii) in Argentina, Dick-
cissels (Spiza americana) in Venezuela, and Purple


Martins (Progne subis) in Brazil, among others. Re-
sponding in a timely manner to such negative events
is essential to limiting their impacts. The U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service is prepared to establish a
mechanism for reporting and responding to such in-
cidents. The potential role of the Society of Carib-
bean Ornithology in such a hot-line will be explored.
UNA LINEA CALIENTE PARA REPORTER LAS MAY-
ORES MUERTES EN MASA DE AVES.-En afios re-
cientes ha ocurrido una cantidad important de
drammticas muertes en masa de aves, entire estas po-
demos sefialar: Gavilan de Swainson (Buteo swain-
sonii) en Argentina, Dickcissels (Spiza americana)
en Venezuela y Purple Martins (Progne subis) en
Brasil, entire otros. Responder a tiempo a estos even-
tos negatives es esencial para limitar sus impacts.
El U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, esta preparado
para establecer un mecanismo para reporter y re-
sponder a dichos incidents. El rol potential de la So-
ciedad Carbefia de Omitologia en esta linea caliente
sera explorado.

ADVANTAGES OF LONG-TERM AVIAN
STUDIES: EXAMPLES FROM PUERTO RICO
WAYNE J. ARENDT
USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical
Forestry, Sabana Field Research Station, PO Box 490,
Palmer, PR 00721
Results are presented from on-going studies in dry
forest (27 yr) and rain forest (20 yr) in Puerto Rico.
Examples from both autecological and synecological
perspectives are provided to not only emphasize the
rewards emanating from long-term studies but, more
importantly, to encourage other researchers, manag-
ers, and avian stewards to initiate, or at least prolong,
their on-going studies in an effort to reap more long-
standing benefits. Topics presented include: (1) sex
reversal in the American Redstart (Setophaga ruti-
cilla); (2) annual survival in several species; (3) site
tenacity, mate fidelity, and annual return rates in the
Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margaropsfuscatus); (4) lon-
gevity in various species, highlighting the Puerto Ri-
can Flycatcher (Myiarchus antillarum); (5) decline
of an endemic species, the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo
latimeri); (6) population dynamics parameters in-
cluding species turnover, invasions (e. g., Caribbean
Elaenia, Elaenia martinica), and responses to habitat
disturbance (several species); and (7) annual and
lifetime reproductive success (i. e., number of fledg-
lings per season and number of recruits) in a rain-
forest population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher.
VENTAJAS DE STUDIOS DE AVES A LARGO PLAZO:
EJEMPLOS DE PUERTO RICo.-Los resultados provie-


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


nen de studios que actualmente continuan desarro-
llandose en un bosque seco (27 afios) y en un bosque
lluvioso (20 afios) en Puerto Rico. Ejemplos de per-
ceptivas tanto autecol6gicas como sinecol6gicas han
sido provistos no s61o para enfatizar las recompensas
provenientes de los studios a largo, sino, ani mis
important, el estimular a otros investigadores, ge-
rentes y maneadores de vida silvestre a iniciar o al
menos extender sus studios actuales en un esfuerzo
para cosechar unos beneficios mis duraderos. Los
temas presentados incluyen: (1) cambios de sexo en
la Candelita (Setophaga ruticilla); (2) supervivencia
annual de varias species; (3) tenacidad al mantener el
territorio, fidelidad de la pareja y raz6n de vuelta al
nido en el Zorzal Pardo (Margarops fuscatus); (4)
longevidad en varias species, especialmente en el
Jui de Puerto Rico (IMyiarchus antillarum); (5) dis-
minuci6n de una especie end6mica, el Bienteveo de
Puerto Rico (Vireo latimeri); (6) los parimetros de
dinimicas de poblaciones incluyendo el reemplazo
de species, invasiones (por ejemplo el Jui Blanco,
Elaenia martinica) y respuestas a perturbaciones del
habitat (varias speciess; y (7) 6xito reproductive
annual y de por vida (el niumero de volantones por
temporada y el numero de reclutas) en una poblaci6n
de Zorzal Pardo en un bosque lluvioso.

SABRE RATTLING AT THE LEK:
MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AND ITS
SIGNIFICANCE IN THE WHITE-TAILED
SABREWING (CA4MPYLOPTERUS ENSIPENNIS)
FLOYD E. HAYES
Department oJ I ,. .I-, Caribbean Union College, Mara-
cas Valley, Trinidad and Tobago; and Department of Life
Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,
Trinidad and Tobago
The White-tailed Sabrewing (Campylopterus en-
sipennis) occurs in three disjunct populations: (1) the
Cordillera de Caripe and (2) Peninsula de Paria of
Venezuela; and (3) the island of Tobago, where a
population bottleneck occurred after a hurricane in
1963. The three populations are chromatically indis-
tinguishable, but bill length was greatest in the Pen-
insula de Paria and tail length in Tobago. Tail length
in Tobago was greater after the hurricane than be-
fore, suggesting directional selection or genetic drift.
The sexes are chromatically dimorphic, with wing
length, tail length, and body weight greatest for
males. Bill length is shorter for males, which typi-
cally hawk for arthropods, whereas females typically
glean arthropods from foliage. Breeding occurs dur-
ing January-April, and molt during March-July. The
age structure on Tobago during 1996-1998 did not


differ from pre-hurricane populations, suggesting a
demographically stable population. Adult male Cam-
pylopterus hummingbirds possess a widened and
sharply bent rachis or "sabre" in the outermost pri-
mary feathers, which appears related to sexual selec-
tion. Lek polygyny is widespread in the genus. I
evaluate three hypotheses of sabre function: (1) wide
sabres confer an advantage during male-male con-
flicts (sabre-rattling hypothesis); (2) females prefer
to mate with wide-sabred males (sabre-flashing hy-
pothesis); and (3) wide sabres may enhance aerial
foraging on arthropods (sabre-sickle hypothesis).
CASCABELEO DE LOS SABLES EN EL LEK: VARIA-
CIONES MORFOLOGICAS Y SU SIGNIFICANCIA EN EL
COLIBRI ALAS DE SABLE DE COLA BLANCA
(CAMPYLOPTERUS ENSIPENNIS).-Existen tres pobla-
ciones separadas del Colibri Alas de Sable de cola
Blanca: (Campylopterus ensipennis) (1) La Cordil-
lera de Caripe y (2) La Peninsula de Paria en Vene-
zuela; y (3) La isla de Tobago; adonde se col6 una
pequefia poblaci6n luego de un huracin en 1963. Las
tres poblaciones son cromiticamente indistinguible
pero la longitud del pico es mayor en las aves de la
peninsula de Paria y la longitud de la cola es mayor
en Tobago. La longitud de la cola fue mayor despues
del huracin que antes del mismo, sugiriendo una se-
lecci6n direccional o tendencia gen6tica. Los sexos
son cromiticamente dim6rficos siendo la longitud
del ala y la cola y el peso corporal mayors en los
machos. La longitud del pico es mis corta en los
machos, quienes lo usan para cazar artr6podos al
vuelo mientras que las hembras forrajean los artr6po-
dos en el follaje. La reproducci6n ocurre durante los
meses de Enero a Abril y la muda durante Marzo a
Julio. La estructura cronol6gica de las aves de To-
bago durante 1996 a 1998 no difiri6 de las pobla-
ciones existents antes del huracin, sugiriendo una
poblaci6n demogrificamente stable. Los machos
adults del g6nero Campylopterus poseen raquis en-
sanchado y agudamente curvado "sable" en las plu-
mas primaries, las cuales aparentan estar relaciona-
das con un process de selecci6n sexual. La poliginia
dentro del area de cortejo es ampliamente distribuida
dentro de este g6nero. He evaluado tres hip6tesis de
la funci6n del sable: (1) sables mis anchos proven
una ventaja durante los conflicts entire machos
(hip6tesis del cascabeleo de sables); (2) las hembras
prefieren aparearse con machos de sables mis an-
chos (hip6tesis del cascabeleo de sables); y (3) sables
mis anchos pueden favorecer el forajeo adreo par
atrapar artr6podos (hip6tesis del sable-media luna).


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STATUS, ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE
ENDANGERED TRINIDAD PIPING-GUAN
(PIPILE PIPILE)
FLOYD E. HAYES', CLIFMOND L. SHAMEERUDEEN2,
BRYAN SANASIE2, CAROL L. RAMJOHN1,
AND FLOYD B. LUCAS1
1Department ofLife Sciences, University .idl,' West In-
dies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; and 2Depart-
ment oJ I I ..-I Caribbean Union College, Maracas Val-
ley, Trinidad and Tobago
The Trinidad Piping-Guan (Pipile pipile) is morpho-
logically distinct from its mainland sister taxa and
probably represents an endemic species. It appar-
ently once occurred throughout Trinidad, including
forests at sea level, but is now confined to northeast-
ern Trinidad. We studied a group of six birds which
often split into smaller groups. They occupied an
overlapping home range of about 19 ha in secondary
forest highly disturbed by small-scale farmers. As
canopy frugivores, they spent 95.0% of the time >5
m above ground, and only 0.2% of the time on the
ground (44.62 h of data). They foraged on fruits or
buds (occasionally leaves or flowers) of 14 species
of plants, with Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae)
constituting the primary item (37.0% of foraging
bouts; N=27). In early morning (05:45-09:00) they
spent 80.0% of their time perched alert, 9.8% preen-
ing, 4.0% walking, 3.9% flying, 1.7% feeding, 0.4%
drinking (from bromeliads), and 0.1% perched flap-
ping (16.34 h of data). In late afternoon (15:00-
18:45) they spent 78.6% of their time perched alert,
12.8% preening, 3.7% walking, 3.0% feeding, 1.2%
flying, and 0.7% drinking (8.17 h of data). At mid-
day they eluded observation. Displays included: a
song of 3-7 plaintive whistles rising in pitch (up to 4
series/min), soft piping calls, whirring of wings in
flight, and raised crest feathers. Nothing is known
about their breeding biology.
STATUS, ECOLOGIA Y COMPORTAMIENTO DEL
AMENAZADO GUAN SILBADOR DE TRINIDAD (PIPILE
PIPILE).-El Guan Silbador de Trinidad (Pipile
pipile) es morfol6gicamente distinto a su pariente del
continent y problablemente, represent una especie
end6mica. Alguna vez, aparentemente, el ave estuvo
present en toda Trinidad incluyendo en bosques que
se encuentran a nivel del mar. Sin embargo, ahora
esta confinada al noreste de Trinidad. Estudiamos un
grupo de seis aves las cuales, frecuentemente, se
separaban en grupos menores. Estas aves ocupaban
un territorio sobrepuesto con un rango de 19 ha de
bosque secundario altamente afectado por pequefios
agriculture. Como estas aves son frugivoras que se
alimentan en el dosel, pasaban 95.0% de su tiempo a
mis de 5 metros sobre el suelo y tan solo un 0.2%


del tiempo restante lo pasaban en el suelo (44.62
horas de data). Ellas se alimentaban de fruas o brotes
(ocasionalmente hojas y flores) de unas 14 species
de plants, constituyendo Virola surinalmensis
(Myristicaceae) el principal ingredient de consume
(37% del tiempo de forjeo; N=27). Temprano en la
mafiana (05:45-09:00) las aves pasaban 80% del
tiempo perchadas en alerta, 9.8% acicalindose el
plumaje, 4.0% caminando, 3.9% volando, 1.7% ali-
mentindose, 0.4% bebiendo (de bromelias), y 0.1%
perchadas agitando las alas (16.34 horas de data). En
la tarde (15:00-18:45) pasaban 78.6% del tiempo
perchadas en alerta, 12.8% acicalindose las plumas,
3.7% caminando, 3.0% alimentindose, 1.2% volando
y 0.7% bebiendo (8.17 horas de data). Al mediodia,
las aves eludian el ser observadas. Los despliegues
observados fueron: un canto de 3 a 7 silbidos con un
tono triste y de timbre ascendente (hasta 4 series/
min.), llamados en forma de un suave silibido, un
zumbido hecho con las alas al volar y levantamiento
de las plumas de la cresta. No se conoce nada acerca
de su biologia reproductive.

PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT
USED BY THE ENDANGERED
YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD IN
SOUTHWESTERN PUERTO RICO
JOSE A. CRUZ BURGOS

The Yellow-shouldered Blackbird (Agelaius xantho-
mus xanthomus) is one of the endangered species of
Puerto Rico. Once abundant and widespread
throughout the island, at present populations are re-
stricted to a few localities in southwestern, southern,
and eastern Puerto Rico, and to Mona and Monito
Islands. Little is known about the patterns of move-
ment and habitat use of the species during the non-
breeding season. A radio-telemetry study was con-
ducted with this species from March 1996 to April
1997 to gather ecological information such as pat-
terns of movements and activity during its non-
breeding season. The habitat used by the species was
also characterized. The non-breeding period was
sub-divided into post- (September to December) and
pre-breeding (January to April) season. Home range
was calculated at 95% of the minimum convex poly-
gon. Mean home range was 378.9 and 263.3 ha dur-
ing post- and pre-breeding seasons, respectively. No
significant difference was found in home range size
between post- and pre-breeding seasons. No signifi-
cant difference was obtained in the distances moved
by blackbirds in post- and pre-breeding seasons. The
types of habitats used most-often during post-
breeding were scrub and mangrove, whereas residen-


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


tial and mesquite stands were more often used during
pre-breeding. Most of the habitat variables measured
differed significantly between sites used by black-
birds and random sites as did all the variables meas-
ured among the habitat types. Blackbirds were more
active foraging during the morning and the afternoon
in both post and pre-breeding. During the day they
spent most of the time resting and preening. Post-
breeding blackbirds were at Pitahaya mainly feeding
on arthropods (e. g., caterpillars) and vegetable mat-
ter. Pre-breeding blackbirds moved to the commu-
nity of La Parguera, where they fed in feeders pro-
vided by several residents. The findings of this study
revealed that the largest population of Yellow-
shouldered Blackbirds in southwestern Puerto Rico
appears to respond to changes in the essential re-
sources for its survival. Some management practices
should be implemented to improve feeding areas.
Because of the high pressure of development in
Puerto Rico, environmental government agencies
need to work together for the protection of the habi-
tats used by this species.
PATRONS DE MOVIMIENTO Y USO DE HABITAT DEL
AMENAZADOAGELAIUSXANTHOMUS EN EL SUROESTE
DE PUERTO RIco.-La mariquita, tambidn conocida
como capitin, es una de las species end6micas en
peligro de extinci6n de Puerto Rico. Estas aves al-
guna vez fueron abundantes y bien distribuidas a
trav6s de la Isla. Al present, las poblaciones de
mariquitas estin restringidas a pocas localidades en
el suroeste, sur y este de Puerto Rico, tambidn habi-
tan en las Islas de Mona y Monito. Se conoce poco
acerca de los patrons de movimiento y uso de habi-
tat de esta especie durante la 6poca no reproductive.
Un studio de radiotelemetria se condujo durante los
meses de marzo de 1996 hasta abril de 1997 para
obtener informaci6n ecol6gica de la especie, tal
como patrons de movimiento y actividad durante la
6poca no reproductive. El habitat utilizado por la es-
pecies fue caracterizado. El period no reproductive
fue sub-divido en post (septiembre a diciembre) y
pre-temporada (enero a abril). El espacio vital de la
especie fue calculado a 95% usando el poligono
minimo convexo. El espacio vital fue de 378.9 y
263.3 hectares en post y pre-reproducci6n respecti-
vamente. No se encontr6 diferencia significativa en
el tamafio de espacio vital durante post y pre-
temporada de reproducci6n. No se obtuvo diferencia
significativa en las distancias movidas por las
mariquitas en post y pre-temporada de reproducci6n.
Los tipos de habitat mis utilizados durante post re-
producci6n fueron arbusto y mangle, mientras que
residential y bayahonda (Prosopis pallida) fueron
mis usados durante pre reproducci6n. La mayoria de


las variables de habitat medidas entire lugares usados
por mariquitas y lugares al azar fueron significati-
vamente diferentes, asi como todas las variables
medidas entire los tipos de habitat. Las mariquitas
fueron mis activas forageando durante la mafiana y
la tarde en post y pre temporada de reproducci6n.
Durante el medio dia pasaron la mayor parte del
tiempo descansando y acicalindose. En la post-
reproducci6n, las mariquitas estuvieron en el area de
la Pitahaya alimentindose mayormente de artr6po-
dos (ej., orugas) y material vegetal. En la pre-
reproducci6n 6stas se movieron a la comunidad de
La Parguera donde fueron alimentadas en comederos
provistos por los residents de esta comunidad. Los
hallazgos de este studio revelaron que la poblaci6n
de mariquita mis grande en el suroeste de Puerto
Rico aparenta responder a cambios en los recursos
esenciales para su sobrevivencia. Algunas practices
de manejo deberian ser implemetadas para mejorar
las areas de alimentaci6n y hacer apropiadas aquellas
que no proven recursos de alimentos para la espe-
cie. Debido a la alta presi6n de desarrollo en Puerto
Rico, las agencies ambientales del Gobiero necesi-
tan trabajar en conjunto para la protecci6n de los
habitats utilizados por esta especie.

USE OF THE PARTNERS IN FLIGHT
CLASSIFICATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF
CONSERVATION PRIORITIES FOR LAND
BIRD SPECIES IN THE SOUTHEASTERN
UNITED STATES, PUERTO RICO, AND THE
VIRGIN ISLANDS
WILLIAM C. HUNTER', FERNANDO NUNEZ-GARCIA',
CLIFFORD E. SHACKELFORD2, AND ROBERT P. FORD3
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1875 Century Boulevard,
Atlanta, Georgia 30345 USA; Texas Parks and Wildlife
Department, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, Texas
78744 USA; and 3The Nature Conservancy, c/o U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service, MAemphis State University, South
Campus, MAemphis, Tennessee 38152 USA
Use of the Partners in Flight classification for the
identification of conservation priorities begins by
dividing the physiographic regions of the Southeast-
ern Unted States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands
into subregions. Species were classified and priori-
tized as of very high, high, and moderate concern.
Information is included about importance of the ar-
eas for the species and populations patterns and un-
certainties about these. Related themes are: conser-
vation activities, laws needed to protect important
areas, plans for gathering more information in areas
where it is non-existent or inadequate, such as breed-
ing bird surveys and, finally, the priorities of Part-
ners in Flight.


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


UTILIZACION DEL PROCESS DE CLASIFICACION DE
AVES DE LAS AMERICAS ("PARTNERS IN FLIGHT")
PARA IDENTIFICAR PRIORIDADES DE CONSERVATION
PARA SPECIES DE AVES TERRESTRES EN EL SUR-
ESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS, PUERTO RICO Y LAS
ISLAS VIRGENES.-Utilizamos el process de Aves de
la Americas para catalogar las species de aves ter-
restres del sur-este de los Estados Unidos, Puerto
Rico y las Islas Virgenes estableciendo prioridades
segun las necesidades de conservaci6n. Las areas
fisiogrfficas de la Regi6n Sur-Este fueron agrupadas
en las sub-regiones Este, Oeste y Caribefia. Las espe-
cies clasificadas como prioridad muy alta, alta o
moderada a nivel de area fisiogrifica, fueron tambien
clasificadas de las misma forma en cada una de las
subregiones y por lo tanto son consideradas priori-
dades regionales (exceptuando las species que al-
canzaron el nivel de prioridad moderada en algunas
de las regions fisiogrfficas solamente). Tambien
incluimos informaci6n sobre la importancia de las
areas fisiogrificas para las species prioritarias, los
patrons poblacionales o la incertidumbre sobre estos
y a nivel grueso, las associaciones con los diferentes
habitats. Entre los temas relacionados a las priori-
dades que discutimos aqui se encuentran (1) Identifi-
caci6n de la Necesidad Relativa de Actividades de
Conservaci6n Especificas, (2) Elementos de Juicio
para Establecer la Importancia de las Areas (AI) y
los Patrones Poblacionales (PT) cuando la informa-
ci6n sobre las species residents basada en los cen-
sos durante la temporada reproductive ("Bird Breed-
ing Surveys") se consider inadecuada o no existe y
(3) Las Prioridades de Investigaci6n de Aves de las
Americas.

CONSERVATION PARTNERSHIPS IN THE UK
OVERSEAS TERRITORIES
JIM STEVENSON
RSPB,The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, United
Kingdom
The UK Overseas Territories in the Caribbean region
comprise Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin
Isles, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat, and the Turks
and Caicos Islands. Political links with the UK re-
main strong but, until recently, links with conserva-
tion agencies in the UK have been relatively weak.
Two partnerships have recently increased their activ-
ity in the region. These are BirdLife International
and the UK Overseas Territories Conservation Fo-
rum. BirdLife International has become a
world-wide partnership of conservation organiza-
tions with a common agenda. One of BirdLife's
prime objectives is to identify and conserve the
world's most important areas for birds (IBAs). This


programme is well underway in Europe, Asia, and
Africa, and is now starting in the Americas. The UK
Overseas Territories Conservation Forum is a part-
nership of voluntary conservation agencies in the UK
and the Territories and meets regularly with Govern-
ment. A new UK Government policy document has
been produced on "good governance," including en-
vironmental protection, in the Territories. Each is-
land will be expected to produce an "Environmental
Charter" and a "Biodiversity Action Plan."
COMPANEROS DE CONSERVATION EN LOS TERRITO-
RIOS DE ULTRAMAR DEL REINO UNIDO.-Los terri-
tories de ultramar del R.U. en la region del Caribe
comprenden: Anguilla, Bermuda, Islas Virgenes
Britinicas, Islas Caymin, Montserrat y las Islas Tur-
cas y Caicos. Los vinculos politicos de estas con el
R. U. permanecen fuertes, pero, hasta hace poco sus
vinculos con las agencies de conservaci6n en el R.
U. han sido relativamente d6biles. Dos compafieras
han incrementado recientemente su acitividad en la
region. Estos son: BirdLife International y el UK
Overseas Territories Conservation Forum. BirdLife
se ha convertido en compafiera mundial de organi-
zaciones conservacionistas con una agenda comiin.
Uno de los principles objetivos de BirdLife es iden-
tificar y conservar las areas mis importantes para las
aves a nivel mundial (IBAs). Este program marcha-
bien en Europa, Asia y Africa, y ahora empieza en
America. El UK Overseas Territories Conservation
Forum es compaflia de agencies voluntaries de con-
servation en el R. U. y sus territories y se reune regu-
larmente con el gobierno. Un Nuevo document so-
bre political del R. U. se ha producido en "good gov-
ernance," incluyendo la protecci6n ambiental en los
territories, se espera que cada isla produzca una
"Carta Ambiental" y un "Plan de Acci6n sobre Bio-
diversidad."

LESSER-KNOWN CONVENTIONS OF
POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE FOR BIRD
CONSERVATION IN THE CARIBBEAN
HERBERT RAFFAELE
Office of International Conservation, 4401 N. Fairfax Dr.,
Arlington, Virginia 22203 USA
International conventions can serve as important
tools to stimulate national and regional conservation
action. The Convention on Nature Protection and
Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere
(Western Hemisphere, Pan-American, or Washing-
ton Convention), which came into force in the early
1940s has served that purpose in much of Latin
America. However, because this convention predates
the independence of many Caribbean islands and the
convention lacks a secretariat to promote new mem-


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ABSTRACTS FROM 1999 SCO MEETING IN SANTO DOMINGO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA


bership, most Caribbean island nations are not signa-
tories. The potential benefits of this convention to
the Caribbean will be discussed. Attention will also
be paid to the Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife
Protocol (SPAW) of the Cartagena Convention,
which recently came into force.
CONVENIOS MENOS CONOCIDOS DE IMPORTANCIA
POTENTIAL PARA LA CONSERVATION DE LAS AVES
EN EL CARIBE.-Los convenios internacionales
pueden servir como herramientas importantes para
estimular las acciones conservationists nacionales y
regionales. La Convenci6n sobre la Protecci6n de la
Naturaleza y la Preservaci6n de la Vida Salvaje en el
Hemisferio Occidental (Hemisferio Occidental,
Panamericano o Convenci6n de Washington), que
entr6 en vigencia a partir de los '40, ha servido para
ese prop6sito en gran parte de Latinoamdrica. De
todos modos, porque esta Convenci6n es previa a la
independencia de varias naciones caribefias y carece
de una Secretaria para promover nuevas membresias,
la mayoria de las naciones de las isles del Caribe no
son signatarias. Los beneficios potenciales de esta
Convenci6n para el Caribe serin discutidos. Se pon-
dri especial atenci6n al Protocolo sobre Areas Prote-
gidas Especiales y Vida Salvaje (SPAW, por sus
siglas en Ingles) de la Convenci6n de Cartagena, el
cual recientemente entr6 en vigencia.

ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF
CONVERSION FROM SHADE TO SUN COFFEE
RENA R. BORKHATARIA AND JAIME A. COLLAZO

1Department ofZoology, North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 USA; and 2U. S. Geologi-
cal Survey, Biological Resources Division, North Carolina
Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, North Caro-
lina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 USA

Traditional shade coffee plantations provide habitat
for many species and may serve as refuges in dis-
turbed landscapes. Our preliminary findings in
Puerto Rican coffee plantations support recent find-
ings that biological diversity is greater in shaded than
in sun plantations. To increase short-term yields or
gain access to economic incentives, however, many
farmers are converting to sun coffee. Through con-
version, ecosystem complexity is reduced and eco-
logical services rendered by inhabitants may be lost.
We are documenting differences in abundance and
diversity of birds, lizards, and arthropods in sun and
shade coffee plantations in Puerto Rico and studying
relationships between taxa using censuses, visual
observations, and exclosure experiments. As birds
have been implicated as possible agents in the con-
trol of insect populations, we are excluding birds


from coffee plants and comparing arthropod abun-
dance and leaf damage on enclosed plants to that on
controls. We are also using foraging observations of
birds and lizards in sun and shade coffee to examine
their roles in coffee plantations and the ecological
services each might provide. Preliminary findings,
based on two experimental trials, will be discussed.
IMPLICACIONES ECOLOGICAS DEL CAMBIO DEL CAFE
DE SOMBRA AL CAFE DE SOL.-Los cafetales tradi-
cionales de caf6 de sombra proven habitat para varias
species y pueden servir como refugio en scenarios
desequilibrados. Nuestros hallazgos preliminaries en
los cafetales de Puerto Rico sustentan los hallazgos
recientes de que la biodiversidad biol6gica es mayor
en las plantaciones bajo sombra que en las de sol. De
todos modos, para incrementar su rendimiento a
corto plazo u obtener acceso a incentives econ6mi-
cos, muchos/as agricultures/as estin cambiando a
caf6 de sol. A travs de la conversion, la complejidad
del ecosistema se reduce y los servicios ecol6gicos
rendidos por sus habitants pueden perderse. Estamos
documentando las diferencias en abundancia y diver-
sidad de aves, lagartos y artr6podos en las
plantaciones de caf6 de sombra en Puerto Rico, y
estudiando las relaciones entire los taxon utilizando
censos, observaciones visuals y experiments de ex-
clusion. Como se ha incluido a las aves entire los
posibles agents del control de las poblaciones de in-
sectos, excluimos las aves de los cafetos y com-
paramos la abundancia de artr6podos y el dafio a las
hojas en las plants rodeadas por esos controls
Tambidn utilizamos observaciones forrajeras de aves
y lagartos en el caf6 de sol y sombra para examiner
su rol en los cafetales y los servicios ecol6gicos que
pueden ofrecer. Los hallazgos preliminaries, basados
en los experimetos de prueba serin discutidos.



CONTINUED IN NEXT ISSUE


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ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS


THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF BIRDS IN BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARKS

NANCY K. WOODFIELD
Programme Coordinator, BVI National Parks Trust, P.O. Box 860, Road Town, Tortola,
British Virgin Islands; Tel:284-494-2069/ 3904, Fax:284-494-6383


THE BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS National Parks
Trust currently manages 18 National Parks and Pro-
tected Areas, five of which are bird sanctuaries:
Deadmans Chest, Fallen Jerusalem, Great Tobago,
Little Tobago, and Prickly Pear. One of the main ob-
jectives of the Trust is to manage selected natural
areas that are vital to the protection of endangered
species and the life patterns of other critical species,
such as seabirds. The Trust is able to carry out this
objective through legislation that supports effective
management. The Wild Birds Protection Ordinance
(1980) fully protects approximately 21 species of
rare or endangered wild birds within the British Vir-
gin Islands (BVI), as well as their nests, eggs, and
young. The Bird Sanctuaries Order (1977) provides
complete protection of all species of wild birds in 20
designated bird sanctuaries, some of which are exist-
ing National Parks and others are proposed protected
areas.
Seabirds in the BVI are particularly threatened by
mangrove destruction, coastal development, and land
reclamation. Additional pressure is increasing from
intrusion by tourists and developers in search of iso-
lated beaches and cays for recreation or developmen-
tal pursuits. Feral animals pose still another threat for
increased nesting and colonization on many of the
outlying islands. Unfortunately, some of these visita-
tion and feral animals problems occur within the
Parks, but the major habitat destruction is beyond the
control of the National Parks Trust because it occurs
on private land. In response to these pressures, the
Trust is updating its System Plan, which outlines its
objectives and plans for management. This will refo-
cus attention to the areas that were originally recom-
mended for inclusion into the Parks system, many of
which are bird sanctuaries. Ideally, these proposed
areas will be reviewed in terms of their environ-
mental importance and then be declared National
Parks by the BVI Government. The urgency of the
situation is evident in the increasing number of small
offshore islands within the BVI that are for sale
within exclusive markets that focus on private island
resorts. Whereas this is preferable to large-scale de-
velopment, these small island resorts still affect pre-
viously undisturbed bird colonies, which will inevi-


tably reduce the number of seabirds colonizing these
islands.
The finest example of protection is the Tobagos
National Park, which includes Great Tobago, Little
Tobago, and Watsons Rock. These islands are re-
puted to be the most important seabird nesting sites
in the BVI, and the entire Eastern Caribbean for the
endangered Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata mag-
nificens) and Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster),
whose nests are found in the hundreds. Access to the
islands is geographically restricted by the harsh north
swell and rocky shorelines, in addition to the steep
cliffs and cactus scrub. Consequently, the islands are
undisturbed by humans, although historical intrusion
has resulted in the presence of approximately 20 fe-
ral goats. The vegetation is predominantly cactus
scrub, as foraging feral goats restrict tree growth to
the extent that the bird colonies may be limited in
their ability to expand. Several attempts have been
made by the National Parks Trust to remove these
animals, but a small number were not captured and
they have been able to reproduce. The complete re-
moval of these animals is being planned in conjunc-
tion with the Department of Agriculture. This is con-
sidered to be an important project that should be
completed by the year 2000. Fortunately, no goats
occur on Little Tobago and the difference in vegeta-
tive cover is immediately noticeable. Visiting scien-
tist Dr. Betty Anne Schreiber, Executive Director of
the Ornithological Council, began research on Great
Tobago in 1997 and it is her intention to study the
taxonomic status of certain pelecaniform birds, in
relation to their conservation status (Schreiber 1997).
With further research such as this, the National Parks
Trust will be able to make more informed manage-
ment decisions to protect these species within the
BVI.
One important site for inclusion in the National
Parks system is the group of islands called The Dogs.
At present only West Dog is a National Park, but the
original proposal included George Dog, Great Dog,
East Seal Dog, West Seal Dog, and Cockroach Is-
land; all of these islands are bird sanctuaries, but
they are predominantly privately owned. In addition,
their landscape is less severe, thereby allowing easy


El Pitirre 12(2)


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shore access to the many sailors who visit the is-
lands. As a bird sanctuary, West Dog is an important
nesting site for seabirds such as the Bridled Tern
(Sterna anaethetus), Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata),
Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii), and Red-billed
Tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus).
Another proposed protected area includes the ar-
chipelago of Sandy Cay, Green Cay, Sandy Spit, and
the eastern point of Little Jost Van Dyke. These is-
lands are home to the endangered Brown Pelican
(Pelecanus occidentalis), White-tailed Tropicbird
(Phaethon lepturus), and Roseate Tern. However,
because all three cays are privately owned, the extent
to which the National Parks Trust is able to manage
these areas is restricted. These islands are another
example of how the impact of tourism and develop-
ment can affect the future of nesting seabirds in the
BVI.
On Anegada, the proposed protected area includes
all of the western ponds, all coastal mangroves, and
the eastern ponds. The island is currently home to 51
Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), 20 of
which were reintroduced in 1992 and 4 are wild fla-
mingos that joined the flock in 1994. Terrestrial war-
dens of the National Parks Trust are monitoring the
flamingos by conducting weekly bird counts, stating
location, activity, and age. These records show that
the population has increased by successful undis-
turbed nesting, mainly in Red Pond. Presently no
encroachment threats exist, since all of the western
ponds, Red Pond, and Flamingo Pond (an existing
bird sanctuary) have been declared Ramsar sites and
are now protected under the International Ramsar
Convention on Wetlands.
Within the inland terrestrial parks, the protection
of forests along the peaks and ridges of Tortola and
Virgin Gorda has resulted in a safe habitat for local
avifauna, such as the rare Bridled Quail-Dove
(Geotrygon mystacea) at Gorda Peak National Park.
The importance of buffer zones around the Parks to
ensure that these habitats are not eventually isolated
refugia, however, is an urgent matter on small is-
lands where available land is scarce. The National
Parks Trust is developing management plans for
each of its parks, as part of the training received
through the Darwin Initiative Project, Integrating
National Parks, Education and Community Develop-
ment. Within these plans are recommendations for
effective management within and surrounding the


ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS -BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

Parks, since boundaries cannot be placed on flora
and fauna.
The newest National Park is Shark Bay on the
northern coast of Tortola, declared in April 1999.
This Park includes 18.4 acres of forest and extends
along the cliffs to the bay below, which is a popular
feeding zone for Magnificent Frigatebirds, Brown
Pelicans, and Brown Boobies. The bay is mainly in-
accessible because of the north shore swells and is
not a likely visitor location because of its rocky
beach, but from the cliffs there is the most amazing
view of these seabirds in their natural environment.
This Park will provide the best educational tool for
visitors, so that they will understand why it is im-
perative to protect nesting areas such as Great To-
bago and The Dogs.
In addition to the resident avifauna, the diverse
habitats within the British Virgin Islands also sup-
port many migratory and pelagic species. These sea-
sonal visitors include the summer pelagic seabirds
that nest on the outlying cays and islets, such as
those in the family Procellariidae, notably Audu-
bon's Shearwater (Puffinus Iherminieri) on the To-
bago islands. The winter months are dominated by
migratory species, predominantly from North Amer-
ica, and include the Double-crested (Phalacrocorax
auritus) and Neotropic (P. brasilianus) coromorants,
and Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) and
American Golden-Plover (P. dominica). Therefore,
the conservation of these habitats has repercussions
beyond the resident avifauna, to the extent that these
habitats provide important corridors for migratory
species. Hence, these islands are one link in a much
greater chain that determines their survival.

LITERATURE CITED
LAZELL, J. D., JR. 1980. British Virgin Islands faunal
survey. The Nature Conservancy.
RAFFAELE, H. A. 1989. A guide to the birds of
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Princeton,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
SCHREIBER, B. A. 1997. Report on research visit to
the Virgin Islands, 11-19 October. Unpublished
report to B. V. I. National Parks Trust.
TEYTAUD, A. R. 1983. Study of management alterna-
tives for the proposed protected areas at Sandy
Cay and Norman Island, BVI. (Draft) report to
ENCAMP and the Government of the BVI.


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ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS


JAMAICA

SUZANNE DAVIS
Island Representative for Jamaica


BIRDLIFE JAMAICA
BirdLife Jamaica has been conducting a success-
ful media campaign which has been coordinated by
the Media Relations Officer, Mr. Leo Douglas. Fre-
quent articles have appear in The Observer and Chil-
dren 's Own, and interviews have been broadcast on
the Irie FM radio station.
The second printing of A teacher 's guide to the
birds of the West Indies has been completed and the
feedback on this product has been useful and reward-
ing. For more information contact: BirdLife Jamaica,
c/o 2 Starlight Avenue, Kingston 6, Jamaica, West
Indies.
Jamaica's birding society was featured at a recep-
tion held at the Jamaican Embassy in Washington,
DC on 24 May 1999. Laminated posters, brochures,
and copies of A teacher's guide to the birds of the
West Indies seemed to have been popular with those
in attendance. The event entitled "Winged ambassa-
dors" was a partnership between the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service and the Jamaican Embassy.


NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
(NRCA)
The Ministry of Environment and Housing has un-
dertaken to merge the Natural Resources Conserva-
tion Authority, the Town Planning Department, and
the Land Utilization and Development Commission
(NRCA News, 1999).
The announcement of the declaration of another
protected area (Portland Bight Area) was made by
the Minister of the Environment and Housing on Fri-
day, 4 June 1999, as a prelude to Jamaica's Environ-
mental Awareness Week. Portland Bight falls within
the parishes of St. Catherine and Claredon on Ja-
maica's southern coast.
Jamaica's Annual Environmental Awareness
Week was held 5-11 June 1999 and included island-
wide exhibits and displays, tours of national parks
and protected areas, environmental seminars, for a,
and workshops.


The NRCA is currently engaged in one of its
most difficult battles, to protect Jamaica's conch re-
sources the largest in the world from over-
exploitation. Two of the island's leading conch ex-
porters, DYC Fishing Ltd. and Seafood and Ting In-
ternational Ltd., have taken NRCA to the supreme
court because of restrictions on the quotas they were
allowed to export. An injunction was granted which
prevented the NRCA from barring the companies
from exporting conch. The NRCA has subsequently
filed a motion in the Court of Appeal seeking leave
to appeal to the United Kingdom Privy Council.

CURRENT RESEARCH AND MONITORING PROJECTS


Project:
Researcher:
Institution:


Important Bird Areas in Jamaica
Catherine Levy
BirdLife Jamaica and University of the
West Indies, Mona Campus, Ja-
maica


Project: Biology and Distribution of Psittacines
in Jamaica
Researcher: Herlitz Davis
Institution: BirdLife Jamaica, Wildlife Preserva-
tion Trust International

Project: The Impact of Human Disturbance on
Tropical Dry Limestone Forest of Ja-
maica on Resident and Migrant Bird
Communities
Researcher: Leo Douglas
Institution: University of the West Indies, Mona
Campus, Jamaica and University of
Tulane, USA

Project: West Indian Whistling Duck and Wet-
lands Conservation Surveys and Edu-
cation Program
Researcher: Collaborative effort among members of
the Jamaica West Indian Whistling-
Duck Working Group
Institution: Society of Caribbean Ornithology


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THE TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNIHOLOGY
SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

KATE WALLACE


THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN Ornithology (SCO)
held its twelfth annual meeting at Santo Domingo,
Dominican Republic, 30 July to 4 August 1999, with
the financial support from U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds,
and the Society of Caribbean Ornithology (SCO).
The meetings and workshops were well attended
with 140 registrants representing 25 countries, in-
cluding Anguilla (BWI), Antigua, Bahamas, Belize,
Bermuda, Canada, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Dominica, French Guyana, Grenada, Guade-
loupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Puerto Rico,
St. Lucia, Tortola (BVI), Trinidad, Turks and Caicos,
United Kingdom, and the United States. Among the
governmental and non-governmental institutions rep-
resented were U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
RARE Center, Royal Society for the Protection of
Birds, American Bird Conservancy, RAMSAR, The
Nature Conservancy, BirdLife International, and
Ducks Unlimited.
The theme of the event was C,,a. ,, a Community
Framework for Avian Conservation. The meeting
was preceded by a special workshop organized by
the West Indian Whistling-Duck Working Group and
featured the presentation of activities from the edu-
cational workbook being developed by that commit-


tee. The workshop was held in the National Zoo and
was attended by representatives of many of the
groups involved in environmental education in the
Dominican Republic, as well as by members of the
SCO.
A Saturday workshop focused on Environmental
Education directed at community groups, as well as
schools. Other workshops included: "Introduced
and Exotic Species," led by Dr. Rosemarie Gnam;
Colonial Waterbird Society Goals and Objectives;
and BirdLife International and their preparation of a
threatened species book. At the formal technical ses-
sions, more than 45 papers and 12 posters were pre-
sented.
The various working groups of the Society held
meetings for reports and to present plans for the fu-
ture. Following the meeting, 14 persons participated
in a field trip to the Sierra de Bahoruco to view many
of the island endemics. Fourteen people partici-
pated. Finally, a workshop for 10 island representa-
tives, supported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser-
vice, was held on the GIS system of computer map-
ping.


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BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL REPORT


THREATENED BIRDS OF THE CARIBBEAN: CONSERVATION PRIORITIES FOR THE REGION AND
FOR THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
TUESDAY 3 AUGUST, SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY MEETING, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

DAVID WEGE
BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, CB3 ONA, U.K.;
Tel: +44 1223 277318; Fax: +44 1223 277200; E-mail: dav ..... ~,7 d 11/,; .rg.uk


THE "THREATENED BIRDS of the Caribbean" work-
shop was attended by about 60 people, and was, by
all accounts, extremely successful and productive.
Below is a brief summary of the proceedings, feed-
back on which should be directed to David Wege at
BirdLife (email: david.wege@abirdlife.org.uk).
Thank you to everyone who participated

WORKSHOP SCHEDULE
Introduction to BirdLife International
Introduction to the Globally Threatened Species Pro-
gram
Workshop aims/goals
Break-out groups
Report back and next steps

BirdLife International: see http://www.birdlifel.org.
ec for details of the BirdLife Partnership and pro-
grams.

THE GLOBALLY THREATENED SPECIES PROGRAM
We are all interested in preventing species extinc-
tions, but to do this we need to know which species
are at the highest risk before we can take the appro-
priate species- or site-specific conservation action.
The Globally Threatened Species Program aims to
collect and analyze data, disseminate information,
promote conservation action, and monitor progress
for the species at greatest risk of extinction. The
main differences this project has from previous re-
views of threatened species are:
An attempt has been made to be as inclusive as
possible with the review process
The systematic mapping of the current and his-
toric distributions of species (which helps in
quantifying the extent of range loss)
The identification of species conservation tar-
gets from which action plans for species, spe-
cies groups (e.g., seabirds, waterfowl, hunted
species etc.), or countries could be developed,
and against which conservation progress can
be monitored


GOALS/AIMS
To discuss the use of globally threatened species as:
A framework against which to set the agenda for
conservation action in the region
A framework against which to monitor and re-
port on conservation progress in the region
A means to encourage networking and partner-
ships for bird conservation
A means of advocating conservation issues in
the region

WORKSHOP BREAK-OUT GROUP QUESTIONS AND
FEEDBACK
Are globally threatened species the highest priorities
for conservation action?
Whereas there was general acceptance that glob-
ally threatened species are the most important set
of species to consider (i.e., they act as flagships
and indicate problems), there was a strong feeling
that regional and local priorities need to be consid-
ered. This was explored from various angles, the
main points being:
the need for a regional perspective
protection of regional gene pools and dis-
tinct populations, subspecies etc.
local issues capture the local imagination.
Other issues that arose were:
the need to focus on habitats and ecosystem
conservation as an effective means of captur-
ing species
migratory species can attract funding and
encourage people to take a wider view
*need for public education re: threatened species
and their plight
The key issues here are that regional priorities
need to be considered and that habitat conservation
is essential, but globally threatened species can
help prioritize habitat, and some species will al-
ways need individual attention (e.g., when they are
hunted or traded).


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BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL REPORT -CONSERVATION PRIORITIES FOR THE CARIBBEAN


Are there species or species groups that can unite
SCO members in common actions in a similar way
that the West Indian Whistling-duck group has?
Many species and species groups were suggested
as subjects for common actions, and these in-
cluded: seabirds, shorebirds, parrots, woodpeckers,
doves, orioles, waterfowl, raptors, endemics,
Neotropical migratory songbirds, Shiny Cowbird,
Bicknell's Thrush, Kirtland's Warbler, Black-
capped Petrel, and White-crowned Pigeon. Many
issues or subjects were highlighted as options for
targeted work, however, and these included:
hunting and hunted species
invasive species; all natural habitats
forest and wetland habitat conservation
development planning
protected areas system expansion
research and monitoring
institutional strengthening
public education and advocacy
birds as economic incentives.
The key issue here was that any of these combina-
tions could work to unite researchers and conser-
vationists as long as there is strong leadership and
good communication.

Could the species conservation targets be presented
in such a way that SCO members, island representa-
tives or working groups could report against them on
an annual basis?
Whereas it was recognized that there were con-
straints on time and resources, it was generally
agreed that the presentation of species targets in
the form of island (or working group) action plans
would allow for easy and effective reporting on
conservation progress. This was seen as a way of
strengthening the SCO and maintaining interest
between meetings (as well as encouraging Euro-
pean and North American researchers to meet Car-
ibbean priorities). To be successful, this strategy
requires simple, well-presented plans (with action
points), and the full support of the existing SCO
working groups, island representatives and mem-
ber organizations. It was suggested that existing
species action plans (e.g., for migrants within their
breeding ranges) should be expanded to include
action points for their wintering ranges.


Would the compiled species texts and maps be useful
to SCO members as a regional publication?
There was overwhelming agreement that a re-
gional publication would be useful as an education
and advocacy tool. It was also emphasized, how-
ever, that there needs to be further moves towards
electronic publication (with perhaps the data main-
tained on a web page), and freer access to data and
GIS coverage (while recognizing the intellectual
property rights of the researchers and organiza-
tions involved).

Are there any other uses for the species data within
the Caribbean?
Many suggestions for the use of this information
included: advocacy, outreach, education, and ecot-
ourism. It was also suggested that the information
could help: develop research and monitoring pro-
grams; target research work (and volunteer work);
identify gaps in current protected areas systems;
prioritise various work programs; indicate the en-
vironmental health of an area/island; drive active
management and restoration work; and access
funding.

NEXT STEPS
Two primary "next steps" were identified by the
workshop:
BirdLife International to investigate the costs
involved in producing a regional threatened
species publication (in Spanish and English),
and explore potential funding sources.
BirdLife International to compile the species
targets and develop simple, island action plans
against which to report on relevant activities.

Additional activities that arose as a result of the
workshop included:
Investigating the possibility of running a
threatened species program within the region
(what this would achieve, how much it
would cost, and how to fund it).
Producing this report for workshop partici-
pants and El Pitirre.


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ANNOUNCEMENTS


CIRCULAR INFORMATIVE
FRAILECILLO SILBADOR CHARADRIUSMELODUS


Por iniciativa de la Sociedad Cubana de Zoologia,
el Grupo BIOKARST de la Sociedad Espeleologica
de Cuba y del Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica,
recientemente se ha creado en Cuba el Grupo de in-
formaci6n y conservaci6n de la especie neartica en
peligro de extinci6n conocida por el nombre del
Frailecillo Silbador (Charadrius melodus). Esta ini-
ciativa ha sido desarrollada con el apoyo y aproba-
ci6n de prestigiosas instituciones nacionales e inter-
nacionales tales como: El Servicio Canadiense de la
Fauna CWS, el Consejo Internacional para la Protec-
ci6n de las Aves de Cuba CIPA, Fondo para la Recu-
peraci6n de Especies Amenazadas de Canada ESRF,
el Fondo Mundial para la Conservaci6n de la Natu-
raleza WWF y el Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica
del Ministerio de Ciencia, T6cnologia y Medio Am-
biente de Cuba.
El grupo en la actualidad esta compuesto por espe-
cialistas cubanos que de forma voluntaria con-
tribuyen con sus esfuerzos a la conservaci6n de la
especie, no obstante se admiten como colaboradores
todas aquellas personas que muestren disposici6n de
ayudar, intercambiar experiencias y que reflejen in-
terds por la protecci6n de la especie en el Caribe sin
distinci6n de ocupaci6n, nivel cultural, ni nacionali-
dad.


La creaci6n de este grupo sin fines de lucro, per-
sigue entire sus principles metas promover y apoyar
las actividades de conservaci6n e investigaci6n que
se desarrollan con la especie en el continent am6ri-
cano, en Cuba y en el area del Caribe. Estas acitivi-
dades se logran a partir del desarrollo de un pro-
grama dirigido a la protecci6n de la especie en la re-
gion, el que incluye: la formaci6n de circulos de in-
ter6s de educaci6n ambiental en escuelas primaries y
comunidades locales, consultas y entrenamientos a
especialistas jovenes de poca experiencia, confecci6n
de una metodologia para el studio y censo adecuado
de la especie durante el inviemo, asesoramiento y
participaci6n en actividades investigativas de campo
y confecci6n de materials divulgativos, entire otras.
Cualquier persona interesada en recibir mayor in-
formaci6n, pedir alguna consult sobre la especie o
participar en el program de studio y conservaci6n
del Frailecillo Silbador en Cuba debe dirigirse a: M.
Sc. Pedro Blanco Brodriguez, Coordinador. Grupo
Cubano de Asesoria e Informaci6n sobre el
Frailecillo silbador. Institute de Ecologia y Sis-
tematica. Carretera de Varona Km 3.5 Boyeros, CP
10800, AP 8029, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba. E-
mail: ecologia@unepnet.inf.cu, ecologia@ceniai.inf.
cu


PIPNG PLOVER CHARADRIUS MELODUS


The Cuban Zoological Society and the Institute of
Ecology and Systematics recently formed in Cuba
the Recovery Group for the Piping Plover
(Charadrius melodus), a nearctic species in danger
of extinction. This initiative has the support and ap-
proval of such prestigious national and international
institutions as the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS),
BirdLife International of Cuba (ICBP), the Endan-
gered Species Recovery Fund (ESRF), the World
Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and the Institute of
Ecology and Systematics of the Cuban Ministry of
Science, Technology, and the Environment.
The group is currently composed of Cuban special-
ists whose voluntary efforts are making a contribu-
tion to the conservation of the species. We encourage
anyone wishing to help or share experiences, and


who is interested in protecting this species in the
Caribbean, to collaborate, regardless of occupation,
educational level, or nationality.
Among the principal goals of this non-profit group
are promoting and supporting Piping Plover conser-
vation and research activities on the American conti-
nent, in Cuba, and in the Caribbean. A comprehen-
sive plan developed to protect the species in the re-
gion will guide these activities. This plan will in-
clude forming environmental education clubs in pri-
mary schools and local communities, consulting with
and training new specialists, preparing a methodol-
ogy for the proper study and census of the plover in
winter, advising and participating in field research
activities, and preparing informational materials.
Anyone interested in receiving more information,


El Pitirre 12(2)


Page 74











requesting advice about the species, or participating
in the program of study and conservation of the Pip-
ing Plover in Cuba should contact: M. Sc. Pedro
Blanco Rodriguez, Coordinador, Grupo Cubano de
Asesoria e Informaci6n sobre el Frailecillo Silbador,


ANNOUNCEMENT -PIPING PLOVER CHARADRIUS MELODUS

Institute de Ecologia y Sistemitica, Carretera de Va-
rona Km 3.5 Boyeros, CP 10800, AP 8029, Ciudad
de la Habana, Cuba. E-mail: ecologia@unepnet.
inf.cu, ecologia@ceniai.inf.cu


BIOTICA VERSION 3.1.0 0


Tengo el agrado de presentar a ustedes la version
3.1.0 0 del Sistema de Informaci6n BIOTICAO,
software desarrollado por la Comisi6n Nacional para
el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad de
Mexico (CONABIO).
El Sistema de Informaci6n BIOTICAO esta
disefiado para la capture y explotaci6n de informa-
ci6n sobre biodiversidad, en especial de ejemplares
pertenecientes a colecciones cientificas, observados
y/o reportados en literature. Cuenta con m6dulos
para manejar informaci6n nomenclatural, geogrifica
y bibliogrifica, ademis de herramientas para general
reports, etiquetas, exportaciones, importaciones y
una secci6n de SIG (sistema de informaci6n
geogrifica) que permit leer y manejar informaci6n
de la base de datos de BIOTICA, de coberturas de
Arc/InfoO (con y sin topologia) y de localidades con
un format especifico. Ademis tiene el prop6sito
general de ayudar, de una forma sencilla y confiable,
en la capture y actualizaci6n de los datos que se reg-
istran.
A continuaci6n se proporcionan mis detalles
acerca de BIOTICAC.
BIOTICA fue desarrollado en forma modular
tanto en la estructura de la base de datos como en su
sistema programma, tomando en cuenta la gran dis-
persi6n de necesidades al proporcionar servicio a
toda la comunidad cientifica (tax6nomos, bio-
geogrffos, ec6logos, etc.) y no s6lo a especialistas de
algunos grupos.
El sistema esta dividido en ocho secciones:
1. Base de datos. Se realize la conexi6n a la base
de datos, configuraci6n (personalizaci6n) del
sistema y seguridad, dando de alta usuarios con
sus respectivas claves y otorgando permisos
dentro del sistema.
2. Directorio esta conformado por los grupos de
determinadores y colectores, autores de publica-


ciones asi como las instituciones y sus colec-
ciones.
3. Nomenclatural. En esta secci6n se realize la
capture y actualizaci6n de los nombres
taxon6micos con su correspondiente sinonimia,
basonimia, image, nombre comun y la cita bib-
liogrifica tanto del nombre como de la si-
nonimia.
4. Curatorial. En este m6dulo se incorpora la infor-
maci6n de cada ejemplar,es decir, la colecci6n a
la cual pertenece, georreferencia, informaci6n
ambiental, informaci6n de la colecta, niimero de
individuos, duplicados, grupo de determinaci6n,
interacciones con otros ejemplares, citas bibli-
ogrificas, etc. Es important mencionar que se
puede capturar informaci6n de ejemplares
colectados, reportados en literature y/o sola-
mente observados.
5. La Georreferenciaci6n permit capturar los da-
tos referentes a la localizaci6n geogrffica donde
se recolecta u observa el ejemplar (pais, estado,
municipio, coordenadas geogrificas, localidad).
6. En Bibliografia se capture la cita bibliogrifica
(libro, revista, articulo, compilaci6n, etc.) para el
ejemplar, el nombre taxon6mico y/o la si-
nonimia nomenclatural.
7. En Herramientas es possible realizar reports
tanto dinimicos como predeterminados, crear
etiquetas, importaci6n y exportaci6n de datos a
otros sistemas ademis de general y manipular la
informaci6n ayudados de la secci6n del Sistema
de Informaci6n Geogrifica (SIG).
8. Ayuda. Present la ayuda del sistema, estadisti-
cas basicas sobre la base de datos (numero de
ejemplares por categoria taxon6mica, nimero de
individuos por categoria taxon6mica, numero de
ejemplares con localidad, etc.), opciones para
obtener el nimero de registro de BIOTICA


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BIOTICA VERSION 3.1.0 0


(que es requerido para el uso del sistema) y una
opci6n para enviar a la CONABIO comentarios
o sugerencias.
Algunas de las caracteristicas nuevas mas rele-
vantes de la version 3.1.0 0 son:
Herramienta de desarrollo Visual BasicO 6.
Redisefio de la pantalla de configuraci6n,
dado el incremento de opciones en ella.
Posibilidad de configurar los grupos de
colectores y determinadores.
Se incluy6 la configuraci6n del orden de
desplegado para los nombres cientificos:
alfab6tico (como en la version 3.0) y filoge-
n6tico.
Se puede seleccionar el idioma con el que
se desea trabajar en el sistema. Ahora
espafiol e ingl6s.
Seguridad a nivel de la base de datos.
Actualizaci6n de la base de datos a la ver-
si6n 3.1 en cuanto el usuario se conecte a
una base de datos con el format de la ver-
si6n 3.0 o 3.1 beta y confirm el mensaje de
actualizaci6n.
Redisefio de la pantalla Instituci6n.
Posibilidad desde la pantalla de datos
capturea) del ejemplar de continuar agre-
gando ejemplares del mismo tax6n sin tener
que salir de dicha pantalla.
Posibilidad desde la pantalla de datos
capturea) del ejemplar de "copiar" los datos
del ejemplar reci6n guardado.
Posibilidad de cargar todos los reinos a la
vez para el ingreso de los ejemplares.
Redisefio de la pantalla principal del
m6dulo del SIG
Generaci6n de archives en format shape-
file, para la generaci6n de temas en el SIG.
El trabajo realizado en el SIG se puede sal-
var como un proyecto SIG, para recuperarlo
mis tarde.
Conexi6n entire el reporteador dinimico y el


SIG- BIOTICA, de tal manera que las con-
sultas con informaci6n de latitud y longitud
se pueden transportar a este m6dulo
Validaci6n dinimica (definible por el
usuario) en el SIG.
Redisefio de los Reportes Dinimicos.
Ahora los reports dinimicos, se pueden
salvar.
Se implement "outer join" en los reports
dinimicos, esto es, la obtenci6n de un regis-
tro aunque, del mismo se hubiese solicitado
informaci6n no existente.
Estadisticas basicas sobre la base de datos.
El Sistema de Informaci6n BIOTICA include:
Sistema de informaci6n BIOTICAC
(sistema y base de datos)
manual del usuario
catilogos de autoridades taxon6micas para
algunos grupos biol6gicos
nomenclator (localidades de M6xico)
coberturas geogrificas.
Si desea obtener mis informaci6n acerca de
BIOTICA o su filtima version visit el sitio www
de Conabio (www.conabio.gob.mx).
BIOTICAc 1998 Fideicomiso Fondo para la Biodi-
versidad, CONABIO.
AccessO, Visual BasicO por Microsoft Corporation.
Arc/InfoO por ESRI/Inc.
ATENTAMENTE
Hesiquio Benitez Diaz
Director de Servicios Externos
CONABIO
Fernandez Leal #59-a, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F.
04020, MEXICO
Tels. (52) 55-54-51-82, 54-22-35-44, 54-22-35-45
FAX 55-54-33-50
e-mail: hbenitez@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
TALK: hbenitez@hbenitez.conabio.gob.mx
CONABIO'S HOMEPAGE: www.conabio.gob.mx


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ANNOUNCEMENT


NEW SOCIETY OF WETLAND SCIENTISTS GRANT PROGRAM


The Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) is a
group of over 4,500 scientists, managers, administra-
tors, consultants, teachers, students, and others with
an interest in wetlands. SWS publishes a peer-
reviewed scientific journal called "Wetlands" and a
newsletter called the "SWS Bulletin," holds an an-
nual conference and regional conferences, and man-
ages scholarship and awards programs.
SWS established a new US $5,000 per year grant
program to support SWS members with Convention
on Wetlands/Ramsar-related activities, including the
selection, designation, management, and networking
of Ramsar sites.
The SWS International Committee Ramsar Sup-
port Framework Grant Proposal Guidelines and ap-
plication form can be found on the internet at: http://
www.sws.org/regional/interational/Ramsar.Support.
Framework/ or you can request the grant guidelines
and application from Eric Gilman at:
E. Gilman
Society of Wetland Scientists International
Committee
2718 Napuaa Place
Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
E-mail: egilman@lava.net
Phone: 808.988.1976
Fax: 808.988.1440


Applications must be received by 19 November
1999. The Society of Wetland Scientists will an-
nounce the grant decision in mid-December 1999.
One US $5,000 grant will be awarded. The SWS In-
ternational Committee hopes to attract matching
funds to augment the available funds in the grant
program for future years.
The SWS International Committee also manages a
Gratis Membership Program, awarding memberships
at no cost to financially disadvantaged wetland pro-
fessionals and wetland organizations in less-
developed countries. Gratis memberships are offered
for two-year terms. Gratis memberships provides full
membership privileges, including:
Subscriptions to the journal "Wetlands" and
the "SWS Bulletin" (both are published quar-
terly)
The SWS membership directory
Regional chapter newsletters
Discounted registration at the annual confer-
ence
Voting privileges
Additional information on the Gratis Program can
be found on the internet at hup \w \\ sisoig/
regional/international/ or by contacting Eric Gilman.


MEETING ANNOUNCEMENTS

INVASIVE SPECIES GROUP

Earlier the Invasive Species Specialist Group proposed a conference. Announcements regarding two confer-
ences follow.


ECOLOGY OF INSULAR BIOTAS
An international conference will be held in Wel-
lington, New Zealand from 12 to 16 February 2001.
The conference will focus on ecological patterns and
processes of particular importance to isolated biotas,
including true islands, natural habitat islands (e.g.,
ponds), and artificial habitat islands (e.g., reserves).
Examples of suitable topics for papers include:
Sdispersal and gene flow within and among iso-
lated populations


ecology of small populations
ecological consequences of disharmonic floras
and faunas
the relevance of island biogeography principles
in conservation
islands as model ecosystems
comparative ecology of true islands vs. habitat
islands.
Abstracts for all talks and posters will be pub-
lished; selected presentations and workshop out-


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MEETING ANNOUNCEMENTS


comes will be published in full.
A call for papers (with indicative registration costs
and information concerning field trips) is planned for
January 2000 and registrations will be accepted after
June 2000.
New and updated information will be posted to our
web page as it comes to hand. Look at www.vuw.ac.
nz/sbs/conferences/
Conference Directors: Drs Christa Mulder, Don
Drake, and Charles Daugherty, School of Biological
Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O.
Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Contact at fax:
64-4-463-5331, e-mail: sbs-islands-conf@vuw.ac.nz
for scientific program enquiries only.
Conference Manager: Mr Dick Veitch, 48 Manse
Road, Papakura, New Zealand. Contact at phone &
fax 64-9-298-5775, e-mail dveitch@kiwilink.co.nz
for all other enquiries.

ERADICATION OF ISLAND INVASIVES
PRACTICAL ACTIONS AND RESULTS
ACHIEVED
The Invasive Species Specialist Group of IUCN
will be holding an international conference on this
subject at the University of Auckland, New Zealand
from 19 to 23 February 2001.
Papers presented and discussion sessions will be


strictly limited to the subject of: "Methods of eradi-
cating invasive species from islands and the results
achieved." The term 'eradicating' may include work
to remove invasive species where completion of
eradication is some, or many, years away but the
methods used to date are achieving positive results or
providing a significant learning experience. Prefer-
ence will be given to papers which provide detail of
the techniques used or of the ecosystem response to
the work. Significant learning experiences may in-
clude methods which failed.
All papers and abstracts for poster papers will be
published.
A call for papers (with advice of indicative regis-
tration costs) is planned for January 2000 and regis-
trations will be accepted after June 2000 by which
time registration costs will be known.
New and updated information will be posted to our
web page as it comes to hand. Look at www.issg.org
Conference Director: Dr Mick Clout, Chair, Inva-
sive Species Specialist Group.
Conference Manager: Mr Dick Veitch, 48 Manse
Road, Papakura, New Zealand. Ph & Fax 9-298
5775, e-mail dveitch@kiwilink.co.nz


NEW PUBLICATION
Now AVAILABLE


^ THE GUADELOUPE WOODPECKER
AND OTHER ISLANDS MELANERPES

BY PASCAL VILLARD



The first monograph of a Neotropical woodpecker. 160 x 240 mm, 136 pages, many color
photographs. 220 FF, including shipping.

To order:
SEOF
Bibliothbque
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
55 rue Buffon
F-75005 Paris
France
Fax: 01.40.79.30.63
e-mail: seofiamnhn.fr


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ANNOUNCEMENT
NEW JOURNAL

NOVITA TES CARIBAEA

Novitates Caribaea is one of the occasional scientific journals of the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural of
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The objective of this journal is to promote the advancement of biology,
with emphasis in zoology. Novitates Caribaea will publish original papers, either empirical or theoretical, in sys-
tematics, biogeography, paleontology, evolution, genetics, ecology, embryology, animal behavior, and physiol-
ogy. The journal has the sections: Articles, Short Notes, Book Review, Points of View, and Ness. Papers in Span-
ish or English are welcome. Manuscripts should be submitted in triplicate, and habe both English and Spanish
abstracts. Manuscripts with more than eight pages and the descriptions of new species, even if less than eight
pages, are considered articles.

Novitates Caribaea del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana, es una
de las revistas cientificas del Museo. El objetivo de esa publicaci6n es promover el advance de la biologia, con
6nfasis en la zoologia, por lo que en ella se publican articulos originales de investigaciones de car"acter empirico
o te6rico sobre sistemitica, biogeografia, paleontelogia, evoluci6n, gen6tica, ecologia e embriologia. La revista
consta de las secciones: Articulos, Notas Breves, Revisiones de Libros, Puntos de Vista y Noticias. Se aceptarin
trabajos en castellano o en ingl6s. Los articulos deben tener resfimenes en estos dos idiomas. Se consideran
articulos cientificos los manuscritos con mis de ocho piginas y las descripciones de nuevas species para la cien-
cia, auque no alcancen el muinero minimo de piginas.

Por mis informaci6n/ For more information:
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
Plaza de la Cultura
Santo Domingo, Repuiblica Dominicana
Telefonos: (809) 685-1580; 689-0106/09
Fax: (809) 689-0100


El Pitirre 12(2)


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SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS


SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE,
THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Form of submission
Hard Copy
One copy on 8.5" x 11" paper.
Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.

Faxes
Discouraged.
If this is your best option, please ensure that the type used is larger than 12 point.
Fax number: 318-274-3870.

Electronic mail
Encouraged
Submit as ASCII ("Text Only") files. Please do not translate to other software languages. Also, please
avoid transmittal of attachment files. A hard-copy back-up should be mailed to the editor.
E-mail address of editor: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu

Floppy disk
Preferred
Submit in PC or Macintosh environment, preferably using WordPerfect or MS Word software. A 3.5" disk
is preferred. Submit a hard copy with the computer disk.
Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.

All Regional Reports, reports on workshops, resolutions, and other Society matters must be submitted
through electronic mail (with hard-copy back-up sent through the mail) or as a file on a floppy disk

Language
Contributions can be in English, Spanish, or French. Translation of the entire text in an alternate language
is encouraged. At a minimum, the abstract of longer manuscripts should be provided in at least one of the
other two languages.

Format of submitted materials
All submitted materials must be typed, and hard copies must be clearly legible.
The manuscript should conform to usage in recent issues of El Pitirre.
Double spaced all written materials, including tables and figure legends.

For scientific papers and notes:
Number pages through the Literature Cited.
Do not hyphenate words at the ends of typewritten lines.
Type tables separate from the text.
Type figure legends consecutively on a separate page.
Title page (numbered) should contain full title, and authors' names and addresses at the time of
the research. The present address, if different, should be indicated as a footnote. The title page
also includes running heads (less than 36 characters), and the name and contact information for
the author who can be most easily contacted.
An Abstract (less than 5% of paper length) should precede each longer article. It should summarize
important premises, summarize findings, and give conclusions.
Text Citations should include the author and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith
et al. 1992). Multiple citations should be arranged chronologically.
Acknowledgments precede the Literature Cited.


El Pitirre 12(2)


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SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS


* Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU's Check-list
of .. M l American Birds, 7th ed. (1998).
Measurements should be in metric units.
Use continental dating (e.g., 14 October 1992) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 0800 and 2135).
Tables and figures should not duplicate material in the text or in each other. Each table requires a short
heading, including descriptive information that would answer the reader's questions of what, where, and
when.
Literature Cited: Follow the most recent issue of the bulletin for style. In general, format will follow the
following style:

Journal citation
Include full journal name, volume, and inclusive page numbers; e.g.,

Levy, C. 1997. Nesting of Euneornis campestris, the Orangequit. Pitirre 10(1):30-31.

Book or report
Include publisher and place of publication; e.g.,

Hochbaum, H. A. 1959. The Canvasback on a prairie marsh, 2nd ed. Stackpole Books, Harris-
burg, Pennsylvania.)

Chapter in book
Include editors) name(s), inclusive pages of chapter, book or report title, publisher, and place of
publication; e.g.,

Oring, L. W., and R. D. Sayler. 1992. The mating system of waterfowl. Pages 190-213 in Ecol-
ogy and management of breeding waterfowl (B. D. J. Batt, Ed.). Univ. Minnesota Press, Min-
neapolis.


El Pitirre 12(2)


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CONTENTS (Continued from back cover)


THE TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNIHOLOGY, SANTO DOMINGO,
D O M IN IC A N R EPU B L IC K ate W allace ................................................................................... .......................................... 71
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL REPORT
THREATENED BIRDS OF THE CARIBBEAN: CONSERVATION PRIORITIES FOR THE REGION AND FOR THE
SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY -TUESDAY 3 AUGUST, SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY MEETING,
D OM IN ICAN R EPU BLIC. D avid W ege ............................................................................................ ................................................72
ANNOUNCEMENTS
CIRCULAR INFORMATIVE -FRAILECILLO SILBADOR CHARADRIUS MELODUS/PIPING PLOVER CHARADRIUS MELODUS ......... 74
B IO TIC A V E R SIO N 3 .1.0 0 .................................................................................................................... .................... ................. ... 7 5
NEW SOCIETY OF W ETLAND SCIENTISTS GRANT PROGRAM .................................................................................... 77
MEETING ANNOUNCEMENTS
INVASIVE SPECIES GROUP ECOLOGY OF INSULAR BIOTAS AND ERADICATION OF ISLAND INVASIVES:
PRACTICAL ACTION S AND RESULTS ACHIEVED ........................................................ ......................... ................. 78
ANNOUNCEMENT NEW JOURNAL- NO TATE CARBAEA ................................................................ ................................................ 79
SUGGESTION S TO A UTHORS .................................. .... .................. .... ... .... .. .... ........................................................... 80















Special thanks to Mark Zola for his translations of several Spanish to English abstracts.


El Pitirre 12(2)
































PRELIMINARY TAXONOMY OF THE CHAT-TANAGER (CALYPTOPHILUSFRUGIVORUS) IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/
TAXONOMIA PRELIMINARY DEL CALYTOPHYLOSFRUGIVORUS EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA. Nedra Klein ................................. 57
PROJECTS OF THE NATIONAL ZOO ABOUT THE ENDEMIC BIRDS OF HISPANIOLA/ PROYECTOS DEL PARQUE ZOOLOGICO
NACIONAL (ZOODOM) SOBRE AVES ENDEMICAS DE LA HISPANIOLA. Simon Guerrero ..................................................................... 58
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK IN CUBA/
RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DE LA ENCUESTA SOBRE DISTRIBUTION DE LA YAGUAZA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA) EN CUBA.
L ourdes M ugica, M martin A costa, and D ennis D ents ................................... ....................................................................................... 58
DEVELOPING A WETLAND MANAGEMENT COMPLEX FOR THE HUMACAO WILDLIFE REFUGE, PUERTO RICO/ DESAR-
ROLLO DE HUMEDALES MANEJABLES EN EL REFUGIO DE VIDA SILVESTRE DE HUMACAO, PUERTO RICO. Francisco J. Vllella ........ 59
SOME ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PUERTO RICAN WOODPECKERS (MELANERPESPORTORICENSIS)/ ALGUNOS
ASPECTS DE LA ECOLOGIA DEL CARPINTERO PUERTORRIQUENO (MELANERPES PORTORICENSIS). BrittaMuznmeks and
J a im e A C o lla z o ........................................................................................................................................................ ....... ................. 5 9
DEVELOPMENT OF A BIRD CONSERVATION PLAN FOR THE COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO AND U.S. VIRGIN
ISLANDS/ DESARROLLO DE UN PLAN DE CONSERVATION DE AVES PARA PUERTO RICO Y LAS ISLAS VIRGENES DE LOS ESTADOS
UNIDOS. Fernando Nunez-Garcia and William C. Hunter .............. ........................................................... 60
DISTRIBUTION OF CYANLIMNAS CERVERAI, TORREORNIS INEXPECTATA, AND FERMINIA CERVERAI IN DIVERSE
ECOSYSTEMS OF THE ZAPATA SWAMP, MATANZAS, CUBA/ DISTRIBUTION DE CYANLIMNAS CERVERAI, TORREORNIS I
NEXPECTATA Y FERMINIA CERERAI EN DIVERSOS ECOSISTEMAS DE LA CIENAGA DE ZAPATA, MATANZAS, CUBA. EduardoAbreu ... 61
MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE DOUBLE-STRIPE THICK-KNEE (BURHINUSBISTRIATUSDOMINICENSIS)
(BURHINIDAE) IN CAPTIVITY/ DESARROLLO MORFOLOGICO Y CONDUCTAS REPRODUCTIVAS DEL BUCARO (BURHINUS
BISTRIATUSDOMINICENSIS) (BURHINIDAE) EN CAUTIVERIO. Simon Guerrero andMarielis Sanchez ....................................... ........ 61
A SEARCH FOR WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCKS IN THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS/ LA BUSQUEDA DE LA
YAGUAZA EN LAS ISLAS TURCAS Y CAICOS. GeoffHilton, Ethlyn Gibbs-Williams, Tony Murray, and Tim Cleeves ...................... 61
A HOT-LINE FOR REPORTING MAJOR BIRD DIE-OFFS/ UNA LINEA CALIENTE PARA REPORTER LAS MAYORES MUERTES EN
M ASA DE A VES. H erbert . ............................................. .............................. .................... ... 62
ADVANTAGES OF LONG-TERM AVIAN STUDIES: EXAMPLES FROM PUERTO RICO/ VENTAJAS DE STUDIOS DE AVES A
LARGO PLAZO: EJEMPLOS DE PUERTO RICO. Wayne J. Arendt ............................................................................................................. 62
SABRE RATTLING AT THE LEK: MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE WHITE-TAILED
SABREWING (CAMPYLOPTERUS ENSIPENNIS)/ CASCABELEO DE LOS SABLES EN EL LEK: VARIACIONES MORFOLOGICAS
Y SU SIGNIFICANCIA EN EL COLIBRI ALAS DE SABLE DE COLA BLANCA (CAMPILOPTERUS ENSIPENNIS). FloydE. Hayes ............... 63
STATUS, ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE ENDANGERED TRINIDAD PIPING-GUAN (PIPILE PIPILE) STATUS,
ECOLOGIA Y COMPORTAMIENTO DEL AMENAZADO GUAN SILBADOR DE TRINIDAD (PIPILE PIPILE). Floyd E. Hayes, (
Shameerudeen, Bryan Sanasie, Carol L. Ramjohn, andFloydB. Lucas .......................................................................................... 64
PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS AND HABITAT USED BY THE ENDANGERED YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD IN
SOUTHWESTERN PUERTO RICO/ PATRONS DE MOVIMIENTO Y USO DE HABITAT DEL AMENAZADO AGELAIUSXANTHOMUS
EN EL SUROESTE DE PUERTO R ICO. Jose A C ruz B urgos ............................................................................................. ................. 64
USE OF THE PARTNERS IN FLIGHT CLASSIFICATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF CONSERVATION PRIORITIES FOR
LAND BIRD SPECIES IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS/
UTILIZACION DEL PROCESS DE CLASIFICACION DE AVES DE LAS AMERICAS ("PARTNERS IN FLIGHT") PARA IDENTIFICAR
PRIORIDADES DE CONSERVATION PARA SPECIES DE AVES TERRESTRES EN EL SUR-ESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS, PUERTO RICO
Y LAS ISLAS VIRGENES. William C. Hunter, Fernando Nzuez-Garcia, ( ** . I andRobertP. Ford ........................ 65
CONSERVATION PARTNERSHIPS IN THE UK OVERSEAS TERRITORIES/ COMPANEROS DE CONSERVATION EN LOS
TERRITORIOS DE ULTRAMAR DEL REINO UNIDO. Jim Stevenson ................................................. ............................................... 66
LESSER-KNOWN CONVENTIONS OF POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE FOR BIRD CONSERVATION IN THE CARIBBEAN/
CONVENIOS MENOS CONOCIDOS DE IMPORTANCIA POTENTIAL PARA LA CONSERVATION DE LAS AVES EN EL CARIBE.
H e rb e rt .. . ........................................................................................ .......................................... ............................................... 6 6
ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONVERSION FROM SHADE TO SUN COFFEE/ IMPLICACIONES ECOLOGICAS DEL CAMBIO
DEL CAFE DE SOMBRA AL CAFE DE SOL. Rena R. Borkhataria andJaimeA. Collazo ................. ..... ...................... 67
ISLAND REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS
THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF BIRDS IN BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS NATIONAL PARKS. NancyK. K1 . ............. 68
JA M A IC A S uza n n e D av is ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 0


SOCIEDAD CARIBENA DE ORNITOLOGIA


SE L PITIRRE

:P SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY



Summer 1999 Vol. 12, No. 2




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